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Sample records for fungus gnats bradysia

  1. Ecology of Fungus Gnats (Bradysia spp. in Greenhouse Production Systems Associated with Disease-Interactions and Alternative Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond A. Cloyd

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fungus gnats (Bradysia spp. are major insect pests of greenhouse-grown horticultural crops mainly due to the direct feeding damage caused by the larvae, and the ability of larvae to transmit certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Currently, insecticides and biological control agents are being used successively to deal with fungus gnat populations in greenhouse production systems. However, these strategies may only be effective as long as greenhouse producers also implement alternative management strategies such as cultural, physical, and sanitation. This includes elimination of algae, and plant and growing medium debris; placing physical barriers onto the growing medium surface; and using materials that repel fungus gnat adults. This article describes the disease-interactions associated with fungus gnats and foliar and soil-borne diseases, and the alternative management strategies that should be considered by greenhouse producers in order to alleviate problems with fungus gnats in greenhouse production systems.

  2. Control del mosco fungoso negro, Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour, 1839) y Bradysia impatiens (Johannsen, 1912) (Dipteria: Sciaridae) en Pinus montezumae Lamb / Black fungus gnats Lycoriella ingenua (Dufor, 1989) and Bradysia impatiens (Johannsen, 1912) (Diptera: Sciaridae) in Pinus montezumae Lamb

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Víctor Hugo, Marín-Cruz; David, Cibrián-Tovar; José Tulio, Méndez-Montiel; Omar Alejandro, Pérez-Vera; José Artemio, Cadena-Meneses.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Los moscos fungosos negros, Lycoriella ingenua y Bradysia impatiens son insectos que afectan significativamente la producción de plántulas de Pinus montezumae en algunos viveros e invernaderos forestales que se ubican en el centro de México. En los meses desde la primavera hasta el otoño, las condic [...] iones ambientales de alta humedad y temperatura son adecuadas para que la población aumente rápidamente y sea abundante en pocas semanas. Para ofrecer una alternativa de control de ellos, en el vivero forestal de Temamatla se probaron cinco insecticidas químicos: oxamil, espirotetramat, imidacloprid, carbofuran, clorpirifos, y el bioplaguicida Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (BTI). Estos productos se aplicaron en tres dosis, durante cuatro meses. La eficacia de los tratamientos se evaluó en porcentaje de plantas sin daño. De los tratamientos, el imidacloprid en dosis alta y media generó una protección de 100 %. Después, oxamil y espirotetramat en dosis alta, a 96.17 % y 95.75 % de la planta tratada. En cambio, la dosis media de clorpirifos lo hizo a 95.74 %, mientras que la dosis baja de imidacloprid, a 95.29 %. Ocho tratamientos protegieron de 91.5 % a 79.43 %, pero cuatro tratamientos no fueron diferentes al control. Los resultados sugieren que no todos los productos evaluados, en sus diferentes dosis, son efectivos para el control del mosco fungoso negro. Sin embargo, algunos pueden serlo para controlarlo en plántulas de P. montezumae. Abstract in english The black fungus gnats Lycoriella ingenua and Bradysia impatiens are insects that affect meaningfully the seedling production of Pinus montezumae in some forest nurseries and greenhouses located at Central Mexico. During the months from springtime to autumn, the environmental conditions of high mois [...] ture and temperature are right for a fast growth of the population and it becomes abundant in a few weeks. To offer an alternative to control these insects, in a forest nursery located in Temamatla, Mexico, five chemical insecticides were tested: oxamil, spirotetramat, imidacloprid, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos and the biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (BTI). These products were applied in three doses for a four month period. The efficiency of the treatments was evaluated on the percentage of unharmed plants. Of the treatments, the imidaclopridin a high and medium doses generated a protection of 100 %. Then, the spirotetramat and oxamil protected 96.17 % and 95.75 % of the treated plant respectively; the medium dose of chlorpyrifosprotected 95.74 %, and the low dose of imidacloprid 95.29 %. Eight treatments protected from 91.5 % to 79.43 %. Four were no different to control. The results suggest that not all the evaluated products, in different doses, are effective to control the black fungus gnats. Nevertheless, some doses and products can be effective to control the pest in P. montezumae seedlings.

  3. Fungus gnats and other Diptera in South African forestry nurseries and their possible association with the pitch canker fungus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Brett P., Hurley; Prem, Govender; Teresa A., Coutinho; Brenda D., Wingfield; Michael J., Wingfield.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium circinatum is the causal agent of a serious disease of seedlings in South African pine nurseries. Insects, especially fungus gnats (Diptera: Sciaridae, Mycetophlidae), are suspected of transmitting this fungus in nurseries. The aim of this study was to ascertain which species of gnats are p [...] resent in South African pine nurseries, and to consider whether these and other Diptera carry F. circinatum. Dipteran fauna were surveyed in four major forestry nurseries between 2000 and 2001. Fungi were isolated from these flies and the resulting Fusarium species were identified. Bradysia difformis was the only fungus gnat species found and it occurred in all nurseries. Other Dipteran families collected included Agromyzidae, Cecidomyiidae, Chironomidae, Ephydridae, Muscidae, Simulidae and Tachinidae. This is the first report of B. difformis in South Africa. Fusarium circinatum was not isolated from any of the Diptera collected. Fusarium oxysporum and F. stil-boides were isolated from Chironomidae, but these fungi are not considered important pathogens in the nurseries surveyed.

  4. Fungus gnats and other Diptera in South African forestry nurseries and their possible association with the pitch canker fungus

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, Brett P.; Govender, Prem; Coutinho, Teresa A; Wingfield, Brenda D.; Wingfield, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Fusarium circinatum is the causal agent of a serious disease of seedlings in South African pine nurseries. Insects, especially fungus gnats (Diptera: Sciaridae, Mycetophlidae), are suspected of transmitting this fungus in nurseries. The aim of this study was to ascertain which species of gnats are present in South African pine nurseries, and to consider whether these and other Diptera carry F. circinatum. Dipteran fauna were surveyed in four major forestry nurseries between 2000 and 2001. Fun...

  5. Bradysia sp. em morangueiro Bradysia sp. in strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadete Radin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available No trabalho, relatam-se os primeiros registros de Bradysia sp. (Insecta: Diptera: Sciaridae em morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa Duch., cultivado no Município de Eldorado do Sul, RS. O cultivo foi realizado em sacolas com três metros de comprimento, preenchidas com substrato composto de casca de arroz e turfa, dispostas horizontalmente sobre bancadas de madeira, em ambiente protegido. A presença de Bradysia sp. foi observada na segunda quinzena de agosto de 2005. Neste trabalho, estão descritos os sintomas apresentados no morangueiro pela praga, prováveis conseqüências sobre o aparecimento de doenças e uma breve descrição morfológica da Bradysia sp., adulto e fase larval.This paper describes the first record of Bradysia sp. (Insecta; Diptera; Sciaridae in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa, cultivated in the city of Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil. Strawberry was planted in plastic bags filled with a mixture of burnt rice hulls and peat and cultivated in a greenhouse. The presence of Bradysia sp was noticed in the second fortnight of August, 2005. The symptoms in strawberry and the probable consequences in terms of disease arising were described in the present study, as well as the morphological characterization of Bradysia sp. and its illustrations.

  6. Bradysia sp. em morangueiro / Bradysia sp. in strawberry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bernadete, Radin; Vera Regina dos Santos, Wolff; Bruno Brito, Lisboa; Sidia, Witter; José Ricardo Pfeifer, Silveira.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available No trabalho, relatam-se os primeiros registros de Bradysia sp. (Insecta: Diptera: Sciaridae) em morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.), cultivado no Município de Eldorado do Sul, RS. O cultivo foi realizado em sacolas com três metros de comprimento, preenchidas com substrato composto de casca de ar [...] roz e turfa, dispostas horizontalmente sobre bancadas de madeira, em ambiente protegido. A presença de Bradysia sp. foi observada na segunda quinzena de agosto de 2005. Neste trabalho, estão descritos os sintomas apresentados no morangueiro pela praga, prováveis conseqüências sobre o aparecimento de doenças e uma breve descrição morfológica da Bradysia sp., adulto e fase larval. Abstract in english This paper describes the first record of Bradysia sp. (Insecta; Diptera; Sciaridae) in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa), cultivated in the city of Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil. Strawberry was planted in plastic bags filled with a mixture of burnt rice hulls and peat and cultivated in a greenhouse. Th [...] e presence of Bradysia sp was noticed in the second fortnight of August, 2005. The symptoms in strawberry and the probable consequences in terms of disease arising were described in the present study, as well as the morphological characterization of Bradysia sp. and its illustrations.

  7. Bradysia aliciae sp. nov. (Diptera: Sciaridae) del Pleistoceno de Buenos Aires, Argentina / Bradysia aliciae sp. nov. (Diptera: Sciaridae) from the Pleistocene of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonardo C., Ramírez; Cecilia P., Alonso.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bradysia aliciae sp. nov. (Diptera: Sciaridae) es descripta a partir de un ala con un excepcional estado de preservación proveniente del afloramiento de Camet Norte en Buenos Aires, Argentina, con una antigüedad de 24.500 años A.P. El ejemplar es el primer díptero adulto identificable que proviene d [...] e dichos depósitos. Abstract in english Bradysia aliciae sp. nov. (Diptera: Sciaridae) is described from an exceptionally preserved wing extracted from the Camet Norte outcrop in Buenos Aires, Argentina, dated in 24,500 years B.P. The fossil is the very first identifiable imaginal stage of Diptera that came from these deposits. [...

  8. Nuclear halo from Bradysia hygida (Diptera:Sciaridae) salivary gland polytene cells

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Celso Aparecido, Polinarski; José Luis da Conceição, Silva; Liya Regina, Mikami; Maria Aparecida, Fernandez.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Observações à microscopia eletrônica e estudos bioquímicos de cromossomos e núcleos sem histonas tem suportado a hipótese que o DNA de eucariotos é organizado em alças associadas com o esqueleto cromossômico ou à matriz nuclear. A observação da matriz nuclear sem a remoção do DNA, através da digestã [...] o com enzimas de restrição, apresenta uma figura em halo que representa a liberação das alças de DNA. Um protocolo para a obtenção de halos nucleares de núcleos politênicos de insetos, através da extração de proteínas usando o detergente LIS, é reportado nesse trabalho. Foram realizadas análises utilizando-se microscopia de fluorescência e microscopia de varredura confocal a laser. A extração de halos nucleares foi possível somente com o isolamento da fração nuclear em tampão sem espermina e espermidina. A obtenção de halos nucleares de núcleos politênicos de glândula salivar de Bradysia hygida contribui significativamente para o estudo da estrutura e função dessas organelas tão especiais. Abstract in english A protocol for recovered nuclear halos from insect polytene nuclei after the extraction of the nuclear proteins using LIS detergent is reported in this work. Analysis was carried out using fluorescence and confocal laser scan microscopy. The extraction of nuclear halos was possible only with nuclei- [...] fraction isolation in hypotonic buffer without spermine and spermidine. The recovered nuclear halos from Bradysia hygida salivary gland polytene nuclei, contributed greatly to the study of the structure and function of these special organelles.

  9. Aspectos alimentares e de criação de Bradysia hygida Sauaia & Alves (Diptera, Sciaridae em laboratório Aspects on alimentation and rearing of Bradysia hygida Sauaia & Alves (Diptera, Sciaridae in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara S. Joachim Bravo

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available In nature, the Sciaridae live in moist and shady places, where exists vegetable material in decomposition. It is very dificult to determine the proper Sciaridae's alimentary habit and then, it is dificult, also, to rear Sciaridae species in laboratory. To improvement the Bradysia hygida rearing, the objectives of this research were to analyse the nutritive value of mucuna bean foliage for the larves, to verify the role of the ground (as larvae substrate and in diet composition and also to verify the possibility of ground substituition by another kind of substrate. Two kinds of sand were employed in the place of the ground and three diets, free of ground, were prepared. The parameters analysed were: duration of the life cicle, porcentage of emergence, egg production by female and adult size. The results showed that the mucuna bean foliage have a good nutritive value for B. hygida rearing; the ground, as substrate, can be substituted by any of the sands and the ground, in the diet, is also dispensable. The alimentary habits of Sciaridae is discussed.

  10. Aspectos alimentares e de criação de Bradysia hygida Sauaia & Alves (Diptera, Sciaridae) em laboratório / Aspects on alimentation and rearing of Bradysia hygida Sauaia & Alves (Diptera, Sciaridae) in laboratory

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Iara S. Joachim, Bravo; Maurílio A. R, Alves; Fernando S, Zucoloto; Luiz A. M, Andrade.

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english In nature, the Sciaridae live in moist and shady places, where exists vegetable material in decomposition. It is very dificult to determine the proper Sciaridae's alimentary habit and then, it is dificult, also, to rear Sciaridae species in laboratory. To improvement the Bradysia hygida rearing, the [...] objectives of this research were to analyse the nutritive value of mucuna bean foliage for the larves, to verify the role of the ground (as larvae substrate and in diet composition) and also to verify the possibility of ground substituition by another kind of substrate. Two kinds of sand were employed in the place of the ground and three diets, free of ground, were prepared. The parameters analysed were: duration of the life cicle, porcentage of emergence, egg production by female and adult size. The results showed that the mucuna bean foliage have a good nutritive value for B. hygida rearing; the ground, as substrate, can be substituted by any of the sands and the ground, in the diet, is also dispensable. The alimentary habits of Sciaridae is discussed.

  11. The GNAT method for nonlinear model reduction: effective implementation and application to computational fluid dynamics and turbulent flows

    CERN Document Server

    Carlberg, Kevin; Cortial, Julien; Amsallem, David

    2012-01-01

    The Gauss--Newton with approximated tensors (GNAT) method is a nonlinear model reduction method that operates on fully discretized computational models. It achieves dimension reduction by a Petrov--Galerkin projection associated with residual minimization; it delivers computational efficency by a hyper-reduction procedure based on the `gappy POD' technique. Originally presented in Ref. [1], where it was applied to implicit nonlinear structural-dynamics models, this method is further developed here and applied to the solution of a benchmark turbulent viscous flow problem. To begin, this paper develops global state-space error bounds that justify the method's design and highlight its advantages in terms of minimizing components of these error bounds. Next, the paper introduces a `sample mesh' concept that enables a distributed, computationally efficient implementation of the GNAT method in finite-volume-based computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) codes. The suitability of GNAT for parameterized problems is highlig...

  12. New gnat-midge species chironomus degelenus i sp. n. (diptera chironomidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time the morphology of larvae, pupae, imago and karyotype of Chironomus degelenus I Sp. n. collected from Water-Body D-3-3 of the Degelen Mountain Massif has been described. The larvae have a species-specific structure and color of the head capsule, ventral-mental blades, and mandibula hamuli. The male gnat is characterized for grid structure in IX tergite. The karyotype of C. degelenus I Sp. n. has the following combination of chromosome arms: AB, CD, EF, and G (thummi complex), which is typical for Chironomus species. It was concluded that the origin of the new species of Chironomus degelenus I Sp. N. is related to the long-term genetic processes of Chironomini adaptation to the elevated radiation background level. (author)

  13. A 28-fold increase in secretory protein synthesis is associated with DNA puff activity in the salivary gland of Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.C., de-Almeida.

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available When the first group of DNA puffs is active in the salivary gland regions S1 and S3 of Bradysia hygida larvae, there is a large increase in the production and secretion of new salivary proteins demonstrable by [3H]-Leu incorporation. The present study shows that protein separation by SDS-PAGE and de [...] tection by fluorography demonstrated that these polypeptides range in molecular mass from about 23 to 100 kDa. Furthermore, these proteins were synthesized mainly in the S1 and S3 salivary gland regions where the DNA puffs C7, C5, C4 and B10 are conspicuous, while in the S2 region protein synthesis was very low. Others have shown that the extent of amplification for DNA sequences that code for mRNA in the DNA puffs C4 and B10 was about 22 and 10 times, respectively. The present data for this group of DNA puffs are consistent with the proposition that gene amplification is necessary to provide some cells with additional gene copies for the production of massive amounts of proteins within a short period of time (Spradling AC and Mahowald AP (1980) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 77: 1096-1100).

  14. Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae) presents two eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A gene homologues: partial characterization of the eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A-F1 gene

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.A., Candido-Silva; N., Monesi.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Elongation factor 1A is a highly conserved protein that participates in translation. We report the occurrence of two genes homologous to the eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A in Bradysia hygida and describe the partial cloning and characterization of the B. hygida eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A-F1 (B [...] heEF1A-F1) gene. The pattern of BheEF1A-F1 expression in the salivary gland at the end of the fourth larval instar was investigated using real-time PCR. The results showed that BheEF1A-F1 expression levels are relatively constant at the time when rapid changes in protein synthesis occur in this tissue. In situ hybridization experiments coupled to Southern blot analyses showed that the BheEF1A-F1 gene is located at position 3d of the A chromosome and a second gene homologous to eEF1A is located at position 6a of the X chromosome. Southern blot analyses showed that both the BheEF1A-F1 gene and the second gene homologous to eEF1A constitute non-amplified genes. The present results contribute to the molecular characterization of a sciarid eEF1A gene.

  15. 5-Bromo-2’-deoxyuridine induces visible morphological alteration in the DNA puffs of the anterior salivary gland region of Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.C., de Almeida; H., Sauaia; J.C., Viana.

    1143-11-01

    Full Text Available 5-Bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdUrd) has long been known to interfere with cell differentiation. We found that treatment ofBradysia hygida larvae with BrdUrd during DNA puff anlage formation in the polytene chromosomes of the salivary gland S1 region noticeably affects anlage morphology. However, it doe [...] s not affect subsequent metamorphosis to the adult stage. The chromatin of the chromosomal sites that would normally form DNA puffs remains very compact and DNA puff expansion does not occur with administration of 4 to 8 mM BrdUrd. Injection of BrdUrd at different ages provoked a gradient of compaction of the DNA puff chromatin, leading to the formation of very small to almost normal puffs. By immunodetection, we show that the analogue is preferentially incorporated into the DNA puff anlages. When BrdUrd is injected in a mixture with thymidine, it is not incorporated into the DNA, and normal DNA puffs form. Therefore, incorporation of this analogue into the amplified DNA seems to be the cause of this extreme compaction. Autoradiographic experiments and silver grains counting showed that this treatment decreases the efficiency of RNA synthesis at DNA puff anlages.

  16. A 28-fold increase in secretory protein synthesis is associated with DNA puff activity in the salivary gland of Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de-Almeida J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available When the first group of DNA puffs is active in the salivary gland regions S1 and S3 of Bradysia hygida larvae, there is a large increase in the production and secretion of new salivary proteins demonstrable by [3H]-Leu incorporation. The present study shows that protein separation by SDS-PAGE and detection by fluorography demonstrated that these polypeptides range in molecular mass from about 23 to 100 kDa. Furthermore, these proteins were synthesized mainly in the S1 and S3 salivary gland regions where the DNA puffs C7, C5, C4 and B10 are conspicuous, while in the S2 region protein synthesis was very low. Others have shown that the extent of amplification for DNA sequences that code for mRNA in the DNA puffs C4 and B10 was about 22 and 10 times, respectively. The present data for this group of DNA puffs are consistent with the proposition that gene amplification is necessary to provide some cells with additional gene copies for the production of massive amounts of proteins within a short period of time (Spradling AC and Mahowald AP (1980 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 77: 1096-1100.

  17. IDENTIFICACIÓN Y CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LA MOSCA NEGRA, BRADYSIA DIFFORMIS (DIPTERA: SCIARIDAE EN EL CULTIVO DE NOCHEBUENA (EUPHORBIA PULCHERRIMA EN EL CENTRO DE MÉXICO

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    Evert VILLANUEVA-S\\u00C1NCHEZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar y caracterizar los estados de desarrollo de la especie de mosca negra más abundante asociada al cultivo de nochebuena Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, ex Klotzsch en la zona productora del centro del país. La recolección de material entomológico se realizó en invernaderos de las localidades de Atlacomulco (México, Tenango de las Flores (Puebla, Xochimilco (Distrito Federal y Zacatepec y Tetela del Monte (Morelos. Se obtuvieron 2,141 especímenes adultos de Diptera, siendo la especie más abundante (99.5% Bradysia difformis Frey (Diptera: Sciaridae. El ciclo de vida de esta especie se completó entre 26-28 días bajo condiciones controladas de temperatura y humedad (25°C y 70% HR. La diferenciación de los estadíos larvales fue realizada mediante la morfometría de la cápsula cefálica para los estadíos I vs II, cuyas probabilidades de error fueron muy bajas (1:10,000; en cambio, la diferenciación entre los estadíos II vs III, y III vs IV resultó con una probabilidad de error alta, entre 17:100 y 36:100 individuos, respectivamente. Por esta razón se recomienda explorar otras características que en adición a la medida de anchura de sus cápsulas cefálicas permitan discriminar los diferentes estadíos de desarrollo. Este es el primer registro de B. difformis en México, aun cuando ya se había reportado este género afectando las plantas de nochebuena. Palabras clave: taxonomía, estados inmaduros, plaga de nochebuena, México.

  18. Identificación y caracterización de la mosca negra Bradysia difformis (Diptera: Sciaridae) en el cultivo de nochebuena (Euphorbia pulcherrima) en el centro de México / Identification and characterization of the black fly, Bradysia difformis (Diptera: Sciaridae) on "poinsettia" crops (Euphorbia pulcherrima) of central Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Evert, VILLANUEVA-SÁNCHEZ; Sergio, IBÁÑEZ-BERNAL; J. Refugio, LOMELÍ-FLORES; Jorge, VALDEZ-CARRASCO.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar y caracterizar los estados de desarrollo de la especie de mosca negra más abundante asociada al cultivo de nochebuena Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, ex Klotzsch en la zona productora del centro del país. La recolección de material entomológico se realiz [...] ó en invernaderos de las localidades de Atlacomulco (México), Tenango de las Flores (Puebla), Xochimilco (Distrito Federal) y Zacatepec y Tetela del Monte (Morelos). Se obtuvieron 2,141 especímenes adultos de Diptera, siendo la especie más abundante (99.5%) Bradysia difformis Frey (Diptera: Sciaridae). El ciclo de vida de esta especie se completó entre 26-28 días bajo condiciones controladas de temperatura y humedad (25°C y 70% HR). La diferenciación de los estadíos larvales fue realizada mediante la morfometría de la cápsula cefálica para los estadíos I vs II, cuyas probabilidades de error fueron muy bajas (1:10,000); en cambio, la diferenciación entre los estadíos II vs III, y III vs IV resultó con una probabilidad de error alta, entre 17:100 y 36:100 individuos, respectivamente. Por esta razón se recomienda explorar otras características que en adición a la medida de anchura de sus cápsulas cefálicas permitan discriminar los diferentes estadíos de desarrollo. Este es el primer registro de B. difformis en México, aun cuando ya se había reportado este género afectando las plantas de nochebuena. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the developmental stages of the most abundant black fly species associated with poinsettia crops (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch) in the producing area of Central Mexico. Collecting samples were conducted in greenhouses of the location [...] s of Atlacomulco (Mexico), Tenango de las Flores (Puebla), Xochimilco (Mexico City), and Zacatepec and Tetela del Monte (Morelos). A total of 2,141 adult specimens of Diptera were obtained, being Bradysia difformis Frey (Diptera: Sciaridae) the most abundant species (99.5%). Life cycle of this species was completed between 26-28 days under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity (25°C and 70% RH). The differentiation of larval instars by morphometrics of the head capsule between instars I vs II, showed very low error probabilities (1:10,000); while differentiation between instars II vs III, and III vs IV resulted with higher error probabilities, between 17:100 and 36:100 individuals, respectively. For this reason it is recommended to explore other features in addition to measurements of width of the cephalic capsules for discriminating different larval stages. This is the first record of B. difformis for Mexico, although this genus was previously reported affecting poinsettia crops.

  19. Effect of pesticides on adult rove beetle Atheta coriaria (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) survival in growing medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Timmons, Nicholas R; Goebel, Jessica M; Kemp, Kenneth E

    2009-10-01

    The rove beetle Atheta coriaria (Kraatz) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) is a natural enemy (biological control agent) commercially available for control of certain greenhouse insect pests, including fungus gnats, shore flies, and thrips. This study assessed the compatibility of pesticides (insecticides and fungicides) used in greenhouses with A. coriaria adults. Treatments were applied to 473-ml deli squat containers half-filled with a growing medium. We evaluated the effects of the pesticides when releases of A. coriaria adults were performed both before and after application of the designated pesticide solutions. All three of the neonicotinoid-based insecticides (clothianidin, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam) were directly harmful to A. coriaria adults with fosetyl-aluminum, and mefenoxam) were not directly toxic to A. coriaria adults, with < or = 17.7 adults recovered (out of 20) across all experiments. The insecticides (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, flonicamid, Metarhizium anisopliae strain52, and spinosad) and insect growth regulator azadirachtin were also not directly toxic to A. coriaria adults. Furthermore, many of these same treatments did not inhibit the ability of adult A. coriaria to consume fungus gnat (Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila) larvae in a feeding behavior experiment. Although the neonicotinoid-based insecticides were directly harmful to adult A. coriaria, when adults were released 48, 72, or 96 h after application, survival increased dramatically over time. This study has quantitatively demonstrated that certain pesticides (both insecticides and fungicides) are compatible with and can be used along with A. coriaria in systems that use this natural enemy to manage fungus gnat larvae. PMID:19886438

  20. Smaller than a gnat

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "CERN in Geneva is the largest research center for particle physics in the world; the Institute is a Mecca for scientists. Particle are projected into each other in gigantic ring accelerators to gain information from their reactions about the force and relations inside the elements. These experiments require high vacuum - Oerlikon Leybold Vacuum recently competed in a Eyropean call for bids for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and won the contract." (1,5 page)

  1. Survey of hypogeous fungus Transylvanians

    OpenAIRE

    Denes PAZMANY

    1990-01-01

    On the base of the published literature, this paper is a comprehensive enumeration of the hypogeous fungus from Transylvania. It contents 81 species and 4 varieties. Two species from the presented, Balsamia vulgaris and Tuber melanospermum, are dubious in Transylvania. The species are enumerated alphabeticaly in three classes: Phycomycetes, Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes.

  2. Three-dimensional structure of a Streptomyces sviceus GNAT acetyltransferase with similarity to the C-terminal domain of the human GH84 O-GlcNAcase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yuan [Northwest University, Xi’an 710069, People’s Republic of (China); The University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Roth, Christian; Turkenburg, Johan P.; Davies, Gideon J., E-mail: gideon.davies@york.ac.uk [The University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Northwest University, Xi’an 710069, People’s Republic of (China)

    2014-01-01

    The crystal structure of a bacterial acetyltransferase with 27% sequence identity to the C-terminal domain of human O-GlcNAcase has been solved at 1.5 Å resolution. This S. sviceus protein is compared with known GCN5-related acetyltransferases, adding to the diversity observed in this superfamily. The mammalian O-GlcNAc hydrolysing enzyme O-GlcNAcase (OGA) is a multi-domain protein with glycoside hydrolase activity in the N-terminus and with a C-terminal domain that has low sequence similarity to known acetyltransferases, prompting speculation, albeit controversial, that the C-terminal domain may function as a histone acetyltransferase (HAT). There are currently scarce data available regarding the structure and function of this C-terminal region. Here, a bacterial homologue of the human OGA C-terminal domain, an acetyltransferase protein (accession No. ZP-05014886) from Streptomyces sviceus (SsAT), was cloned and its crystal structure was solved to high resolution. The structure reveals a conserved protein core that has considerable structural homology to the acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) binding site of GCN5-related acetyltransferases (GNATs). Calorimetric data further confirm that SsAT is indeed able to bind AcCoA in solution with micromolar affinity. Detailed structural analysis provided insight into the binding of AcCoA. An acceptor-binding cavity was identified, indicating that the physiological substrate of SsAT may be a small molecule. Consistent with recently published work, the SsAT structure further questions a HAT function for the human OGA domain.

  3. Three-dimensional structure of a Streptomyces sviceus GNAT acetyltransferase with similarity to the C-terminal domain of the human GH84 O-GlcNAcase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structure of a bacterial acetyltransferase with 27% sequence identity to the C-terminal domain of human O-GlcNAcase has been solved at 1.5 Å resolution. This S. sviceus protein is compared with known GCN5-related acetyltransferases, adding to the diversity observed in this superfamily. The mammalian O-GlcNAc hydrolysing enzyme O-GlcNAcase (OGA) is a multi-domain protein with glycoside hydrolase activity in the N-terminus and with a C-terminal domain that has low sequence similarity to known acetyltransferases, prompting speculation, albeit controversial, that the C-terminal domain may function as a histone acetyltransferase (HAT). There are currently scarce data available regarding the structure and function of this C-terminal region. Here, a bacterial homologue of the human OGA C-terminal domain, an acetyltransferase protein (accession No. ZP-05014886) from Streptomyces sviceus (SsAT), was cloned and its crystal structure was solved to high resolution. The structure reveals a conserved protein core that has considerable structural homology to the acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) binding site of GCN5-related acetyltransferases (GNATs). Calorimetric data further confirm that SsAT is indeed able to bind AcCoA in solution with micromolar affinity. Detailed structural analysis provided insight into the binding of AcCoA. An acceptor-binding cavity was identified, indicating that the physiological substrate of SsAT may be a small molecule. Consistent with recently published work, the SsAT structure further questions a HAT function for the human OGA domain

  4. Fungus-insect gall of Phlebopus portentosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Xia; He, Ming-Xia; Cao, Yang; Liu, Jing; Gao, Feng; Wang, Wen-Bing; Ji, Kai-Ping; Shao, Shi-Cheng; Wang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Phlebopus portentosus is a popular edible wild mushroom found in the tropical Yunnan, China, and northern Thailand. In its natural habitats, a gall often has been found on some plant roots, around which fungal fruiting bodies are produced. The galls are different from common insect galls in that their cavity walls are not made from plant tissue but rather from the hyphae of P. portentosus. Therefore we have termed this phenomenon "fungus-insect gall". Thus far six root mealy bug species in the family Pseudococcidae that form fungus-insect galls with P. portentosus have been identified: Formicococcus polysperes, Geococcus satellitum, Planococcus minor, Pseudococcus cryptus, Paraputo banzigeri and Rastrococcus invadens. Fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of more than 21 plant species, including Delonix regia, Citrus maxima, Coffea arabica and Artocarpus heterophyllus. Greenhouse inoculation trials showed that fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of A. heterophyllus 1 mo after inoculation. The galls were subglobose to globose, fulvous when young and became dark brown at maturation. Each gall harbored one or more mealy bugs and had a chimney-like vent for ventilation and access to the gall. The cavity wall had three layers. Various shaped mealy bug wax deposits were found inside the wall. Fungal hyphae invaded the epidermis of plant roots and sometimes even the cortical cells during the late stage of gall development. The identity of the fungus inside the cavity was confirmed by molecular methods. PMID:25344264

  5. Dentigerumycin: a bacterial mediator of an ant-fungus symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oh, Dong-Chan; Poulsen, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Fungus-growing ants engage in mutualistic associations with both the fungus they cultivate for food and actinobacteria (Pseudonocardia spp.) that produce selective antibiotics to defend that fungus from specialized fungal parasites. We have analyzed one such system at the molecular level and found that the bacterium associated with the ant Apterostigma dentigerum produces dentigerumycin, a cyclic depsipeptide with highly modified amino acids, to selectively inhibit the associated parasitic fungus (Escovopsis sp.).

  6. Nuclear flow in a filamentous fungus

    CERN Document Server

    Hickey, Patrick C; Read, Nick; Glass, N Louise; Roper, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The syncytial cells of a filamentous fungus consist of a mass of growing, tube-like hyphae. Each extending tip is fed by a continuous flow of nuclei from the colony interior, pushed by a gradient in turgor pressure. The myco-fluidic flows of nuclei are complex and multidirectional, like traffic in a city. We map out the flows in a strain of the model filamentous fungus {\\it N. crassa} that has been transformed so that nuclei express either hH1-dsRed (a red fluorescent nuclear protein) or hH1-GFP (a green-fluorescent protein) and report our results in a fluid dynamics video.

  7. Spread of Rare Fungus from Vancouver Island

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-12-20

    Cryptococcus gattii, a rare fungus normally found in the tropics, has infected people and animals on Vancouver Island, Canada. Dr. David Warnock, Director, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases, CDC, discusses public health concerns about further spread of this organism.  Created: 12/20/2006 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 12/29/2006.

  8. Death from Fungus in the Soil

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-12-17

    Dr. Shira Shafir, Assistant Professor of Epidemiology at the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, discusses her study about fungus found in soil.  Created: 12/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/18/2012.

  9. Enraizamento de estacas de três espécies silvestres de Passiflora Cutting rooting of three wild Passiflora species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fideles Braga

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Em ambiente com nebulização controlada, estacas herbáceas com um par de folhas, contendo 2 ou 3 nós, foram testadas quanto ao enraizamento, utilizando-se de bandeja de poliestireno com célula de 95cm³ e saco plástico de 15x25x0,02cm com 1.730 cm³. Foram testadas estacas de Passiflora actinia, P. serrato-digitata e P. setacea. Observou-se que P. serrato-digitata apresentou 94,3% de estacas enraizadas com brotos e 2,4% de mortalidade; enquanto P. actinia e P. setacea apresentaram, respetivamente, 30,5% e 28,6% de estacas enraizadas com brotos e 56,8% e 60,7% de mortalidade. A alta mortalidade das estacas foi atribuída ao estado fenológico das matrizes de P. actinia e P. setacea e ao ataque de larvas de bradisia (Bradysia spp. Estacas com dois e três nós não apresentaram diferenças significativas, e o recipiente saco plástico de 1.730 cm³ proporcionou melhor desenvolvimento das mudas.Steam cuttings of three wild Passiflora species where tested for rooting in a mist regulated greenhouse. Cuttings with two or three buds were used with two kinds of containers: polystyrene trays with 95 cm³ cells and perforated plastic bags of 15x25x0.02cm, with 1,730 cm³. Passiflora serrato-digitata was the best, with 94.3% of rooted cuttings with shoots e only 2.4% of death cuttings. P. actinia and P. setacea showed , respectivelly, 30.5% and 28.6% of rooted cuttings and 56.8% and 60.7%, of death cuttings. The high death were attribute to phenological phases of P. actinia and P. setacea or injury caused by fungus-gnat larvae (Bradysia spp.. Cuttings with two or three buds didn't show differences among them. Plastic bags proporcioned the best results, increasing rooted cuttings and plant development.

  10. Allergens of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana

    OpenAIRE

    Keyhani Nemat O; Huang Shih-Wen; Westwood Greg S

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Beauveria bassiana is an important entomopathogenic fungus currently under development as a bio-control agent for a variety of insect pests. Although reported to be non-toxic to vertebrates, the potential allergenicity of Beauveria species has not been widely studied. Methods IgE-reactivity studies were performed using sera from patients displaying mould hypersensitivity by immunoblot and immunoblot inhibition. Skin reactivity to B. bassiana extracts was measured using int...

  11. The tomato powdery mildew fungus Oidium neolycopersici.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, H.; Whipps, JM; Gurr, SJ

    2001-01-01

    UNLABELLED: summary Pathogen: Powdery mildew fungus; Ascomycete although sexual stage is yet to be found; an obligate biotroph. IDENTIFICATION: Superficial mycelium with hyaline hyphae; unbranched erect conidiophores; conidia, ellipsoid-ovoid or doliform, 22-46 x 10-20 microm, lack fibrosin bodies; conidia formed singly, rarely in short chains of 2-6 conidia; appressoria lobed to multilobed, rarely nipple-shaped. Pseudoidium species. HOST RANGE: Broad, reported to attack over 60 species in 13...

  12. Valsa viburni, a rare fungus in Europe?

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Hayova

    2013-01-01

    The paper provides brief illustrated description and general distribution of Valsa viburni. The fungus is found to be highly host-specific and confined to Viburnum lantana. According to currently available data on its distribution, the species has small number of records, fragmented range and is shown to be rare in Europe. However, before assessment of the species, information on any additional unrecorded specimens is needed. On the example of V. viburni, some issues on fungal conservation fo...

  13. Symbiotic Fungi Produce Laccases Potentially Involved in Phenol Degradation in Fungus Combs of Fungus-Growing Termites in Thailand†

    OpenAIRE

    Taprab, Yaovapa; Johjima, Toru; Maeda, Yoshimasa; Moriya, Shigeharu; Trakulnaleamsai, Savitr; Noparatnaraporn, Napavarn; Ohkuma, Moriya; Kudo, Toshiaki

    2005-01-01

    Fungus-growing termites efficiently decompose plant litter through their symbiotic relationship with basidiomycete fungi of the genus Termitomyces. Here, we investigated phenol-oxidizing enzymes in symbiotic fungi and fungus combs (a substrate used to cultivate symbiotic fungi) from termites belonging to the genera Macrotermes, Odontotermes, and Microtermes in Thailand, because these enzymes are potentially involved in the degradation of phenolic compounds during fungus comb aging. Laccase ac...

  14. Ribonucleic acids in different tea fungus beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Malbaša Radomir V.; Lon?ar Eva S.; Kolarov Ljiljana A.

    2003-01-01

    In human nutrition, nucleic acids have to be balanced and limited up to 2 g/day because purines are degraded to urate, and excessive production of urate is a cause of gout which primarily affects adult males. Tea fungus beverage is a well known drink with high nutritional value and certain curative effects. Its benefits have been proved in a number of studies but it is still necessary to examine some potential harmful effects of this beverage. The aim of this paper was to investigate content ...

  15. Metabolites From The Marine Fungus Cladosporium Cladosporioides

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., San-Martín; K., Painemal; Y., Díaz; C., Martínez; J., Rovirosa.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El ácido p-metilbenzoico y el peroxiergosterol fueron aislados e identificados por métodos espectroscópicos en el cultivo del hongo Cladosporium cladosporioides, obtenido de una esponja marina. En la medida de nuestro conocimiento este es el primer informe del aislamiento como producto natural del á [...] cido p-metilbenzoico. Abstract in english p-Methylbenzoic acid and peroxyergosterol were isolated and identified by spectroscopic methods from cultures of the fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides isolated from a marine sponge. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that p-methylbenzoic acid had been isolated as a natural produc [...] t.

  16. Metacridamides A and B from the biocontrol fungus metarhizium acridum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metarhizium acridum, an entomopathogenic fungus, has been commercialized and used successfully for biocontrol of grasshopper pests in Africa and Australia. As part of an effort to catalog the secondary metabolites of this fungus we discovered that its conidia produce two novel 17-membered macrocycl...

  17. Ribonucleic acids in different tea fungus beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In human nutrition, nucleic acids have to be balanced and limited up to 2 g/day because purines are degraded to urate, and excessive production of urate is a cause of gout which primarily affects adult males. Tea fungus beverage is a well known drink with high nutritional value and certain curative effects. Its benefits have been proved in a number of studies but it is still necessary to examine some potential harmful effects of this beverage. The aim of this paper was to investigate content of ribonucleic acids (RNA produced during tea fungus fermentation on a usual substrate sweetened black tea, and on Jerusalem artichoke tubers (J.A.T extract using method by Munro and Fleck (1966. pH, ribonucleic acids and also the production of proteins that affect purity of nucleic acids preparations were monitored. A higher value of RNA has been noticed in J.A.T. beverage (0.57 mg/ml and with observation of usual daily dose of the beverage it is completely safe and useful one.

  18. SYSTEMIC INFECTION AND RELATED FUNGUS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saha Rajsekhar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A fungus is a member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds (British English: moulds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which are separate from plants, animals, and bacteria. One major difference is that fungal cells have cell walls that contain chitin, unlike the cell walls of plants, which contain cellulose. Many fungi play a crucial role in decomposition (breaking things down and returning nutrients to the soil. They are also used in medicine, an example is the antibiotic penicillin, as well as in industry and food preparation. In the present time the microbes are to be seen as disease causing organisms harming the mankind. The harm done by this community cannot be taken lightly as they are also useful in many ways. The above article is an effort to bring out the various fungal issued related to human.

  19. Is the fungus Magnaporthe losing DNA methylation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Ken-ichi; Van Vu, Ba; Kadotani, Naoki; Tanaka, Masaki; Murata, Toshiki; Shiina, Kohta; Chuma, Izumi; Tosa, Yukio; Nakayashiki, Hitoshi

    2013-11-01

    The long terminal repeat retrotransposon, Magnaporthe gypsy-like element (MAGGY), has been shown to be targeted for cytosine methylation in a subset of Magnaporthe oryzae field isolates. Analysis of the F1 progeny from a genetic cross between methylation-proficient (Br48) and methylation-deficient (GFSI1-7-2) isolates revealed that methylation of the MAGGY element was governed by a single dominant gene. Positional cloning followed by gene disruption and complementation experiments revealed that the responsible gene was the DNA methyltransferase, MoDMT1, an ortholog of Neurospora crassa Dim-2. A survey of MAGGY methylation in 60 Magnaporthe field isolates revealed that 42 isolates from rice, common millet, wheat, finger millet, and buffelgrass were methylation proficient while 18 isolates from foxtail millet, green bristlegrass, Japanese panicgrass, torpedo grass, Guinea grass, and crabgrass were methylation deficient. Phenotypic analyses showed that MoDMT1 plays no major role in development and pathogenicity of the fungus. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the average copy number of genomic MAGGY elements was not significantly different between methylation-deficient and -proficient field isolates even though the levels of MAGGY transcript were generally higher in the former group. MoDMT1 gene sequences in the methylation-deficient isolates suggested that at least three independent mutations were responsible for the loss of MoDMT1 function. Overall, our data suggest that MoDMT1 is not essential for the natural life cycle of the fungus and raise the possibility that the genus Magnaporthe may be losing the mechanism of DNA methylation on the evolutionary time scale. PMID:23979580

  20. Fungal Garden Making inside Bamboos by a Non-Social Fungus-Growing Beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Toki, Wataru; Takahashi, Yukiko; Togashi, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    In fungus-growing mutualism, it is indispensable for host animals to establish gardens of the symbiotic fungus as rapidly as possible. How to establish fungal gardens has been well-documented in social fungus-farming insects, whereas poorly documented in non-social fungus-farming insects. Here we report that the non-social, fungus-growing lizard beetle Doubledaya bucculenta (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Languriinae) transmits the symbiotic yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus from the ovipositor-associa...

  1. Morphophysiological Differences between the Metapleural Glands of Fungus-Growing and Non–Fungus-Growing Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Alexsandro Santana; Bueno, Odair Correa; Camargo-mathias, Maria Izabel

    2012-01-01

    The metapleural gland is an organ exclusive to ants. Its main role is to produce secretions that inhibit the proliferation of different types of pathogens. The aim of the present study was to examine the morphophysiological differences between the metapleural gland of 3 non–fungus-growing ants of the tribes Ectatommini, Myrmicini, and Blepharidattini and that of 5 fungus-growing ants from 2 basal and 3 derived attine genera. The metapleural gland of the non–fungus-growing ants and the bas...

  2. Biological active anthraquinone analogs from the fungus Eurotium sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Gawas, D.; Tilvi, S.; Naik, C.G.

    2004-01-01

    Four known anthraquinones: Physcion, fluoroglaucin, catenarin and alaternin as well as a cyclic dipeptide with a triprenylated indole moiety, echinulin were purified from acetone extract of the mycelial mats of the fungus Eurotium sp. isolated from...

  3. An insect parasitoid carrying an ochratoxin producing fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Fernando E.; Posada, Francisco; Gianfagna, Thomas J.; Chaves, Fabio C.; Peterson, Stephen W.

    2006-06-01

    The insect parasitoid Prorops nasuta has been introduced from Africa to many coffee-producing countries in an attempt to control the coffee berry borer. In this paper, we report on the sequencing of the ITS LSU-rDNA and beta-tubulin loci used to identify a fungus isolated from the cuticle of a P. nasuta that emerged from coffee berries infected with the coffee berry borer. The sequences were compared with deposits in GenBank and the fungus was identified as Aspergillus westerdijkiae. The fungus tested positive for ochratoxin A production, with varying levels depending on the media in which it was grown. These results raise the possibility that an insect parasitoid might be disseminating an ochratoxin-producing fungus in coffee plantations.

  4. Contributions to the study of Pseudopeziza trifolii (Bernh. Fuck. fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despina MUSAT

    1966-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper communicates the results of the laboratory experiments concerning the behaviour of the Pseudopeziza trifolii (Bernh. Fuck. fungus that produces the clover brown leaf spot, in different culture mediums. The mycelium of the fungus develops at its best on the peptone-glucose-agar medium. The appearance of pycnides of Sporonema phacidioides Desm. type in vitro, has been reported for the fourth time in Romania especially developing on the potatoe-dextrosis-agar and plum-agar mediums.

  5. New aquatic sites of the fungus Sommerstorffia spinosa

    OpenAIRE

    Bazyli Czeczuga; Bo?ena Mazalska; Miros?awa Or?owska

    2000-01-01

    When studying zoosporic fungi in the waters of northeastern Poland tbe authors found new sites of a rare fungus - Sommerstorffia spinosa Arnaudow. Its growth was observed in water samples collected from limnologically different reservoirs, from the spring Jaroszówka, the oligotrophic type (Lake Bia?e), through mesotrophic (Lake Wigry) to the polytrophic type (pond Fosa with high content of hydrogen sulphide under ice cover). This fungus was also found in the river Bia?a, which flowing thro...

  6. Biodegradation of pentachlorophenol by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    OpenAIRE

    Mileski, G J; Bumpus, J A; Jurek, M A; Aust, S D

    1988-01-01

    Extensive biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance and mineralization of [14C]PCP in nutrient nitrogen-limited culture. Mass balance analyses demonstrated the formation of water-soluble metabolites of [14C]PCP during degradation. Involvement of the lignin-degrading system of this fungus was suggested by the fact the time of onset, time course, and eventual decline in the rate of PCP mineralization were ...

  7. Solubilization of lignin by the ruminal anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum.

    OpenAIRE

    McSweeney, C S; Dulieu, A; Katayama, Y.; Lowry, J B

    1994-01-01

    The ability of the ruminal anaerobic phycomycete Neocallimastix patriciarum to digest model lignin compounds and lignified structures in plant material was studied in batch culture. The fungus did not degrade or transform model lignin compounds that were representative of the predominant intermonomer linkages in lignin, nor did it solubilize acid detergent lignin that had been isolated from spear grass. In a stem fraction of sorghum, 33.6% of lignin was apparently solubilized by the fungus. S...

  8. Biological control of Ascaris suum eggs by Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sebastião Rodrigo; de Araújo, Jackson Victor; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Frassy, Luiza Neme; Ferreira, Aloízio Soares

    2011-12-01

    Ascaris suum is a gastrointestinal nematode parasite of swines. The aim of this study was to observe Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus on biological control of A. suum eggs after fungus passage through swines gastrointestinal tract. Eighteen pigs, previously dewormed, were randomly divided into three groups: group 1, treated with the fungus isolate VC4; group 2, treated with the fungus isolate VC1 and group 3 did not receive fungus (control). In the treated groups, each animal received a 9 g single dose of mycelium mass containing P. chlamydosporia (VC1 or VC4). Thereafter, animal fecal samples were collected at the following intervals: 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h after treatment beginning and these were poured in Petri dishes containing 2% water-agar culture medium. Then, 1,000 A. suum eggs were poured into each dish and kept in an incubator at 26 °C and in the dark for 30 days. After this period, approximately 100 eggs were removed from each Petri dish and morphologically analyzed under light microscopy following the ovicidal activity parameters. The higher percentage observed for isolated VC4 eggs destruction was 57.5% (36 h) after fungus administration and for isolate VC1 this percentage was 45.8% (24 h and 72 h) (p > 0.01). P. chlamydosporia remained viable after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of swines, maintaining its ability of destroying A. suum eggs. PMID:21796329

  9. Candicidin-producing Streptomyces support leaf-cutting ants to protect their fungus garden against the pathogenic fungus Escovopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Haeder, Susanne; Wirth, Rainer; Herz, Hubert; Spiteller, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    Leaf-cutting ants such as Acromyrmex octospinosus live in obligate symbiosis with fungi of the genus Leucoagaricus, which they grow with harvested leaf material. The symbiotic fungi, in turn, serve as a major food source for the ants. This mutualistic relation is disturbed by the specialized pathogenic fungus Escovopsis sp., which can overcome Leucoagaricus sp. and thus destroy the ant colony. Microbial symbionts of leaf-cutting ants have been suggested to protect the fungus garden against Es...

  10. DNA barcoding the commercial Chinese caterpillar fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Li; Song, Jingyuan; Xin, Tianyi; Zhu, Yingjie; Shi, Linchun; Xu, Xiaolan; Pang, Xiaohui; Yao, Hui; Li, Wenjia; Chen, Shilin

    2013-10-01

    Chinese caterpillar fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) has been widely used as tonic in Asian medicine. Considering its curative effect and high cost, various counterfeit versions of O. sinensis have been introduced and are commercially available. These counterfeits have morphological characteristics that are difficult to distinguish based on morphology alone, thereby causing confusion and threatening its safe use. In this study, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences as a DNA barcode were analyzed and assessed for rapid and accurate identification of 131 O. sinensis samples and 12 common counterfeits and closely related species. Results showed that sufficient ITS sequence differences, also known as 'barcode gaps', existed to distinguish between O. sinensis and counterfeit species. ITS sequence correctly identified 100% of the samples at the species and genus level using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool 1 and the nearest distance method. Furthermore, O. sinensis, counterfeits, and closely related species can be successfully identified using tree-based methods including maximum parsimony, neighbor-joining, and maximum likelihood analysis. These results indicated that DNA barcoding could be used as a fast and accurate identification method to distinguish O. sinensis from counterfeits and closely related species to ensure its safe use. PMID:23927075

  11. Isolated Polynucleotides and Methods of Promoting a Morphology in a Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasure, Linda L. (Fall City, WA) [Fall City, WA; Dai, Ziyu (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA

    2008-10-21

    The invention includes isolated polynucleotide molecules that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention includes a method of enhancing a bioprocess utilizing a fungus. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to a promoter. The polynucleotide sequence is expressed to promote a first morphology. The first morphology of the transformed fungus enhances a bioprocess relative to the bioprocess utilizing a second morphology.

  12. Bioremediation using white rot fungus; Hakushoku fushokukin wo mochiita baioremedeieshon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Akihiko [Fukui University, Fukui (Japan)

    1999-02-05

    In recent years, environmental pollution caused by organic chloride compounds and endocrine disturbing substances (environmental hormones) has spread all over the country. Among various researches in respect to environmental preservation technology, bioremediation using white rot fungus (environment remedying technology using microorganism) is paid attention. Coriolus versicolor, which is a typical white rot fungus, produces oxidase of laccase, manganese peroxide or the like. It is confirmed by the examination results of the degradation of phenols using these enzymes that alkyl phenols and bisphenol A which is environmental hormone are degraded by laccase. Further, the degradation of dioxins is an example using Phanerochaete sp. Additional, the applications of white rot fungus to various aspects such as the degradation of petroleum and dyes are investigated and good results are obtained. (NEDO)

  13. Isolation and identification of iron ore-solubilising fungus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rasheed, Adeleke; Eugene, Cloete; Damase, Khasa.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Potential mineral-solubilising fungi were successfully isolated from the surfaces of iron ore minerals. Four isolates were obtained and identified by molecular and phylogenetic methods as close relatives of three different genera, namely Penicillium (for isolate FO), Alternaria (for isolates SFC2 an [...] d KFC1) and Epicoccum (for isolate SFC2B). The use of tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) in phosphate-solubilising experiments confirmed isolate FO as the only phosphate solubiliser among the isolated fungi. The bioleaching capabilities of both the fungus and its spent liquid medium were tested and compared using two types of iron ore materials, conglomerate and shale, from the Sishen Iron Ore Mine as sources of potassium (K) and phosphorus (P). The spent liquid medium removed more K (a maximum of 32.94% removal, from conglomerate), than the fungus (a maximum of 21.36% removal, from shale). However, the fungus removed more P (a maximum of 58.33% removal, from conglomerate) than the spent liquid medium (a maximum of 29.25% removal, from conglomerate). The results also indicated a potential relationship between the removal of K or P and the production of organic acids by the fungus. A high production of gluconic acid could be related to the ability of the fungus to reduce K and P. Acetic, citric and maleic acids were also produced by the fungus, but in lower quantities. In addition, particle size and iron ore type were also shown to have significant effects on the removal of potassium and phosphorus from the iron ore minerals. We therefore conclude that the spent liquid medium from the fungal isolate FO can potentially be used for biobeneficiation of iron ore minerals.

  14. Isolation and identification of iron ore-solubilising fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damase Khasa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Potential mineral-solubilising fungi were successfully isolated from the surfaces of iron ore minerals. Four isolates were obtained and identified by molecular and phylogenetic methods as close relatives of three different genera, namely Penicillium (for isolate FO, Alternaria (for isolates SFC2 and KFC1 and Epicoccum (for isolate SFC2B. The use of tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO42in phosphate-solubilising experiments confirmed isolate FO as the only phosphate solubiliser among the isolated fungi. The bioleaching capabilities of both the fungus and its spent liquid medium were tested and compared using two types of iron ore materials, conglomerate and shale, from the Sishen Iron Ore Mine as sources of potassium (K and phosphorus (P. The spent liquid medium removed more K (a maximum of 32.94% removal, from conglomerate, than the fungus (a maximum of 21.36% removal, from shale. However, the fungus removed more P (a maximum of 58.33% removal, from conglomerate than the spent liquid medium (a maximum of 29.25% removal, from conglomerate. The results also indicated a potential relationship between the removal of K or P and the production of organic acids by the fungus. A high production of gluconic acid could be related to the ability of the fungus to reduce K and P. Acetic, citric and maleic acids were also produced by the fungus, but in lower quantities. In addition, particle size and iron ore type were also shown to have significant effects on the removal of potassium and phosphorus from the iron ore minerals. We therefore conclude that the spent liquid medium from the fungal isolate FO can potentially be used for biobeneficiation of iron ore minerals.

  15. Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Fine Licht Henrik H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae, wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. Results We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-?-1,3(4-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-?-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Conclusion Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily accessible hemicellulose components of the ray-parenchyma cells in the wood xylem. Furthermore, the detection of xylanolytic enzymes exclusively in larvae (which feed on fungus colonized wood and not in adults (which feed only on fungi indicates that only larvae (pre- digest plant cell wall structures. This implies that in X. saxesenii and likely also in many other ambrosia beetles, adults and larvae do not compete for the same food within their nests - in contrast, larvae increase colony fitness by facilitating enzymatic wood degradation and fungus cultivation.

  16. Experimental study of Aspergillus flavus fungus from uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cultivation is discussed of fungus strain Aspergillus flavus obtained from materials from uranium mines. It was found that an addition of 0.6 g of uranium in form of uranyl acetate or of 0.6 g of thorium in form on thorium nitrate in 1000 ml of the standard medium had stimulating effects on the growth and sporulation of Aspergillus flavus. Irradiating the cultivated fungus through a polyethylene foil did not show a stimulating effect. It is stated that uranium and its daughters must be directly present in the culture medium for their stimulating effect on growth and sporulation to manifest itself. (H.S.)

  17. Two chlorinated benzofuran derivatives from the marine fungus Pseudallescheria boydii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dan-Feng; Lan, Wen-Jian; Wang, Kun-Teng; Huang, Lei; Jiang, Cai-Wu; Li, Hou-Jin

    2015-04-01

    The marine fungus Pseudallescheria boydii was isolated from the inner tissue of the starfish Acanthaster planci. This fungus was cultured in a high salinity glucose-peptone-yeast extract (GPY) medium. Two new chlorinated benzofuran derivatives, 6-chloro-2-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2,3-dihydro-5 hydroxybenzofuran (1) and 7-chloro-2-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2,3-dihydro-5-hydroxybenzofuran (2), were obtained from the extract of the culture broth. Their structures were determined by analysis of the NMR and MS data. PMID:25973491

  18. Notes on a plant parasite fungus in Portugal: Gymnosporangium cornutum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Maria C; Martins, Victor C

    2006-09-01

    A rust fungus identified as Gymnosporangium cornutum was found on Sorbus aucuparia in Serra da Estrela (Manteigas), and the disease was severe at that location. Despite the abundance and worldwide occurrence of the genus Gymnosporangium, studies in Portugal are still limited. PMID:17196029

  19. Fun Microbiology: How To Measure Growth of a Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James K.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experiment to demonstrate a simple method for measuring fungus growth by monitoring the effect of temperature on the growth of Trichoderma viride. Among the advantages that this experimental model provides is introducing students to the importance of using the computer as a scientific tool for analyzing and presenting data. (AIM)

  20. Biodegradation of pentachlorophenol by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance and mineralization of [14C]PCP in nutrient nitrogen-limited culture. Mass balance analyses demonstrated the formation of water-soluble metabolites of [14C]PCP during degradation. Involvement of the lignin-degrading system of this fungus was suggested by the fact that the time of onset, time course, and eventual decline in the rate of PCP mineralization were similar to those observed for [14C]lignin degradation. Also, a purified ligninase was shown to be able to catalyze the initial oxidation of PCP. Although biodegradation of PCP was decreased in nutrient nitrogen-sufficient (i.e., nonligninolytic) cultures of P. chrysosporium, substantial biodegradation of PCP did occur, suggesting that in addition to the lignin-degrading system, another degradation system may also be responsible for some of the PCP degradation observed. Toxicity studies showed that PCP concentrations above 4 mg/liter (15 ?M) prevented growth when fungal cultures were identified by inoculation with spores. The lethal effects of PCP could, however, be the circumvented by allowing the fungus to establish a mycelial mat before adding PCP. With this procedure, the fungus was able to grow and mineralize [14C]PCP at concentrations as high as 500 mg/liter (1.9 mM)

  1. Será fungo? / Is it a fungus?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diana, Tomaz.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Estima-se que as infecções fúngicas superficiais afectem 20 a 25% da população mundial e a sua incidência continua a aumentar. A maioria é causada por dermatófitos, que são fungos que necessitam de queratina para crescer. As alterações produzidas por estes fungos designam-se de dermatofitoses, epide [...] rmofitias ou tinhas. Em Medicina Geral e Familiar é habitual o clínico deparar-se com questões como: «Dr., apareceram-me umas manchas na pele, será um fungo?». Algumas vezes, particularmente em doentes com risco especial como os polimedicados, os diabéticos, os imunodeprimidos ou as crianças, torna-se difícil saber quando é adequado instituir terapêutica oral. O presente artigo tem como objectivo efectuar uma breve revisão das dermatofitoses, com especial enfoque na sua abordagem terapêutica. As tinhas classificam-se de acordo com a sua localização anatómica: tinea capitis no couro cabeludo, tinea pedis nos pés, tinea corporis no corpo, tinea cruris na região inguinal e tinea unguium nas unhas. Um exame clínico cuidado é o primeiro e mais importante passo no diagnóstico das epidermofitias. No entanto, este pode ser estabelecido através de um dos diversos exames: microscopia com hidróxido de potássio, cultura, lâmpada de Wood e biópsia. Na prática clínica, a recolha de amostras para microscopia e cultura é aconselhada quando há necessidade de terapêutica oral, a infecção parece refractária ao tratamento inicial ou o diagnóstico é incerto. Apesar do tratamento tópico ser suficiente, na maioria das dermatofitoses, a terapêutica oral é aconselhada nas tinhas do couro cabeludo, da barba e das unhas. Os antifúngicos tópicos do grupo das alilaminas possibilitam tratamentos mais curtos e taxas de cura maiores do que os antifúngicos do grupo dos azóis. A terbinafina, o itraconazol e o fluconazol são os fármacos mais utilizados para tratamento sistémico. Abstract in english Superficial mycoses are believed to affect 20% to 25% of the world’s population and its incidence continues to increase. They are mainly caused by dermatophytes, which are fungi that require keratin for their growth. Skin lesions produced by these fungi are named dermatomycosis, dermatophytosis, rin [...] gworm or tinea. In Family Medicine, the clinician often has to deal with questions such as: «Dr., some weird spots have appeared in my skin, is it a fungus?». Frequently it is difficult to decide whether it is appropriate to initiate systemic therapy, particularly in higher risk patients, such as the polimedicated, the immunodepressed, the diabetics and the children. This article intends to review dermatophyte infections, focusing especially on their therapeutic management. Tinea is generally classified according to its anatomic location: tinea capitis is located on the scalp, tinea pedis on the feet, tinea corporis on the body, tinea cruris on the groin, and tinea unguium on the nails. A thorough clinical examination is the primary and most important step to diagnose a dermatophyte infection. Yet, it can be established using potassium hydroxide microscopy, fungal culture, Wood’s lamp examination or histologic examination. Samples should be taken for microscopy and culture in severe or extensive skin fungal infections, when oral treatment is being considered, when skin infections are refractory to initial treatment, or when the diagnosis is uncertain. Although topical treatment is enough in the majority of dermatomycosis, oral antifungals are recommended when considering tinea capitis, tinea barbae and tinea unguium. Cure rates are higher and treatment courses are shorter with topical allylamines than with azoles. Terbinafine, itraconazole and fluconazole formulations are the most commonly used antifungals in systemic therapy.

  2. Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenova, Tatyana; Hughes, David Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background: Attine ants live in symbiosis with a basidiomycetous fungus that they rear on a substrate of plant material. This indirect herbivory implies that the symbiosis is likely to be nitrogen deprived, so that specific mechanisms may have evolved to enhance protein availability. We therefore hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results: We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing eight genera. We mapped these activity profiles on an independently obtained molecular phylogeny of the symbionts and show that total proteinase activity in lower attine symbionts peaks at ca. pH 6. The higher attine symbionts that have no known free-living relatives had much higher proteinase activities than the lower attine symbionts. Their total in vitro proteinase activity peaked at pH values around 5, which is close to the pH that the ants maintain in their fungus gardens, suggesting that the pH optimum of fungal proteinases may have changed after the irreversible domestication of evolutionary more derived fungal symbionts. This notion is also supported by buffering capacities of fungus gardens at pH 5.2 being remarkably high, and suggests that the fungal symbiont actively helps to maintain garden acidity at this specific level. Metalloproteinases dominated the activity profiles of lower attine gardens and may thus represent the ancestral type of proteinase production, whereas serine proteinase activity dominated the activity profiles of the higher attine gardens reared by Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex, suggesting that there may be trade-offs in the production of these enzyme classes. Remarkably, the single symbiont that is shared by species of the crown group of Atta and Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants mostly showed metalloproteinase activity, suggesting that recurrent changes in enzyme production may have occurred throughout the domestication history of fungus-garden symbionts. Conclusions: Proteinase pH optima and buffering capacities of fungal symbionts appear to have evolved remarkable adaptations to living in obligate symbiosis with farming ants. Although the functional roles of serine and metalloproteinases in fungus gardens are unknown, the differential production of these classes of proteolytic enzymes suggest that substrate specificity may be important and that trade-offs may prevent the simultaneous upregulation of both classes of enzymes.

  3. Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes David P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attine ants live in symbiosis with a basidiomycetous fungus that they rear on a substrate of plant material. This indirect herbivory implies that the symbiosis is likely to be nitrogen deprived, so that specific mechanisms may have evolved to enhance protein availability. We therefore hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing eight genera. We mapped these activity profiles on an independently obtained molecular phylogeny of the symbionts and show that total proteinase activity in lower attine symbionts peaks at ca. pH 6. The higher attine symbionts that have no known free-living relatives had much higher proteinase activities than the lower attine symbionts. Their total in vitro proteinase activity peaked at pH values around 5, which is close to the pH that the ants maintain in their fungus gardens, suggesting that the pH optimum of fungal proteinases may have changed after the irreversible domestication of evolutionary more derived fungal symbionts. This notion is also supported by buffering capacities of fungus gardens at pH 5.2 being remarkably high, and suggests that the fungal symbiont actively helps to maintain garden acidity at this specific level. Metalloproteinases dominated the activity profiles of lower attine gardens and may thus represent the ancestral type of proteinase production, whereas serine proteinase activity dominated the activity profiles of the higher attine gardens reared by Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex, suggesting that there may be trade-offs in the production of these enzyme classes. Remarkably, the single symbiont that is shared by species of the crown group of Atta and Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants mostly showed metalloproteinase activity, suggesting that recurrent changes in enzyme production may have occurred throughout the domestication history of fungus-garden symbionts. Conclusions Proteinase pH optima and buffering capacities of fungal symbionts appear to have evolved remarkable adaptations to living in obligate symbiosis with farming ants. Although the functional roles of serine and metalloproteinases in fungus gardens are unknown, the differential production of these classes of proteolytic enzymes suggest that substrate specificity may be important and that trade-offs may prevent the simultaneous upregulation of both classes of enzymes.

  4. Endophytic fungus-vascular plant-insect interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, A; Wheatley, W; Popay, A

    2012-06-01

    Insect association with fungi has a long history. Theories dealing with the evolution of insect herbivory indicate that insects used microbes including fungi as their principal food materials before flowering plants evolved. Subtlety and the level of intricacy in the interactions between insects and fungi indicate symbiosis as the predominant ecological pattern. The nature of the symbiotic interaction that occurs between two organisms (the insect and the fungus), may be either mutualistic or parasitic, or between these two extremes. However, the triangular relationship involving three organisms, viz., an insect, a fungus, and a vascular plant is a relationship that is more complicated than what can be described as either mutualism or parasitism, and may represent facets of both. Recent research has revealed such a complex relationship in the vertically transmitted type-I endophytes living within agriculturally important grasses and the pestiferous insects that attack them. The intricacy of the association depends on the endophytic fungus-grass association and the insect present. Secondary compounds produced in the endophytic fungus-grass association can provide grasses with resistance to herbivores resulting in mutualistic relationship between the fungus and the plant that has negative consequences for herbivorous insects. The horizontally transmitted nongrass type-II endophytes are far less well studied and as such their ecological roles are not fully understood. This forum article explores the intricacy of dependence in such complex triangular relationships drawing from well-established examples from the fungi that live as endophytes in vascular plants and how they impact on the biology and evolution of free-living as well as concealed (e.g., gall-inducing, gall-inhabiting) insects. Recent developments with the inoculation of strains of type-I fungal endophytes into grasses and their commercialization are discussed, along with the possible roles the endophytic fungi play in the galls induced by the Cecidomyiidae (Diptera). PMID:22732600

  5. DETOXIFICATION OF CORN ANTIMICROBIAL COMPOUNDS BY THE ENDOPHYTIC FUNGUS FUSARIUM VERTICILLIOIDES AND THE SIGNIFICANCE TO PLANT-FUNGUS INTERACTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium verticillioides (= F. moniliforme) is a fungus of significant economic importance because of its deleterious effects on plant and animal health and the quality of their products. Corn, the primary host for F. verticillioides, produces the preformed antimicrobial compounds DIMBOA (2,4-dihyd...

  6. Mass production of Coelomomyes, a fungus that kills mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, J N

    1972-08-01

    In work on the control of mosquitoes by the fungus Coelomomyces, the main problem is a source of inoculum since the fungus has not been cultured artificially with production of sporangia. We reared the larvae of Anopheles quadrimaculatus in algal water instead of in water with soil. By addition of inoculum once or twice in small amounts, the larvae become infected, and many grow to large fourth instars whose bodies are filled with sporangia. Such larvae are perfect for inoculum. If inoculum is added in much larger amounts and so timed that sporangia will be discharging spores during the first, second, and third ecdyses up to 100%, infection occurs, most of the larvae dying as late second or early third instars. This type of infection is good for extermination of mosquitoes but not for production of inoculum. Crude field tests have averaged 60% infection. PMID:4506071

  7. Mass Production of Coelomomyces, a Fungus That Kills Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, J. N.

    1972-01-01

    In work on the control of mosquitoes by the fungus Coelomomyces, the main problem is a source of inoculum since the fungus has not been cultured artificially with production of sporangia. We reared the larvae of Anopheles quadrimaculatus in algal water instead of in water with soil. By addition of inoculum once or twice in small amounts, the larvae become infected, and many grow to large fourth instars whose bodies are filled with sporangia. Such larvae are perfect for inoculum. If inoculum is added in much larger amounts and so timed that sporangia will be discharging spores during the first, second, and third ecdyses up to 100%, infection occurs, most of the larvae dying as late second or early third instars. This type of infection is good for extermination of mosquitoes but not for production of inoculum. Crude field tests have averaged 60% infection. Images PMID:4506071

  8. Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Fusarium semitectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of environmental friendly procedures for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles through biological processes is evolving into an important branch of nanobiotechnology. In this paper, we report on the use of fungus 'Fusarium semitectum' for the extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate solution (i.e. through the reduction of Ag+ to Ag0). Highly stable and crystalline silver nanoparticles are produced in solution by treating the filtrate of the fungus F. semitectum with the aqueous silver nitrate solution. The formations of nanoparticles are understood from the UV-vis and X-ray diffraction studies. Transmission electron microscopy of the silver particles indicated that they ranged in size from 10 to 60 nm and are mostly spherical in shape. Interestingly the colloidal suspensions of silver nanoparticles are stable for many weeks. Possible medicinal applications of these silver nanoparticles are envisaged

  9. Biodegradation of Phenols by Ligninolytic Fungus Trametes versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Udayasoorian

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The white rot fungus isolated from paper mill effluent enriched soil samples and identified as Trametes versicolor was capable of degrading phenol (Mono, di hydroxy and methoxy compounds.14C synthetic lignin mineralization assays showed that Trametes versicolor assimilated 24.3% of the total label. During five days of incubation period, 71% of para-hydroxy benzoic acid was utilized by Trametes versicolor when glucose used as a co-substrate and 56% degradation of protocatechuic acid was achieved using fructose. The presence of laccase (EC.1.10.3.2 and polyphenol oxidase (EC.1.10.3.0 extracellular activity suggested that the fungus secrete these enzymes into the extracellular medium and the extracellular laccase activity was assayed on agarose plates containing ABTS.

  10. Mutualistic fungi control crop diversity in fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Michael; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2005-01-01

    Leaf-cutting ants rear clonal fungi for food and transmit the fungi from mother to daughter colonies so that symbiont mixing and conflict, which result from competition between genetically different clones, are avoided. Here we show that despite millions of years of predominantly vertical transmission, the domesticated fungi actively reject mycelial fragments from neighboring colonies, and that the strength of these reactions are in proportion to the overall genetic difference between these symbionts. Fungal incompatibility compounds remain intact during ant digestion, so that fecal droplets, which are used for manuring newly grown fungus, elicit similar hostile reactions when applied to symbionts from other colonies. Symbiont control over new mycelial growth by manurial imprinting prevents the rearing of multiple crops in fungus gardens belonging to the same colony.

  11. Fungus-like hyphochytrids associated with human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulaji?, N; Velimirovi?, S; Vukojevi?, J; Nonkovi?, Z; Jovanovi?, D; Kucera, I; Ili?, S; Brajuskovi?, G; Bokun, R; Pavli?evi?, G; Trnjak, Z

    1999-09-01

    We report two cases, with liver and brain abscess, respectively, where fungus-like organisms belonging to the Hyphochytriomycota were found at the site of inflammation together with Peptococcus in the first and Cysticercus cellulosae in the second case. This is the first time these groups of organisms have been reported in human material. The role of hyphochytrids in human pathology remained uncertain as they were found together with already known human pathogens. PMID:10519318

  12. Cultivation of tea fungus on malt extract medium

    OpenAIRE

    Cvetkovi? Dragoljub D.; Markov Siniša L.

    2002-01-01

    The possibility of application of malt extract as a source of carbohydrate in a medium for tea fungus was investigated. The beverage obtained on such medium was compared with that prepared in a traditional way with sucrose medium. The presence of easily adoptable sugars, glucose and fructose, as dominant in malt medium results in a very effective fermentation, which gives much more sour beverage for the same time and makes it possible to reduce the fermentation period. The obtained beverage h...

  13. The yeast spectrum of the 'tea fungus Kombucha'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayser, P; Fromme, S; Leitzmann, C; Gründer, K

    1995-01-01

    The tea fungus 'Kombucha' is a symbiosis of Acetobacter, including Acetobacter xylinum as a characteristic species, and various yeasts. A characteristic yeast species or genus has not yet been identified. Kombucha is mainly cultivated in sugared black tea to produce a slightly acidulous effervescent beverage that is said to have several curative effects. In addition to sugar, the beverage contains small amounts of alcohol and various acids, including acetic acid, gluconic acid and lactic acid, as well as some antibiotic substances. To characterize the yeast spectrum with special consideration given to facultatively pathogenic yeasts, two commercially available specimens of tea fungus and 32 from private households in Germany were analysed by micromorphological and biochemical methods. Yeasts of the genera Brettanomyces, Zygosaccharomyces and Saccharomyces were identified in 56%, 29% and 26% respectively. The species Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Candida kefyr were only demonstrated in isolated cases. Furthermore, the tests revealed pellicle-forming yeasts such as Candida krusei or Issatchenkia orientalis/occidentalis as well as species of the apiculatus yeasts (Kloeckera, Hanseniaspora). Thus, the genus Brettanomyces may be a typical group of yeasts that are especially adapted to the environment of the tea fungus. However, to investigate further the beneficial effects of tea fungus, a spectrum of the other typical genera must be defined. Only three specimens showed definite contaminations. In one case, no yeasts could be isolated because of massive contamination with Penicillium spp. In the remaining two samples (from one household), Candida albicans was demonstrated. The low rate of contamination might be explained by protective mechanisms, such as formation of organic acids and antibiotic substances. Thus, subjects with a healthy metabolism do not need to be advised against cultivating Kombucha. However, those suffering from immunosuppression should preferably consume controlled commercial Kombucha beverages. PMID:8559192

  14. Plant–plant interactions vary with different mycorrhizal fungus species

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeksema, Jason D

    2005-01-01

    Because different species of mycorrhizal fungi have different effects on the growth of particular plant species, variation in mycorrhizal fungus species composition could cause changes in the strength of plant–plant interactions. Results are presented from a growth chamber experiment that compared the strength of interactions among seedlings of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) when the pines were colonized by two different groups of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the genus Rhizopogon. Plant densi...

  15. The nematophagous fungus Verticillium chlamydosporium: aspects of pathogenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Segers, Rudi

    1996-01-01

    Verticillium chlamydosporium is a fungal pathogen of eggs and females of plantparasitic nematodes. The fungus produced an alkaline serine protease in submerged culture. This enzyme, VCPI, was characterized as a class II subtilisin, based on amino acid sequenceh omology. Several of its characteristics, e.g. molecular mass (33 kDa), pI (ca 10) and broad substrate utilisation, are typical of fungal subtilisins. Although some immunological cross-reactivity existed with other enzymes of this class...

  16. The cell wall of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Damveld, Robbert A.

    2005-01-01

    Fungi are a very successful species and are distributed worldwide. However, the presence of fungi is not always desired. Filamentous fungi can grow on living or dead organic material and even inside the host. Current methods to prevent fungal growth are insufficient, causing fatality after fungal infections or loss of crops. The cell wall of a fungus is an intriguing component. It protects the cell from the harsh environment and determines the shape of the cell. Hence the cell wall is an e...

  17. Biodegradation of Phenols by Ligninolytic Fungus Trametes versicolor

    OpenAIRE

    Udayasoorian, C.; Prabu, P. C.

    2005-01-01

    The white rot fungus isolated from paper mill effluent enriched soil samples and identified as Trametes versicolor was capable of degrading phenol (Mono, di hydroxy and methoxy) compounds.14C synthetic lignin mineralization assays showed that Trametes versicolor assimilated 24.3% of the total label. During five days of incubation period, 71% of para-hydroxy benzoic acid was utilized by Trametes versicolor when glucose used as a co-substrate and 56% degradation of protocatechuic acid was achie...

  18. Waterfowl: Potential Environmental Reservoirs of the Chytrid Fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

    OpenAIRE

    Garmyn, An; Rooij, Pascale; Pasmans, Frank; Hellebuyck, Tom; Den Broeck, Wim; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Martel, An

    2012-01-01

    Infections with Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (B. dendrobatidis), the causal agent of chytridiomycosis, have been shown to play an important role in the decline of amphibians worldwide. Spread of the fungus is poorly understood. Bird movement might possibly contribute to the spread of B. dendrobatidis in the environment. Therefore, 397 wild geese in Belgium were screened for presence of B. dendrobatidis on their toes using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). In addition, chemotaxis towards, a...

  19. Metabolism of phenanthrene by the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

    OpenAIRE

    Bezalel, L.; Hadar, Y.; Fu, P. P.; Freeman, J. P.; Cerniglia, C. E.

    1996-01-01

    The white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus, grown for 11 days in basidiomycetes rich medium containing [14C] phenanthrene, metabolized 94% of the phenanthrene added. Of the total radioactivity, 3% was oxidized to CO2. Approximately 52% of phenanthrene was metabolized to trans-9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (phenanthrene trans-9,10-dihydrodiol) (28%), 2,2'-diphenic acid (17%), and unidentified metabolites (7%). Nonextractable metabolites accounted for 35% of the total radioactivity. The...

  20. Callistosporium pinicola (Basidiomycota), a fungus species new to Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Halama; Ryszard Rutkowski

    2014-01-01

    Basidiomata of Callistosporium pinicola were collected in years 2012–2013, on strongly decayed fallen trunks of Picea abies and Abies alba on two remote sites, localized in North-eastern and southern Poland. These localities represent the first records of this fungus in Poland. A full description and illustration of C. pinicola based on Polish specimens are provided and the distinguishing features and delimitation of the species are briefly discussed. The ecology of C. pinicola, its general...

  1. Adhesion of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria (Cordyceps) bassiana to Substrata†

    OpenAIRE

    Holder, Diane J.; Nemat O. Keyhani

    2005-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana produces at least three distinct single-cell propagules, aerial conidia, vegetative cells termed blastospores, and submerged conidia, which can be isolated from agar plates, from rich broth liquid cultures, and under nutrient limitation conditions in submerged cultures, respectively. Fluorescently labeled fungal cells were used to quantify the kinetics of adhesion of these cell types to surfaces having various hydrophobic or hydrophilic propertie...

  2. Nowakowskiella moubasheriana sp. nov., a new cladochytrioid fungus from Poland

    OpenAIRE

    S. K. Hassan

    1983-01-01

    A new exooperculate species of Nowakowskiella has been described. The type strain has been isolated from the water sample taken from the small bog in the ash forest in the National Kampinos Park near Warsaw. The fungus developed on bits of onion skin the rhizomycelial growth and formed numerous zoosporangia and resting spores. It is considered by the author to be a new species of Nowakowskiella related to N. macrospora Karling, and named N. moubasheriana sp. nov.

  3. a -Difluoromethylornithine Inhibits the Growth of Fungus Macrophomina phaseoli

    OpenAIRE

    PALAVAN-ÜNSAL, Narçin

    2002-01-01

    a -Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), a specific enzyme activated inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), significantly inhibited the mycelial growth of the fungus Macrophomina phaseoli (Tassi) Goidanich. Putrescine (Put), when added to the nutrient medium at a concentration of 0.25 mM, decreased the inhibitory effect of DFMO. These results suggest that polyamines (PAs) are essential for the growth of fungi and that DFMO is applicable to the alleviation or prevention of crop losses due to ph...

  4. Inducible phenotypic multidrug resistance in the fungus Mucor racemosus.

    OpenAIRE

    Leathers, T D; Sypherd, P S

    1985-01-01

    The dimorphic fungus Mucor racemosus exhibited a single-step, inducible resistance to cycloheximide, trichodermin, and amphotericin B. Cells adapted to inhibitory levels of the antibiotics after 12 to 40 h. The adaptation involved all the cells in the population and was not the result of the selection of resistant mutants. Adaptation to one drug provided cross resistance to other, dissimilar drugs. Resistance was lost within several generations of growth in the absence of the inhibitors.

  5. Comparative studies of the secretome of fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Tore; Grell, Morten Nedergaard

    2009-01-01

    Leafcutter ants of the species Acromyrmex echinatior live in symbiosis with the fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. The ants harvest fragments of leaves and carry them to the nest where they place the material on the fungal colony. The fungus secretes a wide array of proteins to degrade the leaves into nutrients that the ants can feed on. The focus of this study is to discover, characterize and compare the secreted proteins. In order to do so cDNA libraries are constructed from mRNA extracted from the fungus material. The most efficient technology to screen cDNA libraries selectively for secreted and membrane-bound proteins is the TAST (Transposon Assisted Signal Trapping) technology (Becker et al. 2004,Microbiol Methods 57, 123-133). The TAST screening will give a list of full length gene sequences encoding secreted proteins. The main part of the secretome will consist of biomass degrading enzymes, but also antimicrobial proteins will probably be in the secretome. To date only a few enzymes from the Leucoagaricus secretome have been identified. We expect to discover novel proteins and to gain a better understanding of the biodegrading pathways of Leucoagaricus. Ultimately, this work may identify enzymes that can be used in biomass conversion processes. (Poster # 426)

  6. Bioluminescence characteristics of a tropical terrestrial fungus (Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deheyn, Dimitri D; Latz, Michael I

    2007-01-01

    Freshly collected samples of luminous mycelium of a terrestrial fungus from Panama were investigated for their bioluminescence characteristics. Taxonomic identification of fungal species could not be determined because of the lack of fruiting bodies. Fluorescence excited by 380 nm illumination had an emission spectrum with a main peak at 480 nm and additional chlorophyll peaks related to the wood substrate. Bioluminescence appeared as a continuous glow that did not show any diel variation. The light production was sensitive to temperature and decreased with temperatures higher or lower than ambient. Bioluminescence intensity was sensitive to hydration, increasing by a factor of 400 immediately after exposure to water and increasing by a factor of 1 million after several hours. This increase may have occurred through dilution of superoxide dismutase, which is a suppressive factor of bioluminescence in fungus tissue. The mycelium typically transports nutritive substances back to the fruiting body. The function of luminescent mycelium may be to increase the intensity of light from the fungus and more effectively attract nocturnal insects and other animals that serve as disseminating vectors for fungal spores. PMID:17610297

  7. Effects of reduced-risk pesticides and plant growth regulators on rove beetle (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echegaray, Erik R; Cloyd, Raymond A

    2012-12-01

    In many regions, pest management of greenhouse crops relies on the use of biological control agents; however, pesticides are also widely used, especially when dealing with multiple arthropod pests and attempting to maintain high esthetic standards. As such, there is interest in using biological control agents in conjunction with chemical control. However, the prospects of combining natural enemies and pesticides are not well known in many systems. The rove beetle, Atheta coriaria (Kraatz), is a biological control agent mainly used against fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.). This study evaluated the effects of reduced-risk pesticides and plant growth regulators on A. coriaria adult survival, development, and prey consumption under laboratory conditions. Rove beetle survival was consistently higher when adults were released 24 h after rather than before applying pesticides. The pesticides acetamiprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, and cyfluthrin were harmful to rove beetle adults, whereas Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, azadirachtin, and organic oils (cinnamon oils, rosemary oil, thyme oil, and clove oil) were nontoxic to A. coriaria adults. Similarly, the plant growth regulators acymidol, paclobutrazol, and uniconazole were not harmful to rove beetle adults. In addition, B. bassiana, azadirachtin, kinoprene, organic oils, and the plant growth regulators did not negatively affect A. coriaria development. However, B. bassiana did negatively affect adult prey consumption. This study demonstrated that A. coriaria may not be used when applying the pesticides, acetamiprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, and cyfluthrin, whereas organic oils, B. bassiana, azadirachtin, and the plant growth regulators evaluated may be used in conjunction with A. coriaria adults. As such, these compounds may be used in combination with A. coriaria in greenhouse production systems. PMID:23356075

  8. Caste-specific symbiont policing by workers of Acromyrmex fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivens, Aniek B.F.; Nash, David R.

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between leaf-cutting ants and their fungus garden mutualists is ideal for studying the evolutionary stability of interspecific cooperation. Although the mutualism has a long history of diffuse coevolution, there is ample potential for conflicts between the partners over the mixing and transmission of symbionts. Symbiont transmission is vertical by default, and both the ants and resident fungus actively protect the fungal monoculture growing in their nest against secondary introductions of genetically dissimilar symbionts from other colonies. An earlier study showed that mixtures of major and minor Acromyrmex workers eliminate alien fungus fragments even in subcolonies where their resident symbiont is not present. We hypothesize that the different tasks and behaviors performed by majors and minors are likely to select for differential responses to alien fungi. Major workers forage and cut new leaves and masticate them after delivery in the upper parts of the fungus garden and so are likely to more frequently encounter alien fungus than minor workers maintaining the established fungus garden and caring for the brood. We show that major workers of Acromyrmex echinatior indeed express stronger incompatibility reactions toward alien fungus garden fragments than minor workers. This implies that only the major workers, through recognition and exclusion of foreign fungus clones at their point of entry to the nest, have a realistic possibility to eliminate alien fungal tissue before it gets incorporated in the fungus garden and starts competing with the resident fungal symbiont.

  9. Isolated fungal promoters and gene transcription terminators and methods of protein and chemical production in a fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ziyu; Lasure, Linda L; Magnuson, Jon K

    2014-05-27

    The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

  10. Two new terpenoids from endophytic fungus Periconia sp. F-31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Han-Lin; Zhang, De-Wu; Li, Li; Xie, Dan; Zou, Jian-Hua; Si, Yi-Kang; Dai, Jungui

    2011-01-01

    Two new terpenoids, (+)-(3S,6S,7R,8S)-periconone A (1) and (-)-(1R,4R,6S,7S)-2-caren-4,8-olide (2), have been isolated from an endophytic fungus Periconia sp., which was collected from the plant Annona muricata. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. In the in vitro assays, the two compounds showed low cytotoxic activities against six human tumor cell lines (HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A549, A2780 and MCF-7) with IC(50)>10(-5) M. PMID:22130377

  11. Lumazine peptides from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus terreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Minjung; Liao, Lijuan; Hong, Soo Hyun; Park, Wanki; Kwon, Dah In; Lee, Jeeyeon; Noh, Minsoo; Oh, Dong-Chan; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon

    2015-03-01

    Terrelumamides A (1) and B (2), two new lumazine-containing peptides, were isolated from the culture broth of the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus terreus. From the results of combined spectroscopic and chemical analyses, the structures of these compounds were determined to be linear assemblies of 1-methyllumazine-6-carboxylic acid, an amino acid residue and anthranilic acid methyl ester connected by peptide bonds. These new compounds exhibited pharmacological activity by improving insulin sensitivity, which was evaluated in an adipogenesis model using human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In addition, the compounds exhibited fluorescence changes upon binding to DNA, demonstrating their potential applications to DNA sequence recognition. PMID:25775424

  12. Bioactive isocoumarins isolated from the endophytic fungus Microdochium bolleyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Krohn, Karsten; Draeger, Siegfried; Schulz, Barbara

    2008-06-01

    Three new isocoumarin derivatives ( 2- 4) were isolated together with monocerin ( 1) from Microdochium bolleyi, an endophytic fungus from Fagonia cretica, a herbaceous plant of the semiarid coastal regions of Gomera. Compounds 2 and 3 are both 12-oxo epimers of 1, and 4 is a ring-opened derivative of 1. The structures were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis and comparison with reported data. The absolute configurations were determined by a modified Mosher's method. Compounds 1, 3, and 4 showed good antifungal, antibacterial, and antialgal activities against Microbotryum violaceum, Escherichia coli, Bacillus megaterium, and Chlorella fusca. Compound 2 was moderately antifungal and antialgal. PMID:18510362

  13. Laccase production by the white-rot fungus Termitomyces clypeatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Shilpi; Mazumder, Sharmishtha; Mukherjee, Mina

    2007-04-01

    Laccase was detected in the culture filtrate of white-rot fungus Termitomyces clypeatus. The enzyme was found at the late phase of submerged growth in a medium containing glucose or cellulose as the carbon source. The present study indicates that laccase produced by T. clypeatus is an intracellular enzyme, released in the medium due to cell lysis at the end of the growing phase. Laccase produced by T. clypeatus is different from the extracellular polyphenol oxidase of T. albuminosus, also produced at the late phase of growth. This is the first report of laccase production by a Termitomyces sp. PMID:17440914

  14. Cytochalasins from cultures of endophytic fungus Phoma multirostrata EA-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi-ming; Chen, He-Ping; Li, Yan; Feng, Tao; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2015-01-01

    Two new cytochalsians, multirostratin A (1) and 20-oxo-deoxaphomin (2), together with five known analogues (3-7), were obtained from the endophytic fungus Phoma multirostrata EA-12. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by MS and 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic data analyses, as well as by comparison of data with those of analogues reported in the literature. Compounds 1 and 2 showed moderate cytotoxicity against five tumor cell lines (HL-60, A-549, SMMC-7721, MCF-7 and SW-480). PMID:24961709

  15. Cultivation of tea fungus on malt extract medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetkovi? Dragoljub D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of application of malt extract as a source of carbohydrate in a medium for tea fungus was investigated. The beverage obtained on such medium was compared with that prepared in a traditional way with sucrose medium. The presence of easily adoptable sugars, glucose and fructose, as dominant in malt medium results in a very effective fermentation, which gives much more sour beverage for the same time and makes it possible to reduce the fermentation period. The obtained beverage has satisfactory sensorial characteristics.

  16. BIODEGRADATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOPORIUM: INVOLVEMENT OF THE LIGNIN DEGRADING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The white-rot fungus Phanrochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade a wide variety of structurally diverse organic compounds, including a number of environmentally persistent organopollutants. The unique biodegradative abilities of this fungus appears to be depend...

  17. BIODEGRADATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHATETE CHRYSOSPORIUM: INVOLVEMENT OF THE LIGNIN DEGRADING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade's wide variety of structurally diverse organic compounds, including a number of environmentall3 persistent organopollutants. he unique biodegradative abilities of this fungus appears to be dependent upon ...

  18. Genome Sequence of the Mucoromycotina Fungus Umbelopsis isabellina, an Effective Producer of Lipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Itaru; Tamano, Koichi; Yamane, Noriko; Ishii, Tomoko; Miura, Ai; Umemura, Myco; Terai, Goro; Baker, Scott E.; Koike, Hideaki; Machida, Masayuki

    2014-02-27

    Umbelopsis isabellina is a fungus in the subdivision Mucoromycotina, many members of which have been shown to be oleaginous and have become important organisms for producing oil because of their high level of intracellular lipid accumulation from various feedstocks. The genome sequence of U. isabellina NBRC 7884 was determined and annotated, and this information might provide insights into the oleaginous properties of this fungus.

  19. First localities in Poland of the recently described fungus Cordyceps bifusispora

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Bujakiewicz; Joanna Nita; Stanis?aw Ba?azy

    2005-01-01

    Two localities of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bifusispora, hitherto not reported from Poland, are characterised by their site conditions and co-occurring macrofungi during the period of the appearance of its stromata. Description of this fungus culture is given and some remarks on the resemblance of its teleomorphs and anamorphs from different collections are discussed.

  20. First localities in Poland of the recently described fungus Cordyceps bifusispora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bujakiewicz

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Two localities of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bifusispora, hitherto not reported from Poland, are characterised by their site conditions and co-occurring macrofungi during the period of the appearance of its stromata. Description of this fungus culture is given and some remarks on the resemblance of its teleomorphs and anamorphs from different collections are discussed.

  1. Interaction of Rhizobium sp. with Toxin-Producing Fungus in Culture Medium and in a Tropical Soil †

    OpenAIRE

    Habte, Mitiku; Barrion, Melinda

    1984-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the influence of a toxin-producing fungus on a rhizobial population in yeast-mannitol medium and in a tropical soil. The fungus, which was isolated from a highly weathered soil (Tropeptic Eutrustox), was identified as a Metarhizum sp. The density of rhizobial populations established in yeast-mannitol medium in the absence of the fungus was 105 times higher than that established in its presence. However, the fungus did not exert similar antagonistic infl...

  2. Fungi of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.)-Their Deteriorative Ability, Quality Stability and the Role of the Fungus-Eating Insects

    OpenAIRE

    Chuku, E. C.; Ogbalu, O. K.; Osakwe, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    Studies on the deteriorative ability and quality stability of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) and the effect of the fungus-eating insects (Necrobia rufipes, Alphitobius diaperinus, Crematogaster sp. and Tenebrio molitor) were carried out in the Post Graduate Entomology and Plant Pathology Laboratories of the Department of Applied and Environmental Biology and also in Food Science Laboratory of the Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt. Results showed Aspergillus niger v...

  3. Modulation of antimicrobial metabolites production by the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana A.P., Bracarense; Jacqueline A., Takahashi.

    Full Text Available Biosynthesis of active secondary metabolites by fungi occurs as a specific response to the different growing environments. Changes in this environment alter the chemical and biological profiles leading to metabolites diversification and consequently to novel pharmacological applications. In this wor [...] k, it was studied the influence of three parameters (fermentation length, medium composition and aeration) in the biosyntheses of antimicrobial metabolites by the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus in 10 distinct fermentation periods. Metabolism modulation in two culturing media, CYA and YES was evaluated by a 2² full factorial planning (ANOVA) and on a 2³ factorial planning, role of aeration, medium composition and carbohydrate concentration were also evaluated. In overall, 120 different extracts were prepared, their HPLC profiles were obtained and the antimicrobial activity against A. flavus, C. albicans, E. coli and S. aureus of all extracts was evaluated by microdilution bioassay. Yield of kojic acid, a fine chemical produced by the fungus A. parasiticus was determined in all extracts. Statistical analyses pointed thirteen conditions able to modulate the production of bioactive metabolites by A. parasiticus. Effect of carbon source in metabolites diversification was significant as shown by the changes in the HPLC profiles of the extracts. Most of the extracts presented inhibition rates higher than that of kojic acid as for the extract obtained after 6 days of fermentation in YES medium under stirring. Kojic acid was not the only metabolite responsible for the activity since some highly active extracts showed to possess low amounts of this compound, as determined by HPLC.

  4. Plant-plant interactions vary with different mycorrhizal fungus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeksema, Jason D

    2005-12-22

    Because different species of mycorrhizal fungi have different effects on the growth of particular plant species, variation in mycorrhizal fungus species composition could cause changes in the strength of plant-plant interactions. Results are presented from a growth chamber experiment that compared the strength of interactions among seedlings of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) when the pines were colonized by two different groups of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the genus Rhizopogon. Plant density effects differed between the two groups of mycorrhizal fungi: plant growth was low regardless of density when plants were colonized with pine-specific Rhizopogon species, while plant growth declined with plant density when plants were colonized by Rhizopogon species having a broader host range. This result parallels results from previous studies showing that plant interactions are more antagonistic with mycorrhizal fungi than without, implying that plant responsiveness to beneficial mycorrhizal fungi declines with increasing plant density. If such effects are prevalent in plant communities, then variation in mycorrhizal fungus community composition is predicted to have a density-dependent effect on plants. PMID:17148227

  5. Plant–plant interactions vary with different mycorrhizal fungus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeksema, Jason D

    2005-01-01

    Because different species of mycorrhizal fungi have different effects on the growth of particular plant species, variation in mycorrhizal fungus species composition could cause changes in the strength of plant–plant interactions. Results are presented from a growth chamber experiment that compared the strength of interactions among seedlings of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) when the pines were colonized by two different groups of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the genus Rhizopogon. Plant density effects differed between the two groups of mycorrhizal fungi: plant growth was low regardless of density when plants were colonized with pine-specific Rhizopogon species, while plant growth declined with plant density when plants were colonized by Rhizopogon species having a broader host range. This result parallels results from previous studies showing that plant interactions are more antagonistic with mycorrhizal fungi than without, implying that plant responsiveness to beneficial mycorrhizal fungi declines with increasing plant density. If such effects are prevalent in plant communities, then variation in mycorrhizal fungus community composition is predicted to have a density-dependent effect on plants. PMID:17148227

  6. Expression of organophosphate hydrolase in the filamentous fungus Gliocladium virens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, K I; Lauriano, C; Xu, B; Wild, J R; Kenerley, C M

    1994-05-01

    The broad-spectrum organophosphate hydrolase (OPH; EC 3.1.8.1) encoded by the organophosphate-degrading gene (opd) from Pseudomonas diminuta MG and Flavobacterium sp. ATCC 27551 possesses capabilities of both P-O bond hydrolysis (e.g. paraoxon) and P-F bond hydrolysis [e.g. sarin and diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP)]. In the present study a 9.4-kb plasmid, pCL1, was used to transform the saprophytic fungus Gliocladium virens. pCL1 was derived from pJS294 by placing the fungal promoter (prom1) from Cochliobolus heterostrophus upstream and the trpC terminator from Aspergillus nidulans down-stream of the opd gene. Southern analysis of restricted genomic DNA from various transformants indicated that integration occurred non-specifically at multiple sites. Western blot analysis of mycelial extracts from transformants confirmed the production of a processed form of the enzyme in the fungus. Maximal levels of OPH activity (rate of p-nitrophenol production from paraoxon) were observed after 168 h of culture and activity levels correlated with biomass production in mature vegetative growth. PMID:7764970

  7. The role of enzymes in fungus-growing ant evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard

    The shift to freshly cut leaves rather than scavenged dead vegetation as fungus-garden substrate was a major evolutionary transition in the attine ants that apparently allowed the Atta and Acromyrmex leafcutter ants to also evolve increased worker size dimorphism, multiple queen- mating, specific adaptations in the olfactory region of worker brains, and many other complex social traits. The transition also involved the specialization on a single species of fungal symbiont (Leucocoprinus gongylophorus), but comparative studies of the specific fungal adaptations that accompanied this transition have not been done. Such studies are important as the single specific fungal adaptation that can (almost) be seen with the bare eye (gongylidia; inflated hyphal tips that are preferentially eaten by the ants and their larvae) evolved earlier and therefore does not characterize the transition to leafcutting behaviour. Here we report the first large-scale comparative study on fungus garden enzyme profiles and show that various interesting changes can be documented. A more detailed analysis of laccase expression, an enzyme that is believed to oxidize phenols in defensive secondary plant compounds such as tannins, showed that this enzyme is exclusively found in the gardens of leaf-cutting ants, where it is significantly upregulated in the gongylidia. I’ll discuss the possible role of this enzyme and other fungal modifications in the evolution of the leafcutter ants and their non-leafcutting attine relatives.

  8. Accumulation and chemical states of radiocesium by fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Yamasaki, Shinya; Yu, Qianqian

    2014-05-01

    After accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the fall-out radiocesium was deposited on the ground. Filamentous fungus is known to accumulate radiocesium in environment, even though many minerals are involved in soil. These facts suggest that fungus affect the migration behavior of radiocesium in the environment. However, accumulation mechanism of radiocesium by fungus is not understood. In the present study, accumulation and chemical states change of Cs by unicellular fungus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been studied to elucidate the role of microorganisms in the migration of radiocesium in the environment. Two different experimental conditions were employed; one is the accumulation experiments of radiocesium by S. cerevisiae from the agar medium containing 137Cs and a mineral of zeolite, vermiculite, smectite, mica, or illite. The other is the experiments using stable cesium to examine the chemical states change of Cs. In the former experiment, the cells were grown on membrane filter of 0.45 ?m installed on the agar medium. After the grown cells were weighed, radioactivity in the cells was measured by an autoradiography technique. The mineral weight contents were changed from 0.1% to 1% of the medium. In the latter experiment, the cells were grown in the medium containing stable Cs between 1 mM and 10mM. The Cs accumulated cells were analyzed by SEM-EDS and EXAFS. The adsorption experiments of cesium by the cells under resting condition were also conducted to test the effect of cells metabolic activity. Without mineral in the medium, cells of S. cerevisiae accumulated 1.5x103 Bq/g from the medium containing 137Cs of 2.6x102 Bq/g. When mineral was added in the medium, concentration of 137Cs in the cells decreased. The concentration of 137Cs in the cells from the medium containing different minerals were in the following order; smectite, illite, mica > vermiculite > zeolite. This order was nearly the same as the inverse of distribution coefficient of mineral for 137Cs in the medium solution. The concentration of 137Cs in the cells lowered in the medium containing higher mineral content. These results indicate that radiocesium was competively accumulated in the cells with minerals in the soil. Higher concentration of stable Cs was accumulated in the cells in the metabolically active condition than in the resting cells condition. XAFS analyses showed that the k3-weighted extended-XAFS functions and the radial structural function of Cs accumulated by the cells in the metabolically active condition were similar to those in the resting condition, indicating that chemical states of the accumulated Cs were nearly the same between both conditions. These results indicate that the fungus accumulates radiocesium by competitively with minerals in the soils, and performs higher retardation of the migration of Cs in the metabolically active condition than the resting one. A part of this study is the results of "Multidisciplinary investigation on radiocesium fate and transport for safety assessment for interim storage and disposal of heterogeneous waste" carried out under the Initiatives for Atomic Energy Basic and Generic Strategic Research by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.

  9. Towards an integrated understanding of the consequences of fungus domestication on the fungus-growing termite gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas-Poulsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 30 million years ago (MYA), the subfamily of higher termites Macrotermitinae domesticated a fungus, Termitomyces, as the main plant decomposer and food source for the termite host. The origin of fungiculture shifted the composition of the termite gut microbiota, and some of the functional implications of this shift have recently been established. I review reports on the composition of the Macrotermitinae gut microbiota, evidence for a subfamily core gut microbiota, and the first insight into functional complementarity between fungal and gut symbionts. In addition, I argue that we need to explore the capacities of all members of the symbiotic communities, including better solidifying Termitomyces role(s) in order to understand putative complementary gut bacterial contributions. Approaches that integrate natural history and sequencing data to elucidate symbiont functions will be powerful, particularly if executed in comparative analyses across the well-established congruent termite-fungus phylogenies. This will allow for testing if gut communities have evolved in parallel with their hosts, with implications for our general understanding of the evolution of gut symbiont communities with hosts.

  10. Protein profiling of the dimorphic, pathogenic fungus, Penicillium marneffei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rundle William T

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Penicillium marneffei is a pathogenic fungus that afflicts immunocompromised individuals having lived or traveled in Southeast Asia. This species is unique in that it is the only dimorphic member of the genus. Dimorphism results from a process, termed phase transition, which is regulated by temperature of incubation. At room temperature, the fungus grows filamentously (mould phase, but at body temperature (37°C, a uninucleate yeast form develops that reproduces by fission. Formation of the yeast phase appears to be a requisite for pathogenicity. To date, no genes have been identified in P. marneffei that strictly induce mould-to-yeast phase conversion. In an effort to help identify potential gene products associated with morphogenesis, protein profiles were generated from the yeast and mould phases of P. marneffei. Results Whole cell proteins from the early stages of mould and yeast development in P. marneffei were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Selected proteins were recovered and sequenced by capillary-liquid chromatography-nanospray tandem mass spectrometry. Putative identifications were derived by searching available databases for homologous fungal sequences. Proteins found common to both mould and yeast phases included the signal transduction proteins cyclophilin and a RACK1-like ortholog, as well as those related to general metabolism, energy production, and protection from oxygen radicals. Many of the mould-specific proteins identified possessed similar functions. By comparison, proteins exhibiting increased expression during development of the parasitic yeast phase comprised those involved in heat-shock responses, general metabolism, and cell-wall biosynthesis, as well as a small GTPase that regulates nuclear membrane transport and mitotic processes in fungi. The cognate gene encoding the latter protein, designated RanA, was subsequently cloned and characterized. The P. marneffei RanA protein sequence, which contained the signature motif of Ran-GTPases, exhibited 90% homology to homologous Aspergillus proteins. Conclusion This study clearly demonstrates the utility of proteomic approaches to studying dimorphism in P. marneffei. Moreover, this strategy complements and extends current genetic methodologies directed towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of phase transition. Finally, the documented increased levels of RanA expression suggest that cellular development in this fungus involves additional signaling mechanisms than have been previously described in P. marneffei.

  11. Efficacy of Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria Bassiana and Gamma Irradiation Against the Greater Date Moth, Arenipses Sabella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) was isolated locally from dead larvae of the greater date moth, Arenipses sabella (Hampson) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The effect of three exposure methods and two environmental factors (temperature and relative humidity) on pathogenicity of the fungus with different concentrations to A. sabella second instar larvae were examined. The study demonstrated that the entomopathogenic fungus was most efficient in the control of second instar larvae at 25 degree C and 100% humidity and the percent of mortality was increased when increasing the concentration of fungus. The mode of exposure of fungus to larvae directly sprayed, larvae exposed to the treated dates or larvae both sprayed and exposed to the treated dates showed 56.66, 26.66 and 75% mortality, respectively, at concentration 1x1010 spores/ml and three days post-treatment. The F1 larvae resulting from irradiated male pupae with 150 Gy were more susceptible to pathogenic fungus at low concentration ((1x108 spores/ml) than non-irradiated ones. The scanning electron microscope was used to delineate the morphological stages of fungus to the germinated conidia and the hyphae penetrating the larva cuticle.

  12. Fungus/Disease Analysis in Tomato Crop using Image Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The crop of tomato is very often infected by a disease that leaves spots of brown, gray or off-white colors on the plant’s leafs in winter. Scientifically, this disease is known as cercospora leaf spot or cercospora cruciferarum. It’s a kind of fungus that often kills young seedlings. The fungus spreads by air and can also infect tomato plants. Therefore, it is important to monitor the leaf at regular intervals so as to keep track on quality of growing tomato crop. In the presented paper, a novel machine vision system has been proposed that visual inspects the leafs coming out of the soil and based on spots on leaves, it determines the nature of fungus and its depth into the tomato steam. The size of the fungus, color depth and location and locus of the fungus on leaves give an accurate determination of crop quality under the soil. In the presented thesis work, the image of the crop leaves are taken by a good quality color camera and processed for getting a gray colored and segmented image depending upon the nature and size of the fungus. A criterion is set for acceptable and rejects crop quality based on the fungus level.

  13. Statistical Optimization of Keratinase Production from Marine Fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Satya lakshmi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To improve the yield of keratinase from marine fungus Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, different medium constituents were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM based on central composite design (CCD. The strain produced 24.8U/mL and 36.4U/mL of keratinase activity in conventional method of optimization with glucose and soya bean meal as carbon and nitrogen sources. Response surface methodology which was applied to optimize concentrations of glucose, soya bean meal, feather powder and inoculum level, improved the productivity to 225.0U/mL. This value represents 6.18 fold increases in productivity as compared to conventional methods. Optimal parameters of the cultivation process were determined as glucose 1.52g/L, soya bean meal-1.08g/L, feather powder-1.04g/L and inoculum level-10.6%.

  14. Polyketides from the Halotolerant Fungus Myrothecium sp. GS-17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new polyketides, myrothecol (1 and 5-hydroxy-3-methyl-4-(1- hydroxylethyl-furan-2(5H-one (2, were isolated from the fermentation broth of the halotolerant fungus Myrothecium sp. GS-17 along with three known compounds, 5-hydroxyl-3-[(1S-1-hydroxyethyl]-4-methylfuran-2(5H-one (3, 3,5-dimethyl-4- hydroxylmethyl-5-methoxyfuran-2(5H-one (4, and 3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxymethyl-5- hydroxyfuran-2(5H-one (5. Compound 1 is the first natural occurring polyketide with a unique furylisobenzofuran skeleton. The structures of these compounds were established via extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D-, 2D-NMR, HRESI-MS, and crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.

  15. Biosorption of cadmium using the fungus Aspergillus niger

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.M., Barros Júnior; G.R., Macedo; M.M.L., Duarte; E.P., Silva; A.K.C.L., Lobato.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Sorption experiments using the Aspergillus niger fungus for cadmium removal were carried out to study the factors influencing and optimizing the biosorption of this metal. The effects of pH, time, biomass concentration, and initial concentration of the heavy metal on the rate of metallic biosorption [...] were examined. An experimental design was also used to determine the values of the under study variables that provided the greatest biosorption efficiency. A technique for biomass recovery was also developed with the objective of determining the capacity of the regenerated biomass to biosorb the metals in solution. This research proved that with a pH of 4.75, a biomass concentration of 0.7 g/L, and a heavy metal concentration varying between 5 and 10 mg/L a biosorption process of biosorption with Aspergillus niger could be successfully used for heavy metal removal from oil field water in the oil industry.

  16. A new diketopiperazine heterodimer from an endophytic fungus Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Bin; Li, Yue-Lan; Zhou, Jin-Chuan; Yuan, Hui-Qing; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Lou, Hong-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    One new diketopiperazine heterodimer, asperazine A (1), and eight known compounds, asperazine (2), cyclo(d-Phe-l-Trp) (3), cyclo(l-Trp-l-Trp) (4), 4-(hydroxymethyl)-5,6-dihydro-pyran-2-one (5), walterolactone A (6), and campyrones A-C (7-9), were isolated from an endophytic fungus Aspergillus niger. Their structures were determined unequivocally on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data analysis. This is the first report of the presence of compound 3 as a natural product. Cytotoxicity test against human cancer cell lines PC3, A2780, K562, MBA-MD-231, and NCI-H1688 revealed that compounds 1 and 2 had weak activities. PMID:25401948

  17. Callistosporium pinicola (Basidiomycota, a fungus species new to Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Halama

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Basidiomata of Callistosporium pinicola were collected in years 2012–2013, on strongly decayed fallen trunks of Picea abies and Abies alba on two remote sites, localized in North-eastern and southern Poland. These localities represent the first records of this fungus in Poland. A full description and illustration of C. pinicola based on Polish specimens are provided and the distinguishing features and delimitation of the species are briefly discussed. The ecology of C. pinicola, its general distribution and threat are also presented. As all specimens of C. pinicola were collected only in recent years we suggest that this species is increasing its distribution in Poland. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that, because of its cryptic nature, C. pinicola has been much overlooked in the past.

  18. Two new ramulosin derivatives from the entomogenous fungus Truncatella angustata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shenxi; Zhang, Zhuowei; Li, Li; Liu, Xingzhong; Ren, Fengxia

    2015-02-01

    Two new ramulosin derivatives, 7?-hydroxy-8-dihydroramulosin (1) and 7-ketoramulosin (2), along with three known metabolites, (+)-ramulosin (3), 6-hydroxyramulosin (4), and 8-dihydroramulosin (5), were isolated from the crude extract of Truncatella angustata, an entomogenous fungus isolated from the Septobasidium-infected insect Aspidiotus sp. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, and 1 was further confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The absolute configuration of 1 was assigned by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis using Cu K? radiation, whereas that of 2 was determined by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Compounds 1-5 were tested for cytotoxicity against four human carcinoma cell lines, HeLa, A549, MCF-7, and T24. Compound 4 showed weak cytotoxic effects against A549 and T24. PMID:25920279

  19. A new cytotoxic cytochalasin from the endophytic fungus Trichoderma harzianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huiqin; Daletos, Georgios; Okoye, Festus; Lai, Daowan; Dai, Haofu; Proksch, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The new natural product 4]-hydroxy-deacetyl-18-deoxycytochalasin H (1), together with the known deacetyl-18-deoxycytochalasin H (2) and 18-deoxycytochalasin H (3) were obtained from the endophytic fungus Trichoderma harzianum isolated from leaves of Cola nitida. The structure of the new compound was unambiguously determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, and by HRESIMS measurements, as well as by comparison with the literature. Compounds 1-3 showed potent cytotoxic activity against the murine lymphoma (L5178Y) cell line and against human ovarian cancer (A2780 sens and A2780 CisR) cell lines (IC50 0.19-6.97 µM). The A2780 cell lines included cisplatin-sensitive (sens) and -resistant (R) cells. PMID:25973482

  20. Sperm length evolution in the fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, B.; Dijkstra, M. B.

    2009-01-01

    Eusocial insects offer special opportunities for the comparative study of sperm traits because sperm competition is absent (in species with obligatory monandry) or constrained (in lineages where queens mate multiply but never remate later in life). We measured sperm length in 19 species of fungus-growing ants, representing 9 of the 12 recognized genera, and mapped these onto the ant phylogeny. We show that average sperm length across species is highly variable and decreases with mature colony size in basal genera with singly mated queens, suggesting that sperm production or storage constraints affect the evolution of sperm length. Sperm length does not decrease further in multiply mating leaf-cutting ants, despite substantial further increases in colony size. In a combined analysis, sexual dimorphism explained 63.1% of the variance in sperm length between species. As colony size was not a significant predictor in this analysis, we conclude that sperm production trade-offs in males have been the major selective force affecting sperm length across the fungus-growing ants, rather than storage constraints in females. The relationship between sperm length and sexual dimorphism remained robust in phylogenetically independent contrasts. Some of the remaining variation was explained by the relative size of the sperm-storage organ, but only in the multiply mating leaf-cutting ants, suggesting that sperm-storage constraints become important for the evolution of sperm length in this derived group. Mate number affected sperm length to a minor extent, and only in interaction with other predictor variables, suggesting that sperm competition has not been a major selective force for sperm length evolution in these ants.

  1. Chemically armed mercenary ants protect fungus-farming societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adams, Rachelle Martha Marie; Liberti, Joanito

    2013-01-01

    The ants are extraordinary in having evolved many lineages that exploit closely related ant societies as social parasites, but social parasitism by distantly related ants is rare. Here we document the interaction dynamics among a Sericomyrmex fungus-growing ant host, a permanently associated parasitic guest ant of the genus Megalomyrmex, and a raiding agro-predator of the genus Gnamptogenys. We show experimentally that the guest ants protect their host colonies against agro-predator raids using alkaloid venom that is much more potent than the biting defenses of the host ants. Relatively few guest ants are sufficient to kill raiders that invariably exterminate host nests without a cohabiting guest ant colony. We also show that the odor of guest ants discourages raider scouts from recruiting nestmates to host colonies. Our results imply that Sericomyrmex fungus-growers obtain a net benefit from their costly guest ants behaving as a functional soldier caste to meet lethal threats from agro-predator raiders. The fundamentally different life histories of the agro-predators and guest ants appear to facilitate their coexistence in a negative frequency-dependent manner. Because a guest ant colony is committed for life to a single host colony, the guests would harm their own interests by not defending the host that they continue to exploit. This conditional mutualism is analogous to chronic sickle cell anemia enhancing the resistance to malaria and to episodes in human history when mercenary city defenders offered either net benefits or imposed net costs, depending on the level of threat from invading armies.

  2. Biosorption of copper(II) and chromium(VI) by modified tea fungus

    OpenAIRE

    Š?iban Marina B.; Prodanovi? Jelena M.; Razmovski Radojka N.

    2012-01-01

    The tea fungus was found to have good adsorption capacities for heavy metal ions. In this work it was treated with HCl or NaOH at 20°C or 100°C, with the aim to improve its adsorption ability. The sorption of Cu(II) and Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solutions by raw and treated tea fungus was investigated in the batch mode. The largest quantity of adsorbed Cu(II), of about 55 mg/g, was achieved by tea fungus modified with NaOH at 100°C. For Cr(VI), the largest quantity of adsorbed anions,...

  3. Study of cobalt distribution in fungus Trichoderma viride using 60Co as radioindicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake and distribution of cobalt by filamentous fungus Trichoderma viride has been studied. By means of 60Co the cobalt concentrations in conidia and mycelium were determined. (author) 5 refs.; 1 fig

  4. Biosorption of copper(II and chromium(VI by modified tea fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Š?iban Marina B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The tea fungus was found to have good adsorption capacities for heavy metal ions. In this work it was treated with HCl or NaOH at 20°C or 100°C, with the aim to improve its adsorption ability. The sorption of Cu(II and Cr(VI ions from aqueous solutions by raw and treated tea fungus was investigated in the batch mode. The largest quantity of adsorbed Cu(II, of about 55 mg/g, was achieved by tea fungus modified with NaOH at 100°C. For Cr(VI, the largest quantity of adsorbed anions, of about 58 mg/g, was achieved by the adsorbent modified with NaOH at 20°C. It was shown that acid modification of tea fungus biomass was not effective. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43005 i br. TR 31002

  5. Fungal metabolites: Tetrahydroauroglaucin and isodihydroauroglaucin from the marine fungus,iEurotium sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gawas, D.; PrabhaDevi; Tilvi, S.; Naik, C.G.; Parameswaran, P.S.

    2002-01-01

    Two poly substituted aromatic compounds: tetrahydroauroglaucin 1 and isodihydroauroglaucin 2 were identified from a marine fungus, Eurotium sp. isolated from leaves of the mangrove, Porteresia coarctata (Roxb). These compounds were reported earlier...

  6. Biodegradation of hazardous waste using white rot fungus: Project planning and concept development document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been shown to effectively degrade pollutants such as trichlorophenol, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and other halogenated aromatic compounds. These refractory organic compounds and many others have been identified in the tank waste, groundwater and soil of various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The treatment of these refractory organic compounds has been identified as a high priority for DOE's Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) waste treatment programs. Unlike many bacteria, the white rot fungus P. chrysosporium is capable of degrading these types of refractory organics and may be valuable for the treatment of wastes containing multiple pollutants. The objectives of this project are to identify DOE waste problems amenable to white rot fungus treatment and to develop and demonstrate white rot fungus treatment process for these hazardous organic compounds. 32 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  7. Recent developments towards the synthesis of Varitriol: An antitumour agent from marine derived fungus Emericella variecolor.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Majik, M.S.; Tilvi, S.; Parvatkar, P.T.

    2014-01-01

    of biological activities. (+)-Varitriol, isolated from the marine fungus Emericella variecolor, has shown 100-fold increased potency over the mean toxicity towards variety of cancer cell lines. Hence (+)-varitriol, an antitumour marine natural product has been a...

  8. Novel Technique for Isolating Microstructures Present in Shake Cultures of the Fungus Ceratocystis ulmi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, W C; Takai, S

    1973-09-01

    Microstructures found in shake cultures of Ceratocystis ulmi, the fungus causing Dutch elm disease, have been isolated by a novel technique using the effect of bubbling gas through the culture filtrate. PMID:16349968

  9. Modelling the Hyphal Growth of the Wood-decay Fungus Physisporinus vitreus

    CERN Document Server

    Fuhr, M J; Schwarze, F W M R; Herrmann, H J

    2011-01-01

    The white-rot fungus, Physisporinus vitreus, degrades the membranes of bordered pits in tracheids and consequently increases the permeability of wood, which is a process that can be used by the wood industry to improve the uptake of wood preservatives and environmentally benign wood modification substances to enhance the use and sustainability of native conifer wood species. To understand and apply this process requires an understanding of how a complex system (fungus-wood) interacts under defined conditions. We present a three-dimensional fungal growth model (FGM) of the hyphal growth of P. vitreus in the heartwood of Norway spruce. The model considers hyphae and nutrients as discrete structures and links the microscopic interactions between fungus and wood (e.g. degradation rate and degree of opening of pits) with macroscopic system properties, such penetration depth of the fungus, biomass and distribution of destroyed pits in early- and latewood. Simulations were compared with experimental data. The growth...

  10. Tea fungus fermentation on a substrate with iron(ii)-ions

    OpenAIRE

    Malbaša Radomir V.; Lon?ar Eva S.; Kolarov Ljiljana A.

    2002-01-01

    Iron is essential element for human metabolism and it is a constituent of both heme- containing and nonheme proteins. Its deficiency can cause serious diseases, i.e. iron-deficiency anemia, with some fatal consequences. Tea fungus beverage has high nutritional value and some pharmaceutical effects. It is widely consumed allover the world and its benefits were proved a number of times. The aim of this paper was to investigate tea fungus fermentation on a substrate containing iron(II)-ions and ...

  11. Phenolic profile and antioxidative properties of the beefsteak fungus Fistulina hepatica

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, B.M.; Ribeiro, Bárbara; Rangel, Joana; Baptista, Paula; Seabra, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    The phenolic composition of the edible beefsteak fungus Fistulina hepatica was determined by HPLC/DAD. The results showed a profile composed by caffeic, p-coumaric and ellagic acids, hyperoside and quercetin. Ellagic acid was the main compound in this species. Beefsteak fungus was also investigated for its capacity to act as a scavenger of DPPH radical and reactive oxygen species (superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and hypochlorous acid). Good results were obtained against DPPH and superoxi...

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of a Strain of Cosmopolitan Fungus Trichoderma atroviride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi-Kunne, Xiaoqian; Seidl, Michael F; Faino, Luigi; Thomma, Bart P H J

    2015-01-01

    An unknown fungus has been isolated as a contaminant of in vitro-grown fungal cultures. In an attempt to identify the contamination, we isolated the causal agent and performed whole-genome sequencing. BLAST analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence against the NCBI database showed 100% identity to Trichoderma atroviride, and further alignment of the genome assembly confirmed the unknown fungus to be T. atroviride. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a T. atroviride strain. PMID:25953169

  13. Bioactive secondary metabolites from the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Ebel R.; Proksch P.; Hakiki A.; Mosaddak M.; Weg, Mu?ller; Ra, Edrada-ebel; Ha, Aly; Debbab A.

    2009-01-01

    This study reports the chemical investigation and cytotoxic activity of the secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco. This plant was collected from the Beni-Mellal Mountain in Morocco and belongs to the Lamiaceae family and is named in Morocco “Salmia”. The endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. was isolated from the tissues of the stem of this plant. The fungal strain was identified by PCR. The crude organic extr...

  14. Control of Root-Knot Nematodes on Tomato by the Endoparasitic Fungus Meria coniospora

    OpenAIRE

    Jansson, Hans-bo?rje; Jeyaprakash, A.; Zuckerman, Bert M.

    1985-01-01

    The endoparasitic nematophagous fungus Meria coniospora reduced root-knot nematode galling on tomatoes in greenhouse pot trials. The fungus was introduced to pots by addition of conidia at several inoculum levels directly to the soil or addition of nematodes infected with M. coniospora to the soil; both methods reduced root galling by root-knot nematodes. These studies represent a part of a recently initiated effort to evaluate the potential of endoparasitic nematophagous fungi for biocontrol...

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55.

    OpenAIRE

    Kotterman, M.J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Outline of this thesisIn this thesis the conditions for optimal PAH oxidation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 were evaluated. In Chapter 2, culture conditions like aeration and cosubstrate concentrations, which influenced the oxidation of the PAH compound anthracene and the ligninolytic indicator dye Poly R-478 by the white rot fungus, were studied. Two parameters were identified as the most important PAH oxidation rate-limiting factors: the hydrogen peroxide production r...

  16. Moina macrocopa (Straus): A Plankton Crustacean as a Vector for Fungus-Like Fish Parasites

    OpenAIRE

    CZECZUGA, Bazyli; KOZLOWSKA, Mariola; GODLEWSKA, Anna

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated the occurrence of fungi and fungus-like organisms (chromistan organisms) growing on dead Moina macrocopa specimens in 3 bodies of water of varied trophicity. Dead specimens of the crustacean Moina macrocopa, fish feed in aquaculture in countries of the Mediterranean basin, were used as bait. In all, 55 species were identified on the Moina macrocopa specimens, including 42 chromistan organisms and 13 fungus species. Of the 42 chromistan organisms, 13 are known as paras...

  17. Concordance of gene genealogies reveals reproductive isolation in the pathogenic fungus Coccidioides?immitis

    OpenAIRE

    Koufopanou, Vassiliki; Burt, Austin; Taylor, John W.

    1997-01-01

    Simple cladogenetic theory suggests that gene genealogies can be used to detect mixis in a population and delineate reproductively isolated groups within sexual taxa. We have taken this approach in a study of Coccidioides immitis, an ascomycete fungus responsible for a recent epidemic of coccidioidomycosis (Valley fever) in California. To test whether this fungus represents a single sexual species throughout its entire geographic range, we have compared genealogies from fragments of five nucl...

  18. A Single Streptomyces Symbiont Makes Multiple Antifungals to Support the Fungus Farming Ant Acromyrmex octospinosus

    OpenAIRE

    Seipke, Ryan F.; Barke, Jo?rg; Brearley, Charles; Hill, Lionel; Yu, Douglas W.; Goss, Rebecca J. M.; Hutchings, Matthew I.

    2011-01-01

    Attine ants are dependent on a cultivated fungus for food and use antibiotics produced by symbiotic Actinobacteria as weedkillers in their fungus gardens. Actinobacterial species belonging to the genera Pseudonocardia, Streptomyces and Amycolatopsis have been isolated from attine ant nests and shown to confer protection against a range of microfungal weeds. In previous work on the higher attine Acromyrmex octospinosus we isolated a Streptomyces strain that produces candicidin, consistent with...

  19. Metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into bacterial communities in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens

    OpenAIRE

    Aylward, Frank O.; Burnum, Kristin E.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Suen, Garret; Tringe, Susannah G.; Adams, Sandra M.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Starrett, Gabriel J.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2012-01-01

    Herbivores gain access to nutrients stored in plant biomass largely by harnessing the metabolic activities of microbes. Leaf-cutter ants of the genus Atta are a hallmark example; these dominant neotropical herbivores cultivate symbiotic fungus gardens on large quantities of fresh plant forage. As the external digestive system of the ants, fungus gardens facilitate the production and sustenance of millions of workers. Using metagenomic and metaproteomic techniques, we characterize the bacteria...

  20. Extra- and Intracellular Laccases of the Chestnut Blight Fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica

    OpenAIRE

    Rigling, Daniel; Van Alfen, Neal K.

    1993-01-01

    A double-stranded RNA virus of the chestnut blight pathogen, Cryphonectria parasitica, has been shown previously to reduce accumulation of mRNAs of extracellular laccase (laccase A) produced by this fungus. Both extra- and intracellular laccases have been detected after growth of the fungus in liquid culture. In addition to cellular localization, the two laccases are distinguishable by time of appearance during growth and electrophoretic mobility. Laccase A was purified from the culture filtr...

  1. Colonization of Soybean Cyst Nematode Females, Cysts, and Gelatinous Matrices by the Fungus Verticillium lecanii

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, S. L. F.; Wergin, W P

    1998-01-01

    Heterodera glycines was grown in monoxenic culture on soybean roots and then inoculated with the antagonistic fungus Verticillium lecanii. Use of root explant cultures allowed evaluation of the fungus-nematode interaction with the nematode attached to roots or removed from the host, and avoided contamination with other fungi. From 16 hours to 14 days following inoculation, female and cyst samples were examined with the light microscope, or prepared for either conventional or low-temperature s...

  2. Characterization of a Sapstaining Fungus, Ophiostoma floccosum, Isolated from the Sapwood of Pinus thunbergii in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Yeo Hong; Hyun, Min Woo; Suh, Dong Yeon; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2009-01-01

    An Ophiostoma fungus was isolated from a stump of Pinus thunbergii in a forest on the West coast of Korea. Microscopic analysis using a light microscope, a stereo microscope, and a scanning electron microscope revealed that it had morphological features of Pesotum and Sporothix synanarmorphs. Based on the ?-tubulin gene sequence analysis, the fungus was identified as the anamorph of Ophiostoma floccosum. Mycological properties of the species including its growth properties on different cultu...

  3. Carbon utilization profile of a thermophilic fungus, Thermomyces lanuginosus using phenotypic microarray

    OpenAIRE

    Nokuthula Peace Mchunu; Kugen Permaul; Maqsudul Alam; Suren Singh

    2013-01-01

    The thermophilic filamentous fungus, Thermomyces lanuginosus produces the largest amount of xylanase reported. In addition to this, it expresses large amount of other enzymes that have been used industrially or have academic interest. Thus, this fungus has a potential to be applied for biomass conversion to produce biofuel or other applications. In this study, the Biolog system was used to characterize the utilisation and growth of T. lanuginosus on 95 carbon sources. The carbohydrates based...

  4. Humidity preference for fungus culturing by workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa

    OpenAIRE

    Roces, Flavio; Kleineidam, Christoph

    2000-01-01

    The hygropreference of gardening workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa was investigated in the laboratory using a gradient of relative humidity. Gardening workers were placed, together with pieces of fungus garden, in small, interconnected nest chambers offering four different relative humidities: 33%, 75%, 84% and 98% RH. Workers were allowed to move freely between them and to relocate the fungus following their humidity preference. While workers distributed themselv...

  5. Modelling the Hyphal Growth of the Wood-decay Fungus Physisporinus vitreus

    OpenAIRE

    Fuhr, M. J.; Schubert, M; Schwarze, F. W. M. R.; Herrmann, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    The white-rot fungus, Physisporinus vitreus, degrades the membranes of bordered pits in tracheids and consequently increases the permeability of wood, which is a process that can be used by the wood industry to improve the uptake of wood preservatives and environmentally benign wood modification substances to enhance the use and sustainability of native conifer wood species. To understand and apply this process requires an understanding of how a complex system (fungus-wood) ...

  6. Analysis on the Natural Remedies to Cure Dandruff/Skin Disease-causing Fungus - Malassezia furfur.

    OpenAIRE

    Saneesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    A comparative study was conducted on the levels of effectiveness, of natural remedies such as cow's urine, lemon, boiled rice water, Neem extract etc. in curing dandruff and inhibiting the growth of the causative fungus Malassezia. Various plating techniques were applied using modified Oil - Potato Dextrose Agar as the nutrient medium for the fungal growth. Cow's urine was found to be more stable and effective in inhibiting the fungus, along with boiled rice-water. Lemon juice was highly effe...

  7. Nutritional Requirements of the Edible Gall-producing Fungus Ustilago esculenta

    OpenAIRE

    Kuang-Ren Chung; Dean D. Tzeng

    2004-01-01

    The parasitism of Ustilago esculenta P. Henn. in the perennial aquatic grass, Zizania latifolia (Griseb.) Turcz. results in the development of edible smut gall, “ Kah-Peh-Sung” which has long been extensively cultivated as a vegetable in Taiwan and southern China. The nutritional requirements of U. esculenta were investigated in a semi-defined liquid medium to explore further studies of the causative fungus and its interaction with host plant. The fungus grew as yeast-like sporidia in vit...

  8. The Hidden Habit of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana: First Demonstration of Vertical Plant Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Quesada-Moraga, Enrique; López-Díaz, Cristina; Landa, Blanca B.

    2014-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip, obtained from a larva of the opium poppy stem gall wasp Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae), endophytically colonizes opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants and protects them against this pest. The goal of this study was to monitor the dynamics of endophytic colonization of opium poppy by B. bassiana after the fungus was applied to the seed and to ascertain whether the fungus is transmitted vertically via seeds. Using a species-specific ...

  9. Metabolism and Cometabolism of Cyclic Ethers by a Filamentous Fungus, a Graphium sp.?

    OpenAIRE

    Skinner, Kristin; Cuiffetti, Lynda; Hyman, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Graphium sp. (ATCC 58400) grows on gaseous n-alkanes and diethyl ether. n-Alkane-grown mycelia of this strain also cometabolically oxidize the gasoline oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). In this study, we characterized the ability of this fungus to metabolize and cometabolize a range of cyclic ethers, including tetrahydrofuran (THF) and 1,4-dioxane (14D). This strain grew on THF and other cyclic ethers, including tetrahydropyran and hexamethylene oxide. However, ...

  10. Antifungal Depsidone Metabolites from Cordyceps dipterigena, an Endophytic Fungus Antagonistic to the Phytopathogen Gibberella fujikuroi

    OpenAIRE

    Varughese, Titto; Riosa, Nivia; Higginbotham, Sarah; Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Coley, Phyllis D.; Kursar, Thomas A.; Gerwick, William H.; Cubilla Rios, L.

    2012-01-01

    Among thirty four endophytic fungal strains screened for in vitro antagonism, the endophytic fungus Cordyceps dipterigena was found to strongly inhibit mycelial growth of the plant pathogenic fungus Gibberella fujikuroi. Two new depsidone metabolites, cordycepsidone A (1) and cordycepsidone B (2), were isolated from the PDA culture extract of C. dipterigena and identified as being responsible for the antifungal activity. Elucidation of their chemical structures was carried out using 1D and 2D...

  11. Insect symbioses: a case study of past, present, and future fungus-growing ant research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caldera, Eric J; Poulsen, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Fungus-growing ants (Attini: Formicidae) engage in an obligate mutualism with fungi they cultivate for food. Although biologists have been fascinated with fungus-growing ants since the resurgence of natural history in the modern era, the early stages of research focused mainly on the foraging behavior of the leaf-cutters (the most derived attine lineage). Indeed, the discovery that the ants actually use leaf fragments to manure a fungus did not come until the 1800s. More recently, three additional microbial symbionts have been described, including specialized microfungal parasites of the ant's fungus garden, antibiotic-producing actinobacteria that help protect the fungus garden from the parasite, and a black yeast that parasitizes the ant-actinobacteria mutualism. The fungus-growing ant symbiosis serves as a particularly useful model system for studying insect-microbe symbioses, because, to date, it contains four well-characterized microbial symbionts, including mutualists and parasites that encompass micro-fungi, macro-fungi, yeasts, and bacteria. Here, we discuss approaches for studying insect-microbe symbioses, using the attine ant-microbial symbiosis as our framework. We draw attention to particular challenges in the field of symbiosis, including the establishment of symbiotic associations and symbiont function. Finally, we discuss future directions in insect-microbe research, with particular focus on applying recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies.

  12. Carbon utilization profile of a thermophilic fungus, Thermomyces lanuginosus using phenotypic microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nokuthula Peace Mchunu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermophilic filamentous fungus, Thermomyces lanuginosus produces the largest amount of xylanase reported. In addition to this, it expresses large amount of other enzymes that have been used industrially or have academic interest. Thus, this fungus has a potential to be applied for biomass conversion to produce biofuel or other applications. In this study, the Biolog system was used to characterize the utilisation and growth of T. lanuginosus on 95 carbon sources. The carbohydrates based compounds, both single sugars and oligosaccharide, showed the best utilisation profile, with the pentose sugar xylose inducing the highest growth, followed by trehelose, raffinose, D-mannose turanose fructose and glucose. Among oligosaccharides, sucrose had the highest mycelium formation followed by stachyose, maltose, maltotriose, glycogen and dextrin. Interestingly the fungus also grew well on cellobiose suggesting that this fungus can produce cellulose hydrolysing proteins. D-alanine was the best amino acid to promote fungal growth while the effect of other amino acids tested was similar to the control. These results demonstrate the ability of this fungus to grow relatively well on most plant based compounds thus making this fungus a possible candidate for plant biomass conversion which can be applied to a number of biotechnological applications including biofuel production.

  13. The fungus gardens of leaf-cutter ants undergo a distinct physiological transition during biomass degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Eric L.; Aylward, Frank O.; Kim, Young-Mo; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Hu, Zeping; Metz, Thomas O.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.; Currie, Cameron R.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.

    2014-08-01

    Leaf-cutter ants are dominant herbivores in ecosystems throughout the Neotropics. Rather than directly consuming the fresh foliar biomass they harvest, these ants use it to cultivate specialized fungus gardens. Although recent investigations have shed light on how plant biomass is degraded in fungus gardens, the cycling of nutrients that takes place in these specialized microbial ecosystems is still not well understood. Here, using metametabolomics and metaproteomics techniques, we examine the dynamics of nutrient turnover and biosynthesis in these gardens. Our results reveal that numerous free amino acids and sugars are depleted throughout the process of biomass degradation, indicating that easily accessible nutrients from plant material are readily consumed by microbes in these ecosystems. Accumulation of cellobiose and lignin derivatives near the end of the degradation process is consistent with previous findings of cellulases and laccases produced by Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the fungus cultivated by leaf-cutter ants. Our results also suggest that ureides may be an important source of nitrogen in fungus gardens, especially during nitrogen-limiting conditions. No free arginine was detected in our metametabolomics experiments despite evidence that the host ants cannot produce this amino acid, suggesting that biosynthesis of this metabolite may be tightly regulated in the fungus garden. These results provide new insights into the dynamics of nutrient cycling that underlie this important ant-fungus symbiosis.

  14. Microalgae harvesting via co-culture with filamentous fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultom, Sarman Oktovianus

    Microalgae harvesting is a labor- and energy-intensive process. For instance, classical harvesting technologies such as chemical addition and mechanical separation are economically prohibiting for biofuel production. Newer approaches to harvest microalgae have been developed in order to decrease costs. Among these new methods, fungal co-pelletization seems to be a promising technology. By co-culturing filamentous fungi with microalgae, it is possible to form pellets, which can easily be separated. In this study, different parameters for the cultivation of filamentous fungus (Aspergillus niger) and microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) to efficiently form cell pellets were evaluated under heterotrophic and phototrophic conditions, including organic carbon source (glucose, glycerol and sodium acetate) concentration, pH, initial concentration of fungal spores, initial concentration of microalgal cells, concentration of ionic strength (Calcium and Magnesium) and concentration of salinity (NaCl). In addition, zeta-potential measurements were carried out in order to get a better understanding of the mechanism of attraction. It was found that 2 g/L of glucose, a fungus to microalgae ratio of 1:300, and uncontrolled pH (around 7) are the best culturing conditions for co-pelletization. Under these conditions, it was possible to achieve a high harvesting performance (>90%). In addition, it was observed that most pellets formed in the co-culture were spherical with an average diameter of 3.5 mm and in concentrations of about 5 pellets per mL of culture media. Under phototrophic conditions, co-pelletization required the addition of glucose as organic carbon source to sustain the growth of fungi and to allow the harvesting of microalgae. Zeta-potential measurements indicated that (i) both microalgae and fungi have low zeta-potential values regardless of the pH on the bulk (i.e. <-10 mV) (ii) fungi can have a positive electric charge at low pH (ie. pH=3). These values suggest that it might be possible that the degree of repulsion and dispersion between these organisms is low which facilitates the attraction between them.

  15. Fungus mediated biosynthesis and characterization of zinc oxide nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, K. S.; Palani, N. S.; Krishnamoorthi, S. R.; Thirumal, V.; Ilangovan, R.

    2013-06-01

    Recently nanomaterials have been synthesized through biological approach due to its biocompatibility, inexpensive, eco friendly and it offers easiest experimental protocol and so on. ZnO can be potentially used in various applications. This present study reports the fungus mediated extra-cellular bio synthesis of ZnO nanorods using Fusarium Solani. The dried powder was calcined at 350°C for 1 hour in air. The thermal property of the as synthesized ZnO nanopowder was analyzed through Thermo gravimetric /Differential Thermo gravimetric (TGA / DTG) analysis. The structural and morphological properties of the calcined ZnO nanopowder were studied by XRD and SEM analysis respectively. X ray diffraction result revealed that a peak located at 2? = 36.2° with (101) plane confirms the presence of Zinc oxide with Hexagonal crystal system. The morphology of the calcined ZnO powder was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and it clearly indicates the presence of ZnO nanorods. The diameter of the nanorods is in the range of 60 to 95 nm.

  16. Characterization of the pitch canker fungus, Fusarium circinatum, from Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Jacobs; T.A., Coutinho; M.J., Wingfield; R., Ahumada; B.D., Wingfield.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium circinatum is the causal agent of the pine disease commonly referred to as pitch canker. During 2001, a Fusarium species was isolated from dying Pinus radiata clonal hedges in various forestry nurseries in Chile and was subsequently identified as F. circinatum. The aim of the study reported [...] here was to provide a detailed characterization of Chilean isolates of the fungus. Morphological characters included microconidia carried on false heads and produced on polyphialides. Sterile coils and conidiophores on erect aerial mycelium were evident on synthetic, low nutrient agar. Furthermore, perithecia exuding viable ascospores were produced when isolates were crossed in all possible combinations with the mating tester strains representing the H mating population of Gibberella fujikuroi species complex. PCR-RFLP analysis of the histone H3 gene region, routinely used to distinguish between members of the G. fujikuroi complex, further confirmed the identification of the isolates as F. circinatum. DNA sequence data obtained for the same gene region placed the isolates within a well-characterized G. circinata clade. These studies provide unequivocal evidence that the pitch canker pathogen is well established on pines in Chilean nurseries.

  17. Effects of ozone on the germination of fungus spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibben, C.R.; Stotzky, G.

    1969-01-01

    Detached spores of 14 fungi varied in germination after exposure on agar to 10 to 100 parts per hundred million (p.p.hm.) ozone for 1 to 6 h. Large pigmented spores of Chaetomium sp., Stemphylium sarcinaeforme, S. loti, and Alternaria sp. were insensitive to 100 p.p.hm. Spores of Trichoderma viride, Aspergillus terreus, A. niger, Penicillium egyptiacum, Botrytis allii, and Rhizopus stolonifer were reduced in germination primarily by 100 and 50 p.p.hm. for the longer exposures. Small hyaline spores of Fusarium oxysporum, Colletotrichum lagenarium, Verticillium albo-atrum, and V. dahliae were the most sensitive, as their germination was prevented or reduced by most exposures to 100 and 50 pphm and occasionally reduced by doses as low as 25 pphm for 4 and 6 h. Ten parts per hundred million for 6 h had little inhibitory effect, but extended exposures up to 28 h reduced germination of A. terreus, A. niger, and P. egyptiacum spores to below 50% of the controls. The lower doses of ozone sometimes stimulated spore germination. Fungus colonies maintained in an ozone atmosphere had abnormal growth characteristics. Ozone had little inhibitory effect on air-dried spores in a liquid medium. 37 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  18. Biosynthesis of vanillin by the fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus MIP 95001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Moro Villela Pacheco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vanillin (a substance popularly known as vanilla flavor is one of the most widely used compounds, mainly by food and pharmaceutical industries. This substance can be obtained from the orchid Vanilla planifolia, but this is costly and time consuming. Thus, other methods for obtaining vanillin have been studied. Within this context, the aim of this work was to study the biosynthesis of vanillin by three strains of Pycnoporus sanguineus through the use of vanillic acid as a precursor. The strains were cultured in Petri dishes with a potato dextrose agar medium. Fragments of the media with the fungus were then inoculated in Erlenmeyer flasks with a liquid medium of potato broth and 0.3 g.L-1 of vanillic acid. The flasks remained in a shaker for eight days at 28°C and 120 rpm. Samples were withdrawn once a day (0.8 mL.day-1 for analysis of vanillin, glucose, total phenols, total proteins, and laccase. The results showed that only the MIP 95001 strain promoted the biosynthesis of vanillin. The highest concentration of vanillin was detected on the fourth day of cultivation (8.75 mg.dL-1. The results illustrate the ability to biosynthesize vanillin using Pycnoporus sanguineus (MIP 95001, which suggests a possible route for the biotechnological production of this flavor.

  19. Identification of naphthalene metabolism by white rot fungus Pleurotus eryngii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadibarata, Tony; Teh, Zee Chuang; Rubiyatno; Zubir, Meor Mohd Fikri Ahmad; Khudhair, Ameer Badr; Yusoff, Abdull Rahim Mohd; Salim, Mohd Razman; Hidayat, Topik

    2013-10-01

    The use of biomaterials or microorganisms in PAHs degradation had presented an eye-catching performance. Pleurotus eryngii is a white rot fungus, which is easily isolated from the decayed woods in the tropical rain forest, used to determine the capability to utilize naphthalene, a two-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as source of carbon and energy. In the meantime, biotransformation of naphthalene to intermediates and other by-products during degradation was investigated in this study. Pleurotus eryngii had been incubated in liquid medium formulated with naphthalene for 14 days. The presence of metabolites of naphthalene suggests that Pleurotus eryngii begin the ring cleavage by dioxygenation on C1 and C4 position to give 1,4-naphthaquinone. 1,4-Naphthaquinone was further degraded to benzoic acid, where the proposed terepthalic acid is absent in the cultured extract. Further degradation of benzoic acid by Pleurotus eryngii shows the existence of catechol as a result of the combination of decarboxylation and hydroxylation process. Unfortunately, phthalic acid was not detected in this study. Several enzymes, including manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, laccase, 1,2-dioxygenase and 2,3-dioxygenase are enzymes responsible for naphthalene degradation. Reduction of naphthalene and the presence of metabolites in liquid medium showed the ability of Pleurotus eryngii to utilize naphthalene as carbon source instead of a limited glucose amount. PMID:23334282

  20. Acrophialophora, a poorly known fungus with clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Denis, Marcelo; Gené, Josepa; Sutton, Deanna A; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Guarro, Josep

    2015-05-01

    Acrophialophora fusispora is an emerging opportunistic fungus capable of causing human infections. The taxonomy of the genus is not yet resolved and, in order to facilitate identification of clinical specimens, we have studied a set of clinical and environmental Acrophialophora isolates by morphological and molecular analyses. This set included the available type strains of Acrophialophora species and similar fungi, some of which were considered by various authors to be synonyms of A. fusispora. Sequence analysis of the large subunit (LSU) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA and a fragment of the ?-tubulin (Tub) gene revealed that Acrophialophora belongs in the family Chaetomiaceae and comprises three different species, i.e., A. fusispora, Acrophialophora levis, and Acrophialophora seudatica; the latter was previously included in the genus Ampullifera. The most prevalent species among clinical isolates was A. levis (72.7%), followed by A. fusispora (27.3%), both of which were isolated mostly from respiratory specimens (72.7%), as well as subcutaneous and corneal tissue samples. In general, of the eight antifungal drugs tested, voriconazole had the greatest in vitro activity, while all other agents showed poor in vitro activity against these fungi. PMID:25716450

  1. Bioactive spirobisnaphthalenes from the endophytic fungus Berkleasmium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Tijiang; Tian, Jin; Wang, Xiaohan; Mou, Yan; Mao, Ziling; Lai, Daowan; Dai, Jungui; Peng, Youliang; Zhou, Ligang; Wang, Mingan

    2014-10-24

    Nine new spirobisnaphthalenes, palmarumycins B1-B9 (1-9), along with 13 known compounds (10-22), were isolated from cultures of the fungus Berkleasmium sp., an endophyte isolated from the medicinal plant Dioscorea zingiberensis C. H. Wright. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by analysis of the 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS spectra and by comparison with known compounds. Compounds 7-9 contain an uncommon 2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one unit. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activities against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus hemolyticus, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Pseudomonas lachrymans, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Xanthomonas vesicatoria and for their antifungal effects against the spore germination of Magnaporthe oryzae. Palmarumycin C8 (22) exhibited the best antibacterial and antifungal effects. In addition, diepoxin ? (11) and palmarumycin C8 (22) showed pronounced cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines (HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A 549, A 2780) with IC50 values of 1.28-5.83 ?M. PMID:25237727

  2. Eosinophils in fungus-associated allergic pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SumitGhosh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is frequently caused and/or exacerbated by sensitization to fungal allergens, which are ubiquitous in many indoor and outdoor environments. Severe asthma with fungal sensitization is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and bronchial constriction in response to an inhaled allergen that is worsened by environmental exposure to airborne fungi and which leads to a disease course that is often very difficult to treat with standard asthma therapies. As a result of complex interactions among inflammatory cells, structural cells, and the intercellular matrix of the allergic lung, patients with sensitization to fungal allergens may experience a greater degree of airway wall remodeling and progressive, accumulated pulmonary dysfunction as part of the disease sequela. From their development in the bone marrow to their recruitment to the lung via chemokine and cytokine networks, eosinophils form an important component of the inflammatory milieu that is associated with this syndrome. Eosinophils are recognized as complex multi-factorial leukocytes with diverse functions in the context of allergic fungal asthma. In this review, we will consider recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that are associated with eosinophil development and migration to the allergic lung in response to fungal inhalation, along with the eosinophil’s function in the immune response to and the immunopathology attributed to fungus-associated allergic pulmonary disease.

  3. Bioremediation of BTEX hydrocarbons: Effect of soil inoculation with the toluenegrowing fungus Cladophialophora sp strain T1

    OpenAIRE

    Prenafeta, F.X.; Ballerstedt, H.; Gerritse, J; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.

    2004-01-01

    The biodegradation of a mixture of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, (BTEX) and methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was studied in soil microcosms. Soil inoculation with the toluene-metabolising fungusCladophialophora sp. strain T1 was evaluated in sterile and non-sterile soil. Induction of biodegradation capacity following BTEX addition was faster in the soil native microflora than in axenic soil cultures of the fungus. Toluene, ethylbenzenes, and the xylenes were metabolized by the fungus ...

  4. Nest Enlargement in Leaf-Cutting Ants: Relocated Brood and Fungus Trigger the Excavation of New Chambers

    OpenAIRE

    Römer, Daniela; Roces, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    During colony growth, leaf-cutting ants enlarge their nests by excavating tunnels and chambers housing their fungus gardens and brood. Workers are expected to excavate new nest chambers at locations across the soil profile that offer suitable environmental conditions for brood and fungus rearing. It is an open question whether new chambers are excavated in advance, or will emerge around brood or fungus initially relocated to a suitable site in a previously-excavated tunnel. In the laboratory,...

  5. Chemical changes of kraft lignin and some enzymes produced by the white-rot fungus Coriolopsis Gallica

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Alarcón, Gonzalo; Sáiz-Jiménez, Cesáreo; Lahoz, Rafael; O'Connor, A

    1987-01-01

    The excretion of extracellular enzymes and the degradation of indulin (pine kraft lignin) by the fungus Coriolopsis gallica were studied. By using a lignin-impregnated glass fibre disc which simulated natural conditions, the fungus excreted phenol oxidases during the log phase of growth and reached two activity maxima in the autolytic phase. However, in absence of indulin the fungus had a different behaviour with respect to phenol oxidases. It was concluded that in the ex...

  6. Metabolism of Plant Polysaccharides by Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the Symbiotic Fungus of the Leaf-Cutting Ant Atta sexdens L.

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes De Siqueira, Célia; Bacci, Maurício; Pagnocca, Fernando Carlos; Bueno, Odair Correa; Hebling, Maria José Aparecida

    1998-01-01

    Atta sexdens L. ants feed on the fungus they cultivate on cut leaves inside their nests. The fungus, Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, metabolizes plant polysaccharides, such as xylan, starch, pectin, and cellulose, mediating assimilation of these compounds by the ants. This metabolic integration may be an important part of the ant-fungus symbiosis, and it involves primarily xylan and starch, both of which support rapid fungal growth. Cellulose seems to be less important for symbiont nutrition, si...

  7. Virus infection decreases the attractiveness of white clover plants for a non-vectoring herbivore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Mölken, Tamara; Caluwe, Hannie de

    2012-01-01

    Plant pathogens and insect herbivores are prone to share hosts under natural conditions. Consequently, pathogen-induced changes in the host plant can affect herbivory, and vice versa. Even though plant viruses are ubiquitous in the field, little is known about plant-mediated interactions between viruses and non-vectoring herbivores. We investigated the effects of virus infection on subsequent infestation by a non-vectoring herbivore in a natural genotype of Trifolium repens (white clover). We tested whether infection with White clover mosaic virus (WClMV) alters (1) the effects of fungus gnat feeding on plant growth, (2) the attractiveness of white clover for adult fungus gnat females, and (3) the volatile emission of white clover plants. We observed only marginal effects of WClMV infection on the interaction between fungus gnat larvae and white clover. However, adult fungus gnat females clearly preferred non-infected over WClMV-infected plants. Non-infected and virus-infected plants could easily be discriminated based on their volatile blends, suggesting that the preference of fungus gnats for non-infected plants may be mediated by virus-induced changes in volatile emissions. The compound beta-caryophyllene was exclusively detected in the headspace of virus-infected plants and may hence be particularly important for the preference of fungus gnat females. Our results demonstrate that WClMV infection can decrease the attractiveness of white clover plants for fungus gnat females. This suggests that virus infections may contribute to protecting their hosts by decreasing herbivore infestation rates. Consequently, it is conceivable that viruses play a more beneficial role in plant-herbivore interactions than generally thought.

  8. Fungi of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.-Their Deteriorative Ability, Quality Stability and the Role of the Fungus-Eating Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Chuku

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the deteriorative ability and quality stability of coconut (Cocos nucifera L. and the effect of the fungus-eating insects (Necrobia rufipes, Alphitobius diaperinus, Crematogaster sp. and Tenebrio molitor were carried out in the Post Graduate Entomology and Plant Pathology Laboratories of the Department of Applied and Environmental Biology and also in Food Science Laboratory of the Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt. Results showed Aspergillus niger van Tieghem, Rhizopus stolonifer Lind and Penicillium italiucum Wehmer as the seed-borne fungi of coconut. Frequency of occurrence was 80% for Aspergillus niger and 100% for both Rhizopus stolonifer and Penicillium italicum. On storage stability, heat drying offered significantly higher protection to coconut copra. Percentage consumption of fungal hyphae by the fungus-eating insects varied with Tenebrio molitor consuming 100% of the three aforementioned fungi. A. diaperinius contributed up to 84.1% reduction of A. niger as against 80.3% reduction by Necrobia rufipes of A. niger, Crematogaster sp. offered the least reduction (64.2%.

  9. Fungi of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.)-Their Deteriorative Ability, Quality Stability and the Role of the Fungus-Eating Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuku, E. C.; Ogbalu, O. K.; Osakwe, J. A.

    Studies on the deteriorative ability and quality stability of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) and the effect of the fungus-eating insects (Necrobia rufipes, Alphitobius diaperinus, Crematogaster sp. and Tenebrio molitor) were carried out in the Post Graduate Entomology and Plant Pathology Laboratories of the Department of Applied and Environmental Biology and also in Food Science Laboratory of the Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt. Results showed Aspergillus niger van Tieghem, Rhizopus stolonifer Lind and Penicillium italiucum Wehmer as the seed-borne fungi of coconut. Frequency of occurrence was 80% for Aspergillus niger and 100% for both Rhizopus stolonifer and Penicillium italicum. On storage stability, heat drying offered significantly higher protection to coconut copra. Percentage consumption of fungal hyphae by the fungus-eating insects varied with Tenebrio molitor consuming 100% of the three aforementioned fungi. A. diaperinius contributed up to 84.1% reduction of A. niger as against 80.3% reduction by Necrobia rufipes of A. niger, Crematogaster sp. offered the least reduction (64.2%).

  10. Analysis on Blast Fungus-Responsive Characters of a Flavonoid Phytoalexin Sakuranetin; Accumulation in Infected Rice Leaves, Antifungal Activity and Detoxification by Fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morifumi Hasegawa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To understand the role of the rice flavonoid phytoalexin (PA sakuranetin for blast resistance, the fungus-responsive characteristics were studied. Young rice leaves in a resistant line exhibited hypersensitive reaction (HR within 3 days post inoculation (dpi of a spore suspension, and an increase in sakuranetin was detected at 3 dpi, increasing to 4-fold at 4 dpi. In the susceptible line, increased sakuranetin was detected at 4 dpi, but not at 3 dpi, by which a large fungus mass has accumulated without HR. Induced expression of a PA biosynthesis gene OsNOMT for naringenin 7-O-methyltransferase was found before accumulation of sakuranetin in both cultivars. The antifungal activity of sakuranetin was considerably higher than that of the major rice diterpenoid PA momilactone A in vitro and in vivo under similar experimental conditions. The decrease and detoxification of sakuranetin were detected in both solid and liquid mycelium cultures, and they took place slower than those of momilactone A. Estimated local concentration of sakuranetin at HR lesions was thought to be effective for fungus restriction, while that at enlarged lesions in susceptible rice was insufficient. These results indicate possible involvement of sakuranetin in blast resistance and its specific relation to blast fungus.

  11. Exploring the potential for actinobacteria as defensive symbionts in fungus-growing termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Anna A.; Nobre, Tânia

    2012-01-01

    In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play a role as defensive symbionts against Pseudoxylaria in fungus-growing termites. We sampled for Actinobacteria from 30 fungus-growing termite colonies, spanning the three main termite genera and two geographically distant sites. Our isolations yielded 360 Actinobacteria, from which we selected subsets for morphological (288 isolates, grouped in 44 morphotypes) and for 16S rRNA (35 isolates, spanning the majority of morphotypes) characterisation. Actinobacteria were found throughout all sampled nests and colony parts and, phylogenetically, they are interspersed with Actinobacteria from origins other than fungus-growing termites, indicating lack of specificity. Antibiotic-activity screening of 288 isolates against thefungal cultivar and competitor revealed that most of the Actinobacteria-produced molecules with antifungal activity. A more detailed bioassay on 53 isolates, to test the specificity of antibiotics, showed that many Actinobacteria inhibit both Pseudoxylaria and Termitomyces, and that the cultivar fungus generally is more susceptible to inhibition than the competitor. This suggests that either defensive symbionts are not present in the system or that they, if present, represent a subset of the community isolated. If so, the antibiotics must be used in a targeted fashion, being applied to specific areas by the termites. We describe the first discovery of an assembly of antibiotic-producing Actinobacteria occurring in fungus-growing termite nests. However, due to the diversity found, and the lack of both phylogenetic and bioactivity Electronic supplementary material

  12. Factors affecting fungus-induced larval mortality in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takken Willem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi have shown great potential for the control of adult malaria vectors. However, their ability to control aquatic stages of anopheline vectors remains largely unexplored. Therefore, how larval characteristics (Anopheles species, age and larval density, fungus (species and concentration and environmental effects (exposure duration and food availability influence larval mortality caused by fungus, was studied. Methods Laboratory bioassays were performed on the larval stages of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi with spores of two fungus species, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. For various larval and fungal characteristics and environmental effects the time to death was determined and survival curves established. These curves were compared by Kaplan Meier and Cox regression analyses. Results Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae caused high mortality of An. gambiae and An. stephensi larvae. However, Beauveria bassiana was less effective (Hazard ratio (HR Metarhizium anisopliae. Anopheles stephensi and An. gambiae were equally susceptible to each fungus. Older larvae were less likely to die than young larvae (HR Conclusions This study shows that both fungus species have potential to kill mosquitoes in the larval stage, and that mortality rate depends on fungus species itself, larval stage targeted, larval density and amount of nutrients available to the larvae. Increasing the concentration of fungal spores or reducing the exposure time to spores did not show a proportional increase and decrease in mortality rate, respectively, because the spores clumped together. As a result spores did not provide uniform coverage over space and time. It is, therefore, necessary to develop a formulation that allows the spores to spread over the water surface. Apart from formulation appropriate delivery methods are also necessary to avoid exposing non-target organisms to fungus.

  13. Co-evolution of enzyme function in the attine ant-fungus symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; SchiØtt, Morten

    Introduction: Fungus-growing ants cultivate specialized fungi in the tribe Leucocoprineae (Lepiotaceae: Basidiomycota) inside their nests. The conspicuous leaf-cutting ants in the genus Atta build huge nests displacing several cubic meters of soil, whereas lower attine genera such as Cyphomyrmex have small nests with a fungus garden the size of a table-tennis ball. Only the leaf-cutting ants are specialized on using fresh leaves as substrate for their fungus gardens, whereas the more basal attine genera use substrates such as dry plant material (leaf litter and small twigs) and also insect feces and insect carcasses. This diverse array of fungal substrates across the attine lineage implies that the symbiotic fungus needs different enzymes to break down the plant material that the ants provide or different efficiencies of enzyme function. Methods: (1.) We made a literature survey of substrate use in all extant fungus-growing ant genera to know the range of substrates used for any particular ant genus. (2.) Field assays of enzyme activity in fungus gardens of five candidate enzymes (Amylase, proteinase, pectinase, cellulose and xylanase) to indicate differences in enzyme activity between ant groups. (3.) Phylogenetic comparison and divergence estimates of nuclear ribosomal sequences and sequences coding for candidate enzyme genes (work in progress). Results: Enzyme activity assays showed significant differences in enzyme activity across major fungus-growing ant groups. Notably the fresh leaf feeding species had a higher activity of amylase. The group of higher attines had a higher activity of proteinase and pectinase. In contrast the lower genera had a non-significant trend towards a higher activity of xylanase compared to the higher attine genera. Cellulase activity was uniform across all tested genera. Discussion: In this study we document that there are differences in fungus garden enzyme activity between the different ant genera. These different enzyme activity profiles can be partially explained by the difference in substrates brought back by the ants to manure the fungus garden. This system can be viewed as ant induced crop optimization similar to human agricultural practices.

  14. Extraction of DNA from plant and fungus tissues in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Almakarem Amal S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When samples are collected in the field and transported to the lab, degradation of the nucleic acids contained in the samples is frequently observed. Immediate extraction and precipitation of the nucleic acids reduces degradation to a minimum, thus preserving accurate sequence information. An extraction method to obtain high quality DNA in field studies is described. Findings DNA extracted immediately after sampling was compared to DNA extracted after allowing the sampled tissues to air dry at 21°C for 48 or 72 hours. While DNA extracted from fresh tissues exhibited little degradation, DNA extracted from all tissues exposed to 21°C air for 48 or 72 hours exhibited varying degrees of degradation. Yield was higher for extractions from fresh tissues in most cases. Four microcentrifuges were compared for DNA yield: one standard electric laboratory microcentrifuge (max rcf?=?16,000×g, two battery-operated microcentrifuges (max rcf?=?5,000 and 3,000 ×g, and one manually-operated microcentrifuge (max rcf?=?120×g. Yields for all centrifuges were similar. DNA extracted under simulated field conditions was similar in yield and quality to DNA extracted in the laboratory using the same equipment. Conclusions This CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide DNA extraction method employs battery-operated and manually-operated equipment to isolate high quality DNA in the field. The method was tested on plant and fungus tissues, and may be adapted for other types of organisms. The method produced high quality DNA in laboratory tests and under simulated field conditions. The field extraction method should prove useful for working in remote sites, where ice, dry ice, and liquid nitrogen are unavailable; where degradation is likely to occur due to the long distances between the sample site and the laboratory; and in instances where other DNA preservation and transportation methods have been unsuccessful. It may be possible to adapt this method for genomic, metagenomic, transcriptomic and metabolomic projects using samples collected in situ.

  15. Pathogenic fungus Microsporum canis activates the NLRP3 inflammasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Liming; Zhang, Liping; Li, Hua; Chen, Wei; Wang, Hongbin; Wu, Shuxian; Guo, Caiqin; Lu, Ailing; Yang, Guiwen; An, Liguo; Abliz, Paride; Meng, Guangxun

    2014-02-01

    Microsporum canis is a pathogenic fungus with worldwide distribution that causes tinea capitis in animals and humans. M. canis also causes invasive infection in immunocompromised patients. To defy pathogenic fungal infection, the host innate immune system is the first line of defense. As an important arm of innate immunity, the inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes that control the activation of caspase-1, which cleaves proinflammatory cytokine pro-interleukin-1? (IL-1?) into its mature form. To determine whether the inflammasome is involved in the host defense against M. canis infection, we challenged human monocytic THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells with a clinical strain of M. canis isolated from patients with tinea capitis. We found that M. canis infection triggered rapid secretion of IL-1? from both THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells. Moreover, by using gene-specific shRNA and competitive inhibitors, we determined that M. canis-induced IL-1? secretion was dependent on NLRP3. The pathways proposed for NLRP3 inflammasome activation, namely, cathepsin B activity, K(+) efflux, and reactive oxygen species production, were all required for the inflammasome activation triggered by M. canis. Meanwhile, Syk, Dectin-1, and Card9 were found to be involved in M. canis-induced IL-1? secretion via regulation of pro-IL-1? transcription. More importantly, our data revealed that M. canis-induced production of IL-1? was dependent on the NLRP3 inflammasome in vivo. Together, this study unveils that the NLRP3 inflammasome exerts a critical role in host innate immune responses against M. canis infection, and our data suggest that diseases that result from M. canis infection might be controlled by regulating the activation of inflammasomes. PMID:24478101

  16. Distribution pattern and maintenance of ectomycorrhizal fungus diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Gao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ectomycorrhiza (ECM are symbionts formed between soil fungi and plant root systems, in which the fungus exchanges soil-derived nutrients for carbohydrates obtained from the host plant. As an important component of terrestrial ecosystems, ECM fungi can play an essential role in biodiversity maintenance and plant community succession. Understanding the distribution pattern and maintenance of ECM fungal diversity is therefore critical to the study of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. An analysis of results of recent research indicates that ECM fungal diversity increases with increasing latitude, i.e. from tropical to subtropical and temperate regions. The role of dispersal in ECM fungal distribution is dependent on spatial scale. Thus, it has been found to be weak across global and local scales, but strong at regional and small scales. At the local scale, its influence has also been shown to be host-dominant dependent; thus, it is important in host non-dominant ecosystems, but not in host dominant ecosystems. Selection by plant, animal, microbe and abiotic factors can also affect the distribution pattern of ECM fungi, according to studies of temperate ecosystems. In contrast, studies of tropical ecosystems indicate that selection on ECM fungal distribution can be either strong or weak. ECM fungal diversity is also influenced by plant diversity and productivity. The plant diversity hypothesis at host genus-level fits well with ECM fungal diversity in temperate, subtropical and tropical forest ecosystems; in contrast, the productivity diversity hypothesis is only supported by some studies in temperate forest ecosystems. We propose that future studies should focus on the distribution pattern, maintenance mechanism and ecosystem function of ECM fungal diversity at a global scale, taking account ofscenarios of global climate change.

  17. The dynamics of plant cell-wall polysaccharide decomposition in leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, Isabel Eva; de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard

    2011-01-01

    The degradation of live plant biomass in fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants is poorly characterised but fundamental for understanding the mutual advantages and efficiency of this obligate nutritional symbiosis. Controversies about the extent to which the garden-symbiont Leucocoprinus gongylophorus degrades cellulose have hampered our understanding of the selection forces that induced large scale herbivory and of the ensuing ecological footprint of these ants. Here we use a recently established technique, based on polysaccharide microarrays probed with antibodies and carbohydrate binding modules, to map the occurrence of cell wall polymers in consecutive sections of the fungus garden of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior. We show that pectin, xyloglucan and some xylan epitopes are degraded, whereas more highly substituted xylan and cellulose epitopes remain as residuals in the waste material that the ants remove from their fungus garden. These results demonstrate that biomass entering leaf-cutting antfungus gardens is only partially utilized and explain why disproportionally large amounts of plant material are needed to sustain colony growth. They also explain why substantial communities of microbial and invertebrate symbionts have evolved associations with the dump material from leaf-cutting ant nests, to exploit decomposition niches that the ant garden-fungus does not utilize. Our approach thus provides detailed insight into the nutritional benefits and shortcomings associated with fungus-farming in ants.

  18. Metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into bacterial communities in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aylward, Frank O.; Burnum, Kristin E.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Suen, Garret; Tringe, Susannah G.; Adams, Sandra M.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Starrett, Gabriel J.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2012-09-01

    Herbivores gain access to nutrients stored in plant biomass largely by harnessing the metabolic activities of microbes. Leaf-cutter ants of the genus Atta are a hallmark example; these dominant Neotropical herbivores cultivate symbiotic fungus gardens on massive quantities of fresh plant forage. As the external digestive system of the ants, fungus gardens facilitate the production and sustenance of millions of workers in mature Atta colonies. Here we use metagenomic, and metaproteomic techniques to characterize the bacterial diversity and overall physiological potential of fungus gardens from two species of Atta. Our analysis of over 1.2 Gbp of community metagenomic sequence and three 16S pyrotag libraries reveals that, in addition to harboring the dominant fungal crop, these ecosystems contain abundant populations of Enterobacteriaceae, including the genera Enterobacter, Pantoea, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, and Escherichia. We show that these bacterial communities possess genes commonly associated with lignocellulose degradation, and likely participate in the processing of plant biomass. Additionally, we demonstrate that bacteria in these environments encode a diverse suite of biosynthetic pathways, and that they may enrich the nitrogen-poor forage of the ants with B-vitamins, amino acids, and proteins. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fungus gardens are highly-specialized fungus-bacteria communities that efficiently convert plant material into usable energy for their ant hosts. Together with recent investigations into the microbial symbionts of vertebrates, our work underscores the importance of microbial communities to the ecology and evolution of herbivorous metazoans.

  19. The hidden habit of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana: first demonstration of vertical plant transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Moraga, Enrique; López-Díaz, Cristina; Landa, Blanca Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip, obtained from a larva of the opium poppy stem gall wasp Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae), endophytically colonizes opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants and protects them against this pest. The goal of this study was to monitor the dynamics of endophytic colonization of opium poppy by B. bassiana after the fungus was applied to the seed and to ascertain whether the fungus is transmitted vertically via seeds. Using a species-specific nested PCR protocol and DNA extracted from surface-sterilised leaf pieces or seeds of B. bassiana-inoculated opium poppy plants, the fungus was detected within the plant beginning at the growth stage of rosette building and them throughout the entire plant growth cycle (about 120-140 days after sowing). The fungus was also detected in seeds from 50% of the capsules sampled. Seeds that showed positive amplification for B. bassiana were planted in sterile soil and the endophyte was again detected in more than 42% of the plants sampled during all plant growth stages. Beauveria bassiana was transmitted to seeds in 25% of the plants from the second generation that formed a mature capsule. These results demonstrate for the first time the vertical transmission of an entomopathogenic fungus from endophytically colonised maternal plants. This information is crucial to better understand the ecological role of entomopathogenic fungi as plant endophytes and may allow development of a sustainable and cost effective strategy for I. luteipes management in P. somniferum. PMID:24551242

  20. An investigation on tolerance and accumulation of a facultative marine fungus Aspergillus flavus to pentavalent arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vala, Anjana K.; Davariya, Vipul; Upadhyay, R. V.

    2010-03-01

    Tolerance of a facultative marine fungus Aspergillus flavus towards As (V) was tested. Luxuriant growth of the test isolate was observed in culture media with As (V) concentrations of 25 mg L-1 and 50 mg L-1, indicating its tolerance to the metal. Accumulation rate of arsenic was always higher when exposed to As (V) at 50 mg L-1 than at 25 mg L-1. The study reveals Aspergillus flavus as a promising candidate for environmental bioremediation. Arsenic contents (mg g-1) in the fungus when exposed to 50 mg L-1 As (V) were measured as 11.1773, 4.0983, and 8.0000 mg g-1 on day 3, 6 and 9, respectively. The highest content was observed initially, i.e. on day 3, followed by a decline and a rise again. These results provide baseline information for further explorations regarding the exploitation of the fungus for arsenic removal.

  1. Gamma radiation effects on the frequency of toxigenic fungus on sene (Cassia angustifolia) and green tea (Camelia sinensis) samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The levels of contamination and gamma radiation effects were analyzed in the reduction of toxigenic filamentous fungus in two types of medicinal plants. Aspergillus and Penicillium were the predominant genders and 73,80% of the samples showed high levels of fungus contamination

  2. Optimizing copper sulfate treatments for fungus control on channel catfish eggs in high alkalinity/moderate hardness water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in the use of copper sulfate (CuSO4) for fungus (Saprolegnia sp.) control in catfish hatcheries has developed over the past few years. A range-finding study was designed to determine the optimum concentration needed for fungus control on channel catfish eggs in 23.5°C well water at the Stu...

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of the Plant-Pathogenic Soil Fungus Rhizoctonia solani Anastomosis Group 3 Strain Rhs1AP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubeta, Marc A; Thomas, Elizabeth; Dean, Ralph A; Jabaji, Suha; Neate, Stephen M; Tavantzis, Stellos; Toda, Takeshi; Vilgalys, Rytas; Bharathan, Narayanaswamy; Fedorova-Abrams, Natalie; Pakala, Suman B; Pakala, Suchitra M; Zafar, Nikhat; Joardar, Vinita; Losada, Liliana; Nierman, William C

    2014-01-01

    The soil fungus Rhizoctonia solani is a pathogen of agricultural crops. Here, we report on the 51,705,945 bp draft consensus genome sequence of R. solani strain Rhs1AP. A comprehensive understanding of the heterokaryotic genome complexity and organization of R. solani may provide insight into the plant disease ecology and adaptive behavior of the fungus. PMID:25359908

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of the Plant-Pathogenic Soil Fungus Rhizoctonia solani Anastomosis Group 3 Strain Rhs1AP

    OpenAIRE

    Cubeta, Marc A.; Thomas, Elizabeth; Dean, Ralph A.; Jabaji, Suha; Neate, Stephen M.; Tavantzis, Stellos; Toda, Takeshi; Vilgalys, Rytas; Bharathan, Narayanaswamy; Fedorova-abrams, Natalie; Pakala, Suman B.; Pakala, Suchitra M.; Zafar, Nikhat; Joardar, Vinita; Losada, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    The soil fungus Rhizoctonia solani is a pathogen of agricultural crops. Here, we report on the 51,705,945 bp draft consensus genome sequence of R. solani strain Rhs1AP. A comprehensive understanding of the heterokaryotic genome complexity and organization of R. solani may provide insight into the plant disease ecology and adaptive behavior of the fungus.

  5. Complete Genome of Serratia sp. Strain FGI 94, a Strain Associated with Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Frank O; Tremmel, Daniel M; Starrett, Gabriel J; Bruce, David C; Chain, Patrick; Chen, Amy; Davenport, Karen W; Detter, Chris; Han, Cliff S; Han, James; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia N; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Nolan, Matt; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Pitluck, Sam; Teshima, Hazuki; Deshpande, Shweta; Goodwin, Lynne; Woyke, Tanja; Currie, Cameron R

    2013-01-01

    Serratia sp. strain FGI 94 was isolated from a fungus garden of the leaf-cutter ant Atta colombica. Analysis of its 4.86-Mbp chromosome will help advance our knowledge of symbiotic interactions and plant biomass degradation in this ancient ant-fungus mutualism. PMID:23516234

  6. Complete Genome of Serratia sp. Strain FGI 94, a Strain Associated with Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens

    OpenAIRE

    Aylward, Frank O; Tremmel, Daniel M.; Starrett, Gabriel J.; Bruce, David C.; Chain, Patrick; Chen, Amy; Davenport, Karen W.; Detter, Chris; Han, Cliff S; Han, James; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas

    2013-01-01

    Serratia sp. strain FGI 94 was isolated from a fungus garden of the leaf-cutter ant Atta colombica. Analysis of its 4.86-Mbp chromosome will help advance our knowledge of symbiotic interactions and plant biomass degradation in this ancient ant-fungus mutualism.

  7. Identifying the core microbial community in the gut of fungus-growing termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otani, Saria; Mikaelyan, Aram

    2014-01-01

    Gut microbes play a crucial role in decomposing lignocellulose to fuel termite societies, with protists in the lower termites and prokaryotes in the higher termites providing these services. However, a single basal subfamily of the higher termites, the Macrotermitinae, also domesticated a plant biomass-degrading fungus (Termitomyces), and how this symbiont acquisition has affected the fungus-growing termite gut microbiota has remained unclear. The objective of our study was to compare the intestinal bacterial communities of five genera (nine species) of fungus-growing termites to establish whether or not an ancestral core microbiota has been maintained and characterizes extant lineages. Using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we show that gut communities have representatives of 26 bacterial phyla and are dominated by Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes, Proteobacteria, and Synergistetes. A set of 42 genus-level taxa was present in all termite species and accounted for 56-68% of the species-specificreads. Gut communities of termites from the same genus were more similar than distantly related species, suggesting that phylogenetic ancestry matters, possibly in connection with specific termite genus-level ecological niches. Finally, we show that gut communities of fungus-growing termites are similar to cockroaches, both at the bacterial phylum level and in a comparison of the core Macrotermitinae taxa abundances with representative cockroach, lower termite, and higher non-fungus-growing termites. These results suggest that the obligate association with Termitomyces has forced the bacterial gut communities of the fungus-growing termites towards a relatively uniform composition with higher similarity to their omnivorous relatives than to more closely related termites. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Levels of specificity of Xylaria species associated with fungus-growing termites: a phylogenetic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Andre; Ros, V I D

    2009-01-01

    Fungus-growing termites live in obligate mutualistic symbiosis with species of the basidiomycete genus Termitomyces, which are cultivated on a substrate of dead plant material. When the termite colony dies, or when nest material is incubated without termites in the laboratory, fruiting bodies of the ascomycete genus Xylaria appear and rapidly cover the fungus garden. This raises the question whether certain Xylaria species are specialised in occupying termite nests or whether they are just occasional visitors. We tested Xylaria specificity at four levels: (1) fungus-growing termites, (2) termite genera, (3) termite species, and (4) colonies. In South Africa, 108 colonies of eight termite species from three termite genera were sampled for Xylaria. Xylaria was isolated from 69% of the sampled nests and from 57% of the incubated fungus comb samples, confirming high prevalence. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS region revealed 16 operational taxonomic units of Xylaria, indicating high levels of Xylaria species richness. Not much of this variation was explained by termite genus, species, or colony; thus, at level 2-4 the specificity is low. Analysis of the large subunit rDNA region, showed that all termite-associated Xylaria belong to a single clade, together with only three of the 26 non-termite-associated strains. Termite-associated Xylaria thus show specificity for fungus-growing termites (level 1). We did not find evidence for geographic or temporal structuring in these Xylaria phylogenies. Based on our results, we conclude that termite-associated Xylaria are specific for fungus-growing termites, without having specificity for lower taxonomic levels.

  9. Fungus gardens of the leafcutter ant Atta colombica function as egg nurseries for the snake Leptodeira annulata.

    OpenAIRE

    Baer, Boris; Den Boer, Susanne Petronella A; Kronauer, Daniel; Nash, David Richard; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2009-01-01

    Attine ants are well known for their mutualistic symbiosis with fungus gardens, but many other symbionts and commensals have been described. Here, we report the discovery of two clusters of large snake eggs in neighboring fungus gardens of a mature Atta colombica colony. The eggs were completely embedded within the fungus garden and were ignored by the host ants, even when we placed them into another, freshly excavated fungus garden of the same colony. All five eggs contained embryos and two ...

  10. Structure, dynamics and domain organization of the repeat protein Cin1 from the apple scab fungus

    OpenAIRE

    Mesarich, C.H.; Schmitz, M.; Tremouilhac, P.; McGillivray, D.J.; Templeton, M.D.; Dingley, A J

    2012-01-01

    Venturia inaequalis is a hemi-biotrophic fungus that causes scab disease of apple. A recently-identified gene from this fungus, cin1 (cellophane-induced 1), is up-regulated over 1000-fold in planta and considerably on cellophane membranes, and encodes a cysteine-rich secreted protein of 523 residues with eight imperfect tandem repeats of ~ 60 amino acids. The Cin1 sequence has no homology to known proteins and appears to be genus-specific; however, Cin1 repeats and other repeat domains may be...

  11. Conditions for selective degradation of lignin by the fungus Ganoderma australis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, S.; Eyzaguirre, J. (Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Lab. de Bioquimica)

    1992-08-01

    The white-rot fungus Ganoderma australis selectively degrades lignin in the ecosystem 'palo podrido'. Using conditions that simulate those of 'palo podrido' in the laboratory, it was found that low nitrogen content and low O{sub 2} tension stimulate the production of manganese peroxidase and lignin degradation, and depress cellulose degradation and cellulase production. The inverse is found at high nitrogen concentration and high O{sub 2} tension. This agrees with previous results indicating that low O{sub 2} tension and low nitrogen stimulate selective lignin degradation by this fungus. (orig.).

  12. Laccase activity from the fungus trametes hirsuta using an air-lift bioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Couto, S.; Rodríguez, A. (Alfred); Paterson, R. R. M.; Lima, Nelson; Teixeira, J. A., ed. lit.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To produce high laccase activities from the white-rot fungus Trametes hirsuta in an in-house air-lift bioreactor (ALB). Methods and Results: Trametes hirsuta was grown in a 6-l ALB. A fed-batch strategy with glycerol as an addition resulted in maximum laccase activity of 19 400 U l)1, which was the highest reported from the fungus. Conclusion: The ALB configuration with additional glycerol resulted in high laccase activities. Significance and Impact of the Study: This study p...

  13. Analysis on the Natural Remedies to Cure Dandruff/Skin Disease-causing Fungus - Malassezia furfur.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saneesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study was conducted on the levels of effectiveness, of natural remedies such as cow's urine, lemon, boiled rice water, Neem extract etc. in curing dandruff and inhibiting the growth of the causative fungus Malassezia. Various plating techniques were applied using modified Oil - Potato Dextrose Agar as the nutrient medium for the fungal growth. Cow's urine was found to be more stable and effective in inhibiting the fungus, along with boiled rice-water. Lemon juice was highly effective though over a shorter period.

  14. A virus in a fungus in a plant: Three-way symbiosis required for thermal tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, L.M.; Redman, R.S.; Rodriguez, R.J.; Roossinck, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    A mutualistic association between a fungal endophyte and a tropical panic grass allows both organisms to grow at high soil temperatures. We characterized a virus from this fungus that is involved in the mutualistic interaction. Fungal isolates cured of the virus are unable to confer heat tolerance, but heat tolerance is restored after the virus is reintroduced. The virus-infected fungus confers heat tolerance not only to its native monocot host but also to a eudicot host, which suggests that the underlying mechanism involves pathways conserved between these two groups of plants.

  15. Systemic Infection of Medeola virginiana (Liliaceae) by the Fungus Medeolaria farlowii (Ascomycota: Leotiomycetes)

    OpenAIRE

    Lobuglio, Katherine F.; Pfister, Donald H.

    2013-01-01

    Primers were designed to specifically amplify ITS rDNA regions of the fungus Medeolaria farlowii. The fungus was shown to be present not only in stem lesions but in apparently uninfected leaves, stems and rhizomes of the host plant, Medeola virginiana. Since the plant reproduces clonally it is likely that the infection is carried in populations of the host plant through systemic infection of vegetative plant parts. The growth patterns of the plant are reviewed and examples are given of long-t...

  16. Nothing special in the specialist? Draft genome sequence of Cryomyces antarcticus, the most extremophilic fungus from Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterflinger, Katja; Lopandic, Ksenija; Pandey, Ram Vinay; Blasi, Barbara; Kriegner, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The draft genome of the Antarctic endemic fungus Cryomyces antarcticus is presented. This rock inhabiting, microcolonial fungus is extremely stress tolerant and it is a model organism for exobiology and studies on stress resistance in Eukaryots. Since this fungus is a specialist in the most extreme environment of the Earth, the analysis of its genome is of important value for the understanding of fungal genome evolution and stress adaptation. A comparison with Neurospora crassa as well as with other microcolonial fungi shows that the fungus has a genome size of 24 Mbp, which is the average in the fungal kingdom. Although sexual reproduction was never observed in this fungus, 34 mating genes are present with protein homologs in the classes Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes and Dothideomycetes. The first analysis of the draft genome did not reveal any significant deviations of this genome from comparative species and mesophilic hyphomycetes. PMID:25296285

  17. The method of isolation of epidermis of tomato and cucurnber leaves for microscopic investigation of pathogenic fungus development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Dyki

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been described a new, easy method of isolation and staining of epidermis from leaves and cotyledon of healthy cucumber and infected one with the fungus Pseudoperonospora cubensis Berk and Curt and from tomato leaves infected with the fungus Oidiurn licopersicum Cook and Massee. The epidermis was taken of with the use of transparent Scotch from the leaves and stained with toluidyne blue. This method is helpful in distinguising the differences in a structure of epidermis of healthy and infected leaves and in estimating the following: stage of development of the fungus on epidermis, number and size of haustorium in epidermis cells, number of spores of a fungus on the certain surface of the host leaf. This method is valuable because it enables to protect the material for a long time, which is very important during testing a big number of plants. Key words: leaf epidermis, method of isoIation, cucumber, tomato, pathogenic fungus.

  18. Simultaneous detoxification and decolorization of molasses spent wash by the immobilized white-rot fungus Flavodon flavus isolated from a marine habitat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Mohandass, C.; Kamat, S.; Shailaja, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    -rot basidiomycete fungus isolated from a marine habitat. We have further attempted to improve the process of decolorization of MSW by this fungus by immobilization. Polyurethane foam-immobilized-fungus decolorized 10% diluted MSW by 60% and 73 % by day 5 and 7...

  19. Novel fungus-Fe3O4 bio-nanocomposites as high performance adsorbents for the removal of radionuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Congcong; Cheng, Wencai; Sun, Yubing; Wang, Xiangke

    2015-09-15

    The bio-nanocomposites of fungus-Fe3O4 were successfully synthesized using a low-cost self-assembly technique. SEM images showed uniform decoration of nano-Fe3O4 particles on fungus surface. The FTIR analysis indicated that nano-Fe3O4 was combined to the fungus surface by chemical bonds. The sorption ability of fungus-Fe3O4 toward Sr(II), Th(IV) and U(VI) was evaluated by batch techniques. Radionuclide sorption on fungus-Fe3O4 was independent of ionic strength, indicating that inner-sphere surface complexion dominated their sorption. XPS analysis indicated that the inner-sphere radionuclide complexes were formed by mainly bonding with oxygen-containing functional groups (i.e., alcohol, acetal and carboxyl) of fungus-Fe3O4. The maximum sorption capacities of fungus-Fe3O4 calculated from Langmuir isotherm model were 100.9, 223.9 and 280.8mg/g for Sr(II) and U(VI) at pH 5.0, and Th(IV) at pH 3.0, respectively, at 303K. Fungus-Fe3O4 also exhibited excellent regeneration performance for the preconcentration of radionuclides. The calculated thermodynamic parameters showed that the sorption of radionuclides on fungus-Fe3O4 was a spontaneous and endothermic process. The findings herein highlight the novel synthesis method of fungus-Fe3O4 and its high sorption ability for radionuclides. PMID:25897694

  20. Improvement of barnyardgrass potential biocontrol fungus by NTG inducing and 60Co ?-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helminthosporium gramineum Rabenh f.sp. echinochloae (HGE), the Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa spp.) potential biocontrol fungus was induced by nitrosoguanidine (NTG, C2H5N5O3). The high yield of conidia production of inducing strain I262 was obtained. Conidia production of I262 increased 52.6% compared with its original fungus HGE. The experiments of nuclear irradiation were conducted by using I262 as starting strain. I262 was irradiated for 57 minutes by 60Co ?-rays at the dose of 650 Gy. Among selecting mutants, there are 7.75% strains' conidia production higher than that of I262. Among them, conidia production of mutants F II121, F II116 and F II140 increased 54.4%, 51.5% and 41.7% compared with that of I262, respectively. Conidia yield of mutants F II121 and F II116 were doubled compared with their original fungus HGE when using chemical in combine with physical technologies to treat the barnyardgrass' pathogen. The pathogenicity and control efficacy to barnyardgrass of high yield conidia production mutants were as the same as their original fungus HGE. (authors)

  1. Toxicidade de filtrados fúngicos a meloidogyne incognita Fungus filtrates toxicity to Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURO J.N. COSTA

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Visando à obtenção de novas moléculas nematicidas, 18 filtrados de espécies fúngicas e extratos de sete micélios fúngicos foram estudados in vitro quanto aos efeitos sobre a eclosão, motilidade e mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de Meloidogyne incognita. Filtrados fúngicos foram obtidos de culturas em meio Czapek. Metanol foi usado como solvente para obter extratos dos micélios fúngicos. Filtrados de Paecilomyces lilacinus, Fusarium moniliforme e Fusarium oxysporum reduziram a motilidade e eclosão, e aumentaram a mortalidade (P In the search for new nematicidal molecules, 18 fungal species filtrates and seven fungus mycelium extracts were studied in vitro to see their influence on hatching, mobility and mortality of second stage juveniles (J2 of Meloidogyne incognita. Fungal filtrates were obtained from fifteen day Czapek cultures. Methanol was used as solvent to obtain fungus mycelium extracts. Paecilomyces lilacinus, Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium oxysporum filtrates reduced J2 motility and hatching, and increased J2 mortality (P < 0,05 similarly to Aldicarb. Some fungus filtrates reduced J2 mobility without leading to death. Aspergillus flavus, Cylindrocarpon magnusianum, Fusarium solani and Mortierella sp. filtrates reduced (P < 0,05 only J2 hatching. Production of toxic fungus metabolites was not dependent on the amount of mycelium produced. P. lilacinus produced toxic filtrates after one day culturing. Since then, toxicity increased steadily, reaching 100% J2 mortality on the thirteenth day.

  2. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MICROSATELLITE LOCI FOR THE ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS BEAUVERIA BASSIANA (ASCOMYCOTA: HYPOCREALES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauveria bassiana is a cosmopolitan, soil-borne entomopathogenic fungus used for the biological control of insects. Recent molecular phylogenetic data indicate that B. bassiana is a complex of morphologically cryptic species. In order to study the population genetics of B. bassiana , detail speci...

  3. TESTING OF THE INSECT PEST CONTROL FUNGUS BEAUVERIA BASSIANA IN GRASS SHRIMP PALAEMONETES PUGIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embryos, larvae and adult grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio were exposed to spores of the insect-control fungus Beauveria bassiana. onidiospores attached to embryos held by gravid females and remained with the egg mass for at least 6 d. In the first experiment where individual deve...

  4. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE (TNT) BY A PLANT-ASSOCIATED FUNGUS FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The capability of a plant-associated fungus, Fusarium oxyvorum, to transform TNT in liquid cultures was investigated. TNT was transformed into 2-amino-4, 6-dinitrotoluene (2-A-DNT), 4-amino-2, 6-dinitrotoluene (4-A- DNT), and 2, 4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2, 4-DAT) via 2- and 4-hy...

  5. Copper sulfate controls fungus on sunshine bass eggs and increases survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major obstacle to sunshine bass production is fungal growth on eggs. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in channel catfish hatcheries that use troughs, but the effectiveness of it on fish eggs hatched using different systems was not known. Female white bass Morone chrysop...

  6. Using copper sulfate on hybrid striped bass eggs to control fungus and increase survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major obstacle in fish hatcheries is reduced hatch rates due to fungal growth on eggs. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in catfish hatcheries that use troughs, but effectiveness on other species of fish eggs in different hatching systems has only recently been investigat...

  7. Detection of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus in roots of different plant species with the PCR.

    OpenAIRE

    Di Bonito, R.; Elliott, M. L.; Des Jardin, E. A.

    1995-01-01

    PCR was used with the primer pair VANS1-NS21 to detect the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices (commercial inoculum source) on roots of lettuce, zinnia, leek, pepper, and endive plants. The appropriate amplification product was obtained directly from roots without DNA extraction and purification.

  8. A New Eudesmane Sesquiterpene from Nigrospora oryzae, an Endophytic Fungus of Aquilaria sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongli Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new eudesmane-type sesquiterpene, 11 -hydroxy capitulatin B (1 , along with a known related sesquiterpene, capitulatin B (2, was isolated from the endophytic fungus Nigrospora oryzae A8 from Aquilaria sinensis, the only plant resource for agarwood production in China. This research demonstrates that the endophytic fungi from A. sinensis might play a role in the formation of agarwood.

  9. Akanthomycin, a new antibiotic pyridone from the entomopathogenic fungus Akanthomyces gracilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Melissa M; Gibson, Donna M; Clardy, Jon

    2002-03-01

    [structure: see text] Organic extracts of the entomopathogenic fungus Akanthomyces gracilis ARS 2910 contained antibiotics active against Staphylococcus aureus. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the CH2Cl2 extract yielded the antibacterial compound akanthomycin as a mixture of atropisomers along with the closely related compounds 8-methylpyridoxatin and cordypyridone C. Akanthomycin was characterized using X-ray crystallography and NMR. PMID:11869098

  10. Bacterium induces cryptic meroterpenoid pathway in the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Claudia C; Scherlach, Kirstin; Schroeckh, Volker; Horn, Fabian; Nietzsche, Sandor; Brakhage, Axel A; Hertweck, Christian

    2013-05-27

    Stimulating encounter: The intimate, physical interaction between the soil-derived bacterium Streptomyces rapamycinicus and the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus led to the activation of an otherwise silent polyketide synthase (PKS) gene cluster coding for an unusual prenylated polyphenol (fumicycline A). The meroterpenoid pathway is regulated by a pathway-specific activator gene as well as by epigenetic factors. PMID:23649940

  11. Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, the correct scientific name for the fungus causing ash dieback in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Hans-Otto; Queloz, Valentin; Hosoya, Tsuyoshi

    2014-06-01

    Under the rules for the naming of fungi with pleomorphic life-cycles adopted in July 2011, the nomenclaturally correct name for the fungus causing the current ash dieback in Europe is determined to be Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, with the basionym Chalara fraxinea, and Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus as a taxonomic synonym of H. fraxineus. PMID:25083409

  12. Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, the correct scientific name for the fungus causing ash dieback in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Baral, Hans-Otto; Queloz, Valentin; Hosoya, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Under the rules for the naming of fungi with pleomorphic life-cycles adopted in July 2011, the nomenclaturally correct name for the fungus causing the current ash dieback in Europe is determined to be Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, with the basionym Chalara fraxinea, and Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus as a taxonomic synonym of H. fraxineus.

  13. COLONY FOUNDATION, NEST ARCHITECTURE, AND DEMOGRAPHY OF THE FUNGUS-GROWING ANT, MYCOCEPURUS SMITHI (HYMENOPTERA, FORMICIDAE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Mycocepurus is a phylogenetically basal attine ant whose biology may provide insight into the evolutionary origin and ancestral behaviours associated with fungus-growing that uniquely characterizes this tribe. Mycocepurus smithi from Puerto Rico produces sexual females from July to Septem...

  14. Anti-fungus agent born from scent of Japanese horseradish; `Wasabi no kaori` kara umareta kokinzai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiyama, Y.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes anti-fungus performance of essential oil extracted from mustard (containing allyl isofulfocyanate oil at 90% or more). The extracted material has high volatility and strong stimulation. Therefore, in order to use it for anti-fungal purpose, the material should be discharged slowly into an enclosed space to produce an atmosphere with its concentration higher than a certain level. The anti-fungus effect of allyl isofulfocyanate oil is reportedly capable of suppressing growth of fungus, ferments, and gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria at concentration level in gas phase from 4 to 27 ppm. Minimum growth detention concentration has also been investigated. Equivalent result has been acquired also from essential oil extracted from mustard oil. Water soluble preparation or water-system preparation that can be sprayed directly from it have been developed to rinse foodstuffs and treat fungus in foodstuffs containing water in package such as pickles. Divided powders of sustained release type carried on cellulose beads or micro-capsule preparations are available recently. Its application area is expanding remarkably. This paper also describes a result of evaluating the colon bacillus proliferation suppressing effect as an example of the effect tests. Effects to original flavors of foodstuffs are also important. (NEDO)

  15. Convergent coevolution in the domestication of coral mushrooms by fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkacsi, A B; Nees, Jan Pan

    2004-01-01

    Comparisons of phylogenetic patterns between coevolving symbionts can reveal rich details about the evolutionary history of symbioses. The ancient symbiosis between fungus-growing ants, their fungal cultivars, antibiotic-producing bacteria and cultivar-infecting parasites is dominated by a pattern of parallel coevolution, where the symbionts of each functional group are members of monophyletic groups. However, there is one outstanding exception in the fungus-growing ant system, the unidentified cultivar grown only by ants in the Apterostigma pilosum group. We classify this cultivar in the coral-mushroom family Pterulaceae using phylogenetic reconstructions based on broad taxon sampling, including the first mushroom collected from the garden of an ant species in the A. pilosum group. The domestication of the pterulaceous cultivar is independent from the domestication of the gilled mushrooms cultivated by all other fungus-growing ants. Yet it has the same overall assemblage of coevolved ant-cultivar-parasite-bacterium interactions as the other ant-grown fungal cultivars. This indicates a pattern of convergent coevolution in the fungus-growing ant system, where symbionts with both similar and very different evolutionary histories converge to functionally identical interactions.

  16. Investigation of the Effect of Heating, Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza and Thermophilic Fungus on Cotton Wilt Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Naraghi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, combinations of spores of a thermophilic fungus (Talaromyces flavus, Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM and microsclerotia of Verticillium dahliae under various temperature treatment (31-38°C in triplicate trial, were investigated and results were compared with those of non-treated controls. Five cotton seeds were planted in each pot containing 3 kg of pasteurized soil. In each pot, combinations of 4x103 VAM spores, 2.5x10 9 spores of thermophilic fungus (T. flavus and 5x105 microsclerotia of V. dahliae were added. Symptoms of Verticillium wilt were observed after 45 days. Index of disease severity was measured. Results indicated that pre-heating of microsclerotia at 31 and 35°C for 10 and 14 h, respectively, caused a 15% reduction in leaf infection index. Presence of VAM and thermophilic fungus (T. flavus spores caused 23 and 50% reductions in the disease development , respectively. Concurrent presence of mycorrhiza and thermophilic fungus spores caused a 10-20% reduction in disease development. These findings provide a promising approach to the control of Verticillium wilt of cotton. However, heat treatment of soil may prove difficult. Further studies in this regard are required and useful agricultural practices such as seasonal heating may be applied in the cotton fields.

  17. Biodegradation of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene by White-Rot Fungus Irpex lacteus

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Samkeun; Lee, Sun-young; Shin, Kwang-soo

    2009-01-01

    White-rot fungus Irpex lacteus degraded TNT significantly in proportion to the culture time. After 48 h incubation, about 95% of TNT was degraded. Two reduced metabolites were identified as 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT) and 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2-ADNT) which was further degraded.

  18. The ability of fungus Mucor racemosus Fresenius to degrade high concentration of detergent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljevi? Violeta D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of fungus Mucor racemosus Fresenius to decompose high concentration of commercial detergent (MERIX, Henkel, Serbia was investigated in this study. Fungus was cultivated in liquid growth medium by Czapek with addition of detergent at concentration 0.5% during 16 days. The biochemical changes of pH, redox potential, amount of free and total organic acids, and activity of alkaline phosphatase were evaluated by analysis of fermentation broth. Simultaneously, biodegradation percentage of anionic surfactant of tested detergent was confirmed by MBAS assay. At the same time, the influence of detergent on fungal growth and total dry weight biomass was determined. Detergent at concentration 0.5% influenced on decreasing of pH value and increasing of redox potential as well as increasing of free and total organic acids. Enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase was reduced by detergent at concentration 0.5%. The fungus was decomposed about 62% of anionic surfactant during 16 day. Due to fungus was produced higher dry weight biomass (53% in relation to control. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43004

  19. Lenzitopsis oxycedri Malençon & Bertault (Thelephoraceae, Basidiomycota), a Very Rare Wood-Decay Fungus Collected in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    DO?AN, Hasan Hüseyin; Karadelev, Mitko; I?ILO?LU, Mustafa; ÖZTÜRK, Celâleddin

    2007-01-01

    Lenzitopsis oxycedri Malençon & Bertault was collected on a living branch of Juniperus foetidissima Willd. from Thermessos national park, Antalya, situated in the southern Mediterranean part of Turkey. This very rare species belongs to a monotypic genus of Thelephoraceae and was previously only known from Morocco, Spain, and Italy. This fungus causes white rot in juniper wood.

  20. Allelochemical effects of volatile compounds from Muscodor yucatanensis, an endophytic fungus from Bursera simaruba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscodor yucatanensis, a recently described endophytic fungus, was isolated from the leaves of Bursera simaruba. In the present study we tested in vitro the mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by M. yucatanensis for the allelochemical effects against phytopathogenic fungi and fungo...

  1. SnoRNAs from the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa: structural, functional and evolutionary insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chun-Long

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SnoRNAs represent an excellent model for studying the structural and functional evolution of small non-coding RNAs involved in the post-transcriptional modification machinery for rRNAs and snRNAs in eukaryotic cells. Identification of snoRNAs from Neurospora crassa, an important model organism playing key roles in the development of modern genetics, biochemistry and molecular biology will provide insights into the evolution of snoRNA genes in the fungus kingdom. Results Fifty five box C/D snoRNAs were identified and predicted to guide 71 2'-O-methylated sites including four sites on snRNAs and three sites on tRNAs. Additionally, twenty box H/ACA snoRNAs, which potentially guide 17 pseudouridylations on rRNAs, were also identified. Although not exhaustive, the study provides the first comprehensive list of two major families of snoRNAs from the filamentous fungus N. crassa. The independently transcribed strategy dominates in the expression of box H/ACA snoRNA genes, whereas most of the box C/D snoRNA genes are intron-encoded. This shows that different genomic organizations and expression modes have been adopted by the two major classes of snoRNA genes in N. crassa . Remarkably, five gene clusters represent an outstanding organization of box C/D snoRNA genes, which are well conserved among yeasts and multicellular fungi, implying their functional importance for the fungus cells. Interestingly, alternative splicing events were found in the expression of two polycistronic snoRNA gene hosts that resemble the UHG-like genes in mammals. Phylogenetic analysis further revealed that the extensive separation and recombination of two functional elements of snoRNA genes has occurred during fungus evolution. Conclusion This is the first genome-wide analysis of the filamentous fungus N. crassa snoRNAs that aids in understanding the differences between unicellular fungi and multicellular fungi. As compared with two yeasts, a more complex pattern of methylation guided by box C/D snoRNAs in multicellular fungus than in unicellular yeasts was revealed, indicating the high diversity of post-transcriptional modification guided by snoRNAs in the fungus kingdom.

  2. Leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens are biphasic mixed microbial bioreactors that convert plant biomass to polyols with biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somera, Alexandre F; Lima, Adriel M; Dos Santos-Neto, Álvaro J; Lanças, Fernando M; Bacci, Maurício

    2015-07-01

    Leaf-cutter ants use plant matter to culture the obligate mutualistic basidiomycete Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. This fungus mediates ant nutrition on plant resources. Furthermore, other microbes living in the fungus garden might also contribute to plant digestion. The fungus garden comprises a young sector with recently incorporated leaf fragments and an old sector with partially digested plant matter. Here, we show that the young and old sectors of the grass-cutter Atta bisphaerica fungus garden operate as a biphasic solid-state mixed fermenting system. An initial plant digestion phase occurred in the young sector in the fungus garden periphery, with prevailing hemicellulose and starch degradation into arabinose, mannose, xylose, and glucose. These products support fast microbial growth but were mostly converted into four polyols. Three polyols, mannitol, arabitol, and inositol, were secreted by L. gongylophorus, and a fourth polyol, sorbitol, was likely secreted by another, unidentified, microbe. A second plant digestion phase occurred in the old sector, located in the fungus garden core, comprising stocks of microbial biomass growing slowly on monosaccharides and polyols. This biphasic operation was efficient in mediating symbiotic nutrition on plant matter: the microbes, accounting for 4% of the fungus garden biomass, converted plant matter biomass into monosaccharides and polyols, which were completely consumed by the resident ants and microbes. However, when consumption was inhibited through laboratory manipulation, most of the plant polysaccharides were degraded, products rapidly accumulated, and yields could be preferentially switched between polyols and monosaccharides. This feature might be useful in biotechnology. PMID:25911490

  3. The prediction of protein-protein interaction networks in rice blast fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ziding

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein interaction (PPI maps are useful tools for investigating the cellular functions of genes. Thus far, large-scale PPI mapping projects have not been implemented for the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea, which is responsible for the most severe rice disease. Inspired by recent advances in PPI prediction, we constructed a PPI map of this important fungus. Results Using a well-recognized interolog approach, we have predicted 11,674 interactions among 3,017 M. grisea proteins. Although the scale of the constructed map covers approximately only one-fourth of the M. grisea's proteome, it is the first PPI map for this crucial organism and will therefore provide new insights into the functional genomics of the rice blast fungus. Focusing on the network topology of proteins encoded by known pathogenicity genes, we have found that pathogenicity proteins tend to interact with higher numbers of proteins. The pathogenicity proteins and their interacting partners in the entire network were then used to construct a subnet called a pathogenicity network. These data may provide further clues for the study of these pathogenicity proteins. Finally, it has been established that secreted proteins in M. grisea interact with fewer proteins. These secreted proteins and their interacting partners were also compiled into a network of secreted proteins, which may be helpful in constructing an interactome between the rice blast fungus and rice. Conclusion We predicted the PPIs of M. grisea and compiled them into a database server called MPID. It is hoped that MPID will provide new hints as to the functional genomics of this fungus. MPID is available at http://bioinformatics.cau.edu.cn/zzd_lab/MPID.html.

  4. Forage collection, substrate preparation, and diet composition in fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, H.H.D.; Boomsma, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    2. The attine fungus-growing ants are a tribe of more than 230 described species (12 genera) that use a variety of different substrates to manure the symbiotic fungus they cultivate inside the nest. Common 'wisdom' is that the conspicuous leaf-cutting ants primarily use freshly cut plant material, whereas most of the other attine species use dry and partly degraded plant material such as leaf litter and caterpillar frass, but systematic comparative studies of actual resource acquisition across the attine ants have not been done. 3. Here we review 179 literature records of diet composition across the extant genera of fungus-growing ants. The records confirm the dependence of leaf-cutting ants on fresh vegetation but find that flowers, dry plant debris, seeds (husks), and insect frass are used by all genera, whereas other substrates such as nectar and insect carcasses are only used by some. 4. Diet composition was significantly correlated with ant substrate preparation behaviours before adding forage to the fungus garden, indicating that diet composition and farming practices have co-evolved. Neither diet nor preparation behaviours changed when a clade within the paleoattine genus Apterostigma shifted from rearing leucocoprinous fungi to cultivating pterulaceous fungi, but the evolutionary derived transition to yeast growing in the Cyphomyrmex rimosus group, which relies almost exclusively on nectar and insect frass, was associated with specific changes in diet composition. 5. The co-evolutionary transitions in diet composition across the genera of attine ants indicate that fungus-farming insect societies have the possibility to obtain more optimal fungal crops via artificial selection, analogous to documented practice in human subsistence farming

  5. Impact of climate change on potential distribution of Chinese caterpillar fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) in Nepal Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Uttam Babu; Bawa, Kamaljit S

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has already impacted ecosystems and species and substantial impacts of climate change in the future are expected. Species distribution modeling is widely used to map the current potential distribution of species as well as to model the impact of future climate change on distribution of species. Mapping current distribution is useful for conservation planning and understanding the change in distribution impacted by climate change is important for mitigation of future biodiversity losses. However, the current distribution of Chinese caterpillar fungus, a flagship species of the Himalaya with very high economic value, is unknown. Nor do we know the potential changes in suitable habitat of Chinese caterpillar fungus caused by future climate change. We used MaxEnt modeling to predict current distribution and changes in the future distributions of Chinese caterpillar fungus in three future climate change trajectories based on representative concentration pathways (RCPs: RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 6.0) in three different time periods (2030, 2050, and 2070) using species occurrence points, bioclimatic variables, and altitude. About 6.02% (8,989 km2) area of the Nepal Himalaya is suitable for Chinese caterpillar fungus habitat. Our model showed that across all future climate change trajectories over three different time periods, the area of predicted suitable habitat of Chinese caterpillar fungus would expand, with 0.11-4.87% expansion over current suitable habitat. Depending upon the representative concentration pathways, we observed both increase and decrease in average elevation of the suitable habitat range of the species. PMID:25180515

  6. Molecular phylogeny of bark and ambrosia beetles reveals multiple origins of fungus farming during periods of global warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordal Bjarte H

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fungus farming is an unusual life style in insects that has evolved many times in the wood boring weevils named ‘ambrosia beetles’. Multiple occurrences of this behaviour allow for a detailed comparison of the different origins of fungus farming through time, its directionality, and possible ancestral states. We tested these hypotheses with a phylogeny representing the largest data set to date, nearly 4 kb of nucleotides from COI, EF-1?, CAD, ArgK, 28S, and 200 scolytine taxa. Results Phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian or parsimony approaches placed the root of Scolytinae close to the tribe Scolytini and Microborus, but otherwise indicated low resolution at older nodes. More recent clades were well resolved, including ten origins of fungus farming. There were no subsequent reversals to bark or phloem feeding in the fungus farming clades. The oldest origin of fungus farming was estimated near 50 Ma, long after the origin of Scolytinae (100-120 Ma. Younger origins included the species rich Xyleborini, dated to 21 Ma. Sister group comparisons and test of independence between traits indicated that neither gregarious larval feeding nor regular inbreeding by sibling mating was strongly correlated with the origin of fungus farming. Conclusion Origins of fungus farming corresponded mainly with two periods of global warming in the Cenozoic era, which were characterised by broadly distributed tropical forests. Hence, it seems likely that warm climates and expanding tropical angiosperm forests played critical roles in the successful radiation of diverse fungus farming groups. However, further investigation will likely reveal additional biological factors that promote fungus farming.

  7. Relations between rhizobial nodulation and root colonization of Acacia crassicarpa provenances by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus intraradices Schenk and Smith or an ectomycorrhizal fungus, Pisolithus tinctorius Coker & Couch

    OpenAIRE

    Lesueur, Didier; Duponnois, Robin

    2005-01-01

    The present study was initiated to (i) determine the ability of an ectomycorrhizal and an arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiont to colonize three provenances of Acacia crassicarpa root systems, (ii) to examine plant growth response to the mycorrhizal inoculation and (iii) to measure their influence on the rhizobial symbiosis with a Bradyrhizobium isolate. This study has been performed with 2 fungal symbionts: Glomus intraradices, an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungus, and an ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisol...

  8. Biotite weathering and nutrient uptake by ectomycorrhizal fungus, Suillus tomentosus, in liquid-culture experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh-Brunstad, Zsuzsanna; Kent Keller, C.; Thomas Dickinson, J.; Stevens, Forrest; Li, C. Y.; Bormann, Bernard T.

    2008-06-01

    Ectomycorrhiza-forming fungi (EMF) alter the nutrient-acquisition capabilities of vascular plants, and may play an important role in mineral weathering and the partitioning of products of weathering in soils under nutrient-limited conditions. In this study, we isolated the weathering function of Suillus tomentosus in liquid-cultures with biotite micas incubated at room temperature. We hypothesized that the fungus would accelerate weathering by hyphal attachment to biotite surfaces and transmission of nutrient cations via direct exchange into the fungal biomass. We combined a mass-balance approach with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to estimate weathering rates and study dissolution features on biotite surfaces. Weathering of biotite flakes was about 2-3 orders of magnitude faster in shaken liquid-cultures with fungus compared to shaken controls without fungus, but with added inorganic acids. Adding fungus in nonshaken cultures caused a higher dissolution rate than in inorganic pH controls without fungus, but it was not significantly faster than organic pH controls without fungus. The K +, Mg 2+ and Fe 2+ from biotite were preferentially partitioned into fungal biomass in the shaken cultures, while in the nonshaken cultures, K + and Mg 2+ was lost from biomass and Fe 2+ bioaccumulated much less. Fungal hyphae attached to biotite surfaces, but no significant surface changes were detected by SEM. When cultures were shaken, the AFM images of basal planes appeared to be rougher and had abundant dissolution channels, but such channel development was minor in nonshaken conditions. Even under shaken conditions the channels only accounted for only 1/100 of the total dissolution rate of 2.7 × 10 -10 mol of biotite m -2 s -1. The results suggest that fungal weathering predominantly occurred not by attachment and direct transfer of nutrients via hyphae, but because of the acidification of the bulk liquid by organic acids, fungal respiration (CO 2), and complexation of cations which accelerated dissolution of biotite. Results further suggest that both carbohydrate source (abundant here) and a host with which nutrients are exchanged (missing here) may be required for EMF to exert an important weathering effect in soils. Unsaturated conditions and physical dispersal of nutrient-rich minerals in soils may also confer a benefit for hyphal growth and attachment, and promote the attachment-mediated weathering which has been observed elsewhere on soil mineral surfaces.

  9. Compatibility of the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana with neem against sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, on eggplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study on the compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) with neem was conducted against sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), on eggplant. Initially, three concentrations of B. bassiana (106, 1...

  10. Relationship Between a-amylase Activity and Pullulan Profiles, and a-amylase Gene Analyses of the Fungus Aureobasidium Pullulans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropical isolates of Aureobasidium pullulans isolated from various habitats in Thailand were classified based on multilocus phylogenetic analyses using concordance analysis of DNA sequences. This fungus is the major source of commercially produced pullulan, a high molecular weight polysaccharide th...

  11. A white-rot fungus is used as a biocathode to improve electricity production of a microbial fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White-rot fungus is able to secrete laccase, which can reduce O2 to H2O and has been widely used in enzymatic fuel cells. In this work, a strain of white-rot fungus, Coriolus versicolor, is inoculated in the cathodic chamber of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) to improve cathode reduction efficiency for better electricity generation. 2,2?-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothazoline-6-sulfonate), as a redox mediator, is added to the catholyte to facilitate the electron transfer between the electrode and the laccase. The results show that the fungus-based biocathode has better performance than the conventional abiotic cathode, with approximately seven-orders higher power density achieved. This is the first report that white-rot fungus is used to constitute the biocathode of an MFC for improved electricity generation.

  12. Effects of greenhouse pesticides on the soil-dwelling predatory mite Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Acari: Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Ana R; Cloyd, Raymond A; Zaborski, Edmond R

    2004-06-01

    Knowledge of the effects of pesticides on biological control agents is required for the successful implementation of integrated pest management (IPM) programs in greenhouse production systems. Laboratory assays were conducted to assess the effects of an acaricide (dicofol), two insecticides (chlorpyrifos and pyriproxyfen), and two fungicides (fosetyl-Al and mefenoxam) on Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Womersley), a soil-dwelling predatory mite widely marketed in North America under the name Hypoaspis miles (Berlese) as a biological control agent of dark-winged fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.). Eggs, larvae, protonymphs, deutonymphs, and adult male and female mites were first assayed using dicofol, an acaricide used in the experiments as a positive control, applied to filter paper in an enclosed arena. Protonymphs were assayed for lethal and sublethal effects against the remaining pesticides at maximum label-recommended rates applied to filter paper, by using dicofol as a positive control and water as a negative control. The larva and protonymph were the life stages most susceptible to dicofol, with estimated 24-h LC50 values of 9 and 26 mg m(-2), respectively. Chlorpyrifos was highly toxic to the protonymphs of S. scimitus, causing >95% mortality after 24-h exposure and 100% mortality after 48 h. In contrast, the insect growth regulator (IGR) pyriproxyfen was much less toxic to protonymphs of S. scimitus; pyriproxyfen caused no significant mortality, compared with fosetyl-Al and mefenoxam resulted in 17.4 and 27.5% mortality, respectively. The IGR and fungicides increased the duration of the protonymphal stage by 1.2-1.8-fold, but they had no effect on the duration of subsequent life stages, nor on the duration of preoviposition, oviposition, and postoviposition periods of adult females. Total numbers and viability of eggs laid by mites exposed to the IGR and fungicides did not differ from the negative control, although the average rate of egg production during the oviposition of mites exposed to fosetyl-Al was increased. Pyriproxyfen, fosetyl-Al, and mefenoxam are likely to be compatible with S. scimitus under field conditions, because these pesticides caused little mortality of protonymphs, and they did not negatively affect the development and reproduction of S. scimitus under extreme laboratory conditions. In contrast, the use of chlorpyrifos in conjunction with S. scimitus is not recommended unless more comprehensive testing under semifield or field conditions demonstrates compatibility. PMID:15279255

  13. Cytotoxic and Antifungal Activities of 5-Hydroxyramulosin, a Compound Produced by an Endophytic Fungus Isolated from Cinnamomum mollisimum

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Santiago; Chris Fitchett; Munro, Murray H. G.; Juriyati Jalil; Jacinta Santhanam

    2012-01-01

    An endophytic fungus isolated from the plant Cinnamomum mollissimum was investigated for the bioactivity of its metabolites. The fungus, similar to a Phoma sp., was cultured in potato dextrose broth for two weeks, followed by extraction with ethyl acetate. The crude extract obtained was fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Both crude extract and fractions were assayed for cytotoxicity against P388 murine leukemic cells and inhibition of bacterial and fungal pathogens. The b...

  14. Evaluation of the use of Pycnoporus sanguineus fungus for phenolics and genotoxicity decay of a pharmaceutical effluent treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Mariângela Fontes Santiago; Fernando Schimidt; Telma Alves Garcia; Marize Campos Valadares; Luiza Cintra Campos; Paulo de Tarso Ferreira Sales; Renata Alberto de Morais Watanabe

    2012-01-01

    If not properly and efficiently treated, wastes produced by the chemical industry can contaminate the environment. Using fungi able to degrade organic compounds (e.g. phenol) seems to be a prominent method to treat pharmaceutical wastewaters, in particular, the white-rot fungus. The aim of this work was to treat pharmaceutical effluent by the Pycnoporus sanguineus fungus. Three effluent samples were collected in a pharmaceutical industry. The production of enzymes such as laccase and manganes...

  15. Medium Optimization for Exopolysaccharide Production in Liquid Culture of Endophytic Fungus Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12

    OpenAIRE

    Youliang Peng; Ligang Zhou; Shiqiong Lu; Ziling Mao; Tijiang Shan; Yan Mou; Liang Xu; Peiqin Li

    2012-01-01

    Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12, an endophytic fungus from Dioscorea zingiberensis, is a high producer of spirobisnaphthalenes with various bioactivities. The exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by this fungus also shows excellent antioxidant activity. In this study, the experimental designs based on statistics were employed to evaluate and optimize the medium for EPS production in liquid culture of Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12. For increasing EPS ...

  16. Metagenomic Insights into Metabolic Capacities of the Gut Microbiota in a Fungus-Cultivating Termite (Odontotermes yunnanensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ning; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Haokui; Zhang, Meiling; Yan, Xing; Wang, Qian; Long, Yanhua; Xie, Lei; Wang, Shengyue; Huang, Yongping; Zhou, Zhihua

    2013-01-01

    Macrotermitinae (fungus-cultivating termites) are major decomposers in tropical and subtropical areas of Asia and Africa. They have specifically evolved mutualistic associations with both a Termitomyces fungi on the nest and a gut microbiota, providing a model system for probing host-microbe interactions. Yet the symbiotic roles of gut microbes residing in its major feeding caste remain largely undefined. Here, by pyrosequencing the whole gut metagenome of adult workers of a fungus-cultivatin...

  17. Compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium longisporum (Petch) Zare & Gams with the predatory midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rondani (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo Velez, Maria Patricia

    2008-01-01

    The combined use of the predatory midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rondani (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) and the entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium longisporum (Petch) Zare & Gams., biocontrol agents of the green peach aphid Myzus persicae, was evaluated in a semi-greenhouse setting. Results from this experiment showed a statistically significant additive effect of these organisms in controlling aphid populations: a higher reduction of aphid populations in cages with fungus plus predator was ob...

  18. A review of the Mycrocylus ulei Ascomycetes fungus, causative agent of South American rubber-leaf blight

    OpenAIRE

    Ibonne Aydee García Romero; Fabio Ancízar Aristizábar; Dolly Montoya Castaño

    2007-01-01

    The Microcyclus ulei Ascomycetes fungus is the causal agent of south-American leaf blight (SALB), this being one of the most important diseases affecting the natural rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) in Latina-America and has been responsible for numerous economic losses. This fungus has presented high physiological variability, suggesting its great adaptability. HCN tolerance has been described as being one of the mechanisms associated with its virulence. Resistant Hevea clones have been obta...

  19. Pan-European Distribution of White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) Not Associated with Mass Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Puechmaille, Se?bastien J.; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Korn, Vanessa; Fuller, Hubert; Forget, Fre?de?ric; Mu?hldorfer, Kristin; Kurth, Andreas; Teeling, Emma C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The dramatic mass mortalities amongst hibernating bats in Northeastern America caused by ‘‘white nosesyndrome’’ (WNS) continue to threaten populations of different bat species. The cold-loving fungus, Geomyces destructans, is the most likely causative agent leading to extensive destruction of the skin, particularly the wing membranes. Recent investigations in Europe confirmed the presence of the fungus G. destructans without associated mass mortality in hibernating bat...

  20. Molecular Characterization of a Heterothallic Mating System in Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the Fungus Causing White-Nose Syndrome of Bats

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Jonathan M.; Kubatova, Alena; Novakova, Alena; Minnis, Andrew M.; Kolarik, Miroslav; Lindner, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) of bats has devastated bat populations in eastern North America since its discovery in 2006. WNS, caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has spread quickly in North America and has become one of the most severe wildlife epidemics of our time. While P. destructans is spreading rapidly in North America, nothing is known about the sexual capacity of this fungus. To gain insight into the genes involved in sexual reproduction, we characterized the mating-type ...

  1. Global Proteomics of the Extremophile Black Fungus Cryomyces antarcticus Using 2D-Electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Kristina Zakharova; Katja Sterflinger; Ebrahim Razzazi-Fazeli; Katharina Noebauer; Gorji Marzban

    2014-01-01

    The microcolonial black fungus Cryomyces antarcticus is an extremophile organism growing on and in rock in the Antarctic desert. Ecological plasticity and stress tolerance make it a perfect model organism for astrobiology. 2D-gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry were performed to explore the protein repertoire, which allows the fungus to survive in the harsh environment. Only a limited number of proteins could be identified by using sequence homolo...

  2. Comparison of radial growth rate of the mutualistic fungus of Atta sexdens rubropilosa forel in two culture media

    OpenAIRE

    Miyashira, C.H.; Tanigushi, D.G.; Gugliotta, A.M.; D.Y.A.C Santos

    2010-01-01

    In vitro culture of the mutualistic fungus of leaf-cutting ants is troublesome due to its low growth rate, which leads to storage problems and contaminants accumulation. This paper aims at comparing the radial growth rate of the mutualistic fungus of Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel in two different culture media (Pagnocca B and MEA LP). Although total MEA LP radial growth was greater all along the bioassay, no significant difference was detected between growth efficiencies of the two media. Pr...

  3. Molecular phylogeny of bark and ambrosia beetles reveals multiple origins of fungus farming during periods of global warming

    OpenAIRE

    Jordal Bjarte H; Cognato Anthony I

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Fungus farming is an unusual life style in insects that has evolved many times in the wood boring weevils named ‘ambrosia beetles’. Multiple occurrences of this behaviour allow for a detailed comparison of the different origins of fungus farming through time, its directionality, and possible ancestral states. We tested these hypotheses with a phylogeny representing the largest data set to date, nearly 4 kb of nucleotides from COI, EF-1?, CAD, ArgK, 28S, and 200 scolyt...

  4. Benzopyranones from the Endophytic Fungus Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12 and Their Bioactivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligang Zhou

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The endophytic fungus Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12 was isolated from the hybrid ‘Neva’ of Populus deltoides Marsh × P. nigra L. In this study, four benzopyranones were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12, and identified as palmariol B (1, 4-hydroxymellein (2, alternariol 9-methyl ether (3, and botrallin (4 by means of physicochemical and spectroscopic analysis. All the compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial, antifungal, antinematodal and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. 4-Hydroxymellein (2 exhibited stronger antibacterial activity than the other compounds. Palmariol B (1 showed stronger antimicrobial, antinematodal and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities than alternariol 9-methyl ether (3 which indicated that the chlorine substitution at position 2 may contribute to its bioactivity. The results indicate the potential of this endophytic fungus as a source of bioactive benzopyranones.

  5. Tea fungus fermentation on a substrate with iron(ii-ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron is essential element for human metabolism and it is a constituent of both heme- containing and nonheme proteins. Its deficiency can cause serious diseases, i.e. iron-deficiency anemia, with some fatal consequences. Tea fungus beverage has high nutritional value and some pharmaceutical effects. It is widely consumed allover the world and its benefits were proved a number of times. The aim of this paper was to investigate tea fungus fermentation on a substrate containing iron(II-ions and the possibility of obtaining a beverage enriched with iron. We monitored pH, iron content and also the production of L-ascorbic acid, which is very important for iron absorption in humans.

  6. Epigenetic Genome Mining of an Endophytic Fungus Leads to the Pleiotropic Biosynthesis of Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xu-Ming; Xu, Wei; Li, Dehai; Yin, Wen-Bing; Chooi, Yit-Heng; Li, Yong-Quan; Tang, Yi; Hu, Youcai

    2015-06-22

    The small-molecule biosynthetic potential of most filamentous fungi has remained largely unexplored and represents an attractive source for the discovery of new compounds. Genome sequencing of Calcarisporium arbuscula, a mushroom-endophytic fungus, revealed 68 core genes that are involved in natural product biosynthesis. This is in sharp contrast to the predominant production of the ATPase inhibitors aurovertin?B and D in the wild-type fungus. Inactivation of a histone H3 deacetylase led to pleiotropic activation and overexpression of more than 75?% of the biosynthetic genes. Sampling of the overproduced compounds led to the isolation of ten compounds of which four contained new structures, including the cyclic peptides arbumycin and arbumelin, the diterpenoid arbuscullic acid?A, and the meroterpenoid arbuscullic acid?B. Such epigenetic modifications therefore provide a rapid and global approach to mine the chemical diversity of endophytic fungi. PMID:26013262

  7. Isolation and fusion of protoplasts from the phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotium rolfsii (Sacc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikandar Hayat

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sclerotium rolfsii (Sacc. is a serious plant pathogenic fungus and lacks perfect (basidial stage in production. Protoplast fusion technology was employed to reconstruct fusants from this fungus. Two strains designated as A and R were used. Maximum protoplast yields of 3.8x10(5 /g mycelia and 2.8x10(5 /g mycelia were formed in strains A and R respectively. Osmotic stabilizer sucrose 1M gave maximum yield. Lysing enzyme at the rate of 15mg/ml was found best for yield. Fusion of protoplasts from strains A and R was carried out in fusion media containing PEG 4000 30% (w/v with 0.2mM CaCl2. Four fusants F1, F2, F3 and F4 were recovered. Morphological, physiological and pathogenic characters of fusants were compared with parent strains on carrots, beans and tomato.

  8. Isolation and fusion of protoplasts from the phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotium rolfsii (Sacc.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sikandar, Hayat; Christos, Christias.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sclerotium rolfsii (Sacc.) is a serious plant pathogenic fungus and lacks perfect (basidial) stage in production. Protoplast fusion technology was employed to reconstruct fusants from this fungus. Two strains designated as A and R were used. Maximum protoplast yields of 3.8x10(5) /g mycelia and 2.8x [...] 10(5) /g mycelia were formed in strains A and R respectively. Osmotic stabilizer sucrose 1M gave maximum yield. Lysing enzyme at the rate of 15mg/ml was found best for yield. Fusion of protoplasts from strains A and R was carried out in fusion media containing PEG 4000 30% (w/v) with 0.2mM CaCl2. Four fusants F1, F2, F3 and F4 were recovered. Morphological, physiological and pathogenic characters of fusants were compared with parent strains on carrots, beans and tomato.

  9. Cytotoxic metabolites produced by Alternaria no.28, an endophytic fungus isolated from Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jian-Chun; Zhang, Ya-Mei; Hu, Ling; Ma, Ya-Tuan; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2009-11-01

    From the medicinal plant Ginkgo biloba the fungal endophyte Alternaria no.28 was isolated. Extract of the fungus grown in liquid culture media exhibited marked cytotoxic activity when tested in vitro against brine shrimp (Artemia salina). Eight compounds were isolated from the extract of cultures of this endophytic fungus and were elucidated as alterperylenol (1), altertoxin I (2), alternariol (3), alternariol monomethyl ether (4), tenuazonic acid (5) and its derivative (6), together with ergosterol and ergosta-4, 6, 8, 22-tetraen-3-one by means of spectroscopic analysis. Among them, both 5 and 6 showed significant cytotoxic effects in the brine shrimp bioassy, with mortality rates of 73.6% and 68.9%, respectively, at a concentration of 10 microg x mL(-1), and they were first isolated from endophytic fungi. PMID:19967976

  10. Towards a better understanding of the evolution of specialized parasites of fungus-growing ant crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yek, Sze Huei; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2012-01-01

    Fungus-growing ants have interacted and partly coevolved with specialised microfungal parasites of the genus Escovopsis since the origin of ant fungiculture about 50 million years ago. Here, we review the recent progress in understanding the patterns of specificity of this ant-parasite association, covering both the colony/population level and comparisons between phylogenetic clades. We use a modified version of Tinbergen’s four categories of evolutionary questions to structure our review in complementary approaches addressing both proximate questions of development and mechanism, and ultimate questions of (co)adaptation and evolutionary history. Using the same scheme, we identify future research questions that are likely to be particularly illuminating for understanding the ecology and evolution of Escovopsis parasitism of the cultivar maintained by fungus-growing ants

  11. Bioactive secondary metabolites from the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebel R.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the chemical investigation and cytotoxic activity of the secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco. This plant was collected from the Beni-Mellal Mountain in Morocco and belongs to the Lamiaceae family and is named in Morocco “Salmia”. The endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. was isolated from the tissues of the stem of this plant. The fungal strain was identified by PCR. The crude organic extract of the fungal strain was proven to be active when tested for cytotoxicity against L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. Chemical investigation of the secondary metabolites showed that cochliodinol is the main component beside isocochliodinol. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined on the basis of NMR analysis (1H, 13C, COSY and HMBC as well as by mass spectrometry using ESI (Electron Spray Ionisation as source.

  12. Zirconia enrichment in zircon sand by selective fungus-mediated bioleaching of silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Vipul; Syed, Asad; Bhargava, Suresh K; Ahmad, Absar; Sastry, Murali

    2007-04-24

    One of the important routes for the production of zirconia is by chemical treatment and removal of silica from zircon sand (ZrSixOy). We present here a completely green chemistry approach toward enrichment of zirconia in zircon sand; this is based on the reaction of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum with zircon sand by a process of selective extracellular bioleaching of silica nanoparticles. Since this reaction does not result in zirconia being simultaneously leached out from the sand, there is a consequent enrichment of the zirconia component in zircon sand. We believe that fungal enzymes specifically hydrolyze the silicates present in the sand to form silicic acid, which on condensation by certain other fungal enzymes results in room-temperature synthesis of silica nanoparticles. This fungus-mediated twofold approach might have vast commercial implications in low-cost, ecofriendly, room-temperature syntheses of technologically important oxide nanomaterials from potentially cheap naturally available raw materials like zircon sand. PMID:17375939

  13. Nickel oxide nanoparticles film produced by dead biomass of filamentous fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadori, Marcia Regina; Nascimento, Cláudio Augusto Oller; Corrêa, Benedito

    2014-09-01

    The synthesis of nickel oxide nanoparticles in film form using dead biomass of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus aculeatus as reducing agent represents an environmentally friendly nanotechnological innovation. The optimal conditions and the capacity of dead biomass to uptake and produce nanoparticles were evaluated by analyzing the biosorption of nickel by the fungus. The structural characteristics of the film-forming nickel oxide nanoparticles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). These techniques showed that the nickel oxide nanoparticles had a size of about 5.89 nm and were involved in a protein matrix which probably permitted their organization in film form. The production and uptake of nickel oxide nanoparticles organized in film form by dead fungal biomass bring us closer to sustainable strategies for the biosynthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles.

  14. The artificial cultivation of medicinal Caterpillar Fungus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycetes): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Kai; Ye, Meng; Lin, Xiao; Zhou, Zuji

    2013-01-01

    Caterpillar fungus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis), is highly valued in China as a dietary supplement or tonic food and natural remedy. The combination of the fungus and dead insect has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for centuries, and evidence shows its efficacy on immunomodulatory potentials. The price of O. sinensis has continued to increase over the last few years due to growing worldwide demand, driving research to determine methods of artificial cultivation to make O. sinensis a more affordable material for commercial trade. This study highlights many aspects of artificial cultivation of O. sinensis, including separation of the anamorph, culture of the mycelium, cultivation of the fruiting bodies, bioecological characteristics of the host insect, and two patterns of artificial cultivation. In addition, this review discusses the current state, limitations, remedies, and future prospects, aiming to draw researchers' attention to the new frontier of research needs in this context. PMID:24266368

  15. Effect of plant extracts and systemic fungicide on the pineapple fruit-rotting fungus, Ceratocystis paradoxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damayanti, M; Susheela, K; Sharma, G J

    1996-01-01

    Antifungal activities of extracts of sixteen plants were tested against Ceratocystis paradoxa which causes soft rot of pineapples. Xanthium strumarium was the most effective followed by Allium sativum. The effectiveness of various extracts against C. paradoxa was in the decreasing order of Meriandra bengalensis, Mentha piperita, Curcuma longa, Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus, Toona ciliata, Vitex negundo, Azadirachta indica, Eupatorium birmanicum, Ocimum sanctum and Leucas aspera. Extracts of Cassia tora, Gynura cusimba, Calotropis gigantea and Ocimum canum showed poor fungitoxicity. Ethanol was suitable for extraction of the inhibitory substance from X. strumarium. Acetonitrile was highly toxic to this fungus. Millipore filter-sterilized extracts had a more inhibitory effect on the fungus than the autoclaved samples. Treatment of pineapple fruits infested with C. paradoxa by X. strumarium extract reduced the severity of the disease. PMID:9022263

  16. The use of the fungus Dichomitus squalens for degradation in rotating biological contactor conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotný, Cen?k; Trošt, Nina; Šlušla, Martin; Svobodová, Kate?ina; Mikesková, Hana; Válková, Hana; Malachová, Kate?ina; Pavko, Aleksander

    2012-06-01

    Biodegradation potential of Dichomitus squalens in biofilm cultures and rotating biological contactor (RBC) was investigated. The fungus formed thick biofilms on inert and lignocellulosic supports and exhibited stable activities of laccase and manganese peroxidase to reach 40-62 and 25-32% decolorization of anthraquinone Remazol Brilliant Blue R and heterocyclic phthalocyanine dyes, respectively. The decolorization ceased when glucose concentration dropped to 1 mmol l(-1). In RBC reactor, respective decolorizations of Remazol Brilliant Blue R and heterocyclic Methylene Blue and Azure B dyes (50 mg l(-1)) attained 99%, 93%, and 59% within 7, 40 and 200 h. The fungus exhibited tolerance to coliform and non-coliform bacteria on rich organic media, the inhibition occurred only on media containing tryptone and NaCl. The degradation efficiency in RBC reactor, capability to decolorize a wide range of dye structures and tolerance to bacterial stress make D. squalens an organism applicable to remediation of textile wastewaters. PMID:22513255

  17. Edible fungus degrade bisphenol A with no harmful effect on its fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengdong; Li, Mingzhu; Chen, Xiaoyan; Li, Mingchun

    2015-08-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical that is ubiquitous in the environment because of its broad industrial use. The authors report that the most widely cultivated mushroom in the world (i.e., white-rot fungus, Pleurotus ostreatus) efficiently degraded 10mg/L of BPA in 7 days. Extracellular laccase was identified as the enzyme responsible for this activity. LC-MS analysis of the metabolites revealed the presence of both low- and high-molecular-weight products obtained via oxidative cleavage and coupling reactions, respectively. In particular, an analysis of the fatty acid composition and chemical structure of the fungal mycelium demonstrated that exposure to BPA resulted in no harmful effects on this edible fungus. The results provide a better understanding of the environmental fate of BPA and its potential impact on food crops. PMID:25933259

  18. Microscopic fungus-like organisms and fungi of the S?owi?ski National Park. I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jwona Adamska

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years 1996- 1998, the occurrence of microscopic fungus-like organisms and fungi in plant associations of seven permanent plots of the S?owi?ski National Park, Poland, was investigated. The plant associations included Betuletum pubescentis,Betulo-Quercetum roboris, Cirsio-Polygoneum, Filipendulo-Geronietum, Myrico-Salicetum auritae, Phragmitetum australis, and Ribo nigri-Alnetum. A total of 1509 plant samples representing 272 species in 48 families were collected. Three hundred and ten species in 79 genera of fungus-like organisms and fungi were found. Most species were recognized in the warmer and more humid year 1998. The highest number of species represented mitosporic fungi, and the lowest came from the phylum Oomycota. The fungi relatively frequently found also were those of Basidiomycota. The greatest diversity of species of the microorganisms was revealed in the Cirsio-Polygonetum and Filipendulo-Geranietum plant associations.

  19. Mathematical Modeling on Obligate Mutualism: Interactions between leaf-cutter ants and their fungus garden

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Yun; Clark, Rebecca; Fewell, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple mathematical model by applying Michaelis-Menton equations of enzyme kinetics to study the mutualistic interaction between the leaf cutter ant and its fungus garden at the early stage of colony expansion. We derive the sufficient conditions on the extinction and coexistence of these two species. In addition, we give a region of initial condition that leads to the extinction of two species when the model has an interior attractor. Our global analysis indicates that the division of labor by workers ants and initial conditions are two important {factors} that determine whether leaf cutter ants colonies and their fungus garden survive and grow can exist or not. We validate the model by doing the comparing between model simulations and data on fungal and ant colony growth rates under laboratory conditions. We perform sensitive analysis and parameter estimation of the model based on the experimental data to gain more biological insights on the ecological interactions between leaf cutter ants and ...

  20. Chondrosterins A–E, Triquinane-Type Sesquiterpenoids from Soft Coral-Associated Fungus Chondrostereum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Liang Xie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The marine fungus Chondrostereum sp. was collected from a soft coral Sarcophyton tortuosum from the South China Sea. This fungus was cultured in potato dextrose broth medium and the culture broth was extracted with EtOAc. Five new triquinane-type sesquiterpenoids, chondrosterins A–E (1–5, and the known sesquiterpenoid hirsutanol C (6, were isolated. The structures were elucidated mainly on the basis of NMR, MS, and X-ray single-crystal diffraction data. Chondrosterin A (1 showed significant cytotoxic activities against cancer lines A549, CNE2, and LoVo with IC50 values of 2.45, 4.95, and 5.47 ?M, respectively.

  1. Leucoagaricus gongylophorus Produces Diverse Enzymes for the Degradation of Recalcitrant Plant Polymers in Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aylward, Frank O.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Teiling, Clotilde; Tremmel, Daniel; Moeller, Joseph; Scott, Jarrod J.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Malfatti, Stephanie; Monroe, Matthew E.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Smith, Richard D.; Weinstock, George; Gerardo, Nicole; Suen, Garret; Lipton, Mary S.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2013-06-12

    Plants represent a large reservoir of organic carbon comprised largely of recalcitrant polymers that most metazoans are unable to deconstruct. Many herbivores gain access to nutrients in this material indirectly by associating with microbial symbionts, and leaf-cutter ants are a paradigmatic example. These ants use fresh foliar biomass as manure to cultivate fungus gardens composed primarily of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, a basidiomycetous symbiont that produces specialized hyphal swellings that serve as a food source for the host ant colony. Although leaf-cutter ants are conspicuous herbivores that contribute substantially to carbon turnover in Neotropical ecosystems, the process through which plant biomass is degraded in their fungus gardens is not well understood. Here we present the first draft genome of L. gongylophorus, and using genomic, metaproteomic, and phylogenetic tools we investigate its role in lignocellulose degradation in the fungus gardens of both Atta cephalotes and Acromyrmex echinatior leaf-cutter ants. We show that L. gongylophorus produces a diversity of lignocellulases in fungus gardens, and is likely the primary driver of plant biomass degradation in these ecosystems. We also show that this fungus produces distinct sets of lignocellulases throughout the different stages of biomass degradation, including numerous cellulases and laccases that may be playing an important but previously uncharacterized role in lignocellulose degradation. Our study provides a comprehensive analysis of plant biomass degradation in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens and provides insight into the molecular dynamics underlying the symbiosis between these dominant herbivores and their obligate fungal cultivar.

  2. Transcriptome of an entomophthoralean fungus (Pandora formicae) shows molecular machinery adjusted for successful host exploitation and transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma?agocka, Joanna; Grell, Morten N.

    2015-01-01

    Pandora formicae is an obligate entomopathogenic fungus from the phylum Entomophthoromycota, known to infect only ants from the genus Formica. In the final stages of infection, the fungus induces the so-called summit disease syndrome, manipulating the host to climb up vegetation prior to death and fixing the dead cadaver to the surface, all to increase efficient spore dispersal. To investigate this fascinating pathogen-host interaction, we constructed interaction transcriptome libraries from two final infection stages from the material sampled in the field: (1) when the cadavers were fixed, but the fungus had not grown out through the cuticle and (2) when the fungus was growing out from host cadaver and producing spores. These phases mark the switch from within-host growth to reproduction on the host surface, after fungus outgrowth through host integument. In this first de novo transcriptome of an entomophthoralean fungus, we detected expression of many pathogenicity-related genes, including secreted hydrolytic enzymes and genes related to morphological reorganization and nutrition uptake. Differences in expression of genes in these two infection phases were compared and showed a switch in enzyme expression related to either cuticle breakdown or cell proliferation and cell wall remodeling, particularly in subtilisin-like serine protease and trypsin-like protease transcripts.

  3. First Evidence of Amphibian Chytrid Fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) and Ranavirus in Hong Kong Amphibian Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Kolby, Jonathan E.; Smith, Kristine M.; Berger, Lee; Karesh, William B.; Preston, Asa; Pessier, Allan P.; Skerratt, Lee F

    2014-01-01

    The emerging infectious amphibian diseases caused by amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) and ranaviruses are responsible for global amphibian population declines and extinctions. Although likely to have been spread by a variety of activities, transcontinental dispersal appears closely associated with the international trade in live amphibians. The territory of Hong Kong reports frequent, high volume trade in amphibians, and yet the presence of Bd and ranavirus have n...

  4. Aspiperidine oxide, a piperidine N-oxide from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus indologenus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lene Maj; Kildgaard, Sara

    2015-01-01

    A novel secondary metabolite, aspiperidine oxide, was isolated from the filamentous fungus, Aspergillus indologenus. The structure of aspiperidine oxide was determined from extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis supported by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The structure revealed a rare piperidine N-oxide, not observed in filamentous fungi before. A biosynthetic pathway towards aspiperidine oxide is proposed, based on tentative identification of intermediates from UHPLC-DAD-HRMS data.

  5. Anthelmintic Efficacy of Gold Nanoparticles Derived from a Phytopathogenic Fungus, Nigrospora oryzae

    OpenAIRE

    Kar, Pradip Kumar; Murmu, Sanatan; Saha, Saswati; Tandon, Veena; Acharya, Krishnendu

    2014-01-01

    Exploring a green chemistry approach, this study brings to the fore, the anthelmintic efficacy of gold nanoparticles, highlighting the plausible usage of myconanotechnology. Gold nanoparticles of ?6 to ?18 nm diameter were synthesized by treating the mycelia-free culture filtrate of the phytopathogenic fungus with gold chloride. Their size and morphology were confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, DLS data, AFM and TEM images. The XRD studies reveal a crystalline nature of the nanoparticles, w...

  6. Septoglomus altomontanum, a new arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus from mountainous and alpine areas in Andalucía (southern Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Palenzuela, Javier; Azcón-Aguilar, Concepción; Barea, José-Miguel; da Silva, Gladstone Alves; Oehl, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    A new arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus was found in Sierra Nevada National Park of Andalucía (Southern Spain). It forms intraradical hyphae, vesicles and arbuscles, typical characteristics of Glomeromycetes. The spores are dark reddish brown to dark reddish black, 132–205 ?m diam, and are formed on pigmented subtending hyphae whose pores are regularly closed by a thick septum at the spore base but without support of introverted wall thickening. Phylogenetic analyses on concatenate seque...

  7. Identification and Isolation of Two Ascomycete Fungi from Spores of the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Scutellospora castanea

    OpenAIRE

    Hijri, Mohamed; Redecker, Dirk; Petetot, Jean A. Macdonald-comber; Voigt, Kerstin; Wo?stemeyer, Johannes; Sanders, Ian R.

    2002-01-01

    Two filamentous fungi with different phenotypes were isolated from crushed healthy spores or perforated dead spores of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Scutellospora castanea. Based on comparative sequence analysis of 5.8S ribosomal DNA and internal transcribed spacer fragments, one isolate, obtained from perforated dead spores only, was assigned to the genus Nectria, and the second, obtained from both healthy and dead spores, was assigned to Leptosphaeria, a genus that also contains p...

  8. Sensitivity of the Entomogenous Fungus Beauveria bassiana to Selected Plant Growth Regulators and Spray Additives

    OpenAIRE

    Storey, Greggory K.; Gardner, Wayne A.

    1986-01-01

    Mefluidide was the only one of four plant growth regulators that caused little to no significant inhibition of in vitro germination and growth of the entomogenous fungus Beauveria bassiana. Silaid, paclobutrazol, and flurprimidol significantly inhibited germination and growth. Mortality of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, resulting from B. bassiana was significantly reduced when larvae were exposed to conidia plus soil treated with paclobutrazol. Larval mortality resulting from conidia p...

  9. Potential of ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius to tolerate and to degrade trifluoroacetate into fluoroform

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Albina R.; Ramos, Miguel A.; Cravo, Sara; Afonso, Carlos; Castro, Paula M. L.

    2014-01-01

    Trifluoroacetate (TFA) is a persistent fluorinated organic compound originated from the degradation of fluorinated compounds, such as HCFC and isoflurane, or as a side product from the thermolysis of fluoropolymers, like Teflon. TFA can reach soil through precipitation, where it persists in water and soil, and may contribute to forest decline. In this study, we assessed the capacity of P. tinctorius, an ectomycorrhizal fungus (ECMF), to tolerate and/or degrade TFA. In vitro studies in glucose...

  10. Aniquinazolines A–D, Four New Quinazolinone Alkaloids from Marine-Derived Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus nidulans

    OpenAIRE

    Bin-Gui Wang; Ming-Hui Wang; Chun-Shun Li; Chun-Yan An; Xiao-Ming Li; Gang-Ming Xu

    2013-01-01

    Four new quinazolinone alkaloids, namely, aniquinazolines A–D (1–4), were isolated and identified from the culture of Aspergillus nidulans MA-143, an endophytic fungus obtained from the leaves of marine mangrove plant Rhizophora stylosa. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, and their absolute configurations were determined on the basis of chiral HPLC analysis of the acidic hydrolysates. The structure for 1 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffrac...

  11. Antifungal compounds of Xylaria sp., an endophytic fungus isolated from Palicourea marcgravii (Rubiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five compounds, 2-hexyl-3-methyl-butanodioic acid (1), cytochalasin D (2), 7-dechlorogriseofulvin (3), cytochalasin B (4) and griseofulvin (5), have been isolated from the endophytic fungus Xylaria sp., and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. In the bioautography assay against Cladosporium cladosporioides and Cladosporium sphaerospermum, compounds 1 and 2 were found to be active while compounds 3, 4 and 5 did not show antifungal activity. (author)

  12. Colonization of Corn, Zea mays, by the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana†

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Bruce L.; Lewis, Leslie C.

    2000-01-01

    Light and electron microscopy were used to describe the mode of penetration by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin into corn, Zea mays L. After inoculation with a foliar spray of conidia, germinating hyphae grew randomly across the leaf surface. Often a germ tube formed from a conidium and elongated only a short distance before terminating its growth. Not all developing hyphae on the leaf surface penetrated the cuticle. However, when penetration did occur, the p...

  13. 13C NMR studies of carbon metabolism in the hyphal fungus Aspergillus nidulans

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkema, C; Kester, H.C.M.; Visser, J. de

    1985-01-01

    Natural-abundance high-resolution 13C NMR spectra (linewidth, 10 Hz) of the hyphal fungus Aspergillus nidulans have been obtained after growth on glycolytic or gluconeogenic carbon sources. Various polyols, some tricarboxylic acid-cycle intermediates and amino acids, and some phospholipids and fatty acyl compounds are present. The polyols found are mannitol, arabitol, erythritol, and glycerol. The nature of the carbon source has a pronounced effect on the pool sizes of the various polyols. Al...

  14. The availability of a lactose medium for tea fungus culture and Kombucha fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Markov S.L.; Cvetkovi? D.D.; Veli?anski Aleksandra S.

    2012-01-01

    Kombucha is a traditional beverage that is prepared by fermenting sucrose-sweetened black tea. A medium is inoculated with a cellulose pellicle (popularly known as a “tea fungus”) or fermentation brought from previous cultivation process. Our aim was to test the possibility of obtaining a Kombucha beverage using different concentration of lactose as an alternative source of C-atoms. A traditional medium sweetened with sucrose or without sugar was used as control. Without lactose-fer...

  15. Specific and Sensitive Detection of Venturia nashicola, the Scab Fungus of Asian Pears, by Nested PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Hyun Seok; Sohn, San Ho; Lee, Young Sun; Koh, Young Jin; Song, Jang Hoon; Jung, Jae Sung

    2013-01-01

    The fungus Venturia nashicola is the causal agent of scab on Asian pears. For the rapid and reliable identification as well as sensitive detection of V. nashicola, a PCR-based technique was developed. DNA fingerprints of three closely related species, V. nashicola, V. pirina, and V. inaequalis, were obtained by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Two RAPD markers specific to V. nashicola were identified by PCR, after which two pairs of sequence characterized amplified region (SC...

  16. A New Meroditerpene and a New Tryptoquivaline Analog from the Algicolous Fungus Neosartorya takakii KUFC 7898

    OpenAIRE

    May Zin, War War; Buttachon, Suradet; Buaruang, Jamrearn; Gales, Luís; José A. Pereira; Madalena M. M. Pinto; Silva, Artur M.S.; Kijjoa, Anake

    2015-01-01

    A new meroditerpene sartorenol (1), a new natural product takakiamide (2) and a new tryptoquivaline analog (3) were isolated, together with nine known compounds, including aszonapyrone A, chevalone B, aszonalenin, acetylaszonalenin, 3?-(4-oxoquinazolin-3-yl) spiro[1H-indole-3,5?-oxolane]-2,2?-dione, tryptoquivalines L, F and H, and the isocoumarin derivative, 6-hydroxymellein, from the ethyl acetate extract of the culture of the algicolous fungus Neosartorya takakii KUFC 7898. The structures ...

  17. Glomus rubiforme, an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus new to the mycota of Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Janusz B?aszkowski; Tadeusz Madej; Mariusz Tadych

    1998-01-01

    Glomus rubiforme is described and illustrated. as well as its occurrence in Poland and in the world is presented. Glomus rubiforme forms pale yellow to light brown spores arranged in blackberry-like sporocarps. The spores develop from a centrally positioned, inflated, thick-walled cell. The spore wall consists of two layers: a sloughing, hyaline outer layer adherent to a coloured, laminated layer. Glomus rubiforme is a new arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus to the mycota of Poland.

  18. A Hair & a Fungus: Showing Kids the Size of a Microbe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Dana L.

    2013-01-01

    A simple method is presented to show kids the size of a microbe--a fungus hypha--compared to a human hair. Common household items are used to make sterile medium on a stove or hotplate, which is dispensed in the cells of a weekly plastic pill box. Mold fungi can be easily and safely grown on the medium from the classroom environment. A microscope…

  19. Genetic and Molecular Analysis of Phytochromes from the Filamentous Fungus Neurospora crassa

    OpenAIRE

    Froehlich, Allan C.; Noh, Bosl; Vierstra, Richard D.; Loros, Jennifer; Dunlap, Jay C.

    2005-01-01

    Phytochromes (Phys) comprise a superfamily of red-/far-red-light-sensing proteins. Whereas higher-plant Phys that control numerous growth and developmental processes have been well described, the biochemical characteristics and functions of the microbial forms are largely unknown. Here, we describe analyses of the expression, regulation, and activities of two Phys in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. In addition to containing the signature N-terminal domain predicted to covalently ass...

  20. A Rhodopsin-Guanylyl Cyclase Gene Fusion Functions in Visual Perception in a Fungus

    OpenAIRE

    Avelar, Gabriela m; Schumacher, Robert i; Zaini, Paulo a; Leonard, Guy; Richards, Thomas a; Gomes, Suely l

    2014-01-01

    Sensing light is the fundamental property of visual systems, with vision in animals being based almost exclusively on opsin photopigments [1]. Rhodopsin also acts as a photoreceptor linked to phototaxis in green algae [2, 3] and has been implicated by chemical means as a light sensor in the flagellated swimming zoospores of the fungus Allomyces reticulatus [4]; however, the signaling mechanism in these fungi remains unknown. Here we use a combination of genome sequencing and molecular inhibit...

  1. Biodecolorization of Phenolic Paper Mill Effluent by Ligninolytic Fungus Trametes versicolor

    OpenAIRE

    Prabu, P. C.; Udayasoorian, C.

    2005-01-01

    A white rot fungus isolated from soil samples enriched by continuous pulp and paper mill effluent irrigation and identified as Trametes versicolor was capable of decolorization and degradation of phenol from paper mill effluent. 14C synthetic lignin mineralization assays showed that Trametes versicolor assimilated 24.3% of the total label. There was 76% effluent decolourization along with 78% COD reduction. The effluent chlorinated phenol degradation was 85% by Trametes versicolor, when added...

  2. Distinct Septin Heteropolymers Co-Exist during Multicellular Development in the Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus nidulans

    OpenAIRE

    Herna?ndez-rodri?guez, Yainitza; Masuo, Shunsuke; Johnson, Darryl; Orlando, Ron; Smith, Amy; Couto-rodriguez, Mara; Momany, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Septins are important components of the cytoskeleton that are highly conserved in eukaryotes and play major roles in cytokinesis, patterning, and many developmental processes. Septins form heteropolymers which assemble into higher-order structures including rings, filaments, and gauzes. In contrast to actin filaments and microtubules, the molecular mechanism by which septins assemble is not well-understood. Here, we report that in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, four core septins...

  3. Utilizing DART Mass Spectrometry to Pinpoint Halogenated Metabolites from a Marine Invertebrate-Derived Fungus

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Katharine R.; Loveridge, Steven T.; Tenney, Karen; Media, Joseph; Valeriote, Frederick A.; Crews, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Prenylated indole alkaloids are a diverse group of fungal secondary metabolites and represent an important biosynthetic class. In this study we have identified new halogenated prenyl-indole alkaloids from an invertebrate-derived Malbranchea graminicola strain. Using Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) Mass Spectrometry, these compounds were initially detected from spores of the fungus grown on agar plates, without the need for any organic extraction. Subsequently, the metabolites were isolate...

  4. Attack of the Killer Fungus: A Hypothesis-Driven Lab Module †

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Brian K.

    2013-01-01

    Discovery-driven experiments in undergraduate laboratory courses have been shown to increase student learning and critical thinking abilities. To this end, a lab module involving worm capture by a nematophagous fungus was developed. The goals of this module are to enhance scientific understanding of the regulation of worm capture by soil-dwelling fungi and for students to attain a set of established learning goals, including the ability to develop a testable hypothesis and search for primary ...

  5. Dactylospora glaucomarioides (Ascomycetes, Dactylosporaceae): A Lichenicolous Fungus New to South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Yogesh; Knudsen, Kerry; Wang, Xin Yu; Hur, Jae-seoun

    2010-01-01

    The lichenicolous fungi flora of South Korea is poorly known. During recent field trips to various parts of South Korea and after an extensive examination of herbarium lichen specimens, we encountered a lichenicolous fungi growing over a thallus of the lichen Ochrolechia yasudae Vain., characterized by small black apothecia with mostly three-septate brown ascospores. It was identified as Dactylospora glaucomarioides. This is the first report of this lichenicolous fungus from South Korea. A ta...

  6. Comparison of Gamma Irradiated and Raw Lignite in Bioliquefaction Process by Fungus T5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bioliquefaction of coal is a processing technology for converting solid coal to liquid oil at ambient temperature by helping microorganism. The pretreated of lignite is important to decrease the hydrofobic of lignite surface. One of pretreated method was irradiation by gamma rays. Aim of this research was to compare the gamma irradiated lignite and raw lignite in bioliquefaction process by selected fungus T5. The fungus was identified by molecular method using 18S rDNA. Treatments were A (MSS + gamma irradiated lignite 5% + T5) and B (MSS + raw lignite 5% + T5) and culture type was sub-merged. The parameters observed were colonization, bacterial and fungal enumeration, identify of dominant bacteria using 16S rDNA and characterization of bioliquefaction product by UV-Vis spectroscopy dan gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GCMS). The results showed that fungus T5 belongs to Ascomycota, Trichoderma asperellum. Fungus has the ability to growth and liquefy gamma irradiated and raw lignite. Bacteria were detected in raw lignite treatment and dominant bacteria were identified as Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus thuringensis. UV-Vis analysis showed that boliquefaction product mainly contained naphtacene, naphthalene, and anthracene for gamma irradiated lignite, but anthracene and benzene for raw lignite. For GCMS analysis, 22 and 38 compounds were identified for gamma irradiated and raw lignite. Both treatment had different number of hydrocarbon, i.e. C6 -umber of hydrocarbon, i.e. C6 - C35 (A) and C10 - C35 (B) and dominated by aromatic acids, aliphatic and phenylethers. Percent area of gasoline (C7 - C11) and diesel (C10 - C24) fractions on the treatment B was 7.23% and 62.35%, while in treatment A was 7.22% and 44.27%. Based on the results, pretreated of lignite by gamma irradiation could be increased the bioliquefaction product. (author)

  7. Cytotoxic nor-chamigrane and chamigrane endoperoxides from a basidiomycetous fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokpaiboon, Supichar; Sommit, Damrong; Teerawatananond, Thapong; Muangsin, Nongnuj; Bunyapaiboonsri, Taridaporn; Pudhom, Khanitha

    2010-05-28

    A new nor-chamigrane endoperoxide, merulin A (1), and two new chamigrane endoperoxides, merulins B and C (2, 3), were isolated from the culture broth extract of an endophytic fungus of Xylocarpus granatum. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic, mainly NMR and MS, data. X-ray crystallographic analysis confirmed the structure of 1. Compounds 1 and 3 displayed significant cytotoxicity against human breast (BT474) and colon (SW620) cancer cell lines. PMID:20411928

  8. Efficacy of Edible Film Incorporated with Essential Oils against White-rot Decay Fungus (Trametes versicolor)

    OpenAIRE

    Saifon Phothisuwan; Narumol Matan

    2013-01-01

    Antifungal activities of edible film incorporated with essential oils (cinnamon oil, clove oil, anise oil, citronella oil, orange oil, tangerine oil, turmeric oil, guava leave oil, nutmeg oil and lime oil) against a white-rot decay fungus (Trametes versicolor) identified from rubberwood were investigated. The disc dilution method was employed to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) by mixing edible film with essential oil at ratios 1:...

  9. Amphibians acquire resistance to live and dead fungus overcoming fungal immunosuppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Taegan A.; Sears, Brittany F.; Venesky, Matthew D.; Bessler, Scott M.; Brown, Jenise M.; Deutsch, Kaitlin; Halstead, Neal T.; Lentz, Garrett; Tenouri, Nadia; Young, Suzanne; Civitello, David J.; Ortega, Nicole; Fites, J. Scott; Reinert, Laura K.; Rollins-Smith, Louise A.; Raffel, Thomas R.; Rohr, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging fungal pathogens pose a greater threat to biodiversity than any other parasitic group1, causing declines of many taxa, including bats, corals, bees, snakes and amphibians1–4. Currently, there is little evidence that wild animals can acquire resistance to these pathogens5. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a pathogenic fungus implicated in the recent global decline of amphibians6. Here we demonstrate that three species of amphibians can acquire behavioural or immunological resistance to B. dendrobatidis. Frogs learned to avoid the fungus after just one B. dendrobatidis exposure and temperature-induced clearance. In subsequent experiments in which B. dendrobatidis avoidance was prevented, the number of previous exposures was a negative predictor of B. dendrobatidis burden on frogs and B. dendrobatidis-induced mortality, and was a positive predictor of lymphocyte abundance and proliferation. These results suggest that amphibians can acquire immunity to B. dendrobatidis that overcomes pathogen-induced immunosuppression7–9 and increases their survival. Importantly, exposure to dead fungus induced a similar magnitude of acquired resistance as exposure to live fungus. Exposure of frogs to B. dendrobatidis antigens might offer a practical way to protect pathogen-naive amphibians and facilitate the reintroduction of amphibians to locations in the wild where B. dendrobatidis persists. Moreover, given the conserved nature of vertebrate immune responses to fungi5 and the fact that many animals are capable of learning to avoid natural enemies10, these results offer hope that other wild animal taxa threatened by invasive fungi might be rescued by management approaches based on herd immunity. PMID:25008531

  10. Growth Characteristics of the Thermophilic Fungus Scytalidium thermophilum in Relation to Production of Mushroom Compost

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegant, W. M.

    1992-01-01

    Scytalidium thermophilum is an important thermophilic fungus in the production of mushroom compost. I investigated the characteristics of this organism and present a simple model with which fungal growth in compost can be described. The model is used to predict better circumstances for rapid indoor production of mushroom compost. I conclude that inoculation of the starting material with prepared compost either before or after the pasteurization phase has only a minor effect on the shortening ...

  11. Isolation and Characterization of Antibacterial Compound from a Mangrove-Endophytic Fungus, Penicillium chrysogenum MTCC 5108

    OpenAIRE

    Devi, Prabha; Rodrigues, Cheryl; Naik, C. G.; D’souza, L.

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms, especially endophytic fungi that reside in the tissue of living mangrove plants, seem to play a major role in meeting the general demand for new biologically active substances. During the course of screening for biologically active secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms, an antibiotic compound containing an indole and a diketopiperazine moiety was isolated from the culture medium of Penicilliumchrysogenum, (MTCC 5108), an endophytic fungus on the mangrove plant Porte...

  12. Molecular Cloning, Characterization, and Differential Expression of a Glucoamylase Gene from the Basidiomycetous Fungus Lentinula edodes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, J.; Chen, Y H; Kwan, H.S.

    2000-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of putative glucoamylase gene gla1 from the basidiomycetous fungus Lentinula edodes strain L54 is reported. The coding region of the genomic glucoamylase sequence, which is preceded by eukaryotic promoter elements CAAT and TATA, spans 2,076 bp. The gla1 gene sequence codes for a putative polypeptide of 571 amino acids and is interrupted by seven introns. The open reading frame sequence of the gla1 gene shows strong homology with those of other fungal glucoamyl...

  13. BIOMIMETIC SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES FROM AN ENDOPHYTIC FUNGUS AND THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL EFFICACY

    OpenAIRE

    Nirjanta Devi Nameirakpam; Shankar. P Dheeban; Sutha S.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, an endophytic fungus, Penicillium sps. was isolated from the medicinal plant, Centella asiatica. The extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the filtrate of cell mass of an isolated Penicillium sps was monitored and the UV-Vis absorption spectrum recorded for the solution shows the characteristic surface plasmon resonance band for silver nanoparticles in the range of 390-440 nm. The SEM studies confirmed the formation of silver particles in the size of 100 nm, a...

  14. Phylogeny of the Clinically Relevant Species of the Emerging Fungus Trichoderma and Their Antifungal Susceptibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Sandoval-denis, Marcelo; Sutton, Deanna A.; Cano-lira, Jose? F.; Gene?, Josepa; Fothergill, Annette W.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Guarro, Josep

    2014-01-01

    A set of 73 isolates of the emerging fungus Trichoderma isolated from human and animal clinical specimens were characterized morphologically and molecularly using a multilocus sequence analysis that included the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA and fragments of the translation elongation factor 1 alpha (Tef1), endochitinase CHI18-5 (Chi18-5), and actin 1 (Act1) genes. The most frequent species was Trichoderma longibrachiatum (26%), followed by Trichod...

  15. The ligninolytic system of the white rot fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus: purification and characterization of the laccase.

    OpenAIRE

    Eggert, C; Temp, U; Eriksson, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    The white rot fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus was characterized with respect to its set of extracellular phenoloxidases. Laccase was produced as the predominant extracellular phenoloxidase in conjunction with low amounts of an unusual peroxidase. Neither lignin peroxidase nor manganese peroxidase was detected. Laccase was produced constitutively during primary metabolism. Addition of the most effective inducer, 2,5-xylidine, enhanced laccase production ninefold without altering the isoenzyme p...

  16. Cellular Development Associated with Induced Mycotoxin Synthesis in the Filamentous Fungus Fusarium graminearum

    OpenAIRE

    Menke, Jon; Weber, Jakob; Broz, Karen; Kistler, H. Corby

    2013-01-01

    Several species of the filamentous fungus Fusarium colonize plants and produce toxic small molecules that contaminate agricultural products, rendering them unsuitable for consumption. Among the most destructive of these species is F. graminearum, which causes disease in wheat and barley and often infests the grain with harmful trichothecene mycotoxins. Synthesis of these secondary metabolites is induced during plant infection or in culture in response to chemical signals. Our results show tha...

  17. Temperature-Dependent Growth of Geomyces destructans, the Fungus That Causes Bat White-Nose Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Verant, Michelle L.; Boyles, Justin G.; Waldrep, William; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Blehert, David S.

    2012-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emergent disease estimated to have killed over five million North American bats. Caused by the psychrophilic fungus Geomyces destructans, WNS specifically affects bats during hibernation. We describe temperature-dependent growth performance and morphology for six independent isolates of G. destructans from North America and Europe. Thermal performance curves for all isolates displayed an intermediate peak with rapid decline in performance above the peak. Optima...

  18. Exploiting a mutualism: parasite specialization on cultivars within the fungus-growing ant symbiosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardo, Nicole M.; Mueller, Ulrich G.; Price, Shauna L.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2004-01-01

    Fungus-growing ants, their cultivated fungi and the cultivar-attacking parasite Escovopsis coevolve as a complex community. Higher-level phylogenetic congruence of the symbionts suggests specialized long-term associations of host-parasite clades but reveals little about parasite specificity at finer scales of species-species and genotype-genotype interactions. By coupling sequence and amplified fragment length polymorphism genotyping analyses with experimental evidence, we examine (i) the hos...

  19. Biocontrol of pigeon tick Argas reflexus (Acari: Argasidae) by entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium Anisopliae (Ascomycota: Hypocreales)

    OpenAIRE

    Mosa Tavassoli; Seyed Hassan Pourseyed; Abdulghaffar Ownagh; Iraj Bernousi; Karim Mardani

    2011-01-01

    The pigeon tick Argas reflexus is a pathogen-transmitting soft tick that typically feeds on pigeons, but can also attack humans causing local and systemic reactions. Chemical control is made difficult due to environmental contamination and resistance development. As a result, there is much interest in increasing the role of other strategies like biological control. In this study, the efficacy of three strains (V245, 685 and 715C) of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for biologica...

  20. Phellinus sulphurascens (Hymenochaetaceae, Basidiomycota): A Very Rare Wood-Decay Fungus in Europe Collected in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    DO?AN, Hasan Hüseyin; Karadelev, Mitko

    2009-01-01

    Phellinus sulphurascens Pilát was collected from juniper tree stumps (Juniperus excelsa and J. foetidissima) in two different localities situated in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. This very rare species is known in Europe only from the Ural Mountains in Russia. This fungus is an aggressive root rot pathogen associated with Douglas fir and other conifers in North America. This is the first report on juniper as a new host outside of its known distribution area.

  1. Gene cluster involved in melanin biosynthesis of the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata.

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, N.; T. Tsuge

    1993-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata produces melanin, a black pigment, from acetate via 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene. To isolate a fungal gene required for melanin biosynthesis, we transformed an A. alternata Brm1- (light brown) mutant with the DNA of a wild-type strain genomic library constructed by use of a cosmid carrying the hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene. When hygromycin B-resistant transformants were screened for melanin production, 1 of 1,363 transformants appeared to regain ...

  2. Endemic Infection of the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus in a Frog Community Post-Decline

    OpenAIRE

    Retallick Richard W. R; McCallum Hamish; Speare Rick

    2004-01-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in the decline and extinction of numerous frog species worldwide. In Queensland, Australia, it has been proposed as the cause of the decline or apparent extinction of at least 14 high-elevation rainforest frog species. One of these, Taudactylus eungellensis, disappeared from rainforest streams in Eungella National Park in 1985-1986, but a few remnant populations were subsequently discovered. Here, we report the analysis of ...

  3. Towards a better understanding of the evolution of specialized parasites of fungus-growing ant crops

    OpenAIRE

    Sze Huei Yek; Boomsma, Jacobus J.; Michael Poulsen

    2012-01-01

    Fungus-growing ants have interacted and partly coevolved with specialised microfungal parasites of the genus Escovopsis since the origin of ant fungiculture about 50 million years ago. Here, we review the recent progress in understanding the patterns of specificity of this ant-parasite association, covering both the colony/population level and comparisons between phylogenetic clades. We use a modified version of Tinbergen’s four categories of evolutionary questions to structure our review i...

  4. Inhibition of the symbiotic fungus of leaf-cutting ants by coumarins

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marizete F. P., Godoy; Sandra R., Victor; Adriana M., Bellini; Gisleine, Guerreiro; Waldireny C., Rocha; Odair C., Bueno; Maria J. A., Hebling; Maurício, Bacci Jr; M. Fátima G. F. da, Silva; Paulo C., Vieira; João B., Fernandes; Fernando C., Pagnocca.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Formigas cortadoras de folhas são consideradas pragas para a agricultura devido à grande quantidade de material vegetal utilizado por elas para cultivar um fungo simbionte que lhes serve de alimento e enzimas. O mutualismo entre o fungo e as formigas é um ponto a ser explorado quando se considera su [...] a possível aplicação em métodos alternativos para o controle desses insetos. Sabendo-se que algumas plantas são naturalmente resistentes aos insetos fitófagos, alguns produtos naturais (metabólitos secundários) devem ser avaliados em relação às suas propriedades inseticidas e/ou fungicidas. Neste trabalho foram isoladas oito cumarinas de quatro espécies de plantas e o efeito no desenvolvimento do fungo simbionte das formigas cortadeiras Atta sexdens foi determinado. Com exceção da clausarina, todas as outras cumarinas foram inibitórias de 64 µg mL-1 à 80 µg mL-1 sendo que a xantiletina inibiu o fungo na concentração de 25 µg mL-1. Abstract in english Leaf-cutting ants are known to be a serious pest for agriculture due to the high amounts of vegetal matter from crops used by them in order to cultivate a symbiotic fungus on which they rely for food and enzymes. The mutualism between the fungus and the ants is a point to be explored when alternativ [...] e methods of control are being thought of. Considering that some plants are naturally resistant to phytophagous insects, some natural products (secondary metabolites) should be evaluated with respect to their insecticide and/or fungicide properties. In this paper we isolated eight coumarins from four different plant species and we determined their effect on the development of the symbiotic fungus of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens. With the exception of clausarin, all the other coumarins were inhibitory from 64 µg mL-1 through 80 µg mL-1 and xanthyletin inhibited the fungus at 25 µg mL-1

  5. Biotechnological applications of the gene transfer from the beneficial fungus Trichoderma harzianum to plants

    OpenAIRE

    Hermosa, Rosa; Botella, Leticia; Montero-barrientos, Marta; Alonso-rami?rez, Ana; Arbona, Vicent; Go?mez-cadenas, Aurelio; Monte, Enrique; Nicola?s, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Alternative and ecological strategies are necessary and demanded for disease management in order to reduce the use of pesticides in agriculture. Thus, the use of biological control agents such as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) or several strains of the beneficial fungus Trichoderma spp. to combat plant diseases is the basis of biocontrol of plant pathogens and is a good approach to reach this healthy and environmentally adequate objective.

  6. Indole Diterpenoids and Isocoumarin from the Fungus, Aspergillus flavus, Isolated from the Prawn, Penaeus vannamei

    OpenAIRE

    Kunlai Sun; Ye Li; Lei Guo; Yi Wang(Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo (WPI), 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583, Japan); Peipei Liu; Weiming Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Two new indole-diterpenoids (1 and 2) and a new isocoumarin (3), along with the known ?-aflatrem (4), paspalinine (5), leporin B (6), ?-cyclopiazonic acid (7), iso-?-cyclopiazonic acid (8), ditryptophenaline (9), aflatoxin B1 (10), 7-O-acetylkojic acid (11) and kojic acid (12), were isolated from the fermentation broth of the marine-derived fungus, Aspergillus flavus OUCMDZ-2205. The structures of Compounds 1–12 were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses, quantum ECD calculations and the chemi...

  7. Variation in Efficacy of Isolates of the Fungus ARF Against the Soybean Cyst Nematode Heterodera glycines

    OpenAIRE

    Timper, P.; Riggs, R. D.

    1998-01-01

    An unnamed fungus, designated ARF, that parasitizes eggs and sedentary stages of cyst nematodes is a potential biological control agent of Heterodera glycines. The objectives of this study were to determine whether ARF isolates differ in their ability to suppress nematode numbers in soil and to compare the efficacy of ARF in heat-treated and native soil. The effectiveness of 11 ARF isolates was compared by introducing homogenized mycelium into heat-treated soil. Soybean seedlings were transpl...

  8. Comparative Genomics and Transcriptomics Analyses Reveal Divergent Lifestyle Features of Nematode Endoparasitic Fungus Hirsutella minnesotensis

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Yiling; Liu, Keke; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhang, Xiaoling; Li, Kuan; Wang, Niuniu; Shu, Chi; Wu, Yunpeng; Wang, Chengshu; Bushley, Kathryn E.; Xiang, Meichun; Liu, Xingzhong

    2014-01-01

    Hirsutella minnesotensis [Ophiocordycipitaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycota)] is a dominant endoparasitic fungus by using conidia that adhere to and penetrate the secondary stage juveniles of soybean cyst nematode. Its genome was de novo sequenced and compared with five entomopathogenic fungi in the Hypocreales and three nematode-trapping fungi in the Orbiliales (Ascomycota). The genome of H. minnesotensis is 51.4 Mb and encodes 12,702 genes enriched with transposable elements up to 32%. Phylogen...

  9. Growth in rice cells requires de novo purine biosynthesis by the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    OpenAIRE

    Jessie Fernandez; Kuan Ting Yang; Kathryn M. Cornwell; Wright, Janet D.; Wilson, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing incidences of human disease, crop destruction and ecosystem perturbations are attributable to fungi and threaten socioeconomic progress and food security on a global scale. The blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is the most devastating pathogen of cultivated rice, but its metabolic requirements in the host are unclear. Here we report that a purine-requiring mutant of M. oryzae could develop functional appressoria, penetrate host cells and undergo the morphogenetic transition to elabor...

  10. UV-B-irradiation effect on growth reactions of phytopathogenic fungus fusarium solani

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UV-B irradiation effect on spore germination and hyphae growth of phythopathogenic fungus Fusarium solani was studied. Spores irradiation by small doses of 0,1 - 1,0 kJ/m2 results in growth stimulation of primary hyphae. Adaptive effect of UV-B small doses for fungi was shown. Preliminary irradiation in doses of 0,1 - 0,5 kJ/m2 increased spore radioresistance and diminished the effect of the next damaging dose

  11. Medicinal Fungus Antrodia cinnamomea Inhibits Growth and Cancer Stem Cell Characteristics of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Ming Liu; Yu-Kuo Liu; Keng-Li Lan; Yu-Wei Lee; Tung-Hu Tsai; Yu-Jen Chen

    2013-01-01

    Background. Antrodia cinnamomea is an edible fungus commonly used in Asia as a well-known medicinal herb capable of treating drug intoxication and liver cancer. Methods. This study evaluated the anticancer activity of its biotechnological product, mycelial fermentation broth (AC-MFB) on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay in vitro and syngeneic Balb/c 1MEA.7R.1 tumor implantation model in vivo. Given that cancer stem cell characteristics, such as angiogenesi...

  12. The Dynamics of Plant Cell-Wall Polysaccharide Decomposition in Leaf-Cutting Ant Fungus Gardens

    OpenAIRE

    Moller, Isabel Eva; de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Harholt, Jesper; Willats, William George Tycho; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2011-01-01

    The degradation of live plant biomass in fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants is poorly characterised but fundamental for understanding the mutual advantages and efficiency of this obligate nutritional symbiosis. Controversies about the extent to which the garden-symbiont Leucocoprinus gongylophorus degrades cellulose have hampered our understanding of the selection forces that induced large scale herbivory and of the ensuing ecological footprint of these ants. Here we use a recently establish...

  13. Growth of the fungus Cladosporium sphaerospermum with toluene as the sole carbon and energy source.

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, F.J.; Hage, K.C.; Bont, J.A.M., de

    1995-01-01

    The fungus Cladosporium sphaerospermum was isolated from a biofilter used for the removal of toluene from waste gases. This is the first report describing growth of a eukaryotic organism with toluene as the sole source of carbon and energy. The oxygen consumption rates, as well as the measured enzyme activities, of toluene-grown C. sphaerospermum indicate that toluene is degraded by an initial attack on the methyl group.

  14. Biotransformation of the Herbicide Atrazine by the White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    OpenAIRE

    Mougin, Christian; Laugero, Chantal; Asther, Michele; Dubroca, Jacqueline; Frasse, Pierre; Asther, Marcel

    1994-01-01

    Biotransformation of atrazine by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by a 48% decrease of the initial herbicide concentration in the growth medium within the first 4 days of incubation, which corresponded to the mycelium-growing phase. Results clearly established the mineralization of the ethyl group of the herbicide. Analysis of the growth medium showed the formation of hydroxylated and/or N-dealkylated metabolites of atrazine during fungal degradation.

  15. Hydroxylated Sclerosporin Derivatives from the Marine-derived Fungus Cadophora malorum†

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Celso; Eguereva, Ekaterina; Kehraus, Stefan; Siering, Carsten; König, Gabriele M

    2010-01-01

    The marine-derived fungus Cadophora malorum was isolated from the green alga Enteromorpha sp. Growth on a biomalt medium supplemented with sea salt yielded an extract from which we have isolated sclerosporin and four new hydroxylated sclerosporin derivatives, namely 15-hydroxysclerosporin (2), 12-hydroxysclerosporin (3), 11-hydroxysclerosporin (4) and 8-hydroxysclerosporin (5). The compounds were evaluated in various biological activity assays. Compound 5 showed a weak fat-accumulation inhibi...

  16. Pseudomonas cepacia suppression of sunflower wilt fungus and role of antifungal compounds in controlling the disease.

    OpenAIRE

    McLoughlin, T J; Quinn, J P; Bettermann, A.; Bookland, R

    1992-01-01

    In a field experiment, Pseudomonas cepacia J82rif and J51rif increased sunflower emergence in the presence of the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Pyrrolnitrin, aminopyrrolnitrin, and monochloroaminopyrrolnitrin were isolated from J82 and identified by using thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and electron impact-mass, UV, and infrared spectroscopy. In growth chamber experiments, two antibiosis-negative mutants were not different from the parent strain in protec...

  17. Isolation and Structural Elucidation of Chondrosterins F–H from the Marine Fungus Chondrostereum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jian Lan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The marine fungus Chondrostereum sp. was collected from a soft coral of the species Sarcophyton tortuosum from the South China Sea. Three new compounds, chondrosterins F–H (1, 4 and 5, together with three known compounds, incarnal (2, arthrosporone (3, and (2E-decene-4,6,8-triyn-1-ol (6, were isolated. Their structures were elucidated primarily based on NMR and MS data. Incarnal (2 exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against various cancer cell lines.

  18. A dipeptide transporter from the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis is upregulated in the intraradical phase

    OpenAIRE

    Belmondo, Simone; Fiorilli, Valentina; Pérez-Tienda, Jacob; Ferrol, Nuria; Marmeisse, Roland; LANFRANCO, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which form an ancient and widespread mutualistic symbiosis with plants, are a crucial but still enigmatic component of the plant micro biome. Nutrient exchange has probably been at the heart of the success of this plant-fungus interaction since the earliest days of plants on land. To characterize genes from the fungal partner involved in nutrient exchange, and presumably important for the functioning of the AM symbiosis, genome-wide transcriptomic data obta...

  19. Phenanthrene uptake by Medicago sativa L. under the influence of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phenanthrene uptake by Medicago sativa L. was investigated under the influence of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. Inoculation of lucerne with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus etunicatum L. resulted in higher phenanthrene accumulation in the roots and lower accumulation in the shoots compared to non-mycorrhizal controls. Studies on sorption and desorption of phenanthrene by roots and characterization of heterogeneity of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal roots using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C NMR) demonstrated that increased aromatic components due to mycorrhizal inoculation resulted in enhanced phenanthrene uptake by the roots but lower translocation to the shoots. Direct visualization using two-photon excitation microscopy (TPEM) revealed higher phenanthrene accumulation in epidermal cells of roots and lower transport into the root interior and stem in mycorrhizal plants than in non-mycorrhizal controls. These results provide some insight into the mechanisms by which arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation may influence the uptake of organic contaminants by plants. - Colonization by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus promoted root uptake and decreased shoot uptake of phenanthrene by Medicago sativa L.

  20. Phenanthrene uptake by Medicago sativa L. under the influence of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Naiying [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Department of Chemistry, Shangqiu Normal College, Shangqiu 476000 (China); Huang Honglin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhang Shuzhen, E-mail: szzhang@rcees.ac.c [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhu Yongguan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Christie, Peter [Agri-Environment Branch, Agriculture Food and Environmental Science Division, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom); Zhang Yong [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Environmental Science Research Centre, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2009-05-15

    Phenanthrene uptake by Medicago sativa L. was investigated under the influence of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. Inoculation of lucerne with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus etunicatum L. resulted in higher phenanthrene accumulation in the roots and lower accumulation in the shoots compared to non-mycorrhizal controls. Studies on sorption and desorption of phenanthrene by roots and characterization of heterogeneity of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal roots using solid-state {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 13}C NMR) demonstrated that increased aromatic components due to mycorrhizal inoculation resulted in enhanced phenanthrene uptake by the roots but lower translocation to the shoots. Direct visualization using two-photon excitation microscopy (TPEM) revealed higher phenanthrene accumulation in epidermal cells of roots and lower transport into the root interior and stem in mycorrhizal plants than in non-mycorrhizal controls. These results provide some insight into the mechanisms by which arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation may influence the uptake of organic contaminants by plants. - Colonization by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus promoted root uptake and decreased shoot uptake of phenanthrene by Medicago sativa L.

  1. Occurrence of R-growth type of Tapesia yallundae fungus and its sensitivity to some fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew T. Mali?ski

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available From winter wheat and winter triticale stems with distinct disease lesions 123 isolates of eyespot agent - Tapesia yallundae fungus were obtained. Stems were collected in 1999-2001, from no-treatment and protected with fungicides fields, which were situated in three provinces of Poland (ma?opolskie, mazowieckie, ?l?skie. Obtained isolates were classified on the basis of morphology on PDA, sporulation on water agar and sensitivity to carbendazim and prochloraz 51 isolates (i.e. 41,5% of all represent R- growth type of fungus. To this type belong 28% and 71% strains obtained from wheat and triticale stems, respectively. Only seven isolates ofR-type fungus (i.e. 13,7% were resistant to carbendazim. These strains originated from two protected with carbendazim winter wheat fields and two no-protected winter triticale crops. All isolates of R-type were sensitive to prochloraz. This compounds appears in vitro more effective than flusilazole, propiconazole and azoxystrobin.

  2. Septoglomus altomontanum, a new arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus from mountainous and alpine areas in Andalucía (southern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palenzuela, Javier; Azcón-Aguilar, Concepción; Barea, José-Miguel; da Silva, Gladstone Alves; Oehl, Fritz

    2013-12-01

    A new arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus was found in Sierra Nevada National Park of Andalucía (Southern Spain). It forms intraradical hyphae, vesicles and arbuscles, typical characteristics of Glomeromycetes. The spores are dark reddish brown to dark reddish black, 132-205 ?m diam, and are formed on pigmented subtending hyphae whose pores are regularly closed by a thick septum at the spore base but without support of introverted wall thickening. Phylogenetic analyses on concatenate sequences of the partial SSU, ITS region and the partial LSU of the rDNA confirm the new species, described here as Septoglomus altomontanum, in a monophyletic clade next to S. africanum. An identification key to all Septoglomus species described is given. The new fungus can unequivocally be distinguished from all other Septoglomus species by the combination of spore size, colour and spore wall structure, and especially by the shape and colour of the subtending hyphae. Septoglomus altomontanum has so far been found only in soils with pH 5.9-6.7, located in mountainous and alpine altitudes (1800-3100 m asl) of Sierra Nevada which is well known for a high degree of plant endemism. While it is a frequent fungus in this area, it has so far not been found in lower altitudes in Andalucía. PMID:24563836

  3. Isolation of Phosphate-solubilizing Fungus and Its Application in Solubilization of Rock Phosphates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Aiqun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms have been obtained to improve the agronomic value of Rock Phosphates (RPs, but the phosphorus solubilizing rate by these approaches is very slow. It is important to explore a high-efficient phosphate-solubilizing approach with a kind of microorganisms. This study aimed to isolate a high-efficient level of phosphate-solubilizing fungus from rhizosphere soil samples phosphate mines (Liuyang County, Hunan province, China and apply it in solubilization of RPs. The experiments were carried out by the conventional methodology for morphological and biochemical fungus characterization and the analysis of 18s rRNA sequence. Then the effects of time, temperature, initial pH, phosphorus (P sources, RPs concentration, shaking speed and silver ion on the content of soluble P released by this isolate were investigated. The results showed this isolate was identified as Galactomyces geotrichum P14 (P14 in GeneBank and the maximum amount of soluble P was 1252.13 mg L-1 within 40 h in a modified phosphate growth agar’s medium (without agar where contained tricalcium phosphate (TCP as sole phosphate source. At the same time, it could release phosphate and solubilize various rock phosphates. The isolated fungus can convert RPs from insoluble form into plant available form and therefore it hold great potential for biofertilizers to enhance soil fertility and promote plant growth.

  4. Fungal Isolate “KMI” Is a New Type of Orchid Mycorrhizal Fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Matsubara

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed an isolate of fungus that seems to be a new type orchid mycorrhizal fungus, “KMI (refers to Kyoto-Ma- tsubara-Ishii”, obtained from the roots of Paphiopedilum thailandense Fowl. KMI has hyphal branching into right angle similar to Rhizoctonia-like fungi, but its spore formation resembled Nectoria, which is known as a teleomorph of Fusarium rather than Rhizoctonia. Its ribosomal DNA sequences of 18S and ITS have no similarity with any known fungal species. Proteins in molecular weight of 53 and 24 kDa, which are common to mycorrhizal fungi, were detected in KMI. When KMI was inoculated onto orchids, however it didn’t form pelotons or coils, but the hyphae in the root tissues were observed and the tissues were not decayed. No significant symptoms of Rhizoctonia or Fusarium disease, however, were developed on tomato and cucumber plants. The evidences suggest that KMI is a new type of orchid mycorrhizal fungus.

  5. Larvicidal effects of endophytic and basidiomycete fungus extracts on Aedes and Anopheles larvae (Diptera, Culicidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Augusto, Bucker; Nadia Cristina Falcao, Bucker; Antonia Queiroz Lima de, Souza; Auricelia Matos da, Gama; Edson, Rodrigues-Filho; Fabio Medeiros da, Costa; Cecilia Veronica, Nunez; Ademir Castro e, Silva; Wanderli Pedro, Tadei.

    2013-08-08

    Full Text Available Introduction In vitro bioassays were performed to access the larvicidal activity of crude extracts from the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis virgulata (Melanconiales, Amphisphaeriaceae) and the saprophytic fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus (Basidiomycetes, Polyporaceae) against the mosquitoes Aedes aegy [...] pti and Anopheles nuneztovari. Methods The extracts were tested at concentrations of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500ppm. Ethyl acetate mycelia (EAM) extracts and liquid culture media (LCM) from Pe. virgulata and Py. sanguineus were tested against third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and An. nuneztovari. Results The larvicidal activity of the EAM extracts from Pe. virgulata against Ae. aegypti had an LC50=101.8ppm, and the extract from the basidiomycete fungus Py. sanguineus had an LC50=156.8ppm against the Ae. aegypti larvae. The Pe. virgulata extract had an LC50=16.3ppm against the An. nuneztovari larvae, and the Py. sanguineus extract had an LC50=87.2ppm against these larvae. Conclusions These results highlight the larvicidal effect of EAM extracts from the endophyte Pe. virgulata against the two larval mosquitoes tested. Thus, Pe. virgulata and Py. sanguineus have the potential for the production of bioactive substances against larvae of these two tropical disease vectors, with An. nuneztovari being more susceptible to these extracts.

  6. Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus and Different Phosphorus Doses Against Cotton Wilt Caused Verticillium dahliae Kleb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysel Bars Orak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus (AMF and different phosphorus dosages on the development of Verticillium dahliae Kleb. induced wilt in cotton. Sayar-314 cotton variety which is sensitive to Verticillium wilt, AMF G. intraradices and phosphorus dosages of 0, 40 and 80 kg ha-1 were used in the experiments implemented under naturally V. dahliae-contaminated field conditions during the years of 2007 and 2008. According to the obtained results, it was found that there occurred a reduction in the disease chart. Also, it was observed that the application reduced the severity of the disease by 22-29.22% in green portions of cotton plants and their stem sections in field divisions particularly to which G. intraradices and phosphorus of 40 kg ha-1 had been applied together in both years. On the other hand, phosphorus dosage of 80 kg ha-1 had a negative effect in suppressing the infection. Phosphorus (P content of cotton plants leaves increased in mycorrhizal fungus treated divisions compared with those untreated. Besides, due to the infection, cotton yield decreased by 14-21% in the divisions without AMF application. It was also concluded that if AM fungus was applied along with lower dosages of phosphorus, it would mitigate the severity of V. dahliae-induced infection in cotton, increase the yield despite the infection and induce phosphorus uptake in the plant.

  7. Lipid and fatty acid profile of the edible fungus Laetiporus sulphurous. Antifungal and antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinanoglou, Vassilia J; Zoumpoulakis, Panagiotis; Heropoulos, George; Proestos, Charalampos; ?iri?, Ana; Petrovic, Jovana; Glamoclija, Jasmina; Sokovic, Marina

    2015-06-01

    Laetiporus sulphureus is a saprophyte belonging to a specific group of wood-decomposing Basidiomycetes growing on deciduous trees. This fungus has been characterized as a herbal medicine and is also known for its antimicrobial properties. In the present study, high energy extraction techniques using different solvents were compared to obtain maximum yield of the edible fungus Laetiporus sulphureus total lipids. The lipid classes and fatty acid composition of the fruiting bodies' total lipids has been studied using GC-FID and Iatroscan TLC-FID analysis. Among the lipids, the neutral lipids predominated followed by phospholipids and glycolipids. Triglycerides were the most abundant in the neutral lipid fraction, whereas phosphatidylcholine in phospholipids. The existence of relatively high amount of sterols may be correlated to fungus pharmaceutical properties. Total lipids were found to contain high unsaturated degree fatty acids (UFA/SFA>3.4) and dominated of C18:2?-6, C18:1?-9 and C16:0 fatty acids. Antibacterial and antifungal properties of mushrooms' lipid extracts from two different solvents were also examined. Results indicated that hexane extracts possessed better antifungal and slightly better antibacterial activity compared to chloroform extracts though both were less active than the commercial antimicrobial agents. PMID:26028707

  8. Penicillium menonorum: A Novel Fungus to Promote Growth and Nutrient Management in Cucumber Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Anam Giridhar; Kim, Sang Woo; Yadav, Dil Raj; Hyum, Umyong; Adhikari, Mahesh; Lee, Youn Su

    2015-03-01

    The present study is the first report on the isolation of Penicillium menonorum from rhizosphere soil in Korea and its identification based on morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer gene sequence. The fungal isolate was named KNU-3 and was found to exhibit plant growth-promoting (PGP) activity through indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophore production, as well as P solubilization. KNU-3 produced 9.7 mg/L IAA and solubilized 408 mg of Ca3PO4/L, and inoculation with the isolate significantly (p < 0.05) increased the dry biomass of cucumber roots (57%) and shoots (52%). Chlorophyll, starch, protein, and P contents were increased by 16%, 45%, 22%, and 14%, respectively, compared to plants grown in uninoculated soil. The fungus also increased soil dehydrogenase (30%) and acid phosphatase (19%) activities. These results demonstrate that the isolate KNU-3 has potential PGP attributes, and therefore it can be considered as a new fungus to enhance soil fertility and promote plant growth. Moreover, the discovery of PGP ability and traits of this fungus will open new aspects of research and investigations. In this study, plant growth promotion by P. menonorum KNU-3 is reported for the first time in Korea after its original description. PMID:25892915

  9. Nutritional Requirements of the Edible Gall-producing Fungus Ustilago esculenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Ren Chung

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The parasitism of Ustilago esculenta P. Henn. in the perennial aquatic grass, Zizania latifolia (Griseb. Turcz. results in the development of edible smut gall, “ Kah-Peh-Sung” which has long been extensively cultivated as a vegetable in Taiwan and southern China. The nutritional requirements of U. esculenta were investigated in a semi-defined liquid medium to explore further studies of the causative fungus and its interaction with host plant. The fungus grew as yeast-like sporidia in vitro and grew very poorly in the Czapek`s medium. Of the 13 vitamins and growth factors tested for growth stimulation, thiamine was found to contribute the most for fungal growth in culture. Among 14 carbohydrates tested in the presence of thiamine, the most favorable in order of effectiveness were sucrose, raffinose, fructose, glucose, maltose and galactose. The fungus utilized most of the amino acids tested. The most suitable inorganic nitrogen sources in order were potassium nitrate, sodium nitrate and ammonium phosphate. Organic amino nitrogen sources were preferred to inorganic ones. Fungal growth was correlated with the increase of C/N ratio. The optimum temperature for fungal growth ranged from 20 to 28 ° C and the optimum pH ranged from 4 to 7. The maximum growth was reached in 7 d under the optimum conditions.

  10. A fibronectin receptor on Candida albicans mediates adherence of the fungus to extracellular matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binding of fibronectin, an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein, to Candida albicans was measured, and adherence of the fungus to immobilized ECM proteins, fibronectin, laminin, types I and IV collagen, and subendothelial ECM was studied. 125I-labeled fibronectin was inhibited from binding to the fungus by unlabeled human plasma fibronectin and by Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), Gly-Arg-Gly-Glu-Ser-Pro (GRGESP), and Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr-Pro (GRGDTP), but binding was not inhibited by Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-Pro. Soluble fibronectin, RGD, GRGESP, and GRGDTP also inhibited fungal adherence to the individual immobilized ECM proteins in a complex pattern, but only soluble fibronectin (10(-7) M) inhibited fungal adherence to subendothelial ECM. Thus, C. albicans possesses at least one type of cell surface receptor for binding soluble fibronectin that can be inhibited with peptides. This receptor apparently is used to bind the fungus to immobilized ECM proteins and to subendothelial ECM and may play a role in the initiation of disseminated disease by bloodborne fungi by providing for adherence of the microorganisms to ECM proteins

  11. Research into the influence of the in vitro biological parameters on the development of Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary Fungus colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Zsuzsanna NEMES; Popa, Daniela; Anca BACIU; Luiza MIKE

    2008-01-01

    In the period 2002-2003 under laboratory conditions it was determined the influence of biological parameters (temperature, relative air humidity, energetically and plastically resources and the composition of the cultivation environment) on the growth of the Phytophthora infestans fungus colonies.The biological parameters determined in vitro for the Ph. infestans fungus showed that the fungus needs mesophyll conditions. The energetically and plastically resources are important to its growth, ...

  12. Effect of consuming fungus-infected and fungus-free tall fescue and ergotamine tartrate on selected physiological variables of cattle in environmentally controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, T G; Schmidt, S P; Marple, D N; Rahe, C H; Steenstra, J R

    1992-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the physiological responses of consuming a fungus-free (FF) or fungus-infected (INF) tall fescue diet (Exp. 1) or the FF diet plus ergotamine tartrate at 30 ppm (FF/ET, Exp. 2) in a thermoneutral (21 degrees C) or heat-stressed environment (32 degrees C, dry bulb; 10 degrees C dew point). Treatment periods lasted 28 d after a 10-d adaptation period. Experiment 1 was replicated three times, and Exp. 2 was replicated twice, with eight Holstein steers in each replicate (mean BW = 185 kg). Feed intake (FI), rectal temperature (RT), and respiration rate (RR) were recorded daily, and heart rate (HR) and infrared temperatures at the ear canal (ECT), ear tip (ETT), pastern (PT), coronary band (CBT), and tail tip (TTT) were recorded weekly. Consumption of INF and FF/ET compared with FF diets decreased (P less than .10) FI, HR, ECT, PT, CBT, and TTT and elevated (P less than .10) RT and RR by 2.8, 2.77 kg/d; 17, 23 beats/min; .8, 1.1 degrees C; .9, 1.1 degrees C; .8, .9 degrees C; 1.1, 2.6 degrees C; .3, .5 degrees C; and 8, 8 breaths/min; respectively. Ear-tip temperature was reduced (P less than .10) 1.6 degrees C by consumption of INF but not by consumption of FF/ET. Reduction of peripheral temperatures is indicative of reduced blood flow to peripheral areas as a result of vasoconstriction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1506311

  13. Synergistic interaction between the fungus Beauveria bassiana and desiccant dusts applied against poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenberg, Tove; Kilpinen, Ole

    2014-04-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is a major pest in egg production, feeding on laying hens. Widely used non-chemical control methods include desiccant dusts, although their persistence under field conditions is often short. Entomopathogenic fungi may also hold potential for mite control, but these fungi often take several days to kill mites. Laboratory experiments were carried out to study the efficacy of 3 types of desiccant dusts, the fungus Beauveria bassiana and combinations of the two control agents against D. gallinae. There was significant synergistic interaction between each of the desiccant dusts and the fungus, with observed levels of mite mortality significantly higher than those expected for an additive effect (up to 38 % higher). Synergistic interaction between desiccant dust and fungus was found also when different application methods were used for the fungus and at different levels of relative humidity. Although increased levels of mortality were reached due to the synergistic interaction, the speed of lethal action was not influenced by combining the two components. The persistence of the control agents applied separately or in combination did not change over a period of 4 weeks. Overall, combinations of desiccant dusts and fungus conidia seem to hold considerable promise for future non-chemical control of poultry red mites. PMID:24253584

  14. Characterization of Perylene in Tropical Environment: Comparison of New and Old Fungus Comb for Identifying Perylene Precursor in Macrotermes gilvus Termite Nests of Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Riyahi Bakhtiari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first record on the distribution of perylene in new and old fungus combs of termite nest (Macrotermes gilvus in order to determine perylene source in tropical environment. Twenty four samples of new and old fungus combs, inner and outer nest walls, fresh and decomposed bark, decomposed stem, soil, and soil-wood interface were collected in order to test of two hypotheses; i Perylene is produced in the termite’s hindgut (M. gilvus and ii Perylene is present only in new fungus comb of M. gilvus termite nests. For one Station (Station A the profile of perylene concentration was the following order: fungus comb > outer nest wall ? Soil-Wood interface ? decomposed stem ? decomposed bark ? Inner nest wall > Soil. For the other Station (i.e. B the profile was new fungus comb > inner nest wall > old fungus comb ? outer nest wall ~ Soil. The perylene concentration was found up to 21-54 times higher in fungus comb as compare to the rest of the samples in Station A. whereas, the perylene concentration was 85-400 times higher in new fungus comb as compare to the remaining samples in Station B, this can be due to the production or accumulation of perylene in these nests. On the other hand, smaller termite nests (Stations C and E no perylene was detected, due to the fact that the new fungus comb was not found in those nests. The results confirmed the following hypotheses; perylene occurs only in new fungus comb and may be attributed to the high concentrations of aromatic rings of lignin in new fungus comb.

  15. Fungus infection in immunocompromised rabbits: correlation of thin-section CT findings and histopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the thin-section CT findings of pulmonary candidiasis, aspergillosis and cryptococcosis with histopathology in immunocompromised rabbits and improve the diagnostic accuracy of fungus infection. Methods: Healthy New Zealand white rabbits were used for immunocompromised animal models. Thin-section CT scan was performed before and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 d after inoculation. The pattern and distribution of the pulmonary abnormalities were retrospectively assessed by two thoracic radiologists and compared with histopathology. The granulocyte count was compared before and after administration of immunosuppressive agents. The paired t test, chi square test and the Fisher's exact test were used for the statistics. Results: Fourteen rabbits had candidiasis, 16 rabbits had eryptococcosis, 15 rabbits had aspergillosis. The granulocyte counts before and after administration of immunosuppressive agents were (2.91±0.92) and (0.35±0.19) x 109/L respectively in candidiasis group, there was a significant difference (t=12.484, P9/L in aspergillosis group, there was a significant difference (t=5.792, P9/L in cryptococcosis group, there was a significant difference (t=8.199, P0.05). Ground glass opacity (GGO) and consolidation were the two most common finidation were the two most common findings in immunocompromised rabbits with three fungus infections, areas of GGO was correlated with the congestion, hemorrhage, inflammatory cell infiltration and interstitial hyperplasia in pathology. Consolidation was correlated with the severe congestion, hemorrhage, inflammatory cell infiltration, interstitial hyperplasia, necrosis and vascular embolism in pathology. Conclusion: GGO and consolidation are the two most common findings of fungus infections in immunocompromised animal models and thin-section CT findings can reflect the pathological changes. (authors)

  16. Identifying the transition between single and multiple mating of queens in fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Murakami, Takahiro

    2002-01-01

    Obligate mating of females (queens) with multiple males has evolved only rarely in social Hymenoptera (ants, social bees, social wasps) and for reasons that are fundamentally different from those underlying multiple mating in other animals. The monophyletic tribe of ('attine') fungus-growing ants is known to include evolutionarily derived genera with obligate multiple mating (the Acromyrmex and Atta leafcutter ants) as well as phylogenetically basal genera with exclusively single mating (e.g. Apterostigma, Cyphomyrmex, Myrmicocrypta). All attine genera share the unique characteristic of obligate dependence on symbiotic fungus gardens for food, but the sophistication of this symbiosis differs considerably across genera. The lower attine genera generally have small, short-lived colonies and relatively non-specialized fungal symbionts (capable of living independently of their ant hosts), whereas the four evolutionarily derived higher attine genera have highly specialized, long-term clonal symbionts. In this paper, we investigate whether the transition from single to multiple mating occurred relatively recently in the evolution of the attine ants, in conjunction with the novel herbivorous 'leafcutter' niche acquired by the common ancestor of Acromyrmex and Atta, or earlier, at the transition to rearing specialized long-term clonal fungi in the common ancestor of the larger group of higher attines that also includes the genera Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex. We use DNA microsatellite analysis to provide unambiguous evidence for a single, late and abrupt evolutionary transition from exclusively single to obligatory multiple mating. This transition is historically correlated with other evolutionary innovations, including the extensive use of fresh vegetation as substrate for the fungus garden, a massive increase in mature colony size and morphological differentiation of the worker caste.

  17. Detection and characterization of a novel Gammapartitivirus in the phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum acutatum strain HNZJ001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jie; Chen, Dan; Lei, Xiang Hua; Zhu, Hong Jian; Zhu, Jun Zi; Da Gao, Bi

    2014-09-22

    Spherical virus-like particles about 40nm in diameter were observed under transmission electron microscope (TEM) and two dsRNA bands (dsRNA-1 and dsRNA-2) were detected on agarose gel after extraction from the mycelial preparation of a Colletotrichum acutatum strain HNZJ001 that isolated from an anthracnose lesion on immature pepper fruit. The complete nucleotide sequences of the dsRNAs were determined. DsRNA-1 (1762 nt) and dsRNA-2 (1381 nt) each contained a single open reading frame and potentially encoded 62 kDa and 40 kDa proteins, respectively. The 62 kDa protein showed similarity to the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of partitiviruses, while the 40 kDa product had no significant similarity to any published capsid protein throughout all databases, besides of low homology with the hypothetical "capsid" protein of a few partitiviruses in fungus Ustilaginoidea virens. Genome comparison and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the virus is closely related to the mycovirus in the family Partitiviridae. The results suggested a novel two-segment dsRNA virus be detected. We name it Colletotrichum acutatum partitivirus 1 (CaPV1). RT-PCR detection, using a primer pair based on the RdRp of the dsRNA-1 showed very high efficiency of CaPV1 transmission into the progenies of the fungus. Virus curing and fungal phenotype observation for evaluation of the impact of CaPV1 in host fungus were also carried out. PMID:25008759

  18. Exploring the Chemodiversity and Biological Activities of the Secondary Metabolites from the Marine Fungus Neosartorya pseudofischeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Ling Liang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of fungal metabolites can be remarkably influenced by various cultivation parameters. To explore the biosynthetic potentials of the marine fungus, Neosartorya pseudofischeri, which was isolated from the inner tissue of starfish Acanthaster planci, glycerol-peptone-yeast extract (GlyPY and glucose-peptone-yeast extract (GluPY media were used to culture this fungus. When cultured in GlyPY medium, this fungus produced two novel diketopiperazines, neosartins A and B (1 and 2, together with six biogenetically-related known diketopiperazines,1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2, 3-dimethyl-1,4-dioxopyrazino[1,2-a]indole (3, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-methyl-3-methylen e-1,4-dioxopyrazino[1,2-a]indole (4, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-methyl-1,3,4-trioxopyrazino[1,2-a] indole (5, 6-acetylbis(methylthiogliotoxin (10, bisdethiobis(methylthiogliotoxin (11, didehydrobisdethiobis(methylthiogliotoxin (12 and N-methyl-1H-indole-2-carboxamide (6. However, a novel tetracyclic-fused alkaloid, neosartin C (14, a meroterpenoid, pyripyropene A (15, gliotoxin (7 and five known gliotoxin analogues, acetylgliotoxin (8, reduced gliotoxin (9, 6-acetylbis(methylthiogliotoxin (10, bisdethiobis(methylthio gliotoxin (11 and bis-N-norgliovictin (13, were obtained when grown in glucose-containing medium (GluPY medium. This is the first report of compounds 3, 4, 6, 9, 10 and 12 as naturally occurring. Their structures were determined mainly by MS, 1D and 2D NMR data. The possible biosynthetic pathways of gliotoxin-related analogues and neosartin C were proposed. The antibacterial activity of compounds 2–14 and the cytotoxic activity of compounds 4, 5 and 7–13 were evaluated. Their structure-activity relationships are also preliminarily discussed.

  19. Exploring the chemodiversity and biological activities of the secondary metabolites from the marine fungus Neosartorya pseudofischeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wan-Ling; Le, Xiu; Li, Hou-Jin; Yang, Xiang-Ling; Chen, Jun-Xiong; Xu, Jun; Liu, Huan-Liang; Wang, Lai-You; Wang, Kun-Teng; Hu, Kun-Chao; Yang, De-Po; Lan, Wen-Jian

    2014-11-01

    The production of fungal metabolites can be remarkably influenced by various cultivation parameters. To explore the biosynthetic potentials of the marine fungus, Neosartorya pseudofischeri, which was isolated from the inner tissue of starfish Acanthaster planci, glycerol-peptone-yeast extract (GlyPY) and glucose-peptone-yeast extract (GluPY) media were used to culture this fungus. When cultured in GlyPY medium, this fungus produced two novel diketopiperazines, neosartins A and B (1 and 2), together with six biogenetically-related known diketopiperazines,1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2, 3-dimethyl-1,4-dioxopyrazino[1,2-a]indole (3), 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-methyl-3-methylen e-1,4-dioxopyrazino[1,2-a]indole (4), 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-methyl-1,3,4-trioxopyrazino[1,2-a] indole (5), 6-acetylbis(methylthio)gliotoxin (10), bisdethiobis(methylthio)gliotoxin (11), didehydrobisdethiobis(methylthio)gliotoxin (12) and N-methyl-1H-indole-2-carboxamide (6). However, a novel tetracyclic-fused alkaloid, neosartin C (14), a meroterpenoid, pyripyropene A (15), gliotoxin (7) and five known gliotoxin analogues, acetylgliotoxin (8), reduced gliotoxin (9), 6-acetylbis(methylthio)gliotoxin (10), bisdethiobis(methylthio) gliotoxin (11) and bis-N-norgliovictin (13), were obtained when grown in glucose-containing medium (GluPY medium). This is the first report of compounds 3, 4, 6, 9, 10 and 12 as naturally occurring. Their structures were determined mainly by MS, 1D and 2D NMR data. The possible biosynthetic pathways of gliotoxin-related analogues and neosartin C were proposed. The antibacterial activity of compounds 2-14 and the cytotoxic activity of compounds 4, 5 and 7-13 were evaluated. Their structure-activity relationships are also preliminarily discussed. PMID:25421322

  20. Evolution of ant-cultivar specialization and cultivar switching in Apterostigma fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2004-01-01

    Almost all of the more than 200 species of fungus-growing ants (Formicidae: Attini) cultivate litter-decomposing fungi in the family Lepiotaceae (Basidiomycota: Agaricales). The single exception to this rule is a subgroup of ant species within the lower attine genus Apterostigma, which cultivate pterulaceous fungi distantly related to the Lepiotaceae. Comparison of cultivar and ant phylogenies suggests that a switch from lepiotaceous to pterulaceous fungiculture occurred only once in the history of the fungus-growing ants. This unique switch occurred after the origin of the genus Apterostigma, such that the basal Apterostigma lineages retained the ancestral attine condition of lepiotaceous fungiculture, and none of the Apterostigma lineages in the monophyletic group of pterulaceous fungiculturists are known to have reverted back to lepiotaceous fungiculture. The origin of pterulaceous fungiculture in attine ants may have involved a unique transition from the ancestral cultivation of litter-decomposing lepiotaceous fungi to the cultivation of wood-decomposing pterulaceous fungi. Phylogenetic analyses further indicate that distantly related Apterostigma ant species sometimes cultivate the same cultivar lineage, indicating evolutionarily frequent, and possibly ongoing, exchanges of fungal cultivars between Apterostigma ant species. The pterulaceous cultivars form two sister clades, and different Apterostigma ant lineages are invariably associated with, and thus specialized on, only one of the two cultivar clades. However, within clades Apterostigma ant species are able to switch between fungi. This pattern of broad specialization by attine ants on defined cultivar clades, coupled with flexible switching between fungi within cultivar clades, is also found in other attine lineages and appears to be a general phenomenon of fungicultural evolution in all fungus-growing ants.

  1. Effect of vacuum and thermal shock on laser treatment of Trichophyton rubrum (toenail fungus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Guillermo; Sun, Feng; Carlier, Pierre; Young, Erica; Hennings, David; González, F. Javier

    2010-02-01

    The eradication of Trichophyton rubrum has been attempted via laser irradiation because it could result advantageous relative to current clinical therapies. Anticipating that the necessary thermal effects could unintentionally damage the underlying toe dermal layer, we have explored two auxiliary approaches: (a) laser irradiation under vacuum pressure, with and without water dousing and, (b) cooling followed by laser heating (thermal shock). The rationale is that at low pressures, the temperature necessary to achieve water evaporation/boiling is significantly reduced, thus requiring lower fluences. Similarly, a thermal shock induced by cooling followed by laser irradiation may require lower fluences to achieve fungus necrosis. For all experiments presented we use a Cooltouch, model CT3 plus, 1320 nm laser to irradiate fungi colonies. The vacuum pressure experiments exposed fungi colonies to a subatmospheric pressure of 84.7 kPa (25 inHg) with and without water dousing for 5 min, followed by irradiation with 4.0 J/cm2 fluence and 40-90 J total energies. The thermal shock experiments consisted of three sections at 4.8 J/cm2: cooling the fungus to 0 °C at 0.39 °C/min and then irradiating to 45-60 °C cooling to -20 °C at 1.075 °C/min and irradiating to 45 °C and cooling to -20 °C at 21.5 °C/min and irradiating to 45 °C. Fungus growth rate over a 1-week period assessed the feasibility of these procedures. Results indicated both approaches hamper the growth rate of fungi colonies relative to untreated control samples, especially water dousing under vacuum conditions and slow cooling rate preceding irradiation for thermal shock effect.

  2. Proteomic analysis of proteins differentially expressed in conidia and mycelium of the entomopathogenic fungus Aschersonia placenta.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Qiu, J.; Su, Y.; Gelbi?, Ivan; Qiu, Y.; Xie, X.; Guan, X.

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 58, ?. 12 (2012), s. 1327-1334. ISSN 0008-4166 Grant ostatní: National Natural Science Foundation of China(CN) 30500005; National Natural Science Foundation of China(CN) 31070026; National Natural Science Foundation of China(CN) 31170025; Fujian Province University(CN) JK2011013; Fujian Provincial Science Foundation(CN) 2010J06007; Chinese National Programs(CN) 2011AA10A203; Fujian Provincial Science Foundation(CN) 0b08b005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : entomopathogenic fungus * Aschersonia placenta * fungal developmental stages Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.199, year: 2012

  3. Punctaporonins H–M: Caryophyllene-Type Sesquiterpenoids from the Sponge-Associated Fungus Hansfordia sinuosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehong Wu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Six new caryophyllene-based sesquiterpenoids named punctaporonins H–M (1–6, together with punctaporonin B (7 and humulane (8 were isolated from the fermentation broth of the sponge-derived fungus Hansfordia sinuosae. Their structures were determined by the extensive HRESIMS and NMR spectroscopic analysis, including the X-ray crystallographic data for the assignment of the absolute configurations of punctaporonins H–I (1–2. The isolated compounds were evaluated for antihyperlipidemic, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities, and punctaporonin K (4 exhibited potent effects to reduce the triglycerides and total cholesterol in the intracellular levels.

  4. Pestalafuranones F–J, Five New Furanone Analogues from the Endophytic Fungus Nigrospora sp. BM-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqi Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Five new 2(5H-furanone-type derivatives, pestalafuranones F–J (compounds 3–7, together with two known compounds, pestalafuranones A (1 and B (2, were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract from the fermentation broth of the endophytic fungus Nigrospora sp. BM-2 in a hypersaline medium. The structures of these metabolites were elucidated by EIMS, HREIMS and NMR spectroscopic data. Compounds 1–7 exhibited no cytotoxic activities against the MDA-MB-231 and Caski cancer cell lines.

  5. [Infestation of mosquitoes from the Maritime Territory by the entomopathogenic fungus, Coelomomyces iliensis, under laboratory conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubitski?, A M; Dzerzhinski?, V A; Shestakov, V I

    1978-01-01

    The infection of larvae of Culex pipiens molestus, C. vagans and C. tritaeniorhynchus (the vector of the virus of Japanese encephalitis) with the entomopathogenic fungus Coelomomyces iliensis from Kazakhstan was carried out in the Primorje Territory in 1973--1974. At the infection of larvae of C. tritaeniorhynchus with the suspension of infected larvae the mortality was recorded only from 60% of individuals, while at the infection with a content of sporangia--from 36.6% of larvae. Somewhat less mortality (27.5%) was observed among larvae of C. pipiens molestus and C. pipiens. In control the mortali larvae did not exceed 5%. PMID:27745

  6. Sulfation and Enhanced Antioxidant Capacity of an Exopolysaccharide Produced by the Medicinal Fungus Cordyceps sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Jing-Kun Yan; Wen-Qiang Wang; Hai-Le Ma; Jian-Yong Wu

    2012-01-01

    EPS-1 was an exopolysaccharide produced by the medicinal fungus Cordyceps sinensis (Cs-HK1). In the present study, EPS-1 was sulfated with chlorosulfonic acid (CSA)-pyridine (Pyr) at different volume ratios, yielding four sulfated derivatives, SEPS-1A, B, C and D, with different degrees of substitution (DS: 0.25–1.38) and molecular weights (17.1–4.1 kDa). The sulfation of EPS-1 occurred most frequently at the C-6 hydroxyl groups due to their higher reactivity. In aqueous s...

  7. Three New Asperentin Derivatives from the Algicolous Fungus Aspergillus sp. F00785

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Tang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Three new asperentin-type compounds, 6-O-?-d-ribosylasperentin (1 and 6-O-?-d-ribosyl-8-O-methylasperentin (2 and 5-hydroxyl-6-O-methylasperentin (3, along with asperentin (4 and its known analogues (5–9, were isolated from a halotolerant Aspergillus sp. strain F00785, an endotrophic fungus from marine alga. Their structures were determined using extensive NMR and HRESIMS spectroscopic analysis, including the X-ray crystallographic data for the assignment of the absolute configurations of compound 9. Compound 4 exhibited highly potent inhibitory activity against crop pathogens, Colletotrichum gleosporioides Penz. and Colletotrichum gleosporioides (Penz. Sacc.

  8. Potent toxic macrocyclic trichothecenes from the marine-derived fungus Myrothecium verrucaria Hmp-F73.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Liu, Li; Wang, Nan; Wang, Shu-Jin; Hu, Jing-Chun; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2011-12-01

    Activity-guided fractionation of a methanol extract from the culture broth of Myrothecium verrucaria Hmp-F73, a fungus associated with the sponge Hymeniacidon perleve, afforded six macrocyclic trichothecenes, verrucarin J (1), 8-hydroxyverrucarin J (2), verrucarin A (3), 8-acetoxyroridin H (4), isororidin E (5), and roridin E (6), along with trichoverrin B (7). All seven metabolites displayed potent toxicity to the brine shrimp (Artemia salina). In addition, compounds 2, 3, and 6 showed weak phytotoxic activities against lettuce seeds. A preliminary structure-activity relationship of the metabolites is also discussed. PMID:22312738

  9. Aniquinazolines A–D, Four New Quinazolinone Alkaloids from Marine-Derived Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus nidulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin-Gui Wang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Four new quinazolinone alkaloids, namely, aniquinazolines A–D (1–4, were isolated and identified from the culture of Aspergillus nidulans MA-143, an endophytic fungus obtained from the leaves of marine mangrove plant Rhizophora stylosa. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, and their absolute configurations were determined on the basis of chiral HPLC analysis of the acidic hydrolysates. The structure for 1 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All these compounds were examined for antibacterial and cytotoxic activity as well as brine shrimp (Artemia salina lethality.

  10. Aniquinazolines A-D, four new quinazolinone alkaloids from marine-derived endophytic fungus Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Chun-Yan; Li, Xiao-Ming; Li, Chun-Shun; Wang, Ming-Hui; Xu, Gang-Ming; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2013-07-01

    Four new quinazolinone alkaloids, namely, aniquinazolines A-D (1-4), were isolated and identified from the culture of Aspergillus nidulans MA-143, an endophytic fungus obtained from the leaves of marine mangrove plant Rhizophora stylosa. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, and their absolute configurations were determined on the basis of chiral HPLC analysis of the acidic hydrolysates. The structure for 1 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All these compounds were examined for antibacterial and cytotoxic activity as well as brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality. PMID:23880937

  11. Structural characterization of a ribose-5-phosphate isomerase B from the pathogenic fungus Coccidioides immitis

    OpenAIRE

    Leibly David J; Leonard Jess T; Baydo Ruth O; Smith Eric R; Abramov Ariel B; Edwards Thomas E; Thompkins Kaitlin B; Clifton Matthew C; Gardberg Anna S; Staker Bart L; Van Voorhis Wesley C.; Myler Peter J; Stewart Lance J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase is an enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of ribose-5-phosphate and ribulose-5-phosphate. This family of enzymes naturally occurs in two distinct classes, RpiA and RpiB, which play an important role in the pentose phosphate pathway and nucleotide and co-factor biogenesis. Results Although RpiB occurs predominantly in bacteria, here we report crystal structures of a putative RpiB from the pathogenic fungus Coccidioides immitis. A 1.9 Å re...

  12. N-Acetyl-d-Glucosamine-Mediated Regulation of Extracellular Protease in the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Bidochka; Khachatourians, George G.

    1988-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana GK2016 grown in a liquid medium incorporating gelatin as the sole carbon and nitrogen source produced an extracellular serine protease (molecular weight, 35,000; pI ca. 10). Without gelatin, B. bassiana could utilize N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc; 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-glucose) as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen, and GlcNAc availability increased the storage carbohydrate content in mycelia. Synthesis of protease was repressed in gelatin m...

  13. Meroterpenes from Endophytic Fungus A1 of Mangrove Plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Proksch

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Four new meroterpenes, guignardones F–I (14, together with two known compounds guignardones A (5 and B (6 were isolated from the endophytic fungus A1 of the mangrove plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea. Their structures and relative configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic data and single-crystal X-ray crystallography. A possible biogenetic pathway of compounds 16 was also proposed. All compounds were evaluated for inhibitory activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and Staphylococcus aureus.

  14. Low-temperature scanning electron microscopy in fungus-nematode interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Belder, E; Boekestein, A; van Esch, J W; Thiel, F

    1993-01-01

    A comparative study has been made of different preparation techniques used for the scanning electron microscope (SEM), with regard to their application to fungus-nematode interaction. The preparation of frozen-hydrated specimens of both healthy and Arthrobotrys-oligospora-infected second-stage larvae of the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne sp.) is described, and the results are compared with those obtained by critical point-drying and freeze-drying. In all cases the frozen-hydrated specimens consistently showed the best preservation. PMID:8281360

  15. Novel aerobic perchloroethylene degradation by the White-Rot Fungus trametes versicolor

    OpenAIRE

    Marco-urrea, Ernest

    2006-01-01

    Perchloroethylene (PCE) is one of the most important groundwater pollutants around the world. It is a suspected carcinogen and is believed to be rather recalcitrant to microbial degradation. We report here, for the first time, aerobic degradation of PCE by the white rot fungus, Trametes versicolor, to less hazardous products. Aerobic degradation rate of PCE was 2.04 to 2.75 × 10-4 ?mol h-1 mg dry weight of fungal biomass. Trichloroacetyl chloride (TCAC) was identified as the main intermedia...

  16. Biodecolorization of Phenolic Paper Mill Effluent by Ligninolytic Fungus Trametes versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Prabu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A white rot fungus isolated from soil samples enriched by continuous pulp and paper mill effluent irrigation and identified as Trametes versicolor was capable of decolorization and degradation of phenol from paper mill effluent. 14C synthetic lignin mineralization assays showed that Trametes versicolor assimilated 24.3% of the total label. There was 76% effluent decolourization along with 78% COD reduction. The effluent chlorinated phenol degradation was 85% by Trametes versicolor, when added with 1% glucose as co-substrate.

  17. Biological activities of the lignicolous fungus Meripilus giganteus (Pers.: Pers.) Karst.

    OpenAIRE

    Karaman Maja; Kaišarevi? Sonja; Somborski Jelena; Kebert M.; Matavulj M.

    2009-01-01

    Crude extracts (methanolic-ME andwater-WE) of the fungus Meripilus giganteus (Pers.: Pers.) Karst. were analyzed for their antioxidative, antibacterial, cytotoxic, neurotoxic, and hemolytic activities using tests in vitro. The highest scavenging activity was exhibited by WE on OH• radicals, showing a 50% effective concentration (EC50) at 292.83±2.5 ?g/ml and ferric-reducing ability at 14.24±2.9 mg eq of ascorbic acid per g of dried extract (mg/g).An anti­bacterial effect was detected mo...

  18. Butyrolactones from the Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus versicolor and their Anti-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Activity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Min, Zhou; Jie, Lou; Yin-Ke, Li; Yue-De, Wang; Kun, Zhou; Bing-Kun, Ji; Wei, Dong; Xue-Mei, Gao; Gang, Du; Qiu-Fen, Hu.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available New butyrolactones aspernolides C and D, along with two known butyrolactones (A and B) were isolated from the culture of the endophytic fungus Aspergillus versicolor. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic ressonance te [...] chniques, and electronic circular dichroism. The butyrolactones aspernolides C and D were tested for their anti-tobacco mosaic virus activity. The results showed that butyrolactones aspernolides C and D exhibited moderate anti-tobacco mosaic virus activity with IC50 values of 64.2 and 88.6 ?M, respectively.

  19. Morphological, molecular and ecological aspects of the South American hypogeous fungus Alpova austroalnicola sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouhra, Eduardo R; Dominguez, Laura S; Becerra, Alejandra G; Trappe, James M

    2005-01-01

    Field studies in Argentina's Yunga District revealed Alpova austroalnicola sp. nov., a hypogeous fungus associated with Alnus acuminata ssp. acuminata. Morphological and molecular studies based on amplification and sequencing of the nuclear LSU rDNA gene showed its unique identity within Alpova. Related genera included in the analyses were Boletus edulis, Rhizopogon spp., Suillus luteus and Truncocolumella citrina. Additional observations of animal diggings around the sites and microscopic examination of fecal pellets of the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus novemcinctus) indicate A. austroalnicola is consumed and its spores dispersed by animals. PMID:16392248

  20. New cytotoxic 14-membered macrolides from marine-derived fungus Aspergillus ostianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kito, Keijiro; Ookura, Ryuhei; Yoshida, Sanae; Namikoshi, Michio; Ooi, Takashi; Kusumi, Takenori

    2008-01-17

    Three new 14-membered macrolides, named aspergillides A, B, and C (1, 5, and 7), were isolated from marine-derived fungus Aspergillus ostianus strain 01F313, cultured in a medium composed of bromine-modified artificial seawater. The structures of the new compounds were determined by analyses of 1D and 2D NMR spectra. Their absolute configurations were elucidated by the modified Mosher's method and chemical conversions. The new compounds showed cytotoxic activity against mouse lymphocytic leukemia cells (L1210). PMID:18078344

  1. Pentaketides relating to aspinonene and dihydroaspyrone from a marine-derived fungus, Aspergillus ostianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kito, Keijiro; Ookura, Ryuhei; Yoshida, Sanae; Namikoshi, Michio; Ooi, Takashi; Kusumi, Takenori

    2007-12-01

    Three new pentaketides, aspinotriols A ( 1) and B ( 3) and aspinonediol ( 5), were isolated together with two known compounds, aspinonene ( 7) and dihydroaspyrone ( 9), from the marine fungus Aspergillus ostianus strain 01F313, which was collected in Pohnpei and cultured with bromine-modified artificial seawater. The structures of the new compounds were determined by spectroscopic analyses including 1D and 2D NMR. Although 1 and 3 are diastereomers, they show nearly superimposable (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra. The absolute configurations of compounds 1, 3, 5, and 9 were elucidated by the modified Mosher's method. PMID:17994702

  2. Medium-Chain Fatty Acids Affect Citrinin Production in the Filamentous Fungus Monascus ruber

    OpenAIRE

    Hajjaj, Hassan; Klae?be?, Alain; Goma, Ge?rard; Blanc, Philippe J.; Barbier, Estelle; Franc?ois, Jean

    2000-01-01

    During submerged culture in the presence of glucose and glutamate, the filamentous fungus Monascus ruber produces water-soluble red pigments together with citrinin, a mycotoxin with nephrotoxic and hepatoxic effects on animals. Analysis of the 13C-pigment molecules from mycelia cultivated with [1-13C]-, [2-13C]-, or [1,2-13C]acetate by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance indicated that the biosynthesis of the red pigments used both the polyketide pathway, to generate the chromophore structure, and...

  3. Identification and characterization of genes required for hyphal morphogenesis in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans.

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, S. D.; A. F. Hofmann; Tedford, H W; Lee, M P

    1999-01-01

    In the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, germination of an asexual conidiospore results in the formation of a hyphal cell. A key feature of spore germination is the switch from isotropic spore expansion to polarized apical growth. Here, temperature-sensitive mutations are used to characterize the roles of five genes (sepA, hypA, podB-podD) in the establishment and maintenance of hyphal polarity. Evidence that suggests that the hypA, podB, and sepA genes are required for multiple aspect...

  4. An antimycobacterial cyclodepsipeptide from the entomopathogenic fungus Ophiocordyceps communis BCC 16475.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haritakun, Rachada; Sappan, Malipan; Suvannakad, Rapheephat; Tasanathai, Kanoksri; Isaka, Masahiko

    2010-01-01

    A novel cyclodepsipeptide, cordycommunin (1), and two dihydroisocoumarins (2 and 3) were isolated from the insect pathogenic fungus Ophiocordyceps communis BCC 16475. The absolute configurations of the amino acid residues of 1 were addressed by application of Marfey's method. Cordycommunin (1) showed growth inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra with an MIC value of 15 microM. This compound also exhibited weak cytotoxicity to KB cells with an IC50 of 45 microM, while it was inactive against BC, NCI-H187, and Vero cell lines at a concentration of 88 microM (50 microg/mL). PMID:20028029

  5. Degradation of 1,4-Dioxane and Cyclic Ethers by an Isolated Fungus

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamiya, Kunichika; Hashimoto, Syunji; Ito, Hiroyasu; Edmonds, John S.; Morita, Masatoshi

    2005-01-01

    By using 1,4-dioxane as the sole source of carbon, a 1,4-dioxane-degrading microorganism was isolated from soil. The fungus, termed strain A, was able to utilize 1,4-dioxane and many kinds of cyclic ethers as the sole source of carbon and was identified as Cordyceps sinensis from its 18S rRNA gene sequence. Ethylene glycol was identified as a degradation product of 1,4-dioxane by the use of deuterated 1,4-dioxane-d8 and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. A degradation pathway invo...

  6. Characterization of pathogenic races of the sugarcane smut fungus by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Representative samples of five major races of Ustilago scitaminea, the causal organism of the smut disease of sugarcane, were obtained from infected sugarcane fields in the Western hemisphere. The variations in concentration of 10 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Co, and Zn) in the sporidial yeast-like cells of this fungal pathogen were analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Comparative analysis of the elemental compositions in the different races of the fungus showed that the five pathogenic races of Ustilago scitaminea may be distinguished from each other on the basis of elemental compositions. (author)

  7. Three new asperentin derivatives from the algicolous fungus Aspergillus sp. F00785.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qian; Guo, Kai; Li, Xiao-Yang; Zheng, Xiu-Ying; Kong, Xiang-Jian; Zheng, Zhong-Hui; Xu, Qing-Yan; Deng, Xianming

    2014-12-01

    Three new asperentin-type compounds, 6-O-?-d-ribosylasperentin (1) and 6-O-?-d-ribosyl-8-O-methylasperentin (2) and 5-hydroxyl-6-O-methylasperentin (3), along with asperentin (4) and its known analogues (5-9), were isolated from a halotolerant Aspergillus sp. strain F00785, an endotrophic fungus from marine alga. Their structures were determined using extensive NMR and HRESIMS spectroscopic analysis, including the X-ray crystallographic data for the assignment of the absolute configurations of compound 9. Compound 4 exhibited highly potent inhibitory activity against crop pathogens, Colletotrichum gleosporioides Penz. and Colletotrichum gleosporioides (Penz.) Sacc. PMID:25517217

  8. Antibiotic and Antimalarial Quinones from Fungus-Growing Ant-Associated Pseudonocardia sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Gavin; Derbyshire, Emily; Caldera, Eric; Currie, Cameron R.; Clardy, Jon C.

    2012-01-01

    Three new members of the angucycline class of antibiotics, pseudonocardones A–C (1–3), along with the known antibiotics 6-deoxy-8-O-methylrabelomycin (4) and X-14881 E (5) have been isolated from the culture of a Pseudonocardia strain associated with the fungus-growing ant Apterostigma dentigerum. Compounds 4 and 5 showed antibiotic activity against Bacillus subtilis 3610 and liver-stage Plasmodium berghei, while 1–3 were inactive or only weakly active in a variety of biological assays....

  9. Influence of the Bcg locus on macrophage response to the dimorphic fungus Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Puliti, M; Radzioch, D; Mazzolla, R; Barluzzi, R; Bistoni, F; Blasi, E

    1995-01-01

    The Bcg/Ity/Lsh gene (candidate Nramp) controls natural resistance to several parasites, such as Mycobacterium bovis, Leishmania donovani, and Salmonella typhimurium. Using two macrophage (M phi) cell lines (B10R and B10S) derived from mouse strains congenic at Bcg, we found that M phi s from resistant mice (B10R M phi s) act more effectively against the two morphogenetic forms of the dimorphic fungus Candida albicans compared with M phi s from susceptible mice (B10S M phi s). Moreover, when ...

  10. Chaetochromones A and B, Two New Polyketides from the Fungus Chaetomium indicum (CBS.860.68)

    OpenAIRE

    Xuewei Wang; Keyang Lu; Yisheng Zhang; Li Li; Gang Ding

    2013-01-01

    Chaetochromones A (1) and B (2), two novel polyketides, were isolated from the crude extract of fungus Chaetomium indicum (CBS.860.68) together with three known analogues PI-3(3), PI-4 (4) and SB236050 (5). The structures of these compounds were determined by HRESI-MS and NMR experiments. Chaetochromones A (1) and B (2) are a member of the polyketides family, which might originate from a similar biogenetic pathway as the known compounds PI-3 (3), PI-4 (4) and SB236050 (5). The biological acti...

  11. Efficacy of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum in controlling the tick Rhipicephalus annulatus under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samish, M; Rot, A; Ment, D; Barel, S; Glazer, I; Gindin, G

    2014-12-15

    High infectivity of entomopathogenic fungi to ticks under laboratory conditions has been demonstrated in many studies. However, the few reports on their use under field conditions demonstrate large variations in their success, often with no clear explanation. The present study evaluated the factors affecting the efficacy of the fungus Metarhizium brunneum against the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus. It demonstrates how environmental conditions and ground cover affect the efficiency of the fungus under field conditions. During the summer, 93% of tick females exposed to fungus-contaminated ground died within 1 week, whereas during the winter, only 62.2% died within 6 weeks. Nevertheless, the hatchability of their eggs was only 6.1% during the summer and 0.0% during winter. Covering the ground with grass, leaves or gravel improved fungal performance. Aside from killing female ticks, the fungus had a substantial effect on tick fecundity. Fungal infection reduced the proportion of female ticks laying full-size egg masses by up to 91%, and reduced egg hatchability by up to 100%. To reduce the negative effect of outdoor factors on fungal activity, its conidia were mixed with different oils (olive, canola, mineral or paraffin at 10% v/v) and evaluated in both laboratory and field tests for efficacy. All tested oils without conidia sprayed on the sand did not influence tick survival or weight of the laid eggs but significantly reduced egghatchability. Conidia in water with canola or mineral oil spread on agarose and incubated for 18 h showed 57% and 0% germination, respectively. Comparing, under laboratory conditions, the effects of adding each of the four oils to conidia in water on ticks demonstrated no effect on female mortality or weight of the laid egg mass, but the percentage of hatched eggs was reduced. In outdoor trials, female ticks placed on the ground sprayed with conidia in water yielded an average of 175 larvae per female and there was no hatching of eggs laid by females placed on ground sprayed with conidia in water with canola or mineral oils. PMID:25468024

  12. Psychrophilin A and cycloaspeptide D, novel cyclic peptides from the psychrotolerant fungus Penicillium ribeum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Petur Weihe; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2004-01-01

    Two fungal metabolites, psychrophilin A (1) and cycloaspeptide D (2), together with the known cycloaspeptide A (3) were isolated from the psychrotolerant fungus Penicillium ribeum using high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and preparative HPLC. The structures were determined from 1D and 2D NMR techniques, HREIMS, tandem mass spectrometry (ESMS/MS), and X-ray crystallography. The amino acid residues of psychrophilin A (1) and cycloaspeptide D (2) were all found to possess the l configuration by Marfey's method. Psychrophilin A (1) is the first natural cyclic peptide containing a nitro group instead of an amino group.

  13. Improving durability of Wood-polymer composite processed by gamma radiation against the Polyporus sanguineus fungus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of wood durability was done measuring the wood weight lost after 90 days and the change of surface morphology. This study was done with the fungus Polyporus sanguineus in three wood species: Catahua (Hura crepitans L.), Mohena (Aniba amazonica Meiz), and Capirona (Calycophy spruceanum Be) without treatment and wood-polymer composite obtained by gamma irradiation. The Capirona and Mohena composites improve its durability, while the Catahua composite maintains its level of durability. Regarding surface morphology, there is no a significant change between the untreated woods and Capirona and Mohena composites. While the untreated Catahua shows deterioration of its surface. (orig.)

  14. [Inhibition effects and mechanisms of the entophytic fungus Trichoderma harzianum LH-7 from Aloe barbadensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Heng; Ke, Yang; Qiang, Yi; Ma, Yu

    2014-04-01

    Inhibition spectrum and antagonistic mechanism of an endophytic fungus Trichoderma harzianum LH-7, isolated from wild medicinal plant Aloe barbadensis, were investigated by in vitro culture methods against 9 kinds of plant pathogens. The results showed that nutrient competition and hyper-parasitism were the two primarily antagonist approaches that strain LH-7 adopted to inhibit the tested plant pathogens with a significant inhibition rate of 62.4%-88.4%. Moreover, the active compound from metabolites of LH-7 could cause pathogen mycelial deformities, cell wall rupture and conidial malformation, leading to the effective inhibition on pathogens growth and reproduction. PMID:25011309

  15. Biological Control of Meloidogyne hapla on Alfalfa and Tomato with the Fungus Meria coniospora

    OpenAIRE

    Townshend, J. L.; Meskine, M.; Barron, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    This study was to determine whether Arthrobotrys flagrans, A. oligospora, and Meria coniospora would control the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla on alfalfa and tomato. Alfalfa seeds were coated with a fungus-rye powder in 2% cellulose and were planted in infested soil. Three-week-old seedlings from seed treated with M. coniospora had 60% and 58% fewer galls in two experiments than did seedlings from untreated seeds. Numbers of J2 in the soil were not reduced. Plant growth did not improve...

  16. A Fungus-Specific Ras Homolog Contributes to the Hyphal Growth and Virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus

    OpenAIRE

    Fortwendel, Jarrod R.; Zhao, Wei; Bhabhra, Ruchi; Park, Steven; Perlin, David S.; Askew, David S; Rhodes, Judith C.

    2005-01-01

    The Ras family of GTPase proteins has been shown to control morphogenesis in many organisms, including several species of pathogenic fungi. In a previous study, we identified a gene encoding a fungus-specific Ras subfamily homolog, rasB, in Aspergillus fumigatus. Here we report that deletion of A. fumigatus rasB caused decreased germination and growth rates on solid media but had no effect on total biomass accumulation after 24 h of growth in liquid culture. The ?rasB mutant had an irregular...

  17. Isolation and Structure Characterization of an Antioxidative Glycopeptide from Mycelial Culture Broth of a Medicinal Fungus

    OpenAIRE

    Jian-Yong Wu; Xia Chen; Ka-Chai Siu

    2014-01-01

    A novel glycopeptide (Cs-GP1) with an average molecular weight (Mw) of 6.0 kDa was isolated and purified by column chromatography from the lower Mw fraction of exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by a medicinal fungus Cordyceps sinensis Cs-HK1. Its carbohydrate moiety was mainly composed of glucose and mannose at 3.2:1.0 mole ratio, indicating an O-linked glycopeptide. The peptide chain contained relatively high mole ratios of aspartic acid, glutamic acid and glycine (3.3–3.5 relative to argi...

  18. Opaliferin, a new polyketide from cultures of entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps sp. NBRC 106954.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudniewska, Aleksandra; Hayashi, Sayaka; Shimizu, Mina; Kato, Masayuki; Suenaga, Midori; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Ito, Takuya; Asakawa, Yoshinori; Ban, Sayaka; Kumada, Toshio; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Umeyama, Akemi

    2014-09-19

    Opaliferin, a polyketide with a unique partial structure in which a cyclopentanone and tetrahydrofuran were connected with an external double bond, was isolated from the insect pathogenic fungus Cordyceps sp. NBRC 106954. The structure and relative configuration of opaliferin were determined by spectroscopic analysis and X-ray crystallography. The absolute configuration was established by anomalous dispersion effects in X-ray diffraction measurements on the crystal of di(p-bromobenzoyl) ester of opaliferin. A plausible biosynthetic pathway for opaliferin is proposed. PMID:25171745

  19. NOVEDADES PARA LA UREDOBIOTA COLOMBIANA CITADAS A PARTIR DE LOS ESPECÍMENES DEPOSITADOS EN EL U.S. NATIONAL FUNGUS COLLECTIONS (BPI) / NEWS FOR THE COLOMBIAN UREDOBIOTA FROM THE U.S. NATIONAL FUNGUS COLLECTIONS (BPI)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Víctor Manuel, Pardo Cardona.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de la revisión y búsqueda en la base de datos del U.S. National Fungus Collections (BPI) y en los marbetes de los especímenes depositados en su herbario micológico, se registran por primera vez para Colombia 11 especies de Uredinales (royas), 4 familias botánicas y 53 especies de hospedante [...] s. Abstract in english Starting from revision and search in the U.S. National Fungus Collections (BPI) database and the tags of the species placed in its mycologic herbary, are registered for first time for Colombia, 11 species of Uredinales (rust fungi), 4 botany families an 53 species of plant hosts. [...

  20. Biosorption of uranium(VI) by a mangrove endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. ZZF51 from the South China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium(VI) accumulation was studied in detail by using the biomass of mangrove endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. ZZF51 from the South China Sea. The uranium(VI) biosorption process onto the tested fungus powders was optimized at pH 4.0, adsorption time 60 min, and uranium(VI) initial concentration 50 mg L-1 with 61.89% of removal efficiency. According to Fourier transform infrared spectra for the tested fungus before and after loaded with uranium(VI), the results showed that both of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups acted as the important roles in the adsorption process. In addition, the experimental data were analyzed by using parameter and kinetic models, and it was obtained that the Langmuir isotherm model and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided better correlation with the experimental data for adsorption of uranium(VI). (author)

  1. Has substrate-dependent co-evolution of enzyme function occured in the attine ant-fungus symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; SchiØtt, Morten

    The conspicuous leaf-cutter ants in the genus Atta build huge nests displacing several cubic meters of soil, whereas lower attine genera such as Cyphomyrmex have small nests with a fungus garden the size of a table-tennis ball. Only the leaf-cutter ants are specialized on using fresh leaves as substrate for their fungus gardens, whereas the more basal attine genera use substrates such as flowers, plant debris, small twigs, insect feces and insect carcasses. This diverse array of fungal substrates across the attine lineage implies that the symbiotic fungus needs different enzymes to break down the plant material that the ants provide or different efficiencies of enzyme function. Here we present the fist partial amino acid sequences from a fungal xylanase gene to test the hypothesis that fungal enzymes that degrade plant cell walls have functionally co-evolved with the ants.

  2. Influence of nutritive substrate and pH on catalase and peroxidase production in saprophytic fungus Rhizopus nigricans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Manoliu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic organisms are vulnerable to action of reactive oxygen species that are very noxious and may beresponsible for damage of all cellular constituents. Most organisms have developed defense mechanisms to protect cells from high levels of free radicals. The purpose of this paper is to determine the antioxidant response in fungus Rhizopus nigricans, materialized trough enzymatic activity of biochemical markers of oxidative stress – catalase and peroxidase.We followed the influence of culture medium pH and nutrient substrate on development of the two enzymes. Enzymaticassays were performed at intervals of 5, 10 and 15 days, using both fungus mycelium and culture liquid. Development of the fungus was completely inhibited at pH 2. Catalase and peroxidase production was mostly endocellular because in theculture liquid in most work variants enzymatic assay was not possible and in the remaining work variants were recordedlow values for catalase and extremely low, near to zero for peroxidase.

  3. Decomposition of cellulose by the fungus curvularia lunata wakker-II: factors affecting the elaboration of cellulolytic enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Verma

    1962-10-01

    Full Text Available A study of the effect of nutritional factors on the elaboration of extracellular cellulolytic enzyme by the fungus Curvularia lunata has been carried out. A modified Omeliansky's medium has ben formulated substituting ammonium sulphate by ammonium chloride in the Omeliansky's medium and incorporating sodium carboxy methyl cellulose as cellulose is substrate. Use of indole-acetic acid in the growth medium has been found to increase the in vivo as well as in vitro cellulolytic activity. The fungus when grown in the presence of subthresh hold concentrations of sodium pentachlorophenate elaborate an extracellular cellulolytic enzyme of enhanced activity.

  4. The rust fungus Uromyces geranii (DC. Lev. localization and impact on anatomy of the host plant Geranium sanguineum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Biruliova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The investigations on the rust fungus Uromyces geranii (DC. Lev. influence on the anatomy of the vegetative organs of the host plantGeranium sanguineumL. (Geraniaceae were conducted. The local and endophytic arrangement of U. geraniiin the tissues of the host plant were identified. The tissues hypertrophy and organs deformation in G. sanguineum were revealed as a consequences of the fungus U. geraniiinfluence as well as increment of pericyclic ring sclerenchyma lignification in the stem. While the mature aecia and uredinia on the stem cause the epidermis tears and fill the primary cortex up to the stele.

  5. Synthesis of Differentiation-Specific Proteins in Germlings of the Wheat Stem Rust Fungus after Heat Shock

    OpenAIRE

    Wanner, Reinhard; Fo?rster, Helga; Mendgen, Kurt; Staples, Richard C.

    1985-01-01

    Synthesis of differentiation-specific proteins in germlings of the wheat stem rust fungus after heat shock. Experimental Mycology 9, 279-283. When uredospore germlings of the wheat stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis tritici) were heat-shocked to induce differentiation, changes in the pattern of proteins synthesized were observed when the substomatal vesicles began to emerge. At this time (1.5 h after end of heat shock) two differentiation-specific proteins of approximately 34.7 and 21.9 kDa ...

  6. A possible mechanism to control the spread and growth of facultative marine fungus Aspergillus niger using magnetic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vala, A. K.; Desai, R.; Upadhyay, R. V.; Mehta, R. V.

    2008-12-01

    Interaction of facultative marine fungus Aspergillus niger with a Mn-Zn ferrite magnetic fluid (MF) has been studied. The fungus exhibited a luxuriant growth in the presence of magnetic fluid at test concentrations. Though the biomass accumulation was found to be almost similar, mycelial spread was found to be rapid in the presence of MF if compared to the control one. The MF also exhibited a positive effect on the biomass accumulation during prolonged incubation. These preliminary observations provide a baseline information for possible exploitation of the magnetic fluid-facultative marine fungal interaction for bioremediation purposes. Figs 5, Refs 13.

  7. Plant growth promoting potential of the fungus Discosia sp. FIHB 571 from tea rhizosphere tested on chickpea, maize and pea

    OpenAIRE

    Rahi, P.; Vyas, P.; Sharma, S; Gulati, Ashu; Gulati, Arvind

    2009-01-01

    The ITS region sequence of a phosphate-solubilizing fungus isolated from the rhizosphere of tea growing in Kangra valley of Himachal Pradesh showed 96% identity with Discosia sp. strain HKUCC 6626 ITS 1, 5.8S rRNA gene and ITS 2 complete sequence, and 28S rRNA gene partial sequence. The fungus exhibited the multiple plant growth promoting attributes of solubilization of inorganic phosphate substrates, production of phytase and siderophores, and biosynthesis of indole acetic acid (IAA)-like au...

  8. Physiological traits of Penicillium glabrum strain LCP 08.5568, a filamentous fungus isolated from bottled aromatised mineral water

    OpenAIRE

    Nevarez, Laurent; Vasseur, Valérie; Le Madec, A.; Le Bras, M. A.; Coroller, Louis; Leguérinel, Ivan; Barbier, Georges

    2009-01-01

    Penicillium glabrum is an ubiquitous fungus distributed world wide. This fungus is a frequent contaminant in the food manufacturing industry. Environmental factors such as temperature, water activity and pH have a great influence on fungal development. In this study, a strain of P. glabrum referenced to as LCP 08.5568, has been isolated from a bottle of aromatised mineral water. The effects of temperature, aw and pH on radial growth rate were assessed on Czapeck Yeast Agar (CYA) medium. Model...

  9. The Analysis for the Nutritional Ingredient of Wild Edible Fungus in Tourist Attraction-taking Yunnan Province as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanlan Yi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is to provide new thinking for the local tourism by understanding of nutritional ingredient in wild edible fungus in tourist attraction, thus the nutrient value and medical value of edible fugus can be converted to economic value preferably. Taking several common wild edible fugus in Yunnan tourist attraction as an example, this paper analyzes the nutritional ingredient such as amino acid, vitamin, inorganic salt, carbohydrate, fat, etc., according to the detection method of food nutrient content. It aims to provide scientific basis for the development and utilization of wild fungus and attract more tourists to drive local economic development at the same time.

  10. Biocontrol of pigeon tick Argas reflexus (Acari: Argasidae) by entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium Anisopliae (Ascomycota: Hypocreales)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli, Mosa; Pourseyed, Seyed Hassan; Ownagh, Abdulghaffar; Bernousi, Iraj; Mardani, Karim

    2011-01-01

    The pigeon tick Argas reflexus is a pathogen-transmitting soft tick that typically feeds on pigeons, but can also attack humans causing local and systemic reactions. Chemical control is made difficult due to environmental contamination and resistance development. As a result, there is much interest in increasing the role of other strategies like biological control. In this study, the efficacy of three strains (V245, 685 and 715C) of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for biological control of three life stages of pigeon tick A. reflexus including eggs, larvae, engorged and unfed adults was investigated under laboratory conditions. Five concentrations of different strains of M. anisopliae ranging from 103 to 107 conidia/ml were used. All fungal strains significantly decreased hatchability of A. reflexus eggs. Strain V245 was the most effective strain on the mortality of larval stage with nearly 100% mortality at the lowest concentration (103 conidia/ml) at 10 days post-inoculation. The mortality rate of both engorged and unfed adult ticks were also increased significantly exposed to different conidial concentrations compared to the control groups (P < 0.05) making this fungus a potential biological control agent of pigeon tick reducing the use of chemical acaricides. PMID:24031777

  11. Enzyme Inhibitory Radicinol Derivative from Endophytic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana LK12, Associated with Rhazya stricta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Ali, Liaqat; Hussain, Javid; Rizvi, Tania Shamim; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Endophytes, living inside plant tissues, play an essential role in plant growth and development, whilst producing unique bioactive secondary metabolites. In the current study, the endophytic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana LK12 was isolated from the leaves of ethno-medicinal and alkaloidal rich Rhazya stricta. The bulk amount of ethyl acetate extract of fungus was subjected to advance column chromatographic techniques, which resulted in the isolation of a new radicinol derivative, bipolarisenol (1). It was found to be a derivative of radicinol. The structure elucidation was carried out by the combined use of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, mass, and UV spectrometric analyses. The bipolarisenol was assessed for its potential role in enzyme inhibition of urease and acetyl cholinesterase (AChE). Results showed that bipolarisenol significantly inhibited the AChE activity with low IC50 (67.23 ± 5.12 µg·mL-1). Bipolarisenol inhibited urease in a dose-dependent manner with high IC50 (81.62 ± 4.61 µg·mL-1). The new compound also showed a moderate anti-lipid peroxidation potential (IC50 = 168.91 ± 4.23 µg·mL-1). In conclusion, endophytes isolated from medicinal plants possess a unique potential to be considered for future drug discovery. PMID:26151116

  12. Changes in major components of tea fungus metabolites during prolonged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C; Liu, B Y

    2000-11-01

    Changes in major components and microbes in tea fungus broth (or kombucha; teakwass) prepared from nine different sources during a prolonged fermentation of up to 60 days were investigated. Cell concentrations of both yeasts and acetic acid bacteria in broth were generally higher than those in the cellulosic pellicles. The residual sucrose concentration decreased linearly with time, although the rate fell after the first month. Metabolic fates of glucose and fructose produced as a result of the hydrolysis of sucrose were different. Glucose was not produced in parallel with fructose (0.085 g 100 ml(-1) d(-1)) but was produced with a lower initial rate (0.041 g 100 ml(-1) d(-1)). Both titratable acidity and gluconic acid increased steadily with time for all samples, although gluconic acid was not generated for 6 days until the fermentation had begun. Acetic acid increased slowly to a maximum value of 1.1 g 100 ml(-1) after 30 days; thereafter, it decreased gradually. Gluconic acid contributed to the titratable acidity and thus, the taste of tea fungus broth, during the final stage of fermentation. It is concluded that the desired quality or composition of kombucha can be obtained through the proper control of fermentation time. PMID:11119158

  13. Cryptic speciation and recombination in the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis as revealed by gene genealogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matute, Daniel R; McEwen, Juan G; Puccia, Rosana; Montes, Beatriz A; San-Blas, Gioconda; Bagagli, Eduardo; Rauscher, Jason T; Restrepo, Angela; Morais, Favia; Niño-Vega, Gustavo; Taylor, John W

    2006-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiologic agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a disease confined to Latin America and of marked importance in the endemic areas due to its frequency and severity. This species is considered to be clonal according to mycological criteria and has been shown to vary in virulence. To characterize natural genetic variation and reproductive mode in this fungus, we analyzed P. brasiliensis phylogenetically in search of cryptic species and possible recombination using concordance and nondiscordance of gene genealogies with respect to phylogenies of eight regions in five nuclear loci. Our data indicate that this fungus consists of at least three distinct, previously unrecognized species: S1 (species 1 with 38 isolates), PS2 (phylogenetic species 2 with six isolates), and PS3 (phylogenetic species 3 with 21 isolates). Genealogies of four of the regions studied strongly supported the PS2 clade, composed of five Brazilian and one Venezuelan isolate. The second clade, PS3, composed solely of 21 Colombian isolates, was strongly supported by the alpha-tubulin genealogy. The remaining 38 individuals formed S1. Two of the three lineages of P. brasiliensis, S1 and PS2, are sympatric across their range, suggesting barriers to gene flow other than geographic isolation. Our study provides the first evidence for possible sexual reproduction in P. brasiliensis S1, but does not rule it out in the other two species. PMID:16151188

  14. Growth of the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Pisolithus Microcarpus in different nutritional conditions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Márcio José, Rossi; Vetúria L., Oliveira.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The most important plant species employed in reforestation programs depend on ectomycorrhizal fungi for their establishment and growth. The exploitation of this symbiosis to improve forest productivity requires fungal inoculants in a large scale level. To develop such a technology it is necessary to [...] define the optimal composition of the culture medium for each fungus. With these objectives in mind, the effect of the composition of the culture medium on biomass production of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus microcarpus (isolate UFSC-Pt116) was studied. The original composition of two culture media, already employed for cultivation of ectomycorrhizal fungi, was submitted to several variations with the C/N ratio as the main variable. A variation of the Pridham-Gottlieb medium was the most efficient for the production of biomass. Therefore, it was submitted to a factorial assay where glucose, peptone and yeast extract components were the factors analyzed. Results showed that the glucose concentration may be increased up to 40 % in order to promote higher biomass production. Peptone had a positive effect on this variable, whereas yeast extract promoted a deleterious effect. These results indicate that it is advisable to eliminate yeast extract from the medium and replace it with peptone prior to use.

  15. Fungus ball in HIV-infected patients / Bola fúngica em pacientes HIV-infectados

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Silva, Guazzelli; Gisela, Unis; Melissa Orzechowski, Xavier; Cecília Bittencourt, Severo; Pedro Dornelles, Picon; Luiz Carlos, Severo.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os fungos filamentosos são oportunistas de fagócitos, motivo pelo qual aspergilose é incomum em pacientes com Aids. A apresentação clínica depende do estado imune, tamanho do inóculo fúngico e doença de base. São relatados neste trabalho seis casos de bola fúngica em pacientes com Aids. Neste grupo, [...] todos tiveram tuberculose como doença de base e hemoptise foi o principal sintoma. O diagnóstico da bola fúngica foi através da apresentação clínica, achados radiológicos combinados com imunodifusão radial dupla, exame micológico direto e cultivo do material do trato respiratório, sendo A. fumigatus o agente isolado Abstract in english Aspergillus is a phagocyte opportunistic fungus that causes aspergillosis, an unusual disease in patients with AIDS. Six cases of fungal ball in patients with AIDS are reported here. In this group, all patients had hemoptysis and tuberculosis as the underlying lung disease. The diagnosis of pulmonar [...] y fungus ball was based on the clinical and radiographic feature, combined with serological and mycological evidence of Aspergillus fumigatus.

  16. Identification of New Lactone Derivatives Isolated from Trichoderma sp., An Endophytic Fungus of Brotowali (Tinaspora crispa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfita

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi is a rich source of novel organic compounds with interesting biological activities and a high level of structural diversity. As a part of our systematic search for new bioactive lead structures and specific profiles from endophytic fungi, an endophytic fungus was isolated from roots of brotowali (Tinaspora crispa, an important medicinal plant. Colonial morphological trait and microscopic observation revealed that the endophytic fungus was Trichoderma sp. The pure fungal strain was cultivated on 7 L Potatos Dextose Broth (PDB medium under room temperature (no shaking for 8 weeks. The ethyl acetate were added to cultur medium and left overnight to stop cell growth. The culture filtrates were collected and extracted with EtOAc and then taken to evaporation. Two new lactone derivatives, 5-hydroxy-4-hydroxymethyl-2H-pyran-2-one (1 and (5-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H pyran-4-yl methyl acetate (2 were obtained from the EtOAc extracts of Trichoderma sp. Their structures were determined on the basic of spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HMQC, and HMBC.

  17. The availability of a lactose medium for tea fungus culture and Kombucha fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markov S.L.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha is a traditional beverage that is prepared by fermenting sucrose-sweetened black tea. A medium is inoculated with a cellulose pellicle (popularly known as a “tea fungus” or fermentation brought from previous cultivation process. Our aim was to test the possibility of obtaining a Kombucha beverage using different concentration of lactose as an alternative source of C-atoms. A traditional medium sweetened with sucrose or without sugar was used as control. Without lactose-fermenting yeast strains in tea fungus, lactose is not an adequate alternative source of the C-atom for Kombucha fermentation because it is not possible to obtain Kombucha with an appropriate acidity during a seven-day fermentation. Compared with the traditional medium, fermentation is significantly slower with high differences in acid content. In unsweetened tea inoculated with the beverage obtained from a previous traditional process, Kombucha fermentation processes and produces a beverage without sugar and alcohol. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31044

  18. Purification and partial characterization of an extracellular melanoprotein from the fungus Venturia inaequalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prikhshayat; Piotrowski, Markus; Gau, Achim E

    2005-01-01

    The fungus Venturia inaequalis clone No. 36 isolated from Malus domestica cv. Gloster excretes a melanoprotein of 36 kDa in relatively high amounts during growth in liquid culture. The protein was isolated from the culture medium and purified to homogeneity. It was shown to contain melanin. After raising an antiserum against the isolated protein, the protein could be shown to be located in the apoplast fluid of the V. inaequalis infected Malus domestica cv. Elstar. Partial sequencing of the protein revealed no significant sequence homologies to so far sequenced proteins. The melanoprotein binds ferrous and ferric iron. Moreover, it could be shown that the binding of ferric iron (but not of ferrous iron) leads to a change in the absorbance of the protein suggesting a modification of the protein by ferric, but not by ferrous, iron. In addition to iron, the protein also binds copper, but does not bind manganese or nickel. A possible function of this protein in the recruiting and transport of iron and copper and/or in the protection of the fungus by metal-ion mediated oxidative stress is discussed. PMID:15787254

  19. Endemic Infection of the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus in a Frog Community Post-Decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retallick Richard W. R

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in the decline and extinction of numerous frog species worldwide. In Queensland, Australia, it has been proposed as the cause of the decline or apparent extinction of at least 14 high-elevation rainforest frog species. One of these, Taudactylus eungellensis, disappeared from rainforest streams in Eungella National Park in 1985-1986, but a few remnant populations were subsequently discovered. Here, we report the analysis of B. dendrobatidis infections in toe tips of T. eungellensis and sympatric species collected in a mark-recapture study between 1994 and 1998. This longitudinal study of the fungus in individually marked frogs sheds new light on the effect of this threatening infectious process in field, as distinct from laboratory, conditions. We found a seasonal peak of infection in the cooler months, with no evidence of interannual variation. The overall prevalence of infection was 18% in T. eungellensis and 28% in Litoria wilcoxii/jungguy, a sympatric frog that appeared not to decline in 1985-1986. No infection was found in any of the other sympatric species. Most importantly, we found no consistent evidence of lower survival in T. eungellensis that were infected at the time of first capture, compared with uninfected individuals. These results refute the hypothesis that remnant populations of T. eungellensis recovered after a B. dendrobatidis epidemic because the pathogen had disappeared. They show that populations of T. eungellensis now persist with stable, endemic infections of B. dendrobatidis.

  20. Variation in fungal enzyme spectra may affect mutualistic division of labour between ants and fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    Partners in obligate mutualisms often contribute complementary elements to joint pathways for synthesizing or degrading metabolites. Their committed cooperation can make new niches accessible, with evolutionary diversification and speciation as possible consequences. However, when individual partners vary in metabolic performance, division of labour may not always be optimized and co-evolutionary trajectories become less predictable. The higher fungus-growing (attine) ants consist of the leafcutter ants (Acromyrmex and Atta), which rear a single fungal species throughout their Latin American range, and a paraphyletic assembly of Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex species that cultivate more genetically diverse fungal symbionts. Leaf-decomposition productivity of colonies depends on the combined efforts of ant foragers collecting and macerating plant material and fungal enzymes excreted directly or indirectly via ant fecal fluid. We determined the interaction specificity between ant species and fungal strains across sympatric populations of six Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex species in Panama, and established that these ants jointly reared eight fungal haplotype groups that differed significantly in garden enzyme activity independent of ant species association. This illustrates that the mosaic of coevolutionary interactions in Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex fungus-growers may be fundamentally different from the interactions in Acromyrmex and, particularly, Atta leaf-cutting ants. The former appear to be analogous to a diverse array of subsistence farming practices at the mercy of local conditions, whereas the latter resemble large-scale, low-diversity “industrial” farming.

  1. Biological activities of the lignicolous fungus Meripilus giganteus (Pers.: Pers. Karst.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaman Maja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude extracts (methanolic-ME andwater-WE of the fungus Meripilus giganteus (Pers.: Pers. Karst. were analyzed for their antioxidative, antibacterial, cytotoxic, neurotoxic, and hemolytic activities using tests in vitro. The highest scavenging activity was exhibited by WE on OH• radicals, showing a 50% effective concentration (EC50 at 292.83±2.5 ?g/ml and ferric-reducing ability at 14.24±2.9 mg eq of ascorbic acid per g of dried extract (mg/g.An anti­bacterial effect was detected mostly against Gram-positive strains of bacteria. Toxicity assays exhibited higher effects for ME, reaching EC50=403.43±5.8 ?g/ml against estrogen-dependent breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7; 50% hemolytic activity at a concentration of 30±0.03 ?g/ml against erythrocytes; andEC50=4.5±0.05 mg/ml for acetyl cholinesterase-inhibitory activity. These results suggest possible use of this fungus as a new source of pharmaceuticals.

  2. Rhf1 gene is involved in the fruiting body production of Cordyceps militaris fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Keqing; Han, Richou

    2015-08-01

    Cordyceps militaris is an important medicinal fungus. Commercialization of this fungus needs to improve the fruiting body production by molecular engineering. An improved Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) method was used to select an insertional mutant (g38) which exhibited fast stromatal differentiation and increased yield. The Rhf1 gene encoding filamentation protein was destroyed by a single T-DNA and no Rhf1 transcription was detected in mutant g38. To verify the function of the Rhf1 gene, RNA interference plasmid and overexpression vector of the Rhf1 gene were constructed and transferred to the wild-type JM4 by ATMT. Fast stromatal differentiation and larger fruiting bodies were found in the RNAi-Rhf1 mutants (JM-iRhf1). In the overexpression mutants (JM-OERhf1), neither stromata nor fruiting bodies appeared. The rescued strain (38-OERhf1) showed similar growth characteristics as JM4. These results indicated that the Rhf1 gene was involved in the stromatal differentiation and the shape formation of fruiting bodies. PMID:26047996

  3. Quantification of the glucosamine content in the filamentous fungus Monascus ruber cultured on solid surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chysirichote, Teerin; Reiji, Takahashi; Asami, Kazuhiro; Ohtaguchi, Kazuhisa

    2014-05-01

    We evaluated whether the glucosamine content in the filamentous fungus Monascus ruber NBRC 32318, cultured on a solid surface (agar) containing different carbon and nitrogen sources, could be used as a measure of biomass. The relationship between the amounts of glucosamine and biomass was independent of the cultivation period, but was dependent on the carbon source (D-glucose, D-fructose, maltose, sucrose, or rice starch) and the nitrogen source (ammonium chloride, sodium nitrate, monosodium glutamate, or yeast extract) in the agar; it was also dependent on the culture method (solid-surface culture or submerged culture). We concluded that the amount of glucosamine extracted from M. ruber is a useful index for the fungal biomass when the relationship between M. ruber biomass and glucosamine content has previously been calibrated for the carbon and nitrogen sources used. Examination of microphotographs of M. ruber hyphae in conjunction with quantification of the glucosamine and biomass contents indicated that the variation in the glucosamine content per unit biomass affects the hyphal morphology of the fungus, and especially the hyphal diameter. PMID:23686715

  4. Structure of Importin-? from a Filamentous Fungus in Complex with a Classical Nuclear Localization Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Thiago R.; Freitas, Fernanda Z.; Bertolini, Maria Célia; Fontes, Marcos R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Neurospora crassa is a filamentous fungus that has been extensively studied as a model organism for eukaryotic biology, providing fundamental insights into cellular processes such as cell signaling, growth and differentiation. To advance in the study of this multicellular organism, an understanding of the specific mechanisms for protein transport into the cell nucleus is essential. Importin-? (Imp-?) is the receptor for cargo proteins that contain specific nuclear localization signals (NLSs) that play a key role in the classical nuclear import pathway. Structures of Imp-? from different organisms (yeast, rice, mouse, and human) have been determined, revealing that this receptor possesses a conserved structural scaffold. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the Imp? mechanism of action may vary significantly for different organisms or for different isoforms from the same organism. Therefore, structural, functional, and biophysical characterization of different Imp? proteins is necessary to understand the selectivity of nuclear transport. Here, we determined the first crystal structure of an Imp? from a filamentous fungus which is also the highest resolution Imp? structure already solved to date (1.75 ?). In addition, we performed calorimetric analysis to determine the affinity and thermodynamic parameters of the interaction between Imp-? and the classical SV40 NLS peptide. The comparison of these data with previous studies on Imp? proteins led us to demonstrate that N. crassa Imp-? possess specific features that are distinct from mammalian Imp-? but exhibit important similarities to rice Imp-?, particularly at the minor NLS binding site. PMID:26091498

  5. Isolation, characterization of melanin derived from Ophiocordyceps sinensis, an entomogenous fungus endemic to the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Caihong; Yao, Yijian

    2012-04-01

    Melanins are pigments of high molecular weight formed by oxidative polymerization of phenolic or indolic compounds. In this present study, a black pigment was isolated from the fermentation broth of Ophiocordyceps sinensis, an entomogenous fungus which is endemic to the Tibetan Plateau by alkaline extraction, acid hydrolysis, and repeated precipitation. It was designed as melanin since the physical and chemical properties including its ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) spectra of the black pigment conformed to the characteristic of melanin and similar to the commercial synthetic melanin. The antioxidant activity of melanin derived from O. sinensis was evaluated. They showed much stronger scavenging abilities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) and the chelating ability on ferrous ions than that of the water extract from the mycelia of O. sinensis, with IC(50) value 18.51 ± 0.85 ?g/ml and 2.58 ± 0.26 ?g/ml, separately. This is the first report of melanin from O. sinensis and will be helpful for the study on the physiology and the artificial cultivation of this fungus, an endangered species. PMID:22261188

  6. Coexisting Curtobacterium bacterium promotes growth of white-rot fungus Stereum sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Ichiro; Yoshida, Takehiro; Enami, Daisuke; Meguro, Sadatoshi

    2012-02-01

    White-rot basidiomycetes are the main decomposers of woody biomass in forest ecosystems. Little is known, however, about the interactions between white-rot fungi and other microorganisms in decayed wood. A wood-rotting fungus, Stereum sp. strain TN4F, was isolated from a fruit body, and its coexisting cultivable bacteria were isolated from its substrate; natural white-rot decayed wood. The effects of bacteria on fungal growth were examined by confrontational assay in vitro. A growth-promoting bacterium for this Stereum strain was identified as Curtobacterium sp. TN4W-19, using 16SrRNA sequencing. A confrontational assay revealed that Curtobacterium sp. TN4W-19 significantly promoted the mycelial growth of Stereum sp. TN4F in the direction of the bacterial colony, without direct contact between the mycelium and bacterial cells. This is the first report of a positive interaction between a white-rot fungus and a coexisting bacterial strain in vitro. PMID:22101455

  7. Antifungal activity of metabolites of the endophytic fungus Trichoderma brevicompactum from garlic

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Xuping, Shentu; Xiaohuan, Zhan; Zheng, Ma; Xiaoping, Yu; Chuanxi, Zhang.

    Full Text Available The endophytic fungus strain 0248, isolated from garlic, was identified as Trichoderma brevicompactum based on morphological characteristics and the nucleotide sequences of ITS1-5.8SITS2 and tef1. The bioactive compound T2 was isolated from the culture extracts of this fungus by bioactivity-guided f [...] ractionation and identified as 4?-acetoxy-12,13-epoxy-?9-trichothecene (trichodermin) by spectral analysis and mass spectrometry. Trichodermin has a marked inhibitory activity on Rhizoctonia solani, with an EC50 of 0.25 µgmL-1. Strong inhibition by trichodermin was also found for Botrytis cinerea, with an EC50 of 2.02 µgmL-1. However, a relatively poor inhibitory effect was observed for trichodermin against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (EC50 = 25.60 µgmL-1). Compared with the positive control Carbendazim, trichodermin showed a strong antifungal activity on the above phytopathogens. There is little known about endophytes from garlic. This paper studied in detail the identification of endophytic T. brevicompactum from garlic and the characterization of its active metabolite trichodermin.

  8. A new eremophilane-type sesquiterpene from the phytopatogen fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Sphaeropsidaceae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fátima M., Nunes; Maria da Conceição F. de, Oliveira; Ângela M. C., Arriaga; Telma L. G., Lemos; Manoel, Andrade-Neto; Marcos C. de, Mattos; Jair, Mafezoli; Francisco M. P., Viana; Viviane M., Ferreira; Edson, Rodrigues-Filho; Antônio G., Ferreira.

    Full Text Available O fungo fitopatogênico Lasiodiplodia theobromae, isolado de goiaba, foi cultivado em arroz por 32 dias à temperatura ambiente. Extração com CH2Cl2:MeOH (3:7), seguido de fracionamento cromatográfico do extrato forneceu o esteróide ergosterol. Da cultura fúngica em meio de Czapeck por 40 dias à tempe [...] ratura ambiente, foram isolados a isocumarina cis-4-hidroximeleína e um sesquiterpeno do tipo eremofilano. O sesquiterpeno eremofilano está sendo descrito pela primeira vez na literatura. Este é o primeiro relato do isolamento de um sesquiterpeno eremofilano para o gênero Lasiodiplodia. Abstract in english The phytopatogenic fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae, isolated from guava, was cultivated in rice for 32 days at room temperature. Extraction with CH2Cl2:MeOH (3:7), followed by chromatography fractionation of the extract provided ergosterol. From the fungus culture in Czapeck medium for 40 days at ro [...] om temperature, were isolated isocoumarin cis-4-hydroxymeleine and an eremophilane-type sesquiterpene. The latter compound is being reported for the first time in the literature. Also, this is the first time that an eremophilane sesquiterpene is described for Lasiodiplodia genus.

  9. Genome Sequencing and Analysis of the Biomass-Degrading Fungus Trichoderma reesei (syn. Hypocrea jecorina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Antonio D.; Berka, Randy; Henrissat, Bernard; Saloheimo, Markku; Arvas, Mikko; Baker, Scott E.; Chapman, Jaro d; Chertkov, Olga; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Cullen, Dan; Danchin, Etienne G.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Harris, Paul; Jackson, Melissa ?.; kubicek, Christian P.; Han, Cliff F.; Ho, Isaac; Larrando, Luis F.; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo; Magnuson, Jon K.; Merino, Sandy; Misra, Monica; Nelson, Beth; Putnam, Nicholas; Robbertse, Barbara; Salamov, Asaf; Schmoll, Monika; Terry, Astrid ?.; Thayer, Nina; Westerholm-Parvinen, Ann; Schoch, Conrad L.; Yao, Jian ?.; Barbote, Ravi; Nelson, Mary Anne; Detter, Chris J.; Bruce, David; Kuske, Cheryl; Xie, Gary; Richardson, P. M.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Lucas, Susan; Rubin, Eddie M.; Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Ward, Michael ?.; Brettin, T.

    2008-05-01

    A major thrust of the white biotechnology movement involves the development of enzyme systems which depolymerize biomass to simple sugars which are subsequently converted to sustainable biofuels (e.g., ethanol) and chemical intermediates. The fungus Trichoderma reesei (syn. Hypocrea jecorina) represents a paradigm for the industrial production of highly efficient cellulases and hemicellulases needed for hydrolysis of biomass polysaccharides. Herein we describe intriguing attributes of the T. reeseigenome in relation to the future of fuel biotechnology. The T. reesei genome sequence was derived using a whole genome shotgun approach combined with finishing work to generate an assembly comprising 89 scaffolds totaling 34 Mbp with few gaps. In total, 9,130 gene models were predicted using a combination of ab initio and sequence similarity-based methods and EST data. Considering the industrial utility and effectiveness of its enzymes, the T. reesei genome surprisingly encodes the fewest cellulases and hemicellulases of any fungus having the ability to hydrolyze plant cell wall polysaccharides and whose genome has been sequenced. Many genes encoding carbohydrate active enzymes are distributed non-randomly in groups or clusters that interestingly lie between regions of synteny with other Sordariomycetes. Additionally, the T. reesei genome contains a multitude of genes encoding biosynthetic pathways for secondary metabolites (possible antibacterial and antifungal compounds) which may promote successful competition and survival in the crowded and competitive soil habitat occupied by T. reesei. Our analysis coupled with the availability of genome sequence data provides a roadmap for construction of enhanced T. reesei strains for industrial applications.

  10. Chaetochromones A and B, Two New Polyketides from the Fungus Chaetomium indicum (CBS.860.68

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuewei Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Chaetochromones A (1 and B (2, two novel polyketides, were isolated from the crude extract of fungus Chaetomium indicum (CBS.860.68 together with three known analogues PI-3(3, PI-4 (4 and SB236050 (5. The structures of these compounds were determined by HRESI-MS and NMR experiments. Chaetochromones A (1 and B (2 are a member of the polyketides family, which might originate from a similar biogenetic pathway as the known compounds PI-3 (3, PI-4 (4 and SB236050 (5. The biological activities of these secondary metabolites were evaluated against eight plant pathogens, including Alternaria alternata, Ilyonectria radicicola, Trichoderma viride pers, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium verticillioide, Irpex lacteus (Fr., Poria placenta (Fr. Cooke and Coriolus versicolor (L. Quél. Compound 1 displayed moderate inhibitory rate (>60% against the brown rot fungus Poria placenta (Fr. Cooke, which causes significant wood decay. In addition, the cytotoxic activities against three cancer cell lines A549, MDA-MB-231, PANC-1 were also tested, without any inhibitory activities being detected.

  11. Chaetochromones A and B, two new polyketides from the fungus Chaetomium indicum (CBS.860.68).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Keyang; Zhang, Yisheng; Li, Li; Wang, Xuewei; Ding, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Chaetochromones A (1) and B (2), two novel polyketides, were isolated from the crude extract of fungus Chaetomium indicum (CBS.860.68) together with three known analogues PI-3(3), PI-4 (4) and SB236050 (5). The structures of these compounds were determined by HRESI-MS and NMR experiments. Chaetochromones A (1) and B (2) are a member of the polyketides family, which might originate from a similar biogenetic pathway as the known compounds PI-3 (3), PI-4 (4) and SB236050 (5). The biological activities of these secondary metabolites were evaluated against eight plant pathogens, including Alternaria alternata, Ilyonectria radicicola, Trichoderma viride pers, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium verticillioide, Irpex lacteus (Fr.), Poria placenta (Fr.) Cooke and Coriolus versicolor (L.) Quél. Compound 1 displayed moderate inhibitory rate (>60%) against the brown rot fungus Poria placenta (Fr.) Cooke, which causes significant wood decay. In addition, the cytotoxic activities against three cancer cell lines A549, MDA-MB-231, PANC-1 were also tested, without any inhibitory activities being detected. PMID:24013408

  12. Temperature-dependent growth of Geomyces destructans, the fungus that causes bat white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verant, Michelle L; Boyles, Justin G; Waldrep, William; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Blehert, David S

    2012-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emergent disease estimated to have killed over five million North American bats. Caused by the psychrophilic fungus Geomyces destructans, WNS specifically affects bats during hibernation. We describe temperature-dependent growth performance and morphology for six independent isolates of G. destructans from North America and Europe. Thermal performance curves for all isolates displayed an intermediate peak with rapid decline in performance above the peak. Optimal temperatures for growth were between 12.5 and 15.8°C, and the upper critical temperature for growth was between 19.0 and 19.8°C. Growth rates varied across isolates, irrespective of geographic origin, and above 12°C all isolates displayed atypical morphology that may have implications for proliferation of the fungus. This study demonstrates that small variations in temperature, consistent with those inherent of bat hibernacula, affect growth performance and physiology of G. destructans, which may influence temperature-dependent progression and severity of WNS in wild bats. PMID:23029462

  13. White-Nose Syndrome fungus introduced from Europe to North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopardi, Stefania; Blake, Damer; Puechmaille, Sébastien J

    2015-03-16

    The investigation of factors underlying the emergence of fungal diseases in wildlife has gained significance as a consequence of drastic declines in amphibians, where the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has caused the greatest disease-driven loss of biodiversity ever documented [1]. Identification of the causative agent and its origin (native versus introduced) is a crucial step in understanding and controlling a disease [2]. Whereas genetic studies on the origin of B. dendrobatidis have illuminated the mechanisms behind the global emergence of amphibian chytridiomycosis [3], the origin of another recently-emerged fungal disease, White-Nose Syndrome (WNS) and its causative agent, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, remains unresolved [2,4]. WNS is decimating multiple North American bat species with an estimated death toll reaching 5-6 million. Here, we present the first informative molecular comparison between isolates from North America and Europe and provide strong evidence for the long-term presence of the fungus in Europe and a recent introduction into North America. Our results further demonstrate great genetic similarity between the North American and some European fungal populations, indicating the likely source population for this introduction from Europe. PMID:25784035

  14. Complex host-pathogen coevolution in the Apterostigma fungus-growing ant-microbe symbiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Nicole M

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fungus-growing ant-microbe symbiosis consists of coevolving microbial mutualists and pathogens. The diverse fungal lineages that these ants cultivate are attacked by parasitic microfungi of the genus Escovopsis. Previous molecular analyses have demonstrated strong phylogenetic congruence between the ants, the ants-cultivated fungi and the garden pathogen Escovopsis at ancient phylogenetic levels, suggesting coevolution of these symbionts. However, few studies have explored cophylogenetic patterns between these symbionts at the recent phylogenetic levels necessary to address whether these parasites are occasionally switching to novel hosts or whether they are diversifying with their hosts as a consequence of long-term host fidelity. Results Here, a more extensive phylogenetic analysis of Escovopsis lineages infecting the gardens of Apterostigma ants demonstrates that these pathogens display patterns of phylogenetic congruence with their fungal hosts. Particular clades of Escovopsis track particular clades of cultivated fungi, and closely-related Escovopsis generally infect closely-related hosts. Discordance between host and parasite phylogenies, however, provides the first evidence for occasional host-switches or acquisitions of novel infections from the environment. Conclusion The fungus-growing ant-microbe association has a complex coevolutionary history. Though there is clear evidence of host-specificity on the part of diverse Escovopsis lineages, these pathogens have switched occasionally to novel host fungi. Such switching is likely to have profound effects on how these host and parasites adapt to one another over evolutionary time scales and may impact how disease spreads over ecological time scales.

  15. Biocontrol of pigeon tick Argas reflexus (Acari: Argasidae) by entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium Anisopliae (Ascomycota: Hypocreales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli, Mosa; Pourseyed, Seyed Hassan; Ownagh, Abdulghaffar; Bernousi, Iraj; Mardani, Karim

    2011-10-01

    The pigeon tick Argas reflexus is a pathogen-transmitting soft tick that typically feeds on pigeons, but can also attack humans causing local and systemic reactions. Chemical control is made difficult due to environmental contamination and resistance development. As a result, there is much interest in increasing the role of other strategies like biological control. In this study, the efficacy of three strains (V245, 685 and 715C) of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for biological control of three life stages of pigeon tick A. reflexus including eggs, larvae, engorged and unfed adults was investigated under laboratory conditions. Five concentrations of different strains of M. anisopliae ranging from 10(3) to 10(7) conidia/ml were used. All fungal strains significantly decreased hatchability of A. reflexus eggs. Strain V245 was the most effective strain on the mortality of larval stage with nearly 100% mortality at the lowest concentration (10(3) conidia/ml) at 10 days post-inoculation. The mortality rate of both engorged and unfed adult ticks were also increased significantly exposed to different conidial concentrations compared to the control groups (P < 0.05) making this fungus a potential biological control agent of pigeon tick reducing the use of chemical acaricides. PMID:24031777

  16. Growth of the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Pisolithus Microcarpus in different nutritional conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio José Rossi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The most important plant species employed in reforestation programs depend on ectomycorrhizal fungi for their establishment and growth. The exploitation of this symbiosis to improve forest productivity requires fungal inoculants in a large scale level. To develop such a technology it is necessary to define the optimal composition of the culture medium for each fungus. With these objectives in mind, the effect of the composition of the culture medium on biomass production of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus microcarpus (isolate UFSC-Pt116 was studied. The original composition of two culture media, already employed for cultivation of ectomycorrhizal fungi, was submitted to several variations with the C/N ratio as the main variable. A variation of the Pridham-Gottlieb medium was the most efficient for the production of biomass. Therefore, it was submitted to a factorial assay where glucose, peptone and yeast extract components were the factors analyzed. Results showed that the glucose concentration may be increased up to 40 % in order to promote higher biomass production. Peptone had a positive effect on this variable, whereas yeast extract promoted a deleterious effect. These results indicate that it is advisable to eliminate yeast extract from the medium and replace it with peptone prior to use.

  17. Characterization of secondary metabolites of an endophytic fungus from Curcuma wenyujin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jvfen; Qi, Ningbo; Wang, Suping; Gadhave, Kiran; Yang, Shulin

    2014-11-01

    Endophytic fungi are ubiquitous in the plant kingdom and they produce a variety of secondary metabolites to protect plant communities and to show some potential for human use. However, secondary metabolites produced by endophytic fungi in the medicinal plant Curcuma wenyujin are sparsely explored and characterized. The aim of this study was to characterize the secondary metabolites of an active endophytic fungus. M7226, the mutant counterpart of endophytic fungus EZG0807 previously isolated from the root of C. wenyujin, was as a target strain. After fermentation, the secondary metabolites were purified using a series of purification methods including thin layer chromatography, column chromatography with silica, ODS-C18, Sephadex LH-20, and macroporous resin, and were analyzed using multiple pieces of data (UV, IR, MS, and NMR). Five compounds were isolated and identified as curcumin, cinnamic acid, 1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone, gibberellic acid, and kaempferol. Interestingly, curcumin, one of the main active ingredients of C. wenyujin, was isolated as a secondary metabolite from a fungal endophyte for the first time. PMID:25002358

  18. Analysis of compositional monosaccharides in fungus polysaccharides by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Tong; Yang, Xingbin; Zhao, Yan

    2014-02-15

    A rapid analytical method of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was established for the simultaneous separation and determination of 10 monosaccharides (aldoses and uronic acids). The monosaccharides were labeled with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP), and subsequently separated using an uncoated capillary (50 ?m i.d. × 58.5 cm) and detected by UV at 245 nm with pH 11.0, 175 mM borate buffer at voltage 20 kV and capillary temperature 25 °C by CZE. The 10 PMP-labeled monosaccharides were rapidly baseline separated within 20 min. The optimized CZE method was successfully applied to the simultaneous separation and identification of the monosaccharide composition in Termitomyces albuminosus polysaccharides (TAPs) and Panus giganteus polysaccharides (PGPs). The quantitative recovery of the component monosaccharides in the fungus polysaccharides was in the range of 92.0-101.0% and the CV value was lower than 3.5%. The results demonstrate that the proposed CZE method is precise and practical for the monosaccharide analysis of fungus polysaccharides. PMID:24507309

  19. Biocontrol of pigeon tick Argas reflexus (Acari: Argasidae by entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium Anisopliae (Ascomycota: Hypocreales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosa Tavassoli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The pigeon tick Argas reflexus is a pathogen-transmitting soft tick that typically feeds on pigeons, but can also attack humans causing local and systemic reactions. Chemical control is made difficult due to environmental contamination and resistance development. As a result, there is much interest in increasing the role of other strategies like biological control. In this study, the efficacy of three strains (V245, 685 and 715C of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for biological control of three life stages of pigeon tick A. reflexus including eggs, larvae, engorged and unfed adults was investigated under laboratory conditions. Five concentrations of different strains of M. anisopliae ranging from 10³ to 10(7 conidia/ml were used. All fungal strains significantly decreased hatchability of A. reflexus eggs. Strain V245 was the most effective strain on the mortality of larval stage with nearly 100% mortality at the lowest concentration (10³ conidia/ml at 10 days post-inoculation. The mortality rate of both engorged and unfed adult ticks were also increased significantly exposed to different conidial concentrations compared to the control groups (P < 0.05 making this fungus a potential biological control agent of pigeon tick reducing the use of chemical acaricides.

  20. Temperature-dependent growth of Geomyces destructans, the fungus that causes bat white-nose syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verant, Michelle L.; Boyles, Justin G.; Waldrep, William, Jr.; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Blehert, David S.

    2012-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emergent disease estimated to have killed over five million North American bats. Caused by the psychrophilic fungus Geomyces destructans, WNS specifically affects bats during hibernation. We describe temperature-dependent growth performance and morphology for six independent isolates of G. destructans from North America and Europe. Thermal performance curves for all isolates displayed an intermediate peak with rapid decline in performance above the peak. Optimal temperatures for growth were between 12.5 and 15.8°C, and the upper critical temperature for growth was between 19.0 and 19.8°C. Growth rates varied across isolates, irrespective of geographic origin, and above 12°C all isolates displayed atypical morphology that may have implications for proliferation of the fungus. This study demonstrates that small variations in temperature, consistent with those inherent of bat hibernacula, affect growth performance and physiology of G. destructans, which may influence temperature-dependent progression and severity of WNS in wild bats.

  1. Estimation of Fungus/Disease in Tomato Crop using K-Means Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tomato crop is primarily infected by various common diseases like Bacterial Canker, bird's-eye fruit spots, Bacterial Spot, Chlorosis, Curly Top, Early Blight, Fusarium Wilt, Gray Leaf, Gray Mold Rot, Leaf Mold, Leaf Roll and Leaf Curl, Powdery mildew, Septoria Leaf Spot, Tobacco Mosaic Virus, Verticillium Wilt. The presented work describes a algorithm for different disease detection based on the infected images of various tomato plants. Images of the infected tomato plants are captured by closed circuit CCD cameras to cover approximately 5 sq. meter area that could acquire good quality images of tomato crop. The acquired images are in jpeg format and are converted to gray scale image. The gray scale image are the enhanced and made noise free. The Otsu algorithm is applied in order to get the thresholded image. The segmentation techniques based in pixel neighborhood are applied to get the segmented leaf and infected part of the leaf. The methods evolved in this system are both image processing and soft computing technique applied on number of diseased tomato plant images. The tomato images are acquired by using a CCD camera of approx. 3 M-Pixel resolution in 24-bits color resolution. The images are then transferred to PC and represented in MATLAB software. The RGB image is then segmented using K-means algorithm for segmentation of fungus in the tomato crop. The segmented fungus part is now analyzed for its percentage presence.

  2. Think Fungus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-23

    Dr. Mary Brandt, a CDC research microbiologist, discusses the impact of fungal infections.  Created: 9/23/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/24/2013.

  3. Coniochaeta ligniaria: antifungal activity of the cryptic endophytic fungus associated with autotrophic cultures of the medicinal plant Smallanthus sonchifolius (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few studies have addressed the presence and bioactivity of endophytic fungi living in plantlets growing under in vitro conditions. We isolated a fungus UM 109 from autotrophic cultures of the medicinal plant Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon). The species was identified as Coniochaeta ligniaria using ...

  4. Cellulolytic enzymes of the obligately biotrophic rust fungus Uromyces viciae-fabae are regulated differentiation-specifically

    OpenAIRE

    Heiler, Stefan; Mendgen, Kurt; Deising, Holger

    1993-01-01

    Uredospores of the oblgately biotrophic broad bean rust fungus Uromyces viciae-fabae form infection structures on artificial membranes providing a thigmotropic signal. In nature these are essential for invasion of the host plant through the stomata. This experimental system was used to analyse the production of cellulolytic enzymes during the differentiation of rust infection structures.

  5. [Presence of the fungus Coelomomyces iliensis var. indus (Chytridiomycetes: Blastocladiales) as pathogen of mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Lastra, C C; García, J J

    1997-06-01

    In the present paper we report the presence of the fungus Coelomomyces iliensis var. indus as a larval pathogen of Culex dolosus Lynch Arribalzaga 1891 (Diptera: Culicidae), in Punta Lara, Buenos Aires, Argentina. The fungal description is extended as the host range and the geographic distribution. PMID:16854175

  6. Crystallization, X-ray diffraction analysis and phasing of 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from the fungus Cochliobolus lunatus

    OpenAIRE

    Cassetta, Alberto; Büdefeld, Tomaž; Lanišnik Rižner, Tea; Kristan, Katja; Stojan, Jure; Lamba, Doriano

    2005-01-01

    The expression, purification and crystallization of 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from the filamentous fungus C. lunatus and its Y167F mutant, both in the apo form, are described. X-ray diffraction analysis and phasing by Patterson-search techniques are reported.

  7. Biological Control of the weed hemp sesbania (Sesbania exaltata) in rice (Oryza sativa) by the fungus Myrothecium verrucaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    In greenhouse and field experiments, a mycelial formulation of the fungus Myrothecium verrucaria (IMI 361690; henceforth designated MV) containing 0.20% Silwet L-77 surfactant exhibited high bioherbicidal efficacy against the problematic weed hemp sesbania. High infection and mortality (100%) of he...

  8. Cellular Immune Reactions of the Sunn Pest, Eurygaster integriceps, to the Entomopathogenic Fungus, Beauveria bassiana and Its Secondary Metabolites

    OpenAIRE

    Zibaee, Arash; Bandani, Ali Reza; Talaei-Hassanlouei, Reza; Malagoli, Davide

    2011-01-01

    In this study, five morphological types of circulating hemocytes were recognized in the hemolymph of the adult sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae), namely prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, adipohemocytes, and oenocytoids. The effects of the secondary metabolites of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana on cellular immune defenses of Eurygaster integriceps were investigated. The results showed that the fungal secondary metabolites inhibited phag...

  9. Impact of water relations on the production, ecological fitness and stability of the biocontrol fungus Metarhizium anisopliae

    OpenAIRE

    Ypsilos, Ioannis K.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was the production of high numbers of propagules of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae with high germination capacity under low water availability, good storage stability and enhanced pathogenicity. To this end modifications of cultural conditions were employed. Water-stress in solid substrate fermentation reduced the conidial production but resulted in enhancement of germination capacity. Coni...

  10. Chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has nonamphibian hosts and releases chemicals that cause pathology in the absence of infection

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Taegan A.; Brannelly, Laura A.; Chatfield, Matthew W. H.; Johnson, Pieter T.J.; Joseph, Maxwell B.; Valerie J. McKenzie; Richards-Zawacki, Corinne L.; Venesky, Matthew D.; Rohr, Jason R.

    2012-01-01

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a pathogenic chytrid fungus implicated in worldwide amphibian declines, is considered an amphibian specialist. Identification of nonamphibian hosts could help explain the virulence, heterogeneous distribution, variable rates of spread, and persistence of B. dendrobatidis in freshwater ecosystems even after amphibian extirpations. Here, we test whether mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) and crayfish (Procambarus spp. and Orconectes virilis), which are syntopic wi...

  11. Evaluation of the use of Pycnoporus sanguineus fungus for phenolics and genotoxicity decay of a pharmaceutical effluent treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariângela Fontes Santiago

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available If not properly and efficiently treated, wastes produced by the chemical industry can contaminate the environment. Using fungi able to degrade organic compounds (e.g. phenol seems to be a prominent method to treat pharmaceutical wastewaters, in particular, the white-rot fungus. The aim of this work was to treat pharmaceutical effluent by the Pycnoporus sanguineus fungus. Three effluent samples were collected in a pharmaceutical industry. The production of enzymes such as laccase and manganese peroxidase was determined. Their production increased throughout the treatment with the P. sanguineus fungus, reaching maximum concentration of 4.48 U.mL-1 (Effluent 1, 8.16 U.mL-1 (Effluent 2, 2.8 U.mL-1 (Effluent 3 and 0.03 Abs.min-1 (Effluent 2, respectively, during 96 hours of biological treatment. Genotoxic effects of the raw and treated effluents were also investigated using the in vivo mouse bone marrow micronucleus (MN assay. Results showed the biological treatment reduced the frequency of MN, in a dose-dependent manner, when compared to untreated sample. The decreasing of around 20% and 45% of phenolics concentration was observed throughout the treatment, confirming that laccase production can be related to the degradation of toxic compounds present in the effluent. Therefore, the biodegradation by the P. sanguineus fungus seems a promising method for the mineralization of recalcitrant compounds present in pharmaceutical effluents.

  12. Production of Pullulan, Poly(beta-L-malic acid), and Heavy Oil by Fungus Aureobasidium pullulans Isolated from Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungus Aureobasidium pullulans is the main source of a polysaccharide, pullulan, in industrial production. Moreover, it can produce many bioproducts, e.g. xylanase, poly(ß-L-malic acid) (PMA), and heavy oil. In this study, we isolated 15 A. pullulans isolates from various sources and habitats in T...

  13. Screening of bacterial biocontrols against sapstain fungus (Lasiodiplodia theobromae Pat.) of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.Arg.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajitha, K L; Maria Florence, E J; Dev, Suma Arun

    2014-09-01

    Diverse bacterial biocontrol agents from various sources of aerobic composts against the sapstain fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae in rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) were isolated, screened and identified by various morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques. The inhibitory effect of seventeen bacterial isolates was examined and seven exhibited inhibition towards the sapstain fungus. Among the seven antagonists, six were conclusively identified as Bacillus subtilis and one as Paenibacillus polymyxa using 16S rRNA-encoding gene sequencing. This is the first report on the occurrence of P. polymyxa, a potent biofertilizer and antagonist in vermicompost. HiCrome Bacillus agar was identified as an effective medium for differentiation of B. subtilis from other Bacillus species. The present work demonstrates the efficacy of the antagonistic property of B. subtilis strains against rubberwood sapstain fungus. Culture-based antagonistic inhibition displayed by B. subtilis can be extended to cater to the biocontrol requirements of wood-based industries against the stain fungus. The study showed the utility of an integrated approach, employing morphological, biochemical and molecular tools for conclusive identification of several bacterial isolates present in aerobic composts from diverse sources. PMID:25049165

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF WATER AND SOIL TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY BASED ON THE UTILIZATION OF A WHITE-ROT, WOOD ROTTING FUNGUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wood rotting fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been selected as a candidate species to be used as a degrader of hazardous waste organic constituents found in liquids and soils. The selection of the species is attributable to its rapid growth, its ability to degrade lign...

  15. In vitro Isolation and Influence of Nutritional Conditions on the Mycelial Growth of the Entomopathogenic and Medicinal Fungus Cordyceps militaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Sehgal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordyceps militaris is an entomopathogenic and medicinal fungus. Therefore in vitro isolation and influence of nutritional conditions on the mycelial growth of this fungus was carried out in this study. A small bit of tissue from stipe and stroma was used as starting material for in vitro isolation. The present study revealed that this fungus showed optimum growth in Yeastal Potato Dextrose Agar Medium and Glucose Asparagine Solution. The maximum mycelial growth was observed at 25°C and pH 7.5 and 5.5 in solid and liquid medium, respectively. Among 12 carbon and 9 nitrogen sources tested, the best growth was supported by Sucrose and Ammonium phosphate, respectively. All the four mineral sources supported good growth of the fungus, however 2 ppm calcium chloride and manganese sulphate, ppm ferrous sulphate and 5 ppm ammonium molybdate proved superior as compared to higher or lower concentrations of the same mineral source tried. Among the 4 growth regulators, Gibberellic acid supported the maximum mycelial growth at 100 ppm concentration.

  16. Multiple mitochondrial viruses in an isolate of the Dutch Elm disease fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y; Dover, S L; Cole, T E; Brasier, C M; Buck, K W

    1999-05-25

    The nucleotide sequences of three mitochondrial virus double-stranded (ds) RNAs, RNA-4 (2599 nucleotides), RNA-5 (2474 nucleotides), and RNA-6 (2343 nucleotides), in a diseased isolate Log1/3-8d2 (Ld) of the Dutch elm disease fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi have been determined. All these RNAs are A-U-rich (71-73% A + U residues). Using the fungal mitochondrial genetic code in which UGA codes for tryptophan, the positive-strand of each of RNAs 4, 5, and 6 contains a single open reading frame (ORF) with the potential to encode a protein of 783, 729, and 695 amino acids, respectively, all of which contain conserved motifs characteristic of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps). Sequence comparisons showed that these RNAs are related to each other and to a previously characterized RNA, RNA-3a, from the same O. novo-ulmi isolate, especially within the RdRp-like motifs. However, the overall RNA nucleotide and RdRp amino acid sequence identities were relatively low (43-55% and 20-32%, respectively). The 5'- and 3'-terminal sequences of these RNAs are different, but they can all be folded into potentially stable stem-loop structures. Those of RNA-4 and RNA-6 have inverted complementarity, potentially forming panhandle structures. Their molecular and biological properties indicate that RNAs 3a, 4, 5, and 6 are the genomes of four different viruses, which replicate independently in the same cell. These four viruses are also related to a mitochondrial RNA virus from another fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, recently designated the type species of the Mitovirus genus of the Narnaviridae family, and to a virus from the fungus Rhizoctonia solani. It is proposed that the four O. novo-ulmi mitochondrial viruses are assigned to the Mitovirus genus and designated O. novo-ulmi mitovirus (OnuMV) 3a-Ld, 4-Ld, 5-Ld, and 6-Ld, respectively. Northern blot analysis indicated that O. novo-ulmi Ld nucleic acid extracts contain more single-stranded (ss, positive-stranded) RNA than dsRNA for all three newly described mitoviruses. O. novo-ulmi RNA-7, previously believed to be a satellite-like RNA, is shown to be a defective RNA, derived from OnuMV4-Ld RNA by multiple internal deletions. OnuMV4-Ld is therefore the helper virus for the replication of both RNA-7 and another defective RNA, RNA-10. Sequence comparisons indicate that RNA-10 could be derived from RNA-7, as previously suggested, or derived directly from RNA-4. PMID:10329574

  17. Detection of Phakopsora pachyrhizi fungus by Polymerase Chain Reaction technique (PCR) after soy grains treatment by electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today Brazil, as the largest soy exporter in the world, has undergone the consequences of the contamination of these crops by the Asian dust fungus, being harmed since the plantation up to the harvest, with losses in its productivity ranging 10-80%. As it is a new disease in the Americas, there are not any resistant species to this fungus attack. The grains contamination harms the exportation for countries which do not want to have their crops contaminated, affecting therefore the international commerce and agro-business relationship with those countries Brazil has trade with. The Asian dust is caused by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi and its dissemination is of difficult control, since occurs through the wind dispersion. The P. pachyrhizi is an Asian fungus and was recently found in South Africa, Paraguay, Argentina and Brazil. As an alternative process to minimize these losses is the process to preserve the grains by radiation, the use of the electron accelerator was indicated, since its advantage for the grains exportation industry is fundamental. Besides the possibility of being disconnected when not in use, this source does not need to be recharged, is easily available and has high dose rate, streamlining the process and reducing logistics costs. The present work aims to identify, by the Polymerase Chain Reaction technique (PCR), the P. pachyrhizi fungus presence in the irradiated soy grains, at doses 1 and 2 kGy, at the IPEN-CNEN electron Accelerator, a Dynamie IPEN-CNEN electron Accelerator, a Dynamitron Machine (Radiation Dynamics Co. model JOB, New York, USA), with 1.5 MeV power and 2.5 mA electrical current. (author)

  18. Serpula lacrymans, The Dry Rot Fungus and Tolerance Towards Copper-Based Wood Preservatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Jensen, Bo

    2005-01-01

    Serpula lacrymans (Wulfen : Fries) Schröter, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most (Wulfen : Fries) Schröterthe dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in temperate regions of the world i.e. northern Europe, Japan and Australia. Previously copper based wood preservatives were the most commonly used preservatives for pressure treatment of wood for building constructions. Because of a suspicion about tolerance toward copper components, a soil block test was undertaken to clarify the effect of two copper based preservatives, copper citrate and ACQ-D, on the dry rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans compared to an alternative non-copper containing wood preservative. The extensive use of copper-based wood preservatives has hastened the need for understanding why some fungi are able to attack copper-treated wood. The copper tolerance of S. lacrymans and other brown-rot fungi is thought to be due in part to oxalic acid production and accumulation. Oxalic acid has been implicated in copper tolerance by the formation of copper oxalate crystals. Twelve isolates of the dry rot fungus, S. lacrymans and four other brown rot species were evaluated for weight loss on wood treated with 1.2% copper citrate, 0.5% ACQ-D and 0.5% N'N-naphthaloylhydroxylamine (NHA). Eleven out of 12 S. lacrymans were shown to be tolerant towards copper citrate. ACQ-D and NHA, on the other were shown to be tolerant towards copper citrate. ACQ-D and NHA, on the other hand, were both effective against the dry rot isolates. These wood preservatives are less toxic toward the environment than traditional copper based preservatives.

  19. Evaluation of herbicidal potential of depsides from Cladosporium uredinicola, an endophytic fungus found in Guava fruit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Livia S. de; Sampaio, Olivia M.; Silva, Maria Fatima das G.F. da; Rodrigues Filho, Edson [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Veiga, Thiago Andre M., E-mail: tveiga@unifesp.br [Instituto de Ciencias Ambientais, Quimicas e Farmaceuticas, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Diadema, SP (Brazil)

    2012-08-15

    Two natural products produced by Cladosporium uredinicola, an endophytic fungus isolated from guava fruit, were evaluated for their effects on photosynthesis. Both of them inhibited electron flow (basal, phosphorylating, and uncoupled) from water to methylviologen (MV), acting as Hill reaction inhibitors in freshly lysed spinach thylakoids. These polyketides, belonging to depsides class, inhibited partial reactions of photosystem II (PS II) electron flow from water to 2,5-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (DCBQ), from water to sodium silicomolybdate (SiMo Na{sup +}), and partially inhibited electron flow from 1,5-diphenylcarbazide (DPC) to 2,6-dichloroindophenol (DCPIP). These results established that the depsides sites of inhibition are located on the donor and acceptor sides of PS II, between P680 and QA . Chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements corroborated this mechanism of action. None of the tested compounds inhibited photosystem I (PS I) electron transport. (author)

  20. Wildlife disease. Recent introduction of a chytrid fungus endangers Western Palearctic salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, A; Blooi, M; Adriaensen, C; Van Rooij, P; Beukema, W; Fisher, M C; Farrer, R A; Schmidt, B R; Tobler, U; Goka, K; Lips, K R; Muletz, C; Zamudio, K R; Bosch, J; Lötters, S; Wombwell, E; Garner, T W J; Cunningham, A A; Spitzen-van der Sluijs, A; Salvidio, S; Ducatelle, R; Nishikawa, K; Nguyen, T T; Kolby, J E; Van Bocxlaer, I; Bossuyt, F; Pasmans, F

    2014-10-31

    Emerging infectious diseases are reducing biodiversity on a global scale. Recently, the emergence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans resulted in rapid declines in populations of European fire salamanders. Here, we screened more than 5000 amphibians from across four continents and combined experimental assessment of pathogenicity with phylogenetic methods to estimate the threat that this infection poses to amphibian diversity. Results show that B. salamandrivorans is restricted to, but highly pathogenic for, salamanders and newts (Urodela). The pathogen likely originated and remained in coexistence with a clade of salamander hosts for millions of years in Asia. As a result of globalization and lack of biosecurity, it has recently been introduced into naïve European amphibian populations, where it is currently causing biodiversity loss. PMID:25359973

  1. Biotransformation of the streptomyces scabies phytotoxin thaxtomin A by the fungus aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of several hundred microorganisms randomly selected from the environment, only a fungal isolate identified as Aspergillus niger van Tiegham var. niger was found to transform the phytotoxin thaxtomin A to much less toxic metabolites. The rate and extent of transformation of thaxtomin A was tested under a variety of conditions, including different growth media, biomass concentrations, incubation periods, and shaker speeds. Under optimum conditions the fungus converted thaxtomin A into two major and five minor metabolites. The two major metabolites and three of the five minor metabolites were fully characterized by a combination of mass spectral and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. When assayed on aseptically produced mini-tubers, the major metabolites proved to be much less phytotoxic than thaxtomin A. (author)

  2. Effects of VA mycorrhizas fungus on phosphorus and potassium uptake in tea seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) seeds were sown on sterilized acidic yellow soil (pH 5.6) in a pot experiment and treated as follows: 1) inoculated with VA mycorrhizas fungus (Glomus citricolum), 2) nonmycorrhizal as control, top dressed with 32P-single superphosphate (M-32P) and 86Rb-rubidium chloride (M-86Rb). The results showed that the percentage of VA mycorrhizas infection was 52.6% for M-32P and 56.7% for M-86Rb. Plant height, dry weight and the uptake of phosphorus and potassium were 2.1 and 1.8 times, 2.4 and 2.5 times, 5.6 and 4.1 times as that of control respectively. The utilization rate of phosphorus and potassium were raised by 14.10% and 17.13% respectively

  3. Evaluation of herbicidal potential of depsides from Cladosporium uredinicola, an endophytic fungus found in Guava fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two natural products produced by Cladosporium uredinicola, an endophytic fungus isolated from guava fruit, were evaluated for their effects on photosynthesis. Both of them inhibited electron flow (basal, phosphorylating, and uncoupled) from water to methylviologen (MV), acting as Hill reaction inhibitors in freshly lysed spinach thylakoids. These polyketides, belonging to depsides class, inhibited partial reactions of photosystem II (PS II) electron flow from water to 2,5-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (DCBQ), from water to sodium silicomolybdate (SiMo Na+), and partially inhibited electron flow from 1,5-diphenylcarbazide (DPC) to 2,6-dichloroindophenol (DCPIP). These results established that the depsides sites of inhibition are located on the donor and acceptor sides of PS II, between P680 and QA . Chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements corroborated this mechanism of action. None of the tested compounds inhibited photosystem I (PS I) electron transport. (author)

  4. Cadmium induces a novel metallothionein and phytochelatin 2 in an aquatic fungus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium stress response was measured at the thiol peptide level in an aquatic hyphomycete (Heliscus lugdunensis). In liquid culture, 0.1mM cadmium increased the glutathione (GSH) content and induced the synthesis of additional thiol peptides. HPLC, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and Edman degradation confirmed that a novel small metallothionein as well as phytochelatin (PC2) were synthesized. The metallothionein has a high homology to family 8 metallothioneins (http://www.expasy.ch/cgi-bin/lists?metallo.txt). The bonding of at least two cadmium ions to the metallothionein was demonstrated by mass spectrometry (MALDI MS). This is the first time that simultaneous induction of metallothionein and phytochelatin accompanied by an increase in GSH level has been shown in a fungus under cadmium stress, indicating a potential function of these complexing agents for in vivo heavy metal detoxification. The method presented here should be applicable as biomarker tool. ol

  5. Morphological and molecular characterization of Magnaporthe oryzae (fungus) from infected rice leaf samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muni, Nurulhidayah Mat; Nadarajah, Kalaivani

    2014-09-01

    Magnaporthe oryzae is a plant-pathogenic fungus that causes a serious disease affecting rice called rice blast. Outbreaks of rice blast have been a threat to the global production of rice. This fungal disease is estimated to cause production losses of US55 million each year in South and Southeast Asia. It has been used as a primary model for elucidating various aspects of the host-pathogen interaction with its host. We have isolated five isolates of Magnaporthe oryzae from diseased leaf samples obtained from the field at Kompleks Latihan MADA, Kedah, Malaysia. We have identified the isolates using morphological and microscopic studies on the fungal spores and the lesions on the diseased leaves. Amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) was carried out with universal primers ITS1 and ITS4. The sequence of each isolates showed at least 99% nucleotide identity with the corresponding sequence in GenBank for Magnaporthe oryzae.

  6. Biosynthesis and stabilization of Au and Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles by fungus, Fusarium semitectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystallized and spherical-shaped Au and Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles have been synthesized and stabilized using a fungus, F . semitectum in an aqueous system. Aqueous solutions of chloroaurate ions for Au and chloroaurate and Ag+ ions (1 : 1 ratio) for Au-Ag alloy were treated with an extracellular filtrate of F . semitectum biomass for the formation of Au nanoparticles (AuNP) and Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles (Au-AgNP). Analysis of the feasibility of the biosynthesized nanoparticles and core-shell alloy nanoparticles from fungal strains is particularly significant. The resultant colloidal suspensions are highly stable for many weeks. The obtained Au and Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles were characterized by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks using a UV-vis spectrophotometer, and the structure, morphology and size were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Possible optoelectronics and medical applications of these nanoparticles are envisaged.

  7. Infection of adult mosquitoes by the entomopathogenic fungus Erynia conica (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuebas-Incle, E L

    1992-12-01

    The infection of adult mosquitoes by the entomopathogenic fungus Erynia conica is presented for the first time. Adult Aedes aegypti were exposed to conidial showers from field-collected chaoborid, tipulid and chironomid cadavers for 24 h under conditions of 100% RH and 15 degrees C. Up to 24% of the adults were killed by the mycosis. Cadavers of Ae. aegypti produced conidia that were infective to other adult Ae. aegypti; however, rates of infection were never more than 12%. Nevertheless, Ae. aegypti served as the laboratory host for E. conica via mosquito-to-mosquito serial passages for up to 6 months. Adult Culex restuans were also susceptible to infection by E. conica. PMID:1474381

  8. Asperaculanes A and B, Two Sesquiterpenoids from the Fungus Aspergillus aculeatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Qi Gao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Six sesquiterpenoids 1–6, including two new ones, an ent-daucane-type sesquiterpenoid, asperaculane A (1, and a nordaucane one, asperaculane B (2, and four known nordaucane derivatives, aculenes A–D 3–6, together with the known secalonic acid D (7, were isolated from a fermentation culture of the fungus Aspergillus aculeatus. Their structures and absolute configurations were established by analyses of their spectroscopic data, including 1D and 2D-NMR spectra, HR-ESIMS, electronic circular dichroism (ECD data, and quantum chemical calculations. These metabolites were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxic activity against two cell lines, human cancer cell lines (HeLa and one normal hamster cell line (CHO.

  9. Mitochondrial Microsatellite Markers for the Australian Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Laccaria sp. A (Hydnangiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M. Sheedy

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria sp. A to investigate the population genetic structure of this fungal symbiont across its fragmented distribution in southeastern Australia. Methods and Results: A partial genome sequence from an individual collection of Laccaria sp. A was obtained by 454 genome sequencing. Eight microsatellite markers were selected from 66 loci identified in the genome. The selected markers were highly polymorphic (4–19 alleles per locus, average 13 alleles and amplified reproducibly from collections made across the distribution of this species. Five of these markers also amplified reproducibly in the sister species Laccaria sp. E (1. All eight of the selected microsatellite loci were from the mitochondrial genome. Conclusions: The highly polymorphic markers described here will enable population structure of Laccaria sp. A to be determined, contributing to research on mycorrhizal fungi from a novel distribution.

  10. Asperaculanes A and B, two sesquiterpenoids from the fungus Aspergillus aculeatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu-Qi; Guo, Chun-Jun; Zhang, Qiang; Zhou, Wen-Ming; Wang, Clay C C; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Six sesquiterpenoids 1-6, including two new ones, an ent-daucane-type sesquiterpenoid, asperaculane A (1), and a nordaucane one, asperaculane B (2), and four known nordaucane derivatives, aculenes A-D 3-6, together with the known secalonic acid D (7), were isolated from a fermentation culture of the fungus Aspergillus aculeatus. Their structures and absolute configurations were established by analyses of their spectroscopic data, including 1D and 2D-NMR spectra, HR-ESIMS, electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data, and quantum chemical calculations. These metabolites were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxic activity against two cell lines, human cancer cell lines (HeLa) and one normal hamster cell line (CHO). PMID:25547729

  11. Utilizing DART mass spectrometry to pinpoint halogenated metabolites from a marine invertebrate-derived fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Katharine R; Loveridge, Steven T; Tenney, Karen; Media, Joseph; Valeriote, Frederick A; Crews, Phillip

    2011-08-01

    Prenylated indole alkaloids are a diverse group of fungal secondary metabolites and represent an important biosynthetic class. In this study we have identified new halogenated prenyl-indole alkaloids from an invertebrate-derived Malbranchea graminicola strain. Using direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectrometry, these compounds were initially detected from hyphae of the fungus grown on agar plates, without the need for any organic extraction. Subsequently, the metabolites were isolated from liquid culture in artificial seawater. The structures of two novel chlorinated metabolites, named (-)-spiromalbramide and (+)-isomalbrancheamide B, provide additional insights into the assembly of the malbrancheamide compound family. Remarkably, two new brominated analogues, (+)-malbrancheamide C and (+)-isomalbrancheamide C, were produced by enriching the growth medium with bromine salts. PMID:21682275

  12. Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from Phomopsis sp., an Endophytic Fungus from Senna spectabilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Mara Chapla

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of an acetonitrile fraction from the endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp. led to the isolation of the new natural product 2-hydroxy-alternariol (7 together with the known compounds cytochalasins J (1 and H (2, 5'-epialtenuene (3 and the mycotoxins alternariol monomethyl ether (AME, 4, alternariol (AOH, 5 and cytosporone C (6. The structure of the new compound was elucidated by using 1-D and 2-D NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance and high resolution mass spectrometry. The cytochalasins J (1 and H (2 and AOH (5 exhibited potent inhibition of the total ROS (reactive oxygen species produced by stimulated human neutrophils and acted as potent potential anti-inflammatory agents. Moreover, cytochalasin H (2 demonstrated antifungal and acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE inhibition in vitro.

  13. cspA Influences Biofilm Formation and Drug Resistance in Pathogenic Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhongqi; Li, Zhe; Xu, Zongge; Li, Hongyan; Li, Lixiang; Ning, Cong; Ma, Lin; Xie, Xiangli; Wang, Guangyi; Yu, Huimei

    2015-01-01

    The microbial cell wall plays a crucial role in biofilm formation and drug resistance. cspA encodes a repeat-rich glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored cell wall protein in the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. To determine whether cspA has a significant impact on biofilm development and sensitivity to antifungal drugs in A. fumigatus, a ?cspA mutant was constructed by targeted gene disruption, and we then reconstituted the mutant to wild type by homologous recombination of a functional cspA gene. Deletion of cspA resulted in a rougher conidial surface, reduced biofilm formation, decreased resistance to antifungal agents, and increased internalization by A549 human lung epithelial cells, suggesting that cspA not only participates in maintaining the integrity of the cell wall, but also affects biofilm establishment, drug response, and invasiveness of A. fumigatus. PMID:25821832

  14. N-METHYL-1H- INDOLE-2-CARBOXAMIDE FROM THE MARINE FUNGUS CLADOSPORIUM CLADOSPORIOIDES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    V, MANRÍQUEZ; A, GALDÁMEZ; B, VELIZ; J, ROVIROSA; A. R, DÍAZ-MARRERO; M, CUETO; J, DARIAS; C, MARTÍNEZ; A, SAN-MARTÍN.

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of N-methyl-1H- indole-2-carboxamide C10H10N2O was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The structure can be described as consisting of an indole group and as substituent, linked at C2, the N-methylcarboxamide group. The molecular structure is essentially planar. The [...] crystal packing results in N-H ------ O hydrogen bonds which join the molecules into centrosymmetric dimeric rings. The knowledge of the crystal structure allows a complete assignment of the ¹H and 13C-NMR spectra. The N-methyl-lH- indole-2-carboxamide is the first indole derivative isolated from marine fungus.

  15. Meroterpenoids with diverse ring systems from the sponge-associated fungus Alternaria sp. JJY-32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guojian; Wu, Guangwei; Zhu, Tianjiao; Kurtán, Tibor; Mándi, Attila; Jiao, Jieying; Li, Jing; Qi, Xin; Gu, Qianqun; Li, Dehai

    2013-10-25

    Fifteen meroterpenoids (1-15) with diverse ring systems including an unprecedented oxaspiro[5.5]nonane-fused cyclohexenone (1), hydrogenated benzofurans (2-5), hydrogenated chromans (6, 7), hydrogenated cyclopenta[b]chromans (8-11), and four monocyclic structures (12-15) were isolated from the sponge-associated fungus Alternaria sp. JJY-32. The structures were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations, and assisted by chemical derivatizations. On the basis of supplementation experiments with specific enzyme inhibitors and putative precursors, a shikimate-isoprenoid hybrid biosynthetic pathway is proposed. The NF-?B inhibitory activities of 1-15 were tested, and all of them, except 6 and 7 (IC50 > 100 ?M), showed activities with IC50 values ranging from 39 to 85 ?M in RAW264.7 cells. PMID:24128115

  16. Morphological and genetic characteristics of the entomopathogenic fungus Ophiocordyceps nutans and its host insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Fumito; Miyamoto, Toshizumi; Yamamoto, Aki; Tamai, Yutaka; Yajima, Takashi

    2008-10-01

    We examined the morphology, genetic variation, and insect host species of the fungus Ophiocordyceps nutans. Fifty-two fruit bodies collected in Hokkaido, Japan, were grouped by host species, and 19 samples were analysed. The ranges of the lengths and breadths of all fruit body parts were similar among host groups. In the genetic analysis, the 5.8S rDNA region showed completely identical sequences, although differences of up to six nucleotides were recognized in the ITS regions. The distance values between our samples using the Kimura two-parameter model were lower than 0.007. Thus, the O. nutans examined here were concluded to form a closely related group with little detectable variability that parasitized nine hemipteran species. PMID:18693103

  17. Purification and Characterization of a Mitogenic Lectin from Cephalosporium, a Pathogenic Fungus Causing Mycotic Keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashikala R. Inamdar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ophthalmic mycoses caused by infectious fungi are being recognized as a serious concern since they lead to total blindness. Cephalosporium is one amongst several opportunistic fungal species implicated in ophthalmic infections leading to mycotic keratitis. A mitogenic lectin has been purified from the mycelia of fungus Cephalosporium, isolated from the corneal smears of a keratitis patient. Cephalosporium lectin (CSL is a tetramer with subunit mass of 14?kDa, agglutinates human A, B, and O erythrocytes, and exhibits high affinity for mucin compared to fetuin and asialofetuin but does not bind to simple sugars indicating its complex sugar specificity. CSL showed strong binding to normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs to elicit mitogenic activity. The sugar specificity of the lectin and its interaction with PBMCs to exhibit mitogenic effect indicate its possible role in adhesion and infection process of Cephalosporium.

  18. Marilones A–C, phthalides from the sponge-derived fungus Stachylidium sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Almeida

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The marine-derived fungus Stachylidium sp. was isolated from the sponge Callyspongia sp. cf. C. flammea. Culture on a biomalt medium supplemented with sea salt led to the isolation of three new phthalide derivatives, i.e., marilones A–C (1–3, and the known compound silvaticol (4. The skeleton of marilones A and B is most unusual, and its biosynthesis is suggested to require unique biochemical reactions considering fungal secondary metabolism. Marilone A (1 was found to have antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium berghei liver stages with an IC50 of 12.1 µM. Marilone B (2 showed selective antagonistic activity towards the serotonin receptor 5-HT2B with a Ki value of 7.7 µM.

  19. Guaiane sesquiterpenes and isopimarane diterpenes from an endophytic fungus Xylaria sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shao-Hua; He, Jian; Li, Xiao-Nian; Huang, Rong; Song, Fei; Chen, You-Wei; Miao, Cui-Ping

    2014-09-01

    Nine oxygenated guaiane-type sesquiterpenes and three isopimarane diterpenes were isolated from the culture broth of an endophytic fungus, Xylaria sp. YM 311647, obtained from Azadirachta indica. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by interpretation of spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations of two of these were confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. All of the compounds were tested for their antifungal activities against five pathogenic fungal cells. The results showed that nine sesquiterpenes were moderately active against Candida albicans and Hormodendrum compactum with MIC values ranging from 32 to 256?g/ml, while the diterpenes were more active; One of these exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity against C. albicans and Pyricularia oryzae with MIC values of 16?g/ml. PMID:24890390

  20. Prenylated indole diketopiperazines from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jixing; Gao, Huquan; Li, Jing; Ai, Jing; Geng, Meiyu; Zhang, Guojian; Zhu, Tianjiao; Gu, Qianqun; Li, Dehai

    2014-09-01

    Seven new prenylated indole diketopiperazines, versicamides A-G (1-7) and a novel chemical derivative from 7, versicamide H (8), along with three known analogic diketopiperazines (9-11) were obtained from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor HDN08-60. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic techniques, including 2D NMR, ECD calculations, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, together with the assistance of further chemical conversions. The cytotoxicities of 1-8 were tested against the HeLa, HCT-116, HL-60, and K562 cell lines, but only 8 exhibited moderate activity against HL-60 cells, with an IC50 value of 8.7 ?M. Further investigation with target screening showed that 8 exhibited selective PTK inhibitory activities. PMID:25089636

  1. Antibacterial Bisabolane-Type Sesquiterpenoids from the Sponge-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp.

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Dan

    2012-01-19

    Four new bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoids, aspergiterpenoid A (1), (-)-sydonol (2), (-)-sydonic acid (3), and (-)-5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(2?, 6?,6?-trimethyltetrahydro-2Hpyran-2-yl)phenol (4) together with one known fungal metabolite (5) were isolated from the fermentation broth of a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp., which was isolated from the sponge Xestospongia testudinaria collected from the South China Sea. Four of them (1-4) are optically active compounds. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by using NMR spectroscopic techniques and mass spectrometric analysis, and by comparing their optical rotations with those related known analogues. Compounds 1-5 showed selective antibacterial activity against eight bacterial strains with the MIC (minimum inhibiting concentrations) values between 1.25 and 20.0 ?M. The cytotoxic, antifouling, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of these compounds were also examined. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI.

  2. Three New Resveratrol Derivatives from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Alternaria sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Three new resveratrol derivatives, namely, resveratrodehydes A–C (1–3, were isolated from the mangrove endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. R6. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by analysis of their MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. All compounds showed broad-spectrum inhibitory activities against three human cancer cell lines including human breast MDA-MB-435, human liver HepG2, and human colon HCT-116 by MTT assay (IC50 < 50 ?M. Among them, compounds 1 and 2 both exhibited marked cytotoxic activities against MDA-MB-435 and HCT-116 cell lines (IC50 < 10 ?M. Additionally, compounds 1 and 3 showed moderate antioxidant activity by DPPH radical scavenging assay.

  3. Cascading effects of a highly specialized beech-aphid–fungus interaction on forest regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan C. Cook-Patton

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Specialist herbivores are thought to often enhance or maintain plant diversity within ecosystems, because they prevent their host species from becoming competitively dominant. In contrast, specialist herbivores are not generally expected to have negative impacts on non-hosts. However, we describe a cascade of indirect interactions whereby a specialist sooty mold (Scorias spongiosa colonizes the honeydew from a specialist beech aphid (Grylloprociphilus imbricator, ultimately decreasing the survival of seedlings beneath American beech trees (Fagus grandifolia. A common garden experiment indicated that this mortality resulted from moldy honeydew impairing leaf function rather than from chemical or microbial changes to the soil. In addition, aphids consistently and repeatedly colonized the same large beech trees, suggesting that seedling-depauperate islands may form beneath these trees. Thus this highly specialized three-way beech-aphid–fungus interaction has the potential to negatively impact local forest regeneration via a cascade of indirect effects.

  4. New polyphenols from a deep sea Spiromastix sp. Fungus, and their antibacterial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Siwen; Liu, Dong; Proksch, Peter; Shao, Zongze; Lin, Wenhan

    2015-04-01

    Eleven new polyphenols namely spiromastols A-K (1-11) were isolated from the fermentation broth of a deep sea-derived fungus Spiromastix sp. MCCC 3A00308. Their structures were determined by extensive NMR data and mass spectroscopic analysis in association with chemical conversion. The structures are classified as diphenyl ethers, diphenyl esters and isocoumarin derivatives, while the n-propyl group in the analogues is rarely found in natural products. Compounds 1-3 exhibited potent inhibitory effects against a panel of bacterial strains, including Xanthomanes vesicatoria, Pseudomonas lachrymans, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Ralstonia solanacearum, Bacillus thuringensis, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 0.25 to 4 µg/mL. The structure-activity relationships are discussed, while the polychlorinated analogues 1-3 are assumed to be a promising structural model for further development as antibacterial agents. PMID:25913707

  5. New Polyphenols from a Deep Sea Spiromastix sp. Fungus, and Their Antibacterial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwen Niu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Eleven new polyphenols namely spiromastols A–K (1–11 were isolated from the fermentation broth of a deep sea-derived fungus Spiromastix sp. MCCC 3A00308. Their structures were determined by extensive NMR data and mass spectroscopic analysis in association with chemical conversion. The structures are classified as diphenyl ethers, diphenyl esters and isocoumarin derivatives, while the n-propyl group in the analogues is rarely found in natural products. Compounds 1–3 exhibited potent inhibitory effects against a panel of bacterial strains, including Xanthomanes vesicatoria, Pseudomonas lachrymans, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Ralstonia solanacearum, Bacillus thuringensis, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values ranging from 0.25 to 4 µg/mL. The structure-activity relationships are discussed, while the polychlorinated analogues 1–3 are assumed to be a promising structural model for further development as antibacterial agents.

  6. Coevolved crypts and exocrine glands support mutualistic bacteria in fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Currie, Cameron R; Poulsen, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Attine ants engage in a quadripartite symbiosis with fungi they cultivate for food, specialized garden parasites, and parasite-inhibiting bacteria. Molecular phylogenetic evidence supports an ancient host-pathogen association between the ant-cultivar mutualism and the garden parasite. Here we show that ants rear the antibiotic-producing bacteria in elaborate cuticular crypts, supported by unique exocrine glands, and that these structures have been highly modified across the ants' evolutionary history. This specialized structural evolution, together with the absence of these bacteria and modifications in other ant genera that do not grow fungus, indicate that the bacteria have an ancient and coevolved association with the ants, their fungal cultivar, and the garden parasite.

  7. Biosynthesis of aphidicolin proceeds via the mevalonate pathway in the endophytic fungus Nigrospora sphaerica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have previously identified the endophytic fungus Nigrospora sphaerica as a prolific producer of the bioactive diterpene aphidicolin. Herein we report a study to establish the best conditions for the production of aphidicolin by N. sphaerica in Czapek medium. The sugar source (glucose and sucrose) and the incubation time (4-15 days) were optimized for further application on biosynthetic studies of the diterpene. The highest levels of production of aphidicolin were found on the 8th day with 1%-glucose and on the 12th day with 3%-sucrose based media. The biosynthesis of aphidicolin was investigated using [1-13C]-D-glucose as a precursor, and showed that the isoprene units of aphidicolin are derived from the mevalonate pathway. (author)

  8. Phylogeny of the clinically relevant species of the emerging fungus Trichoderma and their antifungal susceptibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Denis, Marcelo; Sutton, Deanna A; Cano-Lira, José F; Gené, Josepa; Fothergill, Annette W; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Guarro, Josep

    2014-06-01

    A set of 73 isolates of the emerging fungus Trichoderma isolated from human and animal clinical specimens were characterized morphologically and molecularly using a multilocus sequence analysis that included the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA and fragments of the translation elongation factor 1 alpha (Tef1), endochitinase CHI18-5 (Chi18-5), and actin 1 (Act1) genes. The most frequent species was Trichoderma longibrachiatum (26%), followed by Trichoderma citrinoviride (18%), the Hypocrea lixii/Trichoderma harzianum species complex (15%), the newly described species Trichoderma bissettii (12%), and Trichoderma orientale (11%). The most common anatomical sites of isolation in human clinical specimens were the respiratory tract (40%), followed by deep tissue (30%) and superficial tissues (26%), while all the animal-associated isolates were obtained from superficial tissue samples. Susceptibilities of the isolates to eight antifungal drugs in vitro showed mostly high MICs, except for voriconazole and the echinocandins. PMID:24719448

  9. Strains of the soil fungus Mortierella show different degradation potentials for the phenylurea herbicide diuron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard-Jensen, Lea; Aamand, jens

    2013-01-01

    Microbial pesticide degradation studies have until now mainly focused on bacteria, although fungi have also been shown to degrade pesticides. In this study we clarify the background for the ability of the common soil fungus Mortierella to degrade the phenylurea herbicide diuron. Diuron degradation potentials of five Mortierella strains were compared, and the role of carbon and nitrogen for the degradation process was investigated. Results showed that the ability to degrade diuron varied greatly among the Mortierella strains tested, and the strains able to degrade diuron were closely related. Degradation of diuron was fastest in carbon and nitrogen rich media while suboptimal nutrient levels restricted degradation, making it unlikely that Mortierella utilize diuron as carbon or nitrogen sources. Degradation kinetics showed that diuron degradation was followed by formation of the metabolites 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-methylurea, 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea and an hitherto unknown metabolite suggested to be 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-methylideneurea.

  10. The glutathione response to salt stress in the thermophilic fungus thermomyces lanuginosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg Jepsen, Helene; Posci, Istvan

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of glutathione in response to salt stress in the thermophilic fungus, Thermomyces lanuginosus, the biomass and the intracellular pool of protein and the glutathione + glutathione disulphid (GSH + GSSG) was measured for four days in a medium with NaCl or KCl added and in the basal medium. Due to the osmotic and ionic stress imposed by the salts, the growth of T. lanuginosus was delayed and the inhibitory effect of KCl exceeded that of NaCl. Glutathione seemed to be involved in the response of T. lanuginosus towards high concentrations of salt, as the level of stress was negatively correlated with the amount of total glutathione. Salt stress did not result in an increased intracellular protein production. GSH accumulated while nutrients were abundant and were subsequently degraded later, suggesting that nutrients stored in GSH are used when the medium is depleted.

  11. The mycorrhizal fungus (¤Glomus intraradices¤) affects microbial activity in the rhizosphere of pea plants (¤Pisum sativum¤)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wamberg, C.; Christensen, S.

    2003-01-01

    Pea plants were grown in gamma-irradiated soil in pots with and without addition of the AM fungus Glomus intraradices at sufficient N and limiting P. Depending on the growth phase of the plant presence of AM had negative or positive effect on rhizosphere activity. Before flowering during nutrient acquisition AM decreased rhizosphere respiration and number of protozoa but did not affect bacterial number suggesting top-down regulation of bacterial number by protozoan grazing. In contrast, during flowering and pod formation AM stimulated rhizosphere respiration and the negative effect on protozoa decreased. AM also affected the composition of the rhizosphere bacterial community as revealed from DNA analysis (DGGE). With or without mycorrhiza, rhizosphere respiration was P-limited on very young roots, not nutrient limited at more mature roots and C-limited at withering. This suggests changes in the rhizosphere community during plant growth also supported by changes in the bacteria (DGGE). (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Marilines A-C: novel phthalimidines from the sponge-derived fungus Stachylidium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Celso; Hemberger, Yasmin; Schmitt, Sven Marcel; Bouhired, Sarah; Natesan, Lavanya; Kehraus, Stefan; Dimas, Konstantinos; Gütschow, Michael; Bringmann, Gerhard; König, Gabriele M

    2012-07-01

    A marine-derived fungus of the genus Stachylidium was isolated from the sponge Callyspongia cf. C. flammea. Chemical investigation of the bioactive fungal extract led to the isolation of the novel phthalimidine derivatives marilines A(1) (1a), A(2) (1b), B (2), and C (3). The absolute configurations of the enantiomeric compounds 1a and 1b were assigned by a combination of experimental circular dichroism (CD) investigations and quantum chemical CD calculations. The skeleton of marilines is most unusual, and its biosynthesis is suggested to require uncommon biochemical reactions in fungal secondary metabolism. Both enantiomers, marilines A(1) (1a) and A(2) (1b), inhibited human leukocyte elastase (HLE) with an IC(50) value of 0.86 ?M. PMID:22711513

  13. Cyclodepsipeptides from the ascocarps and insect-body portions of fungus Cordyceps cicadae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Jia, Jun-Feng; Peng, Qun-Long; Tian, Hai-Yan; Wang, Lei; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2014-09-01

    A new cyclodepsipeptide cordycecin A (1), together with four known ones beauvericin E (2), beauvericin J (3), beauvericin (4), and beauvericin A (5) was isolated from the ascocarps and insect-body portions of fungus Cordyceps cicadae. Their structures were identified by NMR and MS analyses. The absolute configuration of 1 was confirmed by crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 2-5 exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on HepG2 and HepG2/ADM cells with IC50 values ranging from 2.40±0.37 to 14.48±1.68 ?M. Interestingly, compounds 3-5 showed cytotoxic activity against multiple drug resistant HepG2 cell line (HepG2/ADM) with IC50 value 25-fold more sensitive to doxorubicin. PMID:24862062

  14. Hawaiinolides E-G, cytotoxic cassane and cleistanthane diterpenoids from the entomogenous fungus Paraconiothyrium hawaiiense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shenxi; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Chen; Ren, Fengxia; Liu, Xingzhong; Che, Yongsheng

    2014-12-01

    Hawaiinolides E-G (1-3), three additional new secondary metabolites including two cassane (1 and 2) types of diterpene lactones and one cleistanthane (3) diterpenoid, were isolated from the scale-up fermentation extract of Paraconiothyrium hawaiiense, an entomogenous fungus isolated from the Septobasidium-infected insect Diaspidiotus sp. The structures of 1-3 were elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, and 1 and 3 were further confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The absolute configurations of 1 and 3 were assigned by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis using Cu K? radiation, whereas that of 2 was deduced via the circular dichroism data. Compound 1 showed significant cytotoxic effects against the human tumor cell line T24, with an IC?? value (9.32 ?M) comparable to that of the positive control cisplatin. PMID:25301775

  15. An insect pupal cell with antimicrobial properties that suppress an entomopathogenic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Mizell, Russell F

    2015-01-01

    Soil-dwelling insects have developed various mechanisms to defend against pathogen infection. The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae, spends two to three years in the soil inside an earthen cell. We hypothesized that the cell may possess antimicrobial properties. In a laboratory study, we tested the hypothesis using the fungus Beauveria bassiana as a model. B. bassiana is a common endemic pathogen of C. caryae. We compared the number of colony-forming-units on selective media when B. bassiana was exposed to autoclaved soil, non-autoclaved soil, or soil from a C. caryae pupal cell. Soil from C. caryae cells was suppressive to B. bassiana. To our knowledge this is the first report of antimicrobial properties associated with an insect soil cell. The findings expand our knowledge of host-pathogen relationships. Additional research is needed to determine the basis for the suppressive effects observed. PMID:25510575

  16. Type IV pili are involved in plant-microbe and fungus-microbe interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörr, J; Hurek, T; Reinhold-Hurek, B

    1998-10-01

    Adherence of bacteria to eukaryotic cells is essential for the initiation of infection in many animal and human pathogens, e.g. Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Adhesion-mediating type IV pili, filamentous surface appendages formed by pilin subunits, are crucial virulence factors. Here, we report that type IV pilus-dependent adhesion is also involved in plant-bacteria and fungus-bacteria interactions. Nitrogen-fixing, endophytic bacteria, Azoarcus sp., can infect the roots of rice and spread systemically into the shoot without causing symptoms of plant disease. Formation of pili on solid media was dependent on the pilAB locus. PilA encodes an unusually short (6.4 kDa) putative pilin precursor showing 100% homology to the conserved N-terminus of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa type IV pilin. PilB encodes for a 14.2 kDa polypeptide showing similarity to FimF, a component of type I fimbriae of Escherichia coli. It was found to be extruded beyond the cell surface by immunofluorescence studies, and it may, therefore, be part of a pilus assembly complex or the pilus itself. Both genes are involved in the establishment of bacteria on the root surface of rice seedlings, as detected by fluorescence microscopy. Moreover, both genes are necessary for bacterial adhesion to the mycelium of an ascomycete, which was isolated from the same rhizosphere as the bacteria. In co-culture with the fungus, Azoarcus sp. forms complex intracytoplasmic membranes, diazosomes, which are related to efficient nitrogen fixation. Adhesion to the mycelium appears to be crucial for this process, as diazosomes were absent and nitrogen fixation rates were decreased in pilAB mutants in co-culture. PMID:9786181

  17. Patterns of interaction specificity of fungus-growing termites and Termitomyces symbionts in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Beer Z Wilhelm

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae live in a mutualistic symbiosis with basidiomycete fungi of the genus Termitomyces. Here, we explored interaction specificity in fungus-growing termites using samples from 101 colonies in South-Africa and Senegal, belonging to eight species divided over three genera. Knowledge of interaction specificity is important to test the hypothesis that inhabitants (symbionts are taxonomically less diverse than 'exhabitants' (hosts and to test the hypothesis that transmission mode is an important determinant for interaction specificity. Results Analysis of Molecular Variance among symbiont ITS sequences across termite hosts at three hierarchical levels showed that 47 % of the variation occurred between genera, 18 % between species, and the remaining 35 % between colonies within species. Different patterns of specificity were evident. High mutual specificity was found for the single Macrotermes species studied, as M. natalensis was associated with a single unique fungal haplotype. The three species of the genus Odontotermes showed low symbiont specificity: they were all associated with a genetically diverse set of fungal symbionts, but their fungal symbionts showed some host specificity, as none of the fungal haplotypes were shared between the studied Odontotermes species. Finally, bilaterally low specificity was found for the four tentatively recognized species of the genus Microtermes, which shared and apparently freely exchanged a common pool of divergent fungal symbionts. Conclusion Interaction specificity was high at the genus level and generally much lower at the species level. A comparison of the observed diversity among fungal symbionts with the diversity among termite hosts, indicated that the fungal symbiont does not follow the general pattern of an endosymbiont, as we found either similar diversity at both sides or higher diversity in the symbiont. Our results further challenge the hypothesis that transmission-mode is a general key-determinant of interaction specificity in fungus-growing termites.

  18. Phosphorus uptake of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus is not effected by the biocontrol bacterium ¤Burkholderia cepacia¤

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnskov, S.; Larsen, J.

    2002-01-01

    The biocontrol bacterium Burkholderia cepacia is known to suppress a broad range of root pathogenic fungi, while its impact on other beneficial non-target organisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is unknown. Direct interactions between five B. cepacia strains and the AM fungus, Glomus intraradices (BEG87) were studied in root-free soil compartments separated from a rooting compartment by a fine nylon-mesh. B. cepacia had no effect on AM fungal biomass and energy reserves measured using the signature fatty acid 16:1omega5 from phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and neutral lipid fatty acids (NLFAs), respectively. Hyphal P transport was also unaffected by the biocontrol bacterium, which either stimulated, reduced or had no effect on length of the external mycelium of G. intraradices. The cyclic PLFAs cy17:0 and cy19:0 were suggested to be useful markers for estimation of biomass of B. cepacia. The presence of mycelium of G. intraradices reduced the biomass of three out of five B. cepacia strains as indicated by a reduction in PLFAs cy17:0 and cy19:0, while other bacterial PLFAs were unaffected by mycelium of G. intraradices. On the other hand, two out of five B. cepacia strains reduced the amount of branched PLFAs suggesting a reduction in the population of Gram-positive bacteria in these cases. In conclusion, the B. cepacia seems to have no impact on neither mycorrhiza formation nor on the functioning of the AM fungus G. intraradices in terms of P transport, whereas our results suggest that mycorrhiza might have adverse effects on B. cepacia. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Increased Soil Heavy Metal Concentrations Aff ect the Structure of Soil Fungus Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidilut? Dirgin?iut?-Volodkien?

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Effects of heavy metals on soil fungi populations and soil fertility incidental to it were studied under laboratory conditions. Metal-amended antroposol type soil samples were incubated for a month at 17°C under natural light regime. Copper, zinc and lead were chosen as the most common industrial pollutants. Each metal was applied either of sulfate, chloride or acetate salt (at concentration varying from 0.4 to 16.14 g kg-1 soil; control – soil without metal amendment. Fungal populations (dilution plate method were investigated and soil phytotoxicity test was performed.Elevated Cu, Zn and Pb concentrations in the soil influenced fungus community structure. Some species (Absidia glauca, Acremonium kiliense, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Alternaria alternata detected in the control soil community were eliminated, while the abundance of the other species increased. Paecillomyces genus dominated in the soil amended with either of Cu or Zn. P. farinosus, P. fumosoroseum and fungal species from the Clonostachys, Penicillium and Lecanicillium genera were Znresistant. P. lilacinus and plant pathogenic fungi, A. alternata, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani and Phoma lingam were very abundant in soil amended with Cu salts, followed by some saprotrophic fungi such as Cunninghamella echinulata and Mucor hiemalis f. hiemalis. An overall change in the plant (cress, Lepidum sativum; wheat, Ticicum aestivum; lupine, Lupinus polyphyllus, and sunflower, Heliannthus annus seed viability was observed in comparison with control. Most deleterious effects on the seed germination were observed in case of zinc, medium – in case of copper, and the least – in case of lead. Zinc salts at used concentrations were unfavorable to both fungus populations and consequently to the seed viability.

  20. Structure, dynamics and domain organization of the repeat protein Cin1 from the apple scab fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesarich, Carl H; Schmitz, Michael; Tremouilhac, Pierre; McGillivray, Duncan J; Templeton, Matthew D; Dingley, Andrew J

    2012-10-01

    Venturia inaequalis is a hemi-biotrophic fungus that causes scab disease of apple. A recently-identified gene from this fungus, cin1 (cellophane-induced 1), is up-regulated over 1000-fold in planta and considerably on cellophane membranes, and encodes a cysteine-rich secreted protein of 523 residues with eight imperfect tandem repeats of ~60 amino acids. The Cin1 sequence has no homology to known proteins and appears to be genus-specific; however, Cin1 repeats and other repeat domains may be structurally similar. An NMR-derived structure of the first two repeat domains of Cin1 (Cin1-D1D2) and a low-resolution model of the full-length protein (Cin1-FL) using SAXS data were determined. The structure of Cin1-D1D2 reveals that each domain comprises a core helix-loop-helix (HLH) motif as part of a three-helix bundle, and is stabilized by two intra-domain disulfide bonds. Cin1-D1D2 adopts a unique protein fold as DALI and PDBeFOLD analysis identified no structural homology. A (15)N backbone NMR dynamic analysis of Cin1-D1D2 showed that a short stretch of the inter-domain linker has large amplitude motions that give rise to reciprocal domain-domain mobility. This observation was supported by SAXS data modeling, where the scattering length density envelope remains thick at the domain-domain boundary, indicative of inter-domain dynamics. Cin1-FL SAXS data models a loosely-packed arrangement of domains, rather than the canonical parallel packing of adjacent HLH repeats observed in ?-solenoid repeat proteins. Together, these data suggest that the repeat domains of Cin1 display a "beads-on-a-string" organization with inherent inter-domain flexibility that is likely to facilitate interactions with target ligands. PMID:22771296

  1. Phylogeography and population structure of the grape powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator, from diverse Vitis species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brewer Marin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The grape powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator, was introduced into Europe more than 160 years ago and is now distributed everywhere that grapes are grown. To understand the invasion history of this pathogen we investigated the evolutionary relationships between introduced populations of Europe, Australia and the western United States (US and populations in the eastern US, where E. necator is thought to be native. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that populations of E. necator in the eastern US are structured based on geography and Vitis host species. Results We sequenced three nuclear gene regions covering 1803 nucleotides from 146 isolates of E. necator collected from the eastern US, Europe, Australia, and the western US. Phylogeographic analyses show that the two genetic groups in Europe represent two separate introductions and that the genetic groups may be derived from eastern US ancestors. Populations from the western US and Europe share haplotypes, suggesting that the western US population was introduced from Europe. Populations in Australia are derived from European populations. Haplotype richness and nucleotide diversity were significantly greater in the eastern US populations than in the introduced populations. Populations within the eastern US are geographically differentiated; however, no structure was detected with respect to host habitat (i.e., wild or cultivated. Populations from muscadine grapes, V. rotundifolia, are genetically distinct from populations from other Vitis host species, yet no differentiation was detected among populations from other Vitis species. Conclusions Multilocus sequencing analysis of the grape powdery mildew fungus is consistent with the hypothesis that populations in Europe, Australia and the western US are derived from two separate introductions and their ancestors were likely from native populations in the eastern US. The invasion history of E. necator follows a pattern consistent with plant-mediated dispersal, however, more exhaustive sampling is required to make more precise conclusions as to origin. E. necator shows no genetic structure across Vitis host species, except with respect to V. rotundifolia.

  2. Hydroxylation of a hederagenin derived saponin by a Xylareaceous fungus found in fruits of Sapindus saponaria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Michael, Murgu; Luiz F. Arruda, Santos; Gezimar D. de, Souza; Cristina, Daolio; Bernd, Schneider; Antônio Gilberto, Ferreira; Edson, Rodrigues-Filho.

    Full Text Available Durante nossos estudos visando a obtenção de microorganismos endofíticos associados a plantas tropicais, um fungo do grupo Xylareaceae foi isolado das partes internas dos frutos de Sapindus saponaria. Os frutos de S. saponaria acumulam grande quantidade de saponinas triterpênicas e sesquiterpênicas. [...] A saponina 3-O-(?-D-xilopiranosil)-(1?3)-?-L-ramnopiranosil-(1?2)-?-L-arabinopiranosil-hederagenina foi isolada por métodos cromatográfios após saponificação do extrato bruto obtido dos frutos de S. saponaria e admistrada junto ao meio de cultivo usado para crescimento do fungo. Após extração dos metabólitos obtidos, uma nova saponina foi purificada por CLAE em escala preparativa e caracterizada como um derivado 22?-hidroxilado. Essa saponina hidroxilada teve sua estrutura molecular elucidada através da interpretação de dados de EM/EM e RMN. Abstract in english During our screening of tropical plants for endophyte microorganisms, a Xylareaceous fungus was found living on the internal part of Sapindus saponaria fruits. The fruits of S. saponaria accumulate great amounts of triterpenoidal and sesquiterpenoidal saponins. The saponin 3-O-(?-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1 [...] ?3)-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-L-arabinopyranosyl-hederagenin was isolated using chromatographic methods, after alkaline hydrolysis of the crude extract obtained from S. saponaria fruits and added to the culture medium used to grows the fungus. A new saponin was isolated from this experiment by preparative scale HPLC and characterized as a 22?-hydroxy derivative. The structure of this hydroxylated saponin was elucidated based on interpretation of MS/MS data and NMR spectra.

  3. Laccase detoxification mediates the nutritional alliance between leaf-cutting ants and fungus-garden symbionts.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Fine Licht, Henrik; SchiØtt, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Leaf-cutting ants combine large-scale herbivory with fungus farming to sustain advanced societies. Their stratified colonies are major evolutionary achievements and serious agricultural pests, but the crucial adaptations that allowed this mutualism to become the prime herbivorous component of neotropical ecosystems has remained elusive. Here we show how coevolutionary adaptation of a specific enzyme in the fungal symbiont has helped leaf-cutting ants overcome plant defensive phenolic compounds. We identify nine putative laccase-coding genes in the fungal genome of Leucocoprinus gongylophorus cultivated by the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior. One of these laccases (LgLcc1) is highly expressed in the specialized hyphal tips (gongylidia) that the ants preferentially eat, and we confirm that these ingested laccase molecules pass through the ant guts and remain active when defecated on the leaf pulp that the ants add to their gardens. This accurate deposition ensures that laccase activity is highest where new leaf material enters the fungus garden, but where fungal mycelium is too sparse to produce extracellular enzymes in sufficient quantities to detoxify phenolic compounds. Phylogenetic analysis of LgLcc1 ortholog sequences from symbiotic and free-living fungi revealed significant positive selection in the ancestral lineage that gave rise to the gongylidia-producing symbionts of leaf-cutting ants and their non-leaf-cutting ant sister group. Our results are consistent with fungal preadaptation and subsequent modification of a particular laccase enzyme for the detoxification of secondary plant compounds during the transition to active herbivory in the ancestor of leaf-cutting ants between 8 and 12 Mya.

  4. Laccase detoxification mediates the nutritional alliance between leaf-cutting ants and fungus-garden symbionts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; SchiØtt, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Leaf-cutting ants combine large-scale herbivory with fungus farming to sustain advanced societies. Their stratified colonies are major evolutionary achievements and serious agricultural pests, but the crucial adaptations that allowed this mutualism to become the prime herbivorous component of neotropical ecosystems has remained elusive. Here we show how coevolutionary adaptation of a specific enzyme in the fungal symbiont has helped leaf-cutting ants overcome plant defensive phenolic compounds. We identify nine putative laccase-coding genes in the fungal genome of Leucocoprinus gongylophorus cultivated by the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior. One of these laccases (LgLcc1) is highly expressed in the specialized hyphal tips (gongylidia) that the ants preferentially eat, and we confirm that these ingested laccase molecules pass through the ant guts and remain active when defecated on the leaf pulp that the ants add to their gardens. This accurate deposition ensures that laccase activity is highest where new leaf material enters the fungus garden, but where fungal mycelium is too sparse to produce extracellular enzymes in sufficient quantities to detoxify phenolic compounds. Phylogenetic analysis of LgLcc1 ortholog sequences from symbiotic and free-living fungi revealed significant positive selection in the ancestral lineage that gave rise to the gongylidia-producing symbionts of leaf-cutting ants and their non-leaf-cutting ant sister group. Our results are consistent with fungal preadaptation and subsequent modification of a particular laccase enzyme for the detoxification of secondary plant compounds during the transition to active herbivory in the ancestor of leaf-cutting ants between 8 and 12 Mya.

  5. Transcriptional analysis of Pinus sylvestris roots challenged with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sederoff Ron

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Symbiotic ectomycorrhizal associations of fungi with forest trees play important and economically significant roles in the nutrition, growth and health of boreal forest trees, as well as in nutrient cycling. The ecology and physiology of ectomycorrhizal associations with Pinus sp are very well documented but very little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind these mutualistic interactions with gymnosperms as compared to angiosperms. Results Using a micro-array approach, the relative abundance of 2109 EST transcripts during interaction of Pinus sylvestris roots with the ectomycorrhizal fungus was profiled. The results reveal significant differential expression of a total of 236 ESTs, 96 transcripts differentially abundant after 1 day of physical contact with the fungus, 134 transcripts after 5 days and only 6 after 15 days at early stages of mantle formation on emerging lateral roots. A subset of cell wall modification and stress related genes was further assessed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR at late stages of mycorrhizal development coinciding with Hartig net formation. The results reveal down regulation of gene transcripts involved in general defence mechanism (e.g. antimicrobial peptide as well as those involved in cell wall modification (e.g. glycine rich protein, xyloglucan endo transglycosylase. Conclusion This study constitutes the first attempt to characterize the transcriptome of the plant partner in the Pinus sylvestris – Laccaria bicolor model system. We identified 236 ESTs which are potentially important for molecular regulation of a functional symbiotic association in conifer host. The results highlight similarities with other studies based on angiosperm model systems, nevertheless some differences were found in the timing and spatial scale of gene regulation during ectomycorrhiza development in gymnosperms. The present study has identified a number of potentially important molecular events responsible for the initiation and regulation of biochemical, physiological and morphological changes during development of a fully functional symbiosis that are relevant for gymnosperm hosts.

  6. Susceptibility of Tetranychus urticae Koch. (Acari: Tetranychidae to Isolates of Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavimira A. Draganova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioassays with five isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.- Criv. Vuillemin were conducted under laboratory conditions with a goal to estimate their virulence to the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. (Acari: Tetranychidae. Common bean plants with mites were treated by spraying conidial suspensions of isolates at concentrations of 106, 107 and 108 conidia/ml. Lethal effects of the fungal isolates wereevaluated as percentages of cumulative daily mortality due to mycoses, corrected for mortality in the control variant. Virulence of the isolates was estimated based on values of the median lethal time (LT50 calculated by probit analysis for the variants treated with conidial suspensions at the concentration of 106 conidia/ml.The two-spotted spider mite was found susceptible to the examined isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus B. bassiana. Mycosis caused to T. urticae by the B. bassiana isolates 444 Bb and 445 Bb had fast lethal effect after treatment with conidial suspensions even at the concentration of 106 conidia/ml. The mean mortality values of host individuals were 83.78 ± 3.62% and 68.49 ± 4.28% on the first day, respectively, and up to 100% in both variants on the fourth day.The isolates 426 Bb, 444 Bb and 445 Bb of B. bassiana were highly virulent to two-spotted spider mites with values of the median lethal time varied within overlapped narrow confidence intervals from 0.122 to 1.084 days (average value 0.162 days, from 0.117 to 1.398 days (average value 0.146 days and from 0.106 to 1.162 days (average value 0.131 days,respectively. Significant differences regarding virulence of the three isolates at p-level < 0.05 could not been proved. The other two examined isolates were distinctly less virulent to T. urticae than these three B. bassiana isolates.

  7. Efficacy of enthomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, J; Mendoza, J E; Martínez-Aguirre, M R; García-Vidal, L; Izquierdo, J; Bielza, P

    2014-02-01

    The tomato borer Tuta absoluta Meyrick is a serious tomato pest that has lately undergone a rapid expansion, causing severe crop losses. An integrated management is required to control this insect, within which biological control is now beginning to play a key role. In this regard, the effectiveness of a liquid formulation based on strains of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae variety anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (4.46 x 10(9) viable conidia per milliliter), applied together with irrigation water, has been evaluated by laboratory tests on different populations of T. absoluta. A bioassay method has been developed to test the efficacy of the product. The technique chosen has been validated and the different studied populations have been typified according to their susceptibility, determining the baseline susceptibility of the pest to the fungus. The results revealed a complete efficacy of M. anisopliae against pupae of T. absoluta at the recommended label rate (5.58 x 10(9) viable conidia per liter) for the populations assayed. Moreover, a notably lower dose was also sufficiently effective to control the tomato borer populations because values of LC90 lower than 3 x 10(9) viable conidia per liter were obtained unfailingly. The most sensitive populations were those collected in Almeria and Nijar, Spain, with LC50 values of 0.21 and 0.22 x 10(9) viable conidia per liter(-1), respectively. The average value obtained for LC50 was 0.34 x 10(9) viable conidia per liter(-1) and 2 x 10(9) for LC90. These results show the potential of M. anisopliae to control pupae of the tomato borer in integrated pest management programs. PMID:24665693

  8. Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted by Plant Growth-Promoting Fungus Phoma sp. GS8-3 for Growth Promotion Effects on Tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Naznin, Hushna Ara; Kimura, Minako; Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2012-01-01

    We extracted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by a plant growth-promoting fungus (PGPF) Phoma sp. GS8-3 by gas chromatography and identified them by mass spectrometry. All of the identified compounds belonged to C4-C8 hydrocarbons. Volatiles varied in number and quantity by the culture period of the fungus (in days). 2-Methyl-propanol and 3-methyl-butanol formed the main components of the volatile blends for all the culture periods of fungus. Growth-promoting effects of the identifie...

  9. Susceptibility of adult female Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is modified following blood feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuels Richard I

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mosquito Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue fever, is a target for control by entomopathogenic fungi. Recent studies by our group have shown the susceptibility of adult A. aegypti to fungal infection by Metarhizium anisopliae. This fungus is currently being tested under field conditions. However, it is unknown whether blood-fed A. aegypti females are equally susceptible to infection by entomopathogenic fungi as sucrose fed females. Insect populations will be composed of females in a range of nutritional states. The fungus should be equally efficient at reducing survival of insects that rest on fungus impregnated surfaces following a blood meal as those coming into contact with fungi before host feeding. This could be an important factor when considering the behavior of A. aegypti females that can blood feed on multiple hosts over a short time period. Methods Female A. aegypti of the Rockefeller strain and a wild strain were infected with two isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae (LPP 133 and ESALQ 818 using an indirect contact bioassay at different times following blood feeding. Survival rates were monitored on a daily basis and one-way analysis of variance combined with Duncan's post-hoc test or Log-rank survival curve analysis were used for statistical comparisons of susceptibility to infection. Results Blood feeding rapidly reduced susceptibility to infection, determined by the difference in survival rates and survival curves, when females were exposed to either of the two M. anisopliae isolates. Following a time lag which probably coincided with digestion of the blood meal (96-120 h post-feeding, host susceptibility to infection returned to pre-blood fed (sucrose fed levels. Conclusions Reduced susceptibility of A. aegypti to fungi following a blood meal is of concern. Furthermore, engorged females seeking out intra-domicile resting places post-blood feeding, would be predicted to rest for prolonged periods on fungus impregnated black cloths, thus optimizing infection rates. It should be remembered that lowered susceptibility was only a temporary phenomenon and this may not necessarily occur when mosquitoes are infected with other fungal isolates. These results may have implications for field testing of entomopathogenic fungi by our group and further studies should be carried out to better understand the insect-fungus interaction.

  10. Potential use of the fungus Beauveria bassiana against the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis without reducing the effectiveness of its natural predator Orius sauteri (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orius sauteri (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) is an important predator of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Orius sauteri would be directly exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin in the field should the fu...

  11. Rapid shifts in Atta cephalotes fungus-garden enzyme activity after a change in fungal substrate (Attini, Formicidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kooij, P W; SchiØtt, M

    2011-01-01

    Fungus gardens of the basidiomycete Leucocoprinus gongylophorus sustain large colonies of leaf-cutting ants by degrading the plant material collected by the ants. Recent studies have shown that enzyme activity in these gardens is primarily targeted toward starch, proteins and the pectin matrix associated with cell walls, rather than toward structural cell wall components such as cellulose and hemicelluloses. Substrate constituents are also known to be sequentially degraded in different sections of the fungus garden. To test the plasticity in the extracellular expression of fungus-garden enzymes, we measured the changes in enzyme activity after a controlled shift in fungal substrate offered to six laboratory colonies of Atta cephalotes. An ant diet consisting exclusively of grains of parboiled rice rapidly increased the activity of endo-proteinases and some of the pectinases attacking the backbone structure of pectin molecules, relative to a pure diet of bramble leaves, and this happened predominantly in the most recently established top sections of fungus gardens. However, fungus-garden amylase activity did not significantly increase despite the substantial increase in starch availability from the rice diet, relative to the leaf diet controls. Enzyme activity in the older, bottom sections of fungus gardens decreased, indicating a faster processing of the rice substrate compared to the leaf diet. These results suggest that leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens can rapidly adjust enzyme activity to provide a better match with substrate availability and that excess starch that is not protected by cell walls may be digested by the ants rather than by the fungus-garden symbiont. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00040-010-0127-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  12. Carbohydrate-active enzymes from the zygomycete fungus Rhizopus oryzae: a highly specialized approach to carbohydrate degradation depicted at genome level

    OpenAIRE

    Henrissat Bernard; Coutinho Pedro M; Wiebenga Ad; van den Brink Joost; Benoit Isabelle; Battaglia Evy; de Vries Ronald P

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Rhizopus oryzae is a zygomycete filamentous fungus, well-known as a saprobe ubiquitous in soil and as a pathogenic/spoilage fungus, causing Rhizopus rot and mucomycoses. Results Carbohydrate Active enzyme (CAZy) annotation of the R. oryzae identified, in contrast to other filamentous fungi, a low number of glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and a high number of glycosyl transferases (GTs) and carbohydrate esterases (CEs). A detailed analysis of CAZy families, supported by growth d...

  13. In Situ Identification of Intracellular Bacteria Related to Paenibacillus spp. in the Mycelium of the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Laccaria bicolor S238N

    OpenAIRE

    Bertaux, J.; Schmid, M.; Chemidlin Prevost-Boure, N.; Churin, J. L.; A. Hartmann; Garbaye, J.; Frey-Klett, P.

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial proliferations have recurrently been observed for the past 15 years in fermentor cultures of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor S238N, suggesting the presence of cryptic bacteria in the collection culture of this fungus. In this study, intracellular bacteria were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy in several collection subcultures of L. bicolor S238N. They were small (0.5 ?m in diameter), rare, and heterogen...

  14. An extra-domiciliary method of delivering entomopathogenic fungus, Metharizium anisopliae IP 46 for controlling adult populations of the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis

    OpenAIRE

    Mnyone Ladslaus L; Kavishe Deogratius R; Madumla Edith P; Sumaye Robert D; Lwetoijera Dickson W; Russell Tanya L; Okumu Fredros O

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Fungal biopesticides have the potential to significantly reduce densities of malaria vectors as well as associated malaria transmission. In previous field trials, entomopathogenic fungus was delivered from within human dwellings, where its efficacy was limited by low infection rates of target mosquitoes, high costs of spraying fungus inside houses, and potential public health concerns associated with introducing fungal conidia inside houses. Here we have demonstrated that Metarhizium...

  15. Multiple Translocation of the AVR-Pita Effector Gene among Chromosomes of the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and Related Species

    OpenAIRE

    Chuma, Izumi; Isobe, Chihiro; Hotta, Yuma; Ibaragi, Kana; Futamata, Natsuru; Kusaba, Motoaki; Yoshida, Kentaro; Terauchi, Ryohei; Fujita, Yoshikatsu; Nakayashiki, Hitoshi; Valent, Barbara; Tosa, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    Magnaporthe oryzae is the causal agent of rice blast disease, a devastating problem worldwide. This fungus has caused breakdown of resistance conferred by newly developed commercial cultivars. To address how the rice blast fungus adapts itself to new resistance genes so quickly, we examined chromosomal locations of AVR-Pita, a subtelomeric gene family corresponding to the Pita resistance gene, in various isolates of M. oryzae (including wheat and millet pathogens) and its related species. We ...

  16. The influence of the attack of the fungus Melampsorella caryophyllacearum (DC. J. Schrot. (Witch brooms on fir on the peroxidase and catalase activity in host plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Irimia

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available n this paper are presented the results concerning the influence of the attack of the fungus Melampsorella caryophyllacearum (?witch brooms? on fir on the peroxidase and catalase activity in host plant. The research were effectued in year 2007 in the stationary Izvorul Muntelui and Cerebuc from Ceahl?u massif and the obtained results highlights the fact that those two biochemical parameters were influenced differently by the attack of the parasitic fungus.

  17. Lysozyme plays a dual role against the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis A lisozima desempenha um papel duplo contra o fungo dimórfico Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    OpenAIRE

    Damaris Lopera; Aristizabal, Beatriz H.; Angela Restrepo; Luz Elena Cano; Ángel González

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine the role of lysozyme, an antimicrobial peptide belonging to the innate immune system, against the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, co-cultures of the MH-S murine alveolar macrophages cell line with P. brasiliensis conidia were done; assays to evaluate the effect of physiological and inflammatory concentrations of lysozyme directly on the fungus life cycle were also undertaken. We observed that TNF-?-activated macrophages significantly inhibited the co...

  18. Modelling the Biomass Growth and Enzyme Secretion by the White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete Chrysosporium in Presence of A Toxic Pollutant

    OpenAIRE

    Kausik Sen; Kannan Pakshirajan; Sitangshu Bikas Santra

    2012-01-01

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is well known for its ability to degrade toxic pollutants owing to its efficient extracellular ligninase system. However, biomass growth and enzyme secretion in presence of toxic pollutant is not well understood. In the present study, using the model azo dye Direct Red-80, biomass growth and lignin peroxidase secretion by the fungus was studied during its degradation and a stochastic based model was applied to simulate the behavior of the fungu...

  19. Carbohydrate-active enzymes from the zygomycete fungus Rhizopus oryzae: a highly specialized approach to carbohydrate degradation depicted at genome level

    OpenAIRE

    Henrissat Bernard; Coutinho Pedro M; Wiebenga Ad; van den Brink Joost; Benoit Isabelle; Battaglia Evy; de Vries Ronald P

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Rhizopus oryzae is a zygomycete filamentous fungus, well-known as a saprobe ubiquitous in soil and as a pathogenic/spoilage fungus, causing Rhizopus rot and mucomycoses. Results Carbohydrate Active enzyme (CAZy) annotation of the R. oryzae identified, in contrast to other filamentous fungi, a low number of glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and a high number of glycosyl transferases (GTs) and carbohydrate esterases (CEs). A detailed analysis of CAZy families, supported by growth d...

  20. Influence of Host Gender on Infection Rate, Density and Distribution of the Parasitic Fungus, Hesperomyces virescens, on the Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle, Harmonia axyridis

    OpenAIRE

    Riddick, E. W.

    2006-01-01

    Hesperomyces virescens Thaxter (Laboulbeniales: Laboulbeniaceae) is a parasitic fungus that infects lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) via horizontal transmission between adults at overwintering and feeding sites. The differential behavior of male and female hosts could have profound effects on intensity of infection and positioning of fungus on the host's integument. The influence of host gender on infection rate, density and distribution of this parasite on the multicolored Asian lady...