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Fungus gnat (Bradysia impatiens) feeding and mechanical wounding inhibit Pythium aphanidermatum infection of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum)  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of laboratory tests were conducted to investigate potential effects of fungus gnat (Bradysia impatiens) feeding damage on susceptibility of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum) to infection by the root rot pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum. Effects were compared to those from similar t...

2

Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and neonicotinoid insecticides on the fungus gnat Bradysia sp nr. coprophila (Lintner) (Diptera: Sciaridae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner subsp. israelensis (Bti), the neonicotinoid insecticides dinotefuran, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and clothianidin and the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen were evaluated to determine their efficacy against the larval stages of the fungus gnat Bradysia sp nr. coprophila (Lintner) in the laboratory. Treatments were applied as a drench to the growing medium in polypropylene deli containers. The Bti treatments had no effect on either instar tested, whereas all the other compounds negatively affected both the second and third instars. This study demonstrates that the soil bacterium B. thuringiensis var. israelensis may not be active on these larval stages, whereas the neonicotinoid insecticides and the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen are effective on these stages. The fact that Bti is not effective on the second and third instars of the fungus gnat means that greenhouse producers using this insecticide must make applications before fungus gnat populations build up and before overlapping generations develop. PMID:16408320

Cloyd, Raymond A; Dickinson, Amy

2006-02-01

3

Fungus gnats, Bradysia spp. (Diptera: Sciaridae), and other arthropods in commercial bagged soilless growing media and rooted plant plugs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungus gnats, Bradysia spp., in greenhouses cause economic losses to horticultural producers by damaging young root systems during plant propagation, by spreading soilborne diseases, and by reducing the marketability of the crop. In a greenhouse cage study, our observations suggested that bagged soilless growing media or rooted plant plugs from wholesale distributors may be sources for the introduction of fungus gnats into commercial greenhouse facilities. To evaluate these possibilities, carefully collected samples of bagged soilless growing media stored in the greenhouse, as well as bagged soilless growing media and rooted plant plugs delivered from midwestern wholesale distributors, were incubated under controlled conditions in the laboratory. Fungus gnats emerged from soilless media stored in the greenhouse, soilless media delivered from wholesale distributors, and from rooted plant plugs delivered from wholesale distributors. These results demonstrate that pasteurization of even bagged soilless media may be essential to effectively managing greenhouse populations of fungus gnats. However, pasteurization is not an option for responding to contamination of rooted plant plugs. Preliminary evidence is provided that application of entomopathogenic nematodes may offer potential as a method for managing fungus gnats in plant plugs, so long as treatment is early. Other arthropods found contaminating soilless media and rooted plant plugs included the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), Collembola, Acari, Formicidae, Staphylinidae, Psychodidae, and other Diptera. PMID:15154474

Cloyd, Raymond A; Zaborski, Edmond R

2004-04-01

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Egg-laying preference of female fungus gnat Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila (Diptera: Sciaridae) on three different soilless substrates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungus gnats, Bradysia spp., are major insect pests in greenhouses. Adult female fungus gnats prefer to lay eggs in growing medium that is microbially active or that contains high amounts of peat moss or hardwood bark. However, egg-laying preference has not been demonstrated quantitatively. This study was designed to determine whether fungus gnat Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila females prefer any of the three soilless growing media provided. The three soilless growing media tested were Metro-Mix 560 with Scott's Coir, Sunshine LC1 Mix, and Universal SB 300 Mix. Initially, the egg-laying potential of the fungus gnat species used in this study was assessed by dissecting mated females after 24, 48, and 72 h. For the egg-laying preference experiment, adults that emerged from pupae were aspirated into a plastic vial, sexed, and then allowed to mate for 24 h. Individual mated females were released into an experimental chamber (15 by 15 by 5-cm plastic container) consisting of four 6-cm petri dishes, three of which contained soilless growing media and one with filter paper (control). In total, there were 50 experimental chambers, with each chamber representing a replication. Females remained in the experimental chambers for 48 h after which the growing media were processed using a flotation/extraction method. The number of eggs laid by female fungus gnats ranged from 21 to 217 with most eggs recovered after 48 h (141.0 +/- 9.3). There were no significant differences among the three soilless growing media in terms of number of eggs laid, although all three growing media were significantly different from the filter paper with higher numbers of eggs laid in the soilless growing media than the filter paper. Despite no significant difference among the growing media in the number of eggs laid, fungus gnat females tended to lay eggs more often, based on the number of petri dishes in which at least one egg was laid, in Metro-Mix 560 (86%) than Sunshine LC1 (66%), Universal SB 300 (52%), or filter paper (18%). Based on the results of this study, female fungus gnats may not prefer a specific growing medium for oviposition. However, fungus gnat females may rely on other factors not tested in this study such as moisture content and volatiles emitted from growing media in their decision where to lay eggs. PMID:16539117

Meers, Theresa L; Cloyd, Raymond A

2005-12-01

5

Repellency of naturally occurring volatile alcohols to fungus gnat Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila (Diptera: Sciaridae) adults under laboratory conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study, conducted under laboratory conditions, was designed to determine the repellent activity of 10 naturally occurring volatile alcohol constituents against adults of the fungus gnat, Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila (Lintner) (Diptera: Sciaridae). The essential oil constituents were octanoic acid, furfural, acetophenone, benzaldehyde, dimethoxybenzene, borneol, menthol, 1-octen-3-ol, and 7-hydroxycitronellol, and alpha-terpineol. alpha-Terpineol, octanoic acid and furfural were tested at several concentrations, whereas the remaining seven were tested at only one concentration. The essential oil constituents' menthol, 1-octen-3-ol, and borneol displayed the most repellent activity. The mean percentage of fungus gnat adults recovered from the test compound petri dishes associated with the three essential oil constituents was between 6 and 15% compared with between 36 and 50% for the petri dishes with distilled water. The mean +/- SEM number of fungus gnat adults present in the sample compartments associated with menthol (10.4 +/- 2.6), 1-octen-3-ol (18.8 +/- 2.4), and borneol (23.4 +/- 5.6) was statistically lower than those in the petri dishes containing distilled water (60.9 +/- 7.4, 49.8 +/- 4.0, and 79.7 +/- 13.5), respectively. Only the highest concentration of alpha-terpineol (8.0 micromol) displayed significant repellent activity against fungus gnat adults. The other essential constituents tested, including octanoic acid (all three concentrations), furfural (both concentrations), acetophenone, dimethoxybenzene, and 7-hydroxycitronellol, were not statistically different from the distilled water control. The results of this study indicate that certain essential oil constituents repel fungus gnat adults, which may be useful, from a practical standpoint, in deterring adults from laying eggs into growing media. PMID:22066193

Cloyd, Raymond A; Marley, Karen A; Larson, Richard A; Dickinson, Amy; Arieli, Bari

2011-10-01

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Effect of diatomaceous earth and Trichoderma harzianum T-22 (Rifai strain KRL-AG2) on the fungus gnat Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila (Diptera: Sciaridae).  

Science.gov (United States)

This study, consisting of three experiments, was designed to assess whether diatomaceous earth, when applied to the surface of growing media, reduces adult fungus gnat Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila (Diptera: Sciaridae) emergence or inhibits the females from laying eggs; and whether fungus gnat adults are attracted to the fungus Trichoderma harzianum T-22 (Rifai strain KRL-AG2) under laboratory conditions. In the first two experiments, diatomaceous earth was applied at two different thicknesses (3.1 and 6.3 mm) and conditions (dry and moist) to the surface of a growing medium (Universal SB 300 Mix) after the growing medium had been artificially inoculated with second or third instars of fungus gnats, or before female fungus gnat adults were released into each deli squat container. In the third experiment, preparations of the fungus T. harzianum at the highest recommended label rate (0.889 kg/m3) were amended into the growing medium and processed 24, 48, or 72 h before use in a series of three two-choice trials with a two-armed experimental arena. In the first two experiments, the dry or moist layers of diatomaceous earth, in general, did not affect fungus gnats in terms of preventing adult emergence or egg laying by the females. During the course of these experiments, we observed that the diatomaceous earth dry treatments expanded as a result of absorbing moisture from the growing medium, creating fissures that allowed the fungus gnat larvae to pupate and females to lay eggs. In the third experiment, fungus gnat adults were not attracted to the T. harzianum treatments in any of the trials. PMID:17849889

Cloyd, Raymond A; Dickinson, Amy; Kemp, Kenneth E

2007-08-01

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A new pollinating seed-consuming mutualism between Rheum nobile and a fly fungus gnat, Bradysia sp., involving pollinator attraction by a specific floral compound.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pollinating seed-consuming mutualisms are regarded as exemplary models for studying coevolution, but they are extremely rare. In these systems, olfactory cues have been thought to play an important role in facilitating encounters between partners. We present a new pollinating seed-consuming mutualism from the high Himalayas between the endemic herb, Rheum nobile, and a fly fungus gnat, Bradysia sp. Seed production resulting from pollination by Bradysia flies and seed consumption by their larvae were measured to determine the outcome of this interaction. Floral scent analyses and behavioural tests were conducted to investigate the role of olfactory cues in pollinator attraction. Rheum nobile is self-compatible, but it depends mainly on Bradysia sp. females for pollination. Seed production resulting from pollination by adult flies is substantially higher than subsequent seed consumption by their larvae. Behavioural tests showed that an unusual floral compound, 2-methyl butyric acid methyl ester, emitted by plants only during anthesis, was attractive to female flies. Our results indicate that the R. nobile-Bradysia sp. interaction represents a new pollinating seed-consuming mutualism, and that a single unusual compound is the specific signal in the floral scent of R. nobile that plays a key role in attracting its pollinator. PMID:24861151

Song, Bo; Chen, Gao; Stöcklin, Jürg; Peng, De-Li; Niu, Yang; Li, Zhi-Min; Sun, Hang

2014-09-01

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Glasshouse control of fungus gnats, Bradysia paupera, on fuschsias by Steinernema feltiae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

#Steinernema feltiae$ appliqué à l'aide de pulvérisateurs hydrauliques à la dose de 780 000 nématodes/m2 sur des fuchsias cultivés en serre provoque une diminution de 92 % du nombre des #Bradysia paupera$ adultes provenant du compost. Les nématodes se répartissent correctement dans le compost et ont persisté pendant les 64 jours qu'a duré l'expérience. (Résumé d'auteur)

Gouge, D. H.; Hague, N. G. M.

1995-01-01

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Biology and feeding requirements of larval hunter flies Coenosia attenuata (Diptera: Muscidae) reared on larvae of the fungus gnat Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The larval feeding requirements and biology of the generalist predatory muscid hunter fly Coenosia attenuata Stein 1903 (Diptera: Muscidae) were investigated at 25 degrees C. Larval C. attenuata were fed second-, third, and fourth-instar (L2, L3, and L4) larvae of the fungus gnat Bradysia impatiens (Johannsen) (Diptera: Sciaridae) at variable rates to determine minimum and optimum numbers of these prey required for normal development. The proportion of C. attenuata larvae surviving to pupation differed significantly as a function of L2 and L3 prey numbers. When the number of prey/d was increased from 10 to 15 L2 and from 5 to 7 L3 per day, the respective percentages of pupation increased from 0 to 77% and from 0 to 48%. In contrast, all numbers of L4 prey (1-7 prey per d) supported pupation, and the pupation rate did not vary with prey number. At the highest prey numbers tested, mortalities of C. attenuata larvae fed L2, L3, and L4 fungus gnat larvae were 7, 30, and 75%, respectively. The higher mortality of larvae fed L4 prey was clearly the result of lethal wounds inflicted by the fungus gnat larvae in defensive strikes against the predators. At prey numbers supporting maximum rates of adult emergence, larval development required 12-14 d, and duration of the pupal stage was approximately 10 d. C. attenuata larvae killed large numbers of prey during their development (means of up to 232 L2, 144 L3, or 87 L4 fungus gnats), and larvae provided with marginally inadequate numbers of prey survived for long periods (mean 14-22 d, maximum 34 d) before succumbing to apparent starvation. These are favorable attributes with respect to use of C. attenuata as a biological control agent, suggesting a strong potential to substantially impact high-density pest populations and to survive in low-density pest populations. PMID:20857722

Ugine, Todd A; Sensenbach, Emily J; Sanderson, John P; Wraight, Stephen P

2010-08-01

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Fungus gnat feeding and mechanical wounding inhibit Pythium aphanidermatum infection of geranium seedlings.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT A series of laboratory tests were conducted to investigate potential effects of fungus gnat (Bradysia impatiens) feeding damage on susceptibility of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum) to infection by the root rot pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum. Effects were compared with those from similar tests in which the seedlings were mechanically wounded by severing the root tip with a scalpel. Assays of geranium seedlings in petri dishes revealed a pronounced negative fungus gnat-Pythium interaction, with exposure to fungus gnat larvae 24 h prior to inoculation with P. aphanidermatum zoospores resulting in up to 47% fewer seedling deaths than would have been expected if the two agents had acted independently. Similar results were observed when seedlings were subjected to mechanical wounding 24 h prior to zoospore inoculation. In contrast, no interaction occurred when seedlings were mechanically wounded immediately prior to inoculation. The degree of plant damage inflicted by the feeding activities of the larval fungus gnats had no significant effect on the combined damage from fungus gnats and Pythium in petri dishes. Ancillary studies showed that Pythium development on V8 agar was not inhibited by the presence of fungus gnat-associated microorganisms, nor were seedlings inoculated with these microbes less susceptible to Pythium infection. The precise mechaism or mechanisms underlying the observed interactions were not elucidated; however, the results strongly suggest that both fungus gnat feeding and mechanical wounding activated systemic defenses that made the seedlings more resistant to Pythium infection. PMID:19900009

Braun, S E; Sanderson, J P; Nelson, E B; Daughtrey, M L; Wraight, S P

2009-12-01

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Quantitative sampling method for fungus gnat (Diptera: Sciaridae) eggs in soilless growing media.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple method is described for separating fungus gnat eggs from soilless growing media. The flotation/extraction method primarily involves the use of a MgSO4 solution (density 1.065 g cm(-3)) and a series of sieving procedures. Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila Lintner eggs were collected in an isolation chamber containing adult fungus gnats. Three soilless growing media were used: Metro-Mix 560 with Scott's Coir, Sunshine LC1 Mix, and Universal SB 300 Mix. Each growing medium was inoculated with 100 fungus gnat eggs. Growing medium samples were processed using separatory funnels and a MgSO4 solution. Eggs were washed through a 250-microm sieve and collected on a 53-microm sieve, and then the eggs were rinsed into glass petri dishes. The sieving process separated fungus gnat eggs from the larger growing medium particulates (perlite, bark, and peat), providing a sample consisting of water, eggs, and fine growing medium particulates (peat). Using a vortex for 60 s increased the number of fungus gnat eggs recovered (37.4 +/- 3.7-67.1 +/- 1.9 [mean +/- SEM]) for all three growing media. The mean number of fungus gnat eggs recovered from the three soilless growing media was significantly different, with the growing medium containing coir (Metro-Mix 560) having the highest recovery rate of 61.0 +/- 2.1. For all three growing media, there was > 50% recovery of fungus gnat eggs. In addition to fungus gnat eggs, this method also may prove useful for quantitative recovery of shore fly (Scatella sp.) eggs and the eggs of other arthropods from soilless growing media. PMID:16156596

Meers, Theresa L; Cloyd, Raymond A

2005-08-01

12

Method for quantitative sampling of fungus gnat larvae in soilless growing media.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple method is described for separating fungus gnat larvae from soilless growing media. Samples are first fractionated by water flotation with an inverted flask procedure and then the sediment is degassed under reduced air pressure and fractionated in magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) solution (density of 1.12 g cm(-3)). Fungus gnat larvae with only a small amount of contaminating debris are recovered from the surface of the MgSO4 solution for immediate counting or for preservation in alcohol. In evaluations of different commercial soilless growing media with a range of components, two repetitions of the water flotation step eliminated 20-40% of the dry weight of samples and virtually all of the perlite from further processing. Repeating both the water and MgSO4 flotations a third time only marginally improved the recovery of larval fungus gnats, Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila, added to pasteurized media. Extraction efficiency differed between instars and, to a lesser extent, between different types of media. Across three commercial soilless media tested, recovery was 24-33% for first, 68-85% for second, 85-95% for third, and 98-100% for fourth instars. Within combinations of media and instar, recovery was consistent. With this method, a 400-cm3 sample can be processed and be ready for counting in 1-1.5 h; samples can also be processed in batches or in assembly-line manner to process many samples per day. The method may also prove useful for quantitative recovery of shore fly larvae, thrips pupae, and other arthropods from soilless growing media. PMID:15154498

Zaborski, Edmond R; Cloyd, Raymond A

2004-04-01

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Fungus gnats and Pythium in the attack on greenhouse plants: conspirators or just cohabitants  

Science.gov (United States)

Research conducted by collaborating Cornell University and USDA-ARS scientists investigated the potential for fungus gnats to vector Pythium root-rot pathogens. Fungus gnat larvae readily consumed Pythium oospores; the spores survived passage through the larval gut and, upon defecation, were able to...

14

Development and reproduction of Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Acari: Laelapidae) with fungus gnat larvae (Diptera: Sciaridae), potworms (Oligochaeta: Enchytraeidae) or Sancassania aff. sphaerogaster (Acari: Acaridae) as the sole food source.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stratiolaelaps (=Hypoaspis) miles (Berlese) (Acari: Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) is a polyphagous soil-dwelling predatory mite that is widely marketed for use in greenhouse production systems to manage populations of dark-winged fungus gnats, Bradysia spp. (Diptera: Sciaridae) and for supplemental control of thrips. The suggestion by Walter and Campbell (2003, Biol. Control 26: 253-269) that North American commercial cultures of S. miles may actually be S. scimitus was confirmed. The development and reproduction at 21-23 degrees C of S. scimitus provided ad libidum with one of three different prey--the fungus gnat Bradysia aff. coprophila (Lintner), potworms (Enchytraeidae), or Sancassania aff. sphaerogaster (Zachvatkin, 1937) (Acari: Astigmata: Acaridae)--were compared. Developmental duration of the egg and non-feeding larval stages were 2.47 and 1.11 days, respectively; mortalities were 8.3 and 5.5%. Stratiolaelaps scimitus failed to develop beyond the protonymphal stage when provided with S. aff. sphaerogaster alone, although some feeding was observed. Development and reproduction of S. scimitus was successful on both fungus gnat larvae and enchytraeids, with no influence of prey on protonymphal duration (4.70 days) and mortality (8.3%), or on deutonymphal duration (4.61 days) and mortality (6.1%). Adult female S. scimitus feeding on potworms, compared to those feeding on fungus gnat larvae, had a significantly shorter pre-oviposition period (2.69 vs. 4.59 days). However, diet did not influence other adult female developmental or reproductive characteristics (oviposition period, 18.6 days; post-oviposition period, 6.2 days; total adult longevity, 27.3 days; total number of eggs, 26.5). S. scimitus reared on potworms tended (p = 0.06) to have a higher intrinsic rate of increase, a higher finite rate of increase and a shorter doubling time (rm = 0.142 day(-1), lambda = 1.153, Dt = 4.85 days) than those reared on fungus gnat larvae (rm = 0.105 day(-1), lambda = 1.110, Dt = 6.58 days), but differences in net reproductive rate (R0) and generation time (G) were not significant. PMID:16082925

Cabrera, Ana R; Cloyd, Raymond A; Zaborski, Edmond R

2005-01-01

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Fungus gnats and other Diptera in South African forestry nurseries and their possible association with the pitch canker fungus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fusarium circinatum is the causal agent of a serious disease of seedlings in South African pine nurseries. Insects, especially fungus gnats (Diptera: Sciaridae, Mycetophlidae), are suspected of transmitting this fungus in nurseries. The aim of this study was to ascertain which species of gnats are present in South African pine nurseries, and to consider whether these and other Diptera carry F. circinatum. Dipteran fauna were surveyed in four major forestry nurseries between 2000 and 2001. Fun...

Hurley, Brett P.; Govender, Prem; Coutinho, Teresa A.; Wingfield, Brenda D.; Wingfield, Michael J.

2007-01-01

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Flower visitation of fungus gnats from the genera Antlemom, Asindulum and Macrorrhyncha (Diptera: Keroplatidae): published data and a new record  

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The literature data about flower visitation of species from the fungus gnats genera Antlemon, Asindulum and Macrorrhyncha are summarized and a new record for Macrorrhyncha flava on Heracleum verticillatum is given.

Dimitar Bechev

2010-01-01

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Evaluation of medium treatments for management of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thripidae: Thysanoptera) and Bradysia coprophila (Diptera: Sciaridae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Two greenhouse experiments, each comprising two trials, were conducted to evaluate medium drenches of insect growth regulators and conventional insecticides to reduce emergence of adult western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), and fungus gnats, Bradysia coprophila (Lintner) from the medium. In the insect growth regulator trials, diflubenzuron and pyriproxyfen provided the greatest reduction in thrips emergence, and fenoxycarb, pyriproxyfen and azadirachtin resulted in the most significant reduction of fungus gnat emergence. Treatments with the contact insecticides, methiocarb and chlorpyrifos, resulted in the greatest reduction of thrips and fungus gnat populations. These data suggest that fungus gnats are susceptible to many compounds used in commercial greenhouse production. Even though medium drenches are not currently used for thrips management, drenches with diflubenzuron, pyriproxyfen, methiocarb and chlorpyrifos could aid in reducing thrips populations in greenhouse management programs. PMID:11802598

Ludwig, S W; Oetting, R D

2001-12-01

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Genetic diversity of Bradysia difformis (Sciaridae: Diptera) populations reflects movement of an invasive insect between forestry nurseries  

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The fungus gnat, Bradysia difformis (Sciaridae: Diptera) has recently been recorded for the first time from South Africa where it has been found in forestry nurseries. The presence of this insect in all the major forestry nurseries as the dominant and only sciarid species raises intriguing questions regarding its origin and population genetic structure. A 395 bp portion of the mitochondrial COI gene was analysed from B. difformis individuals collected from four nursery populations in South...

Hurley, Brett P.; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Brenda D.; Govender, Prem; Smith, J. E.; Wingfield, Michael J.

2010-01-01

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Larval Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae) potential for vectoring Pythium root rot pathogens.  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the capacity of Bradysia impatiens (Johannsen) larvae to ingest propagules from two strains each of Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp. and P. ultimum Trow and transmit the pathogens to healthy geranium seedlings on a filter-paper substrate in petri dishes. The capacity of fungus gnat larvae to transmit P. aphanidermatum to seedlings rooted in a commercial peat-based potting mix and germination of Pythium oospores and hyphal swellings before and after passage through the guts of larval fungus gnats were also examined. Assays revealed that Pythium spp. transmission by larval fungus gnats varied greatly with the assay substrate and also with the number and nature of ingested propagules. Transmission was highest (65%) in the petri dish assays testing larvae fed P. aphanidermatum K-13, a strain that produced abundant oospores. Transmission of strain K-13 was much lower (<6%) in plug cells with potting mix. Larvae were less efficient at vectoring P. ultimum strain PSN-1, which produced few oospores, and no transmission was observed with two non-oospore-producing strains: P. aphanidermatum Pa58 and P. ultimum P4. Passage of P. aphanidermatum K-13 through larval guts significantly increased oospore germination. However, decreased germination of hyphal swellings was observed following larval gut passage for strains of P. ultimum. These results expand previous studies suggesting that larval fungus gnats may vector Pythium spp. PMID:22085299

Braun, S E; Sanderson, J P; Wraight, S P

2012-03-01

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Molecular phylogeny of black fungus gnats (Diptera: Sciaroidea: Sciaridae) and the evolution of larval habitats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The phylogeny of the family Sciaridae is reconstructed, based on maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and Bayesian analyses of 4809bp from two mitochondrial (COI and 16S) and two nuclear (18S and 28S) genes for 100 taxa including the outgroup taxa. According to the present phylogenetic analyses, Sciaridae comprise three subfamilies and two genus groups: Sciarinae, Chaetosciara group, Cratyninae, and Pseudolycoriella group+Megalosphyinae. Our molecular results are largely congruent with one of the former hypotheses based on morphological data with respect to the monophyly of genera and subfamilies (Sciarinae, Megalosphyinae, and part of postulated "new subfamily"); however, the subfamily Cratyninae is shown to be polyphyletic, and the genera Bradysia, Corynoptera, Leptosciarella, Lycoriella, and Phytosciara are also recognized as non-monophyletic groups. While the ancestral larval habitat state of the family Sciaridae, based on Bayesian inference, is dead plant material (plant litter+rotten wood), the common ancestors of Phytosciara and Bradysia are inferred to living plants habitat. Therefore, shifts in larval habitats from dead plant material to living plants may have occurred within the Sciaridae at least once. Based on the results, we discuss phylogenetic relationships within the family, and present an evolutionary scenario of development of larval habitats. PMID:23159893

Shin, Seunggwan; Jung, Sunghoon; Menzel, Frank; Heller, Kai; Lee, Heungsik; Lee, Seunghwan

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
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Transstadial transmission of Pythium in Bradysia impatiens and lack of adult vectoring capacity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungus gnats have been shown to transmit a variety of plant-pathogenic fungi that produce aerial dispersal stages. However, few studies have examined potential interactions between fungus gnats and oomycetes, including Pythium spp. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to determine whether fungus gnat adults are vectors of several common greenhouse Pythium spp., including Pythium aphanidermatum, P. irregulare, and P. ultimum. An additional objective was to determine whether P. aphanidermatum can be maintained transstadially in the gut of a fungus gnat larva through the pupal stadium to be transmitted by the subsequent adult. Adult fungus gnats did not pick up infectious Pythium propagules from diseased plants and transmit them to healthy plants in any experiment. Species-specific primers and a probe for real-time polymerase chain reaction were developed to detect the presence of P. aphanidermatum DNA in fungus gnat tissue samples. P. aphanidermatum DNA was detectable in the larval and pupal stages; however, none was detected in adult fungus gnats. These results are in agreement with previous studies that have suggested that adult fungus gnats are unlikely vectors of Pythium spp. PMID:20718667

Braun, Sarah E; Castrillo, Louela A; Sanderson, John P; Daughtrey, Margery L; Wraight, Stephen P

2010-12-01

22

Interactions between Spinacia oleracea and Bradysia impatiens: a role for phytoecdysteroids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant produced insect molting hormones, termed phytoecdysteroids (PEs), are thought to function as plant defenses against insects by acting as either feeding deterrents or through developmental disruption. In spinach (Spinacia oleracea), 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) concentrations in the roots rapidly increase following root damage, root herbivory, or methyl jasmonate (MJ) applications. In this inducible system, we investigated the plant defense hypothesis by examining interactions of roots, 20E concentrations, and larvae of the dark-winged fungus gnat (Bradysia impatiens). Root herbivory by B. impatiens larvae resulted in a 4.0- to 6.6-fold increase in root 20E concentrations. In paired-choice tests, increases in dietary 20E stimulated B. impatiens feeding deterrency. B. impatiens larvae preferred control diets, low in 20E, to those constructed from induced roots and those amended with 20E (25 to 50 micro g/g wet mass). When confined to 20E-treated diets, concentrations as low as 5 micro g/g (wet mass) resulted in significantly reduced B. impatiens survivorship compared to controls. The induction of root 20E levels with MJ resulted in a 2.1-fold increase in 20E levels and a 50% reduction in B. impatiens larval establishment. In a paired-choice arena, untreated control roots were damaged significantly more by B. impatiens larvae than MJ-induced roots that contained 3-fold greater 20E levels. Based on dietary preference tests, the 20E concentrations present in the MJ-induced roots (28 micro g/g wet mass) were sufficient to explain this reduction in herbivory. Interactions between spinach roots and B. impatiens larvae demonstrate that PEs can act as inducible defenses and provide protection against insect herbivory. PMID:12432520

Schmelz, Eric A; Grebenok, Robert J; Ohnmeiss, Thomas E; Bowers, William S

2002-12-01

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Bradysia sp. em morangueiro Bradysia sp. in strawberry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

No trabalho, relatam-se os primeiros registros de Bradysia sp. (Insecta: Diptera: Sciaridae) em morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.), cultivado no Município de Eldorado do Sul, RS. O cultivo foi realizado em sacolas com três metros de comprimento, preenchidas com substrato composto de casca de arroz e turfa, dispostas horizontalmente sobre bancadas de madeira, em ambiente protegido. A presença de Bradysia sp. foi observada na segunda quinzena de agosto de 2005. Neste trabalho, estão de...

Bernadete Radin; Vera Regina dos Santos Wolff; Bruno Brito Lisboa; Sidia Witter; José Ricardo Pfeifer Silveira

2009-01-01

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Bradysia sp. em morangueiro Bradysia sp. in strawberry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No trabalho, relatam-se os primeiros registros de Bradysia sp. (Insecta: Diptera: Sciaridae em morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa Duch., cultivado no Município de Eldorado do Sul, RS. O cultivo foi realizado em sacolas com três metros de comprimento, preenchidas com substrato composto de casca de arroz e turfa, dispostas horizontalmente sobre bancadas de madeira, em ambiente protegido. A presença de Bradysia sp. foi observada na segunda quinzena de agosto de 2005. Neste trabalho, estão descritos os sintomas apresentados no morangueiro pela praga, prováveis conseqüências sobre o aparecimento de doenças e uma breve descrição morfológica da Bradysia sp., adulto e fase larval.This paper describes the first record of Bradysia sp. (Insecta; Diptera; Sciaridae in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa, cultivated in the city of Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil. Strawberry was planted in plastic bags filled with a mixture of burnt rice hulls and peat and cultivated in a greenhouse. The presence of Bradysia sp was noticed in the second fortnight of August, 2005. The symptoms in strawberry and the probable consequences in terms of disease arising were described in the present study, as well as the morphological characterization of Bradysia sp. and its illustrations.

Bernadete Radin

2009-04-01

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Bradysia sp. em morangueiro / Bradysia sp. in strawberry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No trabalho, relatam-se os primeiros registros de Bradysia sp. (Insecta: Diptera: Sciaridae) em morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.), cultivado no Município de Eldorado do Sul, RS. O cultivo foi realizado em sacolas com três metros de comprimento, preenchidas com substrato composto de casca de ar [...] roz e turfa, dispostas horizontalmente sobre bancadas de madeira, em ambiente protegido. A presença de Bradysia sp. foi observada na segunda quinzena de agosto de 2005. Neste trabalho, estão descritos os sintomas apresentados no morangueiro pela praga, prováveis conseqüências sobre o aparecimento de doenças e uma breve descrição morfológica da Bradysia sp., adulto e fase larval. Abstract in english This paper describes the first record of Bradysia sp. (Insecta; Diptera; Sciaridae) in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa), cultivated in the city of Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil. Strawberry was planted in plastic bags filled with a mixture of burnt rice hulls and peat and cultivated in a greenhouse. Th [...] e presence of Bradysia sp was noticed in the second fortnight of August, 2005. The symptoms in strawberry and the probable consequences in terms of disease arising were described in the present study, as well as the morphological characterization of Bradysia sp. and its illustrations.

Bernadete, Radin; Vera Regina dos Santos, Wolff; Bruno Brito, Lisboa; Sidia, Witter; José Ricardo Pfeifer, Silveira.

2009-04-01

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Female resistance behaviour and progeny sex ratio in two Bradysia species (Diptera: Sciaridae) with paternal genome elimination.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between female mating preferences and sex allocation has received considerable theoretical and empirical support. Typically, choosier females adjust their progeny sex ratio towards sons, who inherit the attractive traits of their father. However, in species with paternal genome elimination, where male sperm do not contain the paternal genome, predictions for the direction of progeny sex ratio biases and their relationship with female choosiness are atypical. Paternal genome elimination also creates a potential for male-female conflict over sex allocation, and any influence of female mate choice on sex ratio outcomes have interesting implications for sexually antagonistic coevolution. Within the Sciaridae (Diptera) are species that produce single-sex progeny (monogenic species) and others in which progeny comprise both sexes (digenic species). Paternal genome elimination occurs in both species. We explore female mate resistance behaviour in a monogenic and digenic species of mushroom gnat from the genus Bradysia. Our experiments confirmed our theoretical predictions, revealing that in the monogenic and digenic species, females producing female-biased progeny were more likely to have resisted at least one mating attempt. PMID:23621366

Featherston, R; Jones, T M; Elgar, M A

2013-05-01

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Life table study of the effects of sublethal concentrations of thiamethoxam on Bradysia odoriphaga Yang and Zhang.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bradysia odoriphaga Yang and Zhang (chive gnat) is the major insect pest affecting Chinese chive in Northern China. In order to explore the integrated control of B. odoriphaga, sublethal effects of the neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam were studied. The standard contact and stomach bioassay method was used to assess the effects of sublethal (LC5 and LC20) concentrations of thiamethoxam on the demographic parameters of B. odoriphaga, and data were interpreted based on the age-stage, two-sex life table theory. After thiamethoxam treatment, the intrinsic and finite rates of increase, net reproduction rate, survival rate, and reproductive value were all markedly decreased, while the mean generation time, total preovipositional period, and larval and pupal duration were prolonged, compared with controls. The intrinsic rates of increase dropped from 0.1775/day to 0.1502-0.1136/day. Following LC5 and LC20 treatments, net reproduction rate dropped from 61.75 offspring/individual (control) to 43.36 and 20.75 offspring/individual, respectively. Sublethal concentrations of thiamethoxam decreased the developmental rate of laboratory populations of B. odoriphaga, suggesting that such doses may be useful in integrated pest management strategies. PMID:24861931

Zhang, Peng; Liu, Feng; Mu, Wei; Wang, Qiuhong; Li, Hui; Chen, Chengyu

2014-05-01

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Testverfahren zur Einschätzung des Befallsrisikos komposthaltiger Pflanzsubstrate durch Trauermücken (Sciaridae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Growing media for organic farming are increasingly attacked by fungus gnats (Sciaridae) because of their increased microbial activity. Within this study a new method was developed to assess the level of infestation of growing media by the fungus gnat Bradysia difformis (Frey, 1948). The method is based on a comparison of any growing media with two standard substrates. The test method provides the ability to classify growing media in infestation risk classes (low, medium, high) and to test sui...

Ku?hne, Stefan; Holfert, Maik; Kramer, Eckart

2013-01-01

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The GNAT library for local and remote gene mention normalization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

SUMMARY: Identifying mentions of named entities, such as genes or diseases, and normalizing them to database identifiers have become an important step in many text and data mining pipelines. Despite this need, very few entity normalization systems are publicly available as source code or web services for biomedical text mining. Here we present the Gnat Java library for text retrieval, named entity recognition, and normalization of gene and protein mentions in biomedical text. The library can ...

Hakenberg, J.; Gerner, M.; Haeussler, M.; Solt, I.; Plake, C.; Schroeder, M.; Gonzalez, G.; Nenadic, G.; Bergman, C. M.

2011-01-01

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Analysis of the sex ratio in Bradysia matogrossensis (Diptera, Sciaridae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In sciarid flies, the control of sex determination and of the progeny sex ratio is exercised by the parental females, and is based on differential X-chromosome elimination in the initial stages of embryogenesis. In some species, the females produce unisexual progenies (monogenic females) while in others, the progenies consist of males and females (digenic females). The sex ratio of bisexual progenies is variable, and departs considerably from 1:1. Bradysia matogrossensis shows both monogenic ...

Rocha, Lincoln S.; Perondini, Andre? Luiz P.

2000-01-01

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Analysis of the sex ratio in Bradysia matogrossensis (Diptera, Sciaridae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In sciarid flies, the control of sex determination and of the progeny sex ratio is exercised by the parental females, and is based on differential X-chromosome elimination in the initial stages of embryogenesis. In some species, the females produce unisexual progenies (monogenic females while in others, the progenies consist of males and females (digenic females. The sex ratio of bisexual progenies is variable, and departs considerably from 1:1. Bradysia matogrossensis shows both monogenic and digenic reproduction. In a recently established laboratory strain of this species, 15% of the females were digenic, 10% produced only females, 13% produced only males, and 62% produced progenies with one predominant sex (33% predominantly of female and 29% predominantly male progenies. These progeny sex ratios were maintained in successive generations. Females from female-skewed progenies yielded female- and male-producing daughters in a 1:1 ratio. In contrast, daughters of females from male-skewed progenies produce bisexual or male-skewed progenies. The X-chromosome of B. matogrossensis shows no inversion or other gross aberration. These results suggest that the control of the progeny sex ratio (or differential X-chromosome elimination involves more than one locus or, at least, more than one pair of alleles. The data also suggest that, in sciarid flies, monogeny and digeny may share a common control mechanism.

Rocha Lincoln S.

2000-01-01

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Aspectos alimentares e de criação de Bradysia hygida Sauaia & Alves (Diptera, Sciaridae) em laboratório Aspects on alimentation and rearing of Bradysia hygida Sauaia & Alves (Diptera, Sciaridae) in laboratory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In nature, the Sciaridae live in moist and shady places, where exists vegetable material in decomposition. It is very dificult to determine the proper Sciaridae's alimentary habit and then, it is dificult, also, to rear Sciaridae species in laboratory. To improvement the Bradysia hygida rearing, the objectives of this research were to analyse the nutritive value of mucuna bean foliage for the larves, to verify the role of the ground (as larvae substrate and in diet co...

Joachim Bravo, Iara S.; Alves, Mauri?lio A. R.; Zucoloto, Fernando S.; Andrade, Luiz A. M.

1993-01-01

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Larval Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae) potential for vectoring Pythium root rot pathogens  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the capacity of Bradysia impatiens (Johannsen) larvae to ingest propagules from two strains each of Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp. and P. ultimum Trow and transmit the pathogens to healthy geranium seedlings on a filter-paper su...

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Doctor Fungus  

Science.gov (United States)

Doctor Fungus is the work of a group of physicians and medical doctors, along with contributions from Web users. The site attempts to provide scholarly and peer-reviewed information to "promote an understanding of fungi and the ways that fungal diseases affect people living throughout the world." The information is well organized into a variety of categories, and the introductory information uses non-scientific terms. Other sections useful to a general audience include a glossary, a list of abbreviations, and a large image bank that allows users to search for a specific fungus or disease that it causes.

2008-07-02

35

Analysis of the sex ratio in Bradysia matogrossensis (Diptera, Sciaridae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Nas espécies de sciarídeos, o controle da determinação do sexo dos indivíduos, assim como da proporção sexual das progênies, é feito pelas fêmeas parentais e baseia-se em um mecanismo diferencial de eliminação de cromossomo X nas primeiras fases do desenvolvimento embrionário. Existem espécies cujas [...] fêmeas produzem progênies de um único sexo (fêmeas monogênicas) e outras cujas proles incluem machos e fêmeas (fêmeas digênicas). A proporção sexual nas proles bissexuais é variável, desviando-se significativamente de 1:1. Bradysia matogrossensis apresenta características dos dois modos de reprodução. Em uma população recém-introduzida no laboratório, existem 15% de fêmeas digênicas, 10% de fêmeas produtoras de fêmeas, 13% de fêmeas produtoras de machos e 62% de fêmeas em cujas proles um sexo foi predominante sobre o outro (33% de progênies de fêmeas com raros machos e 29% de proles de machos com raras fêmeas). Foi mostrado que estas condições se mantêm sem alterações significativas por gerações sucessivas. Fêmeas derivadas de progênies com predominância de fêmeas produzem sempre filhas produtoras de fêmeas e produtoras de machos, na proporção de 1:1. Ao contrário, fêmeas derivadas de progênies bissexuais (com predominância de machos) produzem filhas que dão origem a proles apenas de machos ou, então, com predominância de machos. O cromossomo X de B. matogrossensis não apresenta inversão ou outra aberração visível citologicamente. Os resultados sugerem que no controle da eliminação do cromossomo X deve existir mais que um loco ou, então, mais que um simples par de alelos. Sugerem, também, que os dois modos de reprodução dos sciarídeos, monogenia e digenia, devem ter mecanismos de controle similares, uma hipótese nem sempre considerada em estudos anteriores. Abstract in english In sciarid flies, the control of sex determination and of the progeny sex ratio is exercised by the parental females, and is based on differential X-chromosome elimination in the initial stages of embryogenesis. In some species, the females produce unisexual progenies (monogenic females) while in ot [...] hers, the progenies consist of males and females (digenic females). The sex ratio of bisexual progenies is variable, and departs considerably from 1:1. Bradysia matogrossensis shows both monogenic and digenic reproduction. In a recently established laboratory strain of this species, 15% of the females were digenic, 10% produced only females, 13% produced only males, and 62% produced progenies with one predominant sex (33% predominantly of female and 29% predominantly male progenies). These progeny sex ratios were maintained in successive generations. Females from female-skewed progenies yielded female- and male-producing daughters in a 1:1 ratio. In contrast, daughters of females from male-skewed progenies produce bisexual or male-skewed progenies. The X-chromosome of B. matogrossensis shows no inversion or other gross aberration. These results suggest that the control of the progeny sex ratio (or differential X-chromosome elimination) involves more than one locus or, at least, more than one pair of alleles. The data also suggest that, in sciarid flies, monogeny and digeny may share a common control mechanism.

Lincoln S., Rocha; André Luiz P., Perondini.

2000-03-01

36

Humongous Fungus  

Science.gov (United States)

This 1992 online news article reports a 37acre fungus that has been discovered at the Wisconsin-Michigan border. It is 1500 years old, weighs between 100 and 1000 tons, and is still spreading. The article discusses the use of DNA analysis to identify individual organisms. A subscription to Time Magazine is required to view the full-text article.

Magazine, Time

37

Fungus Amongus  

Science.gov (United States)

This role-playing simulation is designed to help teach middle level students about the typical lifecycle of a fungus. In this interactive simulation, students assume the roles of fungi, spores, living and dead organisms, bacteria, and rain. As they move around a playing field collecting food and water chips, they discover how the organisms…

Wakeley, Deidra

2005-01-01

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Grain fungus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION: General: • A phytopathogen of especially maize which infests the cobs during the silking stage. • If the weather is rainy and the ears of corn are maturing in late summer and early autumn, F. graminearum may infect only a few to a third of the kernels. • Whatever amount of the ear is infected, all the kernels in that portion becomes heavily infected and decayed by the fungus. It manifests as a pink cob rot progressing from th...

Botha, C. J.; Venter, Elna

2002-01-01

39

Nuclear halo from Bradysia hygida (Diptera:Sciaridae) salivary gland polytene cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A protocol for recovered nuclear halos from insect polytene nuclei after the extraction of the nuclear proteins using LIS detergent is reported in this work. Analysis was carried out using fluorescence and confocal laser scan microscopy. The extraction of nuclear halos was possible only with nuclei-fraction isolation in hypotonic buffer without spermine and spermidine. The recovered nuclear halos from Bradysia hygida salivary gland polytene nuclei, contributed greatly to the study of the stru...

Celso Aparecido Polinarski; José Luis da Conceição Silva; Liya Regina Mikami; Maria Aparecida Fernandez

2005-01-01

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The GNAT method for nonlinear model reduction: effective implementation and application to computational fluid dynamics and turbulent flows  

CERN Document Server

The Gauss--Newton with approximated tensors (GNAT) method is a nonlinear model reduction method that operates on fully discretized computational models. It achieves dimension reduction by a Petrov--Galerkin projection associated with residual minimization; it delivers computational efficency by a hyper-reduction procedure based on the `gappy POD' technique. Originally presented in Ref. [1], where it was applied to implicit nonlinear structural-dynamics models, this method is further developed here and applied to the solution of a benchmark turbulent viscous flow problem. To begin, this paper develops global state-space error bounds that justify the method's design and highlight its advantages in terms of minimizing components of these error bounds. Next, the paper introduces a `sample mesh' concept that enables a distributed, computationally efficient implementation of the GNAT method in finite-volume-based computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) codes. The suitability of GNAT for parameterized problems is highlig...

Carlberg, Kevin; Cortial, Julien; Amsallem, David

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Crystallographic and mass spectrometric analyses of a tandem GNAT protein from the clavulanic acid biosynthesis pathway.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

(3R,5R)-Clavulanic acid (CA) is a clinically important inhibitor of Class A beta-lactamases. Sequence comparisons suggest that orf14 of the clavulanic acid biosynthesis gene cluster encodes for an acetyl transferase (CBG). Crystallographic studies reveal CBG to be a member of the emerging structural subfamily of tandem Gcn5-related acetyl transferase (GNAT) proteins. Two crystal forms (C2 and P2(1) space groups) of CBG were obtained; in both forms one molecule of acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) was bound ...

Iqbal, A.; Arunlanantham, H.; Brown, T.; Chowdhury, R.; Clifton, Ij; Kershaw, Nj; Hewitson, Ks; Mcdonough, Ma; Schofield, Cj

2010-01-01

42

Three New Species of Mesosciophilid Gnats from the Middle-Late Jurassic of China (Insecta: Diptera: Nematocera: Mesosciophilidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three extinct new species from the Callovian or Oxfordian (uppermost Middle Jurassic or lowermost Upper Jurassic Daohugou beds in Inner Mongolia, China is described as Mesosciophila abstracta sp. n., Mesosciophilodes synchrona sp. n. and Paramesosciophilodes eximia sp. n. (Family Mesosciophilidae. All the records of mesosciophilid gnats are briefly reviewed.

J.F. Zhang

2008-01-01

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Unequal X chromosomes in Bradysia hygida (Diptera:Sciaridae) females: karyotype assembly and morphometric analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mitotic chromosomes of Bradysia hygida (Diptera:Sciaridae) neuroblast cells are described together with their morphometric data. Giemsa-stained neuroblast chromosomes from female and male larvae confirm the chromosome number of this species, 2n = 8 (XX) and 2n = 7 (XO), respectively. The karyotype assembly reveals two metacentric autosomic pairs, the A and B chromosomes; a subtelocentric, the C chromosome, the smallest one; and a sexual unequal metacentric pair, X chromosome, in female karyotype and a one sexual metacentric X chromosome in male. The implications of the unequal X chromosome pair are discussed. PMID:11145415

Borges, A R; Gaspar, V P; Fernandez, M A

2000-01-01

44

Development of DNA puffs and patterns of polypeptide synthesis in the salivary glands of Bradysia hygida.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the three salivary gland regions of Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae) the patterns of polypeptide synthesis, as revealed by electrophoresis and fluorography, are very stable during the fourth larval instar until about 30 h before the pupal molt. At this age the patterns of polypeptide synthesis start to undergo marked changes. The striking correlations between these changes and the development of two distinct groups of DNA puffs support the proposal that DNA puffs are causally related to the synthesis of specific proteins in the salivary glands. PMID:6745005

Laicine, E M; Alves, M A; de Almeida, J C; Rizzo, E; Albernaz, W C; Sauaia, H

1984-01-01

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Fungus Infections: Tinea  

Science.gov (United States)

... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fungus Infections Share | Tinea is the name given to ... Most people will develop some resistance to skin fungus after being infected. Others appear to have a ...

46

Nuclear halo from Bradysia hygida (Diptera:Sciaridae salivary gland polytene cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A protocol for recovered nuclear halos from insect polytene nuclei after the extraction of the nuclear proteins using LIS detergent is reported in this work. Analysis was carried out using fluorescence and confocal laser scan microscopy. The extraction of nuclear halos was possible only with nuclei-fraction isolation in hypotonic buffer without spermine and spermidine. The recovered nuclear halos from Bradysia hygida salivary gland polytene nuclei, contributed greatly to the study of the structure and function of these special organelles.Observações à microscopia eletrônica e estudos bioquímicos de cromossomos e núcleos sem histonas tem suportado a hipótese que o DNA de eucariotos é organizado em alças associadas com o esqueleto cromossômico ou à matriz nuclear. A observação da matriz nuclear sem a remoção do DNA, através da digestão com enzimas de restrição, apresenta uma figura em halo que representa a liberação das alças de DNA. Um protocolo para a obtenção de halos nucleares de núcleos politênicos de insetos, através da extração de proteínas usando o detergente LIS, é reportado nesse trabalho. Foram realizadas análises utilizando-se microscopia de fluorescência e microscopia de varredura confocal a laser. A extração de halos nucleares foi possível somente com o isolamento da fração nuclear em tampão sem espermina e espermidina. A obtenção de halos nucleares de núcleos politênicos de glândula salivar de Bradysia hygida contribui significativamente para o estudo da estrutura e função dessas organelas tão especiais.

Celso Aparecido Polinarski

2005-05-01

47

Nuclear halo from Bradysia hygida (Diptera:Sciaridae) salivary gland polytene cells  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Observações à microscopia eletrônica e estudos bioquímicos de cromossomos e núcleos sem histonas tem suportado a hipótese que o DNA de eucariotos é organizado em alças associadas com o esqueleto cromossômico ou à matriz nuclear. A observação da matriz nuclear sem a remoção do DNA, através da digestã [...] o com enzimas de restrição, apresenta uma figura em halo que representa a liberação das alças de DNA. Um protocolo para a obtenção de halos nucleares de núcleos politênicos de insetos, através da extração de proteínas usando o detergente LIS, é reportado nesse trabalho. Foram realizadas análises utilizando-se microscopia de fluorescência e microscopia de varredura confocal a laser. A extração de halos nucleares foi possível somente com o isolamento da fração nuclear em tampão sem espermina e espermidina. A obtenção de halos nucleares de núcleos politênicos de glândula salivar de Bradysia hygida contribui significativamente para o estudo da estrutura e função dessas organelas tão especiais. Abstract in english A protocol for recovered nuclear halos from insect polytene nuclei after the extraction of the nuclear proteins using LIS detergent is reported in this work. Analysis was carried out using fluorescence and confocal laser scan microscopy. The extraction of nuclear halos was possible only with nuclei- [...] fraction isolation in hypotonic buffer without spermine and spermidine. The recovered nuclear halos from Bradysia hygida salivary gland polytene nuclei, contributed greatly to the study of the structure and function of these special organelles.

Celso Aparecido, Polinarski; José Luis da Conceição, Silva; Liya Regina, Mikami; Maria Aparecida, Fernandez.

2005-05-01

48

New gnat-midge species chironomus degelenus i sp. n. (diptera chironomidae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the first time the morphology of larvae, pupae, imago and karyotype of Chironomus degelenus I Sp. n. collected from Water-Body D-3-3 of the Degelen Mountain Massif has been described. The larvae have a species-specific structure and color of the head capsule, ventral-mental blades, and mandibula hamuli. The male gnat is characterized for grid structure in IX tergite. The karyotype of C. degelenus I Sp. n. has the following combination of chromosome arms: AB, CD, EF, and G (thummi complex), which is typical for Chironomus species. It was concluded that the origin of the new species of Chironomus degelenus I Sp. N. is related to the long-term genetic processes of Chironomini adaptation to the elevated radiation background level. (author)

49

Aspectos alimentares e de criação de Bradysia hygida Sauaia & Alves (Diptera, Sciaridae) em laboratório / Aspects on alimentation and rearing of Bradysia hygida Sauaia & Alves (Diptera, Sciaridae) in laboratory  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english In nature, the Sciaridae live in moist and shady places, where exists vegetable material in decomposition. It is very dificult to determine the proper Sciaridae's alimentary habit and then, it is dificult, also, to rear Sciaridae species in laboratory. To improvement the Bradysia hygida rearing, the [...] objectives of this research were to analyse the nutritive value of mucuna bean foliage for the larves, to verify the role of the ground (as larvae substrate and in diet composition) and also to verify the possibility of ground substituition by another kind of substrate. Two kinds of sand were employed in the place of the ground and three diets, free of ground, were prepared. The parameters analysed were: duration of the life cicle, porcentage of emergence, egg production by female and adult size. The results showed that the mucuna bean foliage have a good nutritive value for B. hygida rearing; the ground, as substrate, can be substituted by any of the sands and the ground, in the diet, is also dispensable. The alimentary habits of Sciaridae is discussed.

Iara S. Joachim, Bravo; Maurílio A. R, Alves; Fernando S, Zucoloto; Luiz A. M, Andrade.

50

Aspectos alimentares e de criação de Bradysia hygida Sauaia & Alves (Diptera, Sciaridae em laboratório Aspects on alimentation and rearing of Bradysia hygida Sauaia & Alves (Diptera, Sciaridae in laboratory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In nature, the Sciaridae live in moist and shady places, where exists vegetable material in decomposition. It is very dificult to determine the proper Sciaridae's alimentary habit and then, it is dificult, also, to rear Sciaridae species in laboratory. To improvement the Bradysia hygida rearing, the objectives of this research were to analyse the nutritive value of mucuna bean foliage for the larves, to verify the role of the ground (as larvae substrate and in diet composition and also to verify the possibility of ground substituition by another kind of substrate. Two kinds of sand were employed in the place of the ground and three diets, free of ground, were prepared. The parameters analysed were: duration of the life cicle, porcentage of emergence, egg production by female and adult size. The results showed that the mucuna bean foliage have a good nutritive value for B. hygida rearing; the ground, as substrate, can be substituted by any of the sands and the ground, in the diet, is also dispensable. The alimentary habits of Sciaridae is discussed.

Iara S. Joachim Bravo

1993-01-01

51

Molecular characterization of the 5S ribosomal gene of the Bradysia hygida (Diptera:Sciaridae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The rRNA genes are amongst the most extensively studied eukaryotic genes. They contain both highly conserved and rapidly evolving regions. The aim of this work was to clone and to sequence the Bradysia hygida 5S rDNA gene. A positive clone was sequenced and its 346 bp sequence was analyzed against the GenBank database. Sequence analysis revealed that the B. hygida 5S (Bh5S) rDNA gene is 120 bp long and is 87% identical to the aphid Acyrthosiphon magnoliae 5S rDNA gene. The Bh5S rDNA gene presents two unusual features: a GG pair at the 5' end of the gene sequence and the localization of the polyT signal immediately after the 3' end of the gene. In situ hybridization experiments revealed that the Bh5S rDNA gene is localized in the autosomal A chromosome. PMID:15609548

Ribeiro, Lucinéia de Fátima Chasko; Fernandez, Maria Aparecida

2004-11-01

52

Programmed cell death in Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae) salivary glands presents apoptotic features.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, we present biochemical and morphological evidence that the final steps of programmed cell death (PCD) in the salivary glands of the inferior Diptera, Bradysia hygida, present apoptotic characteristics. In B. hygida, elimination of salivary glands is preceded by the establishment of a typical pattern of protein synthesis; increase in caspase activity; decrease in cell volume; nuclear pyknosis; nuclear DNA breakage; changes in the actin cytoskeleton; and most importantly, destruction of giant cells via formation of apoptotic bodies containing broken DNA or cytoplasm remains. Thus, elimination of B. hygida salivary glands by this process suggests that such mode of PCD is also involved in the destruction of entire organs in insects and, therefore, adds more complexity to the regulation of tissue elimination during development. PMID:15354290

Simon, Cláudio R; de Almeida, Jorge C

2004-09-01

53

The effect of perchloric acid fixation on DNA preservation in the salivary gland of Bradysia hygida.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae) well spread polytene chromosomes, free of cytoplasm, and with good morphology are consistently obtained if before squashing in acetic acid solution, the salivary glands are fixed in 7% perchloric acid containing small amounts of ferric ions (SAUAIA et al. 1971). We show here that, with regard to the preservation of total incorporated 3H-thymidine and with regard to the relative autoradiographic labelling of expanded chromosome regions as compared to the labelling of a non-expanded one, this method is equivalent to fixing the salivary glands in ethanol-acetic (3:1). We show also that if this kind of preparation is subject to mild acid hydrolysis a small amount of the total 3H-labelled material may be lost. PMID:2852615

Larson, M L; de Almeida, J C; Ribeiro Alves, M A; Sauaia, H

1988-01-01

54

Biological control of Bradysia matogrossensis (Diptera: Sciaridae) in mushroom cultivation with predatory mites.  

Science.gov (United States)

Larvae of Sciaridae flies (Diptera) cause considerable damage to the mushroom Agaricus blazei (Murrill) ss. Heinemann in Brazil. Brazilian growers have had considerable difficulties in controlling this pest. The objective of this work was to test the effect of the predatory Laelapidae mite Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Womersley) as a control agent of Bradysia matogrossensis (Lane) in cultures of A. blazei. The work corresponded to an evaluation of the efficiency of that predator when released in boxes containing each about 15 L of commercial mushroom compost naturally infested with the pest. The results showed a significant effect of that predator on the population of B. matogrossensis. The release of either 665 or 1330 S. scimitus per box significantly reduced the pest population to levels that, according to grower's experience, apparently could not cause considerable damage. The positive results obtained warrant the conduction of complementary studies to determine the lowest rates of the predator that could still produce acceptable levels of control. PMID:17564790

Freire, Renata Angelica Prado; de Moraes, Gilberto Jose; Silva, Edmilson Santos; Vaz, Alcione Cicera; de Campos Castilho, Raphael

2007-01-01

55

Activity of an essential oil derived from Chenopodium ambrosioides on greenhouse insect pests.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study involved both greenhouse and laboratory experiments evaluating the effect of an essential oil product (QRD 400) derived from Chenopodium ambrosioides variety nr. Ambrosioides L. (Chenopodiaceae) on greenhouse insect pests that feed on different plant parts: citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso); longtailed mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti); western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), and fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.). Treatments were applied to coleus, Solenostemon scutellarioides plants; transvaal daisy, Gerbera jamesonii flowers; or growing medium, depending on the insect pest. The essential oil was most effective, based on adult emergence, on both the second and third instars of the fungus gnat Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila when applied as a drench to growing medium. In addition, there was a significant rate response for QRD 400 on fungus gnats. The QRD 400 treatment had the highest percentage of mortality on longtailed mealybug (55%) compared with the other treatments. However, the essential oil was less effective against citrus mealybug (3% mortality) and western flower thrips adults (18-34% mortality) compared with standard insecticides, such as acetamiprid (TriStar) and spinosad (Conserve), which are typically used by greenhouse producers. This lack of efficacy may be associated with volatility and short residual properties of the essential oil or with the essential oil taking longer to kill insect pests. Other insecticides and miticides evaluated, including sesame oil, garlic, paraffinic oil, and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, provided minimal control of the designated insect pests. In addition, adult rove beetle Atheta coriaria Kraatz adults were not effective in controlling the larval instars of fungus gnats when applied at a rate of five adults per container. PMID:17461071

Cloyd, Raymond A; Chiasson, Helene

2007-04-01

56

Mutant Fungus from Space  

Science.gov (United States)

Space expert Yuri Karash of Russia says that he anticipates that the Mir Space Station could bring virulent new strains of fungus to earth when it splashes down later this month. Various types of fungus, whose smell is the first thing visitors to Mir notice, grow behind panels and in air-conditioning units on the spacecraft and have likely mutated. This article from the BBC News online covers the story.

2001-01-01

57

Molecular combing in the analysis of developmentally regulated amplified segments of Bradysia hygida.  

Science.gov (United States)

Molecular combing technology is an important new tool for the functional and physical mapping of genome segments. It is designed to identify amplifications, microdeletions, and rearrangements in a DNA sequence and to study the process of DNA replication. This technique has recently been used to identify and analyze the dynamics of replication in amplified domains. In Bradysia hygida, multiple amplification initiation sites are predicted to exist upstream of the BhC4-1 gene. However, it has been impossible to identify them using the available standard techniques. The aim of this study was to optimize molecular combing technology to obtain DNA fibers from the polytene nuclei of the salivary glands of B. hygida to study the dynamics of DNA replication in this organism. Our results suggest that combing this DNA without prior purification of the polytene nuclei is possible. The density, integrity, and linearity of the DNA fibers were analyzed, fibers 50 to 300 kb in length were detected, and a 9-kb fragment within the amplified region was visualized using biotin detected by Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated streptavidin technique. The feasibility of physically mapping these fibers demonstrated in this study suggests that molecular combing may be used to identify the replication origin of the BhC4-1 amplicon. PMID:22911590

Passos, K J R; Togoro, S Y; Carignon, S; Koundrioukoff, S; Lachages, A-M; Debatisse, M; Fernandez, M A

2012-01-01

58

Cloning of a B10 DNA puff sequence developmentally amplified and expressed in the salivary gland of Bradysia hygida.  

Science.gov (United States)

A recombinant clone carrying a 2-kb fragment was isolated from a mini-library of the B10 DNA puff of Bradysia hygida. This fragment was amplified in the salivary gland during the period of DNA puff formation. Amplification started when DNA puff anlage was formed and continued to increase, reaching a maximum of about 10-fold 28 h later. Northern blot hybridization experiments showed that this 2-kb fragment was complementary to two RNA species of about 1.3 kb and 1.1 kb, which are developmentally regulated in the salivary gland. Maximum amounts of these messages were present when the B10 puff is fully expanded. PMID:1342608

Fontes, A M; de-Almeida, J C; Edstrom, J E; Paçó-Larson, M L

1992-01-01

59

Chromosomal localization and partial sequencing of the 18S and 28S ribosomal genes from Bradysia hygida (Diptera: Sciaridae).  

Science.gov (United States)

In insects, ribosomal genes are usually detected in sex chromosomes, but have also or only been detected in autosomal chromosomes in some cases. Previous results from our research group indicated that in Bradysia hygida, nucleolus organizer regions were associated with heterochromatic regions of the autosomal C chromosome, using the silver impregnation technique. The present study confirmed this location of the ribosomal genes using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. This analysis also revealed the partial sequences of the 18S and 28S genes for this sciarid. The sequence alignment showed that the 18S gene has 98% identity to Corydalus armatus and 91% identity to Drosophila persimilis and Drosophila melanogaster. The partial sequence analysis of the 28S gene showed 95% identity with Bradysia amoena and 93% identity with Schwenckfeldina sp. These results confirmed the location of ribosomal genes of B. hygida in an autosomal chromosome, and the partial sequence analysis of the 18S and 28S genes demonstrated a high percentage of identity among several insect ribosomal genes. PMID:24737466

Gaspar, V P; Shimauti, E L T; Fernandez, M A

2014-01-01

60

The somatic envelopes around the germ-line cells of polytrophic insect follicles: structural and functional aspects.  

Science.gov (United States)

The polytrophic ovarioles of three insect species, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the fungus gnat Bradysia tritici, and the honeybee Apis mellifera, were compared morphologically and with respect to the cytological organization of the peripheral somatic layers. Staining with rhodaminyl-phalloidin revealed differences in the organization of the muscle strands of the epithelial sheath and the microfilament pattern in the basal part of the follicular epithelium (mid-vitellogenic stages). Also, the size of the intercellular space between the follicle cells differed considerably in the three analyzed species. The basement membrane of Drosophila and Bradysia follicles was partially digested using purified collagenase. The observed morphological changes indicated that in both species the basement membrane of the follicular epithelium plays an important role in shaping the follicles. The possible functional significance of the species-specific structural differences is discussed. PMID:1796455

Gutzeit, H O; Haas-Assenbaum, A

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Fungus 2000 Database  

Science.gov (United States)

Launched by the British Mycological Society, the Fungus 2000 Database initiative was established "to record at least 2000 species of fungi from the British Isles in the year 2000 and, equally as important, to produce a millennium collection of one dried voucher specimen for each species recorded." The Fungus 2000 Database provides details on the first collections of species made during the year 2000, listed in alphabetical order (scientific name only). Each data entry describes the species name (scientific name only), associated organism(s), location of specimen, date of collection, reference data, and (in some cases) a distribution map for the species. As of early May, 2000, nearly 800 specimens have been included in the database.

62

Immunocharacterization of the DNA puff BhC4-1 protein of Bradysia hygida (Diptera: Sciaridae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The DNA puff BhC4-1 gene is amplified and highly expressed in the salivary gland of Bradysia hygida late larvae. Using affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies we have identified the product of the BhC4-1 gene as a 43 kDa polypeptide which is present in extracts of salivary glands from late fourth instar larvae and in the corresponding gland secretion, but not in glands from earlier stages. We also demonstrate that this protein is produced mainly in the S1 and S3 regions of the salivary gland, where BhC4-1 amplification levels are more pronounced and larger amounts of mRNA are produced. By immunoelectron microscopy the BhC4-1 protein was detected in secretory granules of the S1 and S3 regions, and localized in fibrous structures present in the saliva. PMID:15147755

Monesi, N; Silva, J A; Martins, P C M; Teixeira, A B; Dornelas, E C; Moreira, J E; Paçó Larson, M L

2004-06-01

63

DNA puff C4 of Bradysia hygida (Diptera: Sciaridae) contains genes unequally amplified and differentially expressed during development.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report here the isolation and characterization of a 2.3 kb genomic EcoRI fragment that co-localizes in the DNA puff C4 of Bradysia hygida with a 4 kb EcoRI fragment previously characterized as containing part of a gene amplified and expressed in the salivary gland at the time when puff C4 expands. Verification of the relative amount of DNA complementary to these two genomic fragments shows that they are unequally amplified in the salivary gland. The fragment containing part of the gene expressed when puff C4 expands amplifies about eight times more than the 2.3 kb fragment. This 2.3 kb fragment also carries sequences complementary to RNA species present in the gland in a period when puff C4 has already receded. Based on these data we discuss the nature of the DNA puff and the possible way in which amplification is occurring at these sites. PMID:7511469

Coelho, P S; De Almeida, J C; Toledo, F; Buttin, G; Paçó-Larson, M L

1993-07-01

64

Indirect immune detection of ecdysone receptor (EcR) during the formation of DNA puffs in Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Gene amplification occurs in Bradysia hygida salivary glands, at the end of the fourth larval instar. The hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) triggers this process, which results in DNA puff formation. Amplified genes are activated in two distinct groups. The activity of the first group is dependent on high levels of 20E, while the second group needs low hormone levels. Consequently, the salivary glands of B. hygida constitute an interesting biological model to study how 20E, and its receptors, affect gene amplification and activity. We produced polyclonal antibodies against B. hygida EcR (BhEcR). In western blots a polypeptide of about 66 kDa was detected in salivary gland extracts. The antibodies were also used for indirect immune-localization of BhEcR in polytene chromosomes. RNA-polymerase II was also immune-detected. We did not detect the receptor in chromosome C where the first and second groups of DNA puffs form during DNA puff anlage formation, but it was present during puff expansion. During the active phase of both groups of DNA puffs, RNA polymerase II co-localized with BhEcR. After puff regression, these antigens were not detected. Apparently, EcR plays a direct role in the transcription of amplified genes, but its role in gene amplification remains enigmatic. PMID:18483872

Candido-Silva, Juliana Aparecida; de Carvalho, Daniela Palermo; Coelho, Graciana Rodrigues; de Almeida, Jorge Cury

2008-01-01

65

Molecular characterization of an 18 kb segment of DNA puff C4 of Bradysia hygida (Diptera, sciaridae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The data presented here are an extension of the molecular characterization of DNA puff C4 of Bradysia hygida. A cDNA related to a gene amplified in this puff and expressed when puff C4 expands was cloned and sequenced. Analysis of the amino acid sequence deduced from the open reading frame present in the cDNA indicate that the encoded protein is secreted and comprises mostly alpha-helical coiled-coil. An 18 kb genomic segment containing the transcription unit of this gene was also cloned and the structure and expression of the 1.4 kb mRNA was determined. Quantitative slot blot hybridization of DNA complementary to the transcription unit shows that this gene is amplified about 21 times in the salivary gland, confirming data previously obtained. Fragments upstream of the 5' end, and beyond the 3' end, of the gene transcription unit were also analysed and shown to be amplified at least eight and five times, respectively. Based on these data we discuss how amplification could occur at DNA puffs. PMID:7664619

Monesi, N; Fernandez, M A; Fontes, A M; Basso, L R; Nakanishi, Y; Baron, B; Buttin, G; Paçó-Larson, M L

1995-07-01

66

The DNA puff BhB10-1 gene is differentially expressed in various tissues of Bradysia hygida late larvae and constitutively transcribed in transgenic Drosophila  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We extended the characterization of the DNA puff BhB10-1 gene of Bradysia hygida by showing that, although its mRNA is detected only at the end of the fourth larval instar, BhB10-1 expression is not restricted to the salivary gland, the tissue in which this gene is amplified. Different amounts of BhB10-1 mRNA were detected in other larval tissues such as gut, Malpighian tubules, fat body, brain and cuticle, suggesting that this gene is expressed differentially in the various tissues analyzed....

Monesi N.; Sousa J. F.; Paçó-Larson M.L.

2001-01-01

67

A 28-fold increase in secretory protein synthesis is associated with DNA puff activity in the salivary gland of Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae)  

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When the first group of DNA puffs is active in the salivary gland regions S1 and S3 of Bradysia hygida larvae, there is a large increase in the production and secretion of new salivary proteins demonstrable by [3H]-Leu incorporation. The present study shows that protein separation by SDS-PAGE and detection by fluorography demonstrated that these polypeptides range in molecular mass from about 23 to 100 kDa. Furthermore, these proteins were synthesized mainly in the S1 and S3 salivary gland re...

de-Almeida J.C.

1997-01-01

68

Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae) presents two eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A gene homologues: partial characterization of the eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A-F1 gene  

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Elongation factor 1A is a highly conserved protein that participates in translation. We report the occurrence of two genes homologous to the eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A in Bradysia hygida and describe the partial cloning and characterization of the B. hygida eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A-F1 (BheEF1A-F1) gene. The pattern of BheEF1A-F1 expression in the salivary gland at the end of the fourth larval instar was investigated using real-time PCR. The results showed that BheEF1A-F1 expressio...

Candido-silva, J. A.; Monesi, N.

2010-01-01

69

Natural Perspective: The Fungus Kingdom  

Science.gov (United States)

This well-crafted website on The Fungus Kingdom was created by Ari and Susan Kornfeld, long-time naturalists and presently students at Humboldt State University. Their website provides a good overview of The Fungus Kingdom, and would be useful to educators introducing students to Fungi or to anyone interested in learning about the fascinating world of Fungi. In addition to providing concise information about Fungi, this site contains outstanding photos, an Annotated Bibliography, and links to feature sites for Sac Fungi, Lichens, and certain Club Fungi. This Fungus Kingdom site is part of a larger website entitled Natural Perspective, created by the same authors, that offers sites about other Kingdoms as well.

70

Survey of hypogeous fungus Transylvanians  

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On the base of the published literature, this paper is a comprehensive enumeration of the hypogeous fungus from Transylvania. It contents 81 species and 4 varieties. Two species from the presented, Balsamia vulgaris and Tuber melanospermum, are dubious in Transylvania. The species are enumerated alphabeticaly in three classes: Phycomycetes, Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes.

Pazmany, Denes

1990-01-01

71

Survey of hypogeous fungus Transylvanians  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On the base of the published literature, this paper is a comprehensive enumeration of the hypogeous fungus from Transylvania. It contents 81 species and 4 varieties. Two species from the presented, Balsamia vulgaris and Tuber melanospermum, are dubious in Transylvania. The species are enumerated alphabeticaly in three classes: Phycomycetes, Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes.

Denes PAZMANY

1990-08-01

72

Magenta pigment produced by fungus.  

Science.gov (United States)

A fungus producing magenta was isolated from cellulosic material by visual observation on Czapek's agar media and the product was conventionally analyzed. The fungal strain that produced magenta pigment was closely related to Phoma herbarum. The type of fibers added to Czapek's medium influenced which pigments were produced. Mycelia attached to the surface of nylon-6 and excreted magenta pigment into the fibers. The pigment structure was partially determined. This is the first report of the production of magenta pigment by a microorganism specifically in the presence of nylon-6 fibers, via an unknown mechanism. This phenomenon raises the question of why and how the fungus disperses the pigment inside the fiber and suggests that fabrics can be dyed using microorganisms. PMID:17116968

Chiba, Sanae; Tsuyoshi, Naoko; Fudou, Ryosuke; Ojika, Makoto; Murakami, Yoshimasa; Ogoma, Yoshiro; Oguchi, Masakatu; Yamanaka, Shigeru

2006-08-01

73

The development of integrated pest management for the control of mushroom sciarid flies, Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour) and Bradysia ocellaris (Comstock), in cultivated mushrooms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mushrooms are susceptible to a range of diseases and pests that can cause serious crop loss. Effective pest and pathogen control is a very important factor for the maintenance of efficient production of cultivated mushrooms. Integrated pest management in mushrooms is reliant upon four main principals/elements: sanitation, exclusion, monitoring and pest control. Bradysia ocellaris (Comstock) and Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour) (Diptera: Sciaridae) are major pests of cultivated mushrooms, Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach. These pests cause losses in yield through larval damage of the compost, mycelium and sporophores, and affect the structural features of the compost itself. Adult flies of these species also act as vectors for the introduction of mites and fungal diseases in cultivated mushrooms. PMID:20597099

Shamshad, Afsheen

2010-10-01

74

Developmental regulation of BhSGAMP-1, a gene encoding an antimicrobial peptide in the salivary glands of Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae).  

Science.gov (United States)

It has recently become clear that the innate immune systems of insects and mammals are highly conserved; in general, these systems are stimulated upon infection by microorganisms. We found in the fly Bradysia hygida, a reiterated gene, which codes for a secretory peptide similar to plant-seed antimicrobial peptides. This gene BhSGAMP-1 is activated and expressed exclusively in the salivary glands of the larvae, while they are preparing to molt. In functional tests, synthetic BhSGAMP-1 peptide had broad spectrum antibiotic activity. Secretion of BhSGAMP-1 in the saliva could help prevent microbial infection during molting, by killing harmful microorganisms in the immediate vicinity of the animal. This is the first description of developmentally regulated defense peptide secretion in animals. PMID:17941045

Candido-Silva, Juliana A; Zanarotti, Gabriela M; Gallina, Ana P; de Almeida, Jorge C

2007-10-01

75

The DNA puff BhB10-1 gene is differentially expressed in various tissues of Bradysia hygida late larvae and constitutively transcribed in transgenic Drosophila.  

Science.gov (United States)

We extended the characterization of the DNA puff BhB10-1 gene of Bradysia hygida by showing that, although its mRNA is detected only at the end of the fourth larval instar, BhB10-1 expression is not restricted to the salivary gland, the tissue in which this gene is amplified. Different amounts of BhB10-1 mRNA were detected in other larval tissues such as gut, Malpighian tubules, fat body, brain and cuticle, suggesting that this gene is expressed differentially in the various tissues analyzed. Analysis of transgenic Drosophila carrying the BhB10-1 transcription unit and flanking sequences revealed that the tested fragment promotes transcription in a constitutive manner. We suggest that either cis-regulatory elements are missing in the transgene or factors that temporally regulate the BhB10-1 gene in B. hygida are not conserved in Drosophila. PMID:11449302

Monesi, N; Sousa, J F; Paçó-Larson, M L

2001-07-01

76

Effect of pesticides on adult rove beetle Atheta coriaria (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) survival in growing medium.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rove beetle Atheta coriaria (Kraatz) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) is a natural enemy (biological control agent) commercially available for control of certain greenhouse insect pests, including fungus gnats, shore flies, and thrips. This study assessed the compatibility of pesticides (insecticides and fungicides) used in greenhouses with A. coriaria adults. Treatments were applied to 473-ml deli squat containers half-filled with a growing medium. We evaluated the effects of the pesticides when releases of A. coriaria adults were performed both before and after application of the designated pesticide solutions. All three of the neonicotinoid-based insecticides (clothianidin, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam) were directly harmful to A. coriaria adults with Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila) larvae in a feeding behavior experiment. Although the neonicotinoid-based insecticides were directly harmful to adult A. coriaria, when adults were released 48, 72, or 96 h after application, survival increased dramatically over time. This study has quantitatively demonstrated that certain pesticides (both insecticides and fungicides) are compatible with and can be used along with A. coriaria in systems that use this natural enemy to manage fungus gnat larvae. PMID:19886438

Cloyd, Raymond A; Timmons, Nicholas R; Goebel, Jessica M; Kemp, Kenneth E

2009-10-01

77

The DNA puff BhB10-1 gene is differentially expressed in various tissues of Bradysia hygida late larvae and constitutively transcribed in transgenic Drosophila  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We extended the characterization of the DNA puff BhB10-1 gene of Bradysia hygida by showing that, although its mRNA is detected only at the end of the fourth larval instar, BhB10-1 expression is not restricted to the salivary gland, the tissue in which this gene is amplified. Different amounts of Bh [...] B10-1 mRNA were detected in other larval tissues such as gut, Malpighian tubules, fat body, brain and cuticle, suggesting that this gene is expressed differentially in the various tissues analyzed. Analysis of transgenic Drosophila carrying the BhB10-1 transcription unit and flanking sequences revealed that the tested fragment promotes transcription in a constitutive manner. We suggest that either cis-regulatory elements are missing in the transgene or factors that temporally regulate the BhB10-1 gene in B. hygida are not conserved in Drosophila.

N., Monesi; J.F., Sousa; M.L., Paçó-Larson.

2001-07-01

78

A 28-fold increase in secretory protein synthesis is associated with DNA puff activity in the salivary gland of Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae).  

Science.gov (United States)

When the first group of DNA puffs is active in the salivary gland regions S1 and S3 of Bradysia hygida larvae, there is a large increase in the production and secretion of new salivary proteins demonstrable by [3H]-Leu incorporation. The present study shows that protein separation by SDS-PAGE and detection by fluorography demonstrated that these polypeptides range in molecular mass from about 23 to 100 kDa. Furthermore, these proteins were synthesized mainly in the S1 and S3 salivary gland regions where the DNA puffs C7, C5, C4 and B10 are conspicuous, while in the S2 region protein synthesis was very low. Others have shown that the extent of amplification for DNA sequences that code for mRNA in the DNA puffs C4 and B10 was about 22 and 10 times, respectively. The present data for this group of DNA puffs are consistent with the proposition that gene amplification is necessary to provide some cells with additional gene copies for the production of massive amounts of proteins within a short period of time. PMID:9283627

de-Almeida, J C

1997-05-01

79

The DNA puff BhB10-1 gene encodes a glycine-rich protein secreted by the late stage larval salivary glands of Bradysia hygida.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present the molecular characterization of a gene of Bradysia hygida DNA puff B10 whose temporal expression in the salivary gland correlates with the puff expansion. The transcription unit of this gene, named BhB10-1, was mapped in a 2-kb EcoRI genomic fragment that is amplified in the salivary gland of late fourth instar larvae. Its 1.3-kb transcript undergoes poly-A tail shortening during development, indicating that post-transcriptional controls as well as transcription activation are involved in the temporal regulation of the BhB10-1 gene. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence from the cDNA indicates that the BhB10-1 protein is a glycine-rich secretory protein. A BhB10-1-fusion protein expressed in bacteria was used to raise polyclonal antibodies. Using an immunopurified antibody, we identified the product of the DNA puff BhB10-1 gene as a 23-kDa polypeptide that is produced mainly by the salivary gland regions S1 and S3 and is present in the saliva of late larvae. This is the first direct identification of a protein encoded by a DNA puff amplified gene. PMID:10231570

Fontes, A M; Conacci, M E; Monesi, N; de Almeida, J C; Paçó-Larson, M L

1999-04-29

80

A dual role of 20-hydroxyecdysone in the control of protein synthesis related to DNA puff activity in the anterior region of Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae) salivary gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the last 30 h of the larval stage, the salivary glands of Bradysia hygida show the amplification of some genes, resulting in the formation of two successive groups of DNA puffs, which direct the synthesis of two different sets of polypeptides. Incubation of anterior (S1) salivary gland regions, at age E7, beginning of first group of DNA puffs activity, in culture medium for 2 to 10 h results in a decrease in the synthesis of the polypeptides characteristic of this period. However, during subsequent incubation (from E7 to E7+12 h-24 h), when the second group of DNA puffs is active, S1 regions were able to synthesize some polypeptides characteristic of this period. The role of 20-OH ecdysone was studied, in vitro and in vivo, during these two periods of protein synthesis in S1 regions. The presence of the hormone was shown to be necessary to maintain, in vitro, the synthesis of the first set of polypeptides and was strongly inhibitory, in vitro and in vivo, to the synthesis of the second set of polypeptides. Thus, it is likely that the activity of the two distinct groups of DNA puffs is under opposite 20-OH-ecdysone control mechanisms. PMID:10844246

de Carvalho, D P; Coelho, P S; de Almeida, J C

2000-07-01

 
 
 
 
81

IDENTIFICACIÓN Y CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LA MOSCA NEGRA, BRADYSIA DIFFORMIS (DIPTERA: SCIARIDAE EN EL CULTIVO DE NOCHEBUENA (EUPHORBIA PULCHERRIMA EN EL CENTRO DE MÉXICO  

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Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar y caracterizar los estados de desarrollo de la especie de mosca negra más abundante asociada al cultivo de nochebuena Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, ex Klotzsch en la zona productora del centro del país. La recolección de material entomológico se realizó en invernaderos de las localidades de Atlacomulco (México, Tenango de las Flores (Puebla, Xochimilco (Distrito Federal y Zacatepec y Tetela del Monte (Morelos. Se obtuvieron 2,141 especímenes adultos de Diptera, siendo la especie más abundante (99.5% Bradysia difformis Frey (Diptera: Sciaridae. El ciclo de vida de esta especie se completó entre 26-28 días bajo condiciones controladas de temperatura y humedad (25°C y 70% HR. La diferenciación de los estadíos larvales fue realizada mediante la morfometría de la cápsula cefálica para los estadíos I vs II, cuyas probabilidades de error fueron muy bajas (1:10,000; en cambio, la diferenciación entre los estadíos II vs III, y III vs IV resultó con una probabilidad de error alta, entre 17:100 y 36:100 individuos, respectivamente. Por esta razón se recomienda explorar otras características que en adición a la medida de anchura de sus cápsulas cefálicas permitan discriminar los diferentes estadíos de desarrollo. Este es el primer registro de B. difformis en México, aun cuando ya se había reportado este género afectando las plantas de nochebuena. Palabras clave: taxonomía, estados inmaduros, plaga de nochebuena, México.

Evert VILLANUEVA-S\\u00C1NCHEZ

2013-01-01

82

5-Bromo-2’-deoxyuridine induces visible morphological alteration in the DNA puffs of the anterior salivary gland region of Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english 5-Bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdUrd) has long been known to interfere with cell differentiation. We found that treatment ofBradysia hygida larvae with BrdUrd during DNA puff anlage formation in the polytene chromosomes of the salivary gland S1 region noticeably affects anlage morphology. However, it doe [...] s not affect subsequent metamorphosis to the adult stage. The chromatin of the chromosomal sites that would normally form DNA puffs remains very compact and DNA puff expansion does not occur with administration of 4 to 8 mM BrdUrd. Injection of BrdUrd at different ages provoked a gradient of compaction of the DNA puff chromatin, leading to the formation of very small to almost normal puffs. By immunodetection, we show that the analogue is preferentially incorporated into the DNA puff anlages. When BrdUrd is injected in a mixture with thymidine, it is not incorporated into the DNA, and normal DNA puffs form. Therefore, incorporation of this analogue into the amplified DNA seems to be the cause of this extreme compaction. Autoradiographic experiments and silver grains counting showed that this treatment decreases the efficiency of RNA synthesis at DNA puff anlages.

J.C., de Almeida; H., Sauaia; J.C., Viana.

1143-11-01

83

5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine induces visible morphological alteration in the DNA puffs of the anterior salivary gland region of Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae).  

Science.gov (United States)

5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdUrd) has long been known to interfere with cell differentiation. We found that treatment of Bradysia hygida larvae with BrdUrd during DNA puff anlage formation in the polytene chromosomes of the salivary gland S1 region noticeably affects anlage morphology. However, it does not affect subsequent metamorphosis to the adult stage. The chromatin of the chromosomal sites that would normally form DNA puffs remains very compact and DNA puff expansion does not occur with administration of 4 to 8 mM BrdUrd. Injection of BrdUrd at different ages provoked a gradient of compaction of the DNA puff chromatin, leading to the formation of very small to almost normal puffs. By immunodetection, we show that the analogue is preferentially incorporated into the DNA puff anlages. When BrdUrd is injected in a mixture with thymidine, it is not incorporated into the DNA, and normal DNA puffs form. Therefore, incorporation of this analogue into the amplified DNA seems to be the cause of this extreme compaction. Autoradiographic experiments and silver grains counting showed that this treatment decreases the efficiency of RNA synthesis at DNA puff anlages. PMID:21085898

Almeida, J C de; Sauaia, H; Viana, J C

2010-12-01

84

The DNA puff gene BhC4-1 of Bradysia hygida is specifically transcribed in early prepupal salivary glands of Drosophila melanogaster.  

Science.gov (United States)

The BhC4-1 gene of the sciarid Bradysia hygida is located at DNA puff C4 and is amplified and actively transcribed in the salivary gland at the end of the last larval instar. We show here that a 3.6 kb fragment from the upstream region of the BhC4-1 gene is able to drive transcription in transgenic Drosophila specifically in prepupal salivary gland in a temporally regulated manner. The mRNA is present in maximal amounts in prepupae +3 h; in prepupae +9 h the levels of BhC4-1 mRNA decline, and it is no longer detected in pupae +24 h. Taken together these results suggest that most, if not all, of the key promoter regulatory elements were included in the DNA fragments employed to transform Drosophila. Moreover, strong expression of the transgenes implies conservation of the regulatory elements involved, since Drosophila transcription factors appear to recognize B. hygida regulatory DNA sequences. Quantitative Southern blot hybridization indicates that the sequences from DNA puff C4 are not amplified at detectable levels in salivary glands of transgenic prepupae when the BhC4-1 gene is transcribed. Transcription of a DNA puff in the absence of amplification indicates that the induction of these processes involves distinct mechanisms. PMID:9933409

Monesi, N; Jacobs-Lorena, M; Paçó-Larson, M L

1998-12-01

85

Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae) presents two eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A gene homologues: partial characterization of the eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A-F1 gene.  

Science.gov (United States)

Elongation factor 1A is a highly conserved protein that participates in translation. We report the occurrence of two genes homologous to the eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A in Bradysia hygida and describe the partial cloning and characterization of the B. hygida eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A-F1 (BheEF1A-F1) gene. The pattern of BheEF1A-F1 expression in the salivary gland at the end of the fourth larval instar was investigated using real-time PCR. The results showed that BheEF1A-F1 expression levels are relatively constant at the time when rapid changes in protein synthesis occur in this tissue. In situ hybridization experiments coupled to Southern blot analyses showed that the BheEF1A-F1 gene is located at position 3d of the A chromosome and a second gene homologous to eEF1A is located at position 6a of the X chromosome. Southern blot analyses showed that both the BheEF1A-F1 gene and the second gene homologous to eEF1A constitute non-amplified genes. The present results contribute to the molecular characterization of a sciarid eEF1A gene. PMID:20414584

Candido-Silva, J A; Monesi, N

2010-05-01

86

Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae presents two eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A gene homologues: partial characterization of the eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A-F1 gene  

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Full Text Available Elongation factor 1A is a highly conserved protein that participates in translation. We report the occurrence of two genes homologous to the eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A in Bradysia hygida and describe the partial cloning and characterization of the B. hygida eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A-F1 (BheEF1A-F1 gene. The pattern of BheEF1A-F1 expression in the salivary gland at the end of the fourth larval instar was investigated using real-time PCR. The results showed that BheEF1A-F1 expression levels are relatively constant at the time when rapid changes in protein synthesis occur in this tissue. In situ hybridization experiments coupled to Southern blot analyses showed that the BheEF1A-F1 gene is located at position 3d of the A chromosome and a second gene homologous to eEF1A is located at position 6a of the X chromosome. Southern blot analyses showed that both the BheEF1A-F1 gene and the second gene homologous to eEF1A constitute non-amplified genes. The present results contribute to the molecular characterization of a sciarid eEF1A gene.

J.A. Candido-Silva

2010-05-01

87

A 28-fold increase in secretory protein synthesis is associated with DNA puff activity in the salivary gland of Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english When the first group of DNA puffs is active in the salivary gland regions S1 and S3 of Bradysia hygida larvae, there is a large increase in the production and secretion of new salivary proteins demonstrable by [3H]-Leu incorporation. The present study shows that protein separation by SDS-PAGE and de [...] tection by fluorography demonstrated that these polypeptides range in molecular mass from about 23 to 100 kDa. Furthermore, these proteins were synthesized mainly in the S1 and S3 salivary gland regions where the DNA puffs C7, C5, C4 and B10 are conspicuous, while in the S2 region protein synthesis was very low. Others have shown that the extent of amplification for DNA sequences that code for mRNA in the DNA puffs C4 and B10 was about 22 and 10 times, respectively. The present data for this group of DNA puffs are consistent with the proposition that gene amplification is necessary to provide some cells with additional gene copies for the production of massive amounts of proteins within a short period of time (Spradling AC and Mahowald AP (1980) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 77: 1096-1100).

J.C., de-Almeida.

1997-05-01

88

A 28-fold increase in secretory protein synthesis is associated with DNA puff activity in the salivary gland of Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae  

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Full Text Available When the first group of DNA puffs is active in the salivary gland regions S1 and S3 of Bradysia hygida larvae, there is a large increase in the production and secretion of new salivary proteins demonstrable by [3H]-Leu incorporation. The present study shows that protein separation by SDS-PAGE and detection by fluorography demonstrated that these polypeptides range in molecular mass from about 23 to 100 kDa. Furthermore, these proteins were synthesized mainly in the S1 and S3 salivary gland regions where the DNA puffs C7, C5, C4 and B10 are conspicuous, while in the S2 region protein synthesis was very low. Others have shown that the extent of amplification for DNA sequences that code for mRNA in the DNA puffs C4 and B10 was about 22 and 10 times, respectively. The present data for this group of DNA puffs are consistent with the proposition that gene amplification is necessary to provide some cells with additional gene copies for the production of massive amounts of proteins within a short period of time (Spradling AC and Mahowald AP (1980 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 77: 1096-1100.

J.C. de-Almeida

1997-05-01

89

Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae) presents two eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A gene homologues: partial characterization of the eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A-F1 gene  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Elongation factor 1A is a highly conserved protein that participates in translation. We report the occurrence of two genes homologous to the eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A in Bradysia hygida and describe the partial cloning and characterization of the B. hygida eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A-F1 (B [...] heEF1A-F1) gene. The pattern of BheEF1A-F1 expression in the salivary gland at the end of the fourth larval instar was investigated using real-time PCR. The results showed that BheEF1A-F1 expression levels are relatively constant at the time when rapid changes in protein synthesis occur in this tissue. In situ hybridization experiments coupled to Southern blot analyses showed that the BheEF1A-F1 gene is located at position 3d of the A chromosome and a second gene homologous to eEF1A is located at position 6a of the X chromosome. Southern blot analyses showed that both the BheEF1A-F1 gene and the second gene homologous to eEF1A constitute non-amplified genes. The present results contribute to the molecular characterization of a sciarid eEF1A gene.

J.A., Candido-Silva; N., Monesi.

2010-05-01

90

The DNA puff BhB10-1 gene is differentially expressed in various tissues of Bradysia hygida late larvae and constitutively transcribed in transgenic Drosophila  

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Full Text Available We extended the characterization of the DNA puff BhB10-1 gene of Bradysia hygida by showing that, although its mRNA is detected only at the end of the fourth larval instar, BhB10-1 expression is not restricted to the salivary gland, the tissue in which this gene is amplified. Different amounts of BhB10-1 mRNA were detected in other larval tissues such as gut, Malpighian tubules, fat body, brain and cuticle, suggesting that this gene is expressed differentially in the various tissues analyzed. Analysis of transgenic Drosophila carrying the BhB10-1 transcription unit and flanking sequences revealed that the tested fragment promotes transcription in a constitutive manner. We suggest that either cis-regulatory elements are missing in the transgene or factors that temporally regulate the BhB10-1 gene in B. hygida are not conserved in Drosophila.

N. Monesi

2001-07-01

91

5-Bromo-2’-deoxyuridine induces visible morphological alteration in the DNA puffs of the anterior salivary gland region of Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 5-Bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdUrd has long been known to interfere with cell differentiation. We found that treatment ofBradysia hygida larvae with BrdUrd during DNA puff anlage formation in the polytene chromosomes of the salivary gland S1 region noticeably affects anlage morphology. However, it does not affect subsequent metamorphosis to the adult stage. The chromatin of the chromosomal sites that would normally form DNA puffs remains very compact and DNA puff expansion does not occur with administration of 4 to 8 mM BrdUrd. Injection of BrdUrd at different ages provoked a gradient of compaction of the DNA puff chromatin, leading to the formation of very small to almost normal puffs. By immunodetection, we show that the analogue is preferentially incorporated into the DNA puff anlages. When BrdUrd is injected in a mixture with thymidine, it is not incorporated into the DNA, and normal DNA puffs form. Therefore, incorporation of this analogue into the amplified DNA seems to be the cause of this extreme compaction. Autoradiographic experiments and silver grains counting showed that this treatment decreases the efficiency of RNA synthesis at DNA puff anlages.

J.C. de Almeida

2010-12-01

92

Fungus-insect gall of Phlebopus portentosus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phlebopus portentosus is a popular edible wild mushroom found in the tropical Yunnan, China, and northern Thailand. In its natural habitats, a gall often has been found on some plant roots, around which fungal fruiting bodies are produced. The galls are different from common insect galls in that their cavity walls are not made from plant tissue but rather from the hyphae of P. portentosus. Therefore we have termed this phenomenon "fungus-insect gall". Thus far six root mealy bug species in the family Pseudococcidae that form fungus-insect galls with P. portentosus have been identified: Formicococcus polysperes, Geococcus satellitum, Planococcus minor, Pseudococcus cryptus, Paraputo banzigeri and Rastrococcus invadens. Fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of more than 21 plant species, including Delonix regia, Citrus maxima, Coffea arabica and Artocarpus heterophyllus. Greenhouse inoculation trials showed that fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of A. heterophyllus 1 mo after inoculation. The galls were subglobose to globose, fulvous when young and became dark brown at maturation. Each gall harbored one or more mealy bugs and had a chimney-like vent for ventilation and access to the gall. The cavity wall had three layers. Various shaped mealy bug wax deposits were found inside the wall. Fungal hyphae invaded the epidermis of plant roots and sometimes even the cortical cells during the late stage of gall development. The identity of the fungus inside the cavity was confirmed by molecular methods. PMID:25344264

Zhang, Chun-Xia; He, Ming-Xia; Cao, Yang; Liu, Jing; Gao, Feng; Wang, Wen-Bing; Ji, Kai-Ping; Shao, Shi-Cheng; Wang, Yun

2015-01-01

93

Dentigerumycin: a bacterial mediator of an ant-fungus symbiosis  

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Fungus-growing ants engage in mutualistic associations with both the fungus they cultivate for food and actinobacteria (Pseudonocardia spp.) that produce selective antibiotics to defend that fungus from specialized fungal parasites. In the first system to be analyzed at the molecular level, the bacterium associated with the ant Apterostigma dentigerum produces dentigerumycin, a cyclic depsipeptide with highly modified amino acids, to selectively inhibit the parasitic fungus (Escovopsis sp.).

Oh, Dong-chan; Poulsen, Michael; Currie, Cameron R.; Clardy, Jon

2009-01-01

94

Nuclear flow in a filamentous fungus  

CERN Document Server

The syncytial cells of a filamentous fungus consist of a mass of growing, tube-like hyphae. Each extending tip is fed by a continuous flow of nuclei from the colony interior, pushed by a gradient in turgor pressure. The myco-fluidic flows of nuclei are complex and multidirectional, like traffic in a city. We map out the flows in a strain of the model filamentous fungus {\\it N. crassa} that has been transformed so that nuclei express either hH1-dsRed (a red fluorescent nuclear protein) or hH1-GFP (a green-fluorescent protein) and report our results in a fluid dynamics video.

Hickey, Patrick C; Read, Nick; Glass, N Louise; Roper, Marcus

2012-01-01

95

White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) in Bat, France  

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White-nose syndrome is caused by the fungus Geomyces destructans and is responsible for the deaths of >1,000,000 bats since 2006. This disease and fungus had been restricted to the northeastern United States. We detected this fungus in a bat in France and assessed the implications of this finding.

Puechmaille, Se?bastien J.; Verdeyroux, Pascal; Fuller, Hubert; Gouilh, Meriadeg Ar; Bekaert, Michae?l; Teeling, Emma C.

2010-01-01

96

Open-Ended Experimentation with the Fungus Pilobolus.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes open-ended experimentation with the fungus Pilobolus for laboratory work by high school students. The fungus structure and reproduction is described and sources of the fungus are suggested. Four areas for investigation are suggested: the effect of a diffuse light source, the effect of a point light source, the effect of light…

Coble, Charles R.; Bland, Charles E.

97

Identificación y caracterización de la mosca negra Bradysia difformis (Diptera: Sciaridae) en el cultivo de nochebuena (Euphorbia pulcherrima) en el centro de México / Identification and characterization of the black fly, Bradysia difformis (Diptera: Sciaridae) on "poinsettia" crops (Euphorbia pulcherrima) of central Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar y caracterizar los estados de desarrollo de la especie de mosca negra más abundante asociada al cultivo de nochebuena Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, ex Klotzsch en la zona productora del centro del país. La recolección de material entomológico se realiz [...] ó en invernaderos de las localidades de Atlacomulco (México), Tenango de las Flores (Puebla), Xochimilco (Distrito Federal) y Zacatepec y Tetela del Monte (Morelos). Se obtuvieron 2,141 especímenes adultos de Diptera, siendo la especie más abundante (99.5%) Bradysia difformis Frey (Diptera: Sciaridae). El ciclo de vida de esta especie se completó entre 26-28 días bajo condiciones controladas de temperatura y humedad (25°C y 70% HR). La diferenciación de los estadíos larvales fue realizada mediante la morfometría de la cápsula cefálica para los estadíos I vs II, cuyas probabilidades de error fueron muy bajas (1:10,000); en cambio, la diferenciación entre los estadíos II vs III, y III vs IV resultó con una probabilidad de error alta, entre 17:100 y 36:100 individuos, respectivamente. Por esta razón se recomienda explorar otras características que en adición a la medida de anchura de sus cápsulas cefálicas permitan discriminar los diferentes estadíos de desarrollo. Este es el primer registro de B. difformis en México, aun cuando ya se había reportado este género afectando las plantas de nochebuena. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the developmental stages of the most abundant black fly species associated with poinsettia crops (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch) in the producing area of Central Mexico. Collecting samples were conducted in greenhouses of the location [...] s of Atlacomulco (Mexico), Tenango de las Flores (Puebla), Xochimilco (Mexico City), and Zacatepec and Tetela del Monte (Morelos). A total of 2,141 adult specimens of Diptera were obtained, being Bradysia difformis Frey (Diptera: Sciaridae) the most abundant species (99.5%). Life cycle of this species was completed between 26-28 days under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity (25°C and 70% RH). The differentiation of larval instars by morphometrics of the head capsule between instars I vs II, showed very low error probabilities (1:10,000); while differentiation between instars II vs III, and III vs IV resulted with higher error probabilities, between 17:100 and 36:100 individuals, respectively. For this reason it is recommended to explore other features in addition to measurements of width of the cephalic capsules for discriminating different larval stages. This is the first record of B. difformis for Mexico, although this genus was previously reported affecting poinsettia crops.

Evert, VILLANUEVA-SÁNCHEZ; Sergio, IBÁÑEZ-BERNAL; J. Refugio, LOMELÍ-FLORES; Jorge, VALDEZ-CARRASCO.

2013-08-01

98

Spread of Rare Fungus from Vancouver Island  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Cryptococcus gattii, a rare fungus normally found in the tropics, has infected people and animals on Vancouver Island, Canada. Dr. David Warnock, Director, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases, CDC, discusses public health concerns about further spread of this organism.  Created: 12/20/2006 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 12/29/2006.

2006-12-20

99

Death from Fungus in the Soil  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Dr. Shira Shafir, Assistant Professor of Epidemiology at the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, discusses her study about fungus found in soil.  Created: 12/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/18/2012.

2012-12-17

100

Insecticidal properties of the fungus trichoderma sp.  

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Full Text Available The insecticidal activity of the petroleum ether of the fungus, Trichoderma Sp. has been investigated against the mosquito. Culex fatigans Wied. and the house fly, Musca nebulo Linn. The extract has been found to be toxic to mosquitoes but not to the house flies.

P. N. Agarwal

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
101

Ant-fungus species combinations engineer physiological activity of fungus gardens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungus-gardening insects are among the most complex organisms because of their extensive co-evolutionary histories with obligate fungal symbionts and other microbes. Some fungus-gardening insect lineages share fungal symbionts with other members of their lineage and thus exhibit diffuse co-evolutionary relationships, while others exhibit little or no symbiont sharing, resulting in host-fungus fidelity. The mechanisms that maintain this symbiont fidelity are currently unknown. Prior work suggested that derived leaf-cutting ants in the genus Atta interact synergistically with leaf-cutter fungi (Attamyces) by exhibiting higher fungal growth rates and enzymatic activities than when growing a fungus from the sister-clade to Attamyces (so-called 'Trachymyces'), grown primarily by the non-leaf cutting Trachymyrmex ants that form, correspondingly, the sister-clade to leaf-cutting ants. To elucidate the enzymatic bases of host-fungus specialization in leaf-cutting ants, we conducted a reciprocal fungus-switch experiment between the ant Atta texana and the ant Trachymyrmex arizonensis and report measured enzymatic activities of switched and sham-switched fungus gardens to digest starch, pectin, xylan, cellulose and casein. Gardens exhibited higher amylase and pectinase activities when A. texana ants cultivated Attamyces compared with Trachymyces fungi, consistent with enzymatic specialization. In contrast, gardens showed comparable amylase and pectinase activities when T. arizonensis cultivated either fungal species. Although gardens of leaf-cutting ants are not known to be significant metabolizers of cellulose, T. arizonensis were able to maintain gardens with significant cellulase activity when growing either fungal species. In contrast to carbohydrate metabolism, protease activity was significantly higher in Attamyces than in Trachymyces, regardless of the ant host. Activity of some enzymes employed by this symbiosis therefore arises from complex interactions between the ant host and the fungal symbiont. PMID:24803469

Seal, J N; Schiøtt, M; Mueller, U G

2014-07-15

102

Renal fungus ball in a preterm infant  

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Full Text Available Candidiasis is an increasingly common problem which can cause severe morbidity in neonatal intensive care units. A premature neonate with renal fungus ball is presented. The patient was hospitalized for 45 days in the neonatal intensive care unit and 15 days in the department of neurosurgery. Later, a hyperechogenic focus located within the left renal pelvis was revealed on ultrasonograhy and Candida albicans was identified in the urine culture. He was (discharged ofter success fully treated with fluconasole. In this case report, it is emphasized that renal fungus ball can also develop without candidemia in preterm infants and ultrasonography is a significantly important method for early diagnosis and follow-up. (Turk Arch Ped 2008; 43: 29-31

Mahmut Çivilibal

2008-04-01

103

New tricycloalternarenes from fungus Alternaria sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new tricycloalternarenes I (1) and J (2), together with five known derivatives (3-7), were isolated from the culture of marine fungus Alternaria sp. The structures were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic approach ((1)H, (13)C NMR, HMBC, COSY, and NOESY) and the low-temperature (100 K) single-crystal X-ray crystallography analysis. The antimicrobial assays of tricycloalternarenes I (1) and J (2) were tested. PMID:25402226

Shi, Xiu; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Wen-Jing; Hua, Cheng-Pin; Chen, Chao-Jun; Ge, Hui-Ming; Tan, Ren-Xiang; Jiao, Rui-Hua

2015-02-01

104

Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles  

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Abstract Introduction In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae), wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow) and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent ...

De Fine Licht Henrik H; Biedermann Peter H W

2012-01-01

105

Symbiotic Fungi Produce Laccases Potentially Involved in Phenol Degradation in Fungus Combs of Fungus-Growing Termites in Thailand†  

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Fungus-growing termites efficiently decompose plant litter through their symbiotic relationship with basidiomycete fungi of the genus Termitomyces. Here, we investigated phenol-oxidizing enzymes in symbiotic fungi and fungus combs (a substrate used to cultivate symbiotic fungi) from termites belonging to the genera Macrotermes, Odontotermes, and Microtermes in Thailand, because these enzymes are potentially involved in the degradation of phenolic compounds during fungus comb aging. Laccase ac...

Taprab, Yaovapa; Johjima, Toru; Maeda, Yoshimasa; Moriya, Shigeharu; Trakulnaleamsai, Savitr; Noparatnaraporn, Napavarn; Ohkuma, Moriya; Kudo, Toshiaki

2005-01-01

106

Ultastructure of the hyphae of ecfendomycorrhizal fungus of Scotch pine  

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The analysis of the transverse septa of the mycelium of an ectendomycorrhizal fungus of the pine (strain MrgX 1) using a transmission electron microscope has shown that the septa contain simple pores, which indicates that the fungus belongs to the Ascomycetes.

Roman Pachlewski; Józef Koco?

1985-01-01

107

Bacterial farming by the fungus Morchella crassipes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interactions between bacteria and fungi, the main actors of the soil microbiome, remain poorly studied. Here, we show that the saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal soil fungus Morchella crassipes acts as a bacterial farmer of Pseudomonas putida, which serves as a model soil bacterium. Farming by M. crassipes consists of bacterial dispersal, bacterial rearing with fungal exudates, as well as harvesting and translocation of bacterial carbon. The different phases were confirmed experimentally using cell counting and (13)C probing. Common criteria met by other non-human farming systems are also valid for M. crassipes farming, including habitual planting, cultivation and harvesting. Specific traits include delocalization of food production and consumption and separation of roles in the colony (source versus sink areas), which are also found in human agriculture. Our study evidences a hitherto unknown mutualistic association in which bacteria gain through dispersal and rearing, while the fungus gains through the harvesting of an additional carbon source and increased stress resistance of the mycelium. This type of interaction between fungi and bacteria may play a key role in soils. PMID:24174111

Pion, Martin; Spangenberg, Jorge E; Simon, Anaele; Bindschedler, Saskia; Flury, Coralie; Chatelain, Auriel; Bshary, Redouan; Job, Daniel; Junier, Pilar

2013-12-22

108

Ribonucleic acids in different tea fungus beverages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In human nutrition, nucleic acids have to be balanced and limited up to 2 g/day because purines are degraded to urate, and excessive production of urate is a cause of gout which primarily affects adult males. Tea fungus beverage is a well known drink with high nutritional value and certain curative effects. Its benefits have been proved in a number of studies but it is still necessary to examine some potential harmful effects of this beverage. The aim of this paper was to investigate content of ribonucleic acids (RNA produced during tea fungus fermentation on a usual substrate sweetened black tea, and on Jerusalem artichoke tubers (J.A.T extract using method by Munro and Fleck (1966. pH, ribonucleic acids and also the production of proteins that affect purity of nucleic acids preparations were monitored. A higher value of RNA has been noticed in J.A.T. beverage (0.57 mg/ml and with observation of usual daily dose of the beverage it is completely safe and useful one.

Malbaša Radomir V.

2003-01-01

109

Modified atmosphere treatments as a potential disinfestation technique for arthropod pests in greenhouses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Incidental transport of arthropods on plant material can be a significant mode of pest entry into greenhouses. We evaluated the use of controlled atmosphere treatments as a potential way to eliminate arthropod pests on plant propagules (i.e., cuttings or small rooted plants). Lethal exposures to CO2 or N2 were determined for common greenhouse pests including fungus gnat larvae, Bradysia sp.; green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer); sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia sp.; twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch; and western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande). We also studied the effect of pest species, life stage, and presence or absence of plants on efficacy of modified atmosphere treatments. Finally, effects of modified atmospheres on plant quality were evaluated for several bedding plant species including begonia, Begonia semperflorens-cultorum Hort. 'Cocktail Series', chrysanthemum, Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev., geranium, Pelargonium X hortorum L.H. Bailey, and impatiens, Impatiens wallerana Hook f., and among cultivars of geranium and chrysanthemum. Exposure for 12-18 h to >99% N2 or CO2 caused complete mortality of aphids, mites, thrips, and whiteflies. Fungus gnat larvae were more tolerant of hypoxic conditions. Adult mites and eggs were equally susceptible. For most pests, there was no difference in response to atmospheres modified by CO2 or N2. However, there was variation in response among plant species and cultivars, with effects ranging from delayed flowering to mortality. Despite the possibility of adverse effects on some plants, this work indicates that use of modified atmospheres has potential to eliminate arthropod pests on plant propagules before they are introduced into greenhouses. PMID:11332835

Held, D W; Potter, D A; Gates, R S; Anderson, R G

2001-04-01

110

SYSTEMIC INFECTION AND RELATED FUNGUS: AN OVERVIEW  

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Full Text Available A fungus is a member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds (British English: moulds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which are separate from plants, animals, and bacteria. One major difference is that fungal cells have cell walls that contain chitin, unlike the cell walls of plants, which contain cellulose. Many fungi play a crucial role in decomposition (breaking things down and returning nutrients to the soil. They are also used in medicine, an example is the antibiotic penicillin, as well as in industry and food preparation. In the present time the microbes are to be seen as disease causing organisms harming the mankind. The harm done by this community cannot be taken lightly as they are also useful in many ways. The above article is an effort to bring out the various fungal issued related to human.

Saha Rajsekhar

2011-06-01

111

An insect parasitoid carrying an ochratoxin producing fungus  

Science.gov (United States)

The insect parasitoid Prorops nasuta has been introduced from Africa to many coffee-producing countries in an attempt to control the coffee berry borer. In this paper, we report on the sequencing of the ITS LSU-rDNA and beta-tubulin loci used to identify a fungus isolated from the cuticle of a P. nasuta that emerged from coffee berries infected with the coffee berry borer. The sequences were compared with deposits in GenBank and the fungus was identified as Aspergillus westerdijkiae. The fungus tested positive for ochratoxin A production, with varying levels depending on the media in which it was grown. These results raise the possibility that an insect parasitoid might be disseminating an ochratoxin-producing fungus in coffee plantations.

Vega, Fernando E.; Posada, Francisco; Gianfagna, Thomas J.; Chaves, Fabio C.; Peterson, Stephen W.

2006-06-01

112

Maxillary sinus infection caused by the homobasidiomycetous fungus Schizophyllum commune.  

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We investigated a case of maxillary sinus infection caused by the medusoid mutant of the basidiomycetous fungus Schizophyllum commune. Morphologies of both typical and medusoid forms of S. commune were determined. Prior reports of pathogenic homobasidiomycetes are discussed.

Kern, M. E.; Uecker, F. A.

1986-01-01

113

Efficiency of Actinomycetes Against Phytopathogenic Fungus of Chilli Anthracnose  

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Phytopathogenic fungus as Colletotricum gloeosporioides is a cause of disease on chilli and wide varieties of agricultural crops resulting in yield loss. The aim of this study was to screened actinomycetes according to its ability to produce various secondary metabolites with inhibition activity against chilli anthracnose. Firstly, actinomycetes from previously study were tested for antagonistic activity toward the fungus by the dual culture technique. Finally, extracellular antifungal...

Sinma, K.; Khucharoenphaisan, K.; Lorrungruang, C.

2013-01-01

114

Termite-egg mimicry by a sclerotium-forming fungus  

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Mimicry has evolved in a wide range of organisms and encompasses diverse tactics for defence, foraging, pollination and social parasitism. Here, I report an extraordinary case of egg mimicry by a fungus, whereby the fungus gains competitor-free habitat in termite nests. Brown fungal balls, called ‘termite balls’, are frequently found in egg piles of Reticulitermes termites. Phylogenetic analysis illustrated that termite-ball fungi isolated from different hosts (Reticulitermes speratus, Re...

Matsuura, Kenji

2006-01-01

115

Solubilization of lignin by the ruminal anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum.  

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The ability of the ruminal anaerobic phycomycete Neocallimastix patriciarum to digest model lignin compounds and lignified structures in plant material was studied in batch culture. The fungus did not degrade or transform model lignin compounds that were representative of the predominant intermonomer linkages in lignin, nor did it solubilize acid detergent lignin that had been isolated from spear grass. In a stem fraction of sorghum, 33.6% of lignin was apparently solubilized by the fungus. S...

Mcsweeney, C. S.; Dulieu, A.; Katayama, Y.; Lowry, J. B.

1994-01-01

116

Contributions to the study of Pseudopeziza trifolii (Bernh. Fuck. fungus  

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Full Text Available The present paper communicates the results of the laboratory experiments concerning the behaviour of the Pseudopeziza trifolii (Bernh. Fuck. fungus that produces the clover brown leaf spot, in different culture mediums. The mycelium of the fungus develops at its best on the peptone-glucose-agar medium. The appearance of pycnides of Sporonema phacidioides Desm. type in vitro, has been reported for the fourth time in Romania especially developing on the potatoe-dextrosis-agar and plum-agar mediums.

Despina MUSAT

1966-08-01

117

Characterization of fungus-specific microsatellite markers in the lichen-forming fungus Parmelina carporrhizans (Parmeliaceae)1  

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• Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed to study the lichen-forming fungus Parmelina (Parmeliaceae) in different habitats of western Europe and the Mediterranean for baseline studies to understand the effects of climate change on its distribution.

Alors, David; Dal Grande, Francesco; Schmitt, Imke; Kraichak, Ekaphan; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten; Crespo, Ana; Divakar, Pradeep K.

2014-01-01

118

Specificity in the interaction between an epibiotic clavicipitalean fungus and its convolvulaceous host in a fungus/plant symbiotum  

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Ipomoea asarifolia and Turbina corymbosa (Convolvulaceae) are associated with epibiotic clavicipitalean fungi responsible for the presence of ergoline alkaloids in these plants. Experimentally generated plants devoid of these fungi were inoculated with different epibiotic and endophytic fungi resulting in a necrotic or commensal situation. A symbiotum of host plant and its respective fungus was best established by integration of the fungus into the morphological differentiation of the host pl...

Steiner, Ulrike; Hellwig, Sabine; Leistner, Eckhard

2008-01-01

119

Candicidin-producing Streptomyces support leaf-cutting ants to protect their fungus garden against the pathogenic fungus Escovopsis  

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Leaf-cutting ants such as Acromyrmex octospinosus live in obligate symbiosis with fungi of the genus Leucoagaricus, which they grow with harvested leaf material. The symbiotic fungi, in turn, serve as a major food source for the ants. This mutualistic relation is disturbed by the specialized pathogenic fungus Escovopsis sp., which can overcome Leucoagaricus sp. and thus destroy the ant colony. Microbial symbionts of leaf-cutting ants have been suggested to protect the fungus garden against Es...

Haeder, Susanne; Wirth, Rainer; Herz, Hubert; Spiteller, Dieter

2009-01-01

120

The first fossil fungus gardens of Isoptera: oldest evidence of symbiotic termite fungiculture (Miocene, Chad basin)  

Science.gov (United States)

Higher termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae (fungus-growing termites) are known to build fungus gardens where a symbiotic fungus ( Termitomyces sp.) is cultivated. The fungus grows on a substrate called fungus comb, a structure built with the termites’ own faeces. Here we present the first fossil fungus combs ever found in the world. They were extracted from 7-million-year-old continental sandstone (Chad basin). Fossilized fungus combs have an ovoid morphology with a more or less flattened concave base and a characteristic general alveolar aspect. Under lens, they display a typical millimetre-scale pelletal structure. The latter, as well as the general shape and alveolar aspect, are similar to the morphology of fungus combs from extant fungus-growing termites.

Duringer, Philippe; Schuster, Mathieu; Genise, Jorge F.; Likius, Andossa; Mackaye, Hassan Taisso; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

2006-12-01

 
 
 
 
121

[Polysaccharides of the fungus Cunninghamella japonica mycelium].  

Science.gov (United States)

Preliminary data on the polysaccharide composition of mycelium of the submerged grown fungus Cunninghamella japonica (synonymous with C. echinulata) were obtained. Mild acid hydrolysis of the mycelium led to formation of glucose, mannose and galactose, whereas acid treatment under drastic conditions afforded glucosamine as the hydrolysis product of chitin and chitosan, the summary content of both glucosaminoglycans being estimated as about 35%. Sequential treatment of the mycelium with hot water, 2% aqueous NaOH and 10% AcOH gave rise to several polysaccharide fractions, which were characterized by their monosaccharide composition. The yield ofchitosan extracted by AcOH was negligible. Additional purification of the fraction obtained by the action of alkali afforded a polysaccharide preparation, which was shown to be a linear (1-->3)-alpha-D-glucopyranan according to the data of chemical methods of structural analysis and NMR spectroscopy. It was concluded that Cunninghamella japonica differs from several other known representatives of Mucorales by the presence of this alpha-D-glucan, as well as by low content of chitosan and polyuronides. PMID:22792730

Andriianova, D A; Smirnova, G P; Galanina, L A; Feofilova, E P; Usov, A I

2012-01-01

122

Isolated Polynucleotides and Methods of Promoting a Morphology in a Fungus  

Science.gov (United States)

The invention includes isolated polynucleotide molecules that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention includes a method of enhancing a bioprocess utilizing a fungus. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to a promoter. The polynucleotide sequence is expressed to promote a first morphology. The first morphology of the transformed fungus enhances a bioprocess relative to the bioprocess utilizing a second morphology.

Lasure, Linda L. (Fall City, WA) [Fall City, WA; Dai, Ziyu (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA

2008-10-21

123

Enraizamento de estacas de três espécies silvestres de Passiflora Cutting rooting of three wild Passiflora species  

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Full Text Available Em ambiente com nebulização controlada, estacas herbáceas com um par de folhas, contendo 2 ou 3 nós, foram testadas quanto ao enraizamento, utilizando-se de bandeja de poliestireno com célula de 95cm³ e saco plástico de 15x25x0,02cm com 1.730 cm³. Foram testadas estacas de Passiflora actinia, P. serrato-digitata e P. setacea. Observou-se que P. serrato-digitata apresentou 94,3% de estacas enraizadas com brotos e 2,4% de mortalidade; enquanto P. actinia e P. setacea apresentaram, respetivamente, 30,5% e 28,6% de estacas enraizadas com brotos e 56,8% e 60,7% de mortalidade. A alta mortalidade das estacas foi atribuída ao estado fenológico das matrizes de P. actinia e P. setacea e ao ataque de larvas de bradisia (Bradysia spp. Estacas com dois e três nós não apresentaram diferenças significativas, e o recipiente saco plástico de 1.730 cm³ proporcionou melhor desenvolvimento das mudas.Steam cuttings of three wild Passiflora species where tested for rooting in a mist regulated greenhouse. Cuttings with two or three buds were used with two kinds of containers: polystyrene trays with 95 cm³ cells and perforated plastic bags of 15x25x0.02cm, with 1,730 cm³. Passiflora serrato-digitata was the best, with 94.3% of rooted cuttings with shoots e only 2.4% of death cuttings. P. actinia and P. setacea showed , respectivelly, 30.5% and 28.6% of rooted cuttings and 56.8% and 60.7%, of death cuttings. The high death were attribute to phenological phases of P. actinia and P. setacea or injury caused by fungus-gnat larvae (Bradysia spp.. Cuttings with two or three buds didn't show differences among them. Plastic bags proporcioned the best results, increasing rooted cuttings and plant development.

Marcelo Fideles Braga

2006-08-01

124

Fungus and chronic rhinosinusitis: from bench to clinical understanding.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although fungus-related sinusitis has been described for at least 2 centuries, a more detailed pathologic description of the problem as it relates to eosinophilic disease was not detailed until 1983, when "allergic fungal sinusitis" was described histopathologically. Until then, most fungal sinus disease was perceived to occur in immunosuppressed diabetic patients with invasive fungus. It is now acknowledged that depending upon the immune status of the host, fungus-related sinus disease can take several forms. Interest in this subject matter was intensified in 1999, when it was suggested that fungi might be an important cause of most cases of chronic rhinosinusitis. This hypothesis remains controversial, and there is mounting evidence to support the multifactorial nature of chronic rhinosinusitis, which may include fungus. In fact, etiologic factors for all forms of fungus-related sinus disease are still poorly understood. The prevalence of the disease and the dominant fungal pathogen appear to vary in different geographic regions and probably are related to individual host conditions. Immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic reactions to mold appear to be associated with disease in some patients, but not in all. Although antifungal therapy is known to be lifesaving for invasive disease, its role in extramucosal disease is less well defined. Preliminary trials suggest that some systemic and topical antifungal agents are of clinical benefit in extramucosal disease. Since sinus fungi are rarely invasive in immunocompetent individuals, it is not clear whether the effects of the antifungal treatments are a result of the antifungal action itself, or due to additional properties these drugs possess. This review summarizes the available data and presents some of our clinical and experimental findings as to the role of fungus in chronic rhinosinusitis. PMID:17040015

Lanza, Donald C; Dhong, Hun-Jong; Tantilipikorn, Pongsakorn; Tanabodee, Jirayu; Nadel, Douglas M; Kennedy, David W

2006-09-01

125

Isolation and identification of iron ore-solubilising fungus  

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Full Text Available Potential mineral-solubilising fungi were successfully isolated from the surfaces of iron ore minerals. Four isolates were obtained and identified by molecular and phylogenetic methods as close relatives of three different genera, namely Penicillium (for isolate FO, Alternaria (for isolates SFC2 and KFC1 and Epicoccum (for isolate SFC2B. The use of tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO42in phosphate-solubilising experiments confirmed isolate FO as the only phosphate solubiliser among the isolated fungi. The bioleaching capabilities of both the fungus and its spent liquid medium were tested and compared using two types of iron ore materials, conglomerate and shale, from the Sishen Iron Ore Mine as sources of potassium (K and phosphorus (P. The spent liquid medium removed more K (a maximum of 32.94% removal, from conglomerate, than the fungus (a maximum of 21.36% removal, from shale. However, the fungus removed more P (a maximum of 58.33% removal, from conglomerate than the spent liquid medium (a maximum of 29.25% removal, from conglomerate. The results also indicated a potential relationship between the removal of K or P and the production of organic acids by the fungus. A high production of gluconic acid could be related to the ability of the fungus to reduce K and P. Acetic, citric and maleic acids were also produced by the fungus, but in lower quantities. In addition, particle size and iron ore type were also shown to have significant effects on the removal of potassium and phosphorus from the iron ore minerals. We therefore conclude that the spent liquid medium from the fungal isolate FO can potentially be used for biobeneficiation of iron ore minerals.

Damase Khasa

2010-09-01

126

Isolation and identification of iron ore-solubilising fungus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Potential mineral-solubilising fungi were successfully isolated from the surfaces of iron ore minerals. Four isolates were obtained and identified by molecular and phylogenetic methods as close relatives of three different genera, namely Penicillium (for isolate FO), Alternaria (for isolates SFC2 an [...] d KFC1) and Epicoccum (for isolate SFC2B). The use of tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) in phosphate-solubilising experiments confirmed isolate FO as the only phosphate solubiliser among the isolated fungi. The bioleaching capabilities of both the fungus and its spent liquid medium were tested and compared using two types of iron ore materials, conglomerate and shale, from the Sishen Iron Ore Mine as sources of potassium (K) and phosphorus (P). The spent liquid medium removed more K (a maximum of 32.94% removal, from conglomerate), than the fungus (a maximum of 21.36% removal, from shale). However, the fungus removed more P (a maximum of 58.33% removal, from conglomerate) than the spent liquid medium (a maximum of 29.25% removal, from conglomerate). The results also indicated a potential relationship between the removal of K or P and the production of organic acids by the fungus. A high production of gluconic acid could be related to the ability of the fungus to reduce K and P. Acetic, citric and maleic acids were also produced by the fungus, but in lower quantities. In addition, particle size and iron ore type were also shown to have significant effects on the removal of potassium and phosphorus from the iron ore minerals. We therefore conclude that the spent liquid medium from the fungal isolate FO can potentially be used for biobeneficiation of iron ore minerals.

Rasheed, Adeleke; Eugene, Cloete; Damase, Khasa.

2010-10-01

127

A new cytosporone derivative from the endophytic fungus Cytospora sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Japanese oak wilt (JOW) is a tree disease caused by the fungus Raffaelea quercivora, which is vectored by the ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus. In a screening study of the inhibitory active compounds from fungi, a new cytosporone analogue, compound 1, was isolated from the endophytic fungus Cytospora sp. TT-10 isolated from Japanese oak, together with the known compounds, integracin A (2), cytosporones N (3) and A (4). Their structures were determined by extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic and mass spectral analyses. Compound 1 was identified as 4,5-dihydroxy-3-heptylphthalide and named cytosporone E. Compounds 2 and 3 showed antimicrobial activity against Raffaelea quercivora. PMID:25230507

Takano, Tomoya; Koseki, Takuya; Koyama, Hiromasa; Shiono, Yoshihito

2014-07-01

128

Experimental study of Aspergillus flavus fungus from uranium mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cultivation is discussed of fungus strain Aspergillus flavus obtained from materials from uranium mines. It was found that an addition of 0.6 g of uranium in form of uranyl acetate or of 0.6 g of thorium in form on thorium nitrate in 1000 ml of the standard medium had stimulating effects on the growth and sporulation of Aspergillus flavus. Irradiating the cultivated fungus through a polyethylene foil did not show a stimulating effect. It is stated that uranium and its daughters must be directly present in the culture medium for their stimulating effect on growth and sporulation to manifest itself. (H.S.)

129

Characterization of manganese peroxidases from the hyperlignolytic fungus IZU-154.  

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Four isozymes of manganese peroxidase (MnP) were identified in the culture fluid of the hyperlignolytic fungus IZU-154 under nitrogen starvation conditions. One of them was purified and characterized kinetically. The specific activity and Kcat/K(m) value of the MnP from IZU-154 were 1.6 times higher than those of the MnP from a typical lignin-degrading fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Two cDNAs encoding MnP isozymes from IZU-154 were isolated. The coding sequence of the two cDNAs, IZ-MnP1...

Matsubara, M.; Suzuki, J.; Deguchi, T.; Miura, M.; Kitaoka, Y.

1996-01-01

130

Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae, wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. Results We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-?-1,3(4-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-?-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Conclusion Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily accessible hemicellulose components of the ray-parenchyma cells in the wood xylem. Furthermore, the detection of xylanolytic enzymes exclusively in larvae (which feed on fungus colonized wood and not in adults (which feed only on fungi indicates that only larvae (pre- digest plant cell wall structures. This implies that in X. saxesenii and likely also in many other ambrosia beetles, adults and larvae do not compete for the same food within their nests - in contrast, larvae increase colony fitness by facilitating enzymatic wood degradation and fungus cultivation.

De Fine Licht Henrik H

2012-06-01

131

Nova Scotia Museum of Natural History: The Fungus Among Us  

Science.gov (United States)

Created by the Nova Scotia Museum of Natural History, this website on fungus is fun and informative. The site provides information on variety of fungus topics including Fungal Science, Funky Fungi Facts, Fungal Folklore, Finding Fungi, and more. One great site feature is the Meet the Mushrooms: Fungi A-Z, which allows site visitors to locate scientific names, information, and beautiful photos of many varieties of mushrooms. The site contains a Glossary with definitions for words like Amoeboid, Bolete, Cortina, Myxostelida, and many more. French and English versions of the site are available.

132

Bionectriol A, a polyketide glycoside from the fungus Bionectria sp. associated with the fungus-growing ant, Apterostigma dentigerum.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new polyketide glycoside, bionectriol A (1), was produced by a fungal culture of Bionectria sp., which was isolated from a fungus garden of the fungus-growing ant Apterostigma dentigerum, in Costa Rica. The structure of bionectriol A was determined mainly through NMR and mass spectroscopic data, as well as UV and IR spectra. The relative configurations of the main chain, the pyranohexose, and the pentitol moiety were elucidated by (1)H-(1)H coupling constants and ROESY NMR spectral analysis. PMID:20160864

Freinkman, Elizaveta; Oh, Dong-Chan; Scott, Jarrod J; Currie, Cameron R; Clardy, Jon

2009-12-01

133

Efficiency of Actinomycetes Against Phytopathogenic Fungus of Chilli Anthracnose  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phytopathogenic fungus as Colletotricum gloeosporioides is a cause of disease on chilli and wide varieties of agricultural crops resulting in yield loss. The aim of this study was to screened actinomycetes according to its ability to produce various secondary metabolites with inhibition activity against chilli anthracnose. Firstly, actinomycetes from previously study were tested for antagonistic activity toward the fungus by the dual culture technique. Finally, extracellular antifungal metabolites produced by selected isolates were evaluated for antifungal potential toward the fungus with agar core technique. Eighty three strains of actinomycetes were screened for their antifungal as well as phytopathogenic activity. Among these, 26 isolates were shown the inhibition activities against Colletotricum gloeosporioides chi in which was isolated from infected chilli. The culture supernatants obtained from 21 actinomycetes strains were affective against the fungus. More interestingly, 7 isolates produced affective thermostable compound that having activity after treated with temperature of 121°C for 20 min. In total, the isolate R58 was most promising on the basis of its interesting antimicrobial activity and it could reduce anthracnose disease of chilli comparing to the absence of biocontrol agent. Based on morphological character, its 16S rDNA sequence and phylogenetic tree analysis, isolate R58 belong to the Streptomyces malaysiensis. These findings have increased the scope of agriculturally important actinomycetes.

K. Sinma

2013-01-01

134

Using copper sulfate to control fungus on fish eggs  

Science.gov (United States)

Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is widely used by the catfish industry as an economical treatment to control fungus (Saprolegnia spp.) on catfish eggs. This is an overview of our effectiveness and safety studies. Channel catfish spawns were 24 - 48 hrs old. Comparable portions of a single spawn were place...

135

PESTALOTIOPSIS MACULANS IS A PARASYMBIONTIC FUNGUS IN NORTH AMERICAN LICHENS  

Science.gov (United States)

By culturing small thallus portions in nutrient medium, it could be shown that Pestalotiopisis maculans (Corda) Nag Raj is a dominant parasymbiontic fungus in North American lichens. P. maculans was present in all twelve lichen specimens (10 Cladina, 1 Usnea, and 1 Parmetroma) collected in the east...

136

Decomposition of cellulose by the fungus Urvularia Lunata Wakker.  

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Full Text Available Active celluloytic enzymes have been found in the metabolic liquor as well as en the mycelia mat of the fungus Curvularia lunata Wakker. The properties of the enzymes from the metabolic liquor have been investigated in detail and their purification has been attempted.

G. M. Verma

2014-05-01

137

BIODEGRADATION OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM  

Science.gov (United States)

Extensive biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance and mineralization of [14C]PCP in nutrient nitrogen-limited culture. Mass balance analyses demonstrated the formation of water-soluble met...

138

Directed evolution of a filamentous fungus for thermotolerance  

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Abstract Background Filamentous fungi are the most widely used eukaryotic biocatalysts in industrial and chemical applications. Consequently, there is tremendous interest in methodology that can use the power of genetics to develop strains with improved performance. For example, Metarhizium anisopliae is a broad host range entomopathogenic fungus currently under intensive investigation as a biologically based alternative to chemical pesticides. However, it use is lim...

Lyons Thomas J; Lyons Benjamin; Jaronski Stefan; de Crecy Eudes; Keyhani Nemat O

2009-01-01

139

Fun Microbiology: How To Measure Growth of a Fungus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes an experiment to demonstrate a simple method for measuring fungus growth by monitoring the effect of temperature on the growth of Trichoderma viride. Among the advantages that this experimental model provides is introducing students to the importance of using the computer as a scientific tool for analyzing and presenting data. (AIM)

Mitchell, James K.; And Others

1997-01-01

140

Será fungo? / Is it a fungus?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estima-se que as infecções fúngicas superficiais afectem 20 a 25% da população mundial e a sua incidência continua a aumentar. A maioria é causada por dermatófitos, que são fungos que necessitam de queratina para crescer. As alterações produzidas por estes fungos designam-se de dermatofitoses, epide [...] rmofitias ou tinhas. Em Medicina Geral e Familiar é habitual o clínico deparar-se com questões como: «Dr., apareceram-me umas manchas na pele, será um fungo?». Algumas vezes, particularmente em doentes com risco especial como os polimedicados, os diabéticos, os imunodeprimidos ou as crianças, torna-se difícil saber quando é adequado instituir terapêutica oral. O presente artigo tem como objectivo efectuar uma breve revisão das dermatofitoses, com especial enfoque na sua abordagem terapêutica. As tinhas classificam-se de acordo com a sua localização anatómica: tinea capitis no couro cabeludo, tinea pedis nos pés, tinea corporis no corpo, tinea cruris na região inguinal e tinea unguium nas unhas. Um exame clínico cuidado é o primeiro e mais importante passo no diagnóstico das epidermofitias. No entanto, este pode ser estabelecido através de um dos diversos exames: microscopia com hidróxido de potássio, cultura, lâmpada de Wood e biópsia. Na prática clínica, a recolha de amostras para microscopia e cultura é aconselhada quando há necessidade de terapêutica oral, a infecção parece refractária ao tratamento inicial ou o diagnóstico é incerto. Apesar do tratamento tópico ser suficiente, na maioria das dermatofitoses, a terapêutica oral é aconselhada nas tinhas do couro cabeludo, da barba e das unhas. Os antifúngicos tópicos do grupo das alilaminas possibilitam tratamentos mais curtos e taxas de cura maiores do que os antifúngicos do grupo dos azóis. A terbinafina, o itraconazol e o fluconazol são os fármacos mais utilizados para tratamento sistémico. Abstract in english Superficial mycoses are believed to affect 20% to 25% of the world’s population and its incidence continues to increase. They are mainly caused by dermatophytes, which are fungi that require keratin for their growth. Skin lesions produced by these fungi are named dermatomycosis, dermatophytosis, rin [...] gworm or tinea. In Family Medicine, the clinician often has to deal with questions such as: «Dr., some weird spots have appeared in my skin, is it a fungus?». Frequently it is difficult to decide whether it is appropriate to initiate systemic therapy, particularly in higher risk patients, such as the polimedicated, the immunodepressed, the diabetics and the children. This article intends to review dermatophyte infections, focusing especially on their therapeutic management. Tinea is generally classified according to its anatomic location: tinea capitis is located on the scalp, tinea pedis on the feet, tinea corporis on the body, tinea cruris on the groin, and tinea unguium on the nails. A thorough clinical examination is the primary and most important step to diagnose a dermatophyte infection. Yet, it can be established using potassium hydroxide microscopy, fungal culture, Wood’s lamp examination or histologic examination. Samples should be taken for microscopy and culture in severe or extensive skin fungal infections, when oral treatment is being considered, when skin infections are refractory to initial treatment, or when the diagnosis is uncertain. Although topical treatment is enough in the majority of dermatomycosis, oral antifungals are recommended when considering tinea capitis, tinea barbae and tinea unguium. Cure rates are higher and treatment courses are shorter with topical allylamines than with azoles. Terbinafine, itraconazole and fluconazole formulations are the most commonly used antifungals in systemic therapy.

Diana, Tomaz.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Attine ants live in symbiosis with a basidiomycetous fungus that they rear on a substrate of plant material. This indirect herbivory implies that the symbiosis is likely to be nitrogen deprived, so that specific mechanisms may have evolved to enhance protein availability. We therefore hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results: We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing eight genera. We mapped these activity profiles on an independently obtained molecular phylogeny of the symbionts and show that total proteinase activity in lower attine symbionts peaks at ca. pH 6. The higher attine symbionts that have no known free-living relatives had much higher proteinase activities than the lower attine symbionts. Their total in vitro proteinase activity peaked at pH values around 5, which is close to the pH that the ants maintain in their fungus gardens, suggesting that the pH optimum of fungal proteinases may have changed after the irreversible domestication of evolutionary more derived fungal symbionts. This notion is also supported by buffering capacities of fungus gardens at pH 5.2 being remarkably high, and suggests that the fungal symbiont actively helps to maintain garden acidity at this specific level. Metalloproteinases dominated the activity profiles of lower attine gardens and may thus represent the ancestral type of proteinase production, whereas serine proteinase activity dominated the activity profiles of the higher attine gardens reared by Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex, suggesting that there may be trade-offs in the production of these enzyme classes. Remarkably, the single symbiont that is shared by species of the crown group of Atta and Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants mostly showed metalloproteinase activity, suggesting that recurrent changes in enzyme production may have occurred throughout the domestication history of fungus-garden symbionts. Conclusions: Proteinase pH optima and buffering capacities of fungal symbionts appear to have evolved remarkable adaptations to living in obligate symbiosis with farming ants. Although the functional roles of serine and metalloproteinases in fungus gardens are unknown, the differential production of these classes of proteolytic enzymes suggest that substrate specificity may be important and that trade-offs may prevent the simultaneous upregulation of both classes of enzymes.

Semenova, Tatyana; Hughes, David Peter

2011-01-01

142

Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Attine ants live in symbiosis with a basidiomycetous fungus that they rear on a substrate of plant material. This indirect herbivory implies that the symbiosis is likely to be nitrogen deprived, so that specific mechanisms may have evolved to enhance protein availability. We therefore hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing eight genera. We mapped these activity profiles on an independently obtained molecular phylogeny of the symbionts and show that total proteinase activity in lower attine symbionts peaks at ca. pH 6. The higher attine symbionts that have no known free-living relatives had much higher proteinase activities than the lower attine symbionts. Their total in vitro proteinase activity peaked at pH values around 5, which is close to the pH that the ants maintain in their fungus gardens, suggesting that the pH optimum of fungal proteinases may have changed after the irreversible domestication of evolutionary more derived fungal symbionts. This notion is also supported by buffering capacities of fungus gardens at pH 5.2 being remarkably high, and suggests that the fungal symbiont actively helps to maintain garden acidity at this specific level. Metalloproteinases dominated the activity profiles of lower attine gardens and may thus represent the ancestral type of proteinase production, whereas serine proteinase activity dominated the activity profiles of the higher attine gardens reared by Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex, suggesting that there may be trade-offs in the production of these enzyme classes. Remarkably, the single symbiont that is shared by species of the crown group of Atta and Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants mostly showed metalloproteinase activity, suggesting that recurrent changes in enzyme production may have occurred throughout the domestication history of fungus-garden symbionts. Conclusions Proteinase pH optima and buffering capacities of fungal symbionts appear to have evolved remarkable adaptations to living in obligate symbiosis with farming ants. Although the functional roles of serine and metalloproteinases in fungus gardens are unknown, the differential production of these classes of proteolytic enzymes suggest that substrate specificity may be important and that trade-offs may prevent the simultaneous upregulation of both classes of enzymes.

Hughes David P

2011-01-01

143

Formation of the Unusual Semivolatile Diterpene Rhizathalene by the Arabidopsis Class I Terpene Synthase TPS08 in the Root Stele Is Involved in Defense against Belowground Herbivory[W  

Science.gov (United States)

Secondary metabolites are major constituents of plant defense against herbivore attack. Relatively little is known about the cell type–specific formation and antiherbivore activities of secondary compounds in roots despite the substantial impact of root herbivory on plant performance and fitness. Here, we describe the constitutive formation of semivolatile diterpenes called rhizathalenes by the class I terpene synthase (TPS) 08 in roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. The primary enzymatic product of TPS08, rhizathalene A, which is produced from the substrate all-trans geranylgeranyl diphosphate, represents a so far unidentified class of tricyclic diterpene carbon skeletons with an unusual tricyclic spiro-hydrindane structure. Protein targeting and administration of stable isotope precursors indicate that rhizathalenes are biosynthesized in root leucoplasts. TPS08 expression is largely localized to the root stele, suggesting a centric and gradual release of its diterpene products into the peripheral root cell layers. We demonstrate that roots of Arabidopsis tps08 mutant plants, grown aeroponically and in potting substrate, are more susceptible to herbivory by the opportunistic root herbivore fungus gnat (Bradysia spp) and suffer substantial removal of peripheral tissue at larval feeding sites. Our work provides evidence for the in vivo role of semivolatile diterpene metabolites as local antifeedants in belowground direct defense against root-feeding insects. PMID:23512856

Vaughan, Martha M.; Wang, Qiang; Webster, Francis X.; Kiemle, Dave; Hong, Young J.; Tantillo, Dean J.; Coates, Robert M.; Wray, Austin T.; Askew, Whitnee; O’Donnell, Christopher; Tokuhisa, James G.; Tholl, Dorothea

2013-01-01

144

Formation of the unusual semivolatile diterpene rhizathalene by the Arabidopsis class I terpene synthase TPS08 in the root stele is involved in defense against belowground herbivory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Secondary metabolites are major constituents of plant defense against herbivore attack. Relatively little is known about the cell type-specific formation and antiherbivore activities of secondary compounds in roots despite the substantial impact of root herbivory on plant performance and fitness. Here, we describe the constitutive formation of semivolatile diterpenes called rhizathalenes by the class I terpene synthase (TPS) 08 in roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. The primary enzymatic product of TPS08, rhizathalene A, which is produced from the substrate all-trans geranylgeranyl diphosphate, represents a so far unidentified class of tricyclic diterpene carbon skeletons with an unusual tricyclic spiro-hydrindane structure. Protein targeting and administration of stable isotope precursors indicate that rhizathalenes are biosynthesized in root leucoplasts. TPS08 expression is largely localized to the root stele, suggesting a centric and gradual release of its diterpene products into the peripheral root cell layers. We demonstrate that roots of Arabidopsis tps08 mutant plants, grown aeroponically and in potting substrate, are more susceptible to herbivory by the opportunistic root herbivore fungus gnat (Bradysia spp) and suffer substantial removal of peripheral tissue at larval feeding sites. Our work provides evidence for the in vivo role of semivolatile diterpene metabolites as local antifeedants in belowground direct defense against root-feeding insects. PMID:23512856

Vaughan, Martha M; Wang, Qiang; Webster, Francis X; Kiemle, Dave; Hong, Young J; Tantillo, Dean J; Coates, Robert M; Wray, Austin T; Askew, Whitnee; O'Donnell, Christopher; Tokuhisa, James G; Tholl, Dorothea

2013-03-01

145

Candicidin-producing Streptomyces support leaf-cutting ants to protect their fungus garden against the pathogenic fungus Escovopsis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leaf-cutting ants such as Acromyrmex octospinosus live in obligate symbiosis with fungi of the genus Leucoagaricus, which they grow with harvested leaf material. The symbiotic fungi, in turn, serve as a major food source for the ants. This mutualistic relation is disturbed by the specialized pathogenic fungus Escovopsis sp., which can overcome Leucoagaricus sp. and thus destroy the ant colony. Microbial symbionts of leaf-cutting ants have been suggested to protect the fungus garden against Escovopsis by producing antifungal compounds [Currie CR, Scott JA, Summerbell RC, Malloch D (1999) Fungus-growing ants use antibiotic-producing bacteria to control garden parasites. Nature 398:701-704.]. To date, however, the chemical nature of these compounds has remained elusive. We characterized 19 leaf-cutting ant-associated microorganisms (5 Pseudonocardia, 1 Dermacoccus, and 13 Streptomyces) from 3 Acromyrmex species, A. octospinosus, A. echinatior, and A. volcanus, using 16S-rDNA analysis. Because the strain Streptomyces sp. Ao10 proved highly active against the pathogen Escovopsis, we identified the molecular basis of its antifungal activity. Using bioassay-guided fractionation, high-resolution electrospray mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS), and UV spectroscopy, and comparing the results with an authentic standard, we were able identify candicidin macrolides. Candicidin macrolides are highly active against Escovopsis but do not significantly affect the growth of the symbiotic fungus. At least one of the microbial isolates from each of the 3 leaf-cutting ant species analyzed produced candicidin macrolides. This suggests that candicidins play an important role in protecting the fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants against pathogenic fungi. PMID:19270078

Haeder, Susanne; Wirth, Rainer; Herz, Hubert; Spiteller, Dieter

2009-03-24

146

Biodegradation of Phenols by Ligninolytic Fungus Trametes versicolor  

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Full Text Available The white rot fungus isolated from paper mill effluent enriched soil samples and identified as Trametes versicolor was capable of degrading phenol (Mono, di hydroxy and methoxy compounds.14C synthetic lignin mineralization assays showed that Trametes versicolor assimilated 24.3% of the total label. During five days of incubation period, 71% of para-hydroxy benzoic acid was utilized by Trametes versicolor when glucose used as a co-substrate and 56% degradation of protocatechuic acid was achieved using fructose. The presence of laccase (EC.1.10.3.2 and polyphenol oxidase (EC.1.10.3.0 extracellular activity suggested that the fungus secrete these enzymes into the extracellular medium and the extracellular laccase activity was assayed on agarose plates containing ABTS.

C. Udayasoorian

2005-01-01

147

Mycocrystallization of gold ions by the fungus Cylindrocladium floridanum.  

Science.gov (United States)

The size and morphology determines the thermodynamic, physical and electronic properties of metal nanoparticles. The extracellular synthesis of gold nanoparticles by fungus, Cylindrocladium floridanum, which acts as a source of reducing and stabilizing agent has been described. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using techniques such as UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). Based on the evidence of HR-TEM, the synthesized particles were found to be spherical with an average size of 19.05 nm. Powder XRD pattern proved the formation of (111)-oriented face-centered cubic crystals of metallic gold. This microbial approach by fungus for the green synthesis of spherical gold nanoparticles has many advantages such as economic viability, scaling up and environment friendliness. PMID:23736894

Narayanan, Kannan Badri; Sakthivel, Natarajan

2013-11-01

148

White-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans) in bats, Europe.  

Science.gov (United States)

White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus. PMID:20678317

Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kurth, Andreas; Hellmann, David; Weishaar, Manfred; Barlow, Alex; Veith, Michael; Prüger, Julia; Görföl, Tamás; Grosche, Lena; Bontadina, Fabio; Zöphel, Ulrich; Seidl, Hans Peter; Seidl, Hans Peter; Blehert, David S

2010-08-01

149

Lactose enhances cellulase production by the filamentous fungus Acremonium cellulolyticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acremonium cellulolyticus is a fungus that produces cellulase and has been exploited by enzyme industry. To promote cellulase production by A. cellulolyticus strain C-1, we evaluated the effects of the saccharides: Solka Floc (cellulose), soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS), pullulan, lactose, trehalose, sophorose, cellobiose, galactose, sorbose, lactobionic acid, and mixtures as carbon sources for cellulase production. Solka Floc with SSPS enhanced cellulase production. Lactose as the sole carbon source induced cellulase synthesis in this fungus, and the synergistic effects between lactose and Solka Floc was observed. Various enzyme activities and the protein composition of crude enzyme produced by cultures with or without addition of lactose were analyzed. The results showed that lactose addition greatly improves the production of various proteins with cellulase activity by A. cellulolyticus. To our knowledge, this is the first report on production of cellulases by lactose in the A. cellulolyticus. PMID:18804052

Fang, Xu; Yano, Shinichi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Sawayama, Shigeki

2008-08-01

150

Microbial transformation of diosgenin by filamentous fungus Cunninghamella echinulata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbial transformation of diosgenin (1) by suspended-cell cultures of the filamentous fungus Cunninghamella echinulata CGMCC 3.2000 was investigated. Incubation of the substrate diosgenin (1) with this fungus led to the isolation of three products: two known compounds, (25R)-spirost-5-en-3?,7?,12?-triol and (25R)-spirost-5-en-3?,7?,11?-triol, and a new compound (25R)-spirost-5-en-3?,7?,11?-triol. The structural elucidations of the three compounds were achieved mainly by the MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic methods and comparison with known compounds. C. echinulata CGMCC 3.2000 has not been used before in the biotransformation of diosgenin. PMID:21409691

Xiao, Xiao; Liu, Xi-Kui; Fu, Shao-Bin; Sun, Di-An

2011-03-01

151

White-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans) in bats, Europe  

Science.gov (United States)

White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus.

Wibbelt, G.; Kurth, A.; Hellmann, D.; Weishaar, M.; Barlow, A.; Veith, M.; Pruger, J.; Gorfol, T.; Grosche, T.; Bontadina, F.; Zophel, U.; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Cryan, P.M.; Blehert, D.S.

2010-01-01

152

Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Attine ants live in symbiosis with a basidiomycetous fungus that they rear on a substrate of plant material. This indirect herbivory implies that the symbiosis is likely to be nitrogen deprived, so that specific mechanisms may have evolved to enhance protein availability. We therefore hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results W...

Hughes David P; Semenova Tatyana A; Boomsma Jacobus J; Schiøtt Morten

2011-01-01

153

Biodegradation of Phenols by Ligninolytic Fungus Trametes versicolor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The white rot fungus isolated from paper mill effluent enriched soil samples and identified as Trametes versicolor was capable of degrading phenol (Mono, di hydroxy and methoxy) compounds.14C synthetic lignin mineralization assays showed that Trametes versicolor assimilated 24.3% of the total label. During five days of incubation period, 71% of para-hydroxy benzoic acid was utilized by Trametes versicolor when glucose used as a co-substrate and 56% degradation ...

Udayasoorian, C.; Prabu, P. C.

2005-01-01

154

Purification of an Inducible DNase from a Thermophilic Fungus  

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The ability to induce an extracellular DNase from a novel thermophilic fungus was studied and the DNAse purified using both traditional and innovative purification techniques. The isolate produced sterile hyphae under all attempted growing conditions, with an average diameter of 2 µm and was found to have an optimal temperature of 45 °C and a maximum of 65 °C. Sequencing of the internal transcribed region resulted in a 91% match with Chaetomium sp., suggesting a new species, but further cl...

Landry, Kyle S.; Andrea Vu; Levin, Robert E.

2014-01-01

155

The yeast spectrum of the 'tea fungus Kombucha'.  

Science.gov (United States)

The tea fungus 'Kombucha' is a symbiosis of Acetobacter, including Acetobacter xylinum as a characteristic species, and various yeasts. A characteristic yeast species or genus has not yet been identified. Kombucha is mainly cultivated in sugared black tea to produce a slightly acidulous effervescent beverage that is said to have several curative effects. In addition to sugar, the beverage contains small amounts of alcohol and various acids, including acetic acid, gluconic acid and lactic acid, as well as some antibiotic substances. To characterize the yeast spectrum with special consideration given to facultatively pathogenic yeasts, two commercially available specimens of tea fungus and 32 from private households in Germany were analysed by micromorphological and biochemical methods. Yeasts of the genera Brettanomyces, Zygosaccharomyces and Saccharomyces were identified in 56%, 29% and 26% respectively. The species Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Candida kefyr were only demonstrated in isolated cases. Furthermore, the tests revealed pellicle-forming yeasts such as Candida krusei or Issatchenkia orientalis/occidentalis as well as species of the apiculatus yeasts (Kloeckera, Hanseniaspora). Thus, the genus Brettanomyces may be a typical group of yeasts that are especially adapted to the environment of the tea fungus. However, to investigate further the beneficial effects of tea fungus, a spectrum of the other typical genera must be defined. Only three specimens showed definite contaminations. In one case, no yeasts could be isolated because of massive contamination with Penicillium spp. In the remaining two samples (from one household), Candida albicans was demonstrated. The low rate of contamination might be explained by protective mechanisms, such as formation of organic acids and antibiotic substances. Thus, subjects with a healthy metabolism do not need to be advised against cultivating Kombucha. However, those suffering from immunosuppression should preferably consume controlled commercial Kombucha beverages. PMID:8559192

Mayser, P; Fromme, S; Leitzmann, C; Gründer, K

1995-01-01

156

Adhesion of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria (Cordyceps) bassiana to Substrata†  

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The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana produces at least three distinct single-cell propagules, aerial conidia, vegetative cells termed blastospores, and submerged conidia, which can be isolated from agar plates, from rich broth liquid cultures, and under nutrient limitation conditions in submerged cultures, respectively. Fluorescently labeled fungal cells were used to quantify the kinetics of adhesion of these cell types to surfaces having various hydrophobic or hydrophilic propertie...

Holder, Diane J.; Keyhani, Nemat O.

2005-01-01

157

Transcriptional responses in Honey Bee larvae infected with chalkbrood fungus  

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Abstract Background Diseases and other stress factors working synergistically weaken honey bee health and may play a major role in the losses of bee populations in recent years. Among a large number of bee diseases, chalkbrood has been on the rise. We present here the experimental identification of honey bee genes that are differentially expressed in response to infection of honey bee larvae with the chalkbrood fungus, Ascosphaera apis. Results We used ...

Murray Keith D; Aronstein Katherine A; Saldivar Eduardo

2010-01-01

158

Enhancement of ?-xylosidase productivity in cellulase producing fungus Acremonium cellulolyticus  

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Enzymatic hydrolysis is one of the most important processes in bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Acremonium cellulolyticus is a filamentous fungus with high cellulase production but productivity of hemicellulase, especially ?-xylosidase, is lower than other filamentous fungi. We identified 2.4 Kb ?-xylosidase gene in the A. cellulolyticus genome sequence information and it encoded 798 amino acids without introns. To enhance hemicellulase productivity in A. cellulolyticus, ...

Kanna, Machi; Yano, Shinichi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Tatsuya; Sawayama, Shigeki

2011-01-01

159

White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) in Bats, Europe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences...

Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kurth, Andreas; Hellmann, David; Weishaar, Manfred; Barlow, Alex; Veith, Michael; Pru?ger, Julia; Go?rfo?l, Tama?s; Grosche, Lena; Bontadina, Fabio; Zo?phel, Ulrich; Seidl, Hans-peter; Cryan, Paul M.; Blehert, David S.

2010-01-01

160

Biosorption of cadmium using the fungus Aspergillus niger  

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Sorption experiments using the Aspergillus niger fungus for cadmium removal were carried out to study the factors influencing and optimizing the biosorption of this metal. The effects of pH, time, biomass concentration, and initial concentration of the heavy metal on the rate of metallic biosorption were examined. An experimental design was also used to determine the values of the under study variables that provided the greatest biosorption efficiency. A technique for biomass recovery was als...

Barros Júnior L.M.; Macedo G.R.; Duarte M.M.L.; Silva E.P.; Lobato A.K.C.L.

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Signal transduction in the barley powdery mildew fungus  

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?Barley powdery mildew disease is caused by the highly specialised phytopathogenic fungus, Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei. Disease is spread prolifically by the production of asexual conidia. Following contact with the barley leaf surface, a short, primary germ tube (PGT) emerges, followed by elaboration of a second-formed germ tube, the appressorial germ tube (AGT). This second-formed germ tube elongates, swells and hooks to form an appressorium, which allo...

Priddey, Gemma D.

2003-01-01

162

Plant–plant interactions vary with different mycorrhizal fungus species  

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Because different species of mycorrhizal fungi have different effects on the growth of particular plant species, variation in mycorrhizal fungus species composition could cause changes in the strength of plant–plant interactions. Results are presented from a growth chamber experiment that compared the strength of interactions among seedlings of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) when the pines were colonized by two different groups of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the genus Rhizopogon. Plant densi...

Hoeksema, Jason D.

2005-01-01

163

Characterization of the pitch canker fungus, Fusarium circinatum, from Chile  

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Fusarium circinatum is the causal agent of the pine disease commonly referred to as pitch canker. During 2001, a Fusarium species was isolated from dying Pinus radiata clonal hedges in various forestry nurseries in Chile and was subsequently identified as F. circinatum. The aim of the study reported here was to provide a detailed characterization of Chilean isolates of the fungus. Morphological characters included microconidia carried on false heads and produced on polyphialides. Sterile coil...

Jacobs, Adriaana; Coutinho, Teresa A.; Wingfield, Michael J.; Ahumada, Rodrigo; Wingfield, Brenda D.

2007-01-01

164

Two new compounds from the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis versicolor.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new coumarin, 4,6-dihydroxy-7-formyl-3-methylcoumarin (1), and an ?-pyrone derivative, 6-[(7S,8R)-8-propyloxiran-1-yl]-4-methoxy-pyran-2-one (2), together with four known ?-pyrone derivatives (3-6), were isolated from the broth extract of the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis versicolor. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis and by comparison of the chemical shift values with those of related known compounds. PMID:25290251

Yang, Xiao-Long; Huang, Le; Li, Hai-Ying; Yang, Deng-Feng; Li, Zhuang-Zhuang

2014-10-01

165

Fungus mediated synthesis of biomedically important cerium oxide nanoparticles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • First time biological synthesis of cerium oxide oxide nanoparticles using fungus Humicola sp. • Complete characterization of cerium oxide nanoparticles. • Biosynthesis of naturally protein capped, luminescent and water dispersible CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles. • Biosynthesized CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles can be used for many biomedical applications. - Abstract: Nanomaterials can be synthesized by chemical, physical and the more recently discovered biological routes. The biological routes are advantageous over the chemical and physical ones as unlike these, the biological synthesis protocols occur at ambient conditions, are cheap, non-toxic and eco-friendly. Although purely biological and bioinspired methods for the synthesis of nanomaterials are environmentally benign and energy conserving processes, their true potential has not been explored yet and attempts are being made to extend the formation of technologically important nanoparticles using microorganisms like fungi. Though there have been reports on the biosynthesis of oxide nanoparticles by our group in the past, no attempts have been made to employ fungi for the synthesis of nanoparticles of rare earth metals or lanthanides. Here we report for the first time, the bio-inspired synthesis of biomedically important cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) nanoparticles using the thermophilic fungus Humicola sp. The fungus Humicola sp. when exposed to aqueous solutions of oxide precursor cerium (III) nitrate hexahydrate (CeN{sub 3}O{sub 9}·6H{sub 2}O) results in the extracellular formation of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles containing Ce (III) and Ce (IV) mixed oxidation states, confirmed by X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS). The formed nanoparticles are naturally capped by proteins secreted by the fungus and thus do not agglomerate, are highly stable, water dispersible and are highly fluorescent as well. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS)

Khan, Shadab Ali; Ahmad, Absar, E-mail: a.ahmad@ncl.res.in

2013-10-15

166

Fungus mediated synthesis of biomedically important cerium oxide nanoparticles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • First time biological synthesis of cerium oxide oxide nanoparticles using fungus Humicola sp. • Complete characterization of cerium oxide nanoparticles. • Biosynthesis of naturally protein capped, luminescent and water dispersible CeO2 nanoparticles. • Biosynthesized CeO2 nanoparticles can be used for many biomedical applications. - Abstract: Nanomaterials can be synthesized by chemical, physical and the more recently discovered biological routes. The biological routes are advantageous over the chemical and physical ones as unlike these, the biological synthesis protocols occur at ambient conditions, are cheap, non-toxic and eco-friendly. Although purely biological and bioinspired methods for the synthesis of nanomaterials are environmentally benign and energy conserving processes, their true potential has not been explored yet and attempts are being made to extend the formation of technologically important nanoparticles using microorganisms like fungi. Though there have been reports on the biosynthesis of oxide nanoparticles by our group in the past, no attempts have been made to employ fungi for the synthesis of nanoparticles of rare earth metals or lanthanides. Here we report for the first time, the bio-inspired synthesis of biomedically important cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles using the thermophilic fungus Humicola sp. The fungus Humicola sp. when exposed to aqueous solutions of oxide precursor cerium (III) nitrate hexahydrate (CeN3O9·6H2O) results in the extracellular formation of CeO2 nanoparticles containing Ce (III) and Ce (IV) mixed oxidation states, confirmed by X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS). The formed nanoparticles are naturally capped by proteins secreted by the fungus and thus do not agglomerate, are highly stable, water dispersible and are highly fluorescent as well. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS)

167

Oxidative degradation of phenanthrene by the ligninolytic fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ligninolytic fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium oxidized phenanthrene and phenanthrene-9,10-quinone (PQ) at their C-9 and C-10 positions to give a ring-fission product, 2,2'-diphenic acid (DPA), which was identified in chromatographic and isotope dilution experiments. DPA formation from phenanthrene was somewhat greater in low-nitrogen (ligninolytic) cultures than in high-nitrogen (nonligninolytic) cultures and did not occur in uninoculated cultures. The oxidation of PQ to DPA involved bo...

Hammel, K. E.; Gai, W. Z.; Green, B.; Moen, M. A.

1992-01-01

168

Methods for Mutation and Selection of the Ergot Fungus  

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A new method is described in which the Salkowski reaction is used for the rapid selection of alkaloid-producing mutants of the ergot fungus. This method was used to investigate the influence of a second mutation with N-methyl-N?-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG) on various mutants selected by a preliminary NTG mutation of Claviceps sp. strain SD 58. Three groups of mutants were used: high alkaloid producers, low alkaloid producers, and auxotrophs. Results indicated that a second mutation of al...

Srikrai, Suthinee; Robbers, James E.

1983-01-01

169

Optimization of exopectinase activity of the fungus Monilia isolated from tangerine in submerged fermentation  

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Introduction: Diverse groups of microscopic fungi are able to degrade polymeric plant tissues such as pectin. Biodegradation of these materials are mostly applicable in food industries.Materials and Methods: In the present study, the exopectinase producing fungus was isolated from decaying tangerine and its exopectinase activity was studied in submerged fermenting condition. Also, the enzyme production of the isolated fungus was compared to the industrial fungus, Aspergillus niger PTCC 5013. ...

Nafiseh Sadat Naghavi; Saeide Naderi; Kahin Shahanipoor; Mohammad Ali Zia; Ali Asghar Rastegari Esfahani

2012-01-01

170

Caste-specific symbiont policing by workers of Acromyrmex fungus-growing ants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The interaction between leaf-cutting ants and their fungus garden mutualists is ideal for studying the evolutionary stability of interspecific cooperation. Although the mutualism has a long history of diffuse coevolution, there is ample potential for conflicts between the partners over the mixing and transmission of symbionts. Symbiont transmission is vertical by default, and both the ants and resident fungus actively protect the fungal monoculture growing in their nest against secondary introductions of genetically dissimilar symbionts from other colonies. An earlier study showed that mixtures of major and minor Acromyrmex workers eliminate alien fungus fragments even in subcolonies where their resident symbiont is not present. We hypothesize that the different tasks and behaviors performed by majors and minors are likely to select for differential responses to alien fungi. Major workers forage and cut new leaves and masticate them after delivery in the upper parts of the fungus garden and so are likely to more frequently encounter alien fungus than minor workers maintaining the established fungus garden and caring for the brood. We show that major workers of Acromyrmex echinatior indeed express stronger incompatibility reactions toward alien fungus garden fragments than minor workers. This implies that only the major workers, through recognition and exclusion of foreign fungus clones at their point of entry to the nest, have a realistic possibility to eliminate alien fungal tissue before it gets incorporated in the fungus garden and starts competing with the resident fungal symbiont.

Ivens, Aniek B.F.; Nash, David R.

2009-01-01

171

Isolated fungal promoters and gene transcription terminators and methods of protein and chemical production in a fungus  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

Dai, Ziyu; Lasure, Linda L; Magnuson, Jon K

2014-05-27

172

Secretome analysis of the fungus Trichoderma harzianum grown on cellulose.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trichoderma harzianum is a mycoparasitic filamentous fungus that produces and secretes a wide range of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes used in cell wall degradation. Due to its potential in biomass conversion, T. harzianum draws great attention from biofuel and biocontrol industries and research. Here, we report an extensive secretome analysis of T. harzianum. The fungus was grown on cellulose medium, and its secretome was analyzed by a combination of enzymology, 2DE, MALDI-MS and -MS/MS (Autoflex II), and LC-MS/MS (LTQ-Orbitrap XL). A total of 56 proteins were identified using high-resolution MS. Interestingly, although cellulases were found, the major hydrolytic enzymes secreted in the cellulose medium were chitinases and endochitinases, which may reflect the biocontrol feature of T. harzianum. The glycoside hydrolase family, including chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14), endo-N-acetylglucosaminidases (EC 3.2.1.96), hexosaminidases (EC 3.2.1.52), galactosidases (EC 3.2.1.23), xylanases (EC 3.2.1.8), exo-1,3-glucanases (EC 3.2.1.58), endoglucanases (EC 3.2.1.4), xylosidases (EC 3.2.1.37), ?-L-arabinofuranosidase (EC 3.2.1.55), N-acetylhexosaminidases (EC 3.2.1.52), and other enzymes represented 51.36% of the total secretome. Few representatives were classified in the protease family (8.90%). Others (17.60%) are mostly intracellular proteins. A considerable part of the secretome was composed of hypothetical proteins (22.14%), probably because of the absence of an annotated T. harzianum genome. The T. harzianum secretome composition highlights the importance of this fungus as a rich source of hydrolytic enzymes for bioconversion and biocontrol applications. PMID:22745025

Do Vale, Luis H F; Gómez-Mendoza, Diana P; Kim, Min-Sik; Pandey, Akhilesh; Ricart, Carlos A O; Ximenes F Filho, Edivaldo; Sousa, Marcelo V

2012-08-01

173

Directed evolution of a filamentous fungus for thermotolerance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Filamentous fungi are the most widely used eukaryotic biocatalysts in industrial and chemical applications. Consequently, there is tremendous interest in methodology that can use the power of genetics to develop strains with improved performance. For example, Metarhizium anisopliae is a broad host range entomopathogenic fungus currently under intensive investigation as a biologically based alternative to chemical pesticides. However, it use is limited by the relatively low tolerance of this species to abiotic stresses such as heat, with most strains displaying little to no growth between 35–37°C. In this study, we used a newly developed automated continuous culture method called the Evolugator™, which takes advantage of a natural selection-adaptation strategy, to select for thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae strain 2575 displaying robust growth at 37°C. Results Over a 4 month time course, 22 cycles of growth and dilution were used to select 2 thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae. Both variants displayed robust growth at 36.5°C, whereas only one was able to grow at 37°C. Insect bioassays using Melanoplus sanguinipes (grasshoppers were also performed to determine if thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae retained entomopathogenicity. Assays confirmed that thermotolerant variants were, indeed, entomopathogenic, albeit with complex alterations in virulence parameters such as lethal dose responses (LD50 and median survival times (ST50. Conclusion We report the experimental evolution of a filamentous fungus via the novel application of a powerful new continuous culture device. This is the first example of using continuous culture to select for complex phenotypes such as thermotolerance. Temperature adapted variants of the insect-pathogenic, filamentous fungus M. anisopliae were isolated and demonstrated to show vigorous growth at a temperature that is inhibitory for the parent strain. Insect virulence assays confirmed that pathogenicity can be retained during the selection process. In principle, this technology can be used to adapt filamentous fungi to virtually any environmental condition including abiotic stress and growth substrate utilization.

Lyons Thomas J

2009-08-01

174

A fungus disease in fishes of the Gulf of Maine  

Science.gov (United States)

1. A fungus disease of epidemic proportions was found in the common sea herring (Clupea harengus) throughout the Gulf of Maine. 2. The fungus was also found to infect the common winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) and the alewife (Pomobolus pseudoharengus). 3. The causative agent was found to be a species of fungus belonging to the genus Ichthyosporidium Caullery and Mesnil (1905). The specific name is tentatively accepted as hoferi Plehn and Muslow (1911). 4. The organism is believed to be a normal parasite to the herring and reaches epidemic proportions only when certain unknown factors are operative. 5. The causative organism was found in herring preserved in 1926, and it is believed that the epidemic has been increasing in severity since that time. 6. It is believed that such an epidermic, once initiated, increases in severity, reaches a peak, and subsides to a subpatent level. The peak is believed to have been reached in 1931. 7. The life history and effects of the organism in the herring and flounder are described. 8. The herring is believed to acquire the infection by the ingestion of parasites liberated from fish in the same school. 9. The flounder is believed to acquire the infection by the consumption of infected herring. 10. The alewife is believed to acquire the infection by ingestion of the parasite during its infrequent association with the herring. 11. Infection is believed to be established by way of the alimentary canal and, once established, to spread throughout the host by way of the blood stream or the lymphatics. 12. Direct cross infection from the herring to the flounder establishes the theory that the parasites in these two hosts are one and the same organism. 13. Direct cross infection experiments from the herring to the flounder eliminate the necessity of an intermediate host. 14. There is no reason to believe that this parasite is capable of infecting warm-blooded animals.

Fish, F.F.

1934-01-01

175

Studies on biosorption of nickel using immobilized fungus, Rhizomucor tauricus  

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Rhizomucor tauricus, an industrial fungus, was immobilized in sodium alginate and used as adsorbent for the removal of nickel from aqueous solutions. The biosorption capacity of Ni(II) was found to be 394 mg/g of immobilized biomass. It was observed that an increase in pH from 3 to 6 increased the percent adsorption, and an increase in liquid-to-solid ratio from 2 to 10 increased the metal uptake. The percent adsorption was increased when increasing the initial metal concentration from 25 to ...

Kishore Kumar, K.; Krishna Prasad, M.; Sarada, B.; Murthy, Ch V. R.

2012-01-01

176

Chaenothecopsis khayensis, a new resinicolous calicioid fungus on African mahogany.  

Science.gov (United States)

The new species Chaenothecopsis khayensis (Ascomycota, Mycocaliciaceae) is described from Ghana, western Africa, on the resin of Khaya anthotheca and K. ivorensis. The species is distinctive in forming asci without crosiers and in possessing ascospores that are faintly longitudinally striate. Analysis of large subunit rDNA gene sequences positioned this species within a clade corresponding to the Mycocaliciales and identified its closest relative as Sphinctrina leucopoda. Chaenothecopsis khayensis occurs commonly on resin exuding from trees damaged by the larvae of the mahogany shoot borer (Hypsipyla sp.), and we discuss the possible ecological relationship between the fungus and these moths. PMID:21471291

Tuovila, Hanna; Cobbinah, Joseph R; Rikkinen, Jouko

2011-01-01

177

Manganese peroxidases of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida.  

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The ligninolytic enzymes produced by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida in liquid culture were studied. Only manganese peroxidase (MnP) activity could be detected in the supernatant liquid of the cultures. Lignin peroxidase (LiP) and laccase activities were not detected under a variety of different culture conditions. The highest MnP activity levels were obtained in nitrogen-limited cultures grown under an oxygen atmosphere. The enzyme was induced by Mn(II). The initial pH of the cult...

Ru?ttimann-johnson, C.; Cullen, D.; Lamar, R. T.

1994-01-01

178

Tubulin inhibitors from an endophytic fungus isolated from Cedrus deodara.  

Science.gov (United States)

From an endophytic fungus, a close relative of Talaromyces sp., found in association with Cedrus deodara, four compounds including two new ones (2 and 4) were isolated and characterized. The structures of two compounds (1 and 4) were confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The compounds displayed a range of cytotoxicities against human cancer cell lines (HCT-116, A-549, HEP-1, THP-1, and PC-3). All the compounds were found to induce apoptosis in HL-60 cells, as evidenced by fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy studies. Also, the compounds caused significant microtubule inhibition in HL-60 cells. PMID:23387901

Kumar, Manjeet; Qadri, Masroor; Sharma, Parduman Raj; Kumar, Arvind; Andotra, Samar S; Kaur, Tandeep; Kapoor, Kamini; Gupta, Vivek K; Kant, Rajni; Hamid, Abid; Johri, Sarojini; Taneja, Subhash C; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed; Shah, Bhahwal Ali

2013-02-22

179

Phytotoxic compounds from the new coprophilous fungus guanomyces polythrix.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioactivity-directed fractionation of the fermentation broth and mycelium of the coprophilous fungus Guanomyces polythrix led to the isolation of several phytotoxic compounds, including five new naphthopyranone derivatives (1-5). In addition, rubrofusarin B, emodin, citrinin, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid methyl ester were obtained. The structures of the new compounds were established by spectral and chiroptical methods. The isolates caused significant inhibition of radicle growth of two weed seedlings (Amaranthus hypochondriacus and Echinochloa crusgalli) and interacted with both spinach and bovine brain calmodulins. PMID:10869195

Macías, M; Ulloa, M; Gamboa, A; Mata, R

2000-06-01

180

Two new compounds from an endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis heterocornis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new compounds, 7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-4,6-dimethyl-7-O-?-L-rhamnosyl-phthalide and 7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-4,6-dimethyl-7-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-phthalide, along with one known and related metabolite 7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-4,6-dimethylphthalide were isolated from the EtOAc extract of fermentation broth of an endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis heterocornis. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods (UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS, 1D NMR, and 2D NMR). PMID:22115029

Xing, Jian-Guang; Deng, Hui-Ying; Luo, Du-Qiang

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
181

Isoprenylated chromone derivatives from the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis fici.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pestaloficiols F-L (1-7), new isoprenylated chromone derivatives including one heterodimer (7), have been isolated from a scale-up fermentation extract of the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis fici. The structures of these compounds were elucidated primarily by NMR and MS methods. The absolute configurations of 1 and 4 were assigned using the modified Mosher method. Compounds 1-3, 5, and 6 displayed inhibitory effects on HIV-1 replication in C8166 cells, whereas 4-7 showed cytotoxic activity against the human tumor cell lines HeLa and MCF7. PMID:19618920

Liu, Ling; Liu, Shuchun; Niu, Shubin; Guo, Liangdong; Chen, Xulin; Che, Yongsheng

2009-08-01

182

Two new terpenoids from endophytic fungus Periconia sp. F-31.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new terpenoids, (+)-(3S,6S,7R,8S)-periconone A (1) and (-)-(1R,4R,6S,7S)-2-caren-4,8-olide (2), have been isolated from an endophytic fungus Periconia sp., which was collected from the plant Annona muricata. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. In the in vitro assays, the two compounds showed low cytotoxic activities against six human tumor cell lines (HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A549, A2780 and MCF-7) with IC(50)>10(-5) M. PMID:22130377

Ge, Han-Lin; Zhang, De-Wu; Li, Li; Xie, Dan; Zou, Jian-Hua; Si, Yi-Kang; Dai, Jungui

2011-01-01

183

Polyketides from the Halotolerant Fungus Myrothecium sp. GS-17  

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Two new polyketides, myrothecol (1) and 5-hydroxy-3-methyl-4-(1- hydroxylethyl)-furan-2(5H)-one (2), were isolated from the fermentation broth of the halotolerant fungus Myrothecium sp. GS-17 along with three known compounds, 5-hydroxyl-3-[(1S)-1-hydroxyethyl]-4-methylfuran-2(5H)-one (3), 3,5-dimethyl-4- hydroxylmethyl-5-methoxyfuran-2(5H)-one (4), and 3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxymethyl-5- hydroxyfuran-2(5H)-one (5). Compound 1 is the first natural occurring polyketide with a unique furylisobenzof...

Tao Liu; Jing Zhu; Song-Ya Zhang; Zhan-Lin Li; Li-Ping Guan; Hua-Qi Pan; Xin Wu; Jiao Bai; Hui-Ming Hua

2013-01-01

184

Cultivation of tea fungus on malt extract medium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The possibility of application of malt extract as a source of carbohydrate in a medium for tea fungus was investigated. The beverage obtained on such medium was compared with that prepared in a traditional way with sucrose medium. The presence of easily adoptable sugars, glucose and fructose, as dominant in malt medium results in a very effective fermentation, which gives much more sour beverage for the same time and makes it possible to reduce the fermentation period. The obtained beverage has satisfactory sensorial characteristics.

Cvetkovi? Dragoljub D.

2002-01-01

185

BIODEGRADATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOPORIUM: INVOLVEMENT OF THE LIGNIN DEGRADING SYSTEM  

Science.gov (United States)

The white-rot fungus Phanrochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade a wide variety of structurally diverse organic compounds, including a number of environmentally persistent organopollutants. The unique biodegradative abilities of this fungus appears to be depend...

186

BIODEGRADATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHATETE CHRYSOSPORIUM: INVOLVEMENT OF THE LIGNIN DEGRADING SYSTEM  

Science.gov (United States)

The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade's wide variety of structurally diverse organic compounds, including a number of environmentall3 persistent organopollutants. he unique biodegradative abilities of this fungus appears to be dependent upon ...

187

Two novel eremophilane sesquiterpenes from an endophytic Xylariaceous fungus isolated from leaves of Cupressus lusitanica  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two new eremophilane sesquiterpenes, cupressolide A and cupressolide B, along with two known sesquiterpenes, has been characterized from the EtOAc extract of a liquid medium where a Xylariaceous fungus, isolated as an endophytic fungus from health tissues of Cupressus lusitanica leaves, was cultivated. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by analyses of their MS and NMR spectroscopic data. (author)

Amaral, Luciana S.; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson, E-mail: edson@dq.ufscar.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DQ/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

2010-07-01

188

Two novel eremophilane sesquiterpenes from an endophytic Xylariaceous fungus isolated from leaves of Cupressus lusitanica  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two new eremophilane sesquiterpenes, cupressolide A and cupressolide B, along with two known sesquiterpenes, has been characterized from the EtOAc extract of a liquid medium where a Xylariaceous fungus, isolated as an endophytic fungus from health tissues of Cupressus lusitanica leaves, was cultivated. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by analyses of their MS and NMR spectroscopic data. (author)

189

First localities in Poland of the recently described fungus Cordyceps bifusispora  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two localities of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bifusispora, hitherto not reported from Poland, are characterised by their site conditions and co-occurring macrofungi during the period of the appearance of its stromata. Description of this fungus culture is given and some remarks on the resemblance of its teleomorphs and anamorphs from different collections are discussed.

Anna Bujakiewicz

2005-12-01

190

Symbiosis: effects of a mutualistic fungus upon the growth and reproduction of Xyleborus ferrugineus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Xyleborus ferrugineus beetles developed from asymbiontic eggs through the adult stage on a sterilized meridic diet, but the resulting adults reproduced only when a mutualistic fungus was inoculated into the diet. Beetles with bacterial symbionts still required the fungus for reproduction on a second meridic diet. PMID:6024191

Norris, D M; Baker, J K

1967-05-26

191

First localities in Poland of the recently described fungus Cordyceps bifusispora  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two localities of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bifusispora, hitherto not reported from Poland, are characterised by their site conditions and co-occurring macrofungi during the period of the appearance of its stromata. Description of this fungus culture is given and some remarks on the resemblance of its teleomorphs and anamorphs from different collections are discussed.

Anna Bujakiewicz; Joanna Nita; Stanis?aw Ba?azy

2005-01-01

192

Genome Sequence of the Mucoromycotina Fungus Umbelopsis isabellina, an Effective Producer of Lipids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Umbelopsis isabellina is a fungus in the subdivision Mucoromycotina, many members of which have been shown to be oleaginous and have become important organisms for producing oil because of their high level of intracellular lipid accumulation from various feedstocks. The genome sequence of U. isabellina NBRC 7884 was determined and annotated, and this information might provide insights into the oleaginous properties of this fungus.

Takeda, Itaru; Tamano, Koichi; Yamane, Noriko; Ishii, Tomoko; Miura, Ai; Umemura, Myco; Terai, Goro; Baker, Scott E.; Koike, Hideaki; Machida, Masayuki

2014-02-27

193

Susceptibility of Neoaplectana spp. and Heterorhabditis heliothidis to the Endoparasitic Fungus Drechmeria coniospora  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Adhesive conidia of the nematophagous fungus, Drechmeria coniospora (Drechsler) W. Gams and Jansson (Moniliales: Deuteromycetes), would occasionally attach but never penetrate the infective stages of insect parasitic Neoaplectana carpocapsae, N. glaseri, N. bibionis, N. intermedia, and Heterorhabditis helfothidis (Rhabditida). However, adult and pre-infective stages of Neoaplectana spp. became infected by the fungus.

Poinar, George O.; Jansson, Hans-bo?rje

1986-01-01

194

Interactions of polysporous cultures of antagonistic fungus Peneiphora gigantea (Fr.) Massee and some decay fungi of spruce from Stara planina  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the control of the fungus Heterobasidion annosum the most frequently applied method is stump treatment with biological preparations containing dehydrated spores of the saprophytic fungus Phlebiopsis gigantea (syn. Peniophora gigantea /Fr./ Massee). In the field, this fungus is a competitor to the fungus Heterobasidion annosum. This paper presents the results of laboratory analyses of interactions of decay fungi isolated from the root and butt of uprooted spruce trees in the Nature Park &am...

Lazarev Vladimir; Radulovi? Zlatan; Milanovi? Slobodan

2005-01-01

195

Interaction of Rhizobium sp. with Toxin-Producing Fungus in Culture Medium and in a Tropical Soil †  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Experiments were conducted to determine the influence of a toxin-producing fungus on a rhizobial population in yeast-mannitol medium and in a tropical soil. The fungus, which was isolated from a highly weathered soil (Tropeptic Eutrustox), was identified as a Metarhizum sp. The density of rhizobial populations established in yeast-mannitol medium in the absence of the fungus was 105 times higher than that established in its presence. However, the fungus did not exert similar antagonistic infl...

Habte, Mitiku; Barrion, Melinda

1984-01-01

196

Analysis on Blast Fungus-Responsive Characters of a Flavonoid Phytoalexin Sakuranetin; Accumulation in Infected Rice Leaves, Antifungal Activity and Detoxification by Fungus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To understand the role of the rice flavonoid phytoalexin (PA) sakuranetin for blast resistance, the fungus-responsive characteristics were studied. Young rice leaves in a resistant line exhibited hypersensitive reaction (HR) within 3 days post inoculation (dpi) of a spore suspension, and an increase in sakuranetin was detected at 3 dpi, increasing to 4-fold at 4 dpi. In the susceptible line, increased sakuranetin was detected at 4 dpi, but not at 3 dpi, by which a large fungus mass has accum...

Morifumi Hasegawa; Ichiro Mitsuhara; Shigemi Seo; Kazunori Okada; Hisakazu Yamane; Takayoshi Iwai; Yuko Ohashi

2014-01-01

197

Naphthalene, an insect repellent, is produced by Muscodor vitigenus, a novel endophytic fungus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Muscodor vitigenus is a recently described endophytic fungus of Paullinia paullinioides, a liana growing in the understorey of the rainforests of the Peruvian Amazon. This fungus produces naphthalene under certain cultural conditions. Naphthalene produced by M. vitigenus was identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Its chromatographic and mass spectral properties were identical to authentic naphthalene. Agar plugs supporting growth of the fungus and producing known amounts of naphthalene effectively repelled the adult stage of the wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus, in Y-tube bioassay tests. Authentic naphthalene, at comparable concentrations to those in tests involving the fungus itself, mimicked the insect repellency of the fungus. Although other Muscodor spp. produce volatile antimicrobials, M. vitigenus is unique in its ability to produce naphthalene almost exclusively. This report also describes the potential practical implications of M. vitigenus. PMID:12427963

Daisy, Bryn H; Strobel, Gary A; Castillo, Uvidelio; Ezra, David; Sears, Joe; Weaver, David K; Runyon, Justin B

2002-11-01

198

Cytotoxic acyl amides from the soil fungus Gymnascella dankaliensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The soil fungus Gymnascella dankaliensis was collected in the vicinity of the Giza pyramids, Egypt. When grown on solid rice medium the fungus yielded four new compounds including 11'-carboxygymnastatin N (1), gymnastatin S (2), dankamide (3), and aranorosin-2-methylether (4), the latter having been reported previously only as a semisynthetic compound. In addition, six known metabolites (5-10) were isolated. Addition of NaCl or KBr to the rice medium resulted in the accumulation of chlorinated or brominated compounds as indicated by LC-MS analysis due to the characteristic isotope patterns observed. From the rice medium spiked with 3.5% NaCl the known chlorinated compounds gymnastatin A (11) and gymnastatin B (12) were obtained. All isolated compounds were unambiguously structurally elucidated on the basis of comprehensive spectral analysis (1D and 2D NMR, and mass spectrometry), as well as by comparison with the literature. Compounds 4, 7 and 11 showed potent cytotoxicity against the murine lymphoma cell line L5178Y (IC50 values 0.44, 0.58 and 0.64?M, respectively), whereas 12 exhibited moderate activity with an IC50 value of 5.80?M. PMID:25600409

Hammerschmidt, Lena; Aly, Amal H; Abdel-Aziz, Mohammed; Müller, Werner E G; Lin, Wenhan; Daletos, Georgios; Proksch, Peter

2015-02-15

199

Plant–plant interactions vary with different mycorrhizal fungus species  

Science.gov (United States)

Because different species of mycorrhizal fungi have different effects on the growth of particular plant species, variation in mycorrhizal fungus species composition could cause changes in the strength of plant–plant interactions. Results are presented from a growth chamber experiment that compared the strength of interactions among seedlings of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) when the pines were colonized by two different groups of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the genus Rhizopogon. Plant density effects differed between the two groups of mycorrhizal fungi: plant growth was low regardless of density when plants were colonized with pine-specific Rhizopogon species, while plant growth declined with plant density when plants were colonized by Rhizopogon species having a broader host range. This result parallels results from previous studies showing that plant interactions are more antagonistic with mycorrhizal fungi than without, implying that plant responsiveness to beneficial mycorrhizal fungi declines with increasing plant density. If such effects are prevalent in plant communities, then variation in mycorrhizal fungus community composition is predicted to have a density-dependent effect on plants. PMID:17148227

Hoeksema, Jason D

2005-01-01

200

Plant-plant interactions vary with different mycorrhizal fungus species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because different species of mycorrhizal fungi have different effects on the growth of particular plant species, variation in mycorrhizal fungus species composition could cause changes in the strength of plant-plant interactions. Results are presented from a growth chamber experiment that compared the strength of interactions among seedlings of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) when the pines were colonized by two different groups of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the genus Rhizopogon. Plant density effects differed between the two groups of mycorrhizal fungi: plant growth was low regardless of density when plants were colonized with pine-specific Rhizopogon species, while plant growth declined with plant density when plants were colonized by Rhizopogon species having a broader host range. This result parallels results from previous studies showing that plant interactions are more antagonistic with mycorrhizal fungi than without, implying that plant responsiveness to beneficial mycorrhizal fungi declines with increasing plant density. If such effects are prevalent in plant communities, then variation in mycorrhizal fungus community composition is predicted to have a density-dependent effect on plants. PMID:17148227

Hoeksema, Jason D

2005-12-22

 
 
 
 
201

Biotransformation of ?-bromoacetophenones by the marine fungus Aspergillus sydowii.  

Science.gov (United States)

The biotransformation reactions of ?-bromoacetophenone (1), p-bromo-?-bromoacetophenone (2), and p-nitro-?-bromoacetophenone (3) by whole cells of the marine fungus Aspergillus sydowii Ce19 have been investigated. Fungal cells that had been grown in artificial sea water medium containing a high concentration of chloride ions (1.20 M) catalysed the biotransformation of 1 to 2-bromo-1-phenylethanol 4 (56%), together with the ?-chlorohydrin 7 (9%), 1-phenylethan-1,2-diol 9 (26%), acetophenone 10 (4%) and phenylethanol 11 (5%) identified by GC-MS analysis. In addition, it was observed that the enzymatic reaction was accompanied by the spontaneous debromination of 1 to yield ?-chloroacetophenone 5 (9%) and ?-hydroxyacetophenone 6 (18%) identified by GC-FID analysis. When 2 and 3 were employed as substrates, various biotransformation products were detected but the formation of halohydrins was not observed. It is concluded that marine fungus A. sydowii Ce19 presents potential for the biotransformations of bromoacetophenone derivatives. PMID:19941024

Rocha, Lenilson Coutinho; Ferreira, Hercules Vicente; Pimenta, Eli Fernando; Berlinck, Roberto Gomes Souza; Rezende, Maria Olímpia Oliveira; Landgraf, Maria Diva; Seleghim, Mirna Helena Regali; Sette, Lara Durães; Porto, André Luiz Meleiro

2010-10-01

202

Accumulation and chemical states of radiocesium by fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Science.gov (United States)

After accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the fall-out radiocesium was deposited on the ground. Filamentous fungus is known to accumulate radiocesium in environment, even though many minerals are involved in soil. These facts suggest that fungus affect the migration behavior of radiocesium in the environment. However, accumulation mechanism of radiocesium by fungus is not understood. In the present study, accumulation and chemical states change of Cs by unicellular fungus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been studied to elucidate the role of microorganisms in the migration of radiocesium in the environment. Two different experimental conditions were employed; one is the accumulation experiments of radiocesium by S. cerevisiae from the agar medium containing 137Cs and a mineral of zeolite, vermiculite, smectite, mica, or illite. The other is the experiments using stable cesium to examine the chemical states change of Cs. In the former experiment, the cells were grown on membrane filter of 0.45 ?m installed on the agar medium. After the grown cells were weighed, radioactivity in the cells was measured by an autoradiography technique. The mineral weight contents were changed from 0.1% to 1% of the medium. In the latter experiment, the cells were grown in the medium containing stable Cs between 1 mM and 10mM. The Cs accumulated cells were analyzed by SEM-EDS and EXAFS. The adsorption experiments of cesium by the cells under resting condition were also conducted to test the effect of cells metabolic activity. Without mineral in the medium, cells of S. cerevisiae accumulated 1.5x103 Bq/g from the medium containing 137Cs of 2.6x102 Bq/g. When mineral was added in the medium, concentration of 137Cs in the cells decreased. The concentration of 137Cs in the cells from the medium containing different minerals were in the following order; smectite, illite, mica > vermiculite > zeolite. This order was nearly the same as the inverse of distribution coefficient of mineral for 137Cs in the medium solution. The concentration of 137Cs in the cells lowered in the medium containing higher mineral content. These results indicate that radiocesium was competively accumulated in the cells with minerals in the soil. Higher concentration of stable Cs was accumulated in the cells in the metabolically active condition than in the resting cells condition. XAFS analyses showed that the k3-weighted extended-XAFS functions and the radial structural function of Cs accumulated by the cells in the metabolically active condition were similar to those in the resting condition, indicating that chemical states of the accumulated Cs were nearly the same between both conditions. These results indicate that the fungus accumulates radiocesium by competitively with minerals in the soils, and performs higher retardation of the migration of Cs in the metabolically active condition than the resting one. A part of this study is the results of "Multidisciplinary investigation on radiocesium fate and transport for safety assessment for interim storage and disposal of heterogeneous waste" carried out under the Initiatives for Atomic Energy Basic and Generic Strategic Research by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.

Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Yamasaki, Shinya; Yu, Qianqian

2014-05-01

203

Protein profiling of the dimorphic, pathogenic fungus, Penicillium marneffei  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Penicillium marneffei is a pathogenic fungus that afflicts immunocompromised individuals having lived or traveled in Southeast Asia. This species is unique in that it is the only dimorphic member of the genus. Dimorphism results from a process, termed phase transition, which is regulated by temperature of incubation. At room temperature, the fungus grows filamentously (mould phase, but at body temperature (37°C, a uninucleate yeast form develops that reproduces by fission. Formation of the yeast phase appears to be a requisite for pathogenicity. To date, no genes have been identified in P. marneffei that strictly induce mould-to-yeast phase conversion. In an effort to help identify potential gene products associated with morphogenesis, protein profiles were generated from the yeast and mould phases of P. marneffei. Results Whole cell proteins from the early stages of mould and yeast development in P. marneffei were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Selected proteins were recovered and sequenced by capillary-liquid chromatography-nanospray tandem mass spectrometry. Putative identifications were derived by searching available databases for homologous fungal sequences. Proteins found common to both mould and yeast phases included the signal transduction proteins cyclophilin and a RACK1-like ortholog, as well as those related to general metabolism, energy production, and protection from oxygen radicals. Many of the mould-specific proteins identified possessed similar functions. By comparison, proteins exhibiting increased expression during development of the parasitic yeast phase comprised those involved in heat-shock responses, general metabolism, and cell-wall biosynthesis, as well as a small GTPase that regulates nuclear membrane transport and mitotic processes in fungi. The cognate gene encoding the latter protein, designated RanA, was subsequently cloned and characterized. The P. marneffei RanA protein sequence, which contained the signature motif of Ran-GTPases, exhibited 90% homology to homologous Aspergillus proteins. Conclusion This study clearly demonstrates the utility of proteomic approaches to studying dimorphism in P. marneffei. Moreover, this strategy complements and extends current genetic methodologies directed towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of phase transition. Finally, the documented increased levels of RanA expression suggest that cellular development in this fungus involves additional signaling mechanisms than have been previously described in P. marneffei.

Rundle William T

2008-06-01

204

Fungus/Disease Analysis in Tomato Crop using Image Processing Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The crop of tomato is very often infected by a disease that leaves spots of brown, gray or off-white colors on the plant’s leafs in winter. Scientifically, this disease is known as cercospora leaf spot or cercospora cruciferarum. It’s a kind of fungus that often kills young seedlings. The fungus spreads by air and can also infect tomato plants. Therefore, it is important to monitor the leaf at regular intervals so as to keep track on quality of growing tomato crop. In the presented paper, a novel machine vision system has been proposed that visual inspects the leafs coming out of the soil and based on spots on leaves, it determines the nature of fungus and its depth into the tomato steam. The size of the fungus, color depth and location and locus of the fungus on leaves give an accurate determination of crop quality under the soil. In the presented thesis work, the image of the crop leaves are taken by a good quality color camera and processed for getting a gray colored and segmented image depending upon the nature and size of the fungus. A criterion is set for acceptable and rejects crop quality based on the fungus level.

Shruti

2014-07-01

205

Efficacy of Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria Bassiana and Gamma Irradiation Against the Greater Date Moth, Arenipses Sabella  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) was isolated locally from dead larvae of the greater date moth, Arenipses sabella (Hampson) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The effect of three exposure methods and two environmental factors (temperature and relative humidity) on pathogenicity of the fungus with different concentrations to A. sabella second instar larvae were examined. The study demonstrated that the entomopathogenic fungus was most efficient in the control of second instar larvae at 25 degree C and 100% humidity and the percent of mortality was increased when increasing the concentration of fungus. The mode of exposure of fungus to larvae directly sprayed, larvae exposed to the treated dates or larvae both sprayed and exposed to the treated dates showed 56.66, 26.66 and 75% mortality, respectively, at concentration 1x1010 spores/ml and three days post-treatment. The F1 larvae resulting from irradiated male pupae with 150 Gy were more susceptible to pathogenic fungus at low concentration ((1x108 spores/ml) than non-irradiated ones. The scanning electron microscope was used to delineate the morphological stages of fungus to the germinated conidia and the hyphae penetrating the larva cuticle.

206

Purification of an Inducible DNase from a Thermophilic Fungus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ability to induce an extracellular DNase from a novel thermophilic fungus was studied and the DNAse purified using both traditional and innovative purification techniques. The isolate produced sterile hyphae under all attempted growing conditions, with an average diameter of 2 µm and was found to have an optimal temperature of 45 °C and a maximum of 65 °C. Sequencing of the internal transcribed region resulted in a 91% match with Chaetomium sp., suggesting a new species, but further clarification on this point is needed. The optimal temperature for DNase production was found to be 55 °C and was induced by the presence of DNA and/or deoxyribose. Static growth of the organism resulted in significantly higher DNase production than agitated growth. The DNase was purified 145-fold using a novel affinity membrane purification system with 25% of the initial enzyme activity remaining. Electrophoresis of the purified enzyme resulted in a single protein band, indicating DNase homogeneity.

Kyle S. Landry

2014-01-01

207

Purification of an inducible DNase from a thermophilic fungus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability to induce an extracellular DNase from a novel thermophilic fungus was studied and the DNAse purified using both traditional and innovative purification techniques. The isolate produced sterile hyphae under all attempted growing conditions, with an average diameter of 2 µm and was found to have an optimal temperature of 45 °C and a maximum of 65 °C. Sequencing of the internal transcribed region resulted in a 91% match with Chaetomium sp., suggesting a new species, but further clarification on this point is needed. The optimal temperature for DNase production was found to be 55 °C and was induced by the presence of DNA and/or deoxyribose. Static growth of the organism resulted in significantly higher DNase production than agitated growth. The DNase was purified 145-fold using a novel affinity membrane purification system with 25% of the initial enzyme activity remaining. Electrophoresis of the purified enzyme resulted in a single protein band, indicating DNase homogeneity. PMID:24447923

Landry, Kyle S; Vu, Andrea; Levin, Robert E

2014-01-01

208

Oblongolides from the endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp. BCC 9789.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six new oblongolides, W1, W2, X, Y, and Z (1-3, 6, 7) and 2-deoxy-4alpha-hydroxyoblongolide X (4), and the known compounds oblongolide (8), oblongolides T, C, and Q (5, 9, 10), and (-)-5-methylmellein were isolated from the endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp. BCC 9789. Compound 7 showed anti-HSV-1 activity (IC50=14 microM) and cytotoxic activities against KB, BC, NCI-H187, and nonmalignant (Vero) cell lines with respective IC50 values of 37, 26, 32, and 60 microM. Cytotoxic activity against the BC cell line was also observed for compound 6, with an IC50 value of 48 microM. PMID:20038128

Bunyapaiboonsri, Taridaporn; Yoiprommarat, Seangaroon; Srikitikulchai, Prasert; Srichomthong, Kitlada; Lumyong, Saisamorn

2010-01-01

209

Two new steroids from an endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new steroids, (14?,22E)-9,14-dihydroxyergosta-4,7,22-triene-3,6-dione (1) and (5?,6?,15?,22E)-6-ethoxy-5,15-dihydroxyergosta-7,22-dien-3-one (2), together with three known steroids, calvasterols A and B (3 and 4, resp.), and ganodermaside D (5), were isolated from the culture broth of an endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp. isolated from Aconitum carmichaeli. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, and their inhibitory activities against six pathogenic fungi were evaluated. Most of the compounds showed moderate or weak antifungal activities in a broth-microdilution assay. PMID:23847072

Wu, Shao-Hua; Huang, Rong; Miao, Cui-Ping; Chen, You-Wei

2013-07-01

210

Polyketides from the Halotolerant Fungus Myrothecium sp. GS-17  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two new polyketides, myrothecol (1 and 5-hydroxy-3-methyl-4-(1- hydroxylethyl-furan-2(5H-one (2, were isolated from the fermentation broth of the halotolerant fungus Myrothecium sp. GS-17 along with three known compounds, 5-hydroxyl-3-[(1S-1-hydroxyethyl]-4-methylfuran-2(5H-one (3, 3,5-dimethyl-4- hydroxylmethyl-5-methoxyfuran-2(5H-one (4, and 3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxymethyl-5- hydroxyfuran-2(5H-one (5. Compound 1 is the first natural occurring polyketide with a unique furylisobenzofuran skeleton. The structures of these compounds were established via extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D-, 2D-NMR, HRESI-MS, and crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.

Tao Liu

2013-12-01

211

Phytotoxic naphthopyranone derivatives from the coprophilous fungus Guanomyces polythrix.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reinvestigation of the fermentation broth and mycelium of the coprophilous fungus Guanomyces polythrix, grown in static conditions, led to the isolation of several phytotoxic compounds, including two new naphthopyranone derivatives, namely (2S, 3R)-5-hydroxy-6,8-dimethoxy-2,3-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-4H-naphtho[2,3-b]-pyran-4-one and (2S, 3R)-5-hydroxy-6,8,10-trimethoxy-2,3-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-4H-naphtho[2,3-b]-pyran-4-one. The structures of the new compounds were established by spectral and chiroptical methods. In addition, the structure of 8-hydroxy-6-methyl-9-oxo-9H-xanthene-1-carboxylic acid methyl ester was unambiguously determined by X-ray analysis. The isolates caused significant inhibition of radicle growth of two weed seedlings (Amaranthus hypochondriacus and Echinochloa crusgalli) and interacted with both spinach and bovine brain calmodulins. PMID:11672740

Macías, M; Gamboa, A; Ulloa, M; Toscano, R A; Mata, R

2001-11-01

212

Molecular karyotype of the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus is an edible basidiomycete with increasing agricultural and biotechnological importance. Genetic manipulation and breeding of this organism are restricted because of the lack of knowledge about its genomic structure. In this study, we analyzed the genomic constitution of P. ostreatus by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis optimized for the separation of its chromosomes. We have determined that it contains 11 pairs of chromosomes with sizes ranging from 1.4 to 4.7 Mbp. In addition to chromosome separation, the use of single-copy DNA probes allowed us to resolve the ambiguities caused by chromosome comigration. When the two nuclei present in the dikaryon were separated by protoplasting, analysis of their karyotypes revealed length polymorphisms affecting various chromosomes. This is, to our knowledge, the clearest chromosome separation available for this species. PMID:10427028

Larraya, L M; Pérez, G; Peñas, M M; Baars, J J; Mikosch, T S; Pisabarro, A G; Ramírez, L

1999-08-01

213

Biosorption of cadmium using the fungus Aspergillus niger  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sorption experiments using the Aspergillus niger fungus for cadmium removal were carried out to study the factors influencing and optimizing the biosorption of this metal. The effects of pH, time, biomass concentration, and initial concentration of the heavy metal on the rate of metallic biosorption were examined. An experimental design was also used to determine the values of the under study variables that provided the greatest biosorption efficiency. A technique for biomass recovery was also developed with the objective of determining the capacity of the regenerated biomass to biosorb the metals in solution. This research proved that with a pH of 4.75, a biomass concentration of 0.7 g/L, and a heavy metal concentration varying between 5 and 10 mg/L a biosorption process of biosorption with Aspergillus niger could be successfully used for heavy metal removal from oil field water in the oil industry.

L.M. Barros Júnior

2003-09-01

214

Transformation of the plant pathogenic fungus, Rhynchosporium secalis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The barley leaf scald fungus, Rhynchosporium secalis, was transformed to hygromycin-B and phleomycin resistance using the hph gene from E. coli and the ble gene from Streptoalloteichus hindustanus under the control of Aspergillus nidulans promoter and terminator sequences. Plasmid DNA was introduced into fungal protoplasts by PEG/CaCl2 treatment. Transformation frequencies varied from 59 to 493 transformants per 10 microg of DNA and 5 x 10(7) protoplasts. The antibiotic-resistant phenotype appeared to be stable under selective, as well as under non-selective, conditions for several generations. Co-transformation using the E. coli uidA gene under the control of A. nidulans promoter and terminator sequences on a non-selectable plasmid occurred at frequencies of up to 66%. PMID:8662199

Rohe, M; Searle, J; Newton, A C; Knogge, W

1996-05-01

215

Polyketides from the halotolerant fungus Myrothecium sp. GS-17.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new polyketides, myrothecol (1) and 5-hydroxy-3-methyl-4-(1-hydroxylethyl)-furan-2(5H)-one (2), were isolated from the fermentation broth of the halotolerant fungus Myrothecium sp. GS-17 along with three known compounds, 5-hydroxyl-3-[(1S)-1-hydroxyethyl]-4-methylfuran-2(5H)-one (3), 3,5-dimethyl-4- hydroxylmethyl-5-methoxyfuran-2(5H)-one (4), and 3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxymethyl-5- hydroxyfuran-2(5H)-one (5). Compound 1 is the first natural occurring polyketide with a unique furylisobenzofuran skeleton. The structures of these compounds were established via extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D-, 2D-NMR, HRESI-MS, and crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. PMID:24322495

Liu, Tao; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Song-Ya; Li, Zhan-Lin; Guan, Li-Ping; Pan, Hua-Qi; Wu, Xin; Bai, Jiao; Hua, Hui-Ming

2013-01-01

216

Modulation of antimicrobial metabolites production by the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Biosynthesis of active secondary metabolites by fungi occurs as a specific response to the different growing environments. Changes in this environment alter the chemical and biological profiles leading to metabolites diversification and consequently to novel pharmacological applications. In this wor [...] k, it was studied the influence of three parameters (fermentation length, medium composition and aeration) in the biosyntheses of antimicrobial metabolites by the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus in 10 distinct fermentation periods. Metabolism modulation in two culturing media, CYA and YES was evaluated by a 2² full factorial planning (ANOVA) and on a 2³ factorial planning, role of aeration, medium composition and carbohydrate concentration were also evaluated. In overall, 120 different extracts were prepared, their HPLC profiles were obtained and the antimicrobial activity against A. flavus, C. albicans, E. coli and S. aureus of all extracts was evaluated by microdilution bioassay. Yield of kojic acid, a fine chemical produced by the fungus A. parasiticus was determined in all extracts. Statistical analyses pointed thirteen conditions able to modulate the production of bioactive metabolites by A. parasiticus. Effect of carbon source in metabolites diversification was significant as shown by the changes in the HPLC profiles of the extracts. Most of the extracts presented inhibition rates higher than that of kojic acid as for the extract obtained after 6 days of fermentation in YES medium under stirring. Kojic acid was not the only metabolite responsible for the activity since some highly active extracts showed to possess low amounts of this compound, as determined by HPLC.

Adriana A.P., Bracarense; Jacqueline A., Takahashi.

217

Sperm length evolution in the fungus-growing ants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Eusocial insects offer special opportunities for the comparative study of sperm traits because sperm competition is absent (in species with obligatory monandry) or constrained (in lineages where queens mate multiply but never remate later in life). We measured sperm length in 19 species of fungus-growing ants, representing 9 of the 12 recognized genera, and mapped these onto the ant phylogeny. We show that average sperm length across species is highly variable and decreases with mature colony size in basal genera with singly mated queens, suggesting that sperm production or storage constraints affect the evolution of sperm length. Sperm length does not decrease further in multiply mating leaf-cutting ants, despite substantial further increases in colony size. In a combined analysis, sexual dimorphism explained 63.1% of the variance in sperm length between species. As colony size was not a significant predictor in this analysis, we conclude that sperm production trade-offs in males have been the major selective force affecting sperm length across the fungus-growing ants, rather than storage constraints in females. The relationship between sperm length and sexual dimorphism remained robust in phylogenetically independent contrasts. Some of the remaining variation was explained by the relative size of the sperm-storage organ, but only in the multiply mating leaf-cutting ants, suggesting that sperm-storage constraints become important for the evolution of sperm length in this derived group. Mate number affected sperm length to a minor extent, and only in interaction with other predictor variables, suggesting that sperm competition has not been a major selective force for sperm length evolution in these ants.

Baer, B.; Dijkstra, M. B.

2009-01-01

218

[Scytalidium dimidiatum an opportunistic fungus for both man and Mangifera indica trees in Venezuela].  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to confirm the presence of Scytalidium dimidiatum on Mangifera indica (mango) trees, in a plantation managed by a diabetic patient with a white grain mycetoma of the foot caused by the same fungus. Samples from necrotic apices, roots, burned leaves and rotten stems from eight trees were processed by the Smith and Furcolow's mineral oil technique (modified). Several isolates from the apex material and clinical samples from the diabetic patient isolated in pure culture a fungus with the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of that in S. dimidiatum. This fungus should be considered as an opportunistic microorganism for both humans and M. indica. PMID:16309356

Padin, Carmiña; Fernández-Zeppenfeldt, Guillermo; Yegres, Francisco; Richard-Yegres, Nicole

2005-09-01

219

The response of the grape berry moth (Lobesia botrana) to a dietary phytopathogenic fungus (Botrytis cinerea): the significance of fungus sterols.  

Science.gov (United States)

A Tortricidae (Lobesia botrana) has a mutualistic relationship with the fungus (Botrytis cinerea). In this study, we investigated the growth, survival, fecundity and amount of sterols and steroids in larvae of this vineyard pest reared on artificial diets containing mycelium (3%) or purified sterols (0.01%) of the phytopathogenic fungus. Two principal questions related to the physiological and biochemical basis of this mutualistic relationship were addressed: (1) how the fungus influences growth, survival, fecundity, sterol and steroid contents of the insect and (2) are fungal sterols involved in the biochemical basis of mutualism? The presence of fungus in the diet led to a decrease of total duration of larval development (mean gain 5.1-9.4 days compared to the total duration in control of 42.9 days), an increase in survival (mean gain 50-76.3%) and fecundity (gain of 94-102%). These positive effects of the fungus on the biology and physiology of the insect were directly correlated to the presence of fungal sterols in the diet. Fungal sterols are one of the biochemical basis of the mutualistic relationship between L. botrana and B. cinerea. PMID:10980301

Mondy; Corio-Costet

2000-12-01

220

Biodegradation of hazardous waste using white rot fungus: Project planning and concept development document  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been shown to effectively degrade pollutants such as trichlorophenol, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and other halogenated aromatic compounds. These refractory organic compounds and many others have been identified in the tank waste, groundwater and soil of various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The treatment of these refractory organic compounds has been identified as a high priority for DOE's Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) waste treatment programs. Unlike many bacteria, the white rot fungus P. chrysosporium is capable of degrading these types of refractory organics and may be valuable for the treatment of wastes containing multiple pollutants. The objectives of this project are to identify DOE waste problems amenable to white rot fungus treatment and to develop and demonstrate white rot fungus treatment process for these hazardous organic compounds. 32 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

 
 
 
 
221

Study of cobalt distribution in fungus Trichoderma viride using 60Co as radioindicator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uptake and distribution of cobalt by filamentous fungus Trichoderma viride has been studied. By means of 60Co the cobalt concentrations in conidia and mycelium were determined. (author) 5 refs.; 1 fig

222

Characterization of microsatellite loci in the lichen fungus Lobaria pulmonaria (Lobariaceae)1  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

• Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for the threatened haploid lichen fungus Lobaria pulmonaria to increase the resolution to identify clonal individuals, and to study its population subdivision.

Werth, Silke; Cornejo, Carolina; Scheidegger, Christoph

2013-01-01

223

Characterization of microsatellite loci in the Himalayan lichen fungus Lobaria pindarensis (Lobariaceae)1  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

• Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for the rare, Himalayan, endemic haploid lichen fungus, Lobaria pindarensis, to study its population subdivision and the species’ response to forest disturbance and fragmentation.

Devkota, Shiva; Cornejo, Carolina; Werth, Silke; Chaudhary, Ram Prasad; Scheidegger, Christoph

2014-01-01

224

Modelling the Hyphal Growth of the Wood-decay Fungus Physisporinus vitreus  

CERN Document Server

The white-rot fungus, Physisporinus vitreus, degrades the membranes of bordered pits in tracheids and consequently increases the permeability of wood, which is a process that can be used by the wood industry to improve the uptake of wood preservatives and environmentally benign wood modification substances to enhance the use and sustainability of native conifer wood species. To understand and apply this process requires an understanding of how a complex system (fungus-wood) interacts under defined conditions. We present a three-dimensional fungal growth model (FGM) of the hyphal growth of P. vitreus in the heartwood of Norway spruce. The model considers hyphae and nutrients as discrete structures and links the microscopic interactions between fungus and wood (e.g. degradation rate and degree of opening of pits) with macroscopic system properties, such penetration depth of the fungus, biomass and distribution of destroyed pits in early- and latewood. Simulations were compared with experimental data. The growth...

Fuhr, M J; Schwarze, F W M R; Herrmann, H J

2011-01-01

225

Biosorption of copper(II and chromium(VI by modified tea fungus  

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Full Text Available The tea fungus was found to have good adsorption capacities for heavy metal ions. In this work it was treated with HCl or NaOH at 20°C or 100°C, with the aim to improve its adsorption ability. The sorption of Cu(II and Cr(VI ions from aqueous solutions by raw and treated tea fungus was investigated in the batch mode. The largest quantity of adsorbed Cu(II, of about 55 mg/g, was achieved by tea fungus modified with NaOH at 100°C. For Cr(VI, the largest quantity of adsorbed anions, of about 58 mg/g, was achieved by the adsorbent modified with NaOH at 20°C. It was shown that acid modification of tea fungus biomass was not effective. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43005 i br. TR 31002

Š?iban Marina B.

2012-01-01

226

Nutritional Requirements of the Edible Gall-producing Fungus Ustilago esculenta  

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The parasitism of Ustilago esculenta P. Henn. in the perennial aquatic grass, Zizania latifolia (Griseb.) Turcz. results in the development of edible smut gall, “ Kah-Peh-Sung” which has long been extensively cultivated as a vegetable in Taiwan and southern China. The nutritional requirements of U. esculenta were investigated in a semi-defined liquid medium to explore further studies of the causative fungus and its interaction with host plant. The fungus grew as yeast...

Kuang-Ren Chung; Tzeng, Dean D.

2004-01-01

227

Decolorization and Degradation of Phenolic Paper Mill Effluent by Native White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A white rot fungus isolated from soil samples enriched by continuous pulp and paper mill effluent irrigation and identified as Phanerochaete chrysosporium was capable of decolorization and degradation of chlorinated phenol from paper mill effluent. There was 84% effluent decolourisation along with 79% COD reduction by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The effluent chlorinated phenol degradation was 91% by the fungus when added with 1% glucose as co-substrate.

P.C. Prabu

2005-01-01

228

Analysis on the Natural Remedies to Cure Dandruff/Skin Disease-causing Fungus - Malassezia furfur.  

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A comparative study was conducted on the levels of effectiveness, of natural remedies such as cow's urine, lemon, boiled rice water, Neem extract etc. in curing dandruff and inhibiting the growth of the causative fungus Malassezia. Various plating techniques were applied using modified Oil - Potato Dextrose Agar as the nutrient medium for the fungal growth. Cow's urine was found to be more stable and effective in inhibiting the fungus, along with boiled rice-water. Lemon juice was highly effe...

Saneesh Kumar

2013-01-01

229

Control of Root-Knot Nematodes on Tomato by the Endoparasitic Fungus Meria coniospora  

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The endoparasitic nematophagous fungus Meria coniospora reduced root-knot nematode galling on tomatoes in greenhouse pot trials. The fungus was introduced to pots by addition of conidia at several inoculum levels directly to the soil or addition of nematodes infected with M. coniospora to the soil; both methods reduced root galling by root-knot nematodes. These studies represent a part of a recently initiated effort to evaluate the potential of endoparasitic nematophagous fungi for biocontrol...

Jansson, Hans-bo?rje; Jeyaprakash, A.; Zuckerman, Bert M.

1985-01-01

230

New Filamentous Fungus Sagenomella chlamydospora Responsible for a Disseminated Infection in a Dog  

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A filamentous fungus that caused a fatal systemic infection in a dog has been identified as the new species Sagenomella chlamydospora. When the case was initially reported, the fungus was identified as Paecilomyces sp. This study emphasizes how difficult can be the identification of the causative agent of an infection when an uncommon microorganism is involved. This is the first time that this genus has been involved in animal infections, including humans.

Gene?, Josepa; Blanco, Jose? L.; Cano, Josep; Garci?a, Marta E.; Guarro, Josep

2003-01-01

231

Antifungal Metabolites Produced by Chaetomium globosum No.04, an Endophytic Fungus Isolated from Ginkgo biloba  

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The fungal endophyte Chaetomium globosum No.04 was isolated from the medicinal plant Ginkgo biloba. The crude extract of the fungus fermentation were active in the agar-diffusion tests against the phytopathogenic fungi Rhizopus stolonifer and Coniothyrium diplodiella. Further bioassay-guided chemical investigation led to the isolation and purification of six alkaloids and three non-targeted compounds from 50 L fermentation of this endophytic fungus and their structures were elucidated as cha...

Zhang, Guizhen; Zhang, Yanhua; Qin, Jianchun; Qu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jinliang; Li, Xiang; Pan, Hongyu

2013-01-01

232

Bioactive secondary metabolites from the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco  

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This study reports the chemical investigation and cytotoxic activity of the secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco. This plant was collected from the Beni-Mellal Mountain in Morocco and belongs to the Lamiaceae family and is named in Morocco “Salmia”. The endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. was isolated from the tissues of the stem of this plant. The fungal strain was identified by PCR. The crude organic extr...

Ebel R.; Proksch P.; Hakiki A.; Mosaddak M.; Weg, Mu?ller; Ra, Edrada-ebel; Ha, Aly; Debbab A.

2009-01-01

233

Levels of specificity of Xylaria species associated with fungus-growing termites: a phylogenetic approach  

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Fungus-growing termites live in obligate mutualistic symbiosis with species of the basidiomycete genus Termitomyces, which are cultivated on a substrate of dead plant material. When the termite colony dies, or when nest material is incubated without termites in the laboratory, fruiting bodies of the ascomycete genus Xylaria appear and rapidly cover the fungus garden. This raises the question whether certain Xylaria species are specialised in occupying termite nests or whether they are just oc...

Visser, A. A.; Ros, V. I. D.; Beer, Z. W.; Debets, A. J. M.; Hartog, E.; Kuyper, T. W.; Laessoe, T.; Slippers, B.; Aanen, D. K.

2009-01-01

234

Identification of New Lactone Derivatives Isolated from Trichoderma sp., An Endophytic Fungus of Brotowali (Tinaspora crispa)  

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Endophytic fungi is a rich source of novel organic compounds with interesting biological activities and a high level of structural diversity. As a part of our systematic search for new bioactive lead structures and specific profiles from endophytic fungi, an endophytic fungus was isolated from roots of brotowali (Tinaspora crispa), an important medicinal plant. Colonial morphological trait and microscopic observation revealed that the endophytic fungus was Trichoderma sp. The pure fungal stra...

Elfita; Munawar; Muharni; Mastur Adhy Sudrajat

2014-01-01

235

Inhibition of a Secreted Glutamic Peptidase Prevents Growth of the Fungus Talaromyces emersonii*  

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The thermophilic filamentous fungus Talaromyces emersonii secretes a variety of hydrolytic enzymes that are of interest for processing of biomass into fuel. Many carbohydrases have been isolated and characterized from this fungus, but no studies had been performed on peptidases. In this study, two acid-acting endopeptidases were isolated and characterized from the culture filtrate of T. emersonii. One of these enzymes was identified as a member of the recently classifi...

O Donoghue, Anthony J.; Mahon, Cathal S.; Goetz, David H.; O Malley, James M.; Gallagher, Denise M.; Zhou, Min; Murray, Patrick G.; Craik, Charles S.; Tuohy, Maria G.

2008-01-01

236

The Hidden Habit of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana: First Demonstration of Vertical Plant Transmission  

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Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip, obtained from a larva of the opium poppy stem gall wasp Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae), endophytically colonizes opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants and protects them against this pest. The goal of this study was to monitor the dynamics of endophytic colonization of opium poppy by B. bassiana after the fungus was applied to the seed and to ascertain whether the fungus is transmitted vertically via seeds. Using a species-specific ...

Quesada-moraga, Enrique; Lo?pez-di?az, Cristina; Landa, Blanca B.

2014-01-01

237

The Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Subunit from the Dimorphic Fungus Ustilago maydis  

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In this study, we investigated the reverse transcriptase subunit of telomerase in the dimorphic fungus Ustilago maydis. This protein (Trt1) contains 1371 amino acids and all of the characteristic TERT motifs. Mutants created by disrupting trt1 had senescent traits, such as delayed growth, low replicative potential, and reduced survival, that were reminiscent of the traits observed in est2 budding yeast mutants. Telomerase activity was observed in wild-type fungus sporidia but not those of the...

Bautista-espan?a, Dolores; Anastacio-marcelino, Estela; Horta-valerdi, Guillermo; Celestino-montes, Antonio; Kojic, Milorad; Negrete-abascal, Erasmo; Reyes-cervantes, Hortensia; Va?zquez-cruz, Candelario; Guzma?n, Plinio; Sa?nchez-alonso, Patricia

2014-01-01

238

Metabolism and Cometabolism of Cyclic Ethers by a Filamentous Fungus, a Graphium sp.?  

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The filamentous fungus Graphium sp. (ATCC 58400) grows on gaseous n-alkanes and diethyl ether. n-Alkane-grown mycelia of this strain also cometabolically oxidize the gasoline oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). In this study, we characterized the ability of this fungus to metabolize and cometabolize a range of cyclic ethers, including tetrahydrofuran (THF) and 1,4-dioxane (14D). This strain grew on THF and other cyclic ethers, including tetrahydropyran and hexamethylene oxide. However, ...

Skinner, Kristin; Cuiffetti, Lynda; Hyman, Michael

2009-01-01

239

Phenolic profile and antioxidative properties of the beefsteak fungus Fistulina hepatica  

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The phenolic composition of the edible beefsteak fungus Fistulina hepatica was determined by HPLC/DAD. The results showed a profile composed by caffeic, p-coumaric and ellagic acids, hyperoside and quercetin. Ellagic acid was the main compound in this species. Beefsteak fungus was also investigated for its capacity to act as a scavenger of DPPH radical and reactive oxygen species (superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and hypochlorous acid). Good results were obtained against DPPH and superoxi...

Silva, B. M.; Ribeiro, Ba?rbara; Rangel, Joana; Baptista, Paula; Seabra, R. M.

2006-01-01

240

Bioecology of the fungus Sphaeropsis sapinea dyko and Sutton - agents of pinus species decline  

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Sphaeropsis sapinea is a cosmopolitan fungus, identified in more than 50 countries of the world, on all continents, but it is primarily the species of warm lands. It is also a polyphagous fungus recorded from 11 coniferous genera. The most endangered and the most frequent host plants are Pinus species - it occurs on 48 pine species, among which the most susceptible are Pinus Radiata, P. nigra, P. sylvestris, P. ponderosa, P. resinosa, P. mugo, P. pinaster and P. elliotti. The greatest damage ...

Milijaševi? Tanja

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Bioecology of the fungus Sphaeropsis sapinea dyko & Sutton - agents of pinus species decline  

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Sphaeropsis sapinea is a cosmopolitan fungus, identified in more than 50 countries of the world, on all continents, but it is primarily the species of warm lands. It is also a polyphagous fungus recorded from 11 coniferous genera. The most endangered and the most frequent host plants are Pinus species - it occurs on 48 pine species, among which the most susceptible are Pinus Radiata, P. nigra, P. sylvestris, P. ponderosa, P. resinosa, P. mugo, P. pinaster and P. elliotti. The greatest damage ...

Milijaševi? Tanja

2002-01-01

242

Nickel oxide nanoparticles film produced by dead biomass of filamentous fungus  

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The synthesis of nickel oxide nanoparticles in film form using dead biomass of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus aculeatus as reducing agent represents an environmentally friendly nanotechnological innovation. The optimal conditions and the capacity of dead biomass to uptake and produce nanoparticles were evaluated by analyzing the biosorption of nickel by the fungus. The structural characteristics of the film-forming nickel oxide nanoparticles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (...

Salvadori, Marcia Regina; Nascimento, Cla?udio Augusto Oller; Corre?a, Benedito

2014-01-01

243

Metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into bacterial communities in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens  

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Herbivores gain access to nutrients stored in plant biomass largely by harnessing the metabolic activities of microbes. Leaf-cutter ants of the genus Atta are a hallmark example; these dominant neotropical herbivores cultivate symbiotic fungus gardens on large quantities of fresh plant forage. As the external digestive system of the ants, fungus gardens facilitate the production and sustenance of millions of workers. Using metagenomic and metaproteomic techniques, we characterize the bacteria...

Aylward, Frank O.; Burnum, Kristin E.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Suen, Garret; Tringe, Susannah G.; Adams, Sandra M.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Starrett, Gabriel J.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Currie, Cameron R.

2012-01-01

244

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55.  

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Outline of this thesisIn this thesis the conditions for optimal PAH oxidation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 were evaluated. In Chapter 2, culture conditions like aeration and cosubstrate concentrations, which influenced the oxidation of the PAH compound anthracene and the ligninolytic indicator dye Poly R-478 by the white rot fungus, were studied. Two parameters were identified as the most important PAH oxidation rate-limiting factors: the hydrogen pero...

Kotterman, M. J. J.

1998-01-01

245

The prediction of protein-protein interaction networks in rice blast fungus  

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Abstract Background Protein-protein interaction (PPI) maps are useful tools for investigating the cellular functions of genes. Thus far, large-scale PPI mapping projects have not been implemented for the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea, which is responsible for the most severe rice disease. Inspired by recent advances in PPI prediction, we constructed a PPI map of this important fungus. Results Using a well-recognized interolog approach, we have pr...

Zhang Ziding; Chen Hao; Zhang Yan; He Fei; Peng You-Liang

2008-01-01

246

Fungal Isolate “KMI” Is a New Type of Orchid Mycorrhizal Fungus  

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We analyzed an isolate of fungus that seems to be a new type orchid mycorrhizal fungus, “KMI (refers to Kyoto-Ma- tsubara-Ishii)”, obtained from the roots of Paphiopedilum thailandense Fowl. KMI has hyphal branching into right angle similar to Rhizoctonia-like fungi, but its spore formation resembled Nectoria, which is known as a teleomorph of Fusarium rather than Rhizoctonia. Its ribosomal DNA ...

Tomoko Matsubara; Motohito Yoneda; Takaaki Ishii

2012-01-01

247

Optimization of exopectinase activity of the fungus Monilia isolated from tangerine in submerged fermentation  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Diverse groups of microscopic fungi are able to degrade polymeric plant tissues such as pectin. Biodegradation of these materials are mostly applicable in food industries.Materials and Methods: In the present study, the exopectinase producing fungus was isolated from decaying tangerine and its exopectinase activity was studied in submerged fermenting condition. Also, the enzyme production of the isolated fungus was compared to the industrial fungus, Aspergillus niger PTCC 5013. The exopectinase production and activity of the extracted enzyme solution with respect to pH, temperature, activity timing and substrate concentration were scrutinized.Results: According to the morphological macroscopic and microscopic features, the isolated fungus was identified as the genus Monilia in the Moniliaceae family. The best exopectinase production was in pH 7 and the best enzyme activity achieved at 50°C, in 30 to 40 minute, 1.5% substrate and the 1:1 of the enzyme solution to the substrate solution ratio. The isolated fungus, Monilia, was fast growing and produced highly active exopectinase enzyme. In optimum condition, its exopectinase activity was 20 units higher than the fungus Aspergillus niger PTCC 5013. Discussion and Conclusion: The exopectinase enzyme was active in a wide ranges of pH and temperatures. As Monilia does not produce toxic compounds, it is proposed for pectinase production, especially in the food industries.

Nafiseh Sadat Naghavi

2012-01-01

248

Insect symbioses: a case study of past, present, and future fungus-growing ant research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fungus-growing ants (Attini: Formicidae) engage in an obligate mutualism with fungi they cultivate for food. Although biologists have been fascinated with fungus-growing ants since the resurgence of natural history in the modern era, the early stages of research focused mainly on the foraging behavior of the leaf-cutters (the most derived attine lineage). Indeed, the discovery that the ants actually use leaf fragments to manure a fungus did not come until the 1800s. More recently, three additional microbial symbionts have been described, including specialized microfungal parasites of the ant's fungus garden, antibiotic-producing actinobacteria that help protect the fungus garden from the parasite, and a black yeast that parasitizes the ant-actinobacteria mutualism. The fungus-growing ant symbiosis serves as a particularly useful model system for studying insect-microbe symbioses, because, to date, it contains four well-characterized microbial symbionts, including mutualists and parasites that encompass micro-fungi, macro-fungi, yeasts, and bacteria. Here, we discuss approaches for studying insect-microbe symbioses, using the attine ant-microbial symbiosis as our framework. We draw attention to particular challenges in the field of symbiosis, including the establishment of symbiotic associations and symbiont function. Finally, we discuss future directions in insect-microbe research, with particular focus on applying recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies.

Caldera, Eric J; Poulsen, Michael

2009-01-01

249

Fungal garden making inside bamboos by a non-social fungus-growing beetle.  

Science.gov (United States)

In fungus-growing mutualism, it is indispensable for host animals to establish gardens of the symbiotic fungus as rapidly as possible. How to establish fungal gardens has been well-documented in social fungus-farming insects, whereas poorly documented in non-social fungus-farming insects. Here we report that the non-social, fungus-growing lizard beetle Doubledaya bucculenta (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Languriinae) transmits the symbiotic yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus from the ovipositor-associated mycangium into bamboo internode cavities and disperses the yeast in the cavities to make gardens. Microbial isolation and cryo-scanning electron microscopy observation revealed that W. anomalus was constantly located on the posterior ends of eggs, where larvae came out, and on the inner openings of oviposition holes. Direct observation of oviposition behavior inside internodes revealed that the distal parts of ovipositors showed a peristaltic movement when they were in contact with the posterior ends of eggs. Rearing experiments showed that W. anomalus was spread much more rapidly and widely on culture media and internodes in the presence of the larvae than in the absence. These results suggest that the ovipositors play a critical role in vertical transmission of W. anomalus and that the larvae contribute actively to the garden establishment, providing a novel case of fungal garden founding in non-social insect-fungus mutualism. PMID:24223958

Toki, Wataru; Takahashi, Yukiko; Togashi, Katsumi

2013-01-01

250

Microalgae harvesting via co-culture with filamentous fungus  

Science.gov (United States)

Microalgae harvesting is a labor- and energy-intensive process. For instance, classical harvesting technologies such as chemical addition and mechanical separation are economically prohibiting for biofuel production. Newer approaches to harvest microalgae have been developed in order to decrease costs. Among these new methods, fungal co-pelletization seems to be a promising technology. By co-culturing filamentous fungi with microalgae, it is possible to form pellets, which can easily be separated. In this study, different parameters for the cultivation of filamentous fungus (Aspergillus niger) and microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) to efficiently form cell pellets were evaluated under heterotrophic and phototrophic conditions, including organic carbon source (glucose, glycerol and sodium acetate) concentration, pH, initial concentration of fungal spores, initial concentration of microalgal cells, concentration of ionic strength (Calcium and Magnesium) and concentration of salinity (NaCl). In addition, zeta-potential measurements were carried out in order to get a better understanding of the mechanism of attraction. It was found that 2 g/L of glucose, a fungus to microalgae ratio of 1:300, and uncontrolled pH (around 7) are the best culturing conditions for co-pelletization. Under these conditions, it was possible to achieve a high harvesting performance (>90%). In addition, it was observed that most pellets formed in the co-culture were spherical with an average diameter of 3.5 mm and in concentrations of about 5 pellets per mL of culture media. Under phototrophic conditions, co-pelletization required the addition of glucose as organic carbon source to sustain the growth of fungi and to allow the harvesting of microalgae. Zeta-potential measurements indicated that (i) both microalgae and fungi have low zeta-potential values regardless of the pH on the bulk (i.e. <-10 mV) (ii) fungi can have a positive electric charge at low pH (ie. pH=3). These values suggest that it might be possible that the degree of repulsion and dispersion between these organisms is low which facilitates the attraction between them.

Gultom, Sarman Oktovianus

251

Bioactive metabolites from the endophytic fungus Alternaria alternata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two altenuene derivatives (1-2) and one isocoumarin (3), together with six known compounds (4-9) were isolated from solid cultures of an endophytic fungus Alternaria alternata, obtained from the fresh branches of Camellia sinensis. Chiral analysis revealed the racemic nature of 1 and 2, which were subsequently resolved into two pairs of enantiomers [(+)-1 and (-)-1, (+)-2 and (-)-2]. Structures of all the isolates were identified through spectroscopic data. Absolute configurations of the two pairs of enantiomers were determined by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculation and the chiral center of C-10 in 3 was deduced via [Rh2(OCOCF3)4]-induced CD experiment. All the isolates were evaluated for their antimicrobial abilities against the pathogenic bacteria and fungi as well as cytotoxic activities against two human tumor cell lines. Compound 5 was the most active against Bacillus subtilis with MIC80 of 8.6?g/ml, and compounds 1-3, 6-7 and 9 exhibited moderate to weak inhibition towards the test pathogenic microorganism. Compound 4 showed mild cytotoxic activity against human osteosarcoma cells U2OS with IC50 of 28.3?M. PMID:25261763

Wang, Ying; Yang, Ming-Hua; Wang, Xiao-Bing; Li, Tian-Xiao; Kong, Ling-Yi

2014-12-01

252

Studies on biosorption of nickel using immobilized fungus, Rhizomucor tauricus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rhizomucor tauricus, an industrial fungus, was immobilized in sodium alginate and used as adsorbent for the removal of nickel from aqueous solutions. The biosorption capacity of Ni(II was found to be 394 mg/g of immobilized biomass. It was observed that an increase in pH from 3 to 6 increased the percent adsorption, and an increase in liquid-to-solid ratio from 2 to 10 increased the metal uptake. The percent adsorption was increased when increasing the initial metal concentration from 25 to 100 mg/L. The equilibrium biosorption data was evaluated by Langmuir, Freundlich, and Langmuir-Freundlich (L-R isotherm models, and was best described by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. FTIR analysis revealed that –NH (bending, C–H (stretching, C=O (stretching, and –OH functional groups were mainly responsible for Ni(II biosorption. Thus, this study demonstrated that the immobilized Rhizomucor tauricus biomass could be used as an adsorbent for the treatment of Ni(II from aqueous solution.

K. Kishore Kumar

2012-11-01

253

Cellulase from the white-rot fungus Polyporus anceps  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ability of two different fungi - Trichoderma reesei RUT C30, and Polyporus anceps - to produce cellulase enzymes were compared. Cellulases have the ability to convert cellulose to sugars which in turn can be used as a substrate for fermentation. Since cellulose is a major component of biomass, cellulases will play an important role in the use of biomass as a feedstock for fermentation. To convert lignocellulosics to liquid fuels requires large amounts of cellulase. P. anceps, a cellulolytic wood-degrading fungus gave indication of being able to hydrolyse substantial amounts of poplar shavings to sugar. Filtrates from both fungi showed similar activities against carboxymethylcellulose and salicin, but with P. anceps the Avicel and filter paper activities were poor. T. reesei filtrates in all cases were superior in the release of sugar from filter paper. Based on these results it was clear that P. anceps was inferior to T. reesei RUT C30 in it ability to produce cellulase by submerged fermentation in conventional batch cultures. It was considered unlikely to be a serious competitor to T. reesei. Similar studies on other potentially useful organisms were recommended. Refs., tabs., figs.

Reade, A.E. [Nova Scotia Research Foundation Corporation, Dartmouth, NS (Canada)

1988-12-31

254

Characterization of Transposable Elements in the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Laccaria bicolor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background: The publicly available Laccaria bicolor genome sequence has provided a considerable genomic resource allowing systematic identification of transposable elements (TEs) in this symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungus. Using a TEspecific annotation pipeline we have characterized and analyzed TEs in the L. bicolor S238N-H82 genome. Methodology/Principal Findings: TEs occupy 24% of the 60 Mb L. bicolor genome and represent 25,787 full-length and partial copy elements distributed within 171 families. The most abundant elements were the Copia-like. TEs are not randomly distributed across the genome, but are tightly nested or clustered. The majority of TEs exhibits signs of ancient transposition except some intact copies of terminal inverted repeats (TIRS), long terminal repeats (LTRs) and a large retrotransposon derivative (LARD) element. There were three main periods of TE expansion in L. bicolor: the first from 57 to 10 Mya, the second from 5 to 1 Mya and the most recent from 0.5 Mya ago until now. LTR retrotransposons are closely related to retrotransposons found in another basidiomycete, Coprinopsis cinerea. Conclusions: This analysis 1) represents an initial characterization of TEs in the L. bicolor genome, 2) contributes to improve genome annotation and a greater understanding of the role TEs played in genome organization and evolution and 3) provides a valuable resource for future research on the genome evolution within the Laccaria genus.

Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL; Murat, Claude [INRA, Nancy, France; Morin, Emmanuelle [INRA, Nancy, France; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Le Tacon, F [UMR, France; Martin, Francis [INRA, Nancy, France

2012-01-01

255

Characterization of Transposable Elements in the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Laccaria bicolor  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The publicly available Laccaria bicolor genome sequence has provided a considerable genomic resource allowing systematic identification of transposable elements (TEs) in this symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungus. Using a TE-specific annotation pipeline we have characterized and analyzed TEs in the L. bicolor S238N-H82 genome. Methodology/Principal Findings TEs occupy 24% of the 60 Mb L. bicolor genome and represent 25,787 full-length and partial copy elements distributed within 171 families. The most abundant elements were the Copia-like. TEs are not randomly distributed across the genome, but are tightly nested or clustered. The majority of TEs exhibits signs of ancient transposition except some intact copies of terminal inverted repeats (TIRS), long terminal repeats (LTRs) and a large retrotransposon derivative (LARD) element. There were three main periods of TE expansion in L. bicolor: the first from 57 to 10 Mya, the second from 5 to 1 Mya and the most recent from 0.5 Mya ago until now. LTR retrotransposons are closely related to retrotransposons found in another basidiomycete, Coprinopsis cinerea. Conclusions This analysis 1) represents an initial characterization of TEs in the L. bicolor genome, 2) contributes to improve genome annotation and a greater understanding of the role TEs played in genome organization and evolution and 3) provides a valuable resource for future research on the genome evolution within the Laccaria genus. PMID:22870194

Labbé, Jessy; Murat, Claude; Morin, Emmanuelle; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Le Tacon, François; Martin, Francis

2012-01-01

256

Effects of ozone on the germination of fungus spores  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Detached spores of 14 fungi varied in germination after exposure on agar to 10 to 100 parts per hundred million (p.p.hm.) ozone for 1 to 6 h. Large pigmented spores of Chaetomium sp., Stemphylium sarcinaeforme, S. loti, and Alternaria sp. were insensitive to 100 p.p.hm. Spores of Trichoderma viride, Aspergillus terreus, A. niger, Penicillium egyptiacum, Botrytis allii, and Rhizopus stolonifer were reduced in germination primarily by 100 and 50 p.p.hm. for the longer exposures. Small hyaline spores of Fusarium oxysporum, Colletotrichum lagenarium, Verticillium albo-atrum, and V. dahliae were the most sensitive, as their germination was prevented or reduced by most exposures to 100 and 50 pphm and occasionally reduced by doses as low as 25 pphm for 4 and 6 h. Ten parts per hundred million for 6 h had little inhibitory effect, but extended exposures up to 28 h reduced germination of A. terreus, A. niger, and P. egyptiacum spores to below 50% of the controls. The lower doses of ozone sometimes stimulated spore germination. Fungus colonies maintained in an ozone atmosphere had abnormal growth characteristics. Ozone had little inhibitory effect on air-dried spores in a liquid medium. 37 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

Hibben, C.R.; Stotzky, G.

1969-01-01

257

Bioactive spirobisnaphthalenes from the endophytic fungus Berkleasmium sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nine new spirobisnaphthalenes, palmarumycins B1-B9 (1-9), along with 13 known compounds (10-22), were isolated from cultures of the fungus Berkleasmium sp., an endophyte isolated from the medicinal plant Dioscorea zingiberensis C. H. Wright. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by analysis of the 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS spectra and by comparison with known compounds. Compounds 7-9 contain an uncommon 2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one unit. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activities against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus hemolyticus, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Pseudomonas lachrymans, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Xanthomonas vesicatoria and for their antifungal effects against the spore germination of Magnaporthe oryzae. Palmarumycin C8 (22) exhibited the best antibacterial and antifungal effects. In addition, diepoxin ? (11) and palmarumycin C8 (22) showed pronounced cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines (HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A 549, A 2780) with IC50 values of 1.28-5.83 ?M. PMID:25237727

Shan, Tijiang; Tian, Jin; Wang, Xiaohan; Mou, Yan; Mao, Ziling; Lai, Daowan; Dai, Jungui; Peng, Youliang; Zhou, Ligang; Wang, Mingan

2014-10-24

258

Adhesion of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria (Cordyceps) bassiana to substrata.  

Science.gov (United States)

The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana produces at least three distinct single-cell propagules, aerial conidia, vegetative cells termed blastospores, and submerged conidia, which can be isolated from agar plates, from rich broth liquid cultures, and under nutrient limitation conditions in submerged cultures, respectively. Fluorescently labeled fungal cells were used to quantify the kinetics of adhesion of these cell types to surfaces having various hydrophobic or hydrophilic properties. Aerial conidia adhered poorly to weakly polar surfaces and rapidly to both hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces but could be readily washed off the latter surfaces. In contrast, blastospores bound poorly to hydrophobic surfaces, forming small aggregates, bound rapidly to hydrophilic surfaces, and required a longer incubation time to bind to weakly polar surfaces than to hydrophilic surfaces. Submerged conidia displayed the broadest binding specificity, adhering to hydrophobic, weakly polar, and hydrophilic surfaces. The adhesion of the B. bassiana cell types also differed in sensitivity to glycosidase and protease treatments, pH, and addition of various carbohydrate competitors and detergents. The outer cell wall layer of aerial conidia contained sodium dodecyl sulfate-insoluble, trifluoroacetic acid-soluble proteins (presumably hydrophobins) that were not present on either blastospores or submerged conidia. The variations in the cell surface properties leading to the different adhesion qualities of B. bassiana aerial conidia, blastospores, and submerged conidia could lead to rational design decisions for improving the efficacy and possibly the specificity of entomopathogenic fungi for host targets. PMID:16151112

Holder, Diane J; Keyhani, Nemat O

2005-09-01

259

Biosorption of cadmium using the fungus Aspergillus niger  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Sorption experiments using the Aspergillus niger fungus for cadmium removal were carried out to study the factors influencing and optimizing the biosorption of this metal. The effects of pH, time, biomass concentration, and initial concentration of the heavy metal on the rate of metallic biosorption [...] were examined. An experimental design was also used to determine the values of the under study variables that provided the greatest biosorption efficiency. A technique for biomass recovery was also developed with the objective of determining the capacity of the regenerated biomass to biosorb the metals in solution. This research proved that with a pH of 4.75, a biomass concentration of 0.7 g/L, and a heavy metal concentration varying between 5 and 10 mg/L a biosorption process of biosorption with Aspergillus niger could be successfully used for heavy metal removal from oil field water in the oil industry.

L.M., Barros Júnior; G.R., Macedo; M.M.L., Duarte; E.P., Silva; A.K.C.L., Lobato.

2003-09-01

260

Biosynthesis of vanillin by the fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus MIP 95001  

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Full Text Available Vanillin (a substance popularly known as vanilla flavor is one of the most widely used compounds, mainly by food and pharmaceutical industries. This substance can be obtained from the orchid Vanilla planifolia, but this is costly and time consuming. Thus, other methods for obtaining vanillin have been studied. Within this context, the aim of this work was to study the biosynthesis of vanillin by three strains of Pycnoporus sanguineus through the use of vanillic acid as a precursor. The strains were cultured in Petri dishes with a potato dextrose agar medium. Fragments of the media with the fungus were then inoculated in Erlenmeyer flasks with a liquid medium of potato broth and 0.3 g.L-1 of vanillic acid. The flasks remained in a shaker for eight days at 28°C and 120 rpm. Samples were withdrawn once a day (0.8 mL.day-1 for analysis of vanillin, glucose, total phenols, total proteins, and laccase. The results showed that only the MIP 95001 strain promoted the biosynthesis of vanillin. The highest concentration of vanillin was detected on the fourth day of cultivation (8.75 mg.dL-1. The results illustrate the ability to biosynthesize vanillin using Pycnoporus sanguineus (MIP 95001, which suggests a possible route for the biotechnological production of this flavor.

Sabrina Moro Villela Pacheco

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
261

Fungus mediated biosynthesis and characterization of zinc oxide nanorods  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently nanomaterials have been synthesized through biological approach due to its biocompatibility, inexpensive, eco friendly and it offers easiest experimental protocol and so on. ZnO can be potentially used in various applications. This present study reports the fungus mediated extra-cellular bio synthesis of ZnO nanorods using Fusarium Solani. The dried powder was calcined at 350°C for 1 hour in air. The thermal property of the as synthesized ZnO nanopowder was analyzed through Thermo gravimetric /Differential Thermo gravimetric (TGA / DTG) analysis. The structural and morphological properties of the calcined ZnO nanopowder were studied by XRD and SEM analysis respectively. X ray diffraction result revealed that a peak located at 2? = 36.2° with (101) plane confirms the presence of Zinc oxide with Hexagonal crystal system. The morphology of the calcined ZnO powder was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and it clearly indicates the presence of ZnO nanorods. The diameter of the nanorods is in the range of 60 to 95 nm.

Venkatesh, K. S.; Palani, N. S.; Krishnamoorthi, S. R.; Thirumal, V.; Ilangovan, R.

2013-06-01

262

Ecological and Evolutionary Determinants of Bark Beetle —Fungus Symbioses  

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Full Text Available Ectosymbioses among bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae and fungi (primarily ophiostomatoid Ascomycetes are widespread and diverse. Associations range from mutualistic to commensal, and from facultative to obligate. Some fungi are highly specific and associated only with a single beetle species, while others can be associated with many. In addition, most of these symbioses are multipartite, with the host beetle associated with two or more consistent partners. Mycangia, structures of the beetle integument that function in fungal transport, have evolved numerous times in the Scolytinae. The evolution of such complex, specialized structures indicates a high degree of mutual dependence among the beetles and their fungal partners. Unfortunately, the processes that shaped current day beetle-fungus symbioses remain poorly understood. Phylogeny, the degree and type of dependence on partners, mode of transmission of symbionts (vertical vs. horizontal, effects of the abiotic environment, and interactions among symbionts themselves or with other members of the biotic community, all play important roles in determining the composition, fidelity, and longevity of associations between beetles and their fungal associates. In this review, I provide an overview of these associations and discuss how evolution and ecological processes acted in concert to shape these fascinating, complex symbioses.

Diana L. Six

2012-03-01

263

The chemical constituents of the fungus Stereum sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four new compounds, including a sesquiterpene and three aromatic compounds, and a known compound were isolated from a culture broth of the fungus Stereum sp. The novel sesquiterpene was determined to be stereumone A ((+)-2,3,4a,5,6,7,8a,9-octahydro-5-hydroxy-6,6,9-trimethyl-4,8a-epoxynaphtho[2,3-b]furan-8(8H)-one; 1), and the three new aromatic compounds were elucidated as 3,5-dihydroxy-4-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)benzene-1,2-dicarbaldehyde (2), 5,7-dihydroxy-6-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)isobenzofuran-1(3H)-one (3), butyl 2,4-dihydroxy-6-methylbenzoate (4), together with the known compound methyl 2,4-dihydroxy-6-methylbenzoate (5). The structures were established by spectroscopic methods including 2D-NMR techniques. Compounds 2 and 4 showed evident nematicidal activity against nematode Panagrellus redivivus. PMID:17193259

Li, Guo-Hong; Li, Lei; Duan, Meng; Zhang, Ke-Qin

2006-02-01

264

Metabolism of Plant Polysaccharides by Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the Symbiotic Fungus of the Leaf-Cutting Ant Atta sexdens L.  

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Atta sexdens L. ants feed on the fungus they cultivate on cut leaves inside their nests. The fungus, Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, metabolizes plant polysaccharides, such as xylan, starch, pectin, and cellulose, mediating assimilation of these compounds by the ants. This metabolic integration may be an important part of the ant-fungus symbiosis, and it involves primarily xylan and starch, both of which support rapid fungal growth. Cellulose seems to be less important for symbiont nutrition, si...

Gomes Siqueira, Ce?lia; Bacci, Mauri?cio; Pagnocca, Fernando Carlos; Bueno, Odair Correa; Hebling, Maria Jose? Aparecida

1998-01-01

265

Fungi of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.-Their Deteriorative Ability, Quality Stability and the Role of the Fungus-Eating Insects  

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Full Text Available Studies on the deteriorative ability and quality stability of coconut (Cocos nucifera L. and the effect of the fungus-eating insects (Necrobia rufipes, Alphitobius diaperinus, Crematogaster sp. and Tenebrio molitor were carried out in the Post Graduate Entomology and Plant Pathology Laboratories of the Department of Applied and Environmental Biology and also in Food Science Laboratory of the Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt. Results showed Aspergillus niger van Tieghem, Rhizopus stolonifer Lind and Penicillium italiucum Wehmer as the seed-borne fungi of coconut. Frequency of occurrence was 80% for Aspergillus niger and 100% for both Rhizopus stolonifer and Penicillium italicum. On storage stability, heat drying offered significantly higher protection to coconut copra. Percentage consumption of fungal hyphae by the fungus-eating insects varied with Tenebrio molitor consuming 100% of the three aforementioned fungi. A. diaperinius contributed up to 84.1% reduction of A. niger as against 80.3% reduction by Necrobia rufipes of A. niger, Crematogaster sp. offered the least reduction (64.2%.

E.C. Chuku

2007-01-01

266

Analysis on Blast Fungus-Responsive Characters of a Flavonoid Phytoalexin Sakuranetin; Accumulation in Infected Rice Leaves, Antifungal Activity and Detoxification by Fungus  

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Full Text Available To understand the role of the rice flavonoid phytoalexin (PA sakuranetin for blast resistance, the fungus-responsive characteristics were studied. Young rice leaves in a resistant line exhibited hypersensitive reaction (HR within 3 days post inoculation (dpi of a spore suspension, and an increase in sakuranetin was detected at 3 dpi, increasing to 4-fold at 4 dpi. In the susceptible line, increased sakuranetin was detected at 4 dpi, but not at 3 dpi, by which a large fungus mass has accumulated without HR. Induced expression of a PA biosynthesis gene OsNOMT for naringenin 7-O-methyltransferase was found before accumulation of sakuranetin in both cultivars. The antifungal activity of sakuranetin was considerably higher than that of the major rice diterpenoid PA momilactone A in vitro and in vivo under similar experimental conditions. The decrease and detoxification of sakuranetin were detected in both solid and liquid mycelium cultures, and they took place slower than those of momilactone A. Estimated local concentration of sakuranetin at HR lesions was thought to be effective for fungus restriction, while that at enlarged lesions in susceptible rice was insufficient. These results indicate possible involvement of sakuranetin in blast resistance and its specific relation to blast fungus.

Morifumi Hasegawa

2014-08-01

267

Analysis on blast fungus-responsive characters of a flavonoid phytoalexin sakuranetin; accumulation in infected rice leaves, antifungal activity and detoxification by fungus.  

Science.gov (United States)

To understand the role of the rice flavonoid phytoalexin (PA) sakuranetin for blast resistance, the fungus-responsive characteristics were studied. Young rice leaves in a resistant line exhibited hypersensitive reaction (HR) within 3 days post inoculation (dpi) of a spore suspension, and an increase in sakuranetin was detected at 3 dpi, increasing to 4-fold at 4 dpi. In the susceptible line, increased sakuranetin was detected at 4 dpi, but not at 3 dpi, by which a large fungus mass has accumulated without HR. Induced expression of a PA biosynthesis gene OsNOMT for naringenin 7-O-methyltransferase was found before accumulation of sakuranetin in both cultivars. The antifungal activity of sakuranetin was considerably higher than that of the major rice diterpenoid PA momilactone A in vitro and in vivo under similar experimental conditions. The decrease and detoxification of sakuranetin were detected in both solid and liquid mycelium cultures, and they took place slower than those of momilactone A. Estimated local concentration of sakuranetin at HR lesions was thought to be effective for fungus restriction, while that at enlarged lesions in susceptible rice was insufficient. These results indicate possible involvement of sakuranetin in blast resistance and its specific relation to blast fungus. PMID:25093982

Hasegawa, Morifumi; Mitsuhara, Ichiro; Seo, Shigemi; Okada, Kazunori; Yamane, Hisakazu; Iwai, Takayoshi; Ohashi, Yuko

2014-01-01

268

Enraizamento de estacas de três espécies silvestres de Passiflora / Cutting rooting of three wild Passiflora species  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Em ambiente com nebulização controlada, estacas herbáceas com um par de folhas, contendo 2 ou 3 nós, foram testadas quanto ao enraizamento, utilizando-se de bandeja de poliestireno com célula de 95cm³ e saco plástico de 15x25x0,02cm com 1.730 cm³. Foram testadas estacas de Passiflora actinia, P. ser [...] rato-digitata e P. setacea. Observou-se que P. serrato-digitata apresentou 94,3% de estacas enraizadas com brotos e 2,4% de mortalidade; enquanto P. actinia e P. setacea apresentaram, respetivamente, 30,5% e 28,6% de estacas enraizadas com brotos e 56,8% e 60,7% de mortalidade. A alta mortalidade das estacas foi atribuída ao estado fenológico das matrizes de P. actinia e P. setacea e ao ataque de larvas de bradisia (Bradysia spp.) Estacas com dois e três nós não apresentaram diferenças significativas, e o recipiente saco plástico de 1.730 cm³ proporcionou melhor desenvolvimento das mudas. Abstract in english Steam cuttings of three wild Passiflora species where tested for rooting in a mist regulated greenhouse. Cuttings with two or three buds were used with two kinds of containers: polystyrene trays with 95 cm³ cells and perforated plastic bags of 15x25x0.02cm, with 1,730 cm³. Passiflora serrato-digitat [...] a was the best, with 94.3% of rooted cuttings with shoots e only 2.4% of death cuttings. P. actinia and P. setacea showed , respectivelly, 30.5% and 28.6% of rooted cuttings and 56.8% and 60.7%, of death cuttings. The high death were attribute to phenological phases of P. actinia and P. setacea or injury caused by fungus-gnat larvae (Bradysia spp.). Cuttings with two or three buds didn't show differences among them. Plastic bags proporcioned the best results, increasing rooted cuttings and plant development.

Marcelo Fideles, Braga; Erivanda Carvalho dos, Santos; Nilton Tadeu Vilela, Junqueira; Alex Antonio Torres Cortes de, Sousa; Fábio Gelape, Faleiro; Leylanne Nogueira, Rezende; Keize Pereira, Junqueira.

2006-08-01

269

Exploring the potential for actinobacteria as defensive symbionts in fungus-growing termites  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play a role as defensive symbionts against Pseudoxylaria in fungus-growing termites. We sampled for Actinobacteria from 30 fungus-growing termite colonies, spanning the three main termite genera and two geographically distant sites. Our isolations yielded 360 Actinobacteria, from which we selected subsets for morphological (288 isolates, grouped in 44 morphotypes) and for 16S rRNA (35 isolates, spanning the majority of morphotypes) characterisation. Actinobacteria were found throughout all sampled nests and colony parts and, phylogenetically, they are interspersed with Actinobacteria from origins other than fungus-growing termites, indicating lack of specificity. Antibiotic-activity screening of 288 isolates against thefungal cultivar and competitor revealed that most of the Actinobacteria-produced molecules with antifungal activity. A more detailed bioassay on 53 isolates, to test the specificity of antibiotics, showed that many Actinobacteria inhibit both Pseudoxylaria and Termitomyces, and that the cultivar fungus generally is more susceptible to inhibition than the competitor. This suggests that either defensive symbionts are not present in the system or that they, if present, represent a subset of the community isolated. If so, the antibiotics must be used in a targeted fashion, being applied to specific areas by the termites. We describe the first discovery of an assembly of antibiotic-producing Actinobacteria occurring in fungus-growing termite nests. However, due to the diversity found, and the lack of both phylogenetic and bioactivity Electronic supplementary material

Visser, Anna A.; Nobre, Tânia

2012-01-01

270

Monitoring of white-rot fungus during bioremediation of polychlorinated dioxin-contaminated fly ash  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bioremediation is a low-cost treatment alternative for the cleanup of polychlorinated-dioxin-contaminated soils and fly ash when pollution spread is wide-ranging. An interesting fungus, Ceriporia sp. MZ-340, with a high ability to degrade dioxin, was isolated from white rotten wood of a broadleaf tree from Kyushu Island in Japan. We have attempted to use the fungus for bioremediation of polychlorinated-dioxin-contaminated soil on site. However, we have to consider that this trial has the potential problem of introducing a biohazard to a natural ecosystem if this organism is naturalized. We have therefore developed a monitoring system for the introduced fungus as a part of the examination and evaluation of bioremediation in our laboratory. We have also developed a PCR-based assay to reliably detect the fungus at the bioremediation site. DNA isolated from the site was amplified by PCR using a specific primer derived from internal transcribed spacer region (ITS: ITS1, 5.8S rDNA and ITS2) sequences of ceriporia sp. MZ-340. We successfully monitored Ceriporia sp. MZ-340 down to 100 fg/{mu}l DNA and down to 2 mg/g mycelium. We also successfully monitored the fungus specifically at the bioremediation site. The polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran content was observed to decrease in response to treatment with the fungus. The species-specific PCR technique developed in the present work is useful in evaluating the possibility of on-site bioremediation using the fungus Ceriporia sp. MZ-340. (orig.)

Suhara, H.; Daikoku, C.; Kondo, R. [Lab. of Systematic Forest and Forest Products Sciences, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Takata, H. [Dept. of Geriatric Research, National Inst. for Longevity Sciences, Aichi (Japan); Suzuki, S.; Matsufuji, Y. [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Fukuoka Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Sakai, K. [Lab. of Forest Chemistry and Biochemistry, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

2003-07-01

271

Monitoring of white-rot fungus during bioremediation of polychlorinated dioxin-contaminated fly ash.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioremediation is a low-cost treatment alternative for the cleanup of polychlorinated-dioxin-contaminated soils and fly ash when pollution spread is wide-ranging. An interesting fungus, Ceriporia sp. MZ-340, with a high ability to degrade dioxin, was isolated from white rotten wood of a broadleaf tree from Kyushu Island in Japan. We have attempted to use the fungus for bioremediation of polychlorinated-dioxin-contaminated soil on site. However, we have to consider that this trial has the potential problem of introducing a biohazard to a natural ecosystem if this organism is naturalized. We have therefore developed a monitoring system for the introduced fungus as a part of the examination and evaluation of bioremediation in our laboratory. We have also developed a PCR-based assay to reliably detect the fungus at the bioremediation site. DNA isolated from the site was amplified by PCR using a specific primer derived from internal transcribed spacer region (ITS: ITS1, 5.8S rDNA and ITS2) sequences of Ceriporia sp. MZ-340. We successfully monitored Ceriporia sp. MZ-340 down to 100 fg/ micro l DNA and down to 2 mg/g mycelium. We also successfully monitored the fungus specifically at the bioremediation site. The polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran content was observed to decrease in response to treatment with the fungus. The species-specific PCR technique developed in the present work is useful in evaluating the possibility of on-site bioremediation using the fungus Ceriporia sp. MZ-340. PMID:12827316

Suhara, H; Daikoku, C; Takata, H; Suzuki, S; Matsufuji, Y; Sakai, K; Kondo, R

2003-10-01

272

Factors affecting fungus-induced larval mortality in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi have shown great potential for the control of adult malaria vectors. However, their ability to control aquatic stages of anopheline vectors remains largely unexplored. Therefore, how larval characteristics (Anopheles species, age and larval density, fungus (species and concentration and environmental effects (exposure duration and food availability influence larval mortality caused by fungus, was studied. Methods Laboratory bioassays were performed on the larval stages of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi with spores of two fungus species, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. For various larval and fungal characteristics and environmental effects the time to death was determined and survival curves established. These curves were compared by Kaplan Meier and Cox regression analyses. Results Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae caused high mortality of An. gambiae and An. stephensi larvae. However, Beauveria bassiana was less effective (Hazard ratio (HR Metarhizium anisopliae. Anopheles stephensi and An. gambiae were equally susceptible to each fungus. Older larvae were less likely to die than young larvae (HR Conclusions This study shows that both fungus species have potential to kill mosquitoes in the larval stage, and that mortality rate depends on fungus species itself, larval stage targeted, larval density and amount of nutrients available to the larvae. Increasing the concentration of fungal spores or reducing the exposure time to spores did not show a proportional increase and decrease in mortality rate, respectively, because the spores clumped together. As a result spores did not provide uniform coverage over space and time. It is, therefore, necessary to develop a formulation that allows the spores to spread over the water surface. Apart from formulation appropriate delivery methods are also necessary to avoid exposing non-target organisms to fungus.

Takken Willem

2010-01-01

273

Virus infection decreases the attractiveness of white clover plants for a non-vectoring herbivore  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Plant pathogens and insect herbivores are prone to share hosts under natural conditions. Consequently, pathogen-induced changes in the host plant can affect herbivory, and vice versa. Even though plant viruses are ubiquitous in the field, little is known about plant-mediated interactions between viruses and non-vectoring herbivores. We investigated the effects of virus infection on subsequent infestation by a non-vectoring herbivore in a natural genotype of Trifolium repens (white clover). We tested whether infection with White clover mosaic virus (WClMV) alters (1) the effects of fungus gnat feeding on plant growth, (2) the attractiveness of white clover for adult fungus gnat females, and (3) the volatile emission of white clover plants. We observed only marginal effects of WClMV infection on the interaction between fungus gnat larvae and white clover. However, adult fungus gnat females clearly preferred non-infected over WClMV-infected plants. Non-infected and virus-infected plants could easily be discriminated based on their volatile blends, suggesting that the preference of fungus gnats for non-infected plants may be mediated by virus-induced changes in volatile emissions. The compound beta-caryophyllene was exclusively detected in the headspace of virus-infected plants and may hence be particularly important for the preference of fungus gnat females. Our results demonstrate that WClMV infection can decrease the attractiveness of white clover plants for fungus gnat females. This suggests that virus infections may contribute to protecting their hosts by decreasing herbivore infestation rates. Consequently, it is conceivable that viruses play a more beneficial role in plant-herbivore interactions than generally thought.

van Mölken, Tamara; Caluwe, Hannie de

2012-01-01

274

Co-evolution of enzyme function in the attine ant-fungus symbiosis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Introduction: Fungus-growing ants cultivate specialized fungi in the tribe Leucocoprineae (Lepiotaceae: Basidiomycota) inside their nests. The conspicuous leaf-cutting ants in the genus Atta build huge nests displacing several cubic meters of soil, whereas lower attine genera such as Cyphomyrmex have small nests with a fungus garden the size of a table-tennis ball. Only the leaf-cutting ants are specialized on using fresh leaves as substrate for their fungus gardens, whereas the more basal attine genera use substrates such as dry plant material (leaf litter and small twigs) and also insect feces and insect carcasses. This diverse array of fungal substrates across the attine lineage implies that the symbiotic fungus needs different enzymes to break down the plant material that the ants provide or different efficiencies of enzyme function. Methods: (1.) We made a literature survey of substrate use in all extant fungus-growing ant genera to know the range of substrates used for any particular ant genus. (2.) Field assays of enzyme activity in fungus gardens of five candidate enzymes (Amylase, proteinase, pectinase, cellulose and xylanase) to indicate differences in enzyme activity between ant groups. (3.) Phylogenetic comparison and divergence estimates of nuclear ribosomal sequences and sequences coding for candidate enzyme genes (work in progress). Results: Enzyme activity assays showed significant differences in enzyme activity across major fungus-growing ant groups. Notably the fresh leaf feeding species had a higher activity of amylase. The group of higher attines had a higher activity of proteinase and pectinase. In contrast the lower genera had a non-significant trend towards a higher activity of xylanase compared to the higher attine genera. Cellulase activity was uniform across all tested genera. Discussion: In this study we document that there are differences in fungus garden enzyme activity between the different ant genera. These different enzyme activity profiles can be partially explained by the difference in substrates brought back by the ants to manure the fungus garden. This system can be viewed as ant induced crop optimization similar to human agricultural practices.

de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; SchiØtt, Morten

275

Effects of reduced-risk pesticides and plant growth regulators on rove beetle (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

In many regions, pest management of greenhouse crops relies on the use of biological control agents; however, pesticides are also widely used, especially when dealing with multiple arthropod pests and attempting to maintain high esthetic standards. As such, there is interest in using biological control agents in conjunction with chemical control. However, the prospects of combining natural enemies and pesticides are not well known in many systems. The rove beetle, Atheta coriaria (Kraatz), is a biological control agent mainly used against fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.). This study evaluated the effects of reduced-risk pesticides and plant growth regulators on A. coriaria adult survival, development, and prey consumption under laboratory conditions. Rove beetle survival was consistently higher when adults were released 24 h after rather than before applying pesticides. The pesticides acetamiprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, and cyfluthrin were harmful to rove beetle adults, whereas Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, azadirachtin, and organic oils (cinnamon oils, rosemary oil, thyme oil, and clove oil) were nontoxic to A. coriaria adults. Similarly, the plant growth regulators acymidol, paclobutrazol, and uniconazole were not harmful to rove beetle adults. In addition, B. bassiana, azadirachtin, kinoprene, organic oils, and the plant growth regulators did not negatively affect A. coriaria development. However, B. bassiana did negatively affect adult prey consumption. This study demonstrated that A. coriaria may not be used when applying the pesticides, acetamiprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, and cyfluthrin, whereas organic oils, B. bassiana, azadirachtin, and the plant growth regulators evaluated may be used in conjunction with A. coriaria adults. As such, these compounds may be used in combination with A. coriaria in greenhouse production systems. PMID:23356075

Echegaray, Erik R; Cloyd, Raymond A

2012-12-01

276

Extraction of DNA from plant and fungus tissues in situ  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background When samples are collected in the field and transported to the lab, degradation of the nucleic acids contained in the samples is frequently observed. Immediate extraction and precipitation of the nucleic acids reduces degradation to a minimum, thus preserving accurate sequence information. An extraction method to obtain high quality DNA in field studies is described. Findings DNA extracted immediately after sampling was compared to DNA extracted after allowing the sampled tissues to air dry at 21°C for 48 or 72 hours. While DNA extracted from fresh tissues exhibited little degradation, DNA extracted from all tissues exposed to 21°C air for 48 or 72 hours exhibited varying degrees of degradation. Yield was higher for extractions from fresh tissues in most cases. Four microcentrifuges were compared for DNA yield: one standard electric laboratory microcentrifuge (max rcf?=?16,000×g, two battery-operated microcentrifuges (max rcf?=?5,000 and 3,000 ×g, and one manually-operated microcentrifuge (max rcf?=?120×g. Yields for all centrifuges were similar. DNA extracted under simulated field conditions was similar in yield and quality to DNA extracted in the laboratory using the same equipment. Conclusions This CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide DNA extraction method employs battery-operated and manually-operated equipment to isolate high quality DNA in the field. The method was tested on plant and fungus tissues, and may be adapted for other types of organisms. The method produced high quality DNA in laboratory tests and under simulated field conditions. The field extraction method should prove useful for working in remote sites, where ice, dry ice, and liquid nitrogen are unavailable; where degradation is likely to occur due to the long distances between the sample site and the laboratory; and in instances where other DNA preservation and transportation methods have been unsuccessful. It may be possible to adapt this method for genomic, metagenomic, transcriptomic and metabolomic projects using samples collected in situ.

Abu Almakarem Amal S

2012-06-01

277

Distribution pattern and maintenance of ectomycorrhizal fungus diversity  

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Full Text Available Ectomycorrhiza (ECM are symbionts formed between soil fungi and plant root systems, in which the fungus exchanges soil-derived nutrients for carbohydrates obtained from the host plant. As an important component of terrestrial ecosystems, ECM fungi can play an essential role in biodiversity maintenance and plant community succession. Understanding the distribution pattern and maintenance of ECM fungal diversity is therefore critical to the study of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. An analysis of results of recent research indicates that ECM fungal diversity increases with increasing latitude, i.e. from tropical to subtropical and temperate regions. The role of dispersal in ECM fungal distribution is dependent on spatial scale. Thus, it has been found to be weak across global and local scales, but strong at regional and small scales. At the local scale, its influence has also been shown to be host-dominant dependent; thus, it is important in host non-dominant ecosystems, but not in host dominant ecosystems. Selection by plant, animal, microbe and abiotic factors can also affect the distribution pattern of ECM fungi, according to studies of temperate ecosystems. In contrast, studies of tropical ecosystems indicate that selection on ECM fungal distribution can be either strong or weak. ECM fungal diversity is also influenced by plant diversity and productivity. The plant diversity hypothesis at host genus-level fits well with ECM fungal diversity in temperate, subtropical and tropical forest ecosystems; in contrast, the productivity diversity hypothesis is only supported by some studies in temperate forest ecosystems. We propose that future studies should focus on the distribution pattern, maintenance mechanism and ecosystem function of ECM fungal diversity at a global scale, taking account ofscenarios of global climate change.

Cheng Gao

2013-07-01

278

Biotransformation of pantoprazole by the fungus Cunninghamella blakesleeana.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the biotransformation of pantoprazole, a proton-pump inhibitor, by filamentous fungus and further to compare the similarities between microbial transformation and mammalian metabolism of pantoprazole, four strains of Cunninghamella (C. blakesleeana AS 3.153, C. echinulata AS 3.2004, C. elegans AS 3.156, and AS 3.2028) were screened for the ability to catalyze the biotransformation of pantoprazole. Pantoprazole was partially metabolized by four strains of Cunninghamella, and C. blakesleeana AS 3.153 was selected for further investigation. Three metabolites produced by C. blakesleeana AS 3.153 were isolated using semi-preparative HPLC, and their structures were identified by a combination analysis of LC/MS(n) and NMR spectra. Two further metabolites were confirmed with the aid of synthetic reference compounds. The structure of a glucoside was tentatively assigned by its chromatographic behavior and mass spectroscopic data. These six metabolites were separated and quantitatively assayed by liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry. After 96h of incubation with C. blakesleeana AS 3.153, approximately 92.5% of pantoprazole was metabolized to six metabolites: pantoprazole sulfone (M1, 1.7%), pantoprazole thioether (M2, 12.4%), 6-hydroxy-pantoprazole thioether (M3, 1.3%), 4'-O-demethyl-pantoprazole thioether (M4, 48.1%), pantoprazole thioether-1-N-beta-glucoside (M5, 20.6%), and a glucoside conjugate of pantoprazole thioether (M6, 8.4%). Among them, M5 and M6 are novel metabolites. Four phase I metabolites of pantoprazole produced by C. blakesleeana were essentially similar to those obtained in mammals. C. blakesleeana could be a useful tool for generating the mammalian phase I metabolites of pantoprazole. PMID:16012078

Xie, Z Y; Huang, H H; Zhong, D F

2005-05-01

279

The dynamics of plant cell-wall polysaccharide decomposition in leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The degradation of live plant biomass in fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants is poorly characterised but fundamental for understanding the mutual advantages and efficiency of this obligate nutritional symbiosis. Controversies about the extent to which the garden-symbiont Leucocoprinus gongylophorus degrades cellulose have hampered our understanding of the selection forces that induced large scale herbivory and of the ensuing ecological footprint of these ants. Here we use a recently established technique, based on polysaccharide microarrays probed with antibodies and carbohydrate binding modules, to map the occurrence of cell wall polymers in consecutive sections of the fungus garden of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior. We show that pectin, xyloglucan and some xylan epitopes are degraded, whereas more highly substituted xylan and cellulose epitopes remain as residuals in the waste material that the ants remove from their fungus garden. These results demonstrate that biomass entering leaf-cutting antfungus gardens is only partially utilized and explain why disproportionally large amounts of plant material are needed to sustain colony growth. They also explain why substantial communities of microbial and invertebrate symbionts have evolved associations with the dump material from leaf-cutting ant nests, to exploit decomposition niches that the ant garden-fungus does not utilize. Our approach thus provides detailed insight into the nutritional benefits and shortcomings associated with fungus-farming in ants.

Moller, Isabel Eva; de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard

2011-01-01

280

Evaluation of the nutritive value of sugarcane residues inoculated with fungus Fomes sp  

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Full Text Available Objective. Improve the nutritional value of mechanized sugarcane residues inoculating the fungus Fomes sp. EUM1. Materials and methods. The fungus Fomes was inoculated according to a 0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% (w/v treatment and incubated at a temperature of 35°C for 7, 10 and 13 days. It was obtained DM, OM, CP, ash, NDF and ADF and the effective degradation of DM, NDF and ADF, with an experimental factorial design of 3X3 and a completely randomized design. The factors were growing days in an Erlenmeyer flask (7, 10, and 13 and inoculum percentage (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3. The data were analyzed with the SAS statistical package. Results. Statistical significance was found in the interaction of the fungus growing days by percentage of inoculum, in the variables: DM, CP and pH. The NDF and ADF factor differed in the percentage of inoculum. Effective degradation showed significant for the same type of interaction in all the variables studied. Conclusions. The inoculation of the fungus increased ADF degradation by only 0.2% of the inoculum percentage, without any effect on effective degradation due to the use of soluble fractions at the beginning of the incubation. It is considered that the degradation occurs in stages that are important to consider for determining treatments to maximize the beneficial effects of the fungus in terms of ruminant nutrition.

Alex Olivera D.

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
281

Metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into bacterial communities in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens.  

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Herbivores gain access to nutrients stored in plant biomass largely by harnessing the metabolic activities of microbes. Leaf-cutter ants of the genus Atta are a hallmark example; these dominant neotropical herbivores cultivate symbiotic fungus gardens on large quantities of fresh plant forage. As the external digestive system of the ants, fungus gardens facilitate the production and sustenance of millions of workers. Using metagenomic and metaproteomic techniques, we characterize the bacterial diversity and physiological potential of fungus gardens from two species of Atta. Our analysis of over 1.2?Gbp of community metagenomic sequence and three 16S pyrotag libraries reveals that in addition to harboring the dominant fungal crop, these ecosystems contain abundant populations of Enterobacteriaceae, including the genera Enterobacter, Pantoea, Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Escherichia. We show that these bacterial communities possess genes associated with lignocellulose degradation and diverse biosynthetic pathways, suggesting that they play a role in nutrient cycling by converting the nitrogen-poor forage of the ants into B-vitamins, amino acids and other cellular components. Our metaproteomic analysis confirms that bacterial glycosyl hydrolases and proteins with putative biosynthetic functions are produced in both field-collected and laboratory-reared colonies. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fungus gardens are specialized fungus-bacteria communities that convert plant material into energy for their ant hosts. Together with recent investigations into the microbial symbionts of vertebrates, our work underscores the importance of microbial communities in the ecology and evolution of herbivorous metazoans. PMID:22378535

Aylward, Frank O; Burnum, Kristin E; Scott, Jarrod J; Suen, Garret; Tringe, Susannah G; Adams, Sandra M; Barry, Kerrie W; Nicora, Carrie D; Piehowski, Paul D; Purvine, Samuel O; Starrett, Gabriel J; Goodwin, Lynne A; Smith, Richard D; Lipton, Mary S; Currie, Cameron R

2012-09-01

282

Metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into bacterial communities in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Herbivores gain access to nutrients stored in plant biomass largely by harnessing the metabolic activities of microbes. Leaf-cutter ants of the genus Atta are a hallmark example; these dominant Neotropical herbivores cultivate symbiotic fungus gardens on massive quantities of fresh plant forage. As the external digestive system of the ants, fungus gardens facilitate the production and sustenance of millions of workers in mature Atta colonies. Here we use metagenomic, and metaproteomic techniques to characterize the bacterial diversity and overall physiological potential of fungus gardens from two species of Atta. Our analysis of over 1.2 Gbp of community metagenomic sequence and three 16S pyrotag libraries reveals that, in addition to harboring the dominant fungal crop, these ecosystems contain abundant populations of Enterobacteriaceae, including the genera Enterobacter, Pantoea, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, and Escherichia. We show that these bacterial communities possess genes commonly associated with lignocellulose degradation, and likely participate in the processing of plant biomass. Additionally, we demonstrate that bacteria in these environments encode a diverse suite of biosynthetic pathways, and that they may enrich the nitrogen-poor forage of the ants with B-vitamins, amino acids, and proteins. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fungus gardens are highly-specialized fungus-bacteria communities that efficiently convert plant material into usable energy for their ant hosts. Together with recent investigations into the microbial symbionts of vertebrates, our work underscores the importance of microbial communities to the ecology and evolution of herbivorous metazoans.

Aylward, Frank O.; Burnum, Kristin E.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Suen, Garret; Tringe, Susannah G.; Adams, Sandra M.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Starrett, Gabriel J.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Currie, Cameron R.

2012-09-01

283

Differential growth of the fungus Absidia cylindrospora on 13C/15N-labelled media.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many studies utilise enrichment of stable isotopes as tracers to follow the interactions occurring within soil food webs and methods have been developed to enrich bacteria, soil fauna and plant litter, Here for the first time we attempt to enrich a soil fungus to 99 atom% with (13)C and (15)N stable isotopes. In this study our objectives were to (a) assess whether the saprotrophic zygomycete fungus Absidia cylindrospora could grow on a medium enriched to 99 atom% with (13)C-glucose and (15)N-ammonium chloride, (b) to determine the level of enrichment obtained, and (c) to examine the change in growth rate of this fungus while it was growing on the dually enriched medium. To achieve this, the fungus was grown on agar enriched with (13)C and (15)N to 99 atom% and its growth rate monitored. The results showed that A. cylindrospora would grow on the highly labelled growth medium, but that its rate of growth was affected compared with the rate on either natural abundance media or media highly enriched with a single isotope ((13)C or (15)N). The implications of these results is that although the fungus is able to utilise these heavier isotopes, the biochemical processes involved in growth are affected, and consideration should be given to these differences when using stable isotope tracers in, for example, soil food web studies. PMID:21594920

Crotty, F V; Blackshaw, R P; Murray, P J

2011-06-15

284

ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION AND PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF WHITE ROT FUNGUS AND HETEROLOGOUS EXPRESSION OF GENE ENCODING LACCASE  

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Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to isolate wild white rot fungus and characterize the organism with respect to laccase gene. White rot fungus was isolated from decay wood sample and was subjected to Phylogenetic analysis by using basidiomycete-specific ITS primers for identification. mRNA of laccase enzyme was isolated, amplified by RT-PCR with specific forward and reverse primer that targeted the nucleotides present in right and left border of the mRNA. Amplified gene was tried to be transformed in to E.coli cells and the transformants were subjected for colony PCR, plate assay and decolorisation assay. All the results very clearly indicated the presence of laccase gene in the isolated white rot fungus and also the successful transformation of the gene in to E.coli cells.

R. INDIRA PRIYADARSINI

2011-03-01

285

Comparison of two monooxygenase systems with cytochrome P450 in filamentous fungus Rhizopus nigricans.  

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Besides the progesterone inducible steroid hydroxylase which catalyses the transformation of progesterone to 11alpha-hydroxyprogesterone the presence of another monooxygenase system in filamentous fungus Rhizopus nigricans (R. nigricans)--lanosterol demethylase was confirmed. Lanosterol demethylase was not inducible with progesterone. After subcellular fractionation both monooxygenase systems were found in microsomal fraction of fungus R. nigricans. To find out how to differentiate between the hydroxylase and demethylase systems the influence of inhibitors ketoconazole and metyrapone on both monooxygenase systems was studied. Both substances efficiently inhibited fungal steroid hydroxylase. Spectral studies used to characterize the interaction of inhibitors with cytochromes P450 showed that both inhibitors bind to induced fungal preparations whereas in noninduced fungal preparations interaction with P450 was found only with ketoconazole. This indicated the difference in interaction of the two inhibitors on both monooxygenase systems present in fungus R. nigricans. PMID:10653158

Kunic, B; Makovec, T; Breskvar, K

2000-01-01

286

A Collagenolytic Fungus, Cunninghamella elegans, for Biological Control of Plant-parasitic Nematodes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The root-galling index of tomatoes inoculated with Meloidogyne javanica was decreased 70% when collagen was used as a soil amendment (0.1% w/w) and 90% when the amendment was supplemented with the collagenolytic fungus Cunninghamella elegans. The root-galling index was reduced 80% when the fungus was homogenized in collagen culture medium and added to soil without collagen supplement. Culture filtrates of the fungus C. elegans, grown on collagen as a single source of carbon and nitrogen, immobilized M. javanica second-stage juveniles and inhibited egg hatch. Root galling was reduced when tomato plants were inoculated with filtrate-treated juveniles. Culture filtrates reduced the motility of Rotylenchulus reniformis and Xiphinema index, but they had less effect on Anguina tritici and almost no effect on Ditylenchus dipsaci. Cunninghamella elegans had collagenolytic, elastolytic, keratinolytic, and nonspecific proteolytic activities when grown on collagen media, but only chitinolytic activity when grown on chitin media. PMID:19283126

Galper, S; Cohn, E; Spiegel, Y; Chet, I

1991-07-01

287

Characterisation and bioactivity of oosporein produced by endophytic fungus Cochliobolus kusanoi isolated from Nerium oleander L.  

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Bioactive compounds comprising secondary metabolites produced by endophytic fungi have wide applications in pharmacology and agriculture. Isolation, characterisation and evaluation of biological activities of secondary metabolites were carried out from Cochliobolus kusanoi an endophytic fungus of Nerium oleander L. The fungus was identified based on 18S rDNA sequence analysis. There are no reports available on the compounds of C.kusanoi hence, antimicrobial metabolite produced by this fungus was extracted and purified by fractionation using hexane, diethyl ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Out of all the solvent fractions, the methanol fraction exhibited better antimicrobial activity which was further purified and characterised as oosporein. Oosporein from C.kusanoi exhibited broad spectrum in vitro antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. The characterisation and antioxidant activity of oosporein from C. kusanoi are reported for the first time. PMID:24934634

Alurappa, Ramesha; Bojegowda, Madhusudhan Reddy Muthukurpalya; Kumar, Vijith; Mallesh, Naveen Kumar; Chowdappa, Srinivas

2014-01-01

288

Taxol production by Pestalotiopsis terminaliae, an endophytic fungus of Terminalia arjuna (arjun tree).  

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Terminalia arjuna is a medicinal plant (the arjun tree) that possesses anticancer activity. An endophytic fungus, Pestalotiopsis terminaliae, was isolated from the fresh healthy leaves of this tree and was screened for the production of taxol, an anticancer drug, in artificial culture medium. The taxol produced was analysed chromatographically and spectrometrically. The amount of taxol produced by the fungus was found to be 211.1 microg/litre. This was sufficient for the fungus to be considered as a potential source material for improvement, by engineering, the production of taxol. The fungal taxol extracted from an organic extract of the fungal culture had strong cytotoxic activity towards BT220, H116, Int 407, HL 251 and HLK 210 human cancer cells in vitro when tested using an apoptosis assay. PMID:18254723

Gangadevi, Venkatraman; Muthumary, Johnpaul

2009-01-01

289

Optimizing copper sulfate treatments for fungus control on channel catfish eggs in high alkalinity/moderate hardness water  

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Interest in the use of copper sulfate (CuSO4) for fungus (Saprolegnia sp.) control in catfish hatcheries has developed over the past few years. A range-finding study was designed to determine the optimum concentration needed for fungus control on channel catfish eggs in 23.5°C well water at the Stu...

290

Characterization and host range of the symbiotic fungus Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov., vectored by the invasive ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel symbiotic Fusarium euwallaceae fungus that serves as a specific nutritional source for the invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) is farmed in the galleries of host plants. This beetle-fungus complex, which has invaded Israel and California, is clo...

291

Fungus Ball Diagnosed on Computed Tomography (CT Guided Needle Aspiration and Biopsy of Thoracic Lesions  

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Full Text Available Background/Objective: CT-guided biopsy provides results in a short period and can be applied on outpatient and even high-risk patients; however, some studies do not recommend it in lesions with benign histology probability. The purpose was to report our experience regarding fungus ball diagnosis on CT-guided biopsy and to identify the complication rate of the procedure. "nPatients and Methods: We evaluated 99 CT-guided biopsies of infected thoracic lesions performed from March 2004 to December 2008 retrospectively. All biopsies were performed by one radiologist with Westcott needle number 20 and 18. The CTs were assessed by a trained general practitioner for the size and location of lesions and diagnosis of pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum, then all CTs were double checked by the same radiologist. Diagnosis of fungus lesions and their differentiations were based on pathology reports. "nResults: During this four-year study, 20 fungus lesions (15 men and five women were found. The mean age of the patients were 54.75 years (ranging: 19-77. In these series, there were 16 (80% aspergillosis, two (10% mucor mycosis and two undifferentiated fungus balls. The mean diameter of the lesions was 5.650 cm (range: 1-11.5 cm and the distance of the lesions to the chest wall was 0.75 cm (range: 0-3 cm. Nine (45% fungus lesions were located in the left upper, four (20% in the right lower, four (20% in the right upper and the rest (15% in the left lower and right middle lobes. Pneumothorax occurred in two cases (one aspergillosis and one mucor mycosis, while the chest tube was placed only for the patient with mucor mycosis in order to manage the compli-cation. "nConclusion: CT-guided needle biopsy seems to be a safe and feasible diagnostic modality with a low-risk probability of complications for fungus balls.

Mehrdad Bakhshayeshkaram

2010-05-01

292

Levels of specificity of Xylaria species associated with fungus-growing termites: a phylogenetic approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fungus-growing termites live in obligate mutualistic symbiosis with species of the basidiomycete genus Termitomyces, which are cultivated on a substrate of dead plant material. When the termite colony dies, or when nest material is incubated without termites in the laboratory, fruiting bodies of the ascomycete genus Xylaria appear and rapidly cover the fungus garden. This raises the question whether certain Xylaria species are specialised in occupying termite nests or whether they are just occasional visitors. We tested Xylaria specificity at four levels: (1) fungus-growing termites, (2) termite genera, (3) termite species, and (4) colonies. In South Africa, 108 colonies of eight termite species from three termite genera were sampled for Xylaria. Xylaria was isolated from 69% of the sampled nests and from 57% of the incubated fungus comb samples, confirming high prevalence. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS region revealed 16 operational taxonomic units of Xylaria, indicating high levels of Xylaria species richness. Not much of this variation was explained by termite genus, species, or colony; thus, at level 2-4 the specificity is low. Analysis of the large subunit rDNA region, showed that all termite-associated Xylaria belong to a single clade, together with only three of the 26 non-termite-associated strains. Termite-associated Xylaria thus show specificity for fungus-growing termites (level 1). We did not find evidence for geographic or temporal structuring in these Xylaria phylogenies. Based on our results, we conclude that termite-associated Xylaria are specific for fungus-growing termites, without having specificity for lower taxonomic levels.

Visser, Andre; Ros, V I D

2009-01-01

293

Fungus symbionts colonizing the galleries of the ambrosia beetle Platypus quercivorus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Isolations were made to determine the fungal symbionts colonizing Platypus quercivorus beetle galleries of dead or dying Quercus laurifolia, Castanopsis cuspidata, Quercus serrata, Quercus crispula, and Quercus robur. For these studies, logs from oak wilt-killed trees were collected from Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Fungi were isolated from the: (1) entrances of beetle galleries, (2) vertical galleries, (3) lateral galleries, and (4) the larval cradle of P. quercivorus in each host tree. Among the fungus colonies which appeared on YM agar plates, 1,219 were isolated as the representative isolates for fungus species inhabiting in the galleries based on their cultural characteristics. The validity of the visual classification of the fungus colonies was checked and if necessary properly corrected using microsatellite-primed PCR fingerprints. The nucleotide sequence of the D1/D2 region of the large subunit nuclear rRNA gene detected 38 fungus species (104 strains) of which three species, i.e., Candida sp. 3, Candida kashinagacola (both yeasts), and the filamentous fungus Raffaelea quercivora were isolated from all the tree species. The two yeasts were most prevalent in the interior of galleries, regardless of host tree species, suggesting their close association with the beetle. A culture-independent method, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis was also used to characterize the fungus flora of beetle galleries. T-RFLP patterns showed that yeast species belonging to the genus Ambrosiozyma frequently occurred on the gallery walls along with the two Candida species. Ours is the first report showing the specific fungi inhabiting the galleries of a platypodid ambrosia beetle. PMID:21384214

Endoh, Rikiya; Suzuki, Motofumi; Okada, Gen; Takeuchi, Yuko; Futai, Kazuyoshi

2011-07-01

294

Identifying the core microbial community in the gut of fungus-growing termites  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Gut microbes play a crucial role in decomposing lignocellulose to fuel termite societies, with protists in the lower termites and prokaryotes in the higher termites providing these services. However, a single basal subfamily of the higher termites, the Macrotermitinae, also domesticated a plant biomass-degrading fungus (Termitomyces), and how this symbiont acquisition has affected the fungus-growing termite gut microbiota has remained unclear. The objective of our study was to compare the intestinal bacterial communities of five genera (nine species) of fungus-growing termites to establish whether or not an ancestral core microbiota has been maintained and characterizes extant lineages. Using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we show that gut communities have representatives of 26 bacterial phyla and are dominated by Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes, Proteobacteria, and Synergistetes. A set of 42 genus-level taxa was present in all termite species and accounted for 56-68% of the species-specificreads. Gut communities of termites from the same genus were more similar than distantly related species, suggesting that phylogenetic ancestry matters, possibly in connection with specific termite genus-level ecological niches. Finally, we show that gut communities of fungus-growing termites are similar to cockroaches, both at the bacterial phylum level and in a comparison of the core Macrotermitinae taxa abundances with representative cockroach, lower termite, and higher non-fungus-growing termites. These results suggest that the obligate association with Termitomyces has forced the bacterial gut communities of the fungus-growing termites towards a relatively uniform composition with higher similarity to their omnivorous relatives than to more closely related termites. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Otani, Saria; Mikaelyan, Aram

2014-01-01

295

Regulation of the growth of cotton bollworms by metabolites from an entomopathogenic fungus Paecilomyces cateniobliquus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical investigation of one entomopathogenic fungus Paecilomyces cateniobliquus YMF1.01799 led to the isolation and identification of six metabolites, which include three new compounds (2-3, and 5) and three known metabolites. Their structures were established by spectroscopic studies such as 1D and 2D NMR and MS analysis. Insect growth experiments suggested that polyketide-derived compound 1 showed significant inhibitory effect on the growth of cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera, while terpenoid-derived metabolite 5 promoted the growth of the larvae. The findings revealed that the entomopathogenic fungus P. cateniobliquus could produce different types of metabolites to regulate growth of the insect. PMID:22607354

Wu, Hong-Yang; Wang, Yan-Li; Tan, Jian-Lin; Zhu, Chun-Yan; Li, Dong-Xian; Huang, Rong; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Niu, Xue-Mei

2012-06-01

296

Fungus/Disease Analysis in Tomato Crop using Image Processing Techniques  

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The crop of tomato is very often infected by a disease that leaves spots of brown, gray or off-white colors on the plant’s leafs in winter. Scientifically, this disease is known as cercospora leaf spot or cercospora cruciferarum. It’s a kind of fungus that often kills young seedlings. The fungus spreads by air and can also infect tomato plants. Therefore, it is important to monitor the leaf at regular intervals so as to keep track on quality of growing tomato crop. In the presented paper,...

Shruti; Nidhi Seth

2014-01-01

297

A new guaiane mannoside from a Eutypa-like fungus isolated from Murraya paniculata in Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Eutypa-like fungus was isolated from the stems of Murraya paniculata. The fungus was cultivated in liquid medium and produced the new guaiane-type sesquiterpenoid (1R,4S,5S,7R,10R)- 10-hydroxyguaianol 10-O-beta-mannopyranoside and the 3-hydroxy-5-phenylmethyl-(3S,5R)- tetrahydrofuran-2-one, a diastereomer of harzialactone A, obtained for the first time from a natural source. The structures of these metabolites were elucidated based on analysis of their spectroscopic data. (author)

298

Analysis on the Natural Remedies to Cure Dandruff/Skin Disease-causing Fungus - Malassezia furfur.  

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Full Text Available A comparative study was conducted on the levels of effectiveness, of natural remedies such as cow's urine, lemon, boiled rice water, Neem extract etc. in curing dandruff and inhibiting the growth of the causative fungus Malassezia. Various plating techniques were applied using modified Oil - Potato Dextrose Agar as the nutrient medium for the fungal growth. Cow's urine was found to be more stable and effective in inhibiting the fungus, along with boiled rice-water. Lemon juice was highly effective though over a shorter period.

Saneesh Kumar

2013-01-01

299

Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Endophytic Fungus Fennellia nivea NRRL 5504  

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Full Text Available Antioxidant is an interesting bioactivity since it has several correlations with disease such as Alzheimer, cancer, ageing and many others in which were promoted by free radicals. Investigation on our endophytic fungus collection namely Fennelia nivea NRRL 5504 revealed that the fermented medium has antioxidant property against DPPH through free radical scavenging effect. Fermentation in liquid medium i.e. Potatoes Dextrose Broth, resulted that the fermented medium reached about 86.51% (p-1 equivalent to pyrogallol. By exposure above, we have alternative source of antioxidant that came from our endophytic fungus collection which we isolated previously from Typhonium divaricatum Lodd.

Jasmansyah

2013-01-01

300

A new eremophilane-type sesquiterpene from the phytopatogen fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Sphaeropsidaceae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The phytopatogenic fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae, isolated from guava, was cultivated in rice for 32 days at room temperature. Extraction with CH2Cl2:MeOH (3:7), followed by chromatography fractionation of the extract provided ergosterol. From the fungus culture in Czapeck medium for 40 days at room temperature, were isolated isocoumarin cis-4-hydroxymeleine and an eremophilane-type sesquiterpene. The latter compound is being reported for the first time in the literature. Also, this is the first time that an eremophilane sesquiterpene is described for Lasiodiplodia genus. (author)

 
 
 
 
301

Metabolism of carbohydrates in the fungus Aspergillus niger under the action of light  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of visible light with 410, 520 and 610 nm wave lengths on carbonhydrate transformation and absorption by Aspergillus niger fungus is studied. It is shown that the light stimulates the absorption by the fungus of the medium carbohydrates and their biochemical modifications. This leads to amplification of biomass accumulation and citric acid liberation to the medium. An increase of citric acid content in the cultural liquid is counected either with producer biomass growth or with amplification of biomass unit ability to citrate biosynthesis or with simultaneous realization of the both ways indicated

302

Investigations on Aspergillus fumigatus double-stranded RNAs and their effects on the fungus  

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The aim of this research was to assess the incidence of dsRNA mycoviruses in the opportunistic human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, where previously no dsRNA viruses had been reported and to investigate the effects of any dsRNAs on the growth and pathogenicity of the fungus. Thus far 366 isolates (clinical and environmental) have been screened, 24 of which posses dsRNA elements. Successful efforts were made to completely characterise the two dsRNA segments of the isol...

Bhatti, Muhammad Faraz

2011-01-01

303

Conditions for selective degradation of lignin by the fungus Ganoderma australis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The white-rot fungus Ganoderma australis selectively degrades lignin in the ecosystem 'palo podrido'. Using conditions that simulate those of 'palo podrido' in the laboratory, it was found that low nitrogen content and low O{sub 2} tension stimulate the production of manganese peroxidase and lignin degradation, and depress cellulose degradation and cellulase production. The inverse is found at high nitrogen concentration and high O{sub 2} tension. This agrees with previous results indicating that low O{sub 2} tension and low nitrogen stimulate selective lignin degradation by this fungus. (orig.).

Rios, S.; Eyzaguirre, J. (Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Lab. de Bioquimica)

1992-08-01

304

Cyclodepsipeptides, sesquiterpenoids, and other cytotoxic metabolites from the filamentous fungus Trichothecium sp. (MSX 51320).  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new cyclodepsipeptides (1 and 2), two new sesquiterpenoids (3 and 4), and the known compounds guangomide A (5), roseotoxin S, and three simple trichothecenes were isolated from the cytotoxic organic extract of a terrestrial filamentous fungus, Trichothecium sp. The structures were determined using NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Absolute configurations of the cyclodepsipeptides were established by employing chiral HPLC, while the relative configurations of 3 and 4 were determined via NOESY data. The isolation of guangomide A was of particular interest, since it was reported previously from a marine-derived fungus. PMID:21978324

Sy-Cordero, Arlene A; Graf, Tyler N; Adcock, Audrey F; Kroll, David J; Shen, Qi; Swanson, Steven M; Wani, Mansukh C; Pearce, Cedric J; Oberlies, Nicholas H

2011-10-28

305

Two Cyclodepsipeptides, two Sesquiterpenoids and Other Cytotoxic Metabolites from the Filamentous Fungus Trichothecium sp. (MSX 51320)  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new cyclodepsipeptides (1 and 2), two new sesquiterpenoids (3 and 4), and the known compounds guangomide A (5), roseotoxin S, and three simple trichothecenes were isolated from the cytotoxic organic extract of a terrestrial filamentous fungus, Trichothecium sp. The structures were determined using NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Absolute configurations of the cyclodepsipeptides were established by employing chiral HPLC, while the relative configurations of 3 and 4 were determined via NOESY data. The isolation of guangomide A was of particular interest, since it was reported previously from a marine derived fungus. PMID:21978324

Sy-Cordero, Arlene A.; Graf, Tyler N.; Adcock, Audrey F.; Kroll, David J.; Shen, Qi; Swanson, Steven M.; Wani, Mansukh C.; Pearce, Cedric J.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

2011-01-01

306

A new eremophilane-type sesquiterpene from the phytopatogen fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Sphaeropsidaceae)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The phytopatogenic fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae, isolated from guava, was cultivated in rice for 32 days at room temperature. Extraction with CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}:MeOH (3:7), followed by chromatography fractionation of the extract provided ergosterol. From the fungus culture in Czapeck medium for 40 days at room temperature, were isolated isocoumarin cis-4-hydroxymeleine and an eremophilane-type sesquiterpene. The latter compound is being reported for the first time in the literature. Also, this is the first time that an eremophilane sesquiterpene is described for Lasiodiplodia genus. (author)

Nunes, Fatima M.; Oliveira, Maria da Conceicao F. de; Arriaga, Angela M.C.; Lemos, Telma L.G.; Andrade-Neto, Manoel; Mattos, Marcos C. de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: mcfo@ufc.br; Mafezoli, Jair [Universidade de Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Curso de Farmacia; Viana, Francisco M.P.; Ferreira, Viviane M. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Lab. de Fitopatologia; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Ferreira, Antonio G. [Universidade Federal de Sa Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

2008-07-01

307

Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intra-radices on accumulation of radiocaesium by plant species  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intra-radices in 134Cs isotope uptake by different plant species is studied. The impact of radiocaesium on mycorrhizal development and functioning of plant photosynthetic apparatus is considered. The possibility of mycorrhizal symbiosis application in phytoremediation of radioactively contaminated areas is analyzed.It is found that colonization of plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus resulted in significant decrease of radiocaesium concentration in their aboveground parts, while it did not have considerable impact on the radionuclide uptake by plant root system

308

Influence of the fungus Trichoderma harzianum on the enzyme and polysaccharide composition of Silene vulgaris Callus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Activities of polygalacturonase and 1,3-?-glucanase increased in campion (Silene vulgaris) callus cells during co-cultivation with the fungus Trichoderma harzianum. This was associated with a decrease in galacturonic acid residues in the pectic polysaccharide of campion silenan and also in the production of pectin by the callus. Co-cultivation of the callus and the fungus resulted in an increase in contents of arabinose residues in the intracellular arabinogalactan and in contents of galactose residues in the extracellular arabinogalactan. PMID:23586723

Günter, E A; Kapustina, O M; Ovodov, Yu S

2013-03-01

309

A virus in a fungus in a plant: Three-way symbiosis required for thermal tolerance  

Science.gov (United States)

A mutualistic association between a fungal endophyte and a tropical panic grass allows both organisms to grow at high soil temperatures. We characterized a virus from this fungus that is involved in the mutualistic interaction. Fungal isolates cured of the virus are unable to confer heat tolerance, but heat tolerance is restored after the virus is reintroduced. The virus-infected fungus confers heat tolerance not only to its native monocot host but also to a eudicot host, which suggests that the underlying mechanism involves pathways conserved between these two groups of plants.

Marquez, L.M.; Redman, R.S.; Rodriguez, R.J.; Roossinck, M.J.

2007-01-01

310

Co-evolutionary patterns and diversification of ant-fungus associations in the asexual fungus-farming ant Mycocepurus smithii in Panama.  

Science.gov (United States)

Partner fidelity through vertical symbiont transmission is thought to be the primary mechanism stabilizing cooperation in the mutualism between fungus-farming (attine) ants and their cultivated fungal symbionts. An alternate or additional mechanism could be adaptive partner or symbiont choice mediating horizontal cultivar transmission or de novo domestication of free-living fungi. Using microsatellite genotyping for the attine ant Mycocepurus smithii and ITS rDNA sequencing for fungal cultivars, we provide the first detailed population genetic analysis of local ant-fungus associations to test for the relative importance of vertical vs. horizontal transmission in a single attine species. M. smithii is the only known asexual attine ant, and it is furthermore exceptional because it cultivates a far greater cultivar diversity than any other attine ant. Cultivar switching could permit the ants to re-acquire cultivars after garden loss, to purge inferior cultivars that are locally mal-adapted or that accumulated deleterious mutations under long-term asexuality. Compared to other attine ants, symbiont choice and local adaptation of ant-fungus combinations may play a more important role than partner-fidelity feedback in the co-evolutionary process of M. smithii and its fungal symbionts. PMID:23639137

Kellner, K; Fernández-Marín, H; Ishak, H D; Sen, R; Linksvayer, T A; Mueller, U G

2013-06-01

311

The ability of fungus Mucor racemosus Fresenius to degrade high concentration of detergent  

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Full Text Available The ability of fungus Mucor racemosus Fresenius to decompose high concentration of commercial detergent (MERIX, Henkel, Serbia was investigated in this study. Fungus was cultivated in liquid growth medium by Czapek with addition of detergent at concentration 0.5% during 16 days. The biochemical changes of pH, redox potential, amount of free and total organic acids, and activity of alkaline phosphatase were evaluated by analysis of fermentation broth. Simultaneously, biodegradation percentage of anionic surfactant of tested detergent was confirmed by MBAS assay. At the same time, the influence of detergent on fungal growth and total dry weight biomass was determined. Detergent at concentration 0.5% influenced on decreasing of pH value and increasing of redox potential as well as increasing of free and total organic acids. Enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase was reduced by detergent at concentration 0.5%. The fungus was decomposed about 62% of anionic surfactant during 16 day. Due to fungus was produced higher dry weight biomass (53% in relation to control. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43004

Jakovljevi? Violeta D.

2014-01-01

312

Investigation of the Effect of Heating, Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza and Thermophilic Fungus on Cotton Wilt Disease  

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Full Text Available In this study, combinations of spores of a thermophilic fungus (Talaromyces flavus, Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM and microsclerotia of Verticillium dahliae under various temperature treatment (31-38°C in triplicate trial, were investigated and results were compared with those of non-treated controls. Five cotton seeds were planted in each pot containing 3 kg of pasteurized soil. In each pot, combinations of 4x103 VAM spores, 2.5x10 9 spores of thermophilic fungus (T. flavus and 5x105 microsclerotia of V. dahliae were added. Symptoms of Verticillium wilt were observed after 45 days. Index of disease severity was measured. Results indicated that pre-heating of microsclerotia at 31 and 35°C for 10 and 14 h, respectively, caused a 15% reduction in leaf infection index. Presence of VAM and thermophilic fungus (T. flavus spores caused 23 and 50% reductions in the disease development , respectively. Concurrent presence of mycorrhiza and thermophilic fungus spores caused a 10-20% reduction in disease development. These findings provide a promising approach to the control of Verticillium wilt of cotton. However, heat treatment of soil may prove difficult. Further studies in this regard are required and useful agricultural practices such as seasonal heating may be applied in the cotton fields.

L. Naraghi

2007-01-01

313

Xylarenones C-E from an endophytic fungus isolated from Alibertia macrophylla.  

Science.gov (United States)

Xylarenones C-E (2-4), three new eremophilane sesquiterpenes, have been isolated from solid substrate cultures of a Camarops-like endophytic fungus isolated from Alibertia macrophylla. The structures were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data. Compounds were evaluated in subtilisin and pepsin protease assays, and compound 2 showed potent inhibitory activity against both proteases. PMID:21510613

de Oliveira, Camila Martins; Silva, Geraldo Humberto; Regasini, Luis Octávio; Flausino, Otávio; López, Silvia Noelí; Abissi, Bárbara Marcondes; Berlinck, Roberto Gomes de Souza; Sette, Lara Durães; Bonugli-Santos, Rafaella Costa; Rodrigues, André; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva; Araujo, Angela Regina

2011-06-24

314

A molecular approach to explore the extent of the threatened fungus Hypocreopsis rhododendri within wood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypocreopsis rhododendri is a rare fungus that grows on woody stems in hyperoceanic climax scrub on the west coasts of Britain, Ireland, and France. Knowledge of the distribution and abundance of the fungus is based entirely on sporocarp records; it does not account for any occurrence as vegetative mycelia. To address this issue, a H. rhododendri-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed and used to assay Corylus avellana (hazel) stems for the presence of H. rhododendri mycelia. The primers ITSHrF and ITSHrR were designed within the internal transcribed spacer 2 region, and their specificity to H. rhododendri was established by their failure to amplify DNA extracted from 14 other Hypocreaceae species. The sensitivity of the assay was demonstrated by amplifying DNA extracted from 4 mg C. avellana wood spiked with 0.0013 % H. rhododendri mycelium. Samples of wood and bark were then taken from around and directly underneath 11 H. rhododendri sporocarps and assayed for the presence of H. rhododendri. PCR products were obtained from a third of the surface bark samples, but only one faint product was obtained from 70 samples taken from beneath the outer bark. The results support the view that H. rhododendri does not form mycelia within stems. We suggest that H. rhododendri is not a saprotrophic fungus, but instead appears to be a parasitic on the wood decay fungus Hymenochaete corrugata, with which it always occurs. Evidence that tissue of H. corrugata is present within the sporocarps of H. rhododendri is discussed. PMID:22385618

Grundy, Katherine C; Woodward, Steve; Genney, David R; Taylor, Andy F S

2012-03-01

315

Trials and tribulations of dose confirmation: Using copper sulfate for fungus control on channel catfish eggs  

Science.gov (United States)

Range-finding and dose confirmation studies on the use of copper sulfate (CuSO4) for fungus control in channel catfish hatcheries were attempted during the catfish spawning season of 2007. Catfish were spawned on-site and egg masses were used in the study within 24 - 48 hrs. Similar portions (~80 ...

316

Using copper sulfate on hybrid striped bass eggs to control fungus and increase survival  

Science.gov (United States)

A major obstacle in fish hatcheries is reduced hatch rates due to fungal growth on eggs. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in catfish hatcheries that use troughs, but effectiveness on other species of fish eggs in different hatching systems has only recently been investigat...

317

Optimizing CuSO4 treatments for fungus control on channel catfish eggs  

Science.gov (United States)

This range-finding study determined the optimum concentration of copper sulfate (CuSO4) for fungus (Saprolegnia sp.) control on channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus eggs. The study consisted of five CuSO4 concentrations (2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/L) and an untreated control. A single spawn was used ...

318

Phomoxanthones A and B, novel xanthone dimers from the endophytic fungus Phomopsis species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phomoxanthones A (1) and B (2), two novel xanthone dimers, were isolated from the endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp. BCC 1323. Structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. These compounds exhibited significant in vitro antimalarial and antitubercular activities and cytotoxicity. PMID:11520217

Isaka, M; Jaturapat, A; Rukseree, K; Danwisetkanjana, K; Tanticharoen, M; Thebtaranonth, Y

2001-08-01

319

Modelling the hyphal growth of the wood-decay fungus Physisporinus vitreus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The white-rot fungus, Physisporinus vitreus, degrades the membranes of bordered pits in tracheids and consequently increases the permeability of wood, which is a process that can be used by the wood industry to improve the uptake of wood preservatives and environmentally benign wood modification substances to enhance the use and sustainability of native conifer wood species. To understand and apply this process requires an understanding of how a complex system (fungus-wood) interacts under defined conditions. We present a three-dimensional fungal growth model (FGM) of the hyphal growth of P. vitreus in the heartwood of Norway spruce. The model considers hyphae and nutrients as discrete structures and links the microscopic interactions between fungus and wood (e.g. degradation rate and degree of opening of pits) with macroscopic system properties, such penetration depth of the fungus, biomass, and distribution of destroyed pits in early- and latewood. Simulations were compared with experimental data. The growth of P. vitreus is characterized by a stepwise capture of the substrate and the effect of this on wood according to different model parameters is discussed. PMID:21872189

Fuhr, M J; Schubert, M; Schwarze, F W M R; Herrmann, H J

2011-09-01

320

Toxicidade de filtrados fúngicos a meloidogyne incognita Fungus filtrates toxicity to Meloidogyne incognita  

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Full Text Available Visando à obtenção de novas moléculas nematicidas, 18 filtrados de espécies fúngicas e extratos de sete micélios fúngicos foram estudados in vitro quanto aos efeitos sobre a eclosão, motilidade e mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de Meloidogyne incognita. Filtrados fúngicos foram obtidos de culturas em meio Czapek. Metanol foi usado como solvente para obter extratos dos micélios fúngicos. Filtrados de Paecilomyces lilacinus, Fusarium moniliforme e Fusarium oxysporum reduziram a motilidade e eclosão, e aumentaram a mortalidade (P In the search for new nematicidal molecules, 18 fungal species filtrates and seven fungus mycelium extracts were studied in vitro to see their influence on hatching, mobility and mortality of second stage juveniles (J2 of Meloidogyne incognita. Fungal filtrates were obtained from fifteen day Czapek cultures. Methanol was used as solvent to obtain fungus mycelium extracts. Paecilomyces lilacinus, Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium oxysporum filtrates reduced J2 motility and hatching, and increased J2 mortality (P < 0,05 similarly to Aldicarb. Some fungus filtrates reduced J2 mobility without leading to death. Aspergillus flavus, Cylindrocarpon magnusianum, Fusarium solani and Mortierella sp. filtrates reduced (P < 0,05 only J2 hatching. Production of toxic fungus metabolites was not dependent on the amount of mycelium produced. P. lilacinus produced toxic filtrates after one day culturing. Since then, toxicity increased steadily, reaching 100% J2 mortality on the thirteenth day.

MAURO J.N. COSTA

2001-12-01

 
 
 
 
321

TESTING OF THE INSECT PEST CONTROL FUNGUS BEAUVERIA BASSIANA IN GRASS SHRIMP PALAEMONETES PUGIO  

Science.gov (United States)

Embryos, larvae and adult grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio were exposed to spores of the insect-control fungus Beauveria bassiana. onidiospores attached to embryos held by gravid females and remained with the egg mass for at least 6 d. In the first experiment where individual deve...

322

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MICROSATELLITE LOCI FOR THE ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS BEAUVERIA BASSIANA (ASCOMYCOTA: HYPOCREALES)  

Science.gov (United States)

Beauveria bassiana is a cosmopolitan, soil-borne entomopathogenic fungus used for the biological control of insects. Recent molecular phylogenetic data indicate that B. bassiana is a complex of morphologically cryptic species. In order to study the population genetics of B. bassiana , detail speci...

323

A NEW, AGGRESSIVE RUST FUNGUS FROM TURKEY IS A CANDIDATE FOR BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF RUSSIAN KNAPWEED  

Science.gov (United States)

Russian knapweed (RK, Acroptilon repens) is a rangeland weed pest in the western United States. A rust disease caused by Puccinia acroptili occurs on RK in North America but does not control it. Recently, a rust fungus was collected in Turkey from severely damaged RK; greenhouse tests confirm its ...

324

Draft Genome Sequence of Sclerotinia borealis, a Psychrophilic Plant Pathogenic Fungus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sclerotinia borealis is a necrotrophic phytopathogenic fungus notable for its wide host range and environmental persistence. It grows at low temperatures, causing snow mold disease of crop plants. To understand the molecular mechanisms of its pathogenesis and adaptation to the psychrophilic lifestyle, we determined the 39.3-Mb draft genome sequence of S. borealis F-4128. PMID:24459262

Mardanov, Andrey V; Beletsky, Alexey V; Kadnikov, Vitaly V; Ignatov, Alexander N; Ravin, Nikolai V

2014-01-01

325

Draft Genome Sequence of Sclerotinia borealis, a Psychrophilic Plant Pathogenic Fungus  

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Sclerotinia borealis is a necrotrophic phytopathogenic fungus notable for its wide host range and environmental persistence. It grows at low temperatures, causing snow mold disease of crop plants. To understand the molecular mechanisms of its pathogenesis and adaptation to the psychrophilic lifestyle, we determined the 39.3-Mb draft genome sequence of S. borealis F-4128.

Mardanov, Andrey V.; Beletsky, Alexey V.; Kadnikov, Vitaly V.; Ignatov, Alexander N.; Ravin, Nikolai V.

2014-01-01

326

[Screening and identification of an endophytic fungus from Atractylodes lancea which utilizes volatile oil selectively].  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to transform main active ingredient of volatile oil, endophytic fungi were screened from the root of Atractylodes lancea. Transformation method was used in vitro. The changes of volatile oil were traced by gas chromatography. One endophytic fungus (strain ALG-13) which could uitilize volatile oil selectively was screened. Single factor experiment were conducted for exploring the effects of various factors that including kinds of carbon source, speed, liquid volume, pH and concentration of plant tissue on degradation by this strain. Subsequently, the main affecting factors carbon source, speed, pH and liquid volume were optimized using orthogonal array design. Results showed that endophytic fungus ALG-13 selectively used the volatile oil, change the relative percentage of the main components of volatile oil, Atractylon and Atractydin were increased, While, beta-eudesmol and Atractylol decreased. After selectively degradation by fungus, volatile oil components percentage were closer to the geo-herbs. Strain ALG-13 was identified as Bionectria ochroleuca according to its morphological characteristics and systematic analysis of ITS sequence. The optimal conditions were as follows: sucrose used as carbon source, rotating speed was 200 r x min(-1), initial pH for medium was 4.5, 50 mL liquid was added in 250 mL flask. The endophytic fungus ALG-13 could degrade the volatile oil selectively, which was benefit for forming geoherbs A. lancea volatile oil composition. PMID:23270221

Li, Lei; Liu, Fu-yan; Ren, Cheng-gang; Dai, Chuan-chao

2012-10-01

327

Clove oil and fungus compounds: Can nematode suppression be achieved without phytotoxicity?  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural products from a plant (Syzygium aromaticum) and a fungus (Aspergillus sp.) were examined for the presence of compounds with potential for application as novel nematicides. The plant-derived material, clove oil, was tested in the greenhouse against the nematode Meloidogyne incognita on cucum...

328

Fungal metabolites. XVI. Structures of new peptaibols, trichokindins I-VII, from the fungus Trichoderma harzianum.  

Science.gov (United States)

New peptaibols, trichokindins I-VII, have been isolated from the fungus Trichoderma harzianum. Their structures were characterized by spectrometric methods. Trichokindins, which are 18-residue peptides containing one to three isovaline residues, were found to induce Ca(2+)-dependent catecholamine secretion from bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cells. PMID:8069958

Iida, A; Sanekata, M; Fujita, T; Tanaka, H; Enoki, A; Fuse, G; Kanai, M; Rudewicz, P J; Tachikawa, E

1994-05-01

329

Sphenospora Kevorkianii, a rust fungus (Uredinales: Raveneliaceae on the orchid Pleurothallis mentigera  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A rust disease on the Brazilian orchid Pleurothallis mentigera was found in Mata do Jambreiro, a tropical forest in Minas Gerais State, caused by a fungus identified as Sphenospora kevorkianii Linder is described. P. mentigera Kraenzl. is added to S. kevorkianii host range.

Pereira Olinto L.

2002-01-01

330

Sphenospora Kevorkianii, a rust fungus (Uredinales: Raveneliaceae) on the orchid Pleurothallis mentigera  

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A rust disease on the Brazilian orchid Pleurothallis mentigera was found in Mata do Jambreiro, a tropical forest in Minas Gerais State, caused by a fungus identified as Sphenospora kevorkianii Linder is described. P. mentigera Kraenzl. is added to S. kevorkianii host range.

Pereira Olinto L.; Cavallazzi José R.P.; Rollemberg Christtianno L.; Kasuya Maria C.M.

2002-01-01

331

Bacterium induces cryptic meroterpenoid pathway in the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stimulating encounter: The intimate, physical interaction between the soil-derived bacterium Streptomyces rapamycinicus and the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus led to the activation of an otherwise silent polyketide synthase (PKS) gene cluster coding for an unusual prenylated polyphenol (fumicycline A). The meroterpenoid pathway is regulated by a pathway-specific activator gene as well as by epigenetic factors. PMID:23649940

König, Claudia C; Scherlach, Kirstin; Schroeckh, Volker; Horn, Fabian; Nietzsche, Sandor; Brakhage, Axel A; Hertweck, Christian

2013-05-27

332

Treating sunshine bass eggs with copper sulfate controls fungus and increases survival  

Science.gov (United States)

A major obstacle to sunshine bass production is fungal growth on eggs. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in channel catfish hatcheries that use troughs, but the effectiveness of it on fish eggs hatched using different systems was not known. Female white bass Morone chrysop...

333

Copper sulfate controls fungus on sunshine bass eggs and increases survival  

Science.gov (United States)

A major obstacle to sunshine bass production is fungal growth on eggs. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in channel catfish hatcheries that use troughs, but the effectiveness of it on fish eggs hatched using different systems was not known. Female white bass Morone chrysop...

334

Greater Taxol Yield of Fungus Pestalotiopsis hainanensis from Dermatitic Scurf of the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).  

Science.gov (United States)

While taxol yields of fungi from non-animal sources are still low, whether Pestalotiopsis hainanensis isolated from the scurf of a dermatitic giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca, provides a greater taxol yield remains unknown. The objective of the study was to determine the corresponding taxol yield. The structure of the taxol produced by the fungus was evaluated by thin layer chromatography (TLC), ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR), and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS), with standard taxol as a control. The results demonstrated that the P. hainanensis fungus produced taxol, which had the same structure as the standard taxol and yield of 1,466.87 ?g/L. This fungal taxol yield from the dermatitic giant panda was significantly greater than those of fungus from non-animal sources. The taxol-producing fungus may be a potential candidate for the production of taxol on an industrial scale. PMID:25245682

Gu, Yu; Wang, Yanlin; Ma, Xiaoping; Wang, Chengdong; Yue, Guizhou; Zhang, Yuetian; Zhang, Yunyan; Li, Shanshan; Ling, Shanshan; Liu, Xiaomin; Wen, Xintian; Cao, Sanjie; Huang, Xiaobo; Deng, Junliang; Zuo, Zhicai; Yu, Shumin; Shen, Liuhong; Wu, Rui

2015-01-01

335

Report membrane transport of lactic acid in the filamentous fungus Rhizopus  

Science.gov (United States)

The fungus Rhizopus is frequently used for fermentative production of lactic acid, but little is known about the mechanisms or proteins for transporting this carboxylic acid. Since transport of the lactate anion across the plasma membrane is critical to prevent acidification of the cytoplasm, we ev...

336

Draft Genome Sequence of Lichen-Forming Fungus Cladonia metacorallifera Strain KoLRI002260  

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The lichen-forming fungus Cladonia metacorallifera strain KoLRI002260 is capable of producing a number of secondary metabolites, including usnic, didymic, and squamatic acids, which have antitumor, antioxidant, and antibiotic activities. The draft genome assembly has a size of 36,682,060 bp, with a G+C content of 44.91%, and consists of 30 scaffolds.

Park, Sook-young; Choi, Jaeyoung; Lee, Gir-won; Kim, Jung A.; Oh, Soon-ok; Jeong, Min-hye; Yu, Nan-hee; Kim, Soonok; Lee, Yong-hwan; Hur, Jae-seoun

2014-01-01

337

Draft Genome Sequence of Lichen-Forming Fungus Cladonia metacorallifera Strain KoLRI002260.  

Science.gov (United States)

The lichen-forming fungus Cladonia metacorallifera strain KoLRI002260 is capable of producing a number of secondary metabolites, including usnic, didymic, and squamatic acids, which have antitumor, antioxidant, and antibiotic activities. The draft genome assembly has a size of 36,682,060 bp, with a G+C content of 44.91%, and consists of 30 scaffolds. PMID:24526650

Park, Sook-Young; Choi, Jaeyoung; Lee, Gir-Won; Kim, Jung A; Oh, Soon-Ok; Jeong, Min-Hye; Yu, Nan-Hee; Kim, Soonok; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Hur, Jae-Seoun

2014-01-01

338

Sequencing and functional analysis of the genome of a nematode egg-parasitic fungus, Pochonia chlamydosporia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pochonia chlamydosporia is a worldwide-distributed soil fungus with a great capacity to infect and destroy the eggs and kill females of plant-parasitic nematodes. Additionally, it has the ability to colonize endophytically roots of economically-important crop plants, thereby promoting their growth and eliciting plant defenses. This multitrophic behavior makes P. chlamydosporia a potentially useful tool for sustainable agriculture approaches. We sequenced and assembled ?41 Mb of P. chlamydosporia genomic DNA and predicted 12,122 gene models, of which many were homologous to genes of fungal pathogens of invertebrates and fungal plant pathogens. Predicted genes (65%) were functionally annotated according to Gene Ontology, and 16% of them found to share homology with genes in the Pathogen Host Interactions (PHI) database. The genome of this fungus is highly enriched in genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes, such as proteases, glycoside hydrolases and carbohydrate esterases. We used RNA-Seq technology in order to identify the genes expressed during endophytic behavior of P. chlamydosporia when colonizing barley roots. Functional annotation of these genes showed that hydrolytic enzymes and transporters are expressed during endophytism. This structural and functional analysis of the P. chlamydosporia genome provides a starting point for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the multitrophic lifestyle of this fungus. The genomic information provided here should also prove useful for enhancing the capabilities of this fungus as a biocontrol agent of plant-parasitic nematodes and as a plant growth-promoting organism. PMID:24530791

Larriba, Eduardo; Jaime, María D L A; Carbonell-Caballero, José; Conesa, Ana; Dopazo, Joaquín; Nislow, Corey; Martín-Nieto, José; Lopez-Llorca, Luis Vicente

2014-04-01

339

Pestalotiopamide E, a new amide from the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical examination of the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis sp., isolated from the leaves of the Chinese mangrove Rhizophora mucronata, yielded a new amide called pestalotiopamide E (1). The structure of the new compound was unambiguously elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data analysis. PMID:21462043

Xu, Jing; Lin, Qiang; Wang, Bin; Wray, Victor; Lin, Wen-Han; Proksch, Peter

2011-04-01

340

Antileukemic alpha-pyrone derivatives from the endophytic fungus Alternaria phragmospora  

Science.gov (United States)

Four new (1–4) and two known (5 and 6)a-pyrone derivatives have been isolated from Alternaria phragmospora, an endophytic fungus from Vinca rosea, leaves. The isolated compounds were chemically identi'ed to be 5-butyl-4-methoxy-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one (2) 5-butyl-6-(hydroxymethyl)-4-methoxy-2H-py...

 
 
 
 
341

Using copper sulfate to control fungus on eggs in catfish hatcheries  

Science.gov (United States)

Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is used by the catfish industry for controlling parasites and as an economical treatment to control fungus (Saprolegnia spp.) on channel catfish eggs. Several studies were designed at SNARC to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of CuSO4 to channel catfish eggs in pursuit o...

342

Toxicity of lignans to symbiotic fungus of leaf-cutting ants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lignans fromVirola sebifera Aubl.,Virola sp., andOtoba parvifolia (Mkfg.) A. Gentry (Myristicaceae) inhibited the in vitro growth of the fungus cultivated by leaf-cutting ants of the speciesAtta sexdens rubropilosa Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). A comparison of activity among the lignans was obtained. PMID:24226088

Pagnocca, F C; Ribeiro, S B; Torkomian, V L; Hebling, M J; Bueno, O C; Da Silva, O A; Fernandes, J B; Vieira, P C; Da Silva, M F; Ferreira, A G

1996-07-01

343

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE MYCOTOXIN CITRININ OBTAINED FROM THE FUNGUS PENICILLIUM CITRINUM  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The mycotoxin Citrinin was obtained from the fungus Penicillium citrinum. It was tested for it's Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) against some gram positive strains viz. Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtillis, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Lactobacillus arabinosus and gram negative strains E.Coli, Shigella dysenteriae, shigella sonnei, shigella boydii, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis and Vibrio cholerae. Further the zone...

Mazumder, Papiya Mitrya; Mazumder, Rupa; Mazumder, A.; Sasmal, D. S.

2002-01-01

344

BIOLOGICAL OXIDATIONS OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BY ENZYMES FROM A WHITE ROT FUNGUS  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade a wide variety of structurally diverse organopollutants is dependent upon the lignin-degrading system of this microorganism. n part, the lignin-degrading system-consists of a family of peroxidases, which a...

345

BIOTRANSFORMATION OF 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE (TNT) BY A PLANT-ASSOCIATED FUNGUS FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM  

Science.gov (United States)

The capability of a plant-associated fungus, Fusarium oxyvorum, to transform TNT in liquid cultures was investigated. TNT was transformed into 2-amino-4, 6-dinitrotoluene (2-A-DNT), 4-amino-2, 6-dinitrotoluene (4-A- DNT), and 2, 4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2, 4-DAT) via 2- and 4-hy...

346

BIODEGRADATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM  

Science.gov (United States)

The white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium secretes a unique hydrogen peroxide-dependent oxidase capable of degrading lignin, a highly complex, chemically resistant, non-repeating heteropolymer. ue to its ability to generate carbon-centered radicals, this enzyme is able to...

347

Biodegradation of pentachlorophenol by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (1988)  

Science.gov (United States)

Extensive biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance and mineralization of [14C]PCP in nutrient nitrogen-limited culture. Mass balance analyses demonstrated the formation of water-soluble met...

348

BIODEGRADATION OF CRYSTAL VIOLET BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOPORIUM  

Science.gov (United States)

Biodegradation of crystal violet (N,N,N',N',N",N"-hexamethylpararosaniline) in ligninolytic (nitrogen-limited) cultures of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance of crystal violet and by the identification of three metabolites (N,N,...

349

Fungus ball pieloureteral en pacientes con litiasis urinaria: Tratamiento con ureterorrenoscopia / Pyelo-ureteral fungus ball in patients with urinary lithiasis: Ureterorrenoscopic management  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIÓN: C. albicans es el hongo que con mayor frecuencia produce infecciones oportunistas del tracto urinario. Cuando las hifas se aglutinan alrededor de un núcleo de tejido necrótico (necrosis papilar), hebras mucosas, restos de suturas quirúrgicas y/o material litiásico, se forma una pelota [...] fúngica que puede obstruir cualquier tramo del tracto urinario. CASOS CLÍNICOS: Presentamos dos pacientes formadores crónicos de cálculos que en ausencia de otros factores de riesgo para las infecciones fúngicas oportunistas, desarrollan fungus balls en el tracto urinario superior dilatado por una litiasis ureteral obstructiva. La paciente 1 tuvo afectación bilateral y en ningún momento hubo manifestaciones sistémicas. El tratamiento consistió en ureterorrenoscopia con extracción de las bolas fúngicas, derivación bilateral y anfotericina B sistémica y en irrigaciones tópicas. El paciente 2, en el contexto de una sepsis candidiásica, se trató con anfotericina B sistémica, desobstrucción mediante ureterorrenoscopia con extracción de un cálculo ureteral y de pelotas fúngicas, y colocación de catéter JJ y nefrostomía con irrigaciones de anfotericina B. DISCUSIÓN: La litiasis urinaria constituye por sí sola un factor de riesgo para la infección fúngica del tracto urinario superior, en ausencia de otros factores favorecedores de las infecciones fúngicas oportunistas. El mecanismo por el cual el cálculo favorece el crecimiento de los hongos es, por un lado, la obstrucción pieloureteral con éstasis retrógrado y, por otro lado, la nucleación alrededor de una matriz de material cálcico sobre la que crecen, se agregan y se ramifican los micelios. La vía de infección es probablemente ascendente y puede complicarse con funguemia y sepsis. Los antimicóticos sistémicos, la derivación con catéteres ureterales o de nefrostomía que permitan irrigación local con antifúngicos, y las técnicas endourológicas, constituyen los tres pilares básicos del tratamiento. La ureterorrenoscopia juega aquí un papel importante al ser una técnica diagnóstica y al mismo tiempo terapéutica al permitir la desobstrucción litiásica y la limpieza de las masas fúngicas. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: C. albicans is the most frequent fungus causing opportunist infections of the urinary tract. Agglutination of necrotic tissue nucleus (papilar necrosis), mucosus debri and chirurgic or lithiasic debri, originates a fungus ball, which can obstruct the urinary tract at any level. CLINICA [...] L DATA: We present 2 patients with obstructive urinary lithiasis developing fungus ball in the dilated upper urinary tract. Patient 1 was bilaterally affected and never had systemic symptoms. Treatment consisted of uretherorrenoscope for removal of fungus ball, bilateral urinary diversion and anphotericine B irrigations and systemic. Patient 2 developed a candidemia and was treated with systemic liposomal anphotericine B, uretherorrenoscopy with removal of ureteric calculus and fungus ball, and placement of a double J catheter and nephrostomy tube for anphotericine B irrigation. DISCUSSION: Urinary lithiasis is a risk factor for fungal infection of the upper urinary tract, provided there is no other predisponent factor for opportunistic fungal infections. Calculi facilitates fungal growth by means of obstruction and subsequent retrograde estasis and creating a nucleus for growth, aggregation and ramification of mycelium. The infection pathway is probably ascendent and may turn into fungemia and septicaemia. Systemic antimicotics, urinary diversion and local irrigations with antimicotics, and endourologic technics, are the three basic items in the treatment. Ureterorrenoscopy plays an important roll as a diagnostic and terapeutic tool as it may solve the obstruction and allows removal of fungus ball.

J.P., Burgués Gasión; J.M., Alapont Alacreu; F., Oliver Amorós; A., Benedicto Redón; F., Boronat Tormo; J.F., Jiménez Cruz.

2003-01-01

350

SnoRNAs from the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa: structural, functional and evolutionary insights  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background SnoRNAs represent an excellent model for studying the structural and functional evolution of small non-coding RNAs involved in the post-transcriptional modification machinery for rRNAs and snRNAs in eukaryotic cells. Identification of snoRNAs from Neurospora crassa, an important model organism playing key roles in the development of modern genetics, biochemistry and molecular biology will provide insights into the evolution of snoRNA genes in the fungus kingdom. Results Fifty five box C/D snoRNAs were identified and predicted to guide 71 2'-O-methylated sites including four sites on snRNAs and three sites on tRNAs. Additionally, twenty box H/ACA snoRNAs, which potentially guide 17 pseudouridylations on rRNAs, were also identified. Although not exhaustive, the study provides the first comprehensive list of two major families of snoRNAs from the filamentous fungus N. crassa. The independently transcribed strategy dominates in the expression of box H/ACA snoRNA genes, whereas most of the box C/D snoRNA genes are intron-encoded. This shows that different genomic organizations and expression modes have been adopted by the two major classes of snoRNA genes in N. crassa . Remarkably, five gene clusters represent an outstanding organization of box C/D snoRNA genes, which are well conserved among yeasts and multicellular fungi, implying their functional importance for the fungus cells. Interestingly, alternative splicing events were found in the expression of two polycistronic snoRNA gene hosts that resemble the UHG-like genes in mammals. Phylogenetic analysis further revealed that the extensive separation and recombination of two functional elements of snoRNA genes has occurred during fungus evolution. Conclusion This is the first genome-wide analysis of the filamentous fungus N. crassa snoRNAs that aids in understanding the differences between unicellular fungi and multicellular fungi. As compared with two yeasts, a more complex pattern of methylation guided by box C/D snoRNAs in multicellular fungus than in unicellular yeasts was revealed, indicating the high diversity of post-transcriptional modification guided by snoRNAs in the fungus kingdom.

Chen Chun-Long

2009-11-01

351

Identifying the core microbial community in the gut of fungus-growing termites.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gut microbes play a crucial role in decomposing lignocellulose to fuel termite societies, with protists in the lower termites and prokaryotes in the higher termites providing these services. However, a single basal subfamily of the higher termites, the Macrotermitinae, also domesticated a plant biomass-degrading fungus (Termitomyces), and how this symbiont acquisition has affected the fungus-growing termite gut microbiota has remained unclear. The objective of our study was to compare the intestinal bacterial communities of five genera (nine species) of fungus-growing termites to establish whether or not an ancestral core microbiota has been maintained and characterizes extant lineages. Using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we show that gut communities have representatives of 26 bacterial phyla and are dominated by Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes, Proteobacteria and Synergistetes. A set of 42 genus-level taxa was present in all termite species and accounted for 56-68% of the species-specific reads. Gut communities of termites from the same genus were more similar than distantly related species, suggesting that phylogenetic ancestry matters, possibly in connection with specific termite genus-level ecological niches. Finally, we show that gut communities of fungus-growing termites are similar to cockroaches, both at the bacterial phylum level and in a comparison of the core Macrotermitinae taxa abundances with representative cockroach, lower termite and higher nonfungus-growing termites. These results suggest that the obligate association with Termitomyces has forced the bacterial gut communities of the fungus-growing termites towards a relatively uniform composition with higher similarity to their omnivorous relatives than to more closely related termites. PMID:25066007

Otani, Saria; Mikaelyan, Aram; Nobre, Tânia; Hansen, Lars H; Koné, N'Golo A; Sørensen, Søren J; Aanen, Duur K; Boomsma, Jacobus J; Brune, Andreas; Poulsen, Michael

2014-09-01

352

Impact of Climate Change on Potential Distribution of Chinese Caterpillar Fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) in Nepal Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change has already impacted ecosystems and species and substantial impacts of climate change in the future are expected. Species distribution modeling is widely used to map the current potential distribution of species as well as to model the impact of future climate change on distribution of species. Mapping current distribution is useful for conservation planning and understanding the change in distribution impacted by climate change is important for mitigation of future biodiversity losses. However, the current distribution of Chinese caterpillar fungus, a flagship species of the Himalaya with very high economic value, is unknown. Nor do we know the potential changes in suitable habitat of Chinese caterpillar fungus caused by future climate change. We used MaxEnt modeling to predict current distribution and changes in the future distributions of Chinese caterpillar fungus in three future climate change trajectories based on representative concentration pathways (RCPs: RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 6.0) in three different time periods (2030, 2050, and 2070) using species occurrence points, bioclimatic variables, and altitude. About 6.02% (8,989 km2) area of the Nepal Himalaya is suitable for Chinese caterpillar fungus habitat. Our model showed that across all future climate change trajectories over three different time periods, the area of predicted suitable habitat of Chinese caterpillar fungus would expand, with 0.11–4.87% expansion over current suitable habitat. Depending upon the representative concentration pathways, we observed both increase and decrease in average elevation of the suitable habitat range of the species. PMID:25180515

Shrestha, Uttam Babu; Bawa, Kamaljit S.

2014-01-01

353

Forage collection, substrate preparation, and diet composition in fungus-growing ants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

2. The attine fungus-growing ants are a tribe of more than 230 described species (12 genera) that use a variety of different substrates to manure the symbiotic fungus they cultivate inside the nest. Common 'wisdom' is that the conspicuous leaf-cutting ants primarily use freshly cut plant material, whereas most of the other attine species use dry and partly degraded plant material such as leaf litter and caterpillar frass, but systematic comparative studies of actual resource acquisition across the attine ants have not been done. 3. Here we review 179 literature records of diet composition across the extant genera of fungus-growing ants. The records confirm the dependence of leaf-cutting ants on fresh vegetation but find that flowers, dry plant debris, seeds (husks), and insect frass are used by all genera, whereas other substrates such as nectar and insect carcasses are only used by some. 4. Diet composition was significantly correlated with ant substrate preparation behaviours before adding forage to the fungus garden, indicating that diet composition and farming practices have co-evolved. Neither diet nor preparation behaviours changed when a clade within the paleoattine genus Apterostigma shifted from rearing leucocoprinous fungi to cultivating pterulaceous fungi, but the evolutionary derived transition to yeast growing in the Cyphomyrmex rimosus group, which relies almost exclusively on nectar and insect frass, was associated with specific changes in diet composition. 5. The co-evolutionary transitions in diet composition across the genera of attine ants indicate that fungus-farming insect societies have the possibility to obtain more optimal fungal crops via artificial selection, analogous to documented practice in human subsistence farming

Licht, H.H.D.; Boomsma, J.J.

2010-01-01

354

Molecular phylogeny of bark and ambrosia beetles reveals multiple origins of fungus farming during periods of global warming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Fungus farming is an unusual life style in insects that has evolved many times in the wood boring weevils named ‘ambrosia beetles’. Multiple occurrences of this behaviour allow for a detailed comparison of the different origins of fungus farming through time, its directionality, and possible ancestral states. We tested these hypotheses with a phylogeny representing the largest data set to date, nearly 4 kb of nucleotides from COI, EF-1?, CAD, ArgK, 28S, and 200 scolytine taxa. Results Phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian or parsimony approaches placed the root of Scolytinae close to the tribe Scolytini and Microborus, but otherwise indicated low resolution at older nodes. More recent clades were well resolved, including ten origins of fungus farming. There were no subsequent reversals to bark or phloem feeding in the fungus farming clades. The oldest origin of fungus farming was estimated near 50 Ma, long after the origin of Scolytinae (100-120 Ma. Younger origins included the species rich Xyleborini, dated to 21 Ma. Sister group comparisons and test of independence between traits indicated that neither gregarious larval feeding nor regular inbreeding by sibling mating was strongly correlated with the origin of fungus farming. Conclusion Origins of fungus farming corresponded mainly with two periods of global warming in the Cenozoic era, which were characterised by broadly distributed tropical forests. Hence, it seems likely that warm climates and expanding tropical angiosperm forests played critical roles in the successful radiation of diverse fungus farming groups. However, further investigation will likely reveal additional biological factors that promote fungus farming.

Jordal Bjarte H

2012-08-01

355

Molecular phylogeny of bark and ambrosia beetles reveals multiple origins of fungus farming during periods of global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Fungus farming is an unusual life style in insects that has evolved many times in the wood boring weevils named ‘ambrosia beetles’. Multiple occurrences of this behaviour allow for a detailed comparison of the different origins of fungus farming through time, its directionality, and possible ancestral states. We tested these hypotheses with a phylogeny representing the largest data set to date, nearly 4 kb of nucleotides from COI, EF-1?, CAD, ArgK, 28S, and 200 scolytine taxa. Results Phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian or parsimony approaches placed the root of Scolytinae close to the tribe Scolytini and Microborus, but otherwise indicated low resolution at older nodes. More recent clades were well resolved, including ten origins of fungus farming. There were no subsequent reversals to bark or phloem feeding in the fungus farming clades. The oldest origin of fungus farming was estimated near 50 Ma, long after the origin of Scolytinae (100-120 Ma). Younger origins included the species rich Xyleborini, dated to 21 Ma. Sister group comparisons and test of independence between traits indicated that neither gregarious larval feeding nor regular inbreeding by sibling mating was strongly correlated with the origin of fungus farming. Conclusion Origins of fungus farming corresponded mainly with two periods of global warming in the Cenozoic era, which were characterised by broadly distributed tropical forests. Hence, it seems likely that warm climates and expanding tropical angiosperm forests played critical roles in the successful radiation of diverse fungus farming groups. However, further investigation will likely reveal additional biological factors that promote fungus farming. PMID:22852794

2012-01-01

356

Acid phosphatase activity during the interaction of the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans with the nematode Panagrellus sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of Duddingtonia flagrans, a nematode-trapping fungus, has been investigated as a biological control method against free living larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes of livestock animals. This fungus captures and infects the nematode by cuticle penetration, immobilization and digestion of the internal contents. It has been suggested that this sequence of events occurs by a combination of physical and enzymatical activities. This report characterizes the acid phosphatase activity during the interaction of D. flagrans with the free-living nematode Panagrellus sp. The optimum pH for the hydrolysis of the acid phosphatase substrate p-nitrophenyl phosphate was 2.2, 2.8 and 5.4 from D. flagrans alone and 2.2 and 5.4 for Panagrellus sp alone, fungus-nematode interaction in liquid medium and fungus-nematode interaction in solid medium. Different acid phosphatase activity bands were detected by SDS-PAGE. Maximum acid phosphatase activity of the fungus or nematode alone and of the fungus-nematode interaction occurred within 70min of incubation in the presence of the substrate 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate. The activity of this enzyme was significantly higher for the fungus-nematode interaction when compared to the organisms alone, indicating a synergistic response. Furthermore, structures appeared in the hyphae after 30min, nematodes were observed adhered after 40min and many were captured by the typical fungus traps after 70min of interaction. The participation of acid phosphatase activity and its importance during the interaction of the fungus with the nematode were discussed. PMID:19679133

Cruz, D G; Silva, C P; Carneiro, C N B; Retamal, C A; Thiébaut, J T L; DaMatta, R A; Santos, C P

2009-11-01

357

Modelling the Biomass Growth and Enzyme Secretion by the White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete Chrysosporium in Presence of A Toxic Pollutant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is well known for its ability to degrade toxic pollutants owing to its efficient extracellular ligninase system. However, biomass growth and enzyme secretion in presence of toxic pollutant is not well understood. In the present study, using the model azo dye Direct Red-80, biomass growth and lignin peroxidase secretion by the fungus was studied during its degradation and a stochastic based model was applied to simulate the behavior of the fungus. Also, glucose concentration in the medium was varied in order to observe its effect on the dye degradation. Results revealed that glucose at an optimum concentration of 10 gL-1 is essential for biomass growth, LiP secretion, as well as the dye decolourization. Modeling the behavior of the fungus with the presence of both glucose and dye has shown significant similarity.

Sitangshu Bikas Santra

2012-01-01

358

Case report of a ureteral obstruction by Candida albicans fungus balls detected by magnetic resonance imaging in kidney transplant recipient.  

Science.gov (United States)

In kidney transplant recipients, acute renal failure resulting from a ureteral obstruction by fungus balls is uncommon. We report a 60-year-old man diagnosed with ureteral obstruction caused by Candida albicans fungus balls early after transplant. Diagnosis was made by a T2-weighted magnetic resonance image, which demonstrated fungus balls as a low-intensity mass in the pelvis and microscopic examination findings in the urine. The patient was treated successfully with an antifungal agent and direct irrigation. It should be noted that fungus balls may cause ureteral obstruction of transplanted kidneys, possibly resulting in graft failure. Imaging of the kidneys and collecting system and aggressive debridement that adds to systemic therapy are necessary for early diagnosis and are central to a successful outcome. PMID:25020145

Arichi, Naoko; Yasumoto, Hiroaki; Ogawa, Kohei; Nagami, Taichi; Anjiki, Haruki; Nakamura, Shigenobu; Mitsui, Yozo; Hiraoka, Takeo; Sumura, Masahiro; Shiina, Hiroaki

2014-12-01

359

Reinvestigation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome annotation by comparison to the genome of a related fungus: Ashbya gossypii  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although, the S. cerevisiae genome is rightly considered as one of the most accurately sequenced and annotated eukaryotic genomes, it still benefits substantially from comparison to the completed sequence and syntenic gene map of Ashbya gossypii, an evolutionarily related fungus.

Brachat, Sophie; Dietrich, Fred S.; Voegeli, Sylvia; Zhang, Zhihong; Stuart, Larissa; Lerch, Anita; Gates, Krista; Gaffney, Tom; Philippsen, Peter

2003-01-01

360

A white-rot fungus is used as a biocathode to improve electricity production of a microbial fuel cell  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

White-rot fungus is able to secrete laccase, which can reduce O2 to H2O and has been widely used in enzymatic fuel cells. In this work, a strain of white-rot fungus, Coriolus versicolor, is inoculated in the cathodic chamber of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) to improve cathode reduction efficiency for better electricity generation. 2,2?-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothazoline-6-sulfonate), as a redox mediator, is added to the catholyte to facilitate the electron transfer between the electrode and the laccase. The results show that the fungus-based biocathode has better performance than the conventional abiotic cathode, with approximately seven-orders higher power density achieved. This is the first report that white-rot fungus is used to constitute the biocathode of an MFC for improved electricity generation.

 
 
 
 
361

Degradation of Pentachlorophenol by White Rot Fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium-TL 1) Grown in Ammonium Lignosulphonate Media  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The white rot fungus isolated from continuous pulp and paper mill effluent irrigated soil and identified as Phanerochaete chrysosporium (TL 1) was capable of degrading pentachlorophenol. 14C synthetic lignin mineralization assays showed that the fungus assimilated 33.6% of the total label. Removal and degradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by the organism in static flask cultures was studied using ammonium lignosulphonate (LS), a waste product of paper mill industry, as a ca...

Udayasoorian, C.; Prabu, P. C.; Balasubramanian, G.

2007-01-01

362

Pan-European Distribution of White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) Not Associated with Mass Mortality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: The dramatic mass mortalities amongst hibernating bats in Northeastern America caused by ‘‘white nosesyndrome’’ (WNS) continue to threaten populations of different bat species. The cold-loving fungus, Geomyces destructans, is the most likely causative agent leading to extensive destruction of the skin, particularly the wing membranes. Recent investigations in Europe confirmed the presence of the fungus G. destructans without associated mass mortality in hibernat...

Puechmaille, Se?bastien J.; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Korn, Vanessa; Fuller, Hubert; Forget, Fre?de?ric; Mu?hldorfer, Kristin; Kurth, Andreas; Teeling, Emma C.

2011-01-01

363

Decolorization and Degradation of Phenolic Paper Mill Effluent by Native White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A white rot fungus isolated from soil samples enriched by continuous pulp and paper mill effluent irrigation and identified as Phanerochaete chrysosporium was capable of decolorization and degradation of chlorinated phenol from paper mill effluent. There was 84% effluent decolourisation along with 79% COD reduction by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The effluent chlorinated phenol degradation was 91% by the fungus when added with 1% glucose as co-substrate.

Prabu, P. C.; Udayasoorian, C.

2005-01-01

364

The rust fungus Uromyces geranii (DC.) Lev. localization and impact on anatomy of the host plant Geranium sanguineum L.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The investigations on the rust fungus Uromyces geranii (DC.) Lev. influence on the anatomy of the vegetative organs of the host plantGeranium sanguineumL. (Geraniaceae) were conducted. The local and endophytic arrangement of U. geraniiin the tissues of the host plant were identified. The tissues hypertrophy and organs deformation in G. sanguineum were revealed as a consequences of the fungus U. geraniiinfluence as well as increment of pericyclic ring sclerenchyma lignification in the stem...

Emma Biruliova; Irina Prosiannykova; Alexandra Fedotova

2013-01-01

365

Cytotoxic and Antifungal Activities of 5-Hydroxyramulosin, a Compound Produced by an Endophytic Fungus Isolated from Cinnamomum mollisimum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An endophytic fungus isolated from the plant Cinnamomum mollissimum was investigated for the bioactivity of its metabolites. The fungus, similar to a Phoma sp., was cultured in potato dextrose broth for two weeks, followed by extraction with ethyl acetate. The crude extract obtained was fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Both crude extract and fractions were assayed for cytotoxicity against P388 murine leukemic cells and inhibition of bacterial and fungal pathogens. The b...

Carolina Santiago; Chris Fitchett; Munro, Murray H. G.; Juriyati Jalil; Jacinta Santhanam

2012-01-01

366

A review of the Mycrocylus ulei Ascomycetes fungus, causative agent of South American rubber-leaf blight  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Microcyclus ulei Ascomycetes fungus is the causal agent of south-American leaf blight (SALB), this being one of the most important diseases affecting the natural rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) in Latina-America and has been responsible for numerous economic losses. This fungus has presented high physiological variability, suggesting its great adaptability. HCN tolerance has been described as being one of the mechanisms associated with its virulence. Resistant Hevea clones have been obta...

Ibonne Aydee García Romero; Fabio Ancízar Aristizábar; Dolly Montoya Castaño

2007-01-01

367

Biodegradation of ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (Lindane) by a non-white rot fungus conidiobolus 03-1-56 isolated from litter  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biodegradation of chlorinated pesticide ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane) by a nonwhite rot fungus Conidiobolus 03-1-56 is reported for the first time. Conidiobolus 03-1-56, a phycomyceteous fungus isolated from litter, completely degraded lindane on the 5th day of incubation in the culture medium, and GC-ECD studies confirmed that lindane removal did not occur via adsorption on the fungal biomass. Degradation studies using different medium compositions showed that nitrogen/carbon limiting c...

Nagpal, Varima; Srinivasan, M. C.; Paknikar, K. M.

2008-01-01

368

Evaluation of the use of Pycnoporus sanguineus fungus for phenolics and genotoxicity decay of a pharmaceutical effluent treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

If not properly and efficiently treated, wastes produced by the chemical industry can contaminate the environment. Using fungi able to degrade organic compounds (e.g. phenol) seems to be a prominent method to treat pharmaceutical wastewaters, in particular, the white-rot fungus. The aim of this work was to treat pharmaceutical effluent by the Pycnoporus sanguineus fungus. Three effluent samples were collected in a pharmaceutical industry. The production of enzymes such as laccase and manganes...

Mariângela Fontes Santiago; Fernando Schimidt; Telma Alves Garcia; Marize Campos Valadares; Luiza Cintra Campos; Paulo de Tarso Ferreira Sales; Renata Alberto de Morais Watanabe

2012-01-01

369

Molecular Characterization of a Heterothallic Mating System in Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the Fungus Causing White-Nose Syndrome of Bats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

White-nose syndrome (WNS) of bats has devastated bat populations in eastern North America since its discovery in 2006. WNS, caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has spread quickly in North America and has become one of the most severe wildlife epidemics of our time. While P. destructans is spreading rapidly in North America, nothing is known about the sexual capacity of this fungus. To gain insight into the genes involved in sexual reproduction, we characterized the mating-type ...

Palmer, Jonathan M.; Kubatova, Alena; Novakova, Alena; Minnis, Andrew M.; Kolarik, Miroslav; Lindner, Daniel L.

2014-01-01

370

Sequencing the genome of Marssonina brunnea reveals fungus-poplar co-evolution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The fungus Marssonina brunnea is a causal pathogen of Marssonina leaf spot that devastates poplar plantations by defoliating susceptible trees before normal fall leaf drop. Results We sequence the genome of M. brunnea with a size of 52 Mb assembled into 89 scaffolds, representing the first sequenced Dermateaceae genome. By inoculating this fungus onto a poplar hybrid clone, we investigate how M. brunnea...

Zhu Sheng; Cao You-Zhi; Jiang Cong; Tan Bi-Yue; Wang Zhong; Feng Sisi; Zhang Liang; Su Xiao-Hua; Brejova Brona; Vinar Tomas; Xu Meng.; Wang Ming-Xiu; Zhang Shou-Gong; Huang Min-Ren; Wu Rongling

2012-01-01

371

Molecular phylogeny of bark and ambrosia beetles reveals multiple origins of fungus farming during periods of global warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Fungus farming is an unusual life style in insects that has evolved many times in the wood boring weevils named ‘ambrosia beetles’. Multiple occurrences of this behaviour allow for a detailed comparison of the different origins of fungus farming through time, its directionality, and possible ancestral states. We tested these hypotheses with a phylogeny representing the largest data set to date, nearly 4 kb of nucleotides from COI, EF-1?

Jordal Bjarte H; Cognato Anthony I

2012-01-01

372

Detection of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Colonization of Roots by Using a Dot-Immunoblot Assay  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An immunoblotting procedure was developed to overcome the difficulty in identifying root colonization by a vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. The procedure utilized a murine monoclonal antibody that reacts with a protein in spores and hyphae of Glomus occultum, a fungus characterized by abundant production of hyaline spores and nonstaining intraradical infection. Minimally disturbed whole roots were squashed on nitrocellulose membranes. After inactivation of endogenous peroxidase, an in...

Wright, Sara F.; Morton, Joseph B.

1989-01-01

373

Compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium longisporum (Petch) Zare & Gams with the predatory midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rondani (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The combined use of the predatory midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rondani (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) and the entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium longisporum (Petch) Zare & Gams., biocontrol agents of the green peach aphid Myzus persicae, was evaluated in a semi-greenhouse setting. Results from this experiment showed a statistically significant additive effect of these organisms in controlling aphid populations: a higher reduction of aphid populations in cages with fungus plus predator was ob...

Jaramillo Velez, Maria Patricia

2008-01-01

374

Efficient Transmission of an Introduced Pathogen Via an Ancient Insect-Fungus Association  

Science.gov (United States)

In Cupressus sempervirens the association between seed insects and tree pathogens has resulted in optimal exploitation of the cones. A fungus-infected cone can be inhabited by the nymphs of a true seed bug (Orsillus maculatus), the adults of which may carry a heavy spore load at emergence. Cones are infected when eggs are laid within the cone, most frequently via the emergence holes of a seed wasp (Megastigmus wachtli). This symbiotic association evolved with the nonaggressive fungus Pestalotiopsis funerea within the natural range of the cypress. When the aggressive cypress canker disease (Seiridium cardinale) was introduced into Europe, it was transmitted by O. maculatus to cones usually colonized by Pestalotiopsis funerea, with disastrous consequences for the regeneration and survival of C. sempervirens in the entire Mediterranean area.

Battisti, A.; Roques, A.; Colombari, F.; Frigimelica, G.; Guido, M.

375

Hydroxylation of a hederagenin derived saponin by a Xylareaceous fungus found in fruits of Sapindus saponaria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During our screening of tropical plants for endophyte microorganisms, a Xylareaceous fungus was found living on the internal part of Sapindus saponaria fruits. The fruits of S. saponaria accumulate great amounts of triterpenoidal and sesquiterpenoidal saponins. The saponin 3-O-({beta}-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1{yields}3)-{alpha}-L -rhamnopyranosyl-(1{yields}2)-{alpha}-L-arabinopyranosyl-hederagenin was isolated using chromatographic methods, after alkaline hydrolysis of the crude extract obtained from S. saponaria fruits and added to the culture medium used to grows the fungus. A new saponin was isolated from this experiment by preparative scale HPLC and characterized as a 22{alpha}-hydroxy derivative. The structure of this hydroxylated saponin was elucidated based on interpretation of MS/MS data and NMR spectra. (author)

Murgu, Michael; Santos, Luiz F. Arruda; Souza, Gezimar D. de; Daolio, Cristina; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Schneider, Bernd [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Beutenberg Campus, Jena (Germany)

2008-07-01

376

Hydroxylation of a hederagenin derived saponin by a Xylareaceous fungus found in fruits of Sapindus saponaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During our screening of tropical plants for endophyte microorganisms, a Xylareaceous fungus was found living on the internal part of Sapindus saponaria fruits. The fruits of S. saponaria accumulate great amounts of triterpenoidal and sesquiterpenoidal saponins. The saponin 3-O-(?-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1?3)-?-L -rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-L-arabinopyranosyl-hederagenin was isolated using chromatographic methods, after alkaline hydrolysis of the crude extract obtained from S. saponaria fruits and added to the culture medium used to grows the fungus. A new saponin was isolated from this experiment by preparative scale HPLC and characterized as a 22?-hydroxy derivative. The structure of this hydroxylated saponin was elucidated based on interpretation of MS/MS data and NMR spectra. (author)

377

Bioactive secondary metabolites from the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study reports the chemical investigation and cytotoxic activity of the secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco. This plant was collected from the Beni-Mellal Mountain in Morocco and belongs to the Lamiaceae family and is named in Morocco “Salmia”. The endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. was isolated from the tissues of the stem of this plant. The fungal strain was identified by PCR. The crude organic extract of the fungal strain was proven to be active when tested for cytotoxicity against L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. Chemical investigation of the secondary metabolites showed that cochliodinol is the main component beside isocochliodinol. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined on the basis of NMR analysis (1H, 13C, COSY and HMBC as well as by mass spectrometry using ESI (Electron Spray Ionisation as source.

Ebel R.

2009-01-01

378

Antifungal Metabolites Produced by Chaetomium globosum No.04, an Endophytic Fungus Isolated from Ginkgo biloba.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fungal endophyte Chaetomium globosum No.04 was isolated from the medicinal plant Ginkgo biloba. The crude extract of the fungus fermentation were active in the agar-diffusion tests against the phytopathogenic fungi Rhizopus stolonifer and Coniothyrium diplodiella. Further bioassay-guided chemical investigation led to the isolation and purification of six alkaloids and three non-targeted compounds from 50 L fermentation of this endophytic fungus and their structures were elucidated as chaetoglobosin A, C, D, E, G, R (1-6), ergosterol, allantoin and uracil, by means of spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1-6 showed significant growth inhibitory activity against R. stolonifer and C. diplodiella at a concentration of 20 ?g/disc. We present here, for the first time, the potent antifungal activity of chaetoglobosins from endophytic fungi against two important phytopathogenic fungi R. stolonifer and C. diplodiella. PMID:24426105

Zhang, Guizhen; Zhang, Yanhua; Qin, Jianchun; Qu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jinliang; Li, Xiang; Pan, Hongyu

2013-06-01

379

Tea fungus fermentation on a substrate with iron(ii-ions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Iron is essential element for human metabolism and it is a constituent of both heme- containing and nonheme proteins. Its deficiency can cause serious diseases, i.e. iron-deficiency anemia, with some fatal consequences. Tea fungus beverage has high nutritional value and some pharmaceutical effects. It is widely consumed allover the world and its benefits were proved a number of times. The aim of this paper was to investigate tea fungus fermentation on a substrate containing iron(II-ions and the possibility of obtaining a beverage enriched with iron. We monitored pH, iron content and also the production of L-ascorbic acid, which is very important for iron absorption in humans.

Malbaša Radomir V.

2002-01-01

380

BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SLOVAK ISOLATES OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS PANDORA NEOAPHIDIS (REMAUDIÈRE ET HENNEBERT HUMBER (ZYGOMYCETES, ENTOMOPHTHORALES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intraspecific variability of biological characteristics within entomopathogenic fungus Pandora neoaphidis was evaluated. Fifteen isolates of the fungus were obtained from 5 aphid species in Slovakia. Size of conidia, conidial germination, virulence, radial growth, and biomass production were evaluated. Conidial size varied considerably with exception of isolates originating from the same host population. Conidial germination was observed on all the surfaces tested and it was greatest at saturated humidity. Virulence, daily rate of radial growth and biomass production varied depending on isolates. Isolates obtained from the same host colonies during fungal epizootics shoved also significant differences in the characteristics, what may suggest that epizootics in aphid populations are caused by associations of strains and not by prevalence of a single virulent strain.

Marek BARTA

2010-06-01

 
 
 
 
381

Ecological effects of matching between mycorrhizal fungus and leguminous plants in solid wastes of mine area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The matching relations between two kinds of AM fungus and three kinds of leguminous plants including white clover, alfaifa and acacia was studied based on two special kinds of solid waste (coal gangue and fly ash) in mine area. G. mosseae fungi were screened out as superiority fungi taken the biomass, phosphorus adsorption efficiency, the infection rate and the mycorrhizal dependency of host plant as the criterion. The results show that: the two optimal combinations of AM fungi and leguminous plant were formed, one was G. mosseae and alfalfa in fly ash and the mixture of coal gangue and fly ash, the other was G. geosporum and acacia in the mixture of coal gangue and sand; the growth and absorbing ability to phosphorus of plants were improved; and the dependences between mycorrhizal fungus and plants and the infectivity of mycorrhizal were better. The good ecological effects was obtained. 18 refs., 7 tabs.

Bi Yin-li; Wu Fu-yong; Quan Wen-zhi [China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing (China). School of Resources and Safety Engineering

2006-05-15

382

Isolation and fusion of protoplasts from the phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotium rolfsii (Sacc.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sclerotium rolfsii (Sacc. is a serious plant pathogenic fungus and lacks perfect (basidial stage in production. Protoplast fusion technology was employed to reconstruct fusants from this fungus. Two strains designated as A and R were used. Maximum protoplast yields of 3.8x10(5 /g mycelia and 2.8x10(5 /g mycelia were formed in strains A and R respectively. Osmotic stabilizer sucrose 1M gave maximum yield. Lysing enzyme at the rate of 15mg/ml was found best for yield. Fusion of protoplasts from strains A and R was carried out in fusion media containing PEG 4000 30% (w/v with 0.2mM CaCl2. Four fusants F1, F2, F3 and F4 were recovered. Morphological, physiological and pathogenic characters of fusants were compared with parent strains on carrots, beans and tomato.

Sikandar Hayat

2010-03-01

383

Benzopyranones from the Endophytic Fungus Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12 and Their Bioactivities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The endophytic fungus Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12 was isolated from the hybrid ‘Neva’ of Populus deltoides Marsh × P. nigra L. In this study, four benzopyranones were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12, and identified as palmariol B (1, 4-hydroxymellein (2, alternariol 9-methyl ether (3, and botrallin (4 by means of physicochemical and spectroscopic analysis. All the compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial, antifungal, antinematodal and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. 4-Hydroxymellein (2 exhibited stronger antibacterial activity than the other compounds. Palmariol B (1 showed stronger antimicrobial, antinematodal and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities than alternariol 9-methyl ether (3 which indicated that the chlorine substitution at position 2 may contribute to its bioactivity. The results indicate the potential of this endophytic fungus as a source of bioactive benzopyranones.

Ligang Zhou

2012-09-01

384

Coqui frogs persist with the deadly chytrid fungus despite a lack of defensive antimicrobial peptides.  

Science.gov (United States)

The amphibian skin fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) occurs widely in Puerto Rico and is thought to be responsible for the apparent extinction of 3 species of endemic frogs in the genus Eleutherodactylus, known as coquis. To examine immune defenses which may protect surviving species, we induced secretion of skin peptides from adult common coqui frogs E. coqui collected from upland forests at El Yunque. By matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, we were unable to detect peptide signals suggestive of antimicrobial peptides, and enriched peptides showed no capacity to inhibit growth of Bd. Thus, it appears that E. coqui depend on other skin defenses to survive in the presence of this deadly fungus. PMID:25667340

Rollins-Smith, Louise A; Reinert, Laura K; Burrowes, Patricia A

2015-02-10

385

Two novel eremophilane sesquiterpenes from an endophytic Xylariaceous fungus isolated from leaves of Cupressus lusitanica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Dois novos sesquiterpenos eremofilanos, cupressolideo A e cupressolideo B, além de dois outros conhecidos, foram isolados a partir do extrato AcOEt do meio de cultura de uma espécie de Xylaria, isolada como fungo endofítico dos tecidos sadios das folhas de Cupressus lusitanica. Estudos espectroscópi [...] cos, usando EM e RMN, levaram às estruturas dos dois sesquiterpenos de esqueleto eremofilanos, novos na literatura. Abstract in english Two new eremophilane sesquiterpenes, cupressolide A and cupressolide B, along with two known sesquiterpenes, has been characterized from the EtOAc extract of a liquid medium where a Xylariaceous fungus, isolated as an endophytic fungus from health tissues of Cupressus lusitanica leaves, was cultivat [...] ed. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by analyses of their MS and NMR spectroscopic data.

Luciana S., Amaral; Edson, Rodrigues-Filho.

1446-14-01

386

Nickel oxide nanoparticles film produced by dead biomass of filamentous fungus  

Science.gov (United States)

The synthesis of nickel oxide nanoparticles in film form using dead biomass of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus aculeatus as reducing agent represents an environmentally friendly nanotechnological innovation. The optimal conditions and the capacity of dead biomass to uptake and produce nanoparticles were evaluated by analyzing the biosorption of nickel by the fungus. The structural characteristics of the film-forming nickel oxide nanoparticles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). These techniques showed that the nickel oxide nanoparticles had a size of about 5.89 nm and were involved in a protein matrix which probably permitted their organization in film form. The production and uptake of nickel oxide nanoparticles organized in film form by dead fungal biomass bring us closer to sustainable strategies for the biosynthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles.

Salvadori, Marcia Regina; Nascimento, Cláudio Augusto Oller; Corrêa, Benedito

2014-09-01

387

Parasitic fungus Claviceps as a source for biotechnological production of ergot alkaloids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ergot alkaloids produced by the fungus Claviceps parasitizing on cereals, include three major groups: clavine alkaloids, d-lysergic acid and its derivatives and ergopeptines. These alkaloids are important substances for the pharmatech industry, where they are used for production of anti-migraine drugs, uterotonics, prolactin inhibitors, anti-Parkinson agents, etc. Production of ergot alkaloids is based either on traditional field cultivation of ergot-infected rye or on submerged cultures of the fungus in industrial fermentation plants. In 2010, the total production of these alkaloids in the world was about 20,000 kg, of which field cultivation contributed about 50%. This review covers the recent advances in understanding of the genetics and regulation of biosynthesis of ergot alkaloids, focusing on possible applications of the new knowledge to improve the production yield. PMID:22261014

Hulvová, Helena; Galuszka, Petr; Frébortová, Jitka; Frébort, Ivo

2013-01-01

388

Degradation of a model pollutant ferulic acid by the endophytic fungus Phomopsis liquidambari.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biodegradation of ferulic acid, by an endophytic fungus called Phomopsis liquidambari was investigated in this study. This strain can use ferulic acid as the sole carbon for growth. Both in mineral salt medium and in soil, more than 97% of added ferulic acid was degraded within 48h. The metabolites were identified and quantified using GC-MS and HPLC-MS. Ferulic acid was first decarboxylated to 4-vinyl guaiacol and then oxidized to vanillin and vanillic acid, followed by demethylation to protocatechuic acid, which was further degraded through the ?-ketoadipate pathway. During degradation, ferulic acid decarboxylase, laccase and protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase activities and their gene transcription levels were significantly affected by the variation of substrate and product concentrations. Moreover, ferulic acid degradation was determined to some extent by P. liquidambari laccase. This study is the first report of an endophytic fungus that has a great potential for practical application in ferulic acid-contaminated environments. PMID:25514400

Xie, Xing-Guang; Dai, Chuan-Chao

2015-03-01

389

MICROBIAL DYNAMICS IN COMMERCIAL VERMICOMPOSTS WITH AND WITHOUT TRICHODERMA SPP. FUNGUS INOCULATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, presents the results are presented onof the growthefectiveness of the Trichoderma fungus in a inoculation in a commercial vermicompost, in comparison with the fungus from a vermicompostand without inoculation. In a three-phase laboratory process (cultivation, isolation and inoculation of fungal strains, three different commercial vermicompost, prepared from coffee pulp, have beenwere used, coming from three different commercial vermicomposts. The results of experiments carried out in the Post-Harvest Laboratory of the Universidad de Costa Rica, don’t show any increase or decrease of the Trichoderma population after inoculation. The experiment was carried out in the Post -harvest Laboratory of University of Costa Rica. It was developed following three phases, using three commercial vermicompost prepared with broza of coffee. Results showed no differences in Trichoderma population as product of inoculation of it into the compost.

VILMA AMPARO HOLGUIN CASTAÑO

2009-12-01

390

Characterization of salt-adapted secreted lignocellulolytic enzymes from the mangrove fungus Pestalotiopsis sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungi are important for biomass degradation processes in mangrove forests. Given the presence of sea water in these ecosystems, mangrove fungi are adapted to high salinity. Here we isolate Pestalotiopsis sp. NCi6, a halotolerant and lignocellulolytic mangrove fungus of the order Xylariales. We study its lignocellulolytic enzymes and analyse the effects of salinity on its secretomes. De novo transcriptome sequencing and assembly indicate that this fungus possesses of over 400 putative lignocellulolytic enzymes, including a large fraction involved in lignin degradation. Proteomic analyses of the secretomes suggest that the presence of salt modifies lignocellulolytic enzyme composition, with an increase in the secretion of xylanases and cellulases and a decrease in the production of oxidases. As a result, cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis is enhanced but lignin breakdown is reduced. This study highlights the adaptation to salt of mangrove fungi and their potential for biotechnological applications. PMID:23651998

Arfi, Yonathan; Chevret, Didier; Henrissat, Bernard; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Levasseur, Anthony; Record, Eric

2013-01-01

391

Isolation, characterization, and primary structure of the vanadium chloroperoxidase from the fungus Embellisia didymospora.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here we describe the isolation, purification, and basic kinetic parameters of a vanadium type chloroperoxidase from the hyphomycete fungus Embellisia didymospora. The enzyme proved to possess similar high substrate affinities, a Km of 5 microM for a bromide, 1.2 mM for a chloride, and 60 microM for a hydrogen peroxide, as those of the vanadium chloroperoxidase from Curvularia inaequalis, although with lower turnover rates for both Cl- and Br-. Substrate bromide was also found to inhibit the enzyme, a feature subsequently also noted for the chloroperoxidase from C. inaequalis. The gene encoding this enzyme was identified using DNA Southern blotting techniques and subsequently isolated and sequenced. A comparison is made between this vanadium chloroperoxidase and that of the fungus C. inaequalis both kinetically and at the sequence level. At the primary structural level the two chloroperoxidases share 68% identity, with conservation of all active site residues. PMID:9722573

Barnett, P; Hemrika, W; Dekker, H L; Muijsers, A O; Renirie, R; Wever, R

1998-09-01

392

Zoosporicidal metabolites from an endophytic fungus Cryptosporiopsis sp. of Zanthoxylum leprieurii.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two polyketides, cryptosporiopsin A (1) and hydroxypropan-2',3'-diol orsellinate (3), and a natural cyclic pentapeptide (4), together with two known compounds were isolated from the culture of Cryptosporiopsis sp., an endophytic fungus from leaves and branches of Zanthoxylum leprieurii (Rutaceae). The structures of these metabolites were elucidated on the basis of their spectroscopic and spectrometric data. Cryptosporiopsin A and the other metabolites exhibited motility inhibitory and lytic activities against zoospores of the grapevine downy mildew pathogen Plasmopara viticola at 10-25?g/mL. In addition, the isolated compounds displayed potent inhibitory activity against mycelial growth of two other peronosporomycete phytopathogens, Pythium ultimum, Aphanomyces cochlioides and a basidiomycetous fungus Rhizoctonia solani. Weak cytotoxic activity on brine shrimp larvae was observed. PMID:22883958

Talontsi, Ferdinand Mouafo; Facey, Petrea; Tatong, Michel D Kongue; Tofazzal Islam, M; Frauendorf, Holm; Draeger, Siegfried; Tiedemann, Andreas von; Laatsch, Hartmut

2012-11-01

393

[Fungus microbiota in air conditioners in intensive care units in Teresina, Piauí].  

Science.gov (United States)

With the aim of identifying the fungus microbiota in air conditioners in intensive care units (ICUs) within public and private hospitals in Teresina, Piauí, solid material was collected from ten different ICUs. Thirty-three species of Moniliaceae and Dematiaceae were isolated, which was the first report of these in Piauí. High frequencies of Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem (60%), Aspergillus fumigatus Fres (50%), Trichoderma koningii Oudem (50%) and Aspergillus flavus Link: Fr. (40%) were recorded. The air conditioner cleanliness validity had expired in all the ICUs, and the quantity of colony-forming units exceeded the levels permitted by Law 176/00 from the Ministry of Health. It is important to provide individual protection equipment for professionals, adopt hospital infection control measures, raise the awareness of the presence of fungus infection, improve air circulation around the environment, periodically clean the air conditioners, and make health professionals alert to the importance of these fungi in the hospital environment. PMID:17308702

Mobin, Mitra; do Amparo Salmito, Maria

2006-01-01

394

Towards a better understanding of the evolution of specialized parasites of fungus-growing ant crops  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fungus-growing ants have interacted and partly coevolved with specialised microfungal parasites of the genus Escovopsis since the origin of ant fungiculture about 50 million years ago. Here, we review the recent progress in understanding the patterns of specificity of this ant-parasite association, covering both the colony/population level and comparisons between phylogenetic clades. We use a modified version of Tinbergen’s four categories of evolutionary questions to structure our review in complementary approaches addressing both proximate questions of development and mechanism, and ultimate questions of (co)adaptation and evolutionary history. Using the same scheme, we identify future research questions that are likely to be particularly illuminating for understanding the ecology and evolution of Escovopsis parasitism of the cultivar maintained by fungus-growing ants

Yek, Sze Huei; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

2012-01-01

395

Leucoagaricus gongylophorus Produces Diverse Enzymes for the Degradation of Recalcitrant Plant Polymers in Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plants represent a large reservoir of organic carbon comprised largely of recalcitrant polymers that most metazoans are unable to deconstruct. Many herbivores gain access to nutrients in this material indirectly by associating with microbial symbionts, and leaf-cutter ants are a paradigmatic example. These ants use fresh foliar biomass as manure to cultivate fungus gardens composed primarily of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, a basidiomycetous symbiont that produces specialized hyphal swellings that serve as a food source for the host ant colony. Although leaf-cutter ants are conspicuous herbivores that contribute substantially to carbon turnover in Neotropical ecosystems, the process through which plant biomass is degraded in their fungus gardens is not well understood. Here we present the first draft genome of L. gongylophorus, and using genomic, metaproteomic, and phylogenetic tools we investigate its role in lignocellulose degradation in the fungus gardens of both Atta cephalotes and Acromyrmex echinatior leaf-cutter ants. We show that L. gongylophorus produces a diversity of lignocellulases in fungus gardens, and is likely the primary driver of plant biomass degradation in these ecosystems. We also show that this fungus produces distinct sets of lignocellulases throughout the different stages of biomass degradation, including numerous cellulases and laccases that may be playing an important but previously uncharacterized role in lignocellulose degradation. Our study provides a comprehensive analysis of plant biomass degradation in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens and provides insight into the molecular dynamics underlying the symbiosis between these dominant herbivores and their obligate fungal cultivar.

Aylward, Frank O.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Teiling, Clotilde; Tremmel, Daniel; Moeller, Joseph; Scott, Jarrod J.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Malfatti, Stephanie; Monroe, Matthew E.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Smith, Richard D.; Weinstock, George; Gerardo, Nicole; Suen, Garret; Lipton, Mary S.; Currie, Cameron R.

2013-06-12

396

?-Glucosidases from the Fungus Trichoderma: An Efficient Cellulase Machinery in Biotechnological Applications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

?-glucosidases catalyze the selective cleavage of glucosidic linkages and are an important class of enzymes having significant prospects in industrial biotechnology. These are classified in family 1 and family 3 of glycosyl hydrolase family. ?-glucosidases, particularly from the fungus Trichoderma, are widely recognized and used for the saccharification of cellulosic biomass for biofuel production. With the rising trends in energy crisis and depletion of fossil fuels, alternative strategies...

Tiwari, Pragya; Misra, B. N.; Sangwan, Neelam S.

2013-01-01

397

The Production of Polysaccharide Degrading Enzymes By Phytopathogenic Fungus Verticillium tricorpus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The growth of phytopathogenic fungus Verticillium tricorpus on 15 carbohydrate substrates was monitored to analyse the range of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes and glucosidases production. The secretions of endo and exoenzymes, capable of degrading cellulosic, hemicellulosic and pectinolytic polysaccharide were observed during the course of the experiment. Pectinolytic activities were produced constitutively on all of the substrate tested, while cellulolytic enzymes were to induced in...

Bahkali, Ali H.

1999-01-01

398

Chrysomyxa pirolata G. Wint in Rabenh: New parasitic fungus on the cones and seeds of spruce  

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The new spruce disease known as "spruce cone rust" was discovered for the first time in Serbia and Montenegro. The fungus was detected in spruce forests only in the mountains regions (Kopaonik, Zlatar, Durmitor). This rust periodically damages the cones in localised forest areas and can be a serious problem. Usually seeds are not formed in diseased cones, and even when they are produced, malformation and resinosis of the cones hinder seed dispersal or extraction. Tho...

Karadži? Dragan

2007-01-01

399

Ectomycorrhizal fungus (Paxillus involutus) and hydrogels affect performance of Populus euphratica exposed to drought stress  

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Mycorrhizal fungi and hydrogels (water-absorbing polymers) can improve water availability for trees. The combination of both factors for plant performance under water limitation has not yet been studied. • To investigate the influence of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus, hydrogel and the combination of both factors, a drought-sensitive poplar, Populus euphratica, was examined in this study. • After 16 weeks of inoculation, no ectomycorrhizas were found. Neverth...

Luo, Zhi-bin; Li, Ke; Jiang, Xiangning; Polle, Andrea

2009-01-01

400

Steroids produced by Penicillium herquei, an endophytic fungus isolated from the fruits of Melia azedarach (Meliaceae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Six compounds comprising the groups of steroids, the ergosterol, the ergosterol peroxide, the cerevisterol, the neociclocitrinols, the ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one, the 25-hydroxy-ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one, were isolated from Penicillium herquei fungus obtained from Melia azedarach. The structures were identified by spectral methods of RMN 1D and 2D and MS. (author)

 
 
 
 
401

The Dynamics of Plant Cell-Wall Polysaccharide Decomposition in Leaf-Cutting Ant Fungus Gardens  

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The degradation of live plant biomass in fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants is poorly characterised but fundamental for understanding the mutual advantages and efficiency of this obligate nutritional symbiosis. Controversies about the extent to which the garden-symbiont Leucocoprinus gongylophorus degrades cellulose have hampered our understanding of the selection forces that induced large scale herbivory and of the ensuing ecological footprint of these ants. Here we use a recently establish...

Moller, Isabel Eva; Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Harholt, Jesper; Willats, William George Tycho; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

2011-01-01

402

Antifungal compounds of Xylaria sp., an endophytic fungus isolated from Palicourea marcgravii (Rubiaceae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five compounds, 2-hexyl-3-methyl-butanodioic acid (1), cytochalasin D (2), 7-dechlorogriseofulvin (3), cytochalasin B (4) and griseofulvin (5), have been isolated from the endophytic fungus Xylaria sp., and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. In the bioautography assay against Cladosporium cladosporioides and Cladosporium sphaerospermum, compounds 1 and 2 were found to be active while compounds 3, 4 and 5 did not show antifungal activity. (author)

403

Traditional Treatment of Malaysian Bamboos: Resistance Towards White Rot Fungus and Durability in Service  

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Deterioration of Malaysian bamboos against biodeterioration agents and their service life have not been widely explored. This paper reveals the effect of traditional treatment on the resistance of selected bamboos towards white rot fungus and their durability in service. Bamboo culms of Dendrocalamus asper (Buluh betong), Bambusa vulgaris var. Striata (Buluh kuning) and Gigantochloa wrayi (Buluh beti) were soaked in running water for 2 and 3 weeks. The untreated culm serv...

Zaidon Ashaari,; Nazri Mamat

2000-01-01

404

Interactions of recombined mycelia of the fungus fomitopsis pinicola (Sow. Ex Fr) Karst. On PDA medium  

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The interaction of cultures from the recombined mycelia of the fungus Fomitopsis pinicola (Sow. ex Fr) Karst. was studied on PDA medium. The cultures were isolated from different carpophores and from different segments of the same carpophore originating from a felled beech tree. The interactions show that recombined mycelia of this species can be divided into numerous incompatible physiological "races" or "pathotypes", distinguished also by ...

Lazarev Vladimir S.

2002-01-01

405

Investigation of the Effect of Heating, Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza and Thermophilic Fungus on Cotton Wilt Disease  

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In this study, combinations of spores of a thermophilic fungus (Talaromyces flavus), Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM) and microsclerotia of Verticillium dahliae under various temperature treatment (31-38°C) in triplicate trial, were investigated and results were compared with those of non-treated controls. Five cotton seeds were planted in each pot containing 3 kg of pasteurized soil. In each pot, combinations of 4x103 VAM spores, 2.5x10 9 spores of t...

Naraghi, L.; Zareh-maivan, H.; Heydari, A.; Afshari-azad, H.

2007-01-01

406

New bioactive metabolites produced by Phomopsis cassiae, an endophytic fungus in Cassia spectabilis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two new metabolites, ethyl 2,4-dihydroxy-5,6-dimethylbenzoate (1) and phomopsilactone (2) were isolated from Phomopsis cassiae, an endophytic fungus in Cassia spectabilis. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR, MS and IR spectral data. Compounds 1 and 2 displayed strong antifungal activity against the phytopatogenic fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, as well as cytotoxicity against human cervical tumor cell line (HeLa), in in vitro assays. (author)

407

Isolation, Characterization and Production of Phytase from Endophytic Fungus its Application for Feed  

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Thirty four isolates of endophytic fungus produce phytases were isolated from leaf, stem and root fragments of soybean. Two isolates were the best of phytases enzyme producer and identified as Rhizoctonia sp. and Fusarium verticillioides. The phytase production was induced by phytate in medium used. The crude preparations were used in subsequent characterization studies, pH and temperature optimum and compared to other phytases tested and is thus a promising candidate for animal...

Peri Adnadi; Rina Delfita; Yetti Marlida; Gita Ciptaan

2010-01-01

408

Biodecolorization of Phenolic Paper Mill Effluent by Ligninolytic Fungus Trametes versicolor  

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A white rot fungus isolated from soil samples enriched by continuous pulp and paper mill effluent irrigation and identified as Trametes versicolor was capable of decolorization and degradation of phenol from paper mill effluent. 14C synthetic lignin mineralization assays showed that Trametes versicolor assimilated 24.3% of the total label. There was 76% effluent decolourization along with 78% COD reduction. The effluent chlorinated phenol degradation was 85% by Tra...

Prabu, P. C.; Udayasoorian, C.

2005-01-01

409

Antifungal Compounds Produced by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, an Endophytic Fungus from Michelia champaca  

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In this study, eight endophytic fungi were isolated from the leaves, stems and roots of Michelia champaca. The isolates were screened and evaluated for their antifungal, anticancer and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities. All of the extracts exhibited potent activity against two evaluated phytopathogenic fungi. Chemical investigation of EtOAc extracts of the endophytic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides resulted in the isolation of one new compound, 2-phenylethyl 1H-indol-3-y...

Vanessa Mara Chapla; Maria Luiza Zeraik; Ioanis Hcristos Leptokarydis; Geraldo Humberto Silva; Vanderlan Silva Bolzani; Young, Maria Claudia M.; Ludwig Heinrich Pfenning; Angela Regina Araújo

2014-01-01

410

Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from Phomopsis sp., an Endophytic Fungus from Senna spectabilis  

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Chemical investigation of an acetonitrile fraction from the endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp. led to the isolation of the new natural product 2-hydroxy-alternariol (7) together with the known compounds cytochalasins J (1) and H (2), 5'-epialtenuene (3) and the mycotoxins alternariol monomethyl ether (AME, 4), alternariol (AOH, 5) and cytosporone C (6). The structure of the new compound was elucidated by using 1-D and 2-D NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and high resolution mass spectrometry. T...

Vanessa Mara Chapla; Maria Luiza Zeraik; Ximenes, Valdecir F.; Lisinéia Maria Zanardi; Lopes, Ma?rcia N.; Alberto José Cavalheiro; Silva, Dulce Helena S.; Young, Maria Cla?udia M.; Luiz Marcos da Fonseca; Bolzani, Vanderlan S.; Angela Regina Araújo

2014-01-01

411

Microbiome of Fungus-Growing Termites: a New Reservoir for Lignocellulase Genes? †  

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Fungus-growing termites play an important role in lignocellulose degradation and carbon mineralization in tropical and subtropical regions, but the degradation potentiality of their gut microbiota has long been neglected. The high quality and quantity of intestinal microbial DNA are indispensable for exploring new cellulose genes from termites by function-based screening. Here, using a refined intestinal microbial DNA extraction method followed by multiple-displacement amplification (MDA), a ...

Liu, Ning; Yan, Xing; Zhang, Meiling; Xie, Lei; Wang, Qian; Huang, Yongping; Zhou, Xuguo; Wang, Shengyue; Zhou, Zhihua

2011-01-01

412

Short-Read Sequencing for Genomic Analysis of the Brown Rot Fungus Fibroporia radiculosa  

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The feasibility of short-read sequencing for genomic analysis was demonstrated for Fibroporia radiculosa, a copper-tolerant fungus that causes brown rot decay of wood. The effect of read quality on genomic assembly was assessed by filtering Illumina GAIIx reads from a single run of a paired-end library (75-nucleotide read length and 300-bp fragment size) at three different stringency levels and then assembling each data set with Velvet. A simple approach was devised to determine which filter ...

Tang, Juliet D.; Perkins, Andy D.; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Schroeder, Steven G.; Burgess, Shane C.; Diehl, Susan V.

2012-01-01

413

BIOMIMETIC SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES FROM AN ENDOPHYTIC FUNGUS AND THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL EFFICACY  

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In this work, an endophytic fungus, Penicillium sps. was isolated from the medicinal plant, Centella asiatica. The extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the filtrate of cell mass of an isolated Penicillium sps was monitored and the UV-Vis absorption spectrum recorded for the solution shows the characteristic surface plasmon resonance band for silver nanoparticles in the range of 390-440 nm. The SEM studies confirmed the formation of silver part...

Nirjanta Devi Nameirakpam; Dheeban, Shankar P.; Sutha S.

2012-01-01

414

Unlikely Remedy: Fungicide Clears Infection from Pathogenic Fungus in Larval Southern Leopard Frogs (Lithobates sphenocephalus)  

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Amphibians are often exposed to a wide variety of perturbations. Two of these, pesticides and pathogens, are linked to declines in both amphibian health and population viability. Many studies have examined the separate effects of such perturbations; however, few have examined the effects of simultaneous exposure of both to amphibians. In this study, we exposed larval southern leopard frog tadpoles (Lithobates sphenocephalus) to the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and the fungici...

Hanlon, Shane M.; Kerby, Jacob L.; Parris, Matthew J.

2012-01-01

415

Amino acids of the fungus Helminthosporium gramineum Rabenh. and of the infested barley grain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was carried out in order to determine by chromatographic analysis the amino acids contents of the fungus Helminthosporium gramineum Rabenh., which was found to be relatively high. Even the level of the free and proteic amino acids in the seeds infested by Helminthosporium was higher in comparison with the healthy seeds. In this case some qualitative changes was observed.

Ioan BOBES

1967-08-01

416

A new cyclic tetrapeptide from the jellyfish-derived fungus Phoma sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new cyclic tetrapeptide (1), along with known congeners (2, 3), was isolated from the fungus Phoma sp. derived from the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined using the modified Mosher's method and Marfey's method. Compound 1 displayed a weak suppressive effect on the production of nitric oxide (NO) in murine macrophage cells (RAW264.7) without notable cytotoxicity. PMID:23037010

Kim, Eun La; Li, Jian Lin; Xiao, Bin; Hong, Jongki; Yoo, Eun Sook; Yoon, Won Duk; Jung, Jee H

2012-01-01

417

Chaetomium globosum, a non-toxic fungus: a potential source of protein (SCP)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wheat straw cellulose was used as substrate for single cell protein (SCP) production using C. globosum, a non-toxic fungus. Both untreated and delignified powdered (60 mesh) substrate were used in submerged fermentation. The optimum cultural conditions for maximum conversion of wheat straw into SCP were 5 days, 37C, pH 5.0 and 400 mg/litre nitrogen in the form of sodium nitrate. 18 references.

Kahlon, S.S.; Kalra, K.L.

1986-01-01

418

Biodegradation of crystal violet by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  

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Biodegradation of crystal violet (N,N,N',N',N'',N''-hexamethylpararosaniline) in ligninolytic (nitrogen-limited) cultures of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance of crystal violet and by the identification of three metabolites (N,N,N',N',N''-pentamethylpararosaniline, N,N,N',N''-tetramethylpararosaniline, and N,N',N''-trimethylpararosaniline) formed by sequential N-demethylation of the parent compound. Metabolite formation also occurred when c...

Bumpus, J. A.; Brock, B. J.

1988-01-01

419

Cytotoxic hydroanthraquinones from the mangrove-derived fungus Paradictyoarthrinium diffractum BCC 8704.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new hydroanthraquinones, paradictyoarthrins A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the mangrove-derived fungus Paradictyoarthrinium diffractum BCC 8704. Structures of the new compounds were elucidated by analyses of the NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometry data. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by X-ray crystallography. These compounds exhibited cytotoxic activities.The Journal of Antibiotics advance online publication, 19 November 2014; doi:10.1038/ja.2014.153. PMID:25407145

Isaka, Masahiko; Chinthanom, Panida; Rachtawee, Pranee; Srichomthong, Kitlada; Srikitikulchai, Prasert; Kongsaeree, Palangpon; Prabpai, Samran

2014-11-19

420

Pyrenocines J-M: four new pyrenocines from the endophytic fungus, Phomopsis sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four new pyrenocines, named pyrenocines J-M (1-4), were isolated from an endophytic fungus, Phomopsis sp, by a bioassay-guided method. The structures of the new compound have been assigned from ¹H and ¹³C NMR spectra, DEPT, and by 2D COSY, HMQC, and HMBC experiments. Preliminary studied showed that compounds 1, 2 and 4 showed good antifungal, antibacterial, and algicidal properties, while compound 3 had good antibacterial and algicidal properties. PMID:22233864

Hussain, Hidayat; Ahmed, Ishtiaq; Schulz, Barbara; Draeger, Siegfried; Krohn, Karsten

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
421

Cytotoxic mycoepoxydiene derivatives from an endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp. isolated from Hydnocarpus anthelminthicus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mycoepoxydiene ( 1) and derivatives, deacetylmycoepoxydiene ( 2) and 2,3-dihydromycoepoxydiene ( 3), were isolated from a broth extract of the endophytic fungus, phomopsis sp., which was isolated from a Thai medicinal plant, Hydnocarpus anthelminthicus. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited potent cytotoxic activity, while a dihydro derivative 3 was inactive. The present work suggests that the alpha,beta-unsaturated lactone moiety in mycoepoxydienes might be responsible for the cytotoxicity. PMID:17926268

Prachya, Surasak; Wiyakrutta, Suthep; Sriubolmas, Nongluksna; Ngamrojanavanich, Nattaya; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Kittakoop, Prasat

2007-10-01

422

Metabolites from the endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp. PSU-D15.  

Science.gov (United States)

From the endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp. PSU-D15, three metabolites named as phomoenamide (1), phomonitroester (2) and deacetylphomoxanthone B (3), were isolated together with three known compounds, dicerandrol A (4), (1S,2S,4S)-p-menthane-1,2,4-triol (5) and uridine. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Phomoenamide (1) exhibited moderate in vitro antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra. PMID:17950385

Rukachaisirikul, Vatcharin; Sommart, Ubonta; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Sakayaroj, Jariya; Kirtikara, Kanyawim

2008-02-01

423

Cytotoxic Illudalane Sesquiterpenes from the Wood-Decay Fungus Granulobasidium vellereum (Ellis & Cragin Jülich  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seven illudalane sesquiterpenes were obtained from the wood decomposing fungus Granulobasidium vellereum: granuloinden A, granuloinden B and dihydrogranuloinden, along with the previously known compounds radulactone, pterosin M, echinolactone A and D. Granuloinden B showed potent cytotoxic activity against the Huh7 and MT4 tumor cell lines (CC50 values of 6.7 and 0.15 µM, respectively, whereas granuloinden A and dihydrogranuloinden had no or moderate activity.

Christina L. Nord

2014-09-01

424

Cytotoxic illudalane sesquiterpenes from the wood-decay fungus Granulobasidium vellereum (Ellis & Cragin) Jülich.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seven illudalane sesquiterpenes were obtained from the wood decomposing fungus Granulobasidium vellereum: granuloinden A, granuloinden B and dihydrogranuloinden, along with the previously known compounds radulactone, pterosin M, echinolactone A and D. Granuloinden B showed potent cytotoxic activity against the Huh7 and MT4 tumor cell lines (CC50 values of 6.7 and 0.15 µM, respectively), whereas granuloinden A and dihydrogranuloinden had no or moderate activity. PMID:25207719

Nord, Christina L; Menkis, Audrius; Broberg, Anders

2014-01-01

425

Cytotoxic Illudalane Sesquiterpenes from the Wood-Decay Fungus Granulobasidium vellereum (Ellis & Cragin) Jülich  

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Seven illudalane sesquiterpenes were obtained from the wood decomposing fungus Granulobasidium vellereum: granuloinden A, granuloinden B and dihydrogranuloinden, along with the previously known compounds radulactone, pterosin M, echinolactone A and D. Granuloinden B showed potent cytotoxic activity against the Huh7 and MT4 tumor cell lines (CC50 values of 6.7 and 0.15 µM, respectively), whereas granuloinden A and dihydrogranuloinden had no or moderate activity.

Nord, Christina L.; Audrius Menkis; Anders Broberg

2014-01-01

426

One Fungus = One Name: DNA and fungal nomenclature twenty years after PCR  

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Some fungi with pleomorphic life-cycles still bear two names despite more than 20 years of molecular phylogenetics that have shown how to merge the two systems of classification, the asexual “Deuteromycota” and the sexual “Eumycota”. Mycologists have begun to flout nomenclatorial regulations and use just one name for one fungus. The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) must change to accommodate current practice or become irrelevant. The fundamental difference in the si...

Taylor, J. W.

2011-01-01

427

Genetic Transformation of the Biocontrol Fungus Gliocladium virens to Benomyl Resistance  

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Methodology was developed to isolate and regenerate protoplasts from the biocontrol fungus Gliocladium virens and to transform them to benomyl resistance with a Neurospora crassa ?-tubulin gene. Southern blots demonstrated that multiple copies of the vector integrated into the chromosomal DNA of stable biotypes but not of abortive transformants. Analysis of nuclear condition in vegetative and asexual structures demonstrated that no structure of G. virens is dependably uninucleate and thus pr...

Ossanna, Nina; Mischke, Sue

1990-01-01

428

Breaking the Silence: Protein Stabilization Uncovers Silenced Biosynthetic Gene Clusters in the Fungus Aspergillus nidulans  

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The genomes of filamentous fungi comprise numerous putative gene clusters coding for the biosynthesis of chemically and structurally diverse secondary metabolites (SMs), which are rarely expressed under laboratory conditions. Previous approaches to activate these genes were based primarily on artificially targeting the cellular protein synthesis apparatus. Here, we applied an alternative approach of genetically impairing the protein degradation apparatus of the model fungus Aspergillus nidula...

Gerke, Jennifer; Bayram, O?zgu?r; Feussner, Kirstin; Landesfeind, Manuel; Shelest, Ekaterina; Feussner, Ivo; Braus, Gerhard H.

2012-01-01

429

Secondary metabolites from a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus carneus Blochwitz.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prenylated indole alkaloids, carneamides A-C (1-3), quinazolinone derivatives, carnequinazolines A-C (5-7), aryl C-glycosides, carnemycin A, B (8, 9) and a drimane sesquiterpenoid (10), together with known compounds (11-21) were isolated from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus carneus (Trichocomaceae) KMM 4638. The antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of the several alkaloids were examined. PMID:22658281

Zhuravleva, Olesya I; Afiyatullov, Shamil Sh; Denisenko, Vladimir A; Ermakova, Svetlana P; Slinkina, Natalya N; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Kim, Natalya Yu

2012-08-01

430

The Structure of manganese oxide formed by the fungus Acremonium sp strain KR21-2  

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Manganese oxides are observed to form by the oxidation of aqueous solutions of Mn(II) catalyzed by the action of microorganisms. In contrast to the widely studied material produced by bacteria, manganese oxide phases produced by the action of fungi have received only limited attention. A detailed study of the MnO x material produced by the action of the fungus Acremonium KR21-2, utilizing X-ray diffraction, XANES, EXAFS and transmission electron microscopy is report...

Saratovsky, I.; Gurr, Sj; Hayward, Ma

2009-01-01

431

Coniothyren: a new phenoxyphenyl ether from the endophytic fungus, Coniothyrium sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phytochemical investigation of the endophytic fungus Coniothyrium sp. resulted in the isolation of a new phenoxyphenyl ether, named coniothyren (1), and two known compounds, coniol (2) and (+)-epoxydon (3). The structure of the new compound was elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis, namely, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and HR-EI-MS. Preliminary studies demonstrated that (+)-epoxydon (3) displayed good antibacterial and antialgal activities toward Bacillus megaterium and Chlorella fusca, respectively. PMID:25030414

Hussain, Hidayat; Kock, Ines; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Abbas, Ghulam; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Shah, Afzal; Badshah, Amin; Rana, Usman Ali; Noureen, Zakira; Green, Ivan R; Draeger, Siegfried; Schulz, Barbara; Krohn, Karsten

2014-01-01

432

Reconstruction of a genome-scale metabolic model for the riboflavin producer fungus Ashbya gossypii  

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Metabolic models are an important tool for in silico simulation of cells’ behavior. Until now, a considerable number of metabolic models have been released for a wide range of microorganisms. Ashbya gossypii is an industrial-relevant fungus intensively used for riboflavin production with no model reported until now. Despite its high similarity with Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome, A. gossypii contains only 4726 protein-coding genes and, contrarily to S. cerevisiae, has a filamentous gro...

Gomes, Daniel G.; Dias, O.; Ferreira, E. C.; Domingues, Luci?lia; Rocha, I.

2012-01-01

433

Variation in Efficacy of Isolates of the Fungus ARF Against the Soybean Cyst Nematode Heterodera glycines  

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An unnamed fungus, designated ARF, that parasitizes eggs and sedentary stages of cyst nematodes is a potential biological control agent of Heterodera glycines. The objectives of this study were to determine whether ARF isolates differ in their ability to suppress nematode numbers in soil and to compare the efficacy of ARF in heat-treated and native soil. The effectiveness of 11 ARF isolates was compared by introducing homogenized mycelium into heat-treated soil. Soybean seedlings were transpl...

Timper, P.; Riggs, R. D.

1998-01-01

434

Suppression of Cyst Nematode by Natural Infestation of a Nematophagous Fungus  

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Penetration of cabbage roots by Heterodera schachtii was suppressed 50-77% in loamy sand naturally infested with the nematophagous fungus Hirsutella rhossiliensis. When Heterodera schachtii was incubated in the suppressive soil without plants for 2 days, 40-63% of the juveniles had Hirsutella rhossiliensis spores adhering to their cuticles. Of those with spores, 82-92% were infected. Infected nematodes were killed and filled with hyphae within 2-3 days. Addition of KCl to soil did not increas...

Jaffee, B. A.; Muldoon, A. E.

1989-01-01

435

New bioactive metabolites produced by Phomopsis cassiae, an endophytic fungus in Cassia spectabilis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two new metabolites, ethyl 2,4-dihydroxy-5,6-dimethylbenzoate (1) and phomopsilactone (2) were isolated from Phomopsis cassiae, an endophytic fungus in Cassia spectabilis. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR, MS and IR spectral data. Compounds 1 and 2 displayed strong antifungal activity against the phytopatogenic fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, as well as cytotoxicity against human cervical tumor cell line (HeLa), in in vitro assays. (author)

Silva, Geraldo H.; Teles, Helder L.; Trevisan, Henrique C.; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Araujo, Angela R. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: araujoar@iq.unesp.br; Young, Maria C.M. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas; Pfenning, Ludwig H. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fitopatologia; Eberlin, Marcos N.; Haddad, Renato [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Costa-Neto, Claudio M. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia

2005-11-15

436

Two Cyclodepsipeptides, two Sesquiterpenoids and Other Cytotoxic Metabolites from the Filamentous Fungus Trichothecium sp. (MSX 51320)  

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Two new cyclodepsipeptides (1 and 2), two new sesquiterpenoids (3 and 4), and the known compounds guangomide A (5), roseotoxin S, and three simple trichothecenes were isolated from the cytotoxic organic extract of a terrestrial filamentous fungus, Trichothecium sp. The structures were determined using NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Absolute configurations of the cyclodepsipeptides were established by employing chiral HPLC, while the relative configurations of 3 and 4 were determined ...

Sy-cordero, Arlene A.; Graf, Tyler N.; Adcock, Audrey F.; Kroll, David J.; Shen, Qi; Swanson, Steven M.; Wani, Mansukh C.; Pearce, Cedric J.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

2011-01-01

437

Cytotoxic Xanthone-Anthraquinone Heterodimers from an Unidentified Fungus of the Order Hypocreales (MSX 17022)  

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Two new xanthone-anthraquinone heterodimers, acremoxanthone C (5) and acremoxanthone D (2), have been isolated from an extract of an unidentified fungus of the Order Hypocreales (MSX 17022) by bioactivity-directed fractionation as part of a search for anticancer leads from filamentous fungi. Two known related compounds, acremonidin A (4) and acremonidin C (3) were also isolated, as was a known benzophenone, moniliphenone (1). The structures of these isolates were determined via extensive use ...

Ayers, Sloan; Graf, Tyler N.; Adcock, Audrey F.; Kroll, David J.; Shen, Qi; Swanson, Steven M.; Matthew, Susan; Carcache Blanco, Esperanza J.; Wani, Mansukh C.; Darveaux, Blaise A.; Pearce, Cedric J.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

2012-01-01

438

Growth characteristics of the thermophilic fungus Scytalidium thermophilum in relation to production of mushroom compost.  

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Scytalidium thermophilum is an important thermophilic fungus in the production of mushroom compost. I investigated the characteristics of this organism and present a simple model with which fungal growth in compost can be described. The model is used to predict better circumstances for rapid indoor production of mushroom compost. I conclude that inoculation of the starting material with prepared compost either before or after the pasteurization phase has only a minor effect on the shortening ...

Wiegant, W. M.

1992-01-01

439

Development-dependent scavenging of nucleic acids in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus.  

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Aspergillus fumigatus is an ubiquitous, filamentous and opportunistic pathogenic fungus which causes fatal invasive aspergillosis among immuno-compromised patients. Since therapeutic strategies are currently limited, the mortality rate of invasive aspergillosis is high and thus, alternative antifungal strategies are required. In this study, we demonstrate that during vegetative growth Aspergillus fumigatus is able to scavenge nucleic acids within its cell wall with accumulation rates of sever...

Jo?chl, C.; Loh, E.; Ploner, A.; Haas, H.; Hu?ttenhofer, A.

2009-01-01

440

ENZYME SYSTEMS FROM THE THERMOPHILIC FUNGUS TALAROMYCES EMERSONII FOR SUGAR BEET BIOCONVERSION  

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The thermostable enzyme systems produced by the thermophilic ascomycete fungus Talaromyces emersonii cultivated on various carbon sources were investigated for the production of high value products from sugar beet. A broad range of enzymatic activities relevant to cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin hydrolysis were identified in T. emersonii culture filtrates. In hydrolysis experiments conducted at 71ºC, the enzyme cocktails generated sugar-rich syrups from untreated sugar beet plants. Ma...

Sara Fernandes; Murray, Patrick G.; Tuohy, Maria G.

2008-01-01