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Sample records for fungus gnats bradysia

  1. Lack of Pythium aphanidermatum transmission by adult fungus gnats (Bradysia impatiens) and investigation of larval vectoring capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have provided evidence for transmission of plant pathogens by greenhouse-inhabiting fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.). The goal of this study was to determine if fungus gnats are vectors of Pythium aphanidermatum. In the first of a series of laboratory experiment, 10 adult gnats were released i...

  2. Effect of fungus gnat Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae) feeding on subsequent Pythium aphanidermatum infection of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dark-winged fungus gnats in the genus Bradysia (Diptera: Sciaridae) and root rot pathogens in the genus Pythium (Oomycetes) are important pests of greenhouse floriculture. Observations have pointed to a possible correlation between Pythium root rot disease and fungus gnat infestations; however, inte...

  3. Ecology of Fungus Gnats (Bradysia spp. in Greenhouse Production Systems Associated with Disease-Interactions and Alternative Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond A. Cloyd

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fungus gnats (Bradysia spp. are major insect pests of greenhouse-grown horticultural crops mainly due to the direct feeding damage caused by the larvae, and the ability of larvae to transmit certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Currently, insecticides and biological control agents are being used successively to deal with fungus gnat populations in greenhouse production systems. However, these strategies may only be effective as long as greenhouse producers also implement alternative management strategies such as cultural, physical, and sanitation. This includes elimination of algae, and plant and growing medium debris; placing physical barriers onto the growing medium surface; and using materials that repel fungus gnat adults. This article describes the disease-interactions associated with fungus gnats and foliar and soil-borne diseases, and the alternative management strategies that should be considered by greenhouse producers in order to alleviate problems with fungus gnats in greenhouse production systems.

  4. Fungus gnat (Bradysia impatiens) feeding and mechanical wounding inhibit Pythium aphanidermatum infection of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of laboratory tests were conducted to investigate potential effects of fungus gnat (Bradysia impatiens) feeding damage on susceptibility of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum) to infection by the root rot pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum. Effects were compared to those from similar t...

  5. Attraction and oviposition responses of the fungus gnat Bradysia impatiens to microbes and microbe-inoculated seedlings in laboratory bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory tests were conducted to examine preferences of Bradysia impatiens Johannsen (Diptera: Sciaridae) larvae and adults for various microbes associated with greenhouse crops. Fungus gnat larvae and adults exhibited a preference for cultures of Pythium spp. over the medium used to grow the path...

  6. Biology and feeding requirements larval hunter flies Coenosia attenuata (Diptera:Muscidae) reared in larvae of the fungus gnat Bradysia impatiens (Diptera:Sciaridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The larval feeding requirements and biology of the generalist predatory muscid fly Coenosia attenuata were investigated at 25 deg C. Larval C. attenuata were fed 2nd-, 3rd-, and 4th-instar (L2, L3, and L4) larvae of the fungus gnat Bradysia impatiens at variable rates to determine minimum and optimu...

  7. Effect of diatomaceous earth and Trichoderma harzianum T-22 (Rifai strain KRL-AG2) on the fungus gnat Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila (Diptera: Sciaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Dickinson, Amy; Kemp, Kenneth E

    2007-08-01

    This study, consisting of three experiments, was designed to assess whether diatomaceous earth, when applied to the surface of growing media, reduces adult fungus gnat Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila (Diptera: Sciaridae) emergence or inhibits the females from laying eggs; and whether fungus gnat adults are attracted to the fungus Trichoderma harzianum T-22 (Rifai strain KRL-AG2) under laboratory conditions. In the first two experiments, diatomaceous earth was applied at two different thicknesses (3.1 and 6.3 mm) and conditions (dry and moist) to the surface of a growing medium (Universal SB 300 Mix) after the growing medium had been artificially inoculated with second or third instars of fungus gnats, or before female fungus gnat adults were released into each deli squat container. In the third experiment, preparations of the fungus T. harzianum at the highest recommended label rate (0.889 kg/m3) were amended into the growing medium and processed 24, 48, or 72 h before use in a series of three two-choice trials with a two-armed experimental arena. In the first two experiments, the dry or moist layers of diatomaceous earth, in general, did not affect fungus gnats in terms of preventing adult emergence or egg laying by the females. During the course of these experiments, we observed that the diatomaceous earth dry treatments expanded as a result of absorbing moisture from the growing medium, creating fissures that allowed the fungus gnat larvae to pupate and females to lay eggs. In the third experiment, fungus gnat adults were not attracted to the T. harzianum treatments in any of the trials. PMID:17849889

  8. Control del mosco fungoso negro, Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour, 1839) y Bradysia impatiens (Johannsen, 1912) (Dipteria: Sciaridae) en Pinus montezumae Lamb / Black fungus gnats Lycoriella ingenua (Dufor, 1989) and Bradysia impatiens (Johannsen, 1912) (Diptera: Sciaridae) in Pinus montezumae Lamb

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Víctor Hugo, Marín-Cruz; David, Cibrián-Tovar; José Tulio, Méndez-Montiel; Omar Alejandro, Pérez-Vera; José Artemio, Cadena-Meneses.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Los moscos fungosos negros, Lycoriella ingenua y Bradysia impatiens son insectos que afectan significativamente la producción de plántulas de Pinus montezumae en algunos viveros e invernaderos forestales que se ubican en el centro de México. En los meses desde la primavera hasta el otoño, las condic [...] iones ambientales de alta humedad y temperatura son adecuadas para que la población aumente rápidamente y sea abundante en pocas semanas. Para ofrecer una alternativa de control de ellos, en el vivero forestal de Temamatla se probaron cinco insecticidas químicos: oxamil, espirotetramat, imidacloprid, carbofuran, clorpirifos, y el bioplaguicida Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (BTI). Estos productos se aplicaron en tres dosis, durante cuatro meses. La eficacia de los tratamientos se evaluó en porcentaje de plantas sin daño. De los tratamientos, el imidacloprid en dosis alta y media generó una protección de 100 %. Después, oxamil y espirotetramat en dosis alta, a 96.17 % y 95.75 % de la planta tratada. En cambio, la dosis media de clorpirifos lo hizo a 95.74 %, mientras que la dosis baja de imidacloprid, a 95.29 %. Ocho tratamientos protegieron de 91.5 % a 79.43 %, pero cuatro tratamientos no fueron diferentes al control. Los resultados sugieren que no todos los productos evaluados, en sus diferentes dosis, son efectivos para el control del mosco fungoso negro. Sin embargo, algunos pueden serlo para controlarlo en plántulas de P. montezumae. Abstract in english The black fungus gnats Lycoriella ingenua and Bradysia impatiens are insects that affect meaningfully the seedling production of Pinus montezumae in some forest nurseries and greenhouses located at Central Mexico. During the months from springtime to autumn, the environmental conditions of high mois [...] ture and temperature are right for a fast growth of the population and it becomes abundant in a few weeks. To offer an alternative to control these insects, in a forest nursery located in Temamatla, Mexico, five chemical insecticides were tested: oxamil, spirotetramat, imidacloprid, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos and the biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (BTI). These products were applied in three doses for a four month period. The efficiency of the treatments was evaluated on the percentage of unharmed plants. Of the treatments, the imidaclopridin a high and medium doses generated a protection of 100 %. Then, the spirotetramat and oxamil protected 96.17 % and 95.75 % of the treated plant respectively; the medium dose of chlorpyrifosprotected 95.74 %, and the low dose of imidacloprid 95.29 %. Eight treatments protected from 91.5 % to 79.43 %. Four were no different to control. The results suggest that not all the evaluated products, in different doses, are effective to control the black fungus gnats. Nevertheless, some doses and products can be effective to control the pest in P. montezumae seedlings.

  9. Transstadial transmission of Pythium in Bradysia impatiens and lack of adult vectoring capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungus gnats have been shown to transmit a variety of plant pathogenic fungi that produce aerial dispersal stages. However, few studies have examined potential interactions between fungus gnats and oomycetes, including Pythium spp. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to determine if ...

  10. Bradysia sp. em morangueiro Bradysia sp. in strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadete Radin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available No trabalho, relatam-se os primeiros registros de Bradysia sp. (Insecta: Diptera: Sciaridae em morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa Duch., cultivado no Município de Eldorado do Sul, RS. O cultivo foi realizado em sacolas com três metros de comprimento, preenchidas com substrato composto de casca de arroz e turfa, dispostas horizontalmente sobre bancadas de madeira, em ambiente protegido. A presença de Bradysia sp. foi observada na segunda quinzena de agosto de 2005. Neste trabalho, estão descritos os sintomas apresentados no morangueiro pela praga, prováveis conseqüências sobre o aparecimento de doenças e uma breve descrição morfológica da Bradysia sp., adulto e fase larval.This paper describes the first record of Bradysia sp. (Insecta; Diptera; Sciaridae in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa, cultivated in the city of Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil. Strawberry was planted in plastic bags filled with a mixture of burnt rice hulls and peat and cultivated in a greenhouse. The presence of Bradysia sp was noticed in the second fortnight of August, 2005. The symptoms in strawberry and the probable consequences in terms of disease arising were described in the present study, as well as the morphological characterization of Bradysia sp. and its illustrations.

  11. Hey! A Gnat Bit Me!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Hey! A Gnat Bit Me! KidsHealth > For Kids > Hey! A Gnat Bit Me! Print A A A ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Hey! A Fire Ant Stung Me! Hey! A Flea ...

  12. Statistics analysis of distribution of Bradysia Ocellaris insect on Oyster mushroom cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Kurnia Novita; Amelia, Ririn

    2015-12-01

    Bradysia Ocellaris insect is a pest on Oyster mushroom cultivation. The disitribution of Bradysia Ocellaris have a special pattern that can observed every week with several asumption such as independent, normality and homogenity. We can analyze the number of Bradysia Ocellaris for each week through descriptive analysis. Next, the distribution pattern of Bradysia Ocellaris is described through by semivariogram that is diagram of variance from difference value between pair of observation that separeted by d. Semivariogram model that suitable for Bradysia Ocellaris data is spherical isotropic model.

  13. Observations on spermiogenesis in the fungus gnat Sciara coprophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D M

    1966-09-01

    Although 9-membered centrioles are found in somatic tissues of Sciara, the centriole which lies at the spindle pole of the second meiotic division in male Sciara is composed of a row of approximately 70 short tubules in an oval array. Shortly after telophase of this unequal division, in the daughter cell destined to undergo spermiogenesis, microtubules become confluent with the tubules of the centriole. These tubules have the same density as other cytoplasmic microtubules after glutaraldehyde-OsO(4) fixation and, like them, are not preserved with OsO(4) fixation. As the centriole, now with approximately 70 attached, posteriorly directed, doublet tubules, migrates from the polar to the apolar end of the nucleus to take a final position in an oval groove which forms in the nuclear envelope, the tubules lengthen and become demonstrable after OsO(4) fixation and more electron opaque than other cytoplasmic microtubules following glutaraldehyde-OsO(4) fixation. Later, a singlet tubule appears peripherally to each doublet of the oval and 4 "arms" develop at specific sites on the tubules. Posteriorly, where the oval of tubules becomes discontinuous and forms a spiral, the arrangement of arms is different and the singlet tubules are lacking. Dense solid bodies develop inside this odd flagellum and become enclosed by a smooth double membrane. A single mitochondrial derivative has three components: a central area of homogeneous, moderately electron-opaque, proteinaceous material; a peripheral ring of cristae; and a crystalloid which is specifically oriented with respect to the flagellar tubules. PMID:5971003

  14. CrGNAT gene regulates excess copper accumulation and tolerance in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Cheng, Zhen Zhen; Chen, Xi; Zheng, Qi; Yang, Zhi Min

    2015-11-01

    Excess copper (Cu) in environment affects the growth and metabolism of plants and green algae. However, the molecular mechanism for regulating plant tolerance to excess Cu is not fully understood. Here, we report a gene CrGNAT enconding an acetyltransferase in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and identified its role in regulating tolerance to Cu toxicity. Expression of CrGNAT was significantly induced by 75-400?M Cu. The top induction occurred at 100?M. Transgenic algae overexpressing CrGNAT (35S::CrGNAT) in C. reinhardtii showed high tolerance to excess Cu, with improved cell population, chlorophyll accumulation and photosynthesis efficiency, but with low degree of oxidation with regard to reduced hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxides and non-protein thiol compounds. In contrast, CrGNAT knock-down lines with antisense led to sensitivity to Cu stress. 35S::CrGNAT algae accumulated more Cu and other metals (Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn and Mg) than wild-type, whereas the CrGNAT down-regulated algae (35S::AntiCrGNAT) had moderate levels of Cu and Mn, but no effects on Zn, Fe and Mg accumulation as compared to wild-type. The elevated metal absorption in CrGNAT overexpression algae implies that the metals can be removed from water media. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that expression of two genes encoding N-lysine histone methyltransferases was repressed in 35S::CrGNAT algae, suggesting that CrGNAT-regulated algal tolerance to Cu toxicity is likely associated with histone methylation and chromatin remodeling. The present work provided an example a basis to develop techniques for environmental restoration of metal-contaminated aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26475193

  15. Larval Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae) potential for vectoring Pythium root rot pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the capacity of Bradysia impatiens (Johannsen) larvae to ingest propagules from two strains each of Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp. and P. ultimum Trow and transmit the pathogens to healthy geranium seedlings on a filter-paper su...

  16. Nuclear halo from Bradysia hygida (Diptera:Sciaridae) salivary gland polytene cells

    OpenAIRE

    Celso Aparecido Polinarski; José Luis da Conceição Silva; Liya Regina Mikami; Maria Aparecida Fernandez

    2005-01-01

    A protocol for recovered nuclear halos from insect polytene nuclei after the extraction of the nuclear proteins using LIS detergent is reported in this work. Analysis was carried out using fluorescence and confocal laser scan microscopy. The extraction of nuclear halos was possible only with nuclei-fraction isolation in hypotonic buffer without spermine and spermidine. The recovered nuclear halos from Bradysia hygida salivary gland polytene nuclei, contributed greatly to the study of the stru...

  17. GNATS, Nonlinear Stress Analysis of 2-D and Axisymmetric Static Structure by Finite Elements Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of problem or function: GNATS is a finite element computer program designed for nonlinear analysis of axisymmetric and two-dimensional static structures. 2 - Method of solution: The GNATS program is based on a total Lagrangian description of the displaced equilibrium configuration. The complete strain-displacement equations are used to include the effects of large displacements and large strains. Elastic-plastic material behavior, with either isotropic or kinematic hardening, may be selected. All solution options included in GNATS contain an equilibrium check which assures that the structure satisfies equilibrium to a specified tolerance at each stage of loading. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: All large arrays in GNATS, MESH2, and GPRINT are dynamically dimensioned to minimize storage requirements

  18. Nuclear halo from Bradysia hygida (Diptera:Sciaridae) salivary gland polytene cells

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Celso Aparecido, Polinarski; José Luis da Conceição, Silva; Liya Regina, Mikami; Maria Aparecida, Fernandez.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Observações à microscopia eletrônica e estudos bioquímicos de cromossomos e núcleos sem histonas tem suportado a hipótese que o DNA de eucariotos é organizado em alças associadas com o esqueleto cromossômico ou à matriz nuclear. A observação da matriz nuclear sem a remoção do DNA, através da digestã [...] o com enzimas de restrição, apresenta uma figura em halo que representa a liberação das alças de DNA. Um protocolo para a obtenção de halos nucleares de núcleos politênicos de insetos, através da extração de proteínas usando o detergente LIS, é reportado nesse trabalho. Foram realizadas análises utilizando-se microscopia de fluorescência e microscopia de varredura confocal a laser. A extração de halos nucleares foi possível somente com o isolamento da fração nuclear em tampão sem espermina e espermidina. A obtenção de halos nucleares de núcleos politênicos de glândula salivar de Bradysia hygida contribui significativamente para o estudo da estrutura e função dessas organelas tão especiais. Abstract in english A protocol for recovered nuclear halos from insect polytene nuclei after the extraction of the nuclear proteins using LIS detergent is reported in this work. Analysis was carried out using fluorescence and confocal laser scan microscopy. The extraction of nuclear halos was possible only with nuclei- [...] fraction isolation in hypotonic buffer without spermine and spermidine. The recovered nuclear halos from Bradysia hygida salivary gland polytene nuclei, contributed greatly to the study of the structure and function of these special organelles.

  19. Aspectos alimentares e de criação de Bradysia hygida Sauaia & Alves (Diptera, Sciaridae em laboratório Aspects on alimentation and rearing of Bradysia hygida Sauaia & Alves (Diptera, Sciaridae in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara S. Joachim Bravo

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available In nature, the Sciaridae live in moist and shady places, where exists vegetable material in decomposition. It is very dificult to determine the proper Sciaridae's alimentary habit and then, it is dificult, also, to rear Sciaridae species in laboratory. To improvement the Bradysia hygida rearing, the objectives of this research were to analyse the nutritive value of mucuna bean foliage for the larves, to verify the role of the ground (as larvae substrate and in diet composition and also to verify the possibility of ground substituition by another kind of substrate. Two kinds of sand were employed in the place of the ground and three diets, free of ground, were prepared. The parameters analysed were: duration of the life cicle, porcentage of emergence, egg production by female and adult size. The results showed that the mucuna bean foliage have a good nutritive value for B. hygida rearing; the ground, as substrate, can be substituted by any of the sands and the ground, in the diet, is also dispensable. The alimentary habits of Sciaridae is discussed.

  20. Application of PINS and GNAT to the assay of 55-gal containers of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Portable Isotropic Neutron Spectroscopy (PINS) and Gamma Neutron Assay Technique (GNAT) assay systems that were developed with funding from the office of Research and Development (NN20), were taken to the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) facility at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) and applied to the assay of surrogate and Rocky Flats Plant waste contained in 55-gal drums. PINS, a portable prompt ? neutron activation analysis technique, was able to identify key elements in both the surrogate and real waste so that three-main waste categories: metal, combustible material, and cemented chlorinated sludge wastes could be identified. GNAT, a ?, neutron assay technique for the identification and quantification of fissioning isotopes, was able to identify 240Pu in surrogate waste in which nine 1-g nuclear accident dosimeters were inserted. GNAT was also able to identify 24OPu in real 55-gal waste drums containing 15- and 40-g of plutonium even in the presence of high activity concentrations of 241Am

  1. De novo sequencing and characterization of the Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae) larval transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haoliang; Lin, Lulu; Xie, Minghui; Zhang, Guangling; Su, Weihua

    2015-12-01

    The most serious pestilent threat to the Chinese chive, Allium tuberosum Rottle ex Spreng (Liliaceae) is the Bradysia odoriphaga Yang and Zhang. There is limited genetic research focused on B. odoriphaga, partially due to the lack of genomic resources. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies has enabled generation of genomic resources in a short time frame and at minimal costs. In this study, we performed, for the first time, de novo transcriptome sequencing of the B. odoriphaga. Here, 16,829 unigenes were assembled from the total reads, 12,024 of these unigenes were annotated in the NCBI NR protein database, and 9784 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. Of these annotated unigenes, 7903 and 5060 unigenes have been assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups, respectively. Furthermore, 8647 unigenes were mapped to 257 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database. We found that 408 unigenes were related to insecticide resistance and metabolism. In addition, 23,122 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified in 11,009 unigenes, and 100 PCR primers of SSR loci were used to validate the assembly quality and polymorphisms. These results provide a good platform for further investigations into the insecticide resistance of B. odoriphaga. Finally, the SSRs identified in B. odoriphaga may be a useful genomic resource. PMID:26219018

  2. New gnat-midge species chironomus degelenus i sp. n. (diptera chironomidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time the morphology of larvae, pupae, imago and karyotype of Chironomus degelenus I Sp. n. collected from Water-Body D-3-3 of the Degelen Mountain Massif has been described. The larvae have a species-specific structure and color of the head capsule, ventral-mental blades, and mandibula hamuli. The male gnat is characterized for grid structure in IX tergite. The karyotype of C. degelenus I Sp. n. has the following combination of chromosome arms: AB, CD, EF, and G (thummi complex), which is typical for Chironomus species. It was concluded that the origin of the new species of Chironomus degelenus I Sp. N. is related to the long-term genetic processes of Chironomini adaptation to the elevated radiation background level. (author)

  3. A 28-fold increase in secretory protein synthesis is associated with DNA puff activity in the salivary gland of Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae

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    de-Almeida J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available When the first group of DNA puffs is active in the salivary gland regions S1 and S3 of Bradysia hygida larvae, there is a large increase in the production and secretion of new salivary proteins demonstrable by [3H]-Leu incorporation. The present study shows that protein separation by SDS-PAGE and detection by fluorography demonstrated that these polypeptides range in molecular mass from about 23 to 100 kDa. Furthermore, these proteins were synthesized mainly in the S1 and S3 salivary gland regions where the DNA puffs C7, C5, C4 and B10 are conspicuous, while in the S2 region protein synthesis was very low. Others have shown that the extent of amplification for DNA sequences that code for mRNA in the DNA puffs C4 and B10 was about 22 and 10 times, respectively. The present data for this group of DNA puffs are consistent with the proposition that gene amplification is necessary to provide some cells with additional gene copies for the production of massive amounts of proteins within a short period of time (Spradling AC and Mahowald AP (1980 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 77: 1096-1100.

  4. IDENTIFICACIÓN Y CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LA MOSCA NEGRA, BRADYSIA DIFFORMIS (DIPTERA: SCIARIDAE EN EL CULTIVO DE NOCHEBUENA (EUPHORBIA PULCHERRIMA EN EL CENTRO DE MÉXICO

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    Evert VILLANUEVA-S\\u00C1NCHEZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar y caracterizar los estados de desarrollo de la especie de mosca negra más abundante asociada al cultivo de nochebuena Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, ex Klotzsch en la zona productora del centro del país. La recolección de material entomológico se realizó en invernaderos de las localidades de Atlacomulco (México, Tenango de las Flores (Puebla, Xochimilco (Distrito Federal y Zacatepec y Tetela del Monte (Morelos. Se obtuvieron 2,141 especímenes adultos de Diptera, siendo la especie más abundante (99.5% Bradysia difformis Frey (Diptera: Sciaridae. El ciclo de vida de esta especie se completó entre 26-28 días bajo condiciones controladas de temperatura y humedad (25°C y 70% HR. La diferenciación de los estadíos larvales fue realizada mediante la morfometría de la cápsula cefálica para los estadíos I vs II, cuyas probabilidades de error fueron muy bajas (1:10,000; en cambio, la diferenciación entre los estadíos II vs III, y III vs IV resultó con una probabilidad de error alta, entre 17:100 y 36:100 individuos, respectivamente. Por esta razón se recomienda explorar otras características que en adición a la medida de anchura de sus cápsulas cefálicas permitan discriminar los diferentes estadíos de desarrollo. Este es el primer registro de B. difformis en México, aun cuando ya se había reportado este género afectando las plantas de nochebuena. Palabras clave: taxonomía, estados inmaduros, plaga de nochebuena, México.

  5. The DNA puff BhB10-1 gene is differentially expressed in various tissues of Bradysia hygida late larvae and constitutively transcribed in transgenic Drosophila

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    N. Monesi

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available We extended the characterization of the DNA puff BhB10-1 gene of Bradysia hygida by showing that, although its mRNA is detected only at the end of the fourth larval instar, BhB10-1 expression is not restricted to the salivary gland, the tissue in which this gene is amplified. Different amounts of BhB10-1 mRNA were detected in other larval tissues such as gut, Malpighian tubules, fat body, brain and cuticle, suggesting that this gene is expressed differentially in the various tissues analyzed. Analysis of transgenic Drosophila carrying the BhB10-1 transcription unit and flanking sequences revealed that the tested fragment promotes transcription in a constitutive manner. We suggest that either cis-regulatory elements are missing in the transgene or factors that temporally regulate the BhB10-1 gene in B. hygida are not conserved in Drosophila.

  6. 5-Bromo-2’-deoxyuridine induces visible morphological alteration in the DNA puffs of the anterior salivary gland region of Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.C., de Almeida; H., Sauaia; J.C., Viana.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available 5-Bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdUrd) has long been known to interfere with cell differentiation. We found that treatment ofBradysia hygida larvae with BrdUrd during DNA puff anlage formation in the polytene chromosomes of the salivary gland S1 region noticeably affects anlage morphology. However, it doe [...] s not affect subsequent metamorphosis to the adult stage. The chromatin of the chromosomal sites that would normally form DNA puffs remains very compact and DNA puff expansion does not occur with administration of 4 to 8 mM BrdUrd. Injection of BrdUrd at different ages provoked a gradient of compaction of the DNA puff chromatin, leading to the formation of very small to almost normal puffs. By immunodetection, we show that the analogue is preferentially incorporated into the DNA puff anlages. When BrdUrd is injected in a mixture with thymidine, it is not incorporated into the DNA, and normal DNA puffs form. Therefore, incorporation of this analogue into the amplified DNA seems to be the cause of this extreme compaction. Autoradiographic experiments and silver grains counting showed that this treatment decreases the efficiency of RNA synthesis at DNA puff anlages.

  7. Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae presents two eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A gene homologues: partial characterization of the eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A-F1 gene

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    J.A. Candido-Silva

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Elongation factor 1A is a highly conserved protein that participates in translation. We report the occurrence of two genes homologous to the eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A in Bradysia hygida and describe the partial cloning and characterization of the B. hygida eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A-F1 (BheEF1A-F1 gene. The pattern of BheEF1A-F1 expression in the salivary gland at the end of the fourth larval instar was investigated using real-time PCR. The results showed that BheEF1A-F1 expression levels are relatively constant at the time when rapid changes in protein synthesis occur in this tissue. In situ hybridization experiments coupled to Southern blot analyses showed that the BheEF1A-F1 gene is located at position 3d of the A chromosome and a second gene homologous to eEF1A is located at position 6a of the X chromosome. Southern blot analyses showed that both the BheEF1A-F1 gene and the second gene homologous to eEF1A constitute non-amplified genes. The present results contribute to the molecular characterization of a sciarid eEF1A gene.

  8. Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae) presents two eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A gene homologues: partial characterization of the eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A-F1 gene

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.A., Candido-Silva; N., Monesi.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Elongation factor 1A is a highly conserved protein that participates in translation. We report the occurrence of two genes homologous to the eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A in Bradysia hygida and describe the partial cloning and characterization of the B. hygida eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A-F1 (B [...] heEF1A-F1) gene. The pattern of BheEF1A-F1 expression in the salivary gland at the end of the fourth larval instar was investigated using real-time PCR. The results showed that BheEF1A-F1 expression levels are relatively constant at the time when rapid changes in protein synthesis occur in this tissue. In situ hybridization experiments coupled to Southern blot analyses showed that the BheEF1A-F1 gene is located at position 3d of the A chromosome and a second gene homologous to eEF1A is located at position 6a of the X chromosome. Southern blot analyses showed that both the BheEF1A-F1 gene and the second gene homologous to eEF1A constitute non-amplified genes. The present results contribute to the molecular characterization of a sciarid eEF1A gene.

  9. Identificación y caracterización de la mosca negra Bradysia difformis (Diptera: Sciaridae) en el cultivo de nochebuena (Euphorbia pulcherrima) en el centro de México / Identification and characterization of the black fly, Bradysia difformis (Diptera: Sciaridae) on "poinsettia" crops (Euphorbia pulcherrima) of central Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Evert, VILLANUEVA-SÁNCHEZ; Sergio, IBÁÑEZ-BERNAL; J. Refugio, LOMELÍ-FLORES; Jorge, VALDEZ-CARRASCO.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar y caracterizar los estados de desarrollo de la especie de mosca negra más abundante asociada al cultivo de nochebuena Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, ex Klotzsch en la zona productora del centro del país. La recolección de material entomológico se realiz [...] ó en invernaderos de las localidades de Atlacomulco (México), Tenango de las Flores (Puebla), Xochimilco (Distrito Federal) y Zacatepec y Tetela del Monte (Morelos). Se obtuvieron 2,141 especímenes adultos de Diptera, siendo la especie más abundante (99.5%) Bradysia difformis Frey (Diptera: Sciaridae). El ciclo de vida de esta especie se completó entre 26-28 días bajo condiciones controladas de temperatura y humedad (25°C y 70% HR). La diferenciación de los estadíos larvales fue realizada mediante la morfometría de la cápsula cefálica para los estadíos I vs II, cuyas probabilidades de error fueron muy bajas (1:10,000); en cambio, la diferenciación entre los estadíos II vs III, y III vs IV resultó con una probabilidad de error alta, entre 17:100 y 36:100 individuos, respectivamente. Por esta razón se recomienda explorar otras características que en adición a la medida de anchura de sus cápsulas cefálicas permitan discriminar los diferentes estadíos de desarrollo. Este es el primer registro de B. difformis en México, aun cuando ya se había reportado este género afectando las plantas de nochebuena. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the developmental stages of the most abundant black fly species associated with poinsettia crops (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch) in the producing area of Central Mexico. Collecting samples were conducted in greenhouses of the location [...] s of Atlacomulco (Mexico), Tenango de las Flores (Puebla), Xochimilco (Mexico City), and Zacatepec and Tetela del Monte (Morelos). A total of 2,141 adult specimens of Diptera were obtained, being Bradysia difformis Frey (Diptera: Sciaridae) the most abundant species (99.5%). Life cycle of this species was completed between 26-28 days under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity (25°C and 70% RH). The differentiation of larval instars by morphometrics of the head capsule between instars I vs II, showed very low error probabilities (1:10,000); while differentiation between instars II vs III, and III vs IV resulted with higher error probabilities, between 17:100 and 36:100 individuals, respectively. For this reason it is recommended to explore other features in addition to measurements of width of the cephalic capsules for discriminating different larval stages. This is the first record of B. difformis for Mexico, although this genus was previously reported affecting poinsettia crops.

  10. Smaller than a gnat

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "CERN in Geneva is the largest research center for particle physics in the world; the Institute is a Mecca for scientists. Particle are projected into each other in gigantic ring accelerators to gain information from their reactions about the force and relations inside the elements. These experiments require high vacuum - Oerlikon Leybold Vacuum recently competed in a Eyropean call for bids for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and won the contract." (1,5 page)

  11. Three-dimensional structure of a Streptomyces sviceus GNAT acetyltransferase with similarity to the C-terminal domain of the human GH84 O-GlcNAcase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yuan [Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); The University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Roth, Christian; Turkenburg, Johan P.; Davies, Gideon J., E-mail: gideon.davies@york.ac.uk [The University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China)

    2014-01-01

    The crystal structure of a bacterial acetyltransferase with 27% sequence identity to the C-terminal domain of human O-GlcNAcase has been solved at 1.5 Å resolution. This S. sviceus protein is compared with known GCN5-related acetyltransferases, adding to the diversity observed in this superfamily. The mammalian O-GlcNAc hydrolysing enzyme O-GlcNAcase (OGA) is a multi-domain protein with glycoside hydrolase activity in the N-terminus and with a C-terminal domain that has low sequence similarity to known acetyltransferases, prompting speculation, albeit controversial, that the C-terminal domain may function as a histone acetyltransferase (HAT). There are currently scarce data available regarding the structure and function of this C-terminal region. Here, a bacterial homologue of the human OGA C-terminal domain, an acetyltransferase protein (accession No. ZP-05014886) from Streptomyces sviceus (SsAT), was cloned and its crystal structure was solved to high resolution. The structure reveals a conserved protein core that has considerable structural homology to the acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) binding site of GCN5-related acetyltransferases (GNATs). Calorimetric data further confirm that SsAT is indeed able to bind AcCoA in solution with micromolar affinity. Detailed structural analysis provided insight into the binding of AcCoA. An acceptor-binding cavity was identified, indicating that the physiological substrate of SsAT may be a small molecule. Consistent with recently published work, the SsAT structure further questions a HAT function for the human OGA domain.

  12. Microsatellite Primers for Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen Fredsted, Palle; Gertsch, Pia J.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan (Koos)

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now avai...

  13. Microsatellite primers for fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Gertsch, P J; Boomsma, JJ

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now avai...

  14. Identificación y caracterización de la mosca negra Bradysia difformis (Diptera: Sciaridae en el cultivo de nochebuena (Euphorbia pulcherrima en el centro de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evert VILLANUEVA-SÁNCHEZ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar y caracterizar los estados de desarrollo de la especie de mosca negra más abundante asociada al cultivo de nochebuena Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, ex Klotzsch en la zona productora del centro del país. La recolección de material entomológico se realizó en invernaderos de las localidades de Atlacomulco (México, Tenango de las Flores (Puebla, Xochimilco (Distrito Federal y Zacatepec y Tetela del Monte (Morelos. Se obtuvieron 2,141 especímenes adultos de Diptera, siendo la especie más abundante (99.5% Bradysia difformis Frey (Diptera: Sciaridae. El ciclo de vida de esta especie se completó entre 26-28 días bajo condiciones controladas de temperatura y humedad (25°C y 70% HR. La diferenciación de los estadíos larvales fue realizada mediante la morfometría de la cápsula cefálica para los estadíos I vs II, cuyas probabilidades de error fueron muy bajas (1:10,000; en cambio, la diferenciación entre los estadíos II vs III, y III vs IV resultó con una probabilidad de error alta, entre 17:100 y 36:100 individuos, respectivamente. Por esta razón se recomienda explorar otras características que en adición a la medida de anchura de sus cápsulas cefálicas permitan discriminar los diferentes estadíos de desarrollo. Este es el primer registro de B. difformis en México, aun cuando ya se había reportado este género afectando las plantas de nochebuena.

  15. Fungus-insect gall of Phlebopus portentosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Xia; He, Ming-Xia; Cao, Yang; Liu, Jing; Gao, Feng; Wang, Wen-Bing; Ji, Kai-Ping; Shao, Shi-Cheng; Wang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Phlebopus portentosus is a popular edible wild mushroom found in the tropical Yunnan, China, and northern Thailand. In its natural habitats, a gall often has been found on some plant roots, around which fungal fruiting bodies are produced. The galls are different from common insect galls in that their cavity walls are not made from plant tissue but rather from the hyphae of P. portentosus. Therefore we have termed this phenomenon "fungus-insect gall". Thus far six root mealy bug species in the family Pseudococcidae that form fungus-insect galls with P. portentosus have been identified: Formicococcus polysperes, Geococcus satellitum, Planococcus minor, Pseudococcus cryptus, Paraputo banzigeri and Rastrococcus invadens. Fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of more than 21 plant species, including Delonix regia, Citrus maxima, Coffea arabica and Artocarpus heterophyllus. Greenhouse inoculation trials showed that fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of A. heterophyllus 1 mo after inoculation. The galls were subglobose to globose, fulvous when young and became dark brown at maturation. Each gall harbored one or more mealy bugs and had a chimney-like vent for ventilation and access to the gall. The cavity wall had three layers. Various shaped mealy bug wax deposits were found inside the wall. Fungal hyphae invaded the epidermis of plant roots and sometimes even the cortical cells during the late stage of gall development. The identity of the fungus inside the cavity was confirmed by molecular methods. PMID:25344264

  16. Enraizamento de estacas de três espécies silvestres de Passiflora Cutting rooting of three wild Passiflora species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fideles Braga

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Em ambiente com nebulização controlada, estacas herbáceas com um par de folhas, contendo 2 ou 3 nós, foram testadas quanto ao enraizamento, utilizando-se de bandeja de poliestireno com célula de 95cm³ e saco plástico de 15x25x0,02cm com 1.730 cm³. Foram testadas estacas de Passiflora actinia, P. serrato-digitata e P. setacea. Observou-se que P. serrato-digitata apresentou 94,3% de estacas enraizadas com brotos e 2,4% de mortalidade; enquanto P. actinia e P. setacea apresentaram, respetivamente, 30,5% e 28,6% de estacas enraizadas com brotos e 56,8% e 60,7% de mortalidade. A alta mortalidade das estacas foi atribuída ao estado fenológico das matrizes de P. actinia e P. setacea e ao ataque de larvas de bradisia (Bradysia spp. Estacas com dois e três nós não apresentaram diferenças significativas, e o recipiente saco plástico de 1.730 cm³ proporcionou melhor desenvolvimento das mudas.Steam cuttings of three wild Passiflora species where tested for rooting in a mist regulated greenhouse. Cuttings with two or three buds were used with two kinds of containers: polystyrene trays with 95 cm³ cells and perforated plastic bags of 15x25x0.02cm, with 1,730 cm³. Passiflora serrato-digitata was the best, with 94.3% of rooted cuttings with shoots e only 2.4% of death cuttings. P. actinia and P. setacea showed , respectivelly, 30.5% and 28.6% of rooted cuttings and 56.8% and 60.7%, of death cuttings. The high death were attribute to phenological phases of P. actinia and P. setacea or injury caused by fungus-gnat larvae (Bradysia spp.. Cuttings with two or three buds didn't show differences among them. Plastic bags proporcioned the best results, increasing rooted cuttings and plant development.

  17. Nuclear flow in a filamentous fungus

    CERN Document Server

    Hickey, Patrick C; Read, Nick; Glass, N Louise; Roper, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The syncytial cells of a filamentous fungus consist of a mass of growing, tube-like hyphae. Each extending tip is fed by a continuous flow of nuclei from the colony interior, pushed by a gradient in turgor pressure. The myco-fluidic flows of nuclei are complex and multidirectional, like traffic in a city. We map out the flows in a strain of the model filamentous fungus {\\it N. crassa} that has been transformed so that nuclei express either hH1-dsRed (a red fluorescent nuclear protein) or hH1-GFP (a green-fluorescent protein) and report our results in a fluid dynamics video.

  18. Dentigerumycin: a bacterial mediator of an ant-fungus symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oh, Dong-Chan; Poulsen, Michael; Currie, Cameron R; Clardy, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Fungus-growing ants engage in mutualistic associations with both the fungus they cultivate for food and actinobacteria (Pseudonocardia spp.) that produce selective antibiotics to defend that fungus from specialized fungal parasites. We have analyzed one such system at the molecular level and found...

  19. Death from Fungus in the Soil

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-12-17

    Dr. Shira Shafir, Assistant Professor of Epidemiology at the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, discusses her study about fungus found in soil.  Created: 12/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/18/2012.

  20. Spread of Rare Fungus from Vancouver Island

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-12-20

    Cryptococcus gattii, a rare fungus normally found in the tropics, has infected people and animals on Vancouver Island, Canada. Dr. David Warnock, Director, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases, CDC, discusses public health concerns about further spread of this organism.  Created: 12/20/2006 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 12/29/2006.

  1. STEROIDS FROM THE MARINE FUNGUS GEOTRICHUM SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AURELIO SAN-MARTÍN

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Ergosterol 1, peroxyergosterol 2, ergosta-4,6,8(14, 22-tetraen-3-one 3 and 24-ethyl-cholesta-4-ene-3-one 4 were isolated from the cultures of a fungus Geotrichum sp. obtained from a marine sediment. It was established that no other sterols were present in the extract. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods

  2. Ant-fungus species combinations engineer physiological activity of fungus gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, J N; Schiøtt, M; Mueller, U G

    2014-07-15

    Fungus-gardening insects are among the most complex organisms because of their extensive co-evolutionary histories with obligate fungal symbionts and other microbes. Some fungus-gardening insect lineages share fungal symbionts with other members of their lineage and thus exhibit diffuse co-evolutionary relationships, while others exhibit little or no symbiont sharing, resulting in host-fungus fidelity. The mechanisms that maintain this symbiont fidelity are currently unknown. Prior work suggested that derived leaf-cutting ants in the genus Atta interact synergistically with leaf-cutter fungi (Attamyces) by exhibiting higher fungal growth rates and enzymatic activities than when growing a fungus from the sister-clade to Attamyces (so-called 'Trachymyces'), grown primarily by the non-leaf cutting Trachymyrmex ants that form, correspondingly, the sister-clade to leaf-cutting ants. To elucidate the enzymatic bases of host-fungus specialization in leaf-cutting ants, we conducted a reciprocal fungus-switch experiment between the ant Atta texana and the ant Trachymyrmex arizonensis and report measured enzymatic activities of switched and sham-switched fungus gardens to digest starch, pectin, xylan, cellulose and casein. Gardens exhibited higher amylase and pectinase activities when A. texana ants cultivated Attamyces compared with Trachymyces fungi, consistent with enzymatic specialization. In contrast, gardens showed comparable amylase and pectinase activities when T. arizonensis cultivated either fungal species. Although gardens of leaf-cutting ants are not known to be significant metabolizers of cellulose, T. arizonensis were able to maintain gardens with significant cellulase activity when growing either fungal species. In contrast to carbohydrate metabolism, protease activity was significantly higher in Attamyces than in Trachymyces, regardless of the ant host. Activity of some enzymes employed by this symbiosis therefore arises from complex interactions between the ant host and the fungal symbiont. PMID:24803469

  3. Renal fungus ball in a preterm infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Çivilibal

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Candidiasis is an increasingly common problem which can cause severe morbidity in neonatal intensive care units. A premature neonate with renal fungus ball is presented. The patient was hospitalized for 45 days in the neonatal intensive care unit and 15 days in the department of neurosurgery. Later, a hyperechogenic focus located within the left renal pelvis was revealed on ultrasonograhy and Candida albicans was identified in the urine culture. He was (discharged ofter success fully treated with fluconasole. In this case report, it is emphasized that renal fungus ball can also develop without candidemia in preterm infants and ultrasonography is a significantly important method for early diagnosis and follow-up. (Turk Arch Ped 2008; 43: 29-31

  4. SYSTEMIC INFECTION AND RELATED FUNGUS: AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Saha Rajsekhar; Mishra Aditya Kumar

    2011-01-01

    A fungus is a member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds (British English: moulds), as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which are separate from plants, animals, and bacteria. One major difference is that fungal cells have cell walls that contain chitin, unlike the cell walls of plants, which contain cellulose. Many fungi play a crucial role in decomposition (breaking things down)...

  5. Allergens of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana

    OpenAIRE

    Keyhani Nemat O; Huang Shih-Wen; Westwood Greg S

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Beauveria bassiana is an important entomopathogenic fungus currently under development as a bio-control agent for a variety of insect pests. Although reported to be non-toxic to vertebrates, the potential allergenicity of Beauveria species has not been widely studied. Methods IgE-reactivity studies were performed using sera from patients displaying mould hypersensitivity by immunoblot and immunoblot inhibition. Skin reactivity to B. bassiana extracts was measured using int...

  6. The agricultural pathology of ant fungus gardens

    OpenAIRE

    Currie, Cameron R.; Mueller, Ulrich G.; Malloch, David

    1999-01-01

    Gardens of fungus-growing ants (Formicidae: Attini) traditionally have been thought to be free of microbial parasites, with the fungal mutualist maintained in nearly pure “monocultures.” We conducted extensive isolations of “alien” (nonmutualistic) fungi from ant gardens of a phylogenetically representative collection of attine ants. Contrary to the long-standing assumption that gardens are maintained free of microbial pathogens and parasites, they are in fact host to specialized parasites th...

  7. Dentigerumycin: a bacterial mediator of an ant-fungus symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oh, Dong-Chan; Poulsen, Michael; Currie, Cameron R; Clardy, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Fungus-growing ants engage in mutualistic associations with both the fungus they cultivate for food and actinobacteria (Pseudonocardia spp.) that produce selective antibiotics to defend that fungus from specialized fungal parasites. We have analyzed one such system at the molecular level and found that the bacterium associated with the ant Apterostigma dentigerum produces dentigerumycin, a cyclic depsipeptide with highly modified amino acids, to selectively inhibit the associated parasitic fungu...

  8. Comparative studies of the secretome of fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Tore; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Schiøtt, Morten; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Lange, Lene

    Leafcutter ants of the species Acromyrmex echinatior live in symbiosis with the fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. The ants harvest fragments of leaves and carry them to the nest where they place the material on the fungal colony. The fungus secretes a wide array of proteins to degrade the leaves...

  9. Metacridamides A and B from the biocontrol fungus metarhizium acridum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metarhizium acridum, an entomopathogenic fungus, has been commercialized and used successfully for biocontrol of grasshopper pests in Africa and Australia. As part of an effort to catalog the secondary metabolites of this fungus we discovered that its conidia produce two novel 17-membered macrocycl...

  10. Ribonucleic acids in different tea fungus beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In human nutrition, nucleic acids have to be balanced and limited up to 2 g/day because purines are degraded to urate, and excessive production of urate is a cause of gout which primarily affects adult males. Tea fungus beverage is a well known drink with high nutritional value and certain curative effects. Its benefits have been proved in a number of studies but it is still necessary to examine some potential harmful effects of this beverage. The aim of this paper was to investigate content of ribonucleic acids (RNA produced during tea fungus fermentation on a usual substrate sweetened black tea, and on Jerusalem artichoke tubers (J.A.T extract using method by Munro and Fleck (1966. pH, ribonucleic acids and also the production of proteins that affect purity of nucleic acids preparations were monitored. A higher value of RNA has been noticed in J.A.T. beverage (0.57 mg/ml and with observation of usual daily dose of the beverage it is completely safe and useful one.

  11. Medical image of the week: fungus ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosen S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 69 year-old Asian woman living in Arizona with a past medical history of nephrotic syndrome on high-dose steroids had worsening pulmonary symptoms. A computed tomography (CT of the chest (Figure 1 showed a 4.7 cm thin walled cavitary lesion in the right middle lobe compatible with mycetoma. She underwent thoracotomy for mycetoma resection. Surgical pathology confirmed an epithelial-lined cavity containing dense mycelia (Figure 2. Given the patient lived in an endemic area; the cavity was thought to be likely due to coccidioidomycosis. However, the mycetoma was of unclear etiology. No spherules were noted on GMS stain and tissue culture was negative. While of unclear clinical significance which fungus colonizes a pre-existing cavity, a Coccidioides PCR was performed and no Coccidioides genes were amplified making a Coccidioides mycetoma very unlikely. Pulmonary mycetoma or “fungus ball” consists of dense fungal elements and amorphous cellular material within a pre-existing pulmonary cavity. Classically ...

  12. Chemical composition of metapleural gland secretions of fungus-growing and non-fungus-growing ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexsandro S; Morgan, E David; Drijfhout, Falko P; Camargo-Mathias, Maria I

    2012-10-01

    The metapleural gland is exclusive to ants, and unusual among exocrine glands in having no mechanism for closure and retention of secretion. As yet, no clear conclusion has been reached as to the function of metapleural gland secretion. Metapleural gland secretions were investigated for fungus-growing ants representing the derived attines Trachymyrmex fuscus, Atta laevigata, and Acromyrmex coronatus, the basal attines Apterostigma pilosum and Mycetarotes parallelus, and non-fungus-growing ants of the tribes Ectatommini (Ectatomma brunneum) and Myrmicini (Pogonomyrmex naegeli). Our results showed that the secretions of leaf-cutting ants (A. laevigata and A. coronatus) and the derived attine, T. fuscus, contain a greater variety and larger quantities of volatile compounds than those of myrmicine and ectatommine ants. The most abundant compounds found in the metapleural glands of A. laevigata and A. coronatus were hydroxyacids, and phenylacetic acid (only in A. laevigata). Indole was present in all groups examined, while skatole was found in large quantities only in attines. Ketones and aldehydes are present in the secretion of some attines. Esters are present in the metapleural gland secretion of all species examined, although mainly in A. laevigata, A. coronatus, and T. fuscus. Compared with basal attines and non-fungus-growing ants, the metapleural glands of leaf-cutting ants produce more acidic compounds that may have an antibiotic or antifungal function. PMID:22983660

  13. SYSTEMIC INFECTION AND RELATED FUNGUS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saha Rajsekhar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A fungus is a member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds (British English: moulds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which are separate from plants, animals, and bacteria. One major difference is that fungal cells have cell walls that contain chitin, unlike the cell walls of plants, which contain cellulose. Many fungi play a crucial role in decomposition (breaking things down and returning nutrients to the soil. They are also used in medicine, an example is the antibiotic penicillin, as well as in industry and food preparation. In the present time the microbes are to be seen as disease causing organisms harming the mankind. The harm done by this community cannot be taken lightly as they are also useful in many ways. The above article is an effort to bring out the various fungal issued related to human.

  14. Bioactive Triterpenes from the Fungus Piptoporus betulinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyad Alresly

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the fruiting bodies from the basidiomycete Piptoporus betulinus led to the isolation of a new bioactive lanostane triterpene identified as 3 b -acetoxy-16-hydroxy-24-oxo-5α-lanosta-8- ene-21-oic acid (1. In addition, ten known triterpenes, polyporenic acid A (5, polyporenic acid C (4, three derivatives of polyporenic acid A (8, 10, 11, betulinic acid (3, betulin (2, ergosterol peroxide (6, 9,11-dehydroergosterol peroxide (7, and fomefficinic acid (9, were also isolated from the fungus. All isolated compounds were tested for antimicrobial activity against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as against a fungal strain. The new triterpene and some of the other compounds showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria.

  15. Fungal Garden Making inside Bamboos by a Non-Social Fungus-Growing Beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Toki, Wataru; Takahashi, Yukiko; Togashi, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    In fungus-growing mutualism, it is indispensable for host animals to establish gardens of the symbiotic fungus as rapidly as possible. How to establish fungal gardens has been well-documented in social fungus-farming insects, whereas poorly documented in non-social fungus-farming insects. Here we report that the non-social, fungus-growing lizard beetle Doubledaya bucculenta (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Languriinae) transmits the symbiotic yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus from the ovipositor-associa...

  16. An insect parasitoid carrying an ochratoxin producing fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Fernando E.; Posada, Francisco; Gianfagna, Thomas J.; Chaves, Fabio C.; Peterson, Stephen W.

    2006-06-01

    The insect parasitoid Prorops nasuta has been introduced from Africa to many coffee-producing countries in an attempt to control the coffee berry borer. In this paper, we report on the sequencing of the ITS LSU-rDNA and beta-tubulin loci used to identify a fungus isolated from the cuticle of a P. nasuta that emerged from coffee berries infected with the coffee berry borer. The sequences were compared with deposits in GenBank and the fungus was identified as Aspergillus westerdijkiae. The fungus tested positive for ochratoxin A production, with varying levels depending on the media in which it was grown. These results raise the possibility that an insect parasitoid might be disseminating an ochratoxin-producing fungus in coffee plantations.

  17. Extracellular proteases of the rust fungus Uromyces viciae-fabae

    OpenAIRE

    Rauscher, Martina; Mendgen, Kurt; Deising, Holger

    1995-01-01

    On thigmo-inductive membranes the broad bean rust fungus Uromyces viciae-fabae differentiates complex infection structures including haustorial mother cells. Using this in vitro system, formation of extracellular proteases of the obligately biotrophic fungus was studied during infection structure differentiation. Enzyme activities occur when appressoria are formed, and extracellular washing fluids of substomatal vesicles, infection hyphae, and haustorial mother cells show complex protease pat...

  18. Efficiency of Actinomycetes Against Phytopathogenic Fungus of Chilli Anthracnose

    OpenAIRE

    K. Sinma; K. Khucharoenphaisan; C. Lorrungruang

    2013-01-01

    Phytopathogenic fungus as Colletotricum gloeosporioides is a cause of disease on chilli and wide varieties of agricultural crops resulting in yield loss. The aim of this study was to screened actinomycetes according to its ability to produce various secondary metabolites with inhibition activity against chilli anthracnose. Firstly, actinomycetes from previously study were tested for antagonistic activity toward the fungus by the dual culture technique. Finally, extracellular antifungal metabo...

  19. Termite-egg mimicry by a sclerotium-forming fungus

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuura, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    Mimicry has evolved in a wide range of organisms and encompasses diverse tactics for defence, foraging, pollination and social parasitism. Here, I report an extraordinary case of egg mimicry by a fungus, whereby the fungus gains competitor-free habitat in termite nests. Brown fungal balls, called ‘termite balls’, are frequently found in egg piles of Reticulitermes termites. Phylogenetic analysis illustrated that termite-ball fungi isolated from different hosts (Reticulitermes speratus, Reticu...

  20. Contributions to the study of Pseudopeziza trifolii (Bernh. Fuck. fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga PALL

    1966-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper communicates the results of the laboratory experiments concerning the behaviour of the Pseudopeziza trifolii (Bernh. Fuck. fungus that produces the clover brown leaf spot, in different culture mediums. The mycelium of the fungus develops at its best on the peptone-glucose-agar medium. The appearance of pycnides of Sporonema phacidioides Desm. type in vitro, has been reported for the fourth time in Romania especially developing on the potatoe-dextrosis-agar and plum-agar mediums.

  1. Solubilization of diabase and phonolite dust by filamentous fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Andréia Vrba Brandão

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the fungus Aspergillus niger strain CCT4355 in the release of nutrients contained in two types of rock powder (diabase and phonolite by means of in vitro solubilization trials. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 5 x 4 factorial design with three replications. It was evaluated five treatments (phonolite dust + culture medium; phonolite dust + fungus + culture medium; diabase powder + culture medium; diabase powder + fungus + culture medium and fungus + culture medium and four sampling dates (0, 10, 20 and 30 days. Rock dust (0.4% w/v was added to 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50 mL of liquid culture medium adapted to A. niger. The flasks were incubated at 30°C for 30 days, and analysis of pH (in water, titratable acidity, and concentrations of soluble potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron and manganese were made. The fungus A. niger was able to produce organic acids that solubilized ions. This result indicates its potential to alter minerals contained in rock dust, with the ability to interact in different ways with the nutrients. A significant increase in the amount of K was found in the treatment with phonolite dust in the presence of the fungus. The strain CCT4355 of A. niger can solubilize minerals contained in these rocks dust.

  2. Candicidin-producing Streptomyces support leaf-cutting ants to protect their fungus garden against the pathogenic fungus Escovopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Haeder, Susanne; Wirth, Rainer; Herz, Hubert; Spiteller, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    Leaf-cutting ants such as Acromyrmex octospinosus live in obligate symbiosis with fungi of the genus Leucoagaricus, which they grow with harvested leaf material. The symbiotic fungi, in turn, serve as a major food source for the ants. This mutualistic relation is disturbed by the specialized pathogenic fungus Escovopsis sp., which can overcome Leucoagaricus sp. and thus destroy the ant colony. Microbial symbionts of leaf-cutting ants have been suggested to protect the fungus garden against Es...

  3. Malaria Mosquitoes Attracted by Fatal Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Justin; Jenkins, Nina E.; Blanford, Simon; Thomas, Matthew B.; Baker, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Insect-killing fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are being evaluated as possible active ingredients for use in novel biopesticides against mosquito vectors that transmit malaria. Fungal pathogens infect through contact and so applications of spores to surfaces such as walls, nets, or other resting sites provide possible routes to infect mosquitoes in and around domestic dwellings. However, some insects can detect and actively avoid fungal spores to reduce infection risk. If true for mosquitoes, such behavior could render the biopesticide approach ineffective. Here we find that the spores of B. bassiana are highly attractive to females of Anopheles stephensi, a major anopheline mosquito vector of human malaria in Asia. We further find that An. stephensi females are preferentially attracted to dead and dying caterpillars infected with B. bassiana, landing on them and subsequently becoming infected with the fungus. Females are also preferentially attracted to cloth sprayed with oil-formulated B. bassiana spores, with 95% of the attracted females becoming infected after a one-minute visit on the cloth. This is the first report of an insect being attracted to a lethal fungal pathogen. The exact mechanisms involved in this behavior remain unclear. Nonetheless, our results indicate that biopesticidal formulations comprising B. bassiana spores will be conducive to attraction and on-source visitation by malaria vectors. PMID:23658757

  4. Iron competition in fungus-plant interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Berges, Manuel S.; Turrà, David; Capilla, Javier; Schafferer, Lukas; Matthijs, Sandra; Jöchl, Christoph; Cornelis, Pierre; Guarro, Josep; Haas, Hubertus; Di Pietro, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Soilborne fungal pathogens are highly persistent and provoke important crop losses. During saprophytic and infectious stages in the soil, these organisms face situations of nutrient limitation and lack of essential elements, such as iron. We investigated the role of the bZIP transcription factor HapX as a central regulator of iron homeostasis and virulence in the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum. This root-infecting plant pathogen attacks more than hundred different crops and is an emerging human opportunistic invader. Although iron uptake remains unaffected in a strain lacking HapX, de-repression of genes implicated in iron-consuming processes such as respiration, amino acid metabolism, TCA cycle and heme biosynthesis lead to severely impaired growth under iron-limiting conditions. HapX is required for full virulence of F. oxysporum in tomato plants and essential for infection in immunodepressed mice. Virulence attenuation of the ?hapX strain on tomato plants is more pronounced by co-inoculation of roots with the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas putida KT2440, but not with a mutant deficient in siderophores production. These results demonstrate that HapX is required for iron competition of F. oxysporum in the tomato rhizosphere and establish a conserved role for HapX-mediated iron homeostasis in fungal infection of plants and mammals. PMID:23299422

  5. The first fossil fungus gardens of Isoptera: oldest evidence of symbiotic termite fungiculture (Miocene, Chad basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duringer, Philippe; Schuster, Mathieu; Genise, Jorge F.; Likius, Andossa; Mackaye, Hassan Taisso; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2006-12-01

    Higher termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae (fungus-growing termites) are known to build fungus gardens where a symbiotic fungus ( Termitomyces sp.) is cultivated. The fungus grows on a substrate called fungus comb, a structure built with the termites’ own faeces. Here we present the first fossil fungus combs ever found in the world. They were extracted from 7-million-year-old continental sandstone (Chad basin). Fossilized fungus combs have an ovoid morphology with a more or less flattened concave base and a characteristic general alveolar aspect. Under lens, they display a typical millimetre-scale pelletal structure. The latter, as well as the general shape and alveolar aspect, are similar to the morphology of fungus combs from extant fungus-growing termites.

  6. Isolated Polynucleotides and Methods of Promoting a Morphology in a Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasure, Linda L. (Fall City, WA) [Fall City, WA; Dai, Ziyu (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA

    2008-10-21

    The invention includes isolated polynucleotide molecules that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention includes a method of enhancing a bioprocess utilizing a fungus. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to a promoter. The polynucleotide sequence is expressed to promote a first morphology. The first morphology of the transformed fungus enhances a bioprocess relative to the bioprocess utilizing a second morphology.

  7. Allergens of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyhani Nemat O

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beauveria bassiana is an important entomopathogenic fungus currently under development as a bio-control agent for a variety of insect pests. Although reported to be non-toxic to vertebrates, the potential allergenicity of Beauveria species has not been widely studied. Methods IgE-reactivity studies were performed using sera from patients displaying mould hypersensitivity by immunoblot and immunoblot inhibition. Skin reactivity to B. bassiana extracts was measured using intradermal skin testing. Results Immunoblots of fungal extracts with pooled as well as individual sera showed a distribution of IgE reactive proteins present in B. bassiana crude extracts. Proteinase K digestion of extracts resulted in loss of IgE reactive epitopes, whereas EndoH and PNGaseF (glycosidase treatments resulted in minor changes in IgE reactive banding patterns as determined by Western blots. Immunoblot inhibitions experiments showed complete loss of IgE-binding using self protein, and partial inhibition using extracts from common allergenic fungi including; Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium herbarum, Candida albicans, Epicoccum purpurascens, and Penicillium notatum. Several proteins including a strongly reactive band with an approximate molecular mass of 35 kDa was uninhibited by any of the tested extracts, and may represent B. bassiana specific allergens. Intradermal skin testing confirmed the in vitro results, demonstrating allergenic reactions in a number of individuals, including those who have had occupational exposure to B. bassiana. Conclusions Beauveria bassiana possesses numerous IgE reactive proteins, some of which are cross-reactive among allergens from other fungi. A strongly reactive potential B. bassiana specific allergen (35 kDa was identified. Intradermal skin testing confirmed the allergenic potential of B. bassiana.

  8. Termite-egg mimicry by a sclerotium-forming fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Kenji

    2006-05-22

    Mimicry has evolved in a wide range of organisms and encompasses diverse tactics for defence, foraging, pollination and social parasitism. Here, I report an extraordinary case of egg mimicry by a fungus, whereby the fungus gains competitor-free habitat in termite nests. Brown fungal balls, called 'termite balls', are frequently found in egg piles of Reticulitermes termites. Phylogenetic analysis illustrated that termite-ball fungi isolated from different hosts (Reticulitermes speratus, Reticulitermes flavipes and Reticulitermes virginicus) were all very similar, with no significant molecular differences among host species or geographical locations. I found no significant effect of termite balls on egg survivorship. The termite-ball fungus rarely kills termite eggs in natural colonies. Even a termite species (Reticulitermes okinawanus) with no natural association with the fungus tended termite balls along with its eggs when it was experimentally provided with termite balls. Dummy-egg bioassays using glass beads showed that both morphological and chemical camouflage were necessary to induce tending by termites. Termites almost exclusively tended termite balls with diameters that exactly matched their egg size. Moreover, scanning electron microscopic observations revealed sophisticated mimicry of the smooth surface texture of eggs. These results provide clear evidence that this interaction is beneficial only for the fungus, i.e. termite balls parasitically mimic termite eggs. PMID:16720392

  9. Termite-egg mimicry by a sclerotium-forming fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    Mimicry has evolved in a wide range of organisms and encompasses diverse tactics for defence, foraging, pollination and social parasitism. Here, I report an extraordinary case of egg mimicry by a fungus, whereby the fungus gains competitor-free habitat in termite nests. Brown fungal balls, called ‘termite balls’, are frequently found in egg piles of Reticulitermes termites. Phylogenetic analysis illustrated that termite-ball fungi isolated from different hosts (Reticulitermes speratus, Reticulitermes flavipes and Reticulitermes virginicus) were all very similar, with no significant molecular differences among host species or geographical locations. I found no significant effect of termite balls on egg survivorship. The termite-ball fungus rarely kills termite eggs in natural colonies. Even a termite species (Reticulitermes okinawanus) with no natural association with the fungus tended termite balls along with its eggs when it was experimentally provided with termite balls. Dummy-egg bioassays using glass beads showed that both morphological and chemical camouflage were necessary to induce tending by termites. Termites almost exclusively tended termite balls with diameters that exactly matched their egg size. Moreover, scanning electron microscopic observations revealed sophisticated mimicry of the smooth surface texture of eggs. These results provide clear evidence that this interaction is beneficial only for the fungus, i.e. termite balls parasitically mimic termite eggs. PMID:16720392

  10. Septal deviation is associated with maxillary sinus fungus ball in male patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Hidetoshi; Nomura, Kazuhiro; Sugawara, Mitsuru; Arakawa, Kazuya; Oshima, Takeshi; Katori, Yukio

    2014-01-01

    Fungus is one of the causes of chronic rhinosinusitis. If the fungus occupies the sinus but does not invade the sinonasal mucosa, this is called sinus fungus ball. Any association between anatomical variations and fungus ball remains unclear. Sinus fungus ball is defined as non-invasive chronic fungal rhinosinusitis occurring in immunocompetent patients, and the maxillary sinus is the most commonly affected. The etiology of maxillary sinus fungus ball remains unclear. This study assessed the potential contribution of anatomical variations, such as deviated nasal septum, concha bullosa, and Haller cell to the development of fungus ball in the maxillary sinus. Concha bullosa and Haller cell are structural variations that narrow the nasal airflow passage and contribute to chronic rhinosinusitis. The involvement of these variations has been investigated in chronic sinusitis but not in sinus fungus ball. Preoperative computed tomography findings of 103 patients with maxillary sinus fungus ball were evaluated retrospectively. Septal deviation and Haller cell were not correlated with the side of maxillary sinus fungus ball. Concha bullosa was more common on the unaffected side (p = 0.099). When we analyzed males and females separately, maxillary sinus fungus ball was more common on the concave side of the deviated septum in only male patients (p = 0.006). The high incidence of maxillary fungus ball in the concave side may reflect the consequences of the traumatic effects caused by wall shear stress of the high-velocity airflow and the increased chance of inhaling fungus spores. PMID:24646922

  11. Isolation and identification of iron ore-solubilising fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damase Khasa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Potential mineral-solubilising fungi were successfully isolated from the surfaces of iron ore minerals. Four isolates were obtained and identified by molecular and phylogenetic methods as close relatives of three different genera, namely Penicillium (for isolate FO, Alternaria (for isolates SFC2 and KFC1 and Epicoccum (for isolate SFC2B. The use of tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO42in phosphate-solubilising experiments confirmed isolate FO as the only phosphate solubiliser among the isolated fungi. The bioleaching capabilities of both the fungus and its spent liquid medium were tested and compared using two types of iron ore materials, conglomerate and shale, from the Sishen Iron Ore Mine as sources of potassium (K and phosphorus (P. The spent liquid medium removed more K (a maximum of 32.94% removal, from conglomerate, than the fungus (a maximum of 21.36% removal, from shale. However, the fungus removed more P (a maximum of 58.33% removal, from conglomerate than the spent liquid medium (a maximum of 29.25% removal, from conglomerate. The results also indicated a potential relationship between the removal of K or P and the production of organic acids by the fungus. A high production of gluconic acid could be related to the ability of the fungus to reduce K and P. Acetic, citric and maleic acids were also produced by the fungus, but in lower quantities. In addition, particle size and iron ore type were also shown to have significant effects on the removal of potassium and phosphorus from the iron ore minerals. We therefore conclude that the spent liquid medium from the fungal isolate FO can potentially be used for biobeneficiation of iron ore minerals.

  12. Mutualistic fungi control crop diversity in fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Michael; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2005-01-01

    Leaf-cutting ants rear clonal fungi for food and transmit the fungi from mother to daughter colonies so that symbiont mixing and conflict, which result from competition between genetically different clones, are avoided. Here we show that despite millions of years of predominantly vertical......, which are used for manuring newly grown fungus, elicit similar hostile reactions when applied to symbionts from other colonies. Symbiont control over new mycelial growth by manurial imprinting prevents the rearing of multiple crops in fungus gardens belonging to the same colony....

  13. Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Fine Licht Henrik H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae, wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. Results We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-β-1,3(4-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Conclusion Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily accessible hemicellulose components of the ray-parenchyma cells in the wood xylem. Furthermore, the detection of xylanolytic enzymes exclusively in larvae (which feed on fungus colonized wood and not in adults (which feed only on fungi indicates that only larvae (pre- digest plant cell wall structures. This implies that in X. saxesenii and likely also in many other ambrosia beetles, adults and larvae do not compete for the same food within their nests - in contrast, larvae increase colony fitness by facilitating enzymatic wood degradation and fungus cultivation.

  14. Exploring the Potential for Actinobacteria as Defensive Symbionts in Fungus-Growing Termites

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, A.A.; Mesquita Nobre, T.; C. R. Currie; Aanen, D.K.; Poulsen, M

    2012-01-01

    In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play a role as defensive symbionts against Pseudoxylaria in fungus-growing termites. We sampled for Actinobacteria from 30 fungus-growing termite colonies, spanning the three main termite genera and two ...

  15. p-Terphenyls from fungus Paxillus curtisii chelate irons: a proposed role of p-terphenyls in fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In-Kyoung; Ki, Dae-Won; Kim, Seong-Eun; Lee, Myeong-Seok; Song, Ja-Gyeong; Yun, Bong-Sik

    2013-05-01

    Diverse p-terphenyl compounds, named curtisians, have been isolated from the fungus Paxillus curtisii, and degradation of wood by this fungus is thought to be progressed by iron chelation of p-terphenyl curtisians. In this study, the iron chelation ability of p-terphenyls has been proved by chrome azurol S (CAS) assay, reducing power, and UV-visible spectroscopic analyses. The catechol moiety of p-terphenyl is an essential factor for the potent iron chelation ability, and thus deacylated curtisian with a tetrahydroxyl moiety in the central ring of p-terphenyl is more effective than acylated curtisians. PMID:23648854

  16. Será fungo? / Is it a fungus?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diana, Tomaz.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Estima-se que as infecções fúngicas superficiais afectem 20 a 25% da população mundial e a sua incidência continua a aumentar. A maioria é causada por dermatófitos, que são fungos que necessitam de queratina para crescer. As alterações produzidas por estes fungos designam-se de dermatofitoses, epide [...] rmofitias ou tinhas. Em Medicina Geral e Familiar é habitual o clínico deparar-se com questões como: «Dr., apareceram-me umas manchas na pele, será um fungo?». Algumas vezes, particularmente em doentes com risco especial como os polimedicados, os diabéticos, os imunodeprimidos ou as crianças, torna-se difícil saber quando é adequado instituir terapêutica oral. O presente artigo tem como objectivo efectuar uma breve revisão das dermatofitoses, com especial enfoque na sua abordagem terapêutica. As tinhas classificam-se de acordo com a sua localização anatómica: tinea capitis no couro cabeludo, tinea pedis nos pés, tinea corporis no corpo, tinea cruris na região inguinal e tinea unguium nas unhas. Um exame clínico cuidado é o primeiro e mais importante passo no diagnóstico das epidermofitias. No entanto, este pode ser estabelecido através de um dos diversos exames: microscopia com hidróxido de potássio, cultura, lâmpada de Wood e biópsia. Na prática clínica, a recolha de amostras para microscopia e cultura é aconselhada quando há necessidade de terapêutica oral, a infecção parece refractária ao tratamento inicial ou o diagnóstico é incerto. Apesar do tratamento tópico ser suficiente, na maioria das dermatofitoses, a terapêutica oral é aconselhada nas tinhas do couro cabeludo, da barba e das unhas. Os antifúngicos tópicos do grupo das alilaminas possibilitam tratamentos mais curtos e taxas de cura maiores do que os antifúngicos do grupo dos azóis. A terbinafina, o itraconazol e o fluconazol são os fármacos mais utilizados para tratamento sistémico. Abstract in english Superficial mycoses are believed to affect 20% to 25% of the world’s population and its incidence continues to increase. They are mainly caused by dermatophytes, which are fungi that require keratin for their growth. Skin lesions produced by these fungi are named dermatomycosis, dermatophytosis, rin [...] gworm or tinea. In Family Medicine, the clinician often has to deal with questions such as: «Dr., some weird spots have appeared in my skin, is it a fungus?». Frequently it is difficult to decide whether it is appropriate to initiate systemic therapy, particularly in higher risk patients, such as the polimedicated, the immunodepressed, the diabetics and the children. This article intends to review dermatophyte infections, focusing especially on their therapeutic management. Tinea is generally classified according to its anatomic location: tinea capitis is located on the scalp, tinea pedis on the feet, tinea corporis on the body, tinea cruris on the groin, and tinea unguium on the nails. A thorough clinical examination is the primary and most important step to diagnose a dermatophyte infection. Yet, it can be established using potassium hydroxide microscopy, fungal culture, Wood’s lamp examination or histologic examination. Samples should be taken for microscopy and culture in severe or extensive skin fungal infections, when oral treatment is being considered, when skin infections are refractory to initial treatment, or when the diagnosis is uncertain. Although topical treatment is enough in the majority of dermatomycosis, oral antifungals are recommended when considering tinea capitis, tinea barbae and tinea unguium. Cure rates are higher and treatment courses are shorter with topical allylamines than with azoles. Terbinafine, itraconazole and fluconazole formulations are the most commonly used antifungals in systemic therapy.

  17. The development and endophytic nature of the fungus Heteroconium chaetospira.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiba, Teruyoshi; Narisawa, Kazuhiko

    2005-11-15

    The root endophytic fungus Heteroconium chaetospira was isolated from roots of Chinese cabbage grown in field soil in Japan. This fungus penetrates through the outer epidermal cells of its host, passes into the inner cortex, and grows throughout the cortical cells, including those of the root tip region, without causing apparent pathogenic symptoms. There are no ultrastructural signs of host resistance responses. H. chaetospira has been recovered from 19 plant species in which there was no disruption of host growth. H. chaetospira has a symbiotic association with Chinese cabbage. The fungus provides nitrogen in exchange for carbon. These associations are beneficial for the inoculated plants, as demonstrated by increased growth rate. When used as a preinoculum, H. chaetospira suppresses the incidence of clubroot and Verticillium yellows when the test plant is post-inoculated with the causal agents of these diseases. H. chaetospira is an effective biocontrol agent against clubroot in Chinese cabbage at a low to moderate soil moisture range and a pathogen resting spore density of 10(5) resting spores per gram of soil in situ. Disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. macricola and Alternaria brassicae on leaves can be suppressed by treatment with H. chaetospira. The fungus persists in the roots and induces systemic resistance to the foliar disease. PMID:16168582

  18. Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenova, Tatyana; Hughes, David Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Schiøtt, Morten

    2011-01-01

    classes. Remarkably, the single symbiont that is shared by species of the crown group of Atta and Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants mostly showed metalloproteinase activity, suggesting that recurrent changes in enzyme production may have occurred throughout the domestication history of fungus-garden symbionts...

  19. Fun Microbiology: How To Measure Growth of a Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James K.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experiment to demonstrate a simple method for measuring fungus growth by monitoring the effect of temperature on the growth of Trichoderma viride. Among the advantages that this experimental model provides is introducing students to the importance of using the computer as a scientific tool for analyzing and presenting data. (AIM)

  20. Efficiency of Actinomycetes Against Phytopathogenic Fungus of Chilli Anthracnose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sinma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytopathogenic fungus as Colletotricum gloeosporioides is a cause of disease on chilli and wide varieties of agricultural crops resulting in yield loss. The aim of this study was to screened actinomycetes according to its ability to produce various secondary metabolites with inhibition activity against chilli anthracnose. Firstly, actinomycetes from previously study were tested for antagonistic activity toward the fungus by the dual culture technique. Finally, extracellular antifungal metabolites produced by selected isolates were evaluated for antifungal potential toward the fungus with agar core technique. Eighty three strains of actinomycetes were screened for their antifungal as well as phytopathogenic activity. Among these, 26 isolates were shown the inhibition activities against Colletotricum gloeosporioides chi in which was isolated from infected chilli. The culture supernatants obtained from 21 actinomycetes strains were affective against the fungus. More interestingly, 7 isolates produced affective thermostable compound that having activity after treated with temperature of 121°C for 20 min. In total, the isolate R58 was most promising on the basis of its interesting antimicrobial activity and it could reduce anthracnose disease of chilli comparing to the absence of biocontrol agent. Based on morphological character, its 16S rDNA sequence and phylogenetic tree analysis, isolate R58 belong to the Streptomyces malaysiensis. These findings have increased the scope of agriculturally important actinomycetes.

  1. Fungus-Growing Termites Originated in African Rain Forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur Kornelis; Eggleton, Paul

    2005-01-01

    extant savanna species are found in most genera, this moreover suggests that the savanna has repeatedly been colonized by fungus-growing termites. Furthermore, at least four independent "out-of-Africa" migrations into Asia, and at least one independent migration to Madagascar, have occurred. Although...

  2. Biomedical exploitation of the fungus-growing ant symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Michael

    2010-01-01

    system involving such interactions, the multipartite fungus-growing ant symbiosis. This includes a review of the ancient symbiosis involving intricate interactions between at least six symbionts, a review of the efforts that have been made in examining host-symbiont and symbiont-symbiont interactions, as...

  3. A Brazilian social bee must cultivate fungus to survive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Cristiano; Vollet-Neto, Ayrton; Marsaioli, Anita Jocelyne; Zampieri, Davila; Fontoura, Isabela Cardoso; Luchessi, Augusto Ducati; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia

    2015-11-01

    The nests of social insects provide suitable microenvironments for many microorganisms as they offer stable environmental conditions and a rich source of food [1-4]. Microorganisms in turn may provide several benefits to their hosts, such as nutrients and protection against pathogens [1, 4-6]. Several examples of symbiosis between social insects and microorganisms have been found in ants and termites. These symbioses have driven the evolution of complex behaviors and nest structures associated with the culturing of the symbiotic microorganisms [5, 7, 8]. However, while much is known about these relationships in many species of ants and termites, symbiotic relationships between microorganisms and social bees have been poorly explored [3, 4, 9, 10]. Here, we report the first case of an obligatory relationship between the Brazilian stingless bee Scaptotrigona depilis and a fungus of the genus Monascus (Ascomycotina). Fungal mycelia growing on the provisioned food inside the brood cell are eaten by the larva. Larvae reared in vitro on sterilized larval food supplemented with fungal mycelia had a much higher survival rate (76%) compared to larvae reared under identical conditions but without fungal mycelia (8% survival). The fungus was found to originate from the material from which the brood cells are made. Since the bees recycle and transport this material between nests, fungus would be transferred to newly built cells and also to newly founded nests. This is the first report of a fungus cultivation mutualism in a social bee. PMID:26592344

  4. Antimetastasis effect of anthraquinones from marine fungus, Microsporum sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses about obtaining natural products which have anticancer metastasis activities from selected marine-derived fungus (Microsporum sp.) and investigates their biological activities such as cytotoxicity on viability cell lines, anticancer cell migration and invasion, protease inhibition, and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and -9). Moreover, the correlative mechanisms behind these activities were studied. PMID:22361203

  5. Notes on a plant parasite fungus in Portugal: Gymnosporangium cornutum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Maria C; Martins, Victor C

    2006-09-01

    A rust fungus identified as Gymnosporangium cornutum was found on Sorbus aucuparia in Serra da Estrela (Manteigas), and the disease was severe at that location. Despite the abundance and worldwide occurrence of the genus Gymnosporangium, studies in Portugal are still limited. PMID:17196029

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of the Fungus Trametes hirsuta 072

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyazhelova, Tatiana V.; Moiseenko, Konstantin V.; Vasina, Daria V.; Mosunova, Olga V.; Fedorova, Tatiana V.; Maloshenok, Lilya G.; Landesman, Elena O.; Bruskin, Sergei A.; Psurtseva, Nadezhda V.; Slesarev, Alexei I.; Kozyavkin, Sergei A.; Koroleva, Olga V.

    2015-01-01

    A standard draft genome sequence of the white rot saprotrophic fungus Trametes hirsuta 072 (Basidiomycota, Polyporales) is presented. The genome sequence contains about 33.6 Mb assembled in 141 scaffolds with a G+C content of ~57.6%. The draft genome annotation predicts 14,598 putative protein-coding open reading frames (ORFs). PMID:26586872

  7. Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes David P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attine ants live in symbiosis with a basidiomycetous fungus that they rear on a substrate of plant material. This indirect herbivory implies that the symbiosis is likely to be nitrogen deprived, so that specific mechanisms may have evolved to enhance protein availability. We therefore hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing eight genera. We mapped these activity profiles on an independently obtained molecular phylogeny of the symbionts and show that total proteinase activity in lower attine symbionts peaks at ca. pH 6. The higher attine symbionts that have no known free-living relatives had much higher proteinase activities than the lower attine symbionts. Their total in vitro proteinase activity peaked at pH values around 5, which is close to the pH that the ants maintain in their fungus gardens, suggesting that the pH optimum of fungal proteinases may have changed after the irreversible domestication of evolutionary more derived fungal symbionts. This notion is also supported by buffering capacities of fungus gardens at pH 5.2 being remarkably high, and suggests that the fungal symbiont actively helps to maintain garden acidity at this specific level. Metalloproteinases dominated the activity profiles of lower attine gardens and may thus represent the ancestral type of proteinase production, whereas serine proteinase activity dominated the activity profiles of the higher attine gardens reared by Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex, suggesting that there may be trade-offs in the production of these enzyme classes. Remarkably, the single symbiont that is shared by species of the crown group of Atta and Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants mostly showed metalloproteinase activity, suggesting that recurrent changes in enzyme production may have occurred throughout the domestication history of fungus-garden symbionts. Conclusions Proteinase pH optima and buffering capacities of fungal symbionts appear to have evolved remarkable adaptations to living in obligate symbiosis with farming ants. Although the functional roles of serine and metalloproteinases in fungus gardens are unknown, the differential production of these classes of proteolytic enzymes suggest that substrate specificity may be important and that trade-offs may prevent the simultaneous upregulation of both classes of enzymes.

  8. Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenova, Tatyana; Hughes, David Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background: Attine ants live in symbiosis with a basidiomycetous fungus that they rear on a substrate of plant material. This indirect herbivory implies that the symbiosis is likely to be nitrogen deprived, so that specific mechanisms may have evolved to enhance protein availability. We therefore hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results: We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing eight genera. We mapped these activity profiles on an independently obtained molecular phylogeny of the symbionts and show that total proteinase activity in lower attine symbionts peaks at ca. pH 6. The higher attine symbionts that have no known free-living relatives had much higher proteinase activities than the lower attine symbionts. Their total in vitro proteinase activity peaked at pH values around 5, which is close to the pH that the ants maintain in their fungus gardens, suggesting that the pH optimum of fungal proteinases may have changed after the irreversible domestication of evolutionary more derived fungal symbionts. This notion is also supported by buffering capacities of fungus gardens at pH 5.2 being remarkably high, and suggests that the fungal symbiont actively helps to maintain garden acidity at this specific level. Metalloproteinases dominated the activity profiles of lower attine gardens and may thus represent the ancestral type of proteinase production, whereas serine proteinase activity dominated the activity profiles of the higher attine gardens reared by Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex, suggesting that there may be trade-offs in the production of these enzyme classes. Remarkably, the single symbiont that is shared by species of the crown group of Atta and Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants mostly showed metalloproteinase activity, suggesting that recurrent changes in enzyme production may have occurred throughout the domestication history of fungus-garden symbionts. Conclusions: Proteinase pH optima and buffering capacities of fungal symbionts appear to have evolved remarkable adaptations to living in obligate symbiosis with farming ants. Although the functional roles of serine and metalloproteinases in fungus gardens are unknown, the differential production of these classes of proteolytic enzymes suggest that substrate specificity may be important and that trade-offs may prevent the simultaneous upregulation of both classes of enzymes.

  9. Insect symbioses: a case study of past, present, and future fungus-growing ant research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caldera, Eric J; Poulsen, Michael; Suen, Garret; Currie, Cameron R

    2009-01-01

    Fungus-growing ants (Attini: Formicidae) engage in an obligate mutualism with fungi they cultivate for food. Although biologists have been fascinated with fungus-growing ants since the resurgence of natural history in the modern era, the early stages of research focused mainly on the foraging......'s fungus garden, antibiotic-producing actinobacteria that help protect the fungus garden from the parasite, and a black yeast that parasitizes the ant-actinobacteria mutualism. The fungus-growing ant symbiosis serves as a particularly useful model system for studying insect-microbe symbioses, because, to...

  10. Candicidin-producing Streptomyces support leaf-cutting ants to protect their fungus garden against the pathogenic fungus Escovopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeder, Susanne; Wirth, Rainer; Herz, Hubert; Spiteller, Dieter

    2009-03-24

    Leaf-cutting ants such as Acromyrmex octospinosus live in obligate symbiosis with fungi of the genus Leucoagaricus, which they grow with harvested leaf material. The symbiotic fungi, in turn, serve as a major food source for the ants. This mutualistic relation is disturbed by the specialized pathogenic fungus Escovopsis sp., which can overcome Leucoagaricus sp. and thus destroy the ant colony. Microbial symbionts of leaf-cutting ants have been suggested to protect the fungus garden against Escovopsis by producing antifungal compounds [Currie CR, Scott JA, Summerbell RC, Malloch D (1999) Fungus-growing ants use antibiotic-producing bacteria to control garden parasites. Nature 398:701-704.]. To date, however, the chemical nature of these compounds has remained elusive. We characterized 19 leaf-cutting ant-associated microorganisms (5 Pseudonocardia, 1 Dermacoccus, and 13 Streptomyces) from 3 Acromyrmex species, A. octospinosus, A. echinatior, and A. volcanus, using 16S-rDNA analysis. Because the strain Streptomyces sp. Ao10 proved highly active against the pathogen Escovopsis, we identified the molecular basis of its antifungal activity. Using bioassay-guided fractionation, high-resolution electrospray mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS), and UV spectroscopy, and comparing the results with an authentic standard, we were able identify candicidin macrolides. Candicidin macrolides are highly active against Escovopsis but do not significantly affect the growth of the symbiotic fungus. At least one of the microbial isolates from each of the 3 leaf-cutting ant species analyzed produced candicidin macrolides. This suggests that candicidins play an important role in protecting the fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants against pathogenic fungi. PMID:19270078

  11. Biodegradation of Phenols by Ligninolytic Fungus Trametes versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Udayasoorian

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The white rot fungus isolated from paper mill effluent enriched soil samples and identified as Trametes versicolor was capable of degrading phenol (Mono, di hydroxy and methoxy compounds.14C synthetic lignin mineralization assays showed that Trametes versicolor assimilated 24.3% of the total label. During five days of incubation period, 71% of para-hydroxy benzoic acid was utilized by Trametes versicolor when glucose used as a co-substrate and 56% degradation of protocatechuic acid was achieved using fructose. The presence of laccase (EC.1.10.3.2 and polyphenol oxidase (EC.1.10.3.0 extracellular activity suggested that the fungus secrete these enzymes into the extracellular medium and the extracellular laccase activity was assayed on agarose plates containing ABTS.

  12. The Identity of a Pea Blight Fungus in South Africa *

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. T. van Warmelo

    1966-12-01

    Full Text Available The perfect stage of Ascochyta pinodes (Berk. & Blox. Jones, a cause of pea blight in Natal, was compared with type material of  Sphaeria pinodes Berk, and Blox.,  Mycosphaerella pinodes (Berk. & Blox. Stone, and  Didymella pinodes (Berk. & Blox. Petrak and the development o f its ascocarps studied. Two types of ascocarp were found on the material of  Didymella pinodes, one perithecial and the other ascolocular in structure. The ascocarp of the South African fungus was typically ascolocular in development and construction and similar to that of other species of Mycosphaerella. These ascocarps were identical to those of  Sphaeria pinodes and Mycosphaerella pinodes and the ascolocular ascocarps of the  DidymeUa pinodes material. In development and morphology this fungus agrees more closely with the original generic concepts of the genus Mycosphaerella Joh. than with  Didymella Sacc. and should thus be named Mycosphaerella pinodes (Berk. & Blox. Stone.

  13. Formulation of the endophytic fungus Cladosporium oxysporum Berk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bensaci Oussama Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two formulations containing culture filtrates and conidial suspensions of the endophytic fungus Cladosporium oxysporum Berk. & M.A. Curtis, isolated previously from stems of Euphorbia bupleuroides subsp. luteola (Kralik Maire, were experimentally tested for their aphicid activity against the black bean aphid Aphis fabae Scop. found in Algeria. It was shown that invert emulsions are more effective against aphids, than using aqueous suspensions. This was especially true for formulations containing culture filtrates. The relatively insignificant mortalities obtained by formulations containing conidial suspensions indicated a low infectious potential towards the aphids. The proteolytic activity seemed to be more important than the chitinolytic activity of the fungus against the black bean aphid A. fabae

  14. Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Fusarium semitectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of environmental friendly procedures for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles through biological processes is evolving into an important branch of nanobiotechnology. In this paper, we report on the use of fungus 'Fusarium semitectum' for the extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate solution (i.e. through the reduction of Ag+ to Ag0). Highly stable and crystalline silver nanoparticles are produced in solution by treating the filtrate of the fungus F. semitectum with the aqueous silver nitrate solution. The formations of nanoparticles are understood from the UV-vis and X-ray diffraction studies. Transmission electron microscopy of the silver particles indicated that they ranged in size from 10 to 60 nm and are mostly spherical in shape. Interestingly the colloidal suspensions of silver nanoparticles are stable for many weeks. Possible medicinal applications of these silver nanoparticles are envisaged

  15. EVOLUTIONARY TRANSITIONS IN ENZYME ACTIVITY OF ANT FUNGUS GARDENS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Schiøtt, Morten; Mueller, Ulrich G; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2010-01-01

    are targeted primarily towards partial degradation of plant cell walls, reflecting a plesiomorphic state of non-domesticated fungi. The enzyme profiles of the higher-attine and leaf-cutting gardens appear particularly suited to digest fresh plant materials and to access nutrients from live cells...... association with a monophyletic clade of specialized symbionts. In conjunction with the transition to specialized symbionts, the ants advanced in colony size and social complexity. Here we provide a comparative study of the functional specialization in extracellular enzyme activities in fungus gardens across...... the attine phylogeny. We show that, relative to sister clades, gardens of higher-attine ants have enhanced activity of protein-digesting enzymes, whereas gardens of leaf-cutting ants also have increased activity of starch-digesting enzymes. However, the enzyme activities of lower-attine fungus gardens...

  16. Biosorption of cadmium using the fungus Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Barros Júnior L.M.; Macedo G.R.; Duarte M.M.L.; Silva E.P.; Lobato A.K.C.L.

    2003-01-01

    Sorption experiments using the Aspergillus niger fungus for cadmium removal were carried out to study the factors influencing and optimizing the biosorption of this metal. The effects of pH, time, biomass concentration, and initial concentration of the heavy metal on the rate of metallic biosorption were examined. An experimental design was also used to determine the values of the under study variables that provided the greatest biosorption efficiency. A technique for biomass recovery was als...

  17. Biodegradation of Phenols by Ligninolytic Fungus Trametes versicolor

    OpenAIRE

    C. Udayasoorian; P.C. Prabu

    2005-01-01

    The white rot fungus isolated from paper mill effluent enriched soil samples and identified as Trametes versicolor was capable of degrading phenol (Mono, di hydroxy and methoxy) compounds.14C synthetic lignin mineralization assays showed that Trametes versicolor assimilated 24.3% of the total label. During five days of incubation period, 71% of para-hydroxy benzoic acid was utilized by Trametes versicolor when glucose used as a co-substrate and 56% degradation of protocatechuic acid was achie...

  18. Pathogenic Fungus Microsporum canis Activates the NLRP3 Inflammasome

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Liming; ZHANG, LIPING; Li, Hua; Chen, Wei; Wang, Hongbin; Wu, Shuxian; Guo, Caiqin; Lu, Ailing; Yang, Guiwen; An, Liguo; ABLIZ, PARIDE; Meng, Guangxun

    2014-01-01

    Microsporum canis is a pathogenic fungus with worldwide distribution that causes tinea capitis in animals and humans. M. canis also causes invasive infection in immunocompromised patients. To defy pathogenic fungal infection, the host innate immune system is the first line of defense. As an important arm of innate immunity, the inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes that control the activation of caspase-1, which cleaves proinflammatory cytokine pro-interleukin-1? (IL-1?) into...

  19. Biotransformation of Malachite Green by the Fungus Cunninghamella elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Chang-Jun; Doerge, Daniel R.; Carl E. Cerniglia

    2001-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Cunninghamella elegans ATCC 36112 metabolized the triphenylmethane dye malachite green with a first-order rate constant of 0.029 μmol h−1 (mg of cells)−1. Malachite green was enzymatically reduced to leucomalachite green and also converted to N-demethylated and N-oxidized metabolites, including primary and secondary arylamines. Inhibition studies suggested that the cytochrome P450 system mediated both the reduction and the N-demethylation reactions.

  20. Lactic acid production from xylose by the fungus Rhizopus oryzae

    OpenAIRE

    Maas, R.H.W.; Bakker, R.R.; Eggink, G.; Weusthuis, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is considered nowadays to be an economically attractive carbohydrate feedstock for large-scale fermentation of bulk chemicals such as lactic acid. The filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae is able to grow in mineral medium with glucose as sole carbon source and to produce optically pure l(+)-lactic acid. Less is known about the conversion by R. oryzae of pentose sugars such as xylose, which is abundantly present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. This paper describes the co...

  1. The yeast spectrum of the 'tea fungus Kombucha'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayser, P; Fromme, S; Leitzmann, C; Gründer, K

    1995-01-01

    The tea fungus 'Kombucha' is a symbiosis of Acetobacter, including Acetobacter xylinum as a characteristic species, and various yeasts. A characteristic yeast species or genus has not yet been identified. Kombucha is mainly cultivated in sugared black tea to produce a slightly acidulous effervescent beverage that is said to have several curative effects. In addition to sugar, the beverage contains small amounts of alcohol and various acids, including acetic acid, gluconic acid and lactic acid, as well as some antibiotic substances. To characterize the yeast spectrum with special consideration given to facultatively pathogenic yeasts, two commercially available specimens of tea fungus and 32 from private households in Germany were analysed by micromorphological and biochemical methods. Yeasts of the genera Brettanomyces, Zygosaccharomyces and Saccharomyces were identified in 56%, 29% and 26% respectively. The species Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Candida kefyr were only demonstrated in isolated cases. Furthermore, the tests revealed pellicle-forming yeasts such as Candida krusei or Issatchenkia orientalis/occidentalis as well as species of the apiculatus yeasts (Kloeckera, Hanseniaspora). Thus, the genus Brettanomyces may be a typical group of yeasts that are especially adapted to the environment of the tea fungus. However, to investigate further the beneficial effects of tea fungus, a spectrum of the other typical genera must be defined. Only three specimens showed definite contaminations. In one case, no yeasts could be isolated because of massive contamination with Penicillium spp. In the remaining two samples (from one household), Candida albicans was demonstrated. The low rate of contamination might be explained by protective mechanisms, such as formation of organic acids and antibiotic substances. Thus, subjects with a healthy metabolism do not need to be advised against cultivating Kombucha. However, those suffering from immunosuppression should preferably consume controlled commercial Kombucha beverages. PMID:8559192

  2. Fungus mediated synthesis of biomedically important cerium oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • First time biological synthesis of cerium oxide oxide nanoparticles using fungus Humicola sp. • Complete characterization of cerium oxide nanoparticles. • Biosynthesis of naturally protein capped, luminescent and water dispersible CeO2 nanoparticles. • Biosynthesized CeO2 nanoparticles can be used for many biomedical applications. - Abstract: Nanomaterials can be synthesized by chemical, physical and the more recently discovered biological routes. The biological routes are advantageous over the chemical and physical ones as unlike these, the biological synthesis protocols occur at ambient conditions, are cheap, non-toxic and eco-friendly. Although purely biological and bioinspired methods for the synthesis of nanomaterials are environmentally benign and energy conserving processes, their true potential has not been explored yet and attempts are being made to extend the formation of technologically important nanoparticles using microorganisms like fungi. Though there have been reports on the biosynthesis of oxide nanoparticles by our group in the past, no attempts have been made to employ fungi for the synthesis of nanoparticles of rare earth metals or lanthanides. Here we report for the first time, the bio-inspired synthesis of biomedically important cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles using the thermophilic fungus Humicola sp. The fungus Humicola sp. when exposed to aqueous solutions of oxide precursor cerium (III) nitrate hexahydrate (CeN3O9·6H2O) results in the extracellular formation of CeO2 nanoparticles containing Ce (III) and Ce (IV) mixed oxidation states, confirmed by X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS). The formed nanoparticles are naturally capped by proteins secreted by the fungus and thus do not agglomerate, are highly stable, water dispersible and are highly fluorescent as well. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS)

  3. EVOLUTIONARY TRANSITIONS IN ENZYME ACTIVITY OF ANT FUNGUS GARDENS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Schiøtt, Morten; Mueller, Ulrich G; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2010-01-01

    Fungus-growing (attine) ants and their fungal symbionts passed through several evolutionary transitions during their 50 million year old evolutionary history. The basal attine lineages often shifted between two main cultivar clades, whereas the derived higher-attine lineages maintained an association with a monophyletic clade of specialized symbionts. In conjunction with the transition to specialized symbionts, the ants advanced in colony size and social complexity. Here we provide a comparative...

  4. Fungus mediated synthesis of biomedically important cerium oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Shadab Ali; Ahmad, Absar, E-mail: a.ahmad@ncl.res.in

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • First time biological synthesis of cerium oxide oxide nanoparticles using fungus Humicola sp. • Complete characterization of cerium oxide nanoparticles. • Biosynthesis of naturally protein capped, luminescent and water dispersible CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles. • Biosynthesized CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles can be used for many biomedical applications. - Abstract: Nanomaterials can be synthesized by chemical, physical and the more recently discovered biological routes. The biological routes are advantageous over the chemical and physical ones as unlike these, the biological synthesis protocols occur at ambient conditions, are cheap, non-toxic and eco-friendly. Although purely biological and bioinspired methods for the synthesis of nanomaterials are environmentally benign and energy conserving processes, their true potential has not been explored yet and attempts are being made to extend the formation of technologically important nanoparticles using microorganisms like fungi. Though there have been reports on the biosynthesis of oxide nanoparticles by our group in the past, no attempts have been made to employ fungi for the synthesis of nanoparticles of rare earth metals or lanthanides. Here we report for the first time, the bio-inspired synthesis of biomedically important cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) nanoparticles using the thermophilic fungus Humicola sp. The fungus Humicola sp. when exposed to aqueous solutions of oxide precursor cerium (III) nitrate hexahydrate (CeN{sub 3}O{sub 9}·6H{sub 2}O) results in the extracellular formation of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles containing Ce (III) and Ce (IV) mixed oxidation states, confirmed by X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS). The formed nanoparticles are naturally capped by proteins secreted by the fungus and thus do not agglomerate, are highly stable, water dispersible and are highly fluorescent as well. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS)

  5. Transcriptional responses in Honey Bee larvae infected with chalkbrood fungus

    OpenAIRE

    Murray Keith D; Aronstein Katherine A; Saldivar Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Diseases and other stress factors working synergistically weaken honey bee health and may play a major role in the losses of bee populations in recent years. Among a large number of bee diseases, chalkbrood has been on the rise. We present here the experimental identification of honey bee genes that are differentially expressed in response to infection of honey bee larvae with the chalkbrood fungus, Ascosphaera apis. Results We used cDNA-AFLP ®Technology to profile transcr...

  6. Plant–plant interactions vary with different mycorrhizal fungus species

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeksema, Jason D

    2005-01-01

    Because different species of mycorrhizal fungi have different effects on the growth of particular plant species, variation in mycorrhizal fungus species composition could cause changes in the strength of plant–plant interactions. Results are presented from a growth chamber experiment that compared the strength of interactions among seedlings of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) when the pines were colonized by two different groups of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the genus Rhizopogon. Plant density...

  7. Genomic sequence of the aflatoxigenic filamentous fungus Aspergillus nomius

    OpenAIRE

    Geromy G. Moore; Mack, Brian M.; Beltz, Shannon B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Aspergillus nomius is an opportunistic pathogen and one of the three most important producers of aflatoxins in section Flavi. This fungus has been reported to contaminate agricultural commodities, but it has also been sampled in non-agricultural areas so the host range is not well known. Having a similar mycotoxin profile as A. parasiticus, isolates of A. nomius are capable of secreting B- and G- aflatoxins. Results In this study we discovered that the A. nomius type strain (NRRL 1...

  8. Chemically armed mercenary ants protect fungus-farming societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adams, Rachelle Martha Marie; Liberti, Joanito; Illum, Anders A.; Jones, Tappey H.; Nash, David Richard; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2013-01-01

    The ants are extraordinary in having evolved many lineages that exploit closely related ant societies as social parasites, but social parasitism by distantly related ants is rare. Here we document the interaction dynamics among a Sericomyrmex fungus-growing ant host, a permanently associated parasitic guest ant of the genus Megalomyrmex, and a raiding agro-predator of the genus Gnamptogenys. We show experimentally that the guest ants protect their host colonies against agro-predator raids using ...

  9. A New α -Pyrone Derivative from Endophytic Fungus Pestalotiopsis microspora

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaocong Li; Zhiyong Guo; Zhangshuang Deng; Jin Yang; Kun Zou

    2015-01-01

    A new α-pyrone derivative1, along with four known congeners 2, 3, 4 and 5, were isolated from the solid-substrate fermentation medium of the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis microspore isolated from the branch of Taxus chinensis. Their structures and relative configurations were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. The cytotoxic activities of the isolated α-pyrone derivatives against two tumor cell lines as well as compound 1 ’ s antimicrobial activity against three bacteria and th...

  10. Lasiodiplodins from mangrove endophytic fungus Lasiodiplodia sp. 318.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Xue, Yanyu; Yuan, Jie; Lu, Yongjun; Zhu, Xun; Lin, Yongcheng; Liu, Lan

    2016-04-01

    Four new lasiodiplodins (1-4), together with three known analogues, have been isolated from a mangrove endophytic fungus, Lasiodiplodia sp. 318#. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques. Cytotoxic activities of compounds 1-7 were evaluated in vitro against human cancer lines THP1, MDA-MB-435, A549, HepG2 and HCT-116. Compound 4 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activities. PMID:26222141

  11. Viruses of the white root rot fungus, Rosellinia necatrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hideki; Kanematsu, Satoko; Suzuki, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Rosellinia necatrix is a filamentous ascomycete that is pathogenic to a wide range of perennial plants worldwide. An extensive search for double-stranded RNA of a large collection of field isolates led to the detection of a variety of viruses. Since the first identification of a reovirus in this fungus in 2002, several novel viruses have been molecularly characterized that include members of at least five virus families. While some cause phenotypic alterations, many others show latent infections. Viruses attenuating the virulence of a host fungus to its plant hosts attract much attention as agents for virocontrol (biological control using viruses) of the fungus, one of which is currently being tested in experimental fields. Like the Cryphonectria parasitica/viruses, the R. necatrix/viruses have emerged as an amenable system for studying virus/host and virus/virus interactions. Several techniques have recently been developed that enhance the investigation of virus etiology, replication, and symptom induction in this mycovirus/fungal host system. PMID:23498907

  12. Evolutionary transitions in enzyme activity of ant fungus gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Schiøtt, Morten; Mueller, Ulrich G; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2010-07-01

    Fungus-growing (attine) ants and their fungal symbionts passed through several evolutionary transitions during their 50 million year old evolutionary history. The basal attine lineages often shifted between two main cultivar clades, whereas the derived higher-attine lineages maintained an association with a monophyletic clade of specialized symbionts. In conjunction with the transition to specialized symbionts, the ants advanced in colony size and social complexity. Here we provide a comparative study of the functional specialization in extracellular enzyme activities in fungus gardens across the attine phylogeny. We show that, relative to sister clades, gardens of higher-attine ants have enhanced activity of protein-digesting enzymes, whereas gardens of leaf-cutting ants also have increased activity of starch-digesting enzymes. However, the enzyme activities of lower-attine fungus gardens are targeted primarily toward partial degradation of plant cell walls, reflecting a plesiomorphic state of nondomesticated fungi. The enzyme profiles of the higher-attine and leaf-cutting gardens appear particularly suited to digest fresh plant materials and to access nutrients from live cells without major breakdown of cell walls. The adaptive significance of the lower-attine symbiont shifts remains unclear. One of these shifts was obligate, but digestive advantages remained ambiguous, whereas the other remained facultative despite providing greater digestive efficiency. PMID:20067517

  13. Nest architecture, fungus gardens, queen, males and larvae of the fungus-growing ant Mycetagroicus inflatus Brandão & Mayhé-Nunes

    OpenAIRE

    Jesovnik, A.; Sosa-Calvo, J.; Lopes, C. T.; Vasconcelos, H. L.; Schultz, T. R.

    2013-01-01

    All known fungus-growing ants (tribe Attini) are obligately symbiotic with their cultivated fungi. The fungal cultivars of “lower” attine ants are facultative symbionts, capable of living apart from ants, whereas the fungal cultivars of “higher” attine ants, including leaf-cutting genera Atta and Acromyrmex, are highly specialized, obligate symbionts. Since higher attine ants and fungi are derived from lower attine ants and fungi, understanding the evolutionary transition from lower to higher...

  14. Degradation of Phenanthrene by a chilean white rot fungus Anthracophyllum discolor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acevedo, F.; Cuevas, R.; Rubilar, O.; Tortella, G.; Diez, M. C.

    2009-07-01

    Anthracophyllum discolor, a white rot fungus of southern Chile, has been an efficient degrader of clorophenols and azo dyes. This fungus produces ligninolytic enzymes being manganese peroxidase (Mn) the major one produced. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of phenanthrene concentration of ligninolytic activity of A. Discolor measured by poly R-478 decolorazation, and to evaluate the potential of this fungus for degrading phenanthrene in liquid media. (Author)

  15. Caste-specific symbiont policing by workers of Acromyrmex fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivens, Aniek B.F.; Nash, David R.; Poulsen, Michael; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2009-01-01

    mixtures of major and minor Acromyrmex workers eliminate alien fungus fragments even in subcolonies where their resident symbiont is not present. We hypothesize that the different tasks and behaviors performed by majors and minors are likely to select for differential responses to alien fungi. Major...... workers forage and cut new leaves and masticate them after delivery in the upper parts of the fungus garden and so are likely to more frequently encounter alien fungus than minor workers maintaining the established fungus garden and caring for the brood. We show that major workers of Acromyrmex echinatior...

  16. Isolated fungal promoters and gene transcription terminators and methods of protein and chemical production in a fungus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Ziyu; Lasure, Linda L; Magnuson, Jon K

    2014-05-27

    The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

  17. Isolated Fungal Promoters and Gene Transcription Terminators and Methods of Protein and Chemical Production in a Fungus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Ziyu (Richland, WA); Lasure, Linda L. (Fall City, WA); Magnuson, Jon K. (Pasco, WA)

    2008-11-11

    The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

  18. Isolated fungal promoters and gene transcription terminators and methods of protein and chemical production in a fungus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Ziyu (Richland, WA); Lasure, Linda L. (Fall City, WA); Magnuson, Jon K. (Pasco, WA)

    2008-11-11

    The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

  19. Carbohydrate Storage in the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidochka, M J; Low, N H; Khachatourians, G G

    1990-10-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana was grown in 1% (wt/vol) gelatin-liquid media singly supplemented with a monosaccharide (glucose or fructose), a disaccharide (maltose or trehalose), a polyol (glycerol, mannitol, or sorbitol), or the amino sugar N-acetyl-d-glucosamine. The relative contributions of the carbohydrate, protein, and water contents in the fungal biomass were determined. Carbohydrates composed 18 to 42% of the mycelial dry weight, and this value was lowest in unsupplemented medium and highest in medium supplemented with glucose, glycerol, or trehalose. Biomass production was highest in liquid cultures supplemented with trehalose. When liquid cultures were grown in medium supplemented with 0 to 1% (wt/vol) glucose, trehalose, or N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, there was an increase in the biomass production and the contribution of carbohydrate to mycelial dry weight. Regardless of the glucose concentration in the culture, water content of the mycelia remained about 77.5% (wt/wt). Mycelial storage carbohydrates were determined by capillary gas chromatography. In gelatin-liquid medium supplemented with 1% (wt/vol) glucose, B. bassiana stored glycogen (12.0%, wt/dry wt) and the polyols mannitol (2.2%), erythritol (1.6%), glycerol (0.4%), and arabitol (0.1%). Without glucose, B. bassiana stored glycogen (5.4%), mannitol (0.8%), glycerol (0.6%), and erythritol (0.6%) but not arabitol. To our knowledge, this is the first report of carbohydrate storage in an entomopathogenic fungus, and the results are discussed in relation to other fungi and the potential implications to commercial formulation and insect-fungus interactions. PMID:16348325

  20. Efficient gene targeting in the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiotani, H; Tsuge, T

    1995-07-28

    To characterize homologous recombination of transforming DNA in the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata, we have compared the frequencies of gene targeting by circular and linear DNA fragments in the fungus. The A. alternata BRM1 gene, which is an essential gene for melanin biosynthesis, was selected as a target locus. BRM1 targeting events are easily identified because loss of function leads to a change in mycelial color from black to light brown. We constructed targeting vectors by inserting 0.6 to 3.1 kb internal BRM1 segments into a plasmid containing the hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene. When circular plasmids were used, melanin-deficient (Mel-) transformants accounted for 30 to 80% of hygromycin B-resistant (HyR) transformants, correlating closely with the size of the BRM1 segment in the transforming DNA. Restriction enzyme digestion within the BRM1 region greatly enhanced the frequency of gene targeting: integration of the linear plasmids was almost completely attributable to homologous recombination, regardless of the size of the BRM1 segments. Plasmids carrying both BRM1 segments and rDNA segments were transformed into the fungus to examine the effect of the number of target copies on homologous recombination. Using the circular plasmids, Mel- transformants accounted for only 5% of HyR transformants. In contrast, when the linear plasmid produced by restriction enzyme digestion within the BRM1 segment was used, almost all transformants were Mel-. These results indicate that homologous integration of circular molecules in A. alternata is sensitive to the length of homology and the number of targets, and that double-strand breaks in transforming DNA greatly enhance homologous recombination. PMID:7651337

  1. Directed evolution of a filamentous fungus for thermotolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyons Thomas J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Filamentous fungi are the most widely used eukaryotic biocatalysts in industrial and chemical applications. Consequently, there is tremendous interest in methodology that can use the power of genetics to develop strains with improved performance. For example, Metarhizium anisopliae is a broad host range entomopathogenic fungus currently under intensive investigation as a biologically based alternative to chemical pesticides. However, it use is limited by the relatively low tolerance of this species to abiotic stresses such as heat, with most strains displaying little to no growth between 35–37°C. In this study, we used a newly developed automated continuous culture method called the Evolugator™, which takes advantage of a natural selection-adaptation strategy, to select for thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae strain 2575 displaying robust growth at 37°C. Results Over a 4 month time course, 22 cycles of growth and dilution were used to select 2 thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae. Both variants displayed robust growth at 36.5°C, whereas only one was able to grow at 37°C. Insect bioassays using Melanoplus sanguinipes (grasshoppers were also performed to determine if thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae retained entomopathogenicity. Assays confirmed that thermotolerant variants were, indeed, entomopathogenic, albeit with complex alterations in virulence parameters such as lethal dose responses (LD50 and median survival times (ST50. Conclusion We report the experimental evolution of a filamentous fungus via the novel application of a powerful new continuous culture device. This is the first example of using continuous culture to select for complex phenotypes such as thermotolerance. Temperature adapted variants of the insect-pathogenic, filamentous fungus M. anisopliae were isolated and demonstrated to show vigorous growth at a temperature that is inhibitory for the parent strain. Insect virulence assays confirmed that pathogenicity can be retained during the selection process. In principle, this technology can be used to adapt filamentous fungi to virtually any environmental condition including abiotic stress and growth substrate utilization.

  2. Studies on biosorption of nickel using immobilized fungus, Rhizomucor tauricus

    OpenAIRE

    K. Kishore Kumar; M. Krishna Prasad; B. Sarada; Ch. V. R. Murthy

    2012-01-01

    Rhizomucor tauricus, an industrial fungus, was immobilized in sodium alginate and used as adsorbent for the removal of nickel from aqueous solutions. The biosorption capacity of Ni(II) was found to be 394 mg/g of immobilized biomass. It was observed that an increase in pH from 3 to 6 increased the percent adsorption, and an increase in liquid-to-solid ratio from 2 to 10 increased the metal uptake. The percent adsorption was increased when increasing the initial metal concentration from 25 to ...

  3. Cultivation of tea fungus on malt extract medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetkovi? Dragoljub D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of application of malt extract as a source of carbohydrate in a medium for tea fungus was investigated. The beverage obtained on such medium was compared with that prepared in a traditional way with sucrose medium. The presence of easily adoptable sugars, glucose and fructose, as dominant in malt medium results in a very effective fermentation, which gives much more sour beverage for the same time and makes it possible to reduce the fermentation period. The obtained beverage has satisfactory sensorial characteristics.

  4. Manganese peroxidases of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida.

    OpenAIRE

    Rüttimann-Johnson, C; Cullen, D; Lamar, R. T.

    1994-01-01

    The ligninolytic enzymes produced by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida in liquid culture were studied. Only manganese peroxidase (MnP) activity could be detected in the supernatant liquid of the cultures. Lignin peroxidase (LiP) and laccase activities were not detected under a variety of different culture conditions. The highest MnP activity levels were obtained in nitrogen-limited cultures grown under an oxygen atmosphere. The enzyme was induced by Mn(II). The initial pH of the cult...

  5. Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of fungus Phomopsis stipata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Andrade de Prince

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose was to determine the anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of the metabolites produced by the endophitic fungus Phomopsis stipata (Lib. B. Sutton, (Diaporthaceae, cultivated in different media. The antimycobacterial activity was assessed through the Resazurin Microtiter Assay (REMA and the cytotoxicity test performed on macrophage cell line. The extracts derived from fungi grown on Corn Medium and Potato Dextrose Broth presented the smallest values of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and low cytotoxicity, which implies a high selectivity index. This is the first report on the chemical composition and antitubercular activity of metabolites of P. stipata, as well as the influence of culture medium on these properties.

  6. Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of fungus Phomopsis stipata

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Karina Andrade de, Prince; Renata, Sordi; Fernando Rogério, Pavan; Adolfo Carlos Barreto, Santos; Angela R., Araujo; Sergio R.A., Leite; Clarice Q. F., Leite.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose was to determine the anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of the metabolites produced by the endophitic fungus Phomopsis stipata (Lib.) B. Sutton, (Diaporthaceae), cultivated in different media. The antimycobacterial activity was assessed through the Resazurin Microtiter Assay (REMA) [...] and the cytotoxicity test performed on macrophage cell line. The extracts derived from fungi grown on Corn Medium and Potato Dextrose Broth presented the smallest values of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and low cytotoxicity, which implies a high selectivity index. This is the first report on the chemical composition and antitubercular activity of metabolites of P. stipata, as well as the influence of culture medium on these properties.

  7. New α-pyrone and phthalide from the Xylariaceae fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jian; Li, Jun; Wu, Zu-Yan; Zhao, Qin; Wang, Gao-Qian; Zhao, Huan; Chen, Guo-Dong; Sun, Xiang; Guo, Liang-Dong; Gao, Hao

    2015-01-01

    A new α-pyrone xylaripyrone A (1) and a new phthalide xylariphthalide A (2) were isolated from the Xylariaceae fungus (no. 63-19-7-3), along with four related known phthalides (3-6): 4-[(acetyloxy)methyl]-7-methoxy-6-methyl-1(3H)-isobenzofuranone (3), convolvulol (4), 7-methoxy-4,6-dimethyl-3H-isobenzofuran-1-one (5), and convolvulanic acid B (6). Their structures were determined on the basis of IR, MS, and NMR spectroscopic analyses. PMID:26123347

  8. BIODEGRADATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOPORIUM: INVOLVEMENT OF THE LIGNIN DEGRADING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The white-rot fungus Phanrochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade a wide variety of structurally diverse organic compounds, including a number of environmentally persistent organopollutants. The unique biodegradative abilities of this fungus appears to be depend...

  9. BIODEGRADATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHATETE CHRYSOSPORIUM: INVOLVEMENT OF THE LIGNIN DEGRADING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade's wide variety of structurally diverse organic compounds, including a number of environmentall3 persistent organopollutants. he unique biodegradative abilities of this fungus appears to be dependent upon ...

  10. Co-evolution of enzyme function in the attine ant-fungus symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Schiøtt, Morten; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    have small nests with a fungus garden the size of a table-tennis ball. Only the leaf-cutting ants are specialized on using fresh leaves as substrate for their fungus gardens, whereas the more basal attine genera use substrates such as dry plant material (leaf litter and small twigs) and also insect...

  11. First unusual case of keratitis in Europe due to the rare fungus Metarhizium anisopliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorin, Josephine; Debourgogne, Anne; Zaïdi, Mohamed; Bazard, Marie-Christine; Machouart, Marie

    2015-05-01

    Metarhizium anisopliae is a fungus utilized worldwide for insect-pest biocontrol. Few M. anisopliae infections have been reported previously. Here, M. anisopliae was isolated from a corneal ulcer in a healthy man. It is the first ocular case in France and Europe of this extremely rare fungus in humans. PMID:25813244

  12. Cuckoo fungus mimics termite eggs by producing the cellulose-digesting enzyme beta-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Kenji; Yashiro, Toshihisa; Shimizu, Ken; Tatsumi, Shingo; Tamura, Takashi

    2009-01-13

    Insects and fungi share a long history of association in various habitats, including the wood-decomposition niche. Fungal mimicry of termite eggs is one of the most striking evolutionary consequences of insect-fungus association. Termites of the genus Reticulitermes often harbor fungal sclerotia, called "termite balls," along with eggs in nursery chambers, whereby the fungus gains a competitor-free habitat in termite nests. Sophisticated morphological and chemical camouflage are needed for the fungus to mimic termite eggs. However, the mechanism of chemical egg mimicry by the fungus is unknown. Here, we show that the fungus mimics termite eggs chemically by producing the cellulose-digesting enzyme beta-glucosidase. We found that the termite egg-recognition pheromone consists of beta-glucosidase and lysozyme. Both enzymes are major salivary compounds in termites and are also produced in termite eggs. Termite balls were tended by termites only when the fungus produced beta-glucosidase. Our results demonstrated that the overlap of the cellulose digestion niche between termites and the fungus sharing the same chemicals provided the opportunity for the origin of termite egg mimicry by the fungus. This suggests that pheromone compounds might have originally evolved within other life history contexts, only later gaining function in chemical communication. PMID:19110429

  13. First localities in Poland of the recently described fungus Cordyceps bifusispora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bujakiewicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Two localities of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bifusispora, hitherto not reported from Poland, are characterised by their site conditions and co-occurring macrofungi during the period of the appearance of its stromata. Description of this fungus culture is given and some remarks on the resemblance of its teleomorphs and anamorphs from different collections are discussed.

  14. First localities in Poland of the recently described fungus Cordyceps bifusispora

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Bujakiewicz; Joanna Nita; Stanis?aw Ba?azy

    2014-01-01

    Two localities of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bifusispora, hitherto not reported from Poland, are characterised by their site conditions and co-occurring macrofungi during the period of the appearance of its stromata. Description of this fungus culture is given and some remarks on the resemblance of its teleomorphs and anamorphs from different collections are discussed.

  15. The carbon starvation response of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellström, Magnus; Shah, Firoz; Johansson, Tomas; Ahrén, Dag; Persson, Per; Tunlid, Anders

    2015-04-01

    The amounts of carbon allocated to the fungal partner in ectomycorrhizal associations can vary substantially depending on the plant growth and the soil nutrient conditions, and the fungus may frequently be confronted with limitations in carbon. We used chemical analysis and transcriptome profiling to examine the physiological response of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus to carbon starvation during axenic cultivation. Carbon starvation induced a decrease in the biomass. Concomitantly, ammonium, cell wall material (chitin) and proteolytic enzymes were released into the medium, which suggest autolysis. Compared with the transcriptome of actively growing hyphae, about 45% of the transcripts analyzed were differentially regulated during C-starvation. Induced during starvation were transcripts encoding extracellular enzymes such as peptidases, chitinases and laccases. In parallel, transcripts of N-transporters were upregulated, which suggest that some of the released nitrogen compounds were re-assimilated by the mycelium. The observed changes suggest that the carbon starvation response in P. involutus is associated with complex cellular changes that involves autolysis, recycling of intracellular compounds by autophagy and reabsorption of the extracellular released material. The study provides molecular markers that can be used to examine the role of autolysis for the turnover and survival of the ectomycorrhizal mycelium in soils. PMID:25778509

  16. One fungus, one name promotes progressive plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Michael J; De Beer, Z Wilhelm; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Brenda D; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Lombard, Lorenzo; Crous, Pedro W

    2012-08-01

    The robust and reliable identification of fungi underpins virtually every element of plant pathology, from disease diagnosis to studies of biology, management/control, quarantine and, even more recently, comparative genomics. Most plant diseases are caused by fungi, typically pleomorphic organisms, for which the taxonomy and, in particular, a dual nomenclature system have frustrated and confused practitioners of plant pathology. The emergence of DNA sequencing has revealed cryptic taxa and revolutionized our understanding of relationships in the fungi. The impacts on plant pathology at every level are already immense and will continue to grow rapidly as new DNA sequencing technologies continue to emerge. DNA sequence comparisons, used to resolve a dual nomenclature problem for the first time only 19 years ago, have made it possible to approach a natural classification for the fungi and to abandon the confusing dual nomenclature system. The journey to a one fungus, one name taxonomic reality has been long and arduous, but its time has come. This will inevitably have a positive impact on plant pathology, plant pathologists and future students of this hugely important discipline on which the world depends for food security and plant health in general. This contemporary review highlights the problems of a dual nomenclature, especially its impact on plant pathogenic fungi, and charts the road to a one fungus, one name system that is rapidly drawing near. PMID:22146077

  17. Plant-plant interactions vary with different mycorrhizal fungus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeksema, Jason D

    2005-12-22

    Because different species of mycorrhizal fungi have different effects on the growth of particular plant species, variation in mycorrhizal fungus species composition could cause changes in the strength of plant-plant interactions. Results are presented from a growth chamber experiment that compared the strength of interactions among seedlings of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) when the pines were colonized by two different groups of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the genus Rhizopogon. Plant density effects differed between the two groups of mycorrhizal fungi: plant growth was low regardless of density when plants were colonized with pine-specific Rhizopogon species, while plant growth declined with plant density when plants were colonized by Rhizopogon species having a broader host range. This result parallels results from previous studies showing that plant interactions are more antagonistic with mycorrhizal fungi than without, implying that plant responsiveness to beneficial mycorrhizal fungi declines with increasing plant density. If such effects are prevalent in plant communities, then variation in mycorrhizal fungus community composition is predicted to have a density-dependent effect on plants. PMID:17148227

  18. Plant–plant interactions vary with different mycorrhizal fungus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeksema, Jason D

    2005-01-01

    Because different species of mycorrhizal fungi have different effects on the growth of particular plant species, variation in mycorrhizal fungus species composition could cause changes in the strength of plant–plant interactions. Results are presented from a growth chamber experiment that compared the strength of interactions among seedlings of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) when the pines were colonized by two different groups of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the genus Rhizopogon. Plant density effects differed between the two groups of mycorrhizal fungi: plant growth was low regardless of density when plants were colonized with pine-specific Rhizopogon species, while plant growth declined with plant density when plants were colonized by Rhizopogon species having a broader host range. This result parallels results from previous studies showing that plant interactions are more antagonistic with mycorrhizal fungi than without, implying that plant responsiveness to beneficial mycorrhizal fungi declines with increasing plant density. If such effects are prevalent in plant communities, then variation in mycorrhizal fungus community composition is predicted to have a density-dependent effect on plants. PMID:17148227

  19. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND MASS PRODUCTION OF NEMATOPHAGOUS FUNGUS NEMATOCTONUS ROBUSTUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh babu S,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The plant parasitic nematodes infect the root tissues of the plant causing root galls that lead to reduced water and mineral uptake in the plant root system. Nematophagous fungus are used as biocontrol for the nematodes. Among those Nematoctonus are one of the species used as bioagent. Nematoctonus species produces an extensive mycelium and capture many nematodes with hour glass shaped adhesive knobs on the hyphae. Nematodes become attached to these adhesive knobs and the cuticle of nematode is penetrated by the infective hyphae. This isolate of Nematoctonus robustus is characterized by hyaline mycelium, dikaryotic in nature containing genetically two different nuclei in each cell, having distinct clamp connection. The fungus has better colonizing ability on natural solid substrates like wheat straw and rice straw. It also show good ability to colonize on different cereal grains and various other waste products like coconut coir and FYM etc. This species is one of the best used for mass production and effective for control of plant parasitic nematodes.

  20. The role of enzymes in fungus-growing ant evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard

    The shift to freshly cut leaves rather than scavenged dead vegetation as fungus-garden substrate was a major evolutionary transition in the attine ants that apparently allowed the Atta and Acromyrmex leafcutter ants to also evolve increased worker size dimorphism, multiple queen- mating, specific adaptations in the olfactory region of worker brains, and many other complex social traits. The transition also involved the specialization on a single species of fungal symbiont (Leucocoprinus gongylophorus), but comparative studies of the specific fungal adaptations that accompanied this transition have not been done. Such studies are important as the single specific fungal adaptation that can (almost) be seen with the bare eye (gongylidia; inflated hyphal tips that are preferentially eaten by the ants and their larvae) evolved earlier and therefore does not characterize the transition to leafcutting behaviour. Here we report the first large-scale comparative study on fungus garden enzyme profiles and show that various interesting changes can be documented. A more detailed analysis of laccase expression, an enzyme that is believed to oxidize phenols in defensive secondary plant compounds such as tannins, showed that this enzyme is exclusively found in the gardens of leaf-cutting ants, where it is significantly upregulated in the gongylidia. I’ll discuss the possible role of this enzyme and other fungal modifications in the evolution of the leafcutter ants and their non-leafcutting attine relatives.

  1. Accumulation and chemical states of radiocesium by fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Yamasaki, Shinya; Yu, Qianqian

    2014-05-01

    After accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the fall-out radiocesium was deposited on the ground. Filamentous fungus is known to accumulate radiocesium in environment, even though many minerals are involved in soil. These facts suggest that fungus affect the migration behavior of radiocesium in the environment. However, accumulation mechanism of radiocesium by fungus is not understood. In the present study, accumulation and chemical states change of Cs by unicellular fungus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been studied to elucidate the role of microorganisms in the migration of radiocesium in the environment. Two different experimental conditions were employed; one is the accumulation experiments of radiocesium by S. cerevisiae from the agar medium containing 137Cs and a mineral of zeolite, vermiculite, smectite, mica, or illite. The other is the experiments using stable cesium to examine the chemical states change of Cs. In the former experiment, the cells were grown on membrane filter of 0.45 ?m installed on the agar medium. After the grown cells were weighed, radioactivity in the cells was measured by an autoradiography technique. The mineral weight contents were changed from 0.1% to 1% of the medium. In the latter experiment, the cells were grown in the medium containing stable Cs between 1 mM and 10mM. The Cs accumulated cells were analyzed by SEM-EDS and EXAFS. The adsorption experiments of cesium by the cells under resting condition were also conducted to test the effect of cells metabolic activity. Without mineral in the medium, cells of S. cerevisiae accumulated 1.5x103 Bq/g from the medium containing 137Cs of 2.6x102 Bq/g. When mineral was added in the medium, concentration of 137Cs in the cells decreased. The concentration of 137Cs in the cells from the medium containing different minerals were in the following order; smectite, illite, mica > vermiculite > zeolite. This order was nearly the same as the inverse of distribution coefficient of mineral for 137Cs in the medium solution. The concentration of 137Cs in the cells lowered in the medium containing higher mineral content. These results indicate that radiocesium was competively accumulated in the cells with minerals in the soil. Higher concentration of stable Cs was accumulated in the cells in the metabolically active condition than in the resting cells condition. XAFS analyses showed that the k3-weighted extended-XAFS functions and the radial structural function of Cs accumulated by the cells in the metabolically active condition were similar to those in the resting condition, indicating that chemical states of the accumulated Cs were nearly the same between both conditions. These results indicate that the fungus accumulates radiocesium by competitively with minerals in the soils, and performs higher retardation of the migration of Cs in the metabolically active condition than the resting one. A part of this study is the results of "Multidisciplinary investigation on radiocesium fate and transport for safety assessment for interim storage and disposal of heterogeneous waste" carried out under the Initiatives for Atomic Energy Basic and Generic Strategic Research by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.

  2. Evidence refuting the contribution of the fungus Aspergillus penicillioides to the allergenicity of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, D B; Hart, B J; Douglas, A E

    1992-01-01

    This communication demonstrates unequivocally that the fungi associated with house dust mites do not contribute to mite allergenicity. The evidence is twofold: first, larval mites which lack fungi have allergen profiles indistinguishable from fungus-bearing adult mites. Second, the allergen profile of experimentally-derived fungus-free adult mites and mites re-fed the fungus Aspergillus penicillioides are identical. PMID:1582703

  3. Towards an integrated understanding of the consequences of fungus domestication on the fungus-growing termite gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Approximately 30 million years ago (MYA), the subfamily of higher termites Macrotermitinae domesticated a fungus, Termitomyces, as the main plant decomposer and food source for the termite host. The origin of fungiculture shifted the composition of the termite gut microbiota, and some of the functional implications of this shift have recently been established. I review reports on the composition of the Macrotermitinae gut microbiota, evidence for a subfamily core gut microbiota, and the first insight into functional complementarity between fungal and gut symbionts. In addition, I argue that we need to explore the capacities of all members of the symbiotic communities, including better solidifying Termitomyces role(s) in order to understand putative complementary gut bacterial contributions. Approaches that integrate natural history and sequencing data to elucidate symbiont functions will be powerful, particularly if executed in comparative analyses across the well-established congruent termite-fungus phylogenies. This will allow for testing if gut communities have evolved in parallel with their hosts, with implications for our general understanding of the evolution of gut symbiont communities with hosts. PMID:25581852

  4. Protein profiling of the dimorphic, pathogenic fungus, Penicillium marneffei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rundle William T

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Penicillium marneffei is a pathogenic fungus that afflicts immunocompromised individuals having lived or traveled in Southeast Asia. This species is unique in that it is the only dimorphic member of the genus. Dimorphism results from a process, termed phase transition, which is regulated by temperature of incubation. At room temperature, the fungus grows filamentously (mould phase, but at body temperature (37°C, a uninucleate yeast form develops that reproduces by fission. Formation of the yeast phase appears to be a requisite for pathogenicity. To date, no genes have been identified in P. marneffei that strictly induce mould-to-yeast phase conversion. In an effort to help identify potential gene products associated with morphogenesis, protein profiles were generated from the yeast and mould phases of P. marneffei. Results Whole cell proteins from the early stages of mould and yeast development in P. marneffei were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Selected proteins were recovered and sequenced by capillary-liquid chromatography-nanospray tandem mass spectrometry. Putative identifications were derived by searching available databases for homologous fungal sequences. Proteins found common to both mould and yeast phases included the signal transduction proteins cyclophilin and a RACK1-like ortholog, as well as those related to general metabolism, energy production, and protection from oxygen radicals. Many of the mould-specific proteins identified possessed similar functions. By comparison, proteins exhibiting increased expression during development of the parasitic yeast phase comprised those involved in heat-shock responses, general metabolism, and cell-wall biosynthesis, as well as a small GTPase that regulates nuclear membrane transport and mitotic processes in fungi. The cognate gene encoding the latter protein, designated RanA, was subsequently cloned and characterized. The P. marneffei RanA protein sequence, which contained the signature motif of Ran-GTPases, exhibited 90% homology to homologous Aspergillus proteins. Conclusion This study clearly demonstrates the utility of proteomic approaches to studying dimorphism in P. marneffei. Moreover, this strategy complements and extends current genetic methodologies directed towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of phase transition. Finally, the documented increased levels of RanA expression suggest that cellular development in this fungus involves additional signaling mechanisms than have been previously described in P. marneffei.

  5. Efficacy of Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria Bassiana and Gamma Irradiation Against the Greater Date Moth, Arenipses Sabella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) was isolated locally from dead larvae of the greater date moth, Arenipses sabella (Hampson) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The effect of three exposure methods and two environmental factors (temperature and relative humidity) on pathogenicity of the fungus with different concentrations to A. sabella second instar larvae were examined. The study demonstrated that the entomopathogenic fungus was most efficient in the control of second instar larvae at 25 degree C and 100% humidity and the percent of mortality was increased when increasing the concentration of fungus. The mode of exposure of fungus to larvae directly sprayed, larvae exposed to the treated dates or larvae both sprayed and exposed to the treated dates showed 56.66, 26.66 and 75% mortality, respectively, at concentration 1x1010 spores/ml and three days post-treatment. The F1 larvae resulting from irradiated male pupae with 150 Gy were more susceptible to pathogenic fungus at low concentration ((1x108 spores/ml) than non-irradiated ones. The scanning electron microscope was used to delineate the morphological stages of fungus to the germinated conidia and the hyphae penetrating the larva cuticle.

  6. Fungus/Disease Analysis in Tomato Crop using Image Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The crop of tomato is very often infected by a disease that leaves spots of brown, gray or off-white colors on the plant’s leafs in winter. Scientifically, this disease is known as cercospora leaf spot or cercospora cruciferarum. It’s a kind of fungus that often kills young seedlings. The fungus spreads by air and can also infect tomato plants. Therefore, it is important to monitor the leaf at regular intervals so as to keep track on quality of growing tomato crop. In the presented paper, a novel machine vision system has been proposed that visual inspects the leafs coming out of the soil and based on spots on leaves, it determines the nature of fungus and its depth into the tomato steam. The size of the fungus, color depth and location and locus of the fungus on leaves give an accurate determination of crop quality under the soil. In the presented thesis work, the image of the crop leaves are taken by a good quality color camera and processed for getting a gray colored and segmented image depending upon the nature and size of the fungus. A criterion is set for acceptable and rejects crop quality based on the fungus level.

  7. Biosorption of cadmium using the fungus Aspergillus niger

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.M., Barros Júnior; G.R., Macedo; M.M.L., Duarte; E.P., Silva; A.K.C.L., Lobato.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Sorption experiments using the Aspergillus niger fungus for cadmium removal were carried out to study the factors influencing and optimizing the biosorption of this metal. The effects of pH, time, biomass concentration, and initial concentration of the heavy metal on the rate of metallic biosorption [...] were examined. An experimental design was also used to determine the values of the under study variables that provided the greatest biosorption efficiency. A technique for biomass recovery was also developed with the objective of determining the capacity of the regenerated biomass to biosorb the metals in solution. This research proved that with a pH of 4.75, a biomass concentration of 0.7 g/L, and a heavy metal concentration varying between 5 and 10 mg/L a biosorption process of biosorption with Aspergillus niger could be successfully used for heavy metal removal from oil field water in the oil industry.

  8. Identification of Oxaphenalenone Ketals from the Ascomycete Fungus Neonectria sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jinwei; Niu, Shubing; Li, Li; Geng, Zhufeng; Liu, Xingzhong; Che, Yongsheng

    2015-06-26

    Neonectrolides B-E (4-7), four new oxaphenalenone ketals incorporating the new furo[2,3-b]isochromeno[3,4,5-def]chromen-11(6aH)-one skeleton, were isolated from the fermentation extract of the ascomycete fungus Neonectria sp. in an in-depth investigation guided by HPLC fingerprint and a cytotoxicity assay. The previously identified oxaphenalenone spiroketal neonectrolide A (1) and its putative biosynthetic precursors (2 and 3) were also reisolated in the current work. The structures of 4-7 were primarily elucidated by interpretation of NMR spectroscopic data, and the absolute configurations were deduced by electronic circular dichroism calculations. Compound 6 showed cytotoxic effects against four of the six human tumor cell lines tested. Biosynthetically, compounds 4-7 could be derived via the Diels-Alder reaction cascades starting from derivatives of the co-isolated metabolites 2 and 3. PMID:25978132

  9. Two new ramulosin derivatives from the entomogenous fungus Truncatella angustata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shenxi; Zhang, Zhuowei; Li, Li; Liu, Xingzhong; Ren, Fengxia

    2015-02-01

    Two new ramulosin derivatives, 7?-hydroxy-8-dihydroramulosin (1) and 7-ketoramulosin (2), along with three known metabolites, (+)-ramulosin (3), 6-hydroxyramulosin (4), and 8-dihydroramulosin (5), were isolated from the crude extract of Truncatella angustata, an entomogenous fungus isolated from the Septobasidium-infected insect Aspidiotus sp. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, and 1 was further confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The absolute configuration of 1 was assigned by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis using Cu K? radiation, whereas that of 2 was determined by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Compounds 1-5 were tested for cytotoxicity against four human carcinoma cell lines, HeLa, A549, MCF-7, and T24. Compound 4 showed weak cytotoxic effects against A549 and T24. PMID:25920279

  10. Statistical Optimization of Keratinase Production from Marine Fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Satya lakshmi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To improve the yield of keratinase from marine fungus Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, different medium constituents were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM based on central composite design (CCD. The strain produced 24.8U/mL and 36.4U/mL of keratinase activity in conventional method of optimization with glucose and soya bean meal as carbon and nitrogen sources. Response surface methodology which was applied to optimize concentrations of glucose, soya bean meal, feather powder and inoculum level, improved the productivity to 225.0U/mL. This value represents 6.18 fold increases in productivity as compared to conventional methods. Optimal parameters of the cultivation process were determined as glucose 1.52g/L, soya bean meal-1.08g/L, feather powder-1.04g/L and inoculum level-10.6%.

  11. Thermomyces lanuginosus is the dominant fungus in maize straw composts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Ma, Haixia; Zhang, Huaiqiang; Xun, Luying; Chen, Guanjun; Wang, Lushan

    2015-12-01

    The microbial community composition and function of three self-heating maize straw composts were compared by integrated meta-omics. The results revealed that the fungal communities were primarily dominated by the phylum Ascomycota (>90%) regardless of different nitrogen sources, which were exclusively composed of the Thermomyces, a genus of hemicellulose degraders. The bacterial community composition was affected by the addition of nitrogen sources, as the abundance of the Actinobacteria increased, while the Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes decreased. Various hemicellulases and cellulases were detected in the composts, and the major xylanase secreted by Thermomyces lanuginosus was always present, revealing that it was the dominant fungus in hemicellulose hydrolysis and that bacteria and fungi might synergistically degrade lignocellulose. Thus, microbial communities in composts may develop a simple and stable structure of a dominant fungal species and limited numbers of bacterial species under the selective pressure of high temperature and maize straw as starting materials. PMID:26342338

  12. Asteltoxins from the Entomopathogenic Fungus Pochonia bulbillosa 8-H-28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Hayamitsu; Doi, Hiroyasu; Kasahara, Yuichi; Sawa, Ryuichi; Nakajima, Kaori; Kubota, Yumiko; Hosokawa, Nobuo; Tateishi, Ken; Nomoto, Akio

    2015-07-24

    New asteltoxins C (3) and D (4) were found in the extract of the entomopathogenic fungus Pochonia bulbillosa 8-H-28. Compound 2, which was spectroscopically identical with the known asteltoxin B, was isolated, and structural analysis led to a revision of the structure of asteltoxin B. Compounds 2 and 4 have a novel tricyclic ring system connected to a dienyl α-pyrone structure. Compound 3 has a 2,8-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane ring similar to that of asteltoxin (1). Compound 3 showed potent antiproliferative activity against NIAS-SL64 cells derived from the fat body of Spodoptera litura larvae, while 2 and 4 were inactive. PMID:26120875

  13. Enzymes and bioproducts produced by the ascomycete fungus Paecilomyces variotii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Bravo de Laguna, I; Toledo Marante, F J; Mioso, R

    2015-12-01

    Due its innate ability to produce extracellular enzymes which can provide eco-friendly solutions for a variety of biotechnological applications, Paecilomyces variotii is a potential source of industrial bioproducts. In this review, we report biotechnological records on the biochemistry of different enzymes produced by the fermentation of the P. variotii fungus, including tannases, phytases, cellulases, xylanases, chitinases, amylases and pectinases. Additionally, the main physicochemical properties which can affect the enzymatic reactions of the enzymes involved in the conversion of a huge number of substrates to high-value bioproducts are described. Despite all the background information compiled in this review, more research is required to consolidate the catalytic efficiency of P. variotii, which must be optimized so that it is more accurate and reproducible on a large scale. PMID:26274842

  14. New Bergamotane Sesquiterpenoids from the Plant Endophytic Fungus Paraconiothyrium brasiliense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Guo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Brasilamides K-N (1–4, four new bergamotane sesquiterpenoids; with 4-oxatricyclo (3.3.1.0 2,7nonane (1and 9-oxatricyclo(4.3.0.0 4,7nonane (2–4 skeletons; were isolated from the scale-up fermentation cultures of the plant endophytic fungus Paraconiothynium brasiliense Verkley. The previously identified sesquiterpenoids brasilamides A and C (5 and 6 were also reisolated in the current work. The structures of 1–4 were elucidated primarily by interpretation of NMR spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations of 1–3 were deduced by analogy to the co-isolated metabolites 5 and 6; whereas that of C-12 in 4 was assigned using the modified Mosher method. The cytotoxicity of all compounds against a panel of eight human tumor cell lines were assayed.

  15. Biosorption of cadmium using the fungus Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Barros Júnior

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Sorption experiments using the Aspergillus niger fungus for cadmium removal were carried out to study the factors influencing and optimizing the biosorption of this metal. The effects of pH, time, biomass concentration, and initial concentration of the heavy metal on the rate of metallic biosorption were examined. An experimental design was also used to determine the values of the under study variables that provided the greatest biosorption efficiency. A technique for biomass recovery was also developed with the objective of determining the capacity of the regenerated biomass to biosorb the metals in solution. This research proved that with a pH of 4.75, a biomass concentration of 0.7 g/L, and a heavy metal concentration varying between 5 and 10 mg/L a biosorption process of biosorption with Aspergillus niger could be successfully used for heavy metal removal from oil field water in the oil industry.

  16. A New α -Pyrone Derivative from Endophytic Fungus Pestalotiopsis microspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaocong Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new α-pyrone derivative1, along with four known congeners 2, 3, 4 and 5, were isolated from the solid-substrate fermentation medium of the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis microspore isolated from the branch of Taxus chinensis. Their structures and relative configurations were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. The cytotoxic activities of the isolated α-pyrone derivatives against two tumor cell lines as well as compound 1 ’ s antimicrobial activity against three bacteria and three plant-pathogenic strains were evaluated. No antimicrobial activity was observed for compound 1. The cytotoxicity against Caski and He L a tumor cell lines w as insignificant. To our surprise, the known compound 4 showed significant gibberellin synergistic activity towards Distylium chinense seeds.

  17. Polyketides from the Halotolerant Fungus Myrothecium sp. GS-17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new polyketides, myrothecol (1 and 5-hydroxy-3-methyl-4-(1- hydroxylethyl-furan-2(5H-one (2, were isolated from the fermentation broth of the halotolerant fungus Myrothecium sp. GS-17 along with three known compounds, 5-hydroxyl-3-[(1S-1-hydroxyethyl]-4-methylfuran-2(5H-one (3, 3,5-dimethyl-4- hydroxylmethyl-5-methoxyfuran-2(5H-one (4, and 3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxymethyl-5- hydroxyfuran-2(5H-one (5. Compound 1 is the first natural occurring polyketide with a unique furylisobenzofuran skeleton. The structures of these compounds were established via extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D-, 2D-NMR, HRESI-MS, and crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.

  18. A new sesquiterpene from the entomogenous fungus Phomopsis amygdali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoli; Wang, Wenshu; Li, Erwei; Gao, Fenghua; Guo, Liangdong; Pei, Yunfei

    2016-02-01

    A new sesquiterpene, (+)-S-1-methyl-abscisic-6-acid (1), together with five known compounds, (+)-S-abscisic acid (2), fusicoccin J (3), 3?-hydroxyfusicoccin J (4), (R)-5-hydroxymethylmellein (5) and 4-hydroxyphenethyl acetate (6) was isolated from the fermentation extract of Phomopsis amygdali, an entomogenous fungus isolated from Call midge. Their structures were determined mainly by analysis of MS and NMR spectroscopic data. Compounds 1-6 were tested for antimicrobial activity against three plant pathogenic fungi: Gibberella zeae, Verticillium albo-atrum, and Fusarium nivale, and two bacteria: Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 2033E. As a result, compounds 1-4 displayed antibacterial activity against Gram-negative P. aeruginosa 2033E, and the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC value) of 1-4 is 30 ?g/mL, 58 ?g/mL, 26 ?g/mL, and 26 ?g/mL, respectively. PMID:26181224

  19. Sperm length evolution in the fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, B.; Dijkstra, M. B.

    2009-01-01

    Eusocial insects offer special opportunities for the comparative study of sperm traits because sperm competition is absent (in species with obligatory monandry) or constrained (in lineages where queens mate multiply but never remate later in life). We measured sperm length in 19 species of fungus-growing ants, representing 9 of the 12 recognized genera, and mapped these onto the ant phylogeny. We show that average sperm length across species is highly variable and decreases with mature colony size in basal genera with singly mated queens, suggesting that sperm production or storage constraints affect the evolution of sperm length. Sperm length does not decrease further in multiply mating leaf-cutting ants, despite substantial further increases in colony size. In a combined analysis, sexual dimorphism explained 63.1% of the variance in sperm length between species. As colony size was not a significant predictor in this analysis, we conclude that sperm production trade-offs in males have been the major selective force affecting sperm length across the fungus-growing ants, rather than storage constraints in females. The relationship between sperm length and sexual dimorphism remained robust in phylogenetically independent contrasts. Some of the remaining variation was explained by the relative size of the sperm-storage organ, but only in the multiply mating leaf-cutting ants, suggesting that sperm-storage constraints become important for the evolution of sperm length in this derived group. Mate number affected sperm length to a minor extent, and only in interaction with other predictor variables, suggesting that sperm competition has not been a major selective force for sperm length evolution in these ants.

  20. Radiologic characteristics of sinonasal fungus ball: an analysis of 119 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. It is important to differentiate sinonasal fungus ball from non-fungal sinusitis and other forms of fungal sinusitis in order to determine the optimal treatment. In particular, a sinonasal fungus ball, a non-invasive fungal sinusitis, can be characterized by radiologic findings before surgery. Purpose. To differentiate a sinonasal fungus ball from other types of sinusitis and determine optimal treatment on the basis of radiologic findings before surgery. Material and Methods. We studied 119 patients with clinically and pathologically proven sinonasal fungus balls. Their condition was evaluated radiologically with contrast-enhanced CT (99 patients), non-contrast CT (18 patients) and/or MRI (17 patients) prior to sinonasal surgery. Results. Calcifications were found in 78 of 116 (67.2%) patients who underwent CT scans for fungus ball. As opposed to non-contrast CT scans, contrast CT scans revealed hyper attenuating fungal ball in 82.8% and enhanced inflamed mucosa in 65.5% of the patients, respectively. On MRI, most sinonasal fungal balls showed iso- or hypointensity on T1-weighted images and marked hypointensity on T2-weighted images. Inflamed mucosal membranes were noted and appeared as hypointense on T1-weighted images (64.7%) and hyperintense on T2-weighted images (88.2%). Conclusion. When there are no calcifications visible on the CT scan, a hyper attenuating fungal ball located in the central area of the sinus with mucosal thickening on enhanced CT scans is an important feature of a non-invasive sinonasal fungus ball. On MRI, a sinonasal fungus ball has typical features of a marked hypointense fungus ball with a hyperintense mucosal membrane in T2-weighted images. A contrast-enhanced CT scan or MRI provides sufficient information for the preoperative differentiation of a sinonasal fungus ball from other forms of sinusitis

  1. Radiologic characteristics of sinonasal fungus ball: an analysis of 119 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Young-Joon; Kim, Kyubo (Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Kim, Jinna (Dept. of Radiology, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Lee, Jeung-Gweon; Kim, Chang-Hoon (Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); The Airway Mucus Institute, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)), email: entman@yuhs.ac; Yoon, Joo-Heon (Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); The Airway Mucus Institute, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Research Center for Human Natural Defense System, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); BK21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of))

    2011-09-15

    Background. It is important to differentiate sinonasal fungus ball from non-fungal sinusitis and other forms of fungal sinusitis in order to determine the optimal treatment. In particular, a sinonasal fungus ball, a non-invasive fungal sinusitis, can be characterized by radiologic findings before surgery. Purpose. To differentiate a sinonasal fungus ball from other types of sinusitis and determine optimal treatment on the basis of radiologic findings before surgery. Material and Methods. We studied 119 patients with clinically and pathologically proven sinonasal fungus balls. Their condition was evaluated radiologically with contrast-enhanced CT (99 patients), non-contrast CT (18 patients) and/or MRI (17 patients) prior to sinonasal surgery. Results. Calcifications were found in 78 of 116 (67.2%) patients who underwent CT scans for fungus ball. As opposed to non-contrast CT scans, contrast CT scans revealed hyper attenuating fungal ball in 82.8% and enhanced inflamed mucosa in 65.5% of the patients, respectively. On MRI, most sinonasal fungal balls showed iso- or hypointensity on T1-weighted images and marked hypointensity on T2-weighted images. Inflamed mucosal membranes were noted and appeared as hypointense on T1-weighted images (64.7%) and hyperintense on T2-weighted images (88.2%). Conclusion. When there are no calcifications visible on the CT scan, a hyper attenuating fungal ball located in the central area of the sinus with mucosal thickening on enhanced CT scans is an important feature of a non-invasive sinonasal fungus ball. On MRI, a sinonasal fungus ball has typical features of a marked hypointense fungus ball with a hyperintense mucosal membrane in T2-weighted images. A contrast-enhanced CT scan or MRI provides sufficient information for the preoperative differentiation of a sinonasal fungus ball from other forms of sinusitis

  2. Biological Control of Yellow Nutsedge with the Indigenous Rust Fungus Puccinia canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatak, S C; Sumner, D R; Wells, H D; Bell, D K; Glaze, N C

    1983-03-25

    Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.) is a serious weed problem in the United States and other countries. An indigenous rust fungus [Puccinia canaliculata (Schw.) Lagerh.], pathogenic on yellow nutsedge, was released in early spring as a potential biological control agent. The fungus inhibited nutsedge flowering and new tuber formation. The fungus also dehydrated and killed nutsedge plants. The successful control of yellow nutsedge by a rust epiphytotic under experimental conditions demonstrates the potential use of the rust in an integrated weed management system. PMID:17735196

  3. Reaction of some soybean mutant lines to natural rust fungus caused by (phakopsora pachyrhizi syd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reaction of some soybean mutant lines to natural rust fungus caused by (phakopsora pachyhizi syd). Eleven soybean mutant lines of orba variety derived from gamma fungus disease in the wet season 1985/86 at the experimental station of Citayam, Bogor. Based on IWGSR rating system, soybean mutant lines No 18/PsJ was moderately resistant to rust fungus disease. The other mutant lines, 14/PsJ, 15/PsJ, 20/PsJ, 102/PsJ, 106/PsJ, 111/PsJ, 118/PsJ, 119/PsJ and 220/PsJ were susceptible. (author). 4 figs.; 8 refs

  4. Reaction of some soybean mutant lines to natural rust fungus caused by (phakopsora pachyrhizi SYD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reaction of some soybean mutant lines to natural rust fungus caused by (Phakopsora pachyrhizi SYD). Eleven soybean mutant lines of orba variety derived from gamma fungus disease in the wet season 1985/86 at the experimental station of Citayam, Bogor. Based on IWGSR rating system, soybean mutant lines No 18/Psj was moderately resistant to rust fungus disease. The other mutant lines, 14/PsJ, 15/PsJ, 19/PsJ, 20/PsJ, 106/PsJ, 102/PsJ, 111/PsJ, 118/PsJ, 119/PsJ and 220/PsJ were susceptible. (author). 11 refs

  5. Biosorption of copper(II and chromium(VI by modified tea fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Š?iban Marina B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The tea fungus was found to have good adsorption capacities for heavy metal ions. In this work it was treated with HCl or NaOH at 20°C or 100°C, with the aim to improve its adsorption ability. The sorption of Cu(II and Cr(VI ions from aqueous solutions by raw and treated tea fungus was investigated in the batch mode. The largest quantity of adsorbed Cu(II, of about 55 mg/g, was achieved by tea fungus modified with NaOH at 100°C. For Cr(VI, the largest quantity of adsorbed anions, of about 58 mg/g, was achieved by the adsorbent modified with NaOH at 20°C. It was shown that acid modification of tea fungus biomass was not effective. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43005 i br. TR 31002

  6. Convergent coevolution in the domestication of coral mushrooms by fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkacsi, A B; Nees, Jan Pan; Villesen, Palle; Mueller, U G; Blackwell, M; McLaughlin, D J

    2004-01-01

    Comparisons of phylogenetic patterns between coevolving symbionts can reveal rich details about the evolutionary history of symbioses. The ancient symbiosis between fungus-growing ants, their fungal cultivars, antibiotic-producing bacteria and cultivar-infecting parasites is dominated by a pattern...... of parallel coevolution, where the symbionts of each functional group are members of monophyletic groups. However, there is one outstanding exception in the fungus-growing ant system, the unidentified cultivar grown only by ants in the Apterostigma pilosum group. We classify this cultivar in the...... mushrooms cultivated by all other fungus-growing ants. Yet it has the same overall assemblage of coevolved ant-cultivar-parasite-bacterium interactions as the other ant-grown fungal cultivars. This indicates a pattern of convergent coevolution in the fungus-growing ant system, where symbionts with both...

  7. Convergent coevolution in the domestication of coral mushrooms by fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkacsi, A.B.; Pan, J.J.; Villesen, P.; Mueller, U.G.; Blackwell, M; McLaughlin, DJ

    Comparisons of phylogenetic patterns between coevolving symbionts can reveal rich details about the evolutionary history of symbioses. The ancient symbiosis between fungus-growing ants, their fungal cultivars, antibiotic-producing bacteria and cultivar-infecting parasites is dominated by a pattern...... of parallel coevolution, where the symbionts of each functional group are members of monophyletic groups. However, there is one outstanding exception in the fungus-growing ant system, the unidentified cultivar grown only by ants in the Apterostigma pilosum group. We classify this cultivar in the...... mushrooms cultivated by all other fungus-growing ants. Yet it has the same overall assemblage of coevolved ant-cultivar-parasite-bacterium interactions as the other ant-grown fungal cultivars. This indicates a pattern of convergent coevolution in the fungus-growing ant system, where symbionts with both...

  8. Biodegradation of hazardous waste using white rot fungus: Project planning and concept development document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been shown to effectively degrade pollutants such as trichlorophenol, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and other halogenated aromatic compounds. These refractory organic compounds and many others have been identified in the tank waste, groundwater and soil of various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The treatment of these refractory organic compounds has been identified as a high priority for DOE's Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) waste treatment programs. Unlike many bacteria, the white rot fungus P. chrysosporium is capable of degrading these types of refractory organics and may be valuable for the treatment of wastes containing multiple pollutants. The objectives of this project are to identify DOE waste problems amenable to white rot fungus treatment and to develop and demonstrate white rot fungus treatment process for these hazardous organic compounds. 32 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  9. Antimycobacterial and antiplasmodial cyclodepsipeptides from the insect pathogenic fungus Paecilomyces tenuipes BCC 1614.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilanonta, C; Isaka, M; Kittakoop, P; Palittapongarnpim, P; Kamchonwongpaisan, S; Pittayakhajonwut, D; Tanticharoen, M; Thebtaranonth, Y

    2000-12-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extract from the insect pathogenic fungus Paecilomyces tenuipes BCC 1614 led to the isolation and identification of two antimycobacterial and antiplasmodial cyclodepsipeptides, beauvericin and beauvericin A. PMID:11199137

  10. Aspernolides A and B, butenolides from a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus terreus

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parvatkar, R.R.; DeSouza, C.; Tripathi, A.; Naik, C.G.

    Two aromatic butenolides, aspernolides A and B along with the known metabolites, butyrolactone I, terrein and physcion were isolated from the fermentation broth of a soft coral derived fungus Aspergillus terreus. The structures of these metabolites...

  11. Study of cobalt distribution in fungus Trichoderma viride using 60Co as radioindicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake and distribution of cobalt by filamentous fungus Trichoderma viride has been studied. By means of 60Co the cobalt concentrations in conidia and mycelium were determined. (author) 5 refs.; 1 fig

  12. Modelling the Hyphal Growth of the Wood-decay Fungus Physisporinus vitreus

    CERN Document Server

    Fuhr, M J; Schwarze, F W M R; Herrmann, H J

    2011-01-01

    The white-rot fungus, Physisporinus vitreus, degrades the membranes of bordered pits in tracheids and consequently increases the permeability of wood, which is a process that can be used by the wood industry to improve the uptake of wood preservatives and environmentally benign wood modification substances to enhance the use and sustainability of native conifer wood species. To understand and apply this process requires an understanding of how a complex system (fungus-wood) interacts under defined conditions. We present a three-dimensional fungal growth model (FGM) of the hyphal growth of P. vitreus in the heartwood of Norway spruce. The model considers hyphae and nutrients as discrete structures and links the microscopic interactions between fungus and wood (e.g. degradation rate and degree of opening of pits) with macroscopic system properties, such penetration depth of the fungus, biomass and distribution of destroyed pits in early- and latewood. Simulations were compared with experimental data. The growth...

  13. Variation in Tolerance and Virulence in the Chestnut Blight Fungus-Hypovirus Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Peever, Tobin L.; Liu, Yir-Chung; Cortesi, Paolo; Milgroom, Michael G

    2000-01-01

    Chestnut blight, caused by the fungus Cryphonectria parasitica, has been effectively controlled with double-stranded RNA hypoviruses in Europe for over 40 years. The marked reduction in the virulence of C. parasitica by hypoviruses is a phenomenon known as hypovirulence. This virus-fungus pathosystem has become a model system for the study of biological control of fungi with viruses. We studied variation in tolerance to hypoviruses in fungal hosts and variation in virulence among virus isolat...

  14. Structure of Oxalacetate Acetylhydrolase, a Virulence Factor of the Chestnut Blight Fungus*

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chen; Sun, Qihong; Narayanan, Buvaneswari; NUSS, DONALD L.; Herzberg, Osnat

    2010-01-01

    Oxalacetate acetylhydrolase (OAH), a member of the phosphoenolpyruvate mutase/isocitrate lyase superfamily, catalyzes the hydrolysis of oxalacetate to oxalic acid and acetate. This study shows that knock-out of the oah gene in Cryphonectria parasitica, the chestnut blight fungus, reduces the ability of the fungus to form cankers on chestnut trees, suggesting that OAH plays a key role in virulence. OAH was produced in Escherichia coli and purified, and its catalytic rates were determined. Oxal...

  15. A Hydrophobin of the Chestnut Blight Fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, Is Required for Stromal Pustule Eruption

    OpenAIRE

    Kazmierczak, Pam; Kim, Dae Hyuk; Turina, Massimo; Van Alfen, Neal K.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrophobins are abundant small hydrophobic proteins that are present on the surfaces of many filamentous fungi. The chestnut blight pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica was shown to produce a class II hydrophobin, cryparin. Cryparin is the most abundant protein produced by this fungus when grown in liquid culture. When the fungus is growing on chestnut trees, cryparin is found only in the fungal fruiting body walls. Deletion of the gene encoding cryparin resulted in a culture phenotype typical ...

  16. Reduced biological control and enhanced chemical pest management in the evolution of fungus farming in ants

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Zimmerman, Jess K; Nash, David R; Boomsma, Jacobus J.; William T. Wcislo

    2009-01-01

    To combat disease, most fungus-growing ants (Attini) use antibiotics from mutualistic bacteria (Pseudonocardia) that are cultured on the ants' exoskeletons and chemical cocktails from exocrine glands, especially the metapleural glands (MG). Previous work has hypothesized that (i) Pseudonocardia antibiotics are narrow-spectrum and control a fungus (Escovopsis) that parasitizes the ants' fungal symbiont, and (ii) MG secretions have broad-spectrum activity and protect ants and brood. We assessed...

  17. A Single Streptomyces Symbiont Makes Multiple Antifungals to Support the Fungus Farming Ant Acromyrmex octospinosus

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan F. Seipke; Barke, Jörg; Brearley, Charles; Hill, Lionel; Yu, Douglas W.; Goss, Rebecca J. M.; Hutchings, Matthew I

    2011-01-01

    Attine ants are dependent on a cultivated fungus for food and use antibiotics produced by symbiotic Actinobacteria as weedkillers in their fungus gardens. Actinobacterial species belonging to the genera Pseudonocardia, Streptomyces and Amycolatopsis have been isolated from attine ant nests and shown to confer protection against a range of microfungal weeds. In previous work on the higher attine Acromyrmex octospinosus we isolated a Streptomyces strain that produces candicidin, consistent with...

  18. Caste-specific symbiont policing by workers of Acromyrmex fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivens, Aniek B.F.; Nash, David R.; Poulsen, Michael; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between leaf-cutting ants and their fungus garden mutualists is ideal for studying the evolutionary stability of interspecific cooperation. Although the mutualism has a long history of diffuse coevolution, there is ample potential for conflicts between the partners over the mixing and transmission of symbionts. Symbiont transmission is vertical by default, and both the ants and resident fungus actively protect the fungal monoculture growing in their nest against secondary introdu...

  19. Treatment of a Textile Effluent from Dyeing with Cochineal Extracts Using Trametes versicolor Fungus

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Arroyo-Figueroa; Graciela M. L. Ruiz-Aguilar; Leticia López-Martínez; Guillermo González-Sánchez; Germán Cuevas-Rodríguez; Refugio Rodríguez-Vázquez

    2011-01-01

    Trametes versicolor (Tv) fungus can degrade synthetic dyes that contain azo groups, anthraquinone, triphenylmethane polymers, and heterocyclic groups. However, no references have been found related to the degradation of natural dyes, such as the carminic acid that is contained in the cochineal extract. Experiments to determine the decolorization of the effluent used in the cotton dyeing process with cochineal extract by means of Tv fungus were done. Treatments to determine decolorization in t...

  20. Inbreeding depression in urban environments of the bird's nest fungus Cyathus stercoreus (Nidulariaceae: Basidiomycota)

    OpenAIRE

    Malloure, B D; James, T. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Many organisms display codispersal of offspring, but fewer display codispersal of compatible gametes. This mechanism enhances the ability of a species to colonize after long distance dispersal as a mechanism of reproductive assurance, but it also fosters inbreeding and potential reduction in fitness. Here we investigated both long distance dispersal and inbreeding in the bird's nest fungus Cyathus stercoreus, a dung and mulch-associated fungus with a splash cup fruiting body appearing like a ...

  1. Pathogenicity of a fungus resembling Wangiella dermatitidis isolated from edible mushrooms.

    OpenAIRE

    Kazanas, N.

    1986-01-01

    A fungus resembling the human pathogen Wangiella dermatitidis (Kano) McGinnis, a dematiaceous hyphomycete, was recovered from imported desiccated "black fungus" mushrooms (Auricularia polytrichia (Mont.) Sacc.), a food item popular in Far Eastern cuisine. Except for its conidia, which are mostly reniform to allantoid rather than ovoid as is characteristic for W. dermatitidis, and the undecided mode of conidiogenesis, the isolate closely resembles W. dermatitidis in gross and microscopic morph...

  2. Reduced biological control and enhanced chemical pest management in the evolution of fungus farming in ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Zimmerman, Jess K; Nash, David R; Boomsma, Jacobus J; Wcislo, William T

    2009-01-01

    To combat disease, most fungus-growing ants (Attini) use antibiotics from mutualistic bacteria (Pseudonocardia) that are cultured on the ants' exoskeletons and chemical cocktails from exocrine glands, especially the metapleural glands (MG). Previous work has hypothesized that (i) Pseudonocardia antibiotics are narrow-spectrum and control a fungus (Escovopsis) that parasitizes the ants' fungal symbiont, and (ii) MG secretions have broad-spectrum activity and protect ants and brood. We assessed th...

  3. Convergent coevolution in the domestication of coral mushrooms by fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkacsi, A B; Nees, Jan Pan; Villesen, Palle; Mueller, U G; Blackwell, M; McLaughlin, D J

    2004-01-01

    Comparisons of phylogenetic patterns between coevolving symbionts can reveal rich details about the evolutionary history of symbioses. The ancient symbiosis between fungus-growing ants, their fungal cultivars, antibiotic-producing bacteria and cultivar-infecting parasites is dominated by a pattern of parallel coevolution, where the symbionts of each functional group are members of monophyletic groups. However, there is one outstanding exception in the fungus-growing ant system, the unidentified ...

  4. Exploring the potential for actinobacteria as defensive symbionts in fungus-growing termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Anna A; Nobre, Tânia; Currie, Cameron R; Aanen, Duur K; Poulsen, Michael

    2012-05-01

    In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play a role as defensive symbionts against Pseudoxylaria in fungus-growing termites. We sampled for Actinobacteria from 30 fungus-growing termite colonies, spanning the three main termite genera and two geographically distant sites. Our isolations yielded 360 Actinobacteria, from which we selected subsets for morphological (288 isolates, grouped in 44 morphotypes) and for 16S rRNA (35 isolates, spanning the majority of morphotypes) characterisation. Actinobacteria were found throughout all sampled nests and colony parts and, phylogenetically, they are interspersed with Actinobacteria from origins other than fungus-growing termites, indicating lack of specificity. Antibiotic-activity screening of 288 isolates against the fungal cultivar and competitor revealed that most of the Actinobacteria-produced molecules with antifungal activity. A more detailed bioassay on 53 isolates, to test the specificity of antibiotics, showed that many Actinobacteria inhibit both Pseudoxylaria and Termitomyces, and that the cultivar fungus generally is more susceptible to inhibition than the competitor. This suggests that either defensive symbionts are not present in the system or that they, if present, represent a subset of the community isolated. If so, the antibiotics must be used in a targeted fashion, being applied to specific areas by the termites. We describe the first discovery of an assembly of antibiotic-producing Actinobacteria occurring in fungus-growing termite nests. However, due to the diversity found, and the lack of both phylogenetic and bioactivity specificity, further work is necessary for a better understanding of the putative role of antibiotic-producing bacteria in the fungus-growing termite mutualistic system. PMID:22173371

  5. The Hidden Habit of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana: First Demonstration of Vertical Plant Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Quesada-Moraga, Enrique; López-Díaz, Cristina; Landa, Blanca B.

    2014-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip, obtained from a larva of the opium poppy stem gall wasp Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae), endophytically colonizes opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants and protects them against this pest. The goal of this study was to monitor the dynamics of endophytic colonization of opium poppy by B. bassiana after the fungus was applied to the seed and to ascertain whether the fungus is transmitted vertically via seeds. Using a species-specific ...

  6. Levels of specificity of Xylaria species associated with fungus-growing termites: a phylogenetic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, A.A.; Ros, V.I.D.; de Beer, Z.W.; Debets, A. J. M.; Hartog, E.; T. W. Kuyper; Laessoe, T.; Slippers, B.; Aanen, D.K.

    2009-01-01

    Fungus-growing termites live in obligate mutualistic symbiosis with species of the basidiomycete genus Termitomyces, which are cultivated on a substrate of dead plant material. When the termite colony dies, or when nest material is incubated without termites in the laboratory, fruiting bodies of the ascomycete genus Xylaria appear and rapidly cover the fungus garden. This raises the question whether certain Xylaria species are specialised in occupying termite nests or whether they are just oc...

  7. Comparison of Gamma Irradiated and Raw Lignite in Bioliquefaction Process by Fungus T5

    OpenAIRE

    I. Sugoro; D.I. Astuti; D. Sasongko; P. Aditiawati

    2012-01-01

    The bioliquefaction of coal is a processing technology for converting solid coal to liquid oil at ambient temperature by helping microorganism. The pretreated of lignite is important to decrease the hydrofobic of lignite surface. One of pretreated method was irradiation by gamma rays. Aim of this research was to compare the gamma irradiated lignite and raw lignite in bioliquefaction process by selected fungus T5. The fungus was identified by molecular method using 18S rDNA. Treatments were A ...

  8. Antifungal activity of metabolites of the endophytic fungus Trichoderma brevicompactum from garlic

    OpenAIRE

    Shentu, Xuping; Zhan, Xiaohuan; Ma, Zheng; Yu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Chuanxi

    2014-01-01

    The endophytic fungus strain 0248, isolated from garlic, was identified as Trichoderma brevicompactum based on morphological characteristics and the nucleotide sequences of ITS1-5.8S- ITS2 and tef1. The bioactive compound T2 was isolated from the culture extracts of this fungus by bioactivity-guided fractionation and identified as 4?-acetoxy-12,13- epoxy-?9-trichothecene (trichodermin) by spectral analysis and mass spectrometry. Trichodermin has a marked inhibitory activity on Rhizoctonia sol...

  9. The hidden habit of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana: First demonstration of vertical plant transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Quesada-Moraga, E.; López-Díaz, C.; Landa, Blanca B.

    2014-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip, obtained from a larva of the opium poppy stem gall wasp Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae), endophytically colonizes opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants and protects them against this pest. The goal of this study was to monitor the dynamics of endophytic colonization of opium poppy by B. bassiana after the fungus was applied to the seed and to ascertain whether the fungus is transmitted vertically via seeds. Using a species-specific nested PC...

  10. Medium Optimization for Exopolysaccharide Production in Liquid Culture of Endophytic Fungus Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12

    OpenAIRE

    Youliang Peng; Ligang Zhou; Shiqiong Lu; Ziling Mao; Tijiang Shan; Yan Mou; Liang Xu; Peiqin Li

    2012-01-01

    Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12, an endophytic fungus from Dioscorea zingiberensis, is a high producer of spirobisnaphthalenes with various bioactivities. The exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by this fungus also shows excellent antioxidant activity. In this study, the experimental designs based on statistics were employed to evaluate and optimize the medium for EPS production in liquid culture of Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12. For increasing EPS ...

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55.

    OpenAIRE

    Kotterman, M.J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Outline of this thesisIn this thesis the conditions for optimal PAH oxidation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 were evaluated. In Chapter 2, culture conditions like aeration and cosubstrate concentrations, which influenced the oxidation of the PAH compound anthracene and the ligninolytic indicator dye Poly R-478 by the white rot fungus, were studied. Two parameters were identified as the most important PAH oxidation rate-limiting factors: the hydrogen peroxide production r...

  12. Bioactive secondary metabolites from the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Ebel R.; Proksch P.; Hakiki A.; Mosaddak M.; Müller WEG.; Edrada-Ebel RA.; Aly HA.; Debbab A.

    2009-01-01

    This study reports the chemical investigation and cytotoxic activity of the secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco. This plant was collected from the Beni-Mellal Mountain in Morocco and belongs to the Lamiaceae family and is named in Morocco “Salmia”. The endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. was isolated from the tissues of the stem of this plant. The fungal strain was identified by PCR. The crude organic extract ...

  13. Comparison of gene expression in trap cells and vegetative hyphae of the nematophagous fungus Monacrosporium haptotylum

    OpenAIRE

    Ahrén, Dag; Tholander, Margareta; Fekete, Csaba; Rajashekar, Balaji; Friman, Eva; Johansson, Tomas; Tunlid, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Nematode-trapping fungi enter the parasitic stage by developing specific morphological structures called traps. The global patterns of gene expression in traps and mycelium of the fungus Monacrosporium haptotylum were compared. The trap of this fungus is a unicellular spherical structure called the knob, which develops on the apex of a hyphal branch. RNA was isolated from knobs and mycelium and hybridized to a cDNA array containing probes of 2822 EST clones of M. haptotylum. Despite the fact ...

  14. Vertical transmission as the key to the colonization of Madagascar by fungus-growing termites?

    OpenAIRE

    Nobre, T.; Eggleton, P.; Aanen, D.K.

    2010-01-01

    The mutualism between fungus-growing termites (Macrotermitinae) and their mutualistic fungi (Termitomyces) began in Africa. The fungus-growing termites have secondarily colonized Madagascar and only a subset of the genera found in Africa is found on this isolated island. Successful long-distance colonization may have been severely constrained by the obligate interaction of the termites with fungal symbionts and the need to acquire these symbionts secondarily from the environment for most spec...

  15. Microalgae harvesting via co-culture with filamentous fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultom, Sarman Oktovianus

    Microalgae harvesting is a labor- and energy-intensive process. For instance, classical harvesting technologies such as chemical addition and mechanical separation are economically prohibiting for biofuel production. Newer approaches to harvest microalgae have been developed in order to decrease costs. Among these new methods, fungal co-pelletization seems to be a promising technology. By co-culturing filamentous fungi with microalgae, it is possible to form pellets, which can easily be separated. In this study, different parameters for the cultivation of filamentous fungus (Aspergillus niger) and microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) to efficiently form cell pellets were evaluated under heterotrophic and phototrophic conditions, including organic carbon source (glucose, glycerol and sodium acetate) concentration, pH, initial concentration of fungal spores, initial concentration of microalgal cells, concentration of ionic strength (Calcium and Magnesium) and concentration of salinity (NaCl). In addition, zeta-potential measurements were carried out in order to get a better understanding of the mechanism of attraction. It was found that 2 g/L of glucose, a fungus to microalgae ratio of 1:300, and uncontrolled pH (around 7) are the best culturing conditions for co-pelletization. Under these conditions, it was possible to achieve a high harvesting performance (>90%). In addition, it was observed that most pellets formed in the co-culture were spherical with an average diameter of 3.5 mm and in concentrations of about 5 pellets per mL of culture media. Under phototrophic conditions, co-pelletization required the addition of glucose as organic carbon source to sustain the growth of fungi and to allow the harvesting of microalgae. Zeta-potential measurements indicated that (i) both microalgae and fungi have low zeta-potential values regardless of the pH on the bulk (i.e. <-10 mV) (ii) fungi can have a positive electric charge at low pH (ie. pH=3). These values suggest that it might be possible that the degree of repulsion and dispersion between these organisms is low which facilitates the attraction between them.

  16. The dynamics of plant cell-wall polysaccharide decomposition in leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Isabel E; De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Harholt, Jesper; Willats, William G T; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2011-01-01

    The degradation of live plant biomass in fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants is poorly characterised but fundamental for understanding the mutual advantages and efficiency of this obligate nutritional symbiosis. Controversies about the extent to which the garden-symbiont Leucocoprinus gongylophorus degrades cellulose have hampered our understanding of the selection forces that induced large scale herbivory and of the ensuing ecological footprint of these ants. Here we use a recently established technique, based on polysaccharide microarrays probed with antibodies and carbohydrate binding modules, to map the occurrence of cell wall polymers in consecutive sections of the fungus garden of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior. We show that pectin, xyloglucan and some xylan epitopes are degraded, whereas more highly substituted xylan and cellulose epitopes remain as residuals in the waste material that the ants remove from their fungus garden. These results demonstrate that biomass entering leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens is only partially utilized and explain why disproportionally large amounts of plant material are needed to sustain colony growth. They also explain why substantial communities of microbial and invertebrate symbionts have evolved associations with the dump material from leaf-cutting ant nests, to exploit decomposition niches that the ant garden-fungus does not utilize. Our approach thus provides detailed insight into the nutritional benefits and shortcomings associated with fungus-farming in ants. PMID:21423735

  17. Fungal garden making inside bamboos by a non-social fungus-growing beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toki, Wataru; Takahashi, Yukiko; Togashi, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    In fungus-growing mutualism, it is indispensable for host animals to establish gardens of the symbiotic fungus as rapidly as possible. How to establish fungal gardens has been well-documented in social fungus-farming insects, whereas poorly documented in non-social fungus-farming insects. Here we report that the non-social, fungus-growing lizard beetle Doubledaya bucculenta (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Languriinae) transmits the symbiotic yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus from the ovipositor-associated mycangium into bamboo internode cavities and disperses the yeast in the cavities to make gardens. Microbial isolation and cryo-scanning electron microscopy observation revealed that W. anomalus was constantly located on the posterior ends of eggs, where larvae came out, and on the inner openings of oviposition holes. Direct observation of oviposition behavior inside internodes revealed that the distal parts of ovipositors showed a peristaltic movement when they were in contact with the posterior ends of eggs. Rearing experiments showed that W. anomalus was spread much more rapidly and widely on culture media and internodes in the presence of the larvae than in the absence. These results suggest that the ovipositors play a critical role in vertical transmission of W. anomalus and that the larvae contribute actively to the garden establishment, providing a novel case of fungal garden founding in non-social insect-fungus mutualism. PMID:24223958

  18. Insect symbioses: a case study of past, present, and future fungus-growing ant research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caldera, Eric J; Poulsen, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Fungus-growing ants (Attini: Formicidae) engage in an obligate mutualism with fungi they cultivate for food. Although biologists have been fascinated with fungus-growing ants since the resurgence of natural history in the modern era, the early stages of research focused mainly on the foraging behavior of the leaf-cutters (the most derived attine lineage). Indeed, the discovery that the ants actually use leaf fragments to manure a fungus did not come until the 1800s. More recently, three additional microbial symbionts have been described, including specialized microfungal parasites of the ant's fungus garden, antibiotic-producing actinobacteria that help protect the fungus garden from the parasite, and a black yeast that parasitizes the ant-actinobacteria mutualism. The fungus-growing ant symbiosis serves as a particularly useful model system for studying insect-microbe symbioses, because, to date, it contains four well-characterized microbial symbionts, including mutualists and parasites that encompass micro-fungi, macro-fungi, yeasts, and bacteria. Here, we discuss approaches for studying insect-microbe symbioses, using the attine ant-microbial symbiosis as our framework. We draw attention to particular challenges in the field of symbiosis, including the establishment of symbiotic associations and symbiont function. Finally, we discuss future directions in insect-microbe research, with particular focus on applying recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies.

  19. The fungus gardens of leaf-cutter ants undergo a distinct physiological transition during biomass degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Eric L.; Aylward, Frank O.; Kim, Young-Mo; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Hu, Zeping; Metz, Thomas O.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.; Currie, Cameron R.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.

    2014-08-01

    Leaf-cutter ants are dominant herbivores in ecosystems throughout the Neotropics. Rather than directly consuming the fresh foliar biomass they harvest, these ants use it to cultivate specialized fungus gardens. Although recent investigations have shed light on how plant biomass is degraded in fungus gardens, the cycling of nutrients that takes place in these specialized microbial ecosystems is still not well understood. Here, using metametabolomics and metaproteomics techniques, we examine the dynamics of nutrient turnover and biosynthesis in these gardens. Our results reveal that numerous free amino acids and sugars are depleted throughout the process of biomass degradation, indicating that easily accessible nutrients from plant material are readily consumed by microbes in these ecosystems. Accumulation of cellobiose and lignin derivatives near the end of the degradation process is consistent with previous findings of cellulases and laccases produced by Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the fungus cultivated by leaf-cutter ants. Our results also suggest that ureides may be an important source of nitrogen in fungus gardens, especially during nitrogen-limiting conditions. No free arginine was detected in our metametabolomics experiments despite evidence that the host ants cannot produce this amino acid, suggesting that biosynthesis of this metabolite may be tightly regulated in the fungus garden. These results provide new insights into the dynamics of nutrient cycling that underlie this important ant-fungus symbiosis.

  20. Studies on biosorption of nickel using immobilized fungus, Rhizomucor tauricus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kishore Kumar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Rhizomucor tauricus, an industrial fungus, was immobilized in sodium alginate and used as adsorbent for the removal of nickel from aqueous solutions. The biosorption capacity of Ni(II was found to be 394 mg/g of immobilized biomass. It was observed that an increase in pH from 3 to 6 increased the percent adsorption, and an increase in liquid-to-solid ratio from 2 to 10 increased the metal uptake. The percent adsorption was increased when increasing the initial metal concentration from 25 to 100 mg/L. The equilibrium biosorption data was evaluated by Langmuir, Freundlich, and Langmuir-Freundlich (L-R isotherm models, and was best described by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. FTIR analysis revealed that –NH (bending, C–H (stretching, C=O (stretching, and –OH functional groups were mainly responsible for Ni(II biosorption. Thus, this study demonstrated that the immobilized Rhizomucor tauricus biomass could be used as an adsorbent for the treatment of Ni(II from aqueous solution.

  1. Effects of ozone on the germination of fungus spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibben, C.R.; Stotzky, G.

    1969-01-01

    Detached spores of 14 fungi varied in germination after exposure on agar to 10 to 100 parts per hundred million (p.p.hm.) ozone for 1 to 6 h. Large pigmented spores of Chaetomium sp., Stemphylium sarcinaeforme, S. loti, and Alternaria sp. were insensitive to 100 p.p.hm. Spores of Trichoderma viride, Aspergillus terreus, A. niger, Penicillium egyptiacum, Botrytis allii, and Rhizopus stolonifer were reduced in germination primarily by 100 and 50 p.p.hm. for the longer exposures. Small hyaline spores of Fusarium oxysporum, Colletotrichum lagenarium, Verticillium albo-atrum, and V. dahliae were the most sensitive, as their germination was prevented or reduced by most exposures to 100 and 50 pphm and occasionally reduced by doses as low as 25 pphm for 4 and 6 h. Ten parts per hundred million for 6 h had little inhibitory effect, but extended exposures up to 28 h reduced germination of A. terreus, A. niger, and P. egyptiacum spores to below 50% of the controls. The lower doses of ozone sometimes stimulated spore germination. Fungus colonies maintained in an ozone atmosphere had abnormal growth characteristics. Ozone had little inhibitory effect on air-dried spores in a liquid medium. 37 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  2. In vitro pathogenicity assay for the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Jan; Tudzynski, Paul

    2006-04-01

    The pathogenic development of the biotrophic ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea is strictly limited to the ovary of grasses. Early colonization stages occur within a defined spatio-temporal course of events, including the directed growth to the vascular tissue for nutrient supply. To characterize mutant strains with putative defects in pathogenicity, the close observation of the infection pathway is therefore indispensable. Here, we describe the establishment of a new pathogenicity assay, based on the in vitro cultivation of isolated rye ovaries. The pathogenic development of a wild-type strain of C. purpurea was compared with the infection of mature rye flowers on whole plants. Up to the sixth day post inoculation, the route of infection within the isolated ovaries was maintained and temporally equal to that seen in mature flowers. Therefore, the in vitro pathogenicity assay is an effective alternative to the whole-plant infection tests, and suitable for detailed infection studies and screening high numbers of mutants for defects in early pathogenesis. PMID:16483754

  3. Biosynthesis of vanillin by the fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus MIP 95001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Moro Villela Pacheco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vanillin (a substance popularly known as vanilla flavor is one of the most widely used compounds, mainly by food and pharmaceutical industries. This substance can be obtained from the orchid Vanilla planifolia, but this is costly and time consuming. Thus, other methods for obtaining vanillin have been studied. Within this context, the aim of this work was to study the biosynthesis of vanillin by three strains of Pycnoporus sanguineus through the use of vanillic acid as a precursor. The strains were cultured in Petri dishes with a potato dextrose agar medium. Fragments of the media with the fungus were then inoculated in Erlenmeyer flasks with a liquid medium of potato broth and 0.3 g.L-1 of vanillic acid. The flasks remained in a shaker for eight days at 28°C and 120 rpm. Samples were withdrawn once a day (0.8 mL.day-1 for analysis of vanillin, glucose, total phenols, total proteins, and laccase. The results showed that only the MIP 95001 strain promoted the biosynthesis of vanillin. The highest concentration of vanillin was detected on the fourth day of cultivation (8.75 mg.dL-1. The results illustrate the ability to biosynthesize vanillin using Pycnoporus sanguineus (MIP 95001, which suggests a possible route for the biotechnological production of this flavor.

  4. Five New Cytotoxic Metabolites from the Marine Fungus Neosartorya pseudofischeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jian Lan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The marine fungus Neosartorya pseudofischeri was isolated from Acanthaster planci from the South China Sea. In a preliminary bioactivity screening, the crude methanol extract of the fungal mycelia showed significant inhibitory activity against the Sf9 cell line from the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda. Five novel compounds, including 5-olefin phenylpyropene A (1, 13-dehydroxylpyripyropene A (4, deacetylsesquiterpene (7, 5-formyl-6-hydroxy-8-isopropyl-2- naphthoic acid (9 and 6,8-dihydroxy-3-((1E,3E-penta-1,3-dien-1-ylisochroman-1-one (10, together with eleven known compounds, phenylpyropene A (2 and C (3, pyripyropene A (5, 7-deacetylpyripyropene A (6, (1S,2R,4aR,5R,8R,8aR-1,8a-dihydroxy-2-acetoxy-3,8-dimethyl-5- (prop-1-en-2-yl-1,2,4a, 5,6,7,8,8a-octahydronaphthalene (8, isochaetominine C (11, trichodermamide A (12, indolyl-3-acetic acid methyl ester (13, 1-acetyl-?-carboline (14, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-hydroxyl-2-methyl-l,3,4-trioxopyrazino[l,2-a]-indole (15 and fumiquinazoline F (16, were obtained. The structures of these compounds were determined mainly by MS and NMR data. The absolute configuration of 9 was assigned by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Compounds 1–11 and 15 showed significant cytotoxicity against the Sf9 cells from S. frugiperda.

  5. Ethanol Production from Lignocellulose by the Dimorphic Fungus Mucor Indicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennartsson, P.R.; Taherzadeh, M.J. (School of Engineering, Univ. of Boraas, SE-50190, Boraas (Sweden)). e-mail: Patrik.Lennartsson@hb.se; Karimi, K. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan Univ. of Technology, 84156-83111, Isfahan (IR)); Edebo, L. (Dept. of Clinical Bacteriology, Univ. of Goeteborg, SE-41346, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2008-10-15

    Ethanol production from dilute-acid lignocellulosic hydrolyzate by the dimorphic fungus Mucor indicus was investigated. A mixture of different forest wood chips dominated by spruce was hydrolyzed with 0.5 g/L sulfuric acid at 15 bar for 10 min, yielding different sugars including galactose, glucose, mannose, and xylose, but also different fermentation inhibitors such as acetic acid, furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), and phenolic compounds. We induced different morphological growth of M. indicus from purely filamentous, mostly filamentous, mostly yeast-like to purely yeast-like. The different forms were then used to ferment the hydrolyzate. They tolerated the presence of the inhibitors under anaerobic batch cultivation well and the ethanol yield was 430-440 g/kg consumed sugars. The ethanol productivity depended on the morphology. Judging from these results, we conclude that M. indicus, is useful for ethanol production from toxic substrates independent of its morphology. Keywords: bio-ethanol, lignocellulosic materials, dilute acid hydrolysis, Mucor indicus, dimorphic fungi

  6. Identification of naphthalene metabolism by white rot fungus Pleurotus eryngii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadibarata, Tony; Teh, Zee Chuang; Rubiyatno; Zubir, Meor Mohd Fikri Ahmad; Khudhair, Ameer Badr; Yusoff, Abdull Rahim Mohd; Salim, Mohd Razman; Hidayat, Topik

    2013-10-01

    The use of biomaterials or microorganisms in PAHs degradation had presented an eye-catching performance. Pleurotus eryngii is a white rot fungus, which is easily isolated from the decayed woods in the tropical rain forest, used to determine the capability to utilize naphthalene, a two-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as source of carbon and energy. In the meantime, biotransformation of naphthalene to intermediates and other by-products during degradation was investigated in this study. Pleurotus eryngii had been incubated in liquid medium formulated with naphthalene for 14 days. The presence of metabolites of naphthalene suggests that Pleurotus eryngii begin the ring cleavage by dioxygenation on C1 and C4 position to give 1,4-naphthaquinone. 1,4-Naphthaquinone was further degraded to benzoic acid, where the proposed terepthalic acid is absent in the cultured extract. Further degradation of benzoic acid by Pleurotus eryngii shows the existence of catechol as a result of the combination of decarboxylation and hydroxylation process. Unfortunately, phthalic acid was not detected in this study. Several enzymes, including manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, laccase, 1,2-dioxygenase and 2,3-dioxygenase are enzymes responsible for naphthalene degradation. Reduction of naphthalene and the presence of metabolites in liquid medium showed the ability of Pleurotus eryngii to utilize naphthalene as carbon source instead of a limited glucose amount. PMID:23334282

  7. Characterization of the pitch canker fungus, Fusarium circinatum, from Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Jacobs; T.A., Coutinho; M.J., Wingfield; R., Ahumada; B.D., Wingfield.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium circinatum is the causal agent of the pine disease commonly referred to as pitch canker. During 2001, a Fusarium species was isolated from dying Pinus radiata clonal hedges in various forestry nurseries in Chile and was subsequently identified as F. circinatum. The aim of the study reported [...] here was to provide a detailed characterization of Chilean isolates of the fungus. Morphological characters included microconidia carried on false heads and produced on polyphialides. Sterile coils and conidiophores on erect aerial mycelium were evident on synthetic, low nutrient agar. Furthermore, perithecia exuding viable ascospores were produced when isolates were crossed in all possible combinations with the mating tester strains representing the H mating population of Gibberella fujikuroi species complex. PCR-RFLP analysis of the histone H3 gene region, routinely used to distinguish between members of the G. fujikuroi complex, further confirmed the identification of the isolates as F. circinatum. DNA sequence data obtained for the same gene region placed the isolates within a well-characterized G. circinata clade. These studies provide unequivocal evidence that the pitch canker pathogen is well established on pines in Chilean nurseries.

  8. Fungi of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.-Their Deteriorative Ability, Quality Stability and the Role of the Fungus-Eating Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Chuku

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the deteriorative ability and quality stability of coconut (Cocos nucifera L. and the effect of the fungus-eating insects (Necrobia rufipes, Alphitobius diaperinus, Crematogaster sp. and Tenebrio molitor were carried out in the Post Graduate Entomology and Plant Pathology Laboratories of the Department of Applied and Environmental Biology and also in Food Science Laboratory of the Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt. Results showed Aspergillus niger van Tieghem, Rhizopus stolonifer Lind and Penicillium italiucum Wehmer as the seed-borne fungi of coconut. Frequency of occurrence was 80% for Aspergillus niger and 100% for both Rhizopus stolonifer and Penicillium italicum. On storage stability, heat drying offered significantly higher protection to coconut copra. Percentage consumption of fungal hyphae by the fungus-eating insects varied with Tenebrio molitor consuming 100% of the three aforementioned fungi. A. diaperinius contributed up to 84.1% reduction of A. niger as against 80.3% reduction by Necrobia rufipes of A. niger, Crematogaster sp. offered the least reduction (64.2%.

  9. Fungi of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.)-Their Deteriorative Ability, Quality Stability and the Role of the Fungus-Eating Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuku, E. C.; Ogbalu, O. K.; Osakwe, J. A.

    Studies on the deteriorative ability and quality stability of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) and the effect of the fungus-eating insects (Necrobia rufipes, Alphitobius diaperinus, Crematogaster sp. and Tenebrio molitor) were carried out in the Post Graduate Entomology and Plant Pathology Laboratories of the Department of Applied and Environmental Biology and also in Food Science Laboratory of the Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt. Results showed Aspergillus niger van Tieghem, Rhizopus stolonifer Lind and Penicillium italiucum Wehmer as the seed-borne fungi of coconut. Frequency of occurrence was 80% for Aspergillus niger and 100% for both Rhizopus stolonifer and Penicillium italicum. On storage stability, heat drying offered significantly higher protection to coconut copra. Percentage consumption of fungal hyphae by the fungus-eating insects varied with Tenebrio molitor consuming 100% of the three aforementioned fungi. A. diaperinius contributed up to 84.1% reduction of A. niger as against 80.3% reduction by Necrobia rufipes of A. niger, Crematogaster sp. offered the least reduction (64.2%).

  10. Metabolism of Plant Polysaccharides by Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the Symbiotic Fungus of the Leaf-Cutting Ant Atta sexdens L.

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes De Siqueira, Célia; Bacci, Maurício; Pagnocca, Fernando Carlos; Bueno, Odair Correa; Hebling, Maria José Aparecida

    1998-01-01

    Atta sexdens L. ants feed on the fungus they cultivate on cut leaves inside their nests. The fungus, Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, metabolizes plant polysaccharides, such as xylan, starch, pectin, and cellulose, mediating assimilation of these compounds by the ants. This metabolic integration may be an important part of the ant-fungus symbiosis, and it involves primarily xylan and starch, both of which support rapid fungal growth. Cellulose seems to be less important for symbiont nutrition, si...

  11. Monitoring of white-rot fungus during bioremediation of polychlorinated dioxin-contaminated fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhara, H.; Daikoku, C.; Kondo, R. [Lab. of Systematic Forest and Forest Products Sciences, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Takata, H. [Dept. of Geriatric Research, National Inst. for Longevity Sciences, Aichi (Japan); Suzuki, S.; Matsufuji, Y. [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Fukuoka Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Sakai, K. [Lab. of Forest Chemistry and Biochemistry, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Bioremediation is a low-cost treatment alternative for the cleanup of polychlorinated-dioxin-contaminated soils and fly ash when pollution spread is wide-ranging. An interesting fungus, Ceriporia sp. MZ-340, with a high ability to degrade dioxin, was isolated from white rotten wood of a broadleaf tree from Kyushu Island in Japan. We have attempted to use the fungus for bioremediation of polychlorinated-dioxin-contaminated soil on site. However, we have to consider that this trial has the potential problem of introducing a biohazard to a natural ecosystem if this organism is naturalized. We have therefore developed a monitoring system for the introduced fungus as a part of the examination and evaluation of bioremediation in our laboratory. We have also developed a PCR-based assay to reliably detect the fungus at the bioremediation site. DNA isolated from the site was amplified by PCR using a specific primer derived from internal transcribed spacer region (ITS: ITS1, 5.8S rDNA and ITS2) sequences of ceriporia sp. MZ-340. We successfully monitored Ceriporia sp. MZ-340 down to 100 fg/{mu}l DNA and down to 2 mg/g mycelium. We also successfully monitored the fungus specifically at the bioremediation site. The polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran content was observed to decrease in response to treatment with the fungus. The species-specific PCR technique developed in the present work is useful in evaluating the possibility of on-site bioremediation using the fungus Ceriporia sp. MZ-340. (orig.)

  12. Factors affecting fungus-induced larval mortality in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takken Willem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi have shown great potential for the control of adult malaria vectors. However, their ability to control aquatic stages of anopheline vectors remains largely unexplored. Therefore, how larval characteristics (Anopheles species, age and larval density, fungus (species and concentration and environmental effects (exposure duration and food availability influence larval mortality caused by fungus, was studied. Methods Laboratory bioassays were performed on the larval stages of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi with spores of two fungus species, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. For various larval and fungal characteristics and environmental effects the time to death was determined and survival curves established. These curves were compared by Kaplan Meier and Cox regression analyses. Results Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae caused high mortality of An. gambiae and An. stephensi larvae. However, Beauveria bassiana was less effective (Hazard ratio (HR Metarhizium anisopliae. Anopheles stephensi and An. gambiae were equally susceptible to each fungus. Older larvae were less likely to die than young larvae (HR Conclusions This study shows that both fungus species have potential to kill mosquitoes in the larval stage, and that mortality rate depends on fungus species itself, larval stage targeted, larval density and amount of nutrients available to the larvae. Increasing the concentration of fungal spores or reducing the exposure time to spores did not show a proportional increase and decrease in mortality rate, respectively, because the spores clumped together. As a result spores did not provide uniform coverage over space and time. It is, therefore, necessary to develop a formulation that allows the spores to spread over the water surface. Apart from formulation appropriate delivery methods are also necessary to avoid exposing non-target organisms to fungus.

  13. Exploring the potential for actinobacteria as defensive symbionts in fungus-growing termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Anna A.; Nobre, Tânia

    2012-01-01

    In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play a role as defensive symbionts against Pseudoxylaria in fungus-growing termites. We sampled for Actinobacteria from 30 fungus-growing termite colonies, spanning the three main termite genera and two geographically distant sites. Our isolations yielded 360 Actinobacteria, from which we selected subsets for morphological (288 isolates, grouped in 44 morphotypes) and for 16S rRNA (35 isolates, spanning the majority of morphotypes) characterisation. Actinobacteria were found throughout all sampled nests and colony parts and, phylogenetically, they are interspersed with Actinobacteria from origins other than fungus-growing termites, indicating lack of specificity. Antibiotic-activity screening of 288 isolates against the fungal cultivar and competitor revealed that most of the Actinobacteria-produced molecules with antifungal activity. A more detailed bioassay on 53 isolates, to test the specificity of antibiotics, showed that many Actinobacteria inhibit both Pseudoxylaria and Termitomyces, and that the cultivar fungus generally is more susceptible to inhibition than the competitor. This suggests that either defensive symbionts are not present in the system or that they, if present, represent a subset of the community isolated. If so, the antibiotics must be used in a targeted fashion, being applied to specific areas by the termites. We describe the first discovery of an assembly of antibiotic-producing Actinobacteria occurring in fungus-growing termite nests. However, due to the diversity found, and the lack of both phylogenetic and bioactivity Electronic supplementary material

  14. Pathogenic fungus Microsporum canis activates the NLRP3 inflammasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Liming; Zhang, Liping; Li, Hua; Chen, Wei; Wang, Hongbin; Wu, Shuxian; Guo, Caiqin; Lu, Ailing; Yang, Guiwen; An, Liguo; Abliz, Paride; Meng, Guangxun

    2014-02-01

    Microsporum canis is a pathogenic fungus with worldwide distribution that causes tinea capitis in animals and humans. M. canis also causes invasive infection in immunocompromised patients. To defy pathogenic fungal infection, the host innate immune system is the first line of defense. As an important arm of innate immunity, the inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes that control the activation of caspase-1, which cleaves proinflammatory cytokine pro-interleukin-1? (IL-1?) into its mature form. To determine whether the inflammasome is involved in the host defense against M. canis infection, we challenged human monocytic THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells with a clinical strain of M. canis isolated from patients with tinea capitis. We found that M. canis infection triggered rapid secretion of IL-1? from both THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells. Moreover, by using gene-specific shRNA and competitive inhibitors, we determined that M. canis-induced IL-1? secretion was dependent on NLRP3. The pathways proposed for NLRP3 inflammasome activation, namely, cathepsin B activity, K(+) efflux, and reactive oxygen species production, were all required for the inflammasome activation triggered by M. canis. Meanwhile, Syk, Dectin-1, and Card9 were found to be involved in M. canis-induced IL-1? secretion via regulation of pro-IL-1? transcription. More importantly, our data revealed that M. canis-induced production of IL-1? was dependent on the NLRP3 inflammasome in vivo. Together, this study unveils that the NLRP3 inflammasome exerts a critical role in host innate immune responses against M. canis infection, and our data suggest that diseases that result from M. canis infection might be controlled by regulating the activation of inflammasomes. PMID:24478101

  15. Genes involved in virulence of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Jiménez, Claudio A; Wiegers, Harm; Zwaan, Bas J; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M; van Kan, Jan A L

    2016-01-01

    Pest insects cause severe damage to global crop production and pose a threat to human health by transmitting diseases. Traditionally, chemical pesticides (insecticides) have been used to control such pests and have proven to be effective only for a limited amount of time because of the rapid spread of genetic insecticide resistance. The basis of this resistance is mostly caused by (co)dominant mutations in single genes, which explains why insecticide use alone is an unsustainable solution. Therefore, robust solutions for insect pest control need to be sought in alternative methods such as biological control agents for which single-gene resistance is less likely to evolve. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has shown potential as a biological control agent of insects, and insight into the mechanisms of virulence is essential to show the robustness of its use. With the recent availability of the whole genome sequence of B. bassiana, progress in understanding the genetics that constitute virulence toward insects can be made more quickly. In this review we divide the infection process into distinct steps and provide an overview of what is currently known about genes and mechanisms influencing virulence in B. bassiana. We also discuss the need for novel strategies and experimental methods to better understand the infection mechanisms deployed by entomopathogenic fungi. Such knowledge can help improve biocontrol agents, not only by selecting the most virulent genotypes, but also by selecting the genotypes that use combinations of virulence mechanisms for which resistance in the insect host is least likely to develop. PMID:26628209

  16. Co-evolution of enzyme function in the attine ant-fungus symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; SchiØtt, Morten

    Introduction: Fungus-growing ants cultivate specialized fungi in the tribe Leucocoprineae (Lepiotaceae: Basidiomycota) inside their nests. The conspicuous leaf-cutting ants in the genus Atta build huge nests displacing several cubic meters of soil, whereas lower attine genera such as Cyphomyrmex have small nests with a fungus garden the size of a table-tennis ball. Only the leaf-cutting ants are specialized on using fresh leaves as substrate for their fungus gardens, whereas the more basal attine genera use substrates such as dry plant material (leaf litter and small twigs) and also insect feces and insect carcasses. This diverse array of fungal substrates across the attine lineage implies that the symbiotic fungus needs different enzymes to break down the plant material that the ants provide or different efficiencies of enzyme function. Methods: (1.) We made a literature survey of substrate use in all extant fungus-growing ant genera to know the range of substrates used for any particular ant genus. (2.) Field assays of enzyme activity in fungus gardens of five candidate enzymes (Amylase, proteinase, pectinase, cellulose and xylanase) to indicate differences in enzyme activity between ant groups. (3.) Phylogenetic comparison and divergence estimates of nuclear ribosomal sequences and sequences coding for candidate enzyme genes (work in progress). Results: Enzyme activity assays showed significant differences in enzyme activity across major fungus-growing ant groups. Notably the fresh leaf feeding species had a higher activity of amylase. The group of higher attines had a higher activity of proteinase and pectinase. In contrast the lower genera had a non-significant trend towards a higher activity of xylanase compared to the higher attine genera. Cellulase activity was uniform across all tested genera. Discussion: In this study we document that there are differences in fungus garden enzyme activity between the different ant genera. These different enzyme activity profiles can be partially explained by the difference in substrates brought back by the ants to manure the fungus garden. This system can be viewed as ant induced crop optimization similar to human agricultural practices.

  17. Metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into bacterial communities in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aylward, Frank O.; Burnum, Kristin E.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Suen, Garret; Tringe, Susannah G.; Adams, Sandra M.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Starrett, Gabriel J.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2012-09-01

    Herbivores gain access to nutrients stored in plant biomass largely by harnessing the metabolic activities of microbes. Leaf-cutter ants of the genus Atta are a hallmark example; these dominant Neotropical herbivores cultivate symbiotic fungus gardens on massive quantities of fresh plant forage. As the external digestive system of the ants, fungus gardens facilitate the production and sustenance of millions of workers in mature Atta colonies. Here we use metagenomic, and metaproteomic techniques to characterize the bacterial diversity and overall physiological potential of fungus gardens from two species of Atta. Our analysis of over 1.2 Gbp of community metagenomic sequence and three 16S pyrotag libraries reveals that, in addition to harboring the dominant fungal crop, these ecosystems contain abundant populations of Enterobacteriaceae, including the genera Enterobacter, Pantoea, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, and Escherichia. We show that these bacterial communities possess genes commonly associated with lignocellulose degradation, and likely participate in the processing of plant biomass. Additionally, we demonstrate that bacteria in these environments encode a diverse suite of biosynthetic pathways, and that they may enrich the nitrogen-poor forage of the ants with B-vitamins, amino acids, and proteins. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fungus gardens are highly-specialized fungus-bacteria communities that efficiently convert plant material into usable energy for their ant hosts. Together with recent investigations into the microbial symbionts of vertebrates, our work underscores the importance of microbial communities to the ecology and evolution of herbivorous metazoans.

  18. The hidden habit of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana: first demonstration of vertical plant transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Moraga, Enrique; López-Díaz, Cristina; Landa, Blanca Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip, obtained from a larva of the opium poppy stem gall wasp Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae), endophytically colonizes opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants and protects them against this pest. The goal of this study was to monitor the dynamics of endophytic colonization of opium poppy by B. bassiana after the fungus was applied to the seed and to ascertain whether the fungus is transmitted vertically via seeds. Using a species-specific nested PCR protocol and DNA extracted from surface-sterilised leaf pieces or seeds of B. bassiana-inoculated opium poppy plants, the fungus was detected within the plant beginning at the growth stage of rosette building and them throughout the entire plant growth cycle (about 120-140 days after sowing). The fungus was also detected in seeds from 50% of the capsules sampled. Seeds that showed positive amplification for B. bassiana were planted in sterile soil and the endophyte was again detected in more than 42% of the plants sampled during all plant growth stages. Beauveria bassiana was transmitted to seeds in 25% of the plants from the second generation that formed a mature capsule. These results demonstrate for the first time the vertical transmission of an entomopathogenic fungus from endophytically colonised maternal plants. This information is crucial to better understand the ecological role of entomopathogenic fungi as plant endophytes and may allow development of a sustainable and cost effective strategy for I. luteipes management in P. somniferum. PMID:24551242

  19. Nest architecture, fungus gardens, queen, males and larvae of the fungus-growing ant Mycetagroicus inflatus Brandão & Mayhé-Nunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesovnik, A; Sosa-Calvo, J; Lopes, C T; Vasconcelos, H L; Schultz, T R

    2013-01-01

    All known fungus-growing ants (tribe Attini) are obligately symbiotic with their cultivated fungi. The fungal cultivars of "lower" attine ants are facultative symbionts, capable of living apart from ants, whereas the fungal cultivars of "higher" attine ants, including leaf-cutting genera Atta and Acromyrmex, are highly specialized, obligate symbionts. Since higher attine ants and fungi are derived from lower attine ants and fungi, understanding the evolutionary transition from lower to higher attine agriculture requires understanding the historical sequence of change in both ants and fungi. The biology of the poorly known ant genus Mycetagroicus is of special interest in this regard because it occupies a phylogenetic position intermediate between lower and higher ant agriculture. Here, based on the excavations of four nests in Pará, Brazil, we report the first biological data for the recently described species Mycetagroicus inflatus, including the first descriptions of Mycetagroicus males and larvae. Like M. cerradensis, the only other species in the genus for which nesting biology is known, the garden chambers of M. inflatus are unusually deep and the garden is most likely relocated vertically in rainy and dry seasons. Due to the proximity of nests to the Araguaia River, it is likely that even the uppermost chambers and nest entrances of M. inflatus are submerged during the rainy season. Most remarkably, all three examined colonies of M. inflatus cultivate the same fungal species as their congener, M. cerradensis, over 1,000 km away, raising the possibility of long-term symbiont fidelity spanning speciation events within the genus. PMID:24273337

  20. Identifying the core microbial community in the gut of fungus-growing termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otan, Saria; Mikaelyan, Aram; Nobre, Tânia; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Koné, N'Golo A.; Sørensen, Søren J.; Aanen, Duur K.; Boomsma, Jacobus J; Brune, Andreas; Poulsen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Synergistetes. A set of 42 genus-level taxa was present in all termite species and accounted for 56-68% of the species-specific reads. Gut communities of termites from the same genus were more similar than distantly related species, suggesting that phylogenetic ancestry matters, possibly in connection with...... specific termite genus-level ecological niches. Finally, we show that gut communities of fungus-growing termites are similar to cockroaches, both at the bacterial phylum level and in a comparison of the core Macrotermitinae taxa abundances with representative cockroach, lower termite, and higher non......-fungus-growing termites. These results suggest that the obligate association with Termitomyces has forced the bacterial gut communities of the fungus-growing termites towards a relatively uniform composition with higher similarity to their omnivorous relatives than to more closely related termites. This article is...

  1. Exploring the potential for actinobacteria as defensive symbionts in fungus-growing termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Anna A.; Nobre, Tânia; Currie, Cameron R.; Aanen, Duur K.; Poulsen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    a subset of the community isolated. If so, the antibiotics must be used in a targeted fashion, being applied to specific areas by the termites. We describe the first discovery of an assembly of antibiotic-producing Actinobacteria occurring in fungus-growing termite nests. However, due to the...... other than fungus-growing termites, indicating lack of specificity. Antibiotic-activity screening of 288 isolates against the fungal cultivar and competitor revealed that most of the Actinobacteria-produced molecules with antifungal activity. A more detailed bioassay on 53 isolates, to test the...... specificity of antibiotics, showed that many Actinobacteria inhibit both Pseudoxylaria and Termitomyces, and that the cultivar fungus generally is more susceptible to inhibition than the competitor. This suggests that either defensive symbionts are not present in the system or that they, if present, represent...

  2. Fungus Ball Diagnosed on Computed Tomography (CT Guided Needle Aspiration and Biopsy of Thoracic Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Bakhshayeshkaram

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: CT-guided biopsy provides results in a short period and can be applied on outpatient and even high-risk patients; however, some studies do not recommend it in lesions with benign histology probability. The purpose was to report our experience regarding fungus ball diagnosis on CT-guided biopsy and to identify the complication rate of the procedure. "nPatients and Methods: We evaluated 99 CT-guided biopsies of infected thoracic lesions performed from March 2004 to December 2008 retrospectively. All biopsies were performed by one radiologist with Westcott needle number 20 and 18. The CTs were assessed by a trained general practitioner for the size and location of lesions and diagnosis of pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum, then all CTs were double checked by the same radiologist. Diagnosis of fungus lesions and their differentiations were based on pathology reports. "nResults: During this four-year study, 20 fungus lesions (15 men and five women were found. The mean age of the patients were 54.75 years (ranging: 19-77. In these series, there were 16 (80% aspergillosis, two (10% mucor mycosis and two undifferentiated fungus balls. The mean diameter of the lesions was 5.650 cm (range: 1-11.5 cm and the distance of the lesions to the chest wall was 0.75 cm (range: 0-3 cm. Nine (45% fungus lesions were located in the left upper, four (20% in the right lower, four (20% in the right upper and the rest (15% in the left lower and right middle lobes. Pneumothorax occurred in two cases (one aspergillosis and one mucor mycosis, while the chest tube was placed only for the patient with mucor mycosis in order to manage the compli-cation. "nConclusion: CT-guided needle biopsy seems to be a safe and feasible diagnostic modality with a low-risk probability of complications for fungus balls.

  3. COMPARISON THE DYE REMOVAL ACTIVITY OF SYSTEMS CONTAINED SURFACTANTS AND FUNGUS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ÜLKÜYE, DUDU GÜL; GÖNÜL, DÖNMEZ.

    Full Text Available Dye decolorization ability of the systems contained only R. arrhizus, only cationic surfactants and both of them were studied. The optimal pH (3-7), initial dye (50-800 mg/L) and surfactant concentration (0.5 and 1 mM) for Alkythrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) was determined in three days incubatio [...] n period and the difference of Remazol Blue dye removal activity between Dodecylthrimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB), Hegzadecylthrimethyl ammonium bromide (HTAB) and CTAB was identified. In the surfactant effect experiments it was observed that maximum dye removal activity occured in the system contained both fungus and 0.5 mM CTAB as, 77.52%, while the dye removal activity of only fungus and only CTAB were 21.2% and 71.2% in 100 mg/L dye concentration. The optimal conditions for dye removal were pH 5, low initial dye concentratios such as 100 mg/L and 1 mM CTAB concentration at the end of three days incubation period and the 95.4% dye removed by the sytem contained both fungus and CTAB. The dye removal activiy of the system contained fungus and cationic surfactants (DTAB, CTAB and HTAB) was compaired in the same optimal conditions and observed that maximum dye removal occured in the system that contained fungus and 1 mM HTAB, as 98.4%. The systems that contained surfactant and fungus are new approcahes for effective dye removal from textile effluents. According to this study, the CMC of surfactant is an important issue to increase dye removal efficiency.

  4. Extraction of DNA from plant and fungus tissues in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Almakarem Amal S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When samples are collected in the field and transported to the lab, degradation of the nucleic acids contained in the samples is frequently observed. Immediate extraction and precipitation of the nucleic acids reduces degradation to a minimum, thus preserving accurate sequence information. An extraction method to obtain high quality DNA in field studies is described. Findings DNA extracted immediately after sampling was compared to DNA extracted after allowing the sampled tissues to air dry at 21°C for 48 or 72 hours. While DNA extracted from fresh tissues exhibited little degradation, DNA extracted from all tissues exposed to 21°C air for 48 or 72 hours exhibited varying degrees of degradation. Yield was higher for extractions from fresh tissues in most cases. Four microcentrifuges were compared for DNA yield: one standard electric laboratory microcentrifuge (max rcf = 16,000×g, two battery-operated microcentrifuges (max rcf = 5,000 and 3,000 ×g, and one manually-operated microcentrifuge (max rcf = 120×g. Yields for all centrifuges were similar. DNA extracted under simulated field conditions was similar in yield and quality to DNA extracted in the laboratory using the same equipment. Conclusions This CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide DNA extraction method employs battery-operated and manually-operated equipment to isolate high quality DNA in the field. The method was tested on plant and fungus tissues, and may be adapted for other types of organisms. The method produced high quality DNA in laboratory tests and under simulated field conditions. The field extraction method should prove useful for working in remote sites, where ice, dry ice, and liquid nitrogen are unavailable; where degradation is likely to occur due to the long distances between the sample site and the laboratory; and in instances where other DNA preservation and transportation methods have been unsuccessful. It may be possible to adapt this method for genomic, metagenomic, transcriptomic and metabolomic projects using samples collected in situ.

  5. Transcriptome of an entomophthoralean fungus (Pandora formicae) shows molecular machinery adjusted for successful host exploitation and transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma?agocka, Joanna; Grell, Morten N.; Lange, Lene; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Jensen, Annette B.

    2015-01-01

    Pandora formicae is an obligate entomopathogenic fungus from the phylum Entomophthoromycota, known to infect only ants from the genus Formica. In the final stages of infection, the fungus induces the so-called summit disease syndrome, manipulating the host to climb up vegetation prior to death and...

  6. The most relictual fungus-farming ant species cultivates the most recently evolved and highly domesticated fungal symbiont species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Ted R; Sosa-Calvo, Jeffrey; Brady, Seán G; Lopes, Cauê T; Mueller, Ulrich G; Bacci, Mauricio; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L

    2015-05-01

    Fungus-farming (attine) ant agriculture is made up of five known agricultural systems characterized by remarkable symbiont fidelity in which five phylogenetic groups of ants faithfully cultivate five phylogenetic groups of fungi. Here we describe the first case of a lower-attine ant cultivating a higher-attine fungus based on our discovery of a Brazilian population of the relictual fungus-farming ant Apterostigma megacephala, known previously from four stray specimens from Peru and Colombia. We find that A. megacephala is the sole surviving representative of an ancient lineage that diverged ?39 million years ago, very early in the ?55-million-year evolution of fungus-farming ants. Contrary to all previously known patterns of ant-fungus symbiont fidelity, A. megacephala cultivates Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, a highly domesticated fungal cultivar that originated only 2-8 million years ago in the gardens of the highly derived and recently evolved (?12 million years ago) leaf-cutting ants. Because no other lower fungus-farming ant is known to cultivate any of the higher-attine fungi, let alone the leaf-cutter fungus, A. megacephala may provide important clues about the biological mechanisms constraining the otherwise seemingly obligate ant-fungus associations that characterize attine ant agriculture. PMID:25905511

  7. Enhancement of Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) Biomass Production under Drought Conditions by the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Sebacina vermifera ? †

    OpenAIRE

    Ghimire, Sita R.; Craven, Kelly D.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the effects of cocultivating the important bioenergy crop switchgrass with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Sebacina vermifera under severe drought conditions. Plants cocultivated with the fungus produced significantly higher biomass and had a higher macronutrient content than uninoculated control plants under both adequately watered and drought conditions.

  8. Enhancement of Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) Biomass Production under Drought Conditions by the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Sebacina vermifera ? †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Sita R.; Craven, Kelly D.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the effects of cocultivating the important bioenergy crop switchgrass with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Sebacina vermifera under severe drought conditions. Plants cocultivated with the fungus produced significantly higher biomass and had a higher macronutrient content than uninoculated control plants under both adequately watered and drought conditions. PMID:21841032

  9. Enhancement of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) biomass production under drought conditions by the ectomycorrhizal fungus Sebacina vermifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Sita R; Craven, Kelly D

    2011-10-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the effects of cocultivating the important bioenergy crop switchgrass with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Sebacina vermifera under severe drought conditions. Plants cocultivated with the fungus produced significantly higher biomass and had a higher macronutrient content than uninoculated control plants under both adequately watered and drought conditions. PMID:21841032

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of the Plant-Pathogenic Soil Fungus Rhizoctonia solani Anastomosis Group 3 Strain Rhs1AP

    OpenAIRE

    Cubeta, Marc A.; Thomas, Elizabeth; Dean, Ralph A; Jabaji, Suha; Neate, Stephen M.; Tavantzis, Stellos; Toda, Takeshi; Vilgalys, Rytas; Bharathan, Narayanaswamy; Fedorova-Abrams, Natalie; Pakala, Suman B.; Pakala, Suchitra M.; Zafar, Nikhat; Joardar, Vinita; Losada, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    The soil fungus Rhizoctonia solani is a pathogen of agricultural crops. Here, we report on the 51,705,945 bp draft consensus genome sequence of R. solani strain Rhs1AP. A comprehensive understanding of the heterokaryotic genome complexity and organization of R. solani may provide insight into the plant disease ecology and adaptive behavior of the fungus.

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of the Plant-Pathogenic Soil Fungus Rhizoctonia solani Anastomosis Group 3 Strain Rhs1AP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubeta, Marc A; Thomas, Elizabeth; Dean, Ralph A; Jabaji, Suha; Neate, Stephen M; Tavantzis, Stellos; Toda, Takeshi; Vilgalys, Rytas; Bharathan, Narayanaswamy; Fedorova-Abrams, Natalie; Pakala, Suman B; Pakala, Suchitra M; Zafar, Nikhat; Joardar, Vinita; Losada, Liliana; Nierman, William C

    2014-01-01

    The soil fungus Rhizoctonia solani is a pathogen of agricultural crops. Here, we report on the 51,705,945 bp draft consensus genome sequence of R. solani strain Rhs1AP. A comprehensive understanding of the heterokaryotic genome complexity and organization of R. solani may provide insight into the plant disease ecology and adaptive behavior of the fungus. PMID:25359908

  12. The research of using Co-60 ? ray to sterilize different mediums for edible fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guozhu, Li; Zhenqian, Guan; Hengshou, Zhao

    1993-10-01

    The present experiment has been carried out by using different dosage of Co—60 ? ray for radiation sterilization of five kinds of cultural materials of edible fungus, The results indicated that sterilization dosage of sawdust is 22 kGy. that of cotton—seed shell and the rest are 26 kGy. We conclude that using Co-60 ? ray to sterilize the cultura 1 materials of edible fungus is a secure and saving labor and energy new method which could sterilize thoroughly.

  13. A new guaiane mannoside from a Eutypa-like fungus isolated from Murraya paniculata in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Afonso D.L.; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Souza, Antonia Q.L.; Henrique-Silva, Flavio [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica e Evolucao; Pereira, Jose O. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias

    2008-07-01

    A Eutypa-like fungus was isolated from the stems of Murraya paniculata. The fungus was cultivated in liquid medium and produced the new guaiane-type sesquiterpenoid (1R,4S,5S,7R,10R)- 10-hydroxyguaianol 10-O-beta-mannopyranoside and the 3-hydroxy-5-phenylmethyl-(3S,5R)- tetrahydrofuran-2-one, a diastereomer of harzialactone A, obtained for the first time from a natural source. The structures of these metabolites were elucidated based on analysis of their spectroscopic data. (author)

  14. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices on accumulation of radiocaesium by plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices in 134Cs isotope by different plant species is studied. The impact of radiocaesium on mycorrhizal development and functioning of plant photosynthetic apparatus is considered. The possibility of mycorrhizal symbiosis application in phyto remediation of radioactively contaminated areas is analyzed. It is found that colonization pf plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus resulted in significant decrease of radiocesium concentration in their aboveground parts, while it did not have considerable impact on the radionuclide uptake by plant root system

  15. A new eremophilane-type sesquiterpene from the phytopatogen fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Sphaeropsidaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phytopatogenic fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae, isolated from guava, was cultivated in rice for 32 days at room temperature. Extraction with CH2Cl2:MeOH (3:7), followed by chromatography fractionation of the extract provided ergosterol. From the fungus culture in Czapeck medium for 40 days at room temperature, were isolated isocoumarin cis-4-hydroxymeleine and an eremophilane-type sesquiterpene. The latter compound is being reported for the first time in the literature. Also, this is the first time that an eremophilane sesquiterpene is described for Lasiodiplodia genus. (author)

  16. A virus in a fungus in a plant: Three-way symbiosis required for thermal tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, L.M.; Redman, R.S.; Rodriguez, R.J.; Roossinck, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    A mutualistic association between a fungal endophyte and a tropical panic grass allows both organisms to grow at high soil temperatures. We characterized a virus from this fungus that is involved in the mutualistic interaction. Fungal isolates cured of the virus are unable to confer heat tolerance, but heat tolerance is restored after the virus is reintroduced. The virus-infected fungus confers heat tolerance not only to its native monocot host but also to a eudicot host, which suggests that the underlying mechanism involves pathways conserved between these two groups of plants.

  17. Structure, dynamics and domain organization of the repeat protein Cin1 from the apple scab fungus

    OpenAIRE

    Mesarich, C.H.; Schmitz, M.(Department of Physics, TU Dortmund University, 44221, Dortmund, Germany); Tremouilhac, P.; McGillivray, D.J.; Templeton, M.D.; Dingley, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Venturia inaequalis is a hemi-biotrophic fungus that causes scab disease of apple. A recently-identified gene from this fungus, cin1 (cellophane-induced 1), is up-regulated over 1000-fold in planta and considerably on cellophane membranes, and encodes a cysteine-rich secreted protein of 523 residues with eight imperfect tandem repeats of ~ 60 amino acids. The Cin1 sequence has no homology to known proteins and appears to be genus-specific; however, Cin1 repeats and other repeat domains may be...

  18. A new eremophilane-type sesquiterpene from the phytopatogen fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Sphaeropsidaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Fatima M.; Oliveira, Maria da Conceicao F. de; Arriaga, Angela M.C.; Lemos, Telma L.G.; Andrade-Neto, Manoel; Mattos, Marcos C. de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: mcfo@ufc.br; Mafezoli, Jair [Universidade de Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Curso de Farmacia; Viana, Francisco M.P.; Ferreira, Viviane M. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Lab. de Fitopatologia; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Ferreira, Antonio G. [Universidade Federal de Sa Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    The phytopatogenic fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae, isolated from guava, was cultivated in rice for 32 days at room temperature. Extraction with CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}:MeOH (3:7), followed by chromatography fractionation of the extract provided ergosterol. From the fungus culture in Czapeck medium for 40 days at room temperature, were isolated isocoumarin cis-4-hydroxymeleine and an eremophilane-type sesquiterpene. The latter compound is being reported for the first time in the literature. Also, this is the first time that an eremophilane sesquiterpene is described for Lasiodiplodia genus. (author)

  19. Laboratory evaluation of three strains of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for controlling Dermanyssus gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli, M; Ownag, A; Pourseyed, S H; Mardani, K

    2008-06-01

    The pathogenicity of three strains of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae on different life stages of Dermanyssus gallinae was evaluated in the laboratory. All the strains tested were virulent to D. gallinae but pathogenicity varied among the strains. Strain V245 induced a higher mortality rate using different concentrations than other two strains. The estimated median lethal concentration of different strains of M. anisopliae against D. gallinae varied depending on the exposure time of D. gallinae to M. anisopliae. It was concluded that the pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae on different life stages of D. gallinae was concentration and time dependent. PMID:18568651

  20. Metabolism of carbohydrates in the fungus Aspergillus niger under the action of light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of visible light with 410, 520 and 610 nm wave lengths on carbonhydrate transformation and absorption by Aspergillus niger fungus is studied. It is shown that the light stimulates the absorption by the fungus of the medium carbohydrates and their biochemical modifications. This leads to amplification of biomass accumulation and citric acid liberation to the medium. An increase of citric acid content in the cultural liquid is counected either with producer biomass growth or with amplification of biomass unit ability to citrate biosynthesis or with simultaneous realization of the both ways indicated

  1. Investigations on Aspergillus fumigatus double-stranded RNAs and their effects on the fungus

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatti, Muhammad Faraz

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to assess the incidence of dsRNA mycoviruses in the opportunistic human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, where previously no dsRNA viruses had been reported and to investigate the effects of any dsRNAs on the growth and pathogenicity of the fungus. Thus far 366 isolates (clinical and environmental) have been screened, 24 of which posses dsRNA elements. Successful efforts were made to completely characterise the two dsRNA segments of the isol...

  2. Towards a better understanding of the evolution of specialized parasites of fungus-growing ant crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yek, Sze Huei; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Poulsen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Fungus-growing ants have interacted and partly coevolved with specialised microfungal parasites of the genus Escovopsis since the origin of ant fungiculture about 50 million years ago. Here, we review the recent progress in understanding the patterns of specificity of this ant-parasite association...... questions of (co)adaptation and evolutionary history. Using the same scheme, we identify future research questions that are likely to be particularly illuminating for understanding the ecology and evolution of Escovopsis parasitism of the cultivar maintained by fungus-growing ants...

  3. Modification of Prenylated Stilbenoids in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Seedlings by the Same Fungi That Elicited Them: The Fungus Strikes Back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisyah, Siti; Gruppen, Harry; Slager, Mathijs; Helmink, Bianca; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2015-10-28

    Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oryzae were compared for inducing the production of prenylated stilbenoids in peanut seedlings. The fungus was applied at two different time points: directly after soaking (day 1) or after 2 days of germination (day 3). Aspergillus- and Rhizopus-elicited peanut seedlings accumulated an array of prenylated stilbenoids, with overlap in compounds induced, but also with compounds specific to the fungal treatment. The differences were confirmed to be due to modification of prenylated stilbenoids by the fungus itself. Each fungus appeared to deploy different strategies for modification. The content of prenylated stilbenoids modified by fungi accounted for around 8% to 49% (w/w) of total stilbenoids. The contents of modified prenylated stilbenoids were higher when the fungus was applied on day 1 instead of day 3. Altogether, type of fungus and time point of inoculation appeared to be crucial parameters for optimizing accumulation of prenylated stilbenoids in peanut seedlings. PMID:26458982

  4. Nest enlargement in leaf-cutting ants: relocated brood and fungus trigger the excavation of new chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römer, Daniela; Roces, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    During colony growth, leaf-cutting ants enlarge their nests by excavating tunnels and chambers housing their fungus gardens and brood. Workers are expected to excavate new nest chambers at locations across the soil profile that offer suitable environmental conditions for brood and fungus rearing. It is an open question whether new chambers are excavated in advance, or will emerge around brood or fungus initially relocated to a suitable site in a previously-excavated tunnel. In the laboratory, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the excavation of new nest chambers in the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lundi. Specifically, we asked whether workers relocate brood and fungus to suitable nest locations, and to what extent the relocated items trigger the excavation of a nest chamber and influence its shape. When brood and fungus were exposed to unfavorable environmental conditions, either low temperatures or low humidity, both were relocated, but ants clearly preferred to relocate the brood first. Workers relocated fungus to places containing brood, demonstrating that subsequent fungus relocation spatially follows the brood deposition. In addition, more ants aggregated at sites containing brood. When presented with a choice between two otherwise identical digging sites, but one containing brood, ants' excavation activity was higher at this site, and the shape of the excavated cavity was more rounded and chamber-like. The presence of fungus also led to the excavation of rounder shapes, with higher excavation activity at the site that also contained brood. We argue that during colony growth, workers preferentially relocate brood to suitable locations along a tunnel, and that relocated brood spatially guides fungus relocation and leads to increased digging activity around them. We suggest that nest chambers are not excavated in advance, but emerge through a self-organized process resulting from the aggregation of workers and their density-dependent digging behavior around the relocated brood and fungus. PMID:24830633

  5. Co-evolutionary patterns and diversification of ant-fungus associations in the asexual fungus-farming ant Mycocepurus smithii in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, K; Fernández-Marín, H; Ishak, H D; Sen, R; Linksvayer, T A; Mueller, U G

    2013-06-01

    Partner fidelity through vertical symbiont transmission is thought to be the primary mechanism stabilizing cooperation in the mutualism between fungus-farming (attine) ants and their cultivated fungal symbionts. An alternate or additional mechanism could be adaptive partner or symbiont choice mediating horizontal cultivar transmission or de novo domestication of free-living fungi. Using microsatellite genotyping for the attine ant Mycocepurus smithii and ITS rDNA sequencing for fungal cultivars, we provide the first detailed population genetic analysis of local ant-fungus associations to test for the relative importance of vertical vs. horizontal transmission in a single attine species. M. smithii is the only known asexual attine ant, and it is furthermore exceptional because it cultivates a far greater cultivar diversity than any other attine ant. Cultivar switching could permit the ants to re-acquire cultivars after garden loss, to purge inferior cultivars that are locally mal-adapted or that accumulated deleterious mutations under long-term asexuality. Compared to other attine ants, symbiont choice and local adaptation of ant-fungus combinations may play a more important role than partner-fidelity feedback in the co-evolutionary process of M. smithii and its fungal symbionts. PMID:23639137

  6. Bromomyrothenone B and botrytinone, cyclopentenone derivatives from a marine isolate of the fungus botrytis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xifeng; Zhang, Dahai; Lee, Uk; Li, Xianguo; Cheng, Jiagao; Zhu, Weiliang; Jung, Jee H; Choi, Hong Dae; Son, Byeng Wha

    2007-02-01

    New cyclopentenones, bromomyrothenone B (1) and botrytinone (2), and the known cyclonerodiol (3) were isolated from the marine algicolous fungus of the genus Botrytis. The absolute stereostructures of compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence including quantum chemistry calculation, X-ray analysis, and CD exciton chirality method. PMID:17315966

  7. Treatment of a textile effluent from dyeing with cochineal extracts using Trametes versicolor fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Figueroa, Gabriela; Ruiz-Aguilar, Graciela M L; López-Martínez, Leticia; González-Sánchez, Guillermo; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Germán; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio

    2011-01-01

    Trametes versicolor (Tv) fungus can degrade synthetic dyes that contain azo groups, anthraquinone, triphenylmethane polymers, and heterocyclic groups. However, no references have been found related to the degradation of natural dyes, such as the carminic acid that is contained in the cochineal extract. Experiments to determine the decolorization of the effluent used in the cotton dyeing process with cochineal extract by means of Tv fungus were done. Treatments to determine decolorization in the presence or absence of Kirk's medium, glucose, and fungus, with an addition of 50% (v v-1) of nonsterilized effluent were performed. Physicochemical characterization was performed at the start and end of the treatment. Degradation kinetics were determined. A direct relationship was found between the dry weight of fungi, pH, and the decolorization system, with higher decolorization at lower pH levels (pH ~4.3). High decolorization (81% ± 0.09; 88% ± 0.17; and 99% ± 0.04) for three of the eight treatments (Kirk's medium without glucose, Kirk's medium with glucose, and without medium with glucose, respectively) was found. Toxicity tests determined an increase in the initial effluent toxicity (7.33 TU) compared with the final treatment (47.73 TU) in a period of 11 days. For this system, a degradation sequence of the carminic acid structure present in the effluent by the Tv fungus is suggested, in which it is seen that metabolites still containing aromatic structures are generated. PMID:21552764

  8. Bacterial community composition and diversity in an ancestral ant fungus symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Katrin; Ishak, Heather D; Linksvayer, Timothy A; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2015-07-01

    Fungus-farming ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Attini) exhibit some of the most complex microbial symbioses because both macroscopic partners (ants and fungus) are associated with a rich community of microorganisms. The ant and fungal microbiomes are thought to serve important beneficial nutritional and defensive roles in these symbioses. While most recent research has investigated the bacterial communities in the higher attines (e.g. the leaf-cutter ant genera Atta and Acromyrmex), which are often associated with antibiotic-producing Actinobacteria, very little is known about the microbial communities in basal lineages, labeled as 'lower attines', which retain the ancestral traits of smaller and more simple societies. In this study, we used 16S amplicon pyrosequencing to characterize bacterial communities of the lower attine ant Mycocepurus smithii among seven sampling sites in central Panama. We discovered that ant and fungus garden-associated microbiota were distinct from surrounding soil, but unlike the situation in the derived fungus-gardening ants, which show distinct ant and fungal microbiomes, microbial community structure of the ants and their fungi were similar. Another surprising finding was that the abundance of actinomycete bacteria was low and instead, these symbioses were characterized by an abundance of Lactobacillus and Pantoea bacteria. Furthermore, our data indicate that Lactobacillus strains are acquired from the environment rather than acquired vertically. PMID:26113689

  9. Amphibians acquire resistance to live and dead fungus overcoming fungal immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Taegan A; Sears, Brittany F; Venesky, Matthew D; Bessler, Scott M; Brown, Jenise M; Deutsch, Kaitlin; Halstead, Neal T; Lentz, Garrett; Tenouri, Nadia; Young, Suzanne; Civitello, David J; Ortega, Nicole; Fites, J Scott; Reinert, Laura K; Rollins-Smith, Louise A; Raffel, Thomas R; Rohr, Jason R

    2014-07-10

    Emerging fungal pathogens pose a greater threat to biodiversity than any other parasitic group, causing declines of many taxa, including bats, corals, bees, snakes and amphibians. Currently, there is little evidence that wild animals can acquire resistance to these pathogens. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a pathogenic fungus implicated in the recent global decline of amphibians. Here we demonstrate that three species of amphibians can acquire behavioural or immunological resistance to B. dendrobatidis. Frogs learned to avoid the fungus after just one B. dendrobatidis exposure and temperature-induced clearance. In subsequent experiments in which B. dendrobatidis avoidance was prevented, the number of previous exposures was a negative predictor of B. dendrobatidis burden on frogs and B. dendrobatidis-induced mortality, and was a positive predictor of lymphocyte abundance and proliferation. These results suggest that amphibians can acquire immunity to B. dendrobatidis that overcomes pathogen-induced immunosuppression and increases their survival. Importantly, exposure to dead fungus induced a similar magnitude of acquired resistance as exposure to live fungus. Exposure of frogs to B. dendrobatidis antigens might offer a practical way to protect pathogen-naive amphibians and facilitate the reintroduction of amphibians to locations in the wild where B. dendrobatidis persists. Moreover, given the conserved nature of vertebrate immune responses to fungi and the fact that many animals are capable of learning to avoid natural enemies, these results offer hope that other wild animal taxa threatened by invasive fungi might be rescued by management approaches based on herd immunity. PMID:25008531

  10. High Symbiont Relatedness Stabilizes Mutualistic Cooperation in Fungus-Growing Termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur K; de Fine Licht, Henrik H; Debets, Alfons J M; Kerstes, Niels A G; Hoekstra, Rolf F; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2009-01-01

    of spore production in proportion to strain frequency. This positive reinforcement results in an exclusive lifetime association of each host colony with a single fungal symbiont and hinders the evolution of cheating. Our findings explain why vertical symbiont transmission in fungus-growing termites...

  11. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE (TNT) BY A PLANT-ASSOCIATED FUNGUS FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The capability of a plant-associated fungus, Fusarium oxyvorum, to transform TNT in liquid cultures was investigated. TNT was transformed into 2-amino-4, 6-dinitrotoluene (2-A-DNT), 4-amino-2, 6-dinitrotoluene (4-A- DNT), and 2, 4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2, 4-DAT) via 2- and 4-hy...

  12. BIODEGRADATION OF CRYSTAL VIOLET BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOPORIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodegradation of crystal violet (N,N,N',N',N",N"-hexamethylpararosaniline) in ligninolytic (nitrogen-limited) cultures of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance of crystal violet and by the identification of three metabolites (N,N,...

  13. Investigation of the Effect of Heating, Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza and Thermophilic Fungus on Cotton Wilt Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Naraghi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, combinations of spores of a thermophilic fungus (Talaromyces flavus, Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM and microsclerotia of Verticillium dahliae under various temperature treatment (31-38°C in triplicate trial, were investigated and results were compared with those of non-treated controls. Five cotton seeds were planted in each pot containing 3 kg of pasteurized soil. In each pot, combinations of 4x103 VAM spores, 2.5x10 9 spores of thermophilic fungus (T. flavus and 5x105 microsclerotia of V. dahliae were added. Symptoms of Verticillium wilt were observed after 45 days. Index of disease severity was measured. Results indicated that pre-heating of microsclerotia at 31 and 35°C for 10 and 14 h, respectively, caused a 15% reduction in leaf infection index. Presence of VAM and thermophilic fungus (T. flavus spores caused 23 and 50% reductions in the disease development , respectively. Concurrent presence of mycorrhiza and thermophilic fungus spores caused a 10-20% reduction in disease development. These findings provide a promising approach to the control of Verticillium wilt of cotton. However, heat treatment of soil may prove difficult. Further studies in this regard are required and useful agricultural practices such as seasonal heating may be applied in the cotton fields.

  14. TESTING OF THE INSECT PEST CONTROL FUNGUS BEAUVERIA BASSIANA IN GRASS SHRIMP PALAEMONETES PUGIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embryos, larvae and adult grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio were exposed to spores of the insect-control fungus Beauveria bassiana. onidiospores attached to embryos held by gravid females and remained with the egg mass for at least 6 d. In the first experiment where individual deve...

  15. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MICROSATELLITE LOCI FOR THE ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS BEAUVERIA BASSIANA (ASCOMYCOTA: HYPOCREALES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauveria bassiana is a cosmopolitan, soil-borne entomopathogenic fungus used for the biological control of insects. Recent molecular phylogenetic data indicate that B. bassiana is a complex of morphologically cryptic species. In order to study the population genetics of B. bassiana , detail speci...

  16. The dynamics of plant cell-wall polysaccharide decomposition in leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, Isabel Eva; de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Harholt, Jesper; Willats, William George Tycho; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2011-01-01

    map the occurrence of cell wall polymers in consecutive sections of the fungus garden of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior. We show that pectin, xyloglucan and some xylan epitopes are degraded, whereas more highly substituted xylan and cellulose epitopes remain as residuals in the waste...

  17. Glycosidases of the rumen anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix frontalis grown on cellulosic substrates.

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, P.D.; Bauchop, T

    1985-01-01

    The rumen anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix frontalis was grown on cellulosic substrates, and the cellular distribution and types of glycosidases produced by the organism were studied. Fungal cultures were fractionated into extracellular, insoluble (membrane), and intracellular fractions and assayed for glycosidase activity by using Avicel, carboxymethylcellulose, xylan, starch, polygalacturonic acid, and the p-nitrophenyl derivatives of galactose, glucose, and xylose as substrates. Enzymic act...

  18. The potential application of fungus Trichoderma harzianum Rifai in biodegradation of detergent and industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Violeta D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential application of fungus Trichoderma harzianum Rifai in biodegradation of commercial detergent (MERIX, Henkel, Serbia was in the focus of this study. The fungus was isolated from wastewater samples of the Rasina River, downstream where the industrial wastewaters of factory Henkel (Krusevac, Serbia discharge into river. The fungus was cultivated in liquid growth medium by Czapek with addition of detergent at a concentration of 0.3% during 16 days. Analysis of fermentation broth evaluated the chemical and biochemical changes of pH, redox potential, activity of alkaline and acid invertase as well as activity of alkaline protease. In addition, the influence of detergent on fungal growth and total dry weight biomass was determined. At the same time, detergent disappearance in terms of methylene blue active substances in the medium was measured. The detergent at a concentration of 0.3% influenced significant decrease of pH value and increase of redox potential. The detergent showed inhibitory effect on acid invertase activity and stimulatory effect on alkaline invertase and protease activity. The fungus decomposed about 74.24% of tested detergent during 16 days, but total dry weight biomass reduced about 20% in relation to control. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43004

  19. Isariotins A-D, alkaloids from the insect pathogenic fungus Isaria tenuipes BCC 7831.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haritakun, Rachada; Srikitikulchai, Prasert; Khoyaiklang, Punsa; Isaka, Masahiko

    2007-09-01

    Isariotins A-D (1- 4), alkaloids possessing a unique bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane ring, were isolated from the insect pathogenic fungus Isaria tenuipes BCC 7831. The structures of these compounds were elucidated primarily by NMR and mass spectroscopic analyses. PMID:17822299

  20. Improvement of barnyardgrass potential biocontrol fungus by NTG inducing and 60Co ?-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helminthosporium gramineum Rabenh f.sp. echinochloae (HGE), the Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa spp.) potential biocontrol fungus was induced by nitrosoguanidine (NTG, C2H5N5O3). The high yield of conidia production of inducing strain I262 was obtained. Conidia production of I262 increased 52.6% compared with its original fungus HGE. The experiments of nuclear irradiation were conducted by using I262 as starting strain. I262 was irradiated for 57 minutes by 60Co ?-rays at the dose of 650 Gy. Among selecting mutants, there are 7.75% strains' conidia production higher than that of I262. Among them, conidia production of mutants F II121, F II116 and F II140 increased 54.4%, 51.5% and 41.7% compared with that of I262, respectively. Conidia yield of mutants F II121 and F II116 were doubled compared with their original fungus HGE when using chemical in combine with physical technologies to treat the barnyardgrass' pathogen. The pathogenicity and control efficacy to barnyardgrass of high yield conidia production mutants were as the same as their original fungus HGE. (authors)

  1. A new polyketide, penicillolide from the marine-derived fungus Penicillium sacculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Zhang, Songya; Li, Zhanlin; Wang, Yu; Chen, Zaixing; Bai, Jiao; Tian, Li; Pei, Yuehu; Hua, Huiming

    2016-05-01

    A new polyketide, penicillolide (1) was isolated from the fermentation broth of the marine-derived fungus Penicillium sacculum GT-308. Compound 1 is a polyketide with a unique carbon skeleton. The structure of this compound was established via extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D-, 2D-NMR, and HRESI-MS. PMID:26499896

  2. A New Eudesmane Sesquiterpene from Nigrospora oryzae, an Endophytic Fungus of Aquilaria sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongli Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new eudesmane-type sesquiterpene, 11 -hydroxy capitulatin B (1 , along with a known related sesquiterpene, capitulatin B (2, was isolated from the endophytic fungus Nigrospora oryzae A8 from Aquilaria sinensis, the only plant resource for agarwood production in China. This research demonstrates that the endophytic fungi from A. sinensis might play a role in the formation of agarwood.

  3. Evolution of ant-cultivar specialization and cultivar switching in Apterostigma fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Mueller, Ulrich G; Schultz, Ted R; Adams, Rachelle Martha Marie; Bouck, Amy C

    2004-01-01

    Almost all of the more than 200 species of fungus-growing ants (Formicidae: Attini) cultivate litter-decomposing fungi in the family Lepiotaceae (Basidiomycota: Agaricales). The single exception to this rule is a subgroup of ant species within the lower attine genus Apterostigma, which cultivate ...

  4. Report membrane transport of lactic acid in the filamentous fungus Rhizopus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungus Rhizopus is frequently used for fermentative production of lactic acid, but little is known about the mechanisms or proteins for transporting this carboxylic acid. Since transport of the lactate anion across the plasma membrane is critical to prevent acidification of the cytoplasm, we ev...

  5. The rust fungus Gymnosporangium in Korea including two new species, G. monticola and G. unicorne

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey was conducted of species of the rust fungus Gymnosporangium in Korea. The previously known species were recollected, namely Gymnosporangium asiaticum, G. clavariiforme, G. globosum, G. japonicum, and G. yamadae. Although G. cornutum was reported from Korea, collections similar to that speci...

  6. Convergent coevolution in the domestication of coral mushrooms by fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkacsi, A B; Nees, Jan Pan

    2004-01-01

    Comparisons of phylogenetic patterns between coevolving symbionts can reveal rich details about the evolutionary history of symbioses. The ancient symbiosis between fungus-growing ants, their fungal cultivars, antibiotic-producing bacteria and cultivar-infecting parasites is dominated by a pattern of parallel coevolution, where the symbionts of each functional group are members of monophyletic groups. However, there is one outstanding exception in the fungus-growing ant system, the unidentified cultivar grown only by ants in the Apterostigma pilosum group. We classify this cultivar in the coral-mushroom family Pterulaceae using phylogenetic reconstructions based on broad taxon sampling, including the first mushroom collected from the garden of an ant species in the A. pilosum group. The domestication of the pterulaceous cultivar is independent from the domestication of the gilled mushrooms cultivated by all other fungus-growing ants. Yet it has the same overall assemblage of coevolved ant-cultivar-parasite-bacterium interactions as the other ant-grown fungal cultivars. This indicates a pattern of convergent coevolution in the fungus-growing ant system, where symbionts with both similar and very different evolutionary histories converge to functionally identical interactions.

  7. Npc1 is involved in sterol trafficking in the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ortholog of the human gene NPC1 was identified in the plant pathogenic, filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum by shared amino acid sequence, protein domain structure and cellular localization of the mature fungal protein. The Fusarium Npc1 gene shares 34% amino acid sequence identity and 51% s...

  8. Presumptive horizontal symbiont transmission in the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Aanen, Duur Kornelis

    2006-01-01

    All colonies of the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis studied so far are associated with a single genetically variable lineage of Termitomyces symbionts. Such limited genetic variation of symbionts and the absence of sexual fruiting bodies (mushrooms) on M. natalensis mounds would be ...

  9. Anacardic acid induces apoptosis-like cell death in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Suhail; Bose, Chinchu; Banerji, Ashok; Nair, Bipin G; Chattoo, Bharat B

    2016-01-01

    Anacardic acid (6-pentadecylsalicylic acid), extracted from cashew nut shell liquid, is a natural phenolic lipid well known for its strong antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. Its effect has been well studied in bacterial and mammalian systems but remains largely unexplored in fungi. The present study identifies antifungal, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities of anacardic acid in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. It was found that anacardic acid causes inhibition of conidial germination and mycelial growth in this ascomycetous fungus. Phosphatidylserine externalization, chromatin condensation, DNA degradation, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential suggest that growth inhibition of fungus is mainly caused by apoptosis-like cell death. Broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK treatment indicated that anacardic acid induces caspase-independent apoptosis in M. oryzae. Expression of a predicted ortholog of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) was upregulated during the process of apoptosis, suggesting the possibility of mitochondria dependent apoptosis via activation of apoptosis-inducing factor. Anacardic acid treatment leads to decrease in reactive oxygen species rather than increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation normally observed during apoptosis, confirming the antioxidant properties of anacardic acid as suggested by earlier reports. Our study also shows that anacardic acid renders the fungus highly sensitive to DNA damaging agents like ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). Treatment of rice leaves with anacardic acid prevents M. oryzae from infecting the plant without affecting the leaf, suggesting that anacardic acid can be an effective antifungal agent. PMID:26381667

  10. Effect of biochar soil-amendments on Allium porrum growth, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: Examine the interaction of biochar addition and arbuscular mycorrhizal [AM] fungus inoculation upon growth and Zn and Cu uptake by Allium porrum L. in heavy metal amended soil mix, and relate these responses to physicochemical properties of the biochars. Methods: The experiment was a complete ...

  11. Production of microsclerotia of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae in liquid culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was the development of a liquid culture method for producing stable, infective propagules of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for control of soil-dwelling insect pests. Three strains of M. anisopliae, F52, TM109, and MA1200, were evaluated using aerated, liq...

  12. Influence of aeration degree of cultural liquid on biosintetical activity of fungus culture Blakeslea trispora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Anatsky

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Β-carotene biosynthetic processes of the fungus Blakeslea trispora are studied for different technological modes of cultural liquid aeration under industrial conditions. It is shown, that the increase of aeration degree stimulates the accumulation of biomass and carotene’s formation. The operating practices of the maximal aeration since the 10th hour of cultivation are recommended to the use.

  13. Systems biology of host–fungus interactions: turning complexity into simplicity

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    ? Understanding the complexity of host–fungus interactions during commensalism. ? Genes mediating host colonization or fitness can evolve into infection-associated traits. ? Using bioinformatics to unravel functional genomics in dual-genome datasets. ? Modeling both fungal and host immune responses using network analysis tools. ? Databases and web-based resources for investigating host–pathogen interactions.

  14. Psychrophilin A and cycloaspeptide D, novel cyclic peptides from the psychrotolerant fungus Penicillium ribeum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Petur Weihe; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Christophersen, Carsten

    2004-01-01

    Two fungal metabolites, psychrophilin A (1) and cycloaspeptide D (2), together with the known cycloaspeptide A (3) were isolated from the psychrotolerant fungus Penicillium ribeum using high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and preparative HPLC. The structures were determined from 1D a...

  15. Antileukemic alpha-pyrone derivatives from the endophytic fungus Alternaria phragmospora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four new (1–4) and two known (5 and 6)a-pyrone derivatives have been isolated from Alternaria phragmospora, an endophytic fungus from Vinca rosea, leaves. The isolated compounds were chemically identi'ed to be 5-butyl-4-methoxy-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one (2) 5-butyl-6-(hydroxymethyl)-4-methoxy-2H-py...

  16. The ability of fungus Mucor racemosus Fresenius to degrade high concentration of detergent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljevi? Violeta D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of fungus Mucor racemosus Fresenius to decompose high concentration of commercial detergent (MERIX, Henkel, Serbia was investigated in this study. Fungus was cultivated in liquid growth medium by Czapek with addition of detergent at concentration 0.5% during 16 days. The biochemical changes of pH, redox potential, amount of free and total organic acids, and activity of alkaline phosphatase were evaluated by analysis of fermentation broth. Simultaneously, biodegradation percentage of anionic surfactant of tested detergent was confirmed by MBAS assay. At the same time, the influence of detergent on fungal growth and total dry weight biomass was determined. Detergent at concentration 0.5% influenced on decreasing of pH value and increasing of redox potential as well as increasing of free and total organic acids. Enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase was reduced by detergent at concentration 0.5%. The fungus was decomposed about 62% of anionic surfactant during 16 day. Due to fungus was produced higher dry weight biomass (53% in relation to control. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43004

  17. Clove oil and fungus compounds: Can nematode suppression be achieved without phytotoxicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural products from a plant (Syzygium aromaticum) and a fungus (Aspergillus sp.) were examined for the presence of compounds with potential for application as novel nematicides. The plant-derived material, clove oil, was tested in the greenhouse against the nematode Meloidogyne incognita on cucum...

  18. COLONY FOUNDATION, NEST ARCHITECTURE, AND DEMOGRAPHY OF THE FUNGUS-GROWING ANT, MYCOCEPURUS SMITHI (HYMENOPTERA, FORMICIDAE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Mycocepurus is a phylogenetically basal attine ant whose biology may provide insight into the evolutionary origin and ancestral behaviours associated with fungus-growing that uniquely characterizes this tribe. Mycocepurus smithi from Puerto Rico produces sexual females from July to Septem...

  19. Functional analysis of the kinome of the wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum

    Science.gov (United States)

    As in many other eukaryotes, protein kinases play major regulatory roles in filamentous fungi. Although the genomes of numerous plant pathogenic fungi have been sequenced, systematic characterization of their kinomes has not been reported. The wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum has 116 putative ...

  20. SnoRNAs from the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa: structural, functional and evolutionary insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chun-Long

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SnoRNAs represent an excellent model for studying the structural and functional evolution of small non-coding RNAs involved in the post-transcriptional modification machinery for rRNAs and snRNAs in eukaryotic cells. Identification of snoRNAs from Neurospora crassa, an important model organism playing key roles in the development of modern genetics, biochemistry and molecular biology will provide insights into the evolution of snoRNA genes in the fungus kingdom. Results Fifty five box C/D snoRNAs were identified and predicted to guide 71 2'-O-methylated sites including four sites on snRNAs and three sites on tRNAs. Additionally, twenty box H/ACA snoRNAs, which potentially guide 17 pseudouridylations on rRNAs, were also identified. Although not exhaustive, the study provides the first comprehensive list of two major families of snoRNAs from the filamentous fungus N. crassa. The independently transcribed strategy dominates in the expression of box H/ACA snoRNA genes, whereas most of the box C/D snoRNA genes are intron-encoded. This shows that different genomic organizations and expression modes have been adopted by the two major classes of snoRNA genes in N. crassa . Remarkably, five gene clusters represent an outstanding organization of box C/D snoRNA genes, which are well conserved among yeasts and multicellular fungi, implying their functional importance for the fungus cells. Interestingly, alternative splicing events were found in the expression of two polycistronic snoRNA gene hosts that resemble the UHG-like genes in mammals. Phylogenetic analysis further revealed that the extensive separation and recombination of two functional elements of snoRNA genes has occurred during fungus evolution. Conclusion This is the first genome-wide analysis of the filamentous fungus N. crassa snoRNAs that aids in understanding the differences between unicellular fungi and multicellular fungi. As compared with two yeasts, a more complex pattern of methylation guided by box C/D snoRNAs in multicellular fungus than in unicellular yeasts was revealed, indicating the high diversity of post-transcriptional modification guided by snoRNAs in the fungus kingdom.

  1. Increasing Incidence of Geomyces destructans Fungus in Bats from the Czech Republic and Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínková, Natália; Ba?kor, Peter; Bartoni?ka, Tomáš; Blažková, Pavla; ?ervený, Jaroslav; Falteisek, Lukáš; Gaisler, Ji?í; Hanzal, Vladimír; Horá?ek, Daniel; Hubálek, Zden?k; Jahelková, Helena; Kola?ík, Miroslav; Korytár, L'uboš; Kubátová, Alena; Lehotská, Blanka; Lehotský, Roman; Lu?an, Radek K.; Májek, Ond?ej; Mat?j?, Jan; ?ehák, Zden?k; Šafá?, Ji?í; Tájek, P?emysl; Tkadlec, Emil; Uhrin, Marcel; Wagner, Josef; Weinfurtová, Dita; Zima, Jan; Zukal, Jan; Horá?ek, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Background White-nose syndrome is a disease of hibernating insectivorous bats associated with the fungus Geomyces destructans. It first appeared in North America in 2006, where over a million bats died since then. In Europe, G. destructans was first identified in France in 2009. Its distribution, infection dynamics, and effects on hibernating bats in Europe are largely unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We screened hibernacula in the Czech Republic and Slovakia for the presence of the fungus during the winter seasons of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. In winter 2009/2010, we found infected bats in 76 out of 98 surveyed sites, in which the majority had been previously negative. A photographic record of over 6000 hibernating bats, taken since 1994, revealed bats with fungal growths since 1995; however, the incidence of such bats increased in Myotis myotis from 2% in 2007 to 14% by 2010. Microscopic, cultivation and molecular genetic evaluations confirmed the identity of the recently sampled fungus as G. destructans, and demonstrated its continuous distribution in the studied area. At the end of the hibernation season we recorded pathologic changes in the skin of the affected bats, from which the fungus was isolated. We registered no mass mortality caused by the fungus, and the recorded population decline in the last two years of the most affected species, M. myotis, is within the population trend prediction interval. Conclusions/Significance G. destructans was found to be widespread in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, with an epizootic incidence in bats during the most recent years. Further development of the situation urgently requires a detailed pan-European monitoring scheme. PMID:21079781

  2. Forage collection, substrate preparation, and diet composition in fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, H.H.D.; Boomsma, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    2. The attine fungus-growing ants are a tribe of more than 230 described species (12 genera) that use a variety of different substrates to manure the symbiotic fungus they cultivate inside the nest. Common 'wisdom' is that the conspicuous leaf-cutting ants primarily use freshly cut plant material, whereas most of the other attine species use dry and partly degraded plant material such as leaf litter and caterpillar frass, but systematic comparative studies of actual resource acquisition across the attine ants have not been done. 3. Here we review 179 literature records of diet composition across the extant genera of fungus-growing ants. The records confirm the dependence of leaf-cutting ants on fresh vegetation but find that flowers, dry plant debris, seeds (husks), and insect frass are used by all genera, whereas other substrates such as nectar and insect carcasses are only used by some. 4. Diet composition was significantly correlated with ant substrate preparation behaviours before adding forage to the fungus garden, indicating that diet composition and farming practices have co-evolved. Neither diet nor preparation behaviours changed when a clade within the paleoattine genus Apterostigma shifted from rearing leucocoprinous fungi to cultivating pterulaceous fungi, but the evolutionary derived transition to yeast growing in the Cyphomyrmex rimosus group, which relies almost exclusively on nectar and insect frass, was associated with specific changes in diet composition. 5. The co-evolutionary transitions in diet composition across the genera of attine ants indicate that fungus-farming insect societies have the possibility to obtain more optimal fungal crops via artificial selection, analogous to documented practice in human subsistence farming

  3. Molecular phylogeny of bark and ambrosia beetles reveals multiple origins of fungus farming during periods of global warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordal Bjarte H

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fungus farming is an unusual life style in insects that has evolved many times in the wood boring weevils named ‘ambrosia beetles’. Multiple occurrences of this behaviour allow for a detailed comparison of the different origins of fungus farming through time, its directionality, and possible ancestral states. We tested these hypotheses with a phylogeny representing the largest data set to date, nearly 4 kb of nucleotides from COI, EF-1?, CAD, ArgK, 28S, and 200 scolytine taxa. Results Phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian or parsimony approaches placed the root of Scolytinae close to the tribe Scolytini and Microborus, but otherwise indicated low resolution at older nodes. More recent clades were well resolved, including ten origins of fungus farming. There were no subsequent reversals to bark or phloem feeding in the fungus farming clades. The oldest origin of fungus farming was estimated near 50 Ma, long after the origin of Scolytinae (100-120 Ma. Younger origins included the species rich Xyleborini, dated to 21 Ma. Sister group comparisons and test of independence between traits indicated that neither gregarious larval feeding nor regular inbreeding by sibling mating was strongly correlated with the origin of fungus farming. Conclusion Origins of fungus farming corresponded mainly with two periods of global warming in the Cenozoic era, which were characterised by broadly distributed tropical forests. Hence, it seems likely that warm climates and expanding tropical angiosperm forests played critical roles in the successful radiation of diverse fungus farming groups. However, further investigation will likely reveal additional biological factors that promote fungus farming.

  4. Synthesis of fungus-like MoS2 nanosheets with ultrafast adsorption capacities toward organic dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, HaoJie; You, Shengsheng; Jia, XiaoHua

    2015-11-01

    Fungus-like molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets with a thickness of a few nanometers have been successfully synthesized via one-pot hydrothermal method. The as-prepared MoS2 nanosheets with a high surface area of 106.989 m2 g-1 exhibited excellent wastewater treatment performance with high removal capacities toward organic dyes. In addition, the fungus-like MoS2 nanosheets can absorb Congo red completely within 2 min. Successful access to high quality fungus-like MoS2 nanosheets will make it possible for their potential application in catalysis and other fields.

  5. Relationship Between a-amylase Activity and Pullulan Profiles, and a-amylase Gene Analyses of the Fungus Aureobasidium Pullulans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropical isolates of Aureobasidium pullulans isolated from various habitats in Thailand were classified based on multilocus phylogenetic analyses using concordance analysis of DNA sequences. This fungus is the major source of commercially produced pullulan, a high molecular weight polysaccharide th...

  6. Effect of carbon and nitrogen source amendment on synthetic dyes decolourizing efficiency of white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Deepak; Singh, Anoop; Satyawali, Yamini; Gupta, R K

    2008-01-01

    Decolourization activity of Phanerochaete chrysosporium for three synthetic dyes viz., congo red, malachite green and crystal violet and impact of additional carbon and nitrogen supply on decolourization capacity of fungus were investigated. Maximum decolourizing capacity was observed up to 15 ppm. Addition of urea as nitrogen source and glucose as carbon source significantly enhanced decolourizing capacity (up to 87%) of fungus. In all the cases, both colour and COD were reduced more in non-sterilized treatments as compared to sterilized ones. Significant reductions in COD content of dye solutions (79-84%) were recorded by fungus supplied with additional carbon and nitrogen. A highly significant correlation (r = 0.78, p dye solutions was recorded. Thus, a readily available carbon and nitrogen source is imperative to enhance the bioremediation activity of this fungus which has been the most suitable for synthetic dyes and textile industry wastewater treatment. PMID:18831336

  7. A white-rot fungus is used as a biocathode to improve electricity production of a microbial fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White-rot fungus is able to secrete laccase, which can reduce O2 to H2O and has been widely used in enzymatic fuel cells. In this work, a strain of white-rot fungus, Coriolus versicolor, is inoculated in the cathodic chamber of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) to improve cathode reduction efficiency for better electricity generation. 2,2?-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothazoline-6-sulfonate), as a redox mediator, is added to the catholyte to facilitate the electron transfer between the electrode and the laccase. The results show that the fungus-based biocathode has better performance than the conventional abiotic cathode, with approximately seven-orders higher power density achieved. This is the first report that white-rot fungus is used to constitute the biocathode of an MFC for improved electricity generation.

  8. Bacterial communities in termite fungus combs are comprised of consistent gut deposits and contributions from the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otani, Saria; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Sørensen, Søren J; Poulsen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Fungus-growing termites (subfamily Macrotermitinae) mix plant forage with asexual spores of their plant-degrading fungal symbiont Termitomyces in their guts and deposit this blend in fungus comb structures, within which the plant matter is degraded. As Termitomyces grows, it produces nodules with...... asexual spores, which the termites feed on. Since all comb material passes through termite guts, it is inevitable that gut bacteria are also deposited in the comb, but it has remained unknown which bacteria are deposited and whether distinct comb bacterial communities are sustained. Using high...... time. These shifts did not appear to be due to changes in the taxa present, but rather due to differences in the relative abundances of primarily gut-derived bacteria within fungus combs. This indicates that fungus comb microbiotas are largely termite species-specific due to major contributions from...

  9. INFLUENCE OF HOST GENDER ON INFECTION RATE, DENSITY AND DISTRIBUTION OF PARASITIC FUNGUS ON MULTICOLORED ASIAN LADY BEETLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infection rate, density and distribution of a parasitic fungus, Hesperomyces virescens Thaxter (Laboulbeniales: Laboulbeniaceae), on the multicolored Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were determined in this study. Adult H. axyridis were sampled from pecan, Ca...

  10. Compatibility of the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana with neem against sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, on eggplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study on the compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) with neem was conducted against sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), on eggplant. Initially, three concentrations of B. bassiana (106, 1...

  11. Effects of the fungus Aspergillus penicillioides on the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus: an experimental re-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, D B; Hart, B J; Douglas, A E

    1993-07-01

    In this report the widely-held view that house dust mites benefit from fungal contamination of the dietary substratum is re-examined. The performance of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) is documented over two successive generations in the presence or absence of the xerophilic fungus Aspergillus penicillioides (Hyphomycetales: Moniliaceae). This fungus reduced survival, development rate, adult length and fecundity of D. pteronyssinus. Detrimental effects of A. penicillioides were proportional to the fungal density. Despite the antagonistic effects of A. penicillioides, a requirement for the fungus was indicated by the poor performance of fungus-free mites in the second generation; sustained culture of D. pteronyssinus in the absence of fungi is probably not possible. It is suggested that fungi may alter the particulate nature of the substratum to the detriment of house dust mites, but also provide micronutrients deficient in the diet. PMID:8369562

  12. Comparison of radial growth rate of the mutualistic fungus of Atta sexdens rubropilosa forel in two culture media

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C.H, Miyashira; D.G, Tanigushi; A.M, Gugliotta; D.Y.A.C, Santos.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In vitro culture of the mutualistic fungus of leaf-cutting ants is troublesome due to its low growth rate, which leads to storage problems and contaminants accumulation. This paper aims at comparing the radial growth rate of the mutualistic fungus of Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel in two different c [...] ulture media (Pagnocca B and MEA LP). Although total MEA LP radial growth was greater all along the bioassay, no significant difference was detected between growth efficiencies of the two media. Previous evidences of low growth rate for this fungus were confirmed. Since these data cannot point greater efficiency of one culture medium over the other, MEA LP medium is indicated for in vitro studies with this mutualistic fungus due its simpler composition and translucent color, making the analysis easier.

  13. Development of a greenhouse-based inoculation protocol for the fungus Colletotrichum cereale pathogenic to annual bluegrass (Poa annua)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungus Colletotrichum cereale incites anthracnose disease on Poa annua (annual bluegrass) turfgrass. Anthracnose disease is geographically widespread highly destructive, with infections by C. cereale resulting in extensive turfgrass loss. Comprehensive research aimed at controlling turfgrass a...

  14. The development of a spatially-explicit, individual-based, disease model for frogs and the chytrid fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background / Question / Methods The fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (BD), has been associated with amphibian population declines and even extinctions worldwide. Transmission of the fungus between amphibian hosts occurs via motile zoospores, which are produced on...

  15. A Novel Victorivirus from a Phytopathogenic Fungus, Rosellinia necatrix, Is Infectious as Particles and Targeted by RNA Silencing

    OpenAIRE

    Chiba, Sotaro; Lin, Yu-Hsin; Kondo, Hideki; Kanematsu, Satoko; Suzuki, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    A novel victorivirus, termed Rosellinia necatrix victorivirus 1 (RnVV1), was isolated from a plant pathogenic ascomycete, white root rot fungus Rosellinia necatrix, coinfected with a partitivirus. The virus was molecularly and biologically characterized using the natural and experimental hosts (chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica). RnVV1 was shown to have typical molecular victorivirus attributes, including a monopartite double-stranded RNA genome with two open reading frames (OR...

  16. Recruitment of minor workers for defense against a specialized parasite of Atta leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens

    OpenAIRE

    Gerstner, A.T.; Poulsen, Michael; C. R. Currie

    2011-01-01

    Social insects that obligately depend on mutualists are known to defend both themselves and their partners from exploitation. One example is leaf-cutting ants, which defend the mutualistic fungus they cultivate for food from potentially virulent specialized microfungal parasites (genus Escovopsis). Mechanisms employed by the ants to reduce the impact of Escovopsis include grooming the mycelium of their fungal cultivar and weeding out infected parts of the fungus garden. These behavioral defen...

  17. Rapid shifts in Atta cephalotes fungus-garden enzyme activity after a change in fungal substrate (Attini, Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooij, P W; Schiøtt, M; Boomsma, J J; De Fine Licht, H H

    2011-05-01

    Fungus gardens of the basidiomycete Leucocoprinus gongylophorus sustain large colonies of leaf-cutting ants by degrading the plant material collected by the ants. Recent studies have shown that enzyme activity in these gardens is primarily targeted toward starch, proteins and the pectin matrix associated with cell walls, rather than toward structural cell wall components such as cellulose and hemicelluloses. Substrate constituents are also known to be sequentially degraded in different sections of the fungus garden. To test the plasticity in the extracellular expression of fungus-garden enzymes, we measured the changes in enzyme activity after a controlled shift in fungal substrate offered to six laboratory colonies of Atta cephalotes. An ant diet consisting exclusively of grains of parboiled rice rapidly increased the activity of endo-proteinases and some of the pectinases attacking the backbone structure of pectin molecules, relative to a pure diet of bramble leaves, and this happened predominantly in the most recently established top sections of fungus gardens. However, fungus-garden amylase activity did not significantly increase despite the substantial increase in starch availability from the rice diet, relative to the leaf diet controls. Enzyme activity in the older, bottom sections of fungus gardens decreased, indicating a faster processing of the rice substrate compared to the leaf diet. These results suggest that leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens can rapidly adjust enzyme activity to provide a better match with substrate availability and that excess starch that is not protected by cell walls may be digested by the ants rather than by the fungus-garden symbiont. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00040-010-0127-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:21475686

  18. Sex allocation in fungus-growing ants: worker or queen control without symbiont-induced female bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkstra, Michiel B.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2008-01-01

    The fungal cultivars of fungus-growing ants are vertically transmitted by queens but not males. Selection would therefore favor cultivars that bias the ants' sex ratio towards gynes, beyond the gyne bias that is optimal for workers and queens. We measured sex allocation in 190 colonies of six sympatric fungus-growing ant species. As predicted from relatedness, female bias was greater in four singly mated Sericomyrmex and Trachymyrmex species than in two multiply mated Acromyrmex species. Colonie...

  19. Detection of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Colonization of Roots by Using a Dot-Immunoblot Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Sara F.; Morton, Joseph B.

    1989-01-01

    An immunoblotting procedure was developed to overcome the difficulty in identifying root colonization by a vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. The procedure utilized a murine monoclonal antibody that reacts with a protein in spores and hyphae of Glomus occultum, a fungus characterized by abundant production of hyaline spores and nonstaining intraradical infection. Minimally disturbed whole roots were squashed on nitrocellulose membranes. After inactivation of endogenous peroxidase, an in...

  20. Pseudoxylaria as stowaway of the fungus-growing termite nest: Interaction asymmetry between Pseudoxylaria, Termitomyces and free-living relatives.

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, A.A.; Kooij, P.W.; Debets, A. J. M.; T. W. Kuyper; Aanen, D.K.

    2011-01-01

    Though inconspicuous in healthy nests, Pseudoxylaria species are almost always present and overgrow deteriorating fungus-growing termite gardens. Whether these fungi are detrimental to the fungus-garden, benign, or even beneficial is unclear. We hypothesize that Pseudoxylaria is a stowaway that practices a sit-and-wait strategy to survive in the termite nest. Using isolates from three different termite genera to test our hypothesis, we compared Pseudoxylaria’s growth on 40 carbon sources with...

  1. Growth Promotion-Related miRNAs in Oncidium Orchid Roots Colonized by the Endophytic Fungus Piriformospora indica

    OpenAIRE

    YE, WEI; Shen, Chin-Hui; Lin, Yuling; Chen, Peng-Jen; Xu, Xuming; Oelmüller, Ralf; Yeh, Kai-Wun; Lai, Zhongxiong

    2014-01-01

    Piriformospora indica, an endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, colonizes the roots of a wide range of host plants and establishes various benefits for the plants. In this work, we describe miRNAs which are upregulated in Oncidium orchid roots after colonization by the fungus. Growth promotion and vigorous root development were observed in Oncidium hybrid orchid, while seedlings were colonized by P. indica. We performed a genome-wide expression profiling of small RNAs in Oncidium orchid roots eit...

  2. Comparison of radial growth rate of the mutualistic fungus of Atta sexdens rubropilosa forel in two culture media

    OpenAIRE

    C.H Miyashira; Tanigushi, D.G.; A.M Gugliotta; Santos, D.Y.A.C.

    2010-01-01

    In vitro culture of the mutualistic fungus of leaf-cutting ants is troublesome due to its low growth rate, which leads to storage problems and contaminants accumulation. This paper aims at comparing the radial growth rate of the mutualistic fungus of Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel in two different culture media (Pagnocca B and MEA LP). Although total MEA LP radial growth was greater all along the bioassay, no significant difference was detected between growth efficiencies of the two media. Pr...

  3. Transcriptome of an entomophthoralean fungus (Pandora formicae) shows molecular machinery adjusted for successful host exploitation and transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malagocka, Joanna; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Lange, Lene; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Jensen, Annette Bruun

    2015-01-01

    Pandora formicae is an obligate entomopathogenic fungus from the phylum Entomophthoromycota, known to infect only ants from the genus Formica. In the final stages of infection, the fungus induces the so-called summit disease syndrome, manipulating the host to climb up vegetation prior to death and fixing the dead cadaver to the surface, all to increase efficient spore dispersal. To investigate this fascinating pathogen-host interaction, we constructed interaction transcriptome libraries from two...

  4. The fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis harbors bacillaene-producing Bacillus sp. that inhibit potentially antagonistic fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Um, Soohyun; Fraimout, Antoine; Sapountzis, Panagiotis; Oh, Dong-Chan; Poulsen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The ancient fungus-growing termite (Mactrotermitinae) symbiosis involves the obligate association between a lineage of higher termites and basidiomycete Termitomyces cultivar fungi. Our investigation of the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis shows that Bacillus strains from M. natalensis colonies produce a single major antibiotic, bacillaene A (1), which selectively inhibits known and putatively antagonistic fungi of Termitomyces. Comparative analyses of the genomes of symbiotic Ba...

  5. [Bioremediation of oil-polluted soil with an association including the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus and soil microflora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdniakova, N N; Nikitina, V E; Turkovskaia, O V

    2008-01-01

    The possibility of application of the Pleurotus ostreatus D1-soil microflora to bioremediation of oil-polluted soils was studied. The fungus degraded mainly the aromatic fraction, whereas soil microflora intensely degraded paraffin and naphthene oil fractions. Introduction of the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus D to soil induces degradation of a wider range of oil hydrocarbons. It is reasonable to further investigate the discovered phenomenon in order to improve procedures of remediation of oil-polluted soils. PMID:18491600

  6. The use of the fungus Dichomitus squalens for degradation in rotating biological contactor conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotný, Cen?k; Trošt, Nina; Šlušla, Martin; Svobodová, Kate?ina; Mikesková, Hana; Válková, Hana; Malachová, Kate?ina; Pavko, Aleksander

    2012-06-01

    Biodegradation potential of Dichomitus squalens in biofilm cultures and rotating biological contactor (RBC) was investigated. The fungus formed thick biofilms on inert and lignocellulosic supports and exhibited stable activities of laccase and manganese peroxidase to reach 40-62 and 25-32% decolorization of anthraquinone Remazol Brilliant Blue R and heterocyclic phthalocyanine dyes, respectively. The decolorization ceased when glucose concentration dropped to 1 mmol l(-1). In RBC reactor, respective decolorizations of Remazol Brilliant Blue R and heterocyclic Methylene Blue and Azure B dyes (50 mg l(-1)) attained 99%, 93%, and 59% within 7, 40 and 200 h. The fungus exhibited tolerance to coliform and non-coliform bacteria on rich organic media, the inhibition occurred only on media containing tryptone and NaCl. The degradation efficiency in RBC reactor, capability to decolorize a wide range of dye structures and tolerance to bacterial stress make D. squalens an organism applicable to remediation of textile wastewaters. PMID:22513255

  7. Reduced biological control and enhanced chemical pest management in the evolution of fungus farming in ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Zimmerman, Jess K; Nash, David R; Boomsma, Jacobus J; Wcislo, William T

    2009-01-01

    To combat disease, most fungus-growing ants (Attini) use antibiotics from mutualistic bacteria (Pseudonocardia) that are cultured on the ants' exoskeletons and chemical cocktails from exocrine glands, especially the metapleural glands (MG). Previous work has hypothesized that (i) Pseudonocardia...... antibiotics are narrow-spectrum and control a fungus (Escovopsis) that parasitizes the ants' fungal symbiont, and (ii) MG secretions have broad-spectrum activity and protect ants and brood. We assessed the relative importance of these lines of defence, and their activity spectra, by scoring abundance of...... visible Pseudonocardia for nine species from five genera and measuring rates of MG grooming after challenging ants with disease agents of differing virulence. Atta and Sericomyrmex have lost or greatly reduced the abundance of visible bacteria. When challenged with diverse disease agents, including...

  8. Tea fungus fermentation on a substrate with iron(ii-ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron is essential element for human metabolism and it is a constituent of both heme- containing and nonheme proteins. Its deficiency can cause serious diseases, i.e. iron-deficiency anemia, with some fatal consequences. Tea fungus beverage has high nutritional value and some pharmaceutical effects. It is widely consumed allover the world and its benefits were proved a number of times. The aim of this paper was to investigate tea fungus fermentation on a substrate containing iron(II-ions and the possibility of obtaining a beverage enriched with iron. We monitored pH, iron content and also the production of L-ascorbic acid, which is very important for iron absorption in humans.

  9. Chondrosterins A–E, Triquinane-Type Sesquiterpenoids from Soft Coral-Associated Fungus Chondrostereum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Liang Xie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The marine fungus Chondrostereum sp. was collected from a soft coral Sarcophyton tortuosum from the South China Sea. This fungus was cultured in potato dextrose broth medium and the culture broth was extracted with EtOAc. Five new triquinane-type sesquiterpenoids, chondrosterins A–E (1–5, and the known sesquiterpenoid hirsutanol C (6, were isolated. The structures were elucidated mainly on the basis of NMR, MS, and X-ray single-crystal diffraction data. Chondrosterin A (1 showed significant cytotoxic activities against cancer lines A549, CNE2, and LoVo with IC50 values of 2.45, 4.95, and 5.47 ?M, respectively.

  10. Parasitic fungus Claviceps as a source for biotechnological production of ergot alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulvová, Helena; Galuszka, Petr; Frébortová, Jitka; Frébort, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    Ergot alkaloids produced by the fungus Claviceps parasitizing on cereals, include three major groups: clavine alkaloids, d-lysergic acid and its derivatives and ergopeptines. These alkaloids are important substances for the pharmatech industry, where they are used for production of anti-migraine drugs, uterotonics, prolactin inhibitors, anti-Parkinson agents, etc. Production of ergot alkaloids is based either on traditional field cultivation of ergot-infected rye or on submerged cultures of the fungus in industrial fermentation plants. In 2010, the total production of these alkaloids in the world was about 20,000 kg, of which field cultivation contributed about 50%. This review covers the recent advances in understanding of the genetics and regulation of biosynthesis of ergot alkaloids, focusing on possible applications of the new knowledge to improve the production yield. PMID:22261014

  11. Towards a better understanding of the evolution of specialized parasites of fungus-growing ant crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yek, Sze Huei; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2012-01-01

    Fungus-growing ants have interacted and partly coevolved with specialised microfungal parasites of the genus Escovopsis since the origin of ant fungiculture about 50 million years ago. Here, we review the recent progress in understanding the patterns of specificity of this ant-parasite association, covering both the colony/population level and comparisons between phylogenetic clades. We use a modified version of Tinbergen’s four categories of evolutionary questions to structure our review in complementary approaches addressing both proximate questions of development and mechanism, and ultimate questions of (co)adaptation and evolutionary history. Using the same scheme, we identify future research questions that are likely to be particularly illuminating for understanding the ecology and evolution of Escovopsis parasitism of the cultivar maintained by fungus-growing ants

  12. Microscopic fungus-like organisms and fungi of the S?owi?ski National Park. I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jwona Adamska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the years 1996- 1998, the occurrence of microscopic fungus-like organisms and fungi in plant associations of seven permanent plots of the S?owi?ski National Park, Poland, was investigated. The plant associations included Betuletum pubescentis,Betulo-Quercetum roboris, Cirsio-Polygoneum, Filipendulo-Geronietum, Myrico-Salicetum auritae, Phragmitetum australis, and Ribo nigri-Alnetum. A total of 1509 plant samples representing 272 species in 48 families were collected. Three hundred and ten species in 79 genera of fungus-like organisms and fungi were found. Most species were recognized in the warmer and more humid year 1998. The highest number of species represented mitosporic fungi, and the lowest came from the phylum Oomycota. The fungi relatively frequently found also were those of Basidiomycota. The greatest diversity of species of the microorganisms was revealed in the Cirsio-Polygonetum and Filipendulo-Geranietum plant associations.

  13. Isolation, inoculation to insect host, and molecular phylogeny of an entomogenous fungus Paecilomyces tenuipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukatsu, T; Sato, H; Kuriyama, H

    1997-11-01

    A parasitic fungus to moth larvae and pupae, Paecilomyces tenuipes, was isolated and cultured on liquid and agar media. Fruit bodies, or synnemata, with characteristics of P. tenuipes were successfully formed on the agar medium. When pupae of wax moth, Galleria mellonella, were incubated with the conidia, all the pupae were infected and the synnemata were formed out of them. Almost the entire length of 18S rDNA of P. tenuipes was amplified by PCR and directly sequenced. Molecular phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that it belongs to the subphylum Ascomycotina, the class Pyrenomycetes, the order Clavicipitales. This result is compatible with the suggestions that P. tenuipes may be the anamorph of an entomogenous fungus of the genus Cordyceps. PMID:9367727

  14. Efficient Transmission of an Introduced Pathogen Via an Ancient Insect-Fungus Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, A.; Roques, A.; Colombari, F.; Frigimelica, G.; Guido, M.

    In Cupressus sempervirens the association between seed insects and tree pathogens has resulted in optimal exploitation of the cones. A fungus-infected cone can be inhabited by the nymphs of a true seed bug (Orsillus maculatus), the adults of which may carry a heavy spore load at emergence. Cones are infected when eggs are laid within the cone, most frequently via the emergence holes of a seed wasp (Megastigmus wachtli). This symbiotic association evolved with the nonaggressive fungus Pestalotiopsis funerea within the natural range of the cypress. When the aggressive cypress canker disease (Seiridium cardinale) was introduced into Europe, it was transmitted by O. maculatus to cones usually colonized by Pestalotiopsis funerea, with disastrous consequences for the regeneration and survival of C. sempervirens in the entire Mediterranean area.

  15. Edible fungus degrade bisphenol A with no harmful effect on its fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengdong; Li, Mingzhu; Chen, Xiaoyan; Li, Mingchun

    2015-08-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical that is ubiquitous in the environment because of its broad industrial use. The authors report that the most widely cultivated mushroom in the world (i.e., white-rot fungus, Pleurotus ostreatus) efficiently degraded 10mg/L of BPA in 7 days. Extracellular laccase was identified as the enzyme responsible for this activity. LC-MS analysis of the metabolites revealed the presence of both low- and high-molecular-weight products obtained via oxidative cleavage and coupling reactions, respectively. In particular, an analysis of the fatty acid composition and chemical structure of the fungal mycelium demonstrated that exposure to BPA resulted in no harmful effects on this edible fungus. The results provide a better understanding of the environmental fate of BPA and its potential impact on food crops. PMID:25933259

  16. Hydroxylation of a hederagenin derived saponin by a Xylareaceous fungus found in fruits of Sapindus saponaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murgu, Michael; Santos, Luiz F. Arruda; Souza, Gezimar D. de; Daolio, Cristina; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Schneider, Bernd [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Beutenberg Campus, Jena (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    During our screening of tropical plants for endophyte microorganisms, a Xylareaceous fungus was found living on the internal part of Sapindus saponaria fruits. The fruits of S. saponaria accumulate great amounts of triterpenoidal and sesquiterpenoidal saponins. The saponin 3-O-({beta}-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1{yields}3)-{alpha}-L -rhamnopyranosyl-(1{yields}2)-{alpha}-L-arabinopyranosyl-hederagenin was isolated using chromatographic methods, after alkaline hydrolysis of the crude extract obtained from S. saponaria fruits and added to the culture medium used to grows the fungus. A new saponin was isolated from this experiment by preparative scale HPLC and characterized as a 22{alpha}-hydroxy derivative. The structure of this hydroxylated saponin was elucidated based on interpretation of MS/MS data and NMR spectra. (author)

  17. Hydroxylation of a hederagenin derived saponin by a Xylareaceous fungus found in fruits of Sapindus saponaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During our screening of tropical plants for endophyte microorganisms, a Xylareaceous fungus was found living on the internal part of Sapindus saponaria fruits. The fruits of S. saponaria accumulate great amounts of triterpenoidal and sesquiterpenoidal saponins. The saponin 3-O-(?-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1?3)-?-L -rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-L-arabinopyranosyl-hederagenin was isolated using chromatographic methods, after alkaline hydrolysis of the crude extract obtained from S. saponaria fruits and added to the culture medium used to grows the fungus. A new saponin was isolated from this experiment by preparative scale HPLC and characterized as a 22?-hydroxy derivative. The structure of this hydroxylated saponin was elucidated based on interpretation of MS/MS data and NMR spectra. (author)

  18. BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SLOVAK ISOLATES OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS PANDORA NEOAPHIDIS (REMAUDIÈRE ET HENNEBERT HUMBER (ZYGOMYCETES, ENTOMOPHTHORALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek BARTA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Intraspecific variability of biological characteristics within entomopathogenic fungus Pandora neoaphidis was evaluated. Fifteen isolates of the fungus were obtained from 5 aphid species in Slovakia. Size of conidia, conidial germination, virulence, radial growth, and biomass production were evaluated. Conidial size varied considerably with exception of isolates originating from the same host population. Conidial germination was observed on all the surfaces tested and it was greatest at saturated humidity. Virulence, daily rate of radial growth and biomass production varied depending on isolates. Isolates obtained from the same host colonies during fungal epizootics shoved also significant differences in the characteristics, what may suggest that epizootics in aphid populations are caused by associations of strains and not by prevalence of a single virulent strain.

  19. Divergence and dispersal of the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Yu, Ze-Fen; Xu, Jianping; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2011-12-01

    Nematode-trapping fungi are of significant agricultural, forestry and ecological importance. However, relatively little is known about the patterns of genetic variation for any nematode-trapping fungus through its broad geographic and ecological contexts. Here, we analysed DNA sequence variation among strains of the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora from China. Our analyses revealed that the Chinese A.?oligospora is a species complex with at least three divergent lineages (cryptic species). In addition, there was significant geographic structuring with unambiguous evidence for localized recombination within two of the three lineages in nature. However, evidence for clonal reproduction was also found. We discuss the implications of our results to the conservation and biocontrol application of A.?oligospora in agriculture and forestry. PMID:23761368

  20. Mathematical Modeling on Obligate Mutualism: Interactions between leaf-cutter ants and their fungus garden

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Yun; Clark, Rebecca; Fewell, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple mathematical model by applying Michaelis-Menton equations of enzyme kinetics to study the mutualistic interaction between the leaf cutter ant and its fungus garden at the early stage of colony expansion. We derive the sufficient conditions on the extinction and coexistence of these two species. In addition, we give a region of initial condition that leads to the extinction of two species when the model has an interior attractor. Our global analysis indicates that the division of labor by workers ants and initial conditions are two important {factors} that determine whether leaf cutter ants colonies and their fungus garden survive and grow can exist or not. We validate the model by doing the comparing between model simulations and data on fungal and ant colony growth rates under laboratory conditions. We perform sensitive analysis and parameter estimation of the model based on the experimental data to gain more biological insights on the ecological interactions between leaf cutter ants and ...

  1. Penicillosides A and B: new cerebrosides from the marine-derived fungus Penicillium species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar S.A. Murshid

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the course of our ongoing effort to identify bioactive compounds from marine-derived fungi, the marine fungus, Penicillium species was isolated from the Red Sea tunicate, Didemnum species. Two new cerebrosides, penicillosides A and B were isolated from the marine-derived fungus, Penicillium species using different chromatographic methods. Their structures were established by different spectroscopic data including 1D (1H NMR and 13C NMR and 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC studies as well as high-resolution mass spectral data. Penicilloside A displayed antifungal activity against Candida albicans while penicilloside B illustrated antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in the agar diffusion assay. Additionally, both compounds showed weak activity against HeLa cells.

  2. Zoosporicidal metabolites from an endophytic fungus Cryptosporiopsis sp. of Zanthoxylum leprieurii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talontsi, Ferdinand Mouafo; Facey, Petrea; Tatong, Michel D Kongue; Tofazzal Islam, M; Frauendorf, Holm; Draeger, Siegfried; Tiedemann, Andreas von; Laatsch, Hartmut

    2012-11-01

    Two polyketides, cryptosporiopsin A (1) and hydroxypropan-2',3'-diol orsellinate (3), and a natural cyclic pentapeptide (4), together with two known compounds were isolated from the culture of Cryptosporiopsis sp., an endophytic fungus from leaves and branches of Zanthoxylum leprieurii (Rutaceae). The structures of these metabolites were elucidated on the basis of their spectroscopic and spectrometric data. Cryptosporiopsin A and the other metabolites exhibited motility inhibitory and lytic activities against zoospores of the grapevine downy mildew pathogen Plasmopara viticola at 10-25?g/mL. In addition, the isolated compounds displayed potent inhibitory activity against mycelial growth of two other peronosporomycete phytopathogens, Pythium ultimum, Aphanomyces cochlioides and a basidiomycetous fungus Rhizoctonia solani. Weak cytotoxic activity on brine shrimp larvae was observed. PMID:22883958

  3. Induced production of mycotoxins in an endophytic fungus from the medicinal plant Datura stramonium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jieyin; Awakawa, Takayoshi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Abe, Ikuro

    2012-10-15

    Epigenetic modifiers, including DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) or histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, are useful to induce the expression of otherwise dormant biosynthetic genes under standard laboratory conditions. We isolated several endophytic fungi from the medicinal plant Datura stramonium L., which produces pharmaceutically important tropane alkaloids, including scopolamine and hyoscyamine. Although none of the endophytic fungi produced the tropane alkaloids, supplementation of a DNMT inhibitor, 5-azacytidine, and/or a HDAC inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, to the culture medium induced the production of mycotoxins, including alternariol, alternariol-5-O-methyl ether, 3'-hydroxyalternariol-5-O-methyl ether, altenusin, tenuazonic acid, and altertoxin II, by the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. This is the first report of a mycotoxin-producing endophytic fungus from the medicinal plant D. stramonium L. This work demonstrates that treatments with epigenetic modifiers induce the production of mycotoxins, thus providing a useful tool to explore the biosynthetic potential of the microorganisms. PMID:22967766

  4. Bioactive secondary metabolites from the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebel R.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the chemical investigation and cytotoxic activity of the secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco. This plant was collected from the Beni-Mellal Mountain in Morocco and belongs to the Lamiaceae family and is named in Morocco “Salmia”. The endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. was isolated from the tissues of the stem of this plant. The fungal strain was identified by PCR. The crude organic extract of the fungal strain was proven to be active when tested for cytotoxicity against L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. Chemical investigation of the secondary metabolites showed that cochliodinol is the main component beside isocochliodinol. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined on the basis of NMR analysis (1H, 13C, COSY and HMBC as well as by mass spectrometry using ESI (Electron Spray Ionisation as source.

  5. Bioactive anthraquinones from endophytic fungus Aspergillus versicolor isolated from red sea algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawas, Usama W; El-Beih, Ahmed Atef; El-Halawany, Ali M

    2012-10-01

    The marine fungus Aspergillus versicolor was isolated from the inner tissue of the Red Sea green alga Halimeda opuntia. The fungus was identified by its morphology and 18s rDNA. Cultivation of this fungal strain led to a new metabolite named isorhodoptilometrin-1-methyl ether (1) along with the known compounds emodin (2), 1-methyl emodin (3), evariquinone (4), 7-hydroxyemodin 6,8-methyl ether (5), siderin (6), arugosin C (7), and variculanol (8). The structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry. The biological properties of ethyl acetate extract and compounds 1-3 and 6-8 were explored for antimicrobial activity, anti-cancer activity and inhibition of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease. PMID:23139125

  6. Halogenated anthraquinones from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. SCSIO F063.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongbo; Wang, Fazuo; Luo, Minghe; Chen, Yuchan; Song, Yongxiang; Zhang, Weimin; Zhang, Si; Ju, Jianhua

    2012-07-27

    Metabolomic investigations focusing on the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. SCSIO F063 have unveiled seven new chlorinated anthraquinones (1-7) related to averantin, together with five known analogues (11-15) when the fungus was fermented using sea salt-containing potato dextrose broth. Through the addition of sodium bromide to the broth, two new brominated anthraquinones (8, 9) and one new nonhalogenated anthraquinone (10) were obtained from the fungal mycelia. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses including MS and 1D and 2D NMR data. One metabolite, 6-O-methyl-7-chloroaveratin (2), displayed inhibition activity against three human tumor cell lines, SF-268, MCF-7, and NCI-H460, with IC(50) values of 7.11, 6.64, and 7.42 ?M, respectively. PMID:22703109

  7. Fungus ball in HIV-infected patients Bola fúngica em pacientes HIV-infectados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Silva Guazzelli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus is a phagocyte opportunistic fungus that causes aspergillosis, an unusual disease in patients with AIDS. Six cases of fungal ball in patients with AIDS are reported here. In this group, all patients had hemoptysis and tuberculosis as the underlying lung disease. The diagnosis of pulmonary fungus ball was based on the clinical and radiographic feature, combined with serological and mycological evidence of Aspergillus fumigatus.Os fungos filamentosos são oportunistas de fagócitos, motivo pelo qual aspergilose é incomum em pacientes com Aids. A apresentação clínica depende do estado imune, tamanho do inóculo fúngico e doença de base. São relatados neste trabalho seis casos de bola fúngica em pacientes com Aids. Neste grupo, todos tiveram tuberculose como doença de base e hemoptise foi o principal sintoma. O diagnóstico da bola fúngica foi através da apresentação clínica, achados radiológicos combinados com imunodifusão radial dupla, exame micológico direto e cultivo do material do trato respiratório, sendo A. fumigatus o agente isolado

  8. Coqui frogs persist with the deadly chytrid fungus despite a lack of defensive antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins-Smith, Louise A; Reinert, Laura K; Burrowes, Patricia A

    2015-02-10

    The amphibian skin fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) occurs widely in Puerto Rico and is thought to be responsible for the apparent extinction of 3 species of endemic frogs in the genus Eleutherodactylus, known as coquis. To examine immune defenses which may protect surviving species, we induced secretion of skin peptides from adult common coqui frogs E. coqui collected from upland forests at El Yunque. By matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, we were unable to detect peptide signals suggestive of antimicrobial peptides, and enriched peptides showed no capacity to inhibit growth of Bd. Thus, it appears that E. coqui depend on other skin defenses to survive in the presence of this deadly fungus. PMID:25667340

  9. Leucoagaricus gongylophorus Produces Diverse Enzymes for the Degradation of Recalcitrant Plant Polymers in Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aylward, Frank O. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tringe, Susannah G. [Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Teiling, Clotilde [Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Tremmel, Daniel [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Moeller, Joseph [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Scott, Jarrod J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Barry, Kerrie W. [Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Piehowski, Paul D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nicora, Carrie D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Malfatti, Stephanie [Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Monroe, Matthew E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Purvine, Samuel O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Smith, Richard D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weinstock, George [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MS (United States); Gerardo, Nicole [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States); Suen, Garret [Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Lipton, Mary S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Currie, Cameron R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smothsonian Tropical Research Inst., Balboa (Panama)

    2013-06-12

    Plants represent a large reservoir of organic carbon comprised largely of recalcitrant polymers that most metazoans are unable to deconstruct. Many herbivores gain access to nutrients in this material indirectly by associating with microbial symbionts, and leaf-cutter ants are a paradigmatic example. These ants use fresh foliar biomass as manure to cultivate fungus gardens composed primarily of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, a basidiomycetous symbiont that produces specialized hyphal swellings that serve as a food source for the host ant colony. Although leaf-cutter ants are conspicuous herbivores that contribute substantially to carbon turnover in Neotropical ecosystems, the process through which plant biomass is degraded in their fungus gardens is not well understood. Here we present the first draft genome of L. gongylophorus, and using genomic, metaproteomic, and phylogenetic tools we investigate its role in lignocellulose degradation in the fungus gardens of both Atta cephalotes and Acromyrmex echinatior leaf-cutter ants. We show that L. gongylophorus produces a diversity of lignocellulases in fungus gardens, and is likely the primary driver of plant biomass degradation in these ecosystems. We also show that this fungus produces distinct sets of lignocellulases throughout the different stages of biomass degradation, including numerous cellulases and laccases that may be playing an important but previously uncharacterized role in lignocellulose degradation. Our study provides a comprehensive analysis of plant biomass degradation in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens and provides insight into the molecular dynamics underlying the symbiosis between these dominant herbivores and their obligate fungal cultivar.

  10. Transcriptome of an entomophthoralean fungus (Pandora formicae) shows molecular machinery adjusted for successful host exploitation and transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malagocka, Joanna; Grell, Morten Nedergaard

    2015-01-01

    Pandora formicae is an obligate entomopathogenic fungus from the phylum Entomophthoromycota, known to infect only ants from the genus Formica. In the final stages of infection, the fungus induces the so-called summit disease syndrome, manipulating the host to climb up vegetation prior to death and fixing the dead cadaver to the surface, all to increase efficient spore dispersal. To investigate this fascinating pathogen-host interaction, we constructed interaction transcriptome libraries from two final infection stages from the material sampled in the field: (1) when the cadavers were fixed, but the fungus had not grown out through the cuticle and (2) when the fungus was growing out from host cadaver and producing spores. These phases mark the switch from within-host growth to reproduction on the host surface, after fungus outgrowth through host integument. In this first de novo transcriptome of an entomophthoralean fungus, we detected expression of many pathogenicity-related genes, including secreted hydrolytic enzymes and genes related to morphological reorganization and nutrition uptake. Differences in expression of genes in these two infection phases were compared and showed a switch in enzyme expression related to either cuticle breakdown or cell proliferation and cell wall remodeling, particularly in subtilisin-like serine protease and trypsin-like protease transcripts.

  11. Amphibians acquire resistance to live and dead fungus overcoming fungal immunosuppression

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Taegan A.; Sears, Brittany F.; Venesky, Matthew D.; Bessler, Scott M.; Brown, Jenise M.; Deutsch, Kaitlin; Halstead, Neal T.; Lentz, Garrett; Tenouri, Nadia; Young, Suzanne; Civitello, David J.; Ortega, Nicole; Fites, J. Scott; Reinert, Laura K.; Rollins-Smith, Louise A.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging fungal pathogens pose a greater threat to biodiversity than any other parasitic group1, causing declines of many taxa, including bats, corals, bees, snakes and amphibians1–4. Currently, there is little evidence that wild animals can acquire resistance to these pathogens5. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a pathogenic fungus implicated in the recent global decline of amphibians6. Here we demonstrate that three species of amphibians can acquire behavioural or immunological resistance ...

  12. Fruity aromas production in solid state fermentation by the fungus Ceratocystis fimbriata

    OpenAIRE

    CHRISTEN, Pierre; Revah, S.

    1998-01-01

    Solid state fermentation (SSF) has been studied for enzymes, antibiotics, alcohol production or for protein enrichment, but few papers report the production of aromas by such a process. In this work, the study of the production of fruity aromas in SSF by the fungus #Ceratocystis fimbriata$ is presented, with special interest in the nature of the support/substrate, the importance of added precursors in the medium and the aeration. The aromas were characterised by "sniffing" technique an GC hea...

  13. Structural properties of double-stranded RNAs associated with biological control of chestnut blight fungus

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    Double-stranded RNAs (ds RNAs) are thought to be the cytoplasmic determinants responsible for the phenomenon of transmissible hypovirulence in the chestnut blight fungus Endothia parasitica [Murr.] Anderson. The three major ds RNA components associated with the North American hypovirulent strain, Grand Haven 2, were characterized with respect to molecular-hybridization specificity and RNase T1-digestion patterns. The large (L-RNA; ?9 kilobase pairs) and middle-sized (M-RNA; ?3.5 kilobase pair...

  14. Heterogeneous Occupancy and Density Estimates of the Pathogenic Fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Waters of North America

    OpenAIRE

    Chestnut, Tara; Anderson, Chauncey; Popa, Radu; Blaustein, Andrew R.; Voytek, Mary; Olson, Deanna H.; Kirshtein, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Biodiversity losses are occurring worldwide due to a combination of stressors. For example, by one estimate, 40% of amphibian species are vulnerable to extinction, and disease is one threat to amphibian populations. The emerging infectious disease chytridiomycosis, caused by the aquatic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is a contributor to amphibian declines worldwide. Bd research has focused on the dynamics of the pathogen in its amphibian hosts, with little emphasis on investigati...

  15. Identifying the transition between single and multiple mating of queens in fungus-growing ants.

    OpenAIRE

    Villesen, Palle; Murakami, Takahiro; SCHULTZ, TED R.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2002-01-01

    Obligate mating of females (queens) with multiple males has evolved only rarely in social Hymenoptera (ants, social bees, social wasps) and for reasons that are fundamentally different from those underlying multiple mating in other animals. The monophyletic tribe of ('attine') fungus-growing ants is known to include evolutionarily derived genera with obligate multiple mating (the Acromyrmex and Atta leafcutter ants) as well as phylogenetically basal genera with exclusively single mating (e.g....

  16. A mutualistic microbiome: How do fungus-growing ants select their antibiotic-producing bacteria?

    OpenAIRE

    Barke, Jörg; Ryan F. Seipke; Yu, Douglas W.; Hutchings, Matthew I

    2011-01-01

    We recently published a paper titled “A mixed community of actinomycetes produce multiple antibiotics for the fungus farming ant Acromyrmex octospinosus” showing that attine ants use multidrug therapy to maintain their fungal cultivars. This paper tested two theories that have been put forward to explain how attine ants establish mutualism with actinomycete symbionts: environmental acquisition versus co-evolution. We found good evidence for environmental acquisition, in agreement with other r...

  17. Laccase detoxification mediates the nutritional alliance between leaf-cutting ants and fungus-garden symbionts

    OpenAIRE

    Henrik H. De Fine Licht; Schiøtt, Morten; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Nygaard, Sanne; Roepstorff, Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2012-01-01

    Leaf-cutting ants combine large-scale herbivory with fungus farming to sustain advanced societies. Their stratified colonies are major evolutionary achievements and serious agricultural pests, but the crucial adaptations that allowed this mutualism to become the prime herbivorous component of neotropical ecosystems has remained elusive. Here we show how coevolutionary adaptation of a specific enzyme in the fungal symbiont has helped leaf-cutting ants overcome plant defensive phenolic compound...

  18. Identifying the transition between single and multiple mating of queens in fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Murakami, Takahiro; Schultz, Ted R; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2002-01-01

    Obligate mating of females (queens) with multiple males has evolved only rarely in social Hymenoptera (ants, social bees, social wasps) and for reasons that are fundamentally different from those underlying multiple mating in other animals. The monophyletic tribe of ('attine') fungus-growing ants is known to include evolutionarily derived genera with obligate multiple mating (the Acromyrmex and Atta leafcutter ants) as well as phylogenetically basal genera with exclusively single mating (e.g. Ap...

  19. The prominent role of fungi and fungal enzymes in the ant-fungus biomass conversion symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, L; Grell, M N

    2014-06-01

    Molecular studies have added significantly to understanding of the role of fungi and fungal enzymes in the efficient biomass conversion, which takes place in the fungus garden of leaf-cutting ants. It is now clear that the fungal symbiont expresses the full spectrum of genes for degrading cellulose and other plant cell wall polysaccharides. Since the start of the genomics era, numerous interesting studies have especially focused on evolutionary, molecular, and organismal aspects of the biological and biochemical functions of the symbiosis between leaf-cutting ants (Atta spp. and Acromyrmex spp.) and their fungal symbiont Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. Macroscopic observations of the fungus-farming ant colony inherently depict the ants as the leading part of the symbiosis (the myrmicocentric approach, overshadowing the mycocentric aspects). However, at the molecular level, it is fungal enzymes that enable the ants to access the nutrition embedded in recalcitrant plant biomass. Our hypothesis is that the evolutionary events that established fungus-farming practice were predisposed by a fascinating fungal evolution toward increasing attractiveness to ants. This resulted in the ants allowing the fungus to grow in the nests and began to supply plant materials for more fungal growth. Molecular studies also confirm that specialized fungal structures, the gongylidia, with high levels of proteins and rich blend of enzymes, are essential for symbiosis. Harvested and used as ant feed, the gongylidia are the key factor for sustaining the highly complex leaf-cutting ant colony. This microbial upgrade of fresh leaves to protein-enriched animal feed can serve as inspiration for modern biorefinery technology. PMID:24728757

  20. Biodecolorization of Phenolic Paper Mill Effluent by Ligninolytic Fungus Trametes versicolor

    OpenAIRE

    P.C. Prabu; C. Udayasoorian

    2005-01-01

    A white rot fungus isolated from soil samples enriched by continuous pulp and paper mill effluent irrigation and identified as Trametes versicolor was capable of decolorization and degradation of phenol from paper mill effluent. 14C synthetic lignin mineralization assays showed that Trametes versicolor assimilated 24.3% of the total label. There was 76% effluent decolourization along with 78% COD reduction. The effluent chlorinated phenol degradation was 85% by Trametes versicolor, when added...

  1. Steroids produced by Penicillium herquei, an endophytic fungus isolated from the fruits of Melia azedarach (Meliaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six compounds comprising the groups of steroids, the ergosterol, the ergosterol peroxide, the cerevisterol, the neociclocitrinols, the ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one, the 25-hydroxy-ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one, were isolated from Penicillium herquei fungus obtained from Melia azedarach. The structures were identified by spectral methods of RMN 1D and 2D and MS. (author)

  2. Inhibition of the symbiotic fungus of leaf-cutting ants by coumarins

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marizete F. P., Godoy; Sandra R., Victor; Adriana M., Bellini; Gisleine, Guerreiro; Waldireny C., Rocha; Odair C., Bueno; Maria J. A., Hebling; Maurício, Bacci Jr; M. Fátima G. F. da, Silva; Paulo C., Vieira; João B., Fernandes; Fernando C., Pagnocca.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Formigas cortadoras de folhas são consideradas pragas para a agricultura devido à grande quantidade de material vegetal utilizado por elas para cultivar um fungo simbionte que lhes serve de alimento e enzimas. O mutualismo entre o fungo e as formigas é um ponto a ser explorado quando se considera su [...] a possível aplicação em métodos alternativos para o controle desses insetos. Sabendo-se que algumas plantas são naturalmente resistentes aos insetos fitófagos, alguns produtos naturais (metabólitos secundários) devem ser avaliados em relação às suas propriedades inseticidas e/ou fungicidas. Neste trabalho foram isoladas oito cumarinas de quatro espécies de plantas e o efeito no desenvolvimento do fungo simbionte das formigas cortadeiras Atta sexdens foi determinado. Com exceção da clausarina, todas as outras cumarinas foram inibitórias de 64 µg mL-1 à 80 µg mL-1 sendo que a xantiletina inibiu o fungo na concentração de 25 µg mL-1. Abstract in english Leaf-cutting ants are known to be a serious pest for agriculture due to the high amounts of vegetal matter from crops used by them in order to cultivate a symbiotic fungus on which they rely for food and enzymes. The mutualism between the fungus and the ants is a point to be explored when alternativ [...] e methods of control are being thought of. Considering that some plants are naturally resistant to phytophagous insects, some natural products (secondary metabolites) should be evaluated with respect to their insecticide and/or fungicide properties. In this paper we isolated eight coumarins from four different plant species and we determined their effect on the development of the symbiotic fungus of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens. With the exception of clausarin, all the other coumarins were inhibitory from 64 µg mL-1 through 80 µg mL-1 and xanthyletin inhibited the fungus at 25 µg mL-1

  3. Laccase detoxification mediates the nutritional alliance between leaf-cutting ants and fungus-garden symbionts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Fine Licht, Henrik; Schiøtt, Morten; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Nygaard, Sanne; Roepstorff, Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus

    2013-01-01

    Leaf-cutting ants combine large-scale herbivory with fungus farming to sustain advanced societies. Their stratified colonies are major evolutionary achievements and serious agricultural pests, but the crucial adaptations that allowed this mutualism to become the prime herbivorous component of neotropical ecosystems has remained elusive. Here we show how coevolutionary adaptation of a specific enzyme in the fungal symbiont has helped leaf-cutting ants overcome plant defensive phenolic compounds. ...

  4. Humidity preference for fungus culturing by workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa

    OpenAIRE

    Roces, Flavio; Kleineidam, Christoph

    2000-01-01

    The hygropreference of gardening workers ofthe leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa was investigated in the laboratory using a gradient of relative humidity. Gardening workers were placed, together with pieces offungus garden, in small, interconnected nest chambers offering four different relative humidities: 33%, 75%, 84% and 98% RH. Workers were allowed to move freely between them and to relocate the fungus following their humidity preference. While workers distributed themselves rando...

  5. Polyancora globosa gen. sp. nov., an aeroaquatic fungus from Malaysian peat swamp forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voglmayr, Hermann; Yule, Catherine M

    2006-10-01

    During an investigation of submerged leaves and twigs sampled from tropical peat swamp forests located in Peninsular Malaysia, an anamorphic fungus not attributable to a described genus was detected and isolated in pure culture. Conidial ontogeny was thoroughly studied and illustrated using both light and SEM, which revealed a unique conidial morphology. Analysis of partial nuLSU rDNA and ITS data revealed a phylogenetic position within the Xylariales (Ascomycota), but family affiliation remained unclear. PMID:17018253

  6. Presence of the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Native Amphibians Exported from Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Kolby, Jonathan E.

    2014-01-01

    The emerging infectious disease chytridiomycosis is driven by the spread of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd), a highly virulent pathogen threatening global amphibian biodiversity. Although pandemic in distribution, previous intensive field surveys have failed to detect Bd in Madagascar, a biodiversity hotspot home to hundreds of endemic amphibian species. Due to the presence of Bd in nearby continental Africa and the ecological crisis that can be expected followin...

  7. Amphibian Chytrid Fungus in Madagascar neither Shows Widespread Presence nor Signs of Certain Establishment

    OpenAIRE

    Kolby, Jonathan E.; Skerratt, Lee F

    2015-01-01

    The global spread of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) is associated with amphibian mass mortality, population decline, and extinction. Over the past decade, concern has been expressed for the potential introduction of Bd to Madagascar, a global hotspot of amphibian biodiversity. Following years without detection, widespread Bd presence in Madagascar has now been reported (Bletz et al. 2015a), raising international conservation concern. Before reacting to this find...

  8. Endemic Infection of the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus in a Frog Community Post-Decline

    OpenAIRE

    Retallick Richard W. R; McCallum Hamish; Speare Rick

    2004-01-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in the decline and extinction of numerous frog species worldwide. In Queensland, Australia, it has been proposed as the cause of the decline or apparent extinction of at least 14 high-elevation rainforest frog species. One of these, Taudactylus eungellensis, disappeared from rainforest streams in Eungella National Park in 1985-1986, but a few remnant populations were subsequently discovered. Here, we report the analysis of ...

  9. Antifungal Compounds Produced by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, an Endophytic Fungus from Michelia champaca

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Mara Chapla; Maria Luiza Zeraik; Ioanis Hcristos Leptokarydis; Geraldo Humberto Silva; Vanderlan Silva Bolzani; Maria Claudia M. Young; Ludwig Heinrich Pfenning; Angela Regina Araújo

    2014-01-01

    In this study, eight endophytic fungi were isolated from the leaves, stems and roots of Michelia champaca. The isolates were screened and evaluated for their antifungal, anticancer and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities. All of the extracts exhibited potent activity against two evaluated phytopathogenic fungi. Chemical investigation of EtOAc extracts of the endophytic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides resulted in the isolation of one new compound, 2-phenylethyl 1H-indol-3-y...

  10. Complementary symbiont contributions to plant decomposition in a fungus-farming termite

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Michael; Hu, Haofu; Li, Cai; Chen, Zhensheng; Xu, Luohao; Otani, Saria; Nygaard, Sanne; Nobre, Tania; Klaubauf, Sylvia; Schindler, Philipp M.; Hauser, Frank; Pan, Hailin; Yang, Zhikai; Sonnenberg, Anton S.M.; de Beer, Z. Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Old World (sub)tropical fungus-growing termites owe their massive ecological footprints to an advanced symbiosis with Termitomyces fungi. They also have abundant gut bacteria, but the complementarity roles of these symbionts have remained unclear. We analyzed the genomic potential for biomass decomposition in a farming termite, its fungal symbiont, and its bacterial gut communities. We found that plant biomass conversion is mostly a multistage complementary cooperation between Termitomyces an...

  11. Antimicrobial and antiprotozoal activities of secondary metabolites from the fungus Eurotium repens

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Jiangtao; Radwan, Mohamed M; León, Francisco de (O.P.); Wang, Xiaoning; Jacob, Melissa R.; Tekwani, Babu L.; Khan, Shabana I.; Lupien, Shari; Hill, Robert A; Dugan, Frank M.; Cutler, Horace G.; Cutler, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined in vitro antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, and antileishmanial activities of secondary metabolites (1–8) isolated from the fungus Eurotium repens. All compounds showed mild to moderate antibacterial or antifungal or both activities except 7. The activity of compound 6 was the best of the group tested. The in vitro antimalarial evaluation of these compounds revealed that compounds 1–3, 5, and 6 showed antimalarial activities against both chloroquine-sensitive ...

  12. The availability of a lactose medium for tea fungus culture and Kombucha fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Markov S.L.; Cvetkovi? D.D.; Veli?anski Aleksandra S.

    2012-01-01

    Kombucha is a traditional beverage that is prepared by fermenting sucrose-sweetened black tea. A medium is inoculated with a cellulose pellicle (popularly known as a “tea fungus”) or fermentation brought from previous cultivation process. Our aim was to test the possibility of obtaining a Kombucha beverage using different concentration of lactose as an alternative source of C-atoms. A traditional medium sweetened with sucrose or without sugar was used as control. Without lactose-ferment...

  13. DNA Fingerprinting and Analysis of Population Structure in the Chestnut Blight Fungus, Cryphonectria Parasitica

    OpenAIRE

    Milgroom, M.G.; Lipari, S E; Powell, W. A.

    1992-01-01

    We analyzed DNA fingerprints in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, for stability, inheritance, linkage and variability in a natural population. DNA fingerprints resulting from hybridization with a dispersed moderately repetitive DNA sequence of C. parasitica in plasmid pMS5.1 hybridized to 6-17 restriction fragments per individual isolate. In a laboratory cross and from progeny from a single perithecium collected from a field population, the presence/absence of 11 fragments...

  14. Utilizing DART Mass Spectrometry to Pinpoint Halogenated Metabolites from a Marine Invertebrate-Derived Fungus

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Katharine R.; Loveridge, Steven T.; Tenney, Karen; Media, Joseph; Frederick A. Valeriote; Crews, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Prenylated indole alkaloids are a diverse group of fungal secondary metabolites and represent an important biosynthetic class. In this study we have identified new halogenated prenyl-indole alkaloids from an invertebrate-derived Malbranchea graminicola strain. Using Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) Mass Spectrometry, these compounds were initially detected from spores of the fungus grown on agar plates, without the need for any organic extraction. Subsequently, the metabolites were isolate...

  15. Structures of meroterpenes produced by Penicillium sp, an endophytic fungus found associated with Melia azedarach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Regina M. Geris dos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Penicillium sp was isolated from the root bark of Melia azedarach after surface sterilisation and cultivated for three weeks on sterilised rice. A new meroterpene, named austinoneol, and the known meroterpenes 7-b-acetoxy-dehydroaustin, neoaustin and dehydroaustin were isolated from the methanol extract of this rice culture. Their structures were identified after extensive spectroscopic studies, which also helped on the revision of ¹H and 13C chemical shift assignment for some of the known meroterpenes.

  16. The evolutionary imprint of domestication on genome variation and function of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbons, John G; Salichos, Leonidas; Slot, Jason C.; Rinker, David C.; McGary, Kriston L; King, Jonas G; Klich, Maren A.; Tabb, David L; McDonald, W. Hayes; Rokas, Antonis

    2012-01-01

    The domestication of animals, plants and microbes fundamentally transformed the lifestyle and demography of the human species [1]. Although the genetic and functional underpinnings of animal and plant domestication are well understood, little is known about microbe domestication [2–6]. We systematically examined genome-wide sequence and functional variation between the domesticated fungus Aspergillus oryzae, whose saccharification abilities humans have harnessed for thousands of years to prod...

  17. Growth Characteristics of the Thermophilic Fungus Scytalidium thermophilum in Relation to Production of Mushroom Compost

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegant, W. M.

    1992-01-01

    Scytalidium thermophilum is an important thermophilic fungus in the production of mushroom compost. I investigated the characteristics of this organism and present a simple model with which fungal growth in compost can be described. The model is used to predict better circumstances for rapid indoor production of mushroom compost. I conclude that inoculation of the starting material with prepared compost either before or after the pasteurization phase has only a minor effect on the shortening ...

  18. A mycorrhizal fungus grows on biochar and captures phosphorus from its surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Edith C.; Balogh-Brunstad, Zsuzsanna; Jakobsen, Iver; Olsson, Pål Axel; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane; Rillig, Matthias C.

    2014-01-01

    Biochar application to soils has potential to simultaneously improve soil fertility and store carbon to aid climate change mitigation. While many studies have shown positive effects on plant yields, much less is known about the synergies between biochar and plant growth promoting microbes, such as mycorrhizal fungi. We present the first evidence that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can use biochar as a physical growth matrix and nutrient source. We used monoxenic cultures of the AM fungus Rhiz...

  19. Population evidence of cryptic species and geographical structure in the cosmopolitan ectomycorrhizal fungus, Tricholoma scalpturatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carriconde, Fabian; Gardes, Monique; Jargeat, Patricia; Heilmann-Clausen, Jacob; Mouhamadou, Bello; Gryta, Hervé

    2008-01-01

    Tricholoma scalpturatum is an ectomycorrhizal fungus that forms symbioses with roots of diverse trees and shrubs. It is commonly encountered in a wide range of habitats, across temperate ecosystems. A previous study has revealed a high genetic diversity at a local scale, and ruderal abilities. To examine genetic structure at a large geographical scale, a total of 164 basidiocarps were collected from 30 populations located in Western Europe, from Spain to Scandinavia. These samples were analyzed ...

  20. [Incorporation of caffeine into the macromicete fungus Pleurotus sajor-caju growing on coffee pulp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto Ramírez, Ivonne Jeannette; Chegwin Angarita, Carolina; Osorio Zuloaga, Hector Jairo

    2007-03-01

    TWhen the chemical composition of secondary metabolites from the Pleurotus sajor-caju growing on coffee pulp were study, it was found that the fungus has the faculty of incorporating caffeine inside its fructiferous body. Component of the substrate (around 1.3% on dry basis) did not show a structural change over the alkaloid; this constitutes an unexpected outcome for a species belonging to realm of the fungi. PMID:17592899

  1. Comparison of Gamma Irradiated and Raw Lignite in Bioliquefaction Process by Fungus T5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bioliquefaction of coal is a processing technology for converting solid coal to liquid oil at ambient temperature by helping microorganism. The pretreated of lignite is important to decrease the hydrofobic of lignite surface. One of pretreated method was irradiation by gamma rays. Aim of this research was to compare the gamma irradiated lignite and raw lignite in bioliquefaction process by selected fungus T5. The fungus was identified by molecular method using 18S rDNA. Treatments were A (MSS + gamma irradiated lignite 5% + T5) and B (MSS + raw lignite 5% + T5) and culture type was sub-merged. The parameters observed were colonization, bacterial and fungal enumeration, identify of dominant bacteria using 16S rDNA and characterization of bioliquefaction product by UV-Vis spectroscopy dan gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GCMS). The results showed that fungus T5 belongs to Ascomycota, Trichoderma asperellum. Fungus has the ability to growth and liquefy gamma irradiated and raw lignite. Bacteria were detected in raw lignite treatment and dominant bacteria were identified as Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus thuringensis. UV-Vis analysis showed that boliquefaction product mainly contained naphtacene, naphthalene, and anthracene for gamma irradiated lignite, but anthracene and benzene for raw lignite. For GCMS analysis, 22 and 38 compounds were identified for gamma irradiated and raw lignite. Both treatment had different number of hydrocarbon, i.e. C6 - C35 (A) and C10 - C35 (B) and dominated by aromatic acids, aliphatic and phenylethers. Percent area of gasoline (C7 - C11) and diesel (C10 - C24) fractions on the treatment B was 7.23% and 62.35%, while in treatment A was 7.22% and 44.27%. Based on the results, pretreated of lignite by gamma irradiation could be increased the bioliquefaction product. (author)

  2. Bacterial symbiont sharing in Megalomyrmex social parasites and their fungus?growing ant hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liberti, Joanito; Sapountzis, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bacterial symbionts are important fitness determinants of insects. Some hosts have independently acquired taxonomically related microbes to meet similar challenges, but whether distantly related hosts that live in tight symbiosis can maintain similar microbial communities has not been investigated. Varying degrees of nest-sharing between Megalomyrmex social parasites (Solenopsidini) and their fungus-growing ant hosts (Attini) from the genera Cyphomyrmex, Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex allowed us to address ...

  3. Influence of Populus Genotype on Gene Expression by the Wood Decay Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    OpenAIRE

    Gaskell, Jill; Marty, Amber; Mozuch, Michael; Kersten, Philip J.; Splinter BonDurant, Sandra; Sabat, Grzegorz; Azarpira, Ali; Ralph, John; Skyba, Oleksandr; Mansfield, Shawn D; Blanchette, Robert A.; Cullen, Dan

    2014-01-01

    We examined gene expression patterns in the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium when it colonizes hybrid poplar (Populus alba × tremula) and syringyl (S)-rich transgenic derivatives. A combination of microarrays and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) allowed detection of a total of 9,959 transcripts and 793 proteins. Comparisons of P. chrysosporium transcript abundance in medium containing poplar or glucose as a sole carbon source showed 113 regulated ge...

  4. Aspiperidine oxide, a piperidine N-oxide from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus indologenus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lene Maj; Kildgaard, Sara

    2015-01-01

    A novel secondary metabolite, aspiperidine oxide, was isolated from the filamentous fungus, Aspergillus indologenus. The structure of aspiperidine oxide was determined from extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis supported by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The structure revealed a rare piperidine N-oxide, not observed in filamentous fungi before. A biosynthetic pathway towards aspiperidine oxide is proposed, based on tentative identification of intermediates from UHPLC-DAD-HRMS data.

  5. New bioactive metabolites produced by Phomopsis cassiae, an endophytic fungus in Cassia spectabilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Geraldo H.; Teles, Helder L.; Trevisan, Henrique C.; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Araujo, Angela R. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: araujoar@iq.unesp.br; Young, Maria C.M. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas; Pfenning, Ludwig H. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fitopatologia; Eberlin, Marcos N.; Haddad, Renato [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Costa-Neto, Claudio M. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia

    2005-11-15

    Two new metabolites, ethyl 2,4-dihydroxy-5,6-dimethylbenzoate (1) and phomopsilactone (2) were isolated from Phomopsis cassiae, an endophytic fungus in Cassia spectabilis. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR, MS and IR spectral data. Compounds 1 and 2 displayed strong antifungal activity against the phytopatogenic fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, as well as cytotoxicity against human cervical tumor cell line (HeLa), in in vitro assays. (author)

  6. Dynamic disease management in trachymyrmex fungus-growing ants (Attini: Formicidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Bruner, Gaspar; Gomez, Ernesto B.; Nash, David Richard; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Wcislo, William T.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Multipartner mutualisms have potentially complex dynamics, with compensatory responses when one partner is lost or relegated to a minor role. Fungus-growing ants (Attini) are mutualistic associates of basidiomycete fungi and antibiotic-producing actinomycete bacteria; the former are attacked by specialized fungi (Escovopsis) and diverse generalist microbes. Ants deploy biochemical defenses from bacteria and metapleural glands (MGs) and express different behaviors to control contaminants...

  7. Five New Guanacastane-Type Diterpenes from Cultures of the Fungus Psathyrella candolleana

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Xia; Feng, Tao; Li, Zheng-Hui; Leng, Ying; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2014-01-01

    Five new guanacastane-type diterpenes, named guanacastepenes P–T (1–5), were isolated from cultures of the fungus Psathyrella candolleana. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods. All of the compounds were tested for their 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11?-HSD1) inhibitory activity. Compound 3 exhibited inhibitory activity against both human and mouse isozymes of 11?-HSD1 with IC50 values of 6.2 and 13.9 ?M, respectively.

  8. Pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycetes) to Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhioua, E.; Browning, M.; Johnson, P.W.; Ginsberg, H.S.; LeBrun, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is highly pathogenic to the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis. Spore concentrations of 108/ml for engorged larvae and 107/ml for engorged females resulted in 100% tick mortality, 2 wk post-infection. The LC50 value for engorged larvae (concentration to kill 50% of ticks) was 107 spores/ml. Metarhizium anisopliae shows considerable potential as a microbial control agent for the management of Ixodes scapularis.

  9. Ethylene Supports Colonization of Plant Roots by the Mutualistic Fungus Piriformospora indica

    OpenAIRE

    Khatabi, Behnam; Molitor, Alexandra; Lindermayr, Christian; Pfiffi, Stefanie; Durner, Jörg; von Wettstein, Diter; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schäfer, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The mutualistic basidiomycete Piriformospora indica colonizes roots of mono- and dicotyledonous plants, and thereby improves plant health and yield. Given the capability of P. indica to colonize a broad range of hosts, it must be anticipated that the fungus has evolved efficient strategies to overcome plant immunity and to establish a proper environment for nutrient acquisition and reproduction. Global gene expression studies in barley identified various ethylene synthesis and signaling compo...

  10. X-ray structure of a vanadium-containing enzyme: chloroperoxidase from the fungus Curvularia inaequalis.

    OpenAIRE

    Messerschmidt, A.; Wever, R.

    1996-01-01

    The chloroperoxidase (EC 1.11.1.-) from the fungus Curvularia inaequalis belongs to a class of vanadium enzymes that oxidize halides in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to the corresponding hypohalous acids. The 2.1 A crystal structure (R = 20%) of an azide chloroperoxidase complex reveals the geometry of the catalytic vanadium center. Azide coordinates directly to the metal center, resulting in a structure with azide, three nonprotein oxygens, and a histidine as ligands. In the native state...

  11. The Amphibian Chytrid Fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, in Fully Aquatic Salamanders from Southeastern North America

    OpenAIRE

    Chatfield, Matthew W. H.; Moler, Paul; Richards-Zawacki, Corinne L.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the impact that the pathogenic amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has on fully aquatic salamander species of the eastern United States. As a first step in determining the impacts of Bd on these species, we aimed to determine the prevalence of Bd in wild populations of fully aquatic salamanders in the genera Amphiuma, Necturus, Pseudobranchus, and Siren. We sampled a total of 98 salamanders, representing nine species from sites in Florida, Miss...

  12. A Laboratory Maintenance Regime for a Fungus-Growing Termite Macrotermes gilvus (Blattodea: Termitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Chen; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2015-06-01

    The optimum maintenance conditions of the fungus-growing termite, Macrotermes gilvus (Hagen) (Blattodea: Termitidae), in the laboratory were studied. Termites were kept on a matrix of moist sand and with fungus comb as food. The survival of groups of termites was measured when maintained at different population densities by changing group size and container volume. Larger groups (?0.6?g) were more vigorous and had significant higher survival rates than smaller groups (?0.3?g). The population density for optimal survival of M. gilvus is 0.0025?g per container volume (ml) or 0.0169?g per matrix volume (cm(3)), i.e., 1.2?g of termites kept in a 480-ml container filled with 71?cm3 of sand. In termite groups of smaller size (i.e., 0.3?g) or groups maintained in smaller container (i.e., 100?ml) the fungus comb was overgrown with Xylaria spp., and subsequently all termites died within the study period. The insufficient number of workers for regulating the growth of unwanted fungi other than Termitomyces spp. in the fungus comb is the most likely reason. Unlike some other mound-building termite species, M. gilvus showed satisfactory survival when maintained in non-nutritious matrix (i.e., sand). There was no significant difference in the survival rate between different colonies of M. gilvus (n=5), with survival in the range of 78.5-84.4% after 4?wk. Advances in the maintenance of Macrotermes will enable researchers to study with more biological relevance many aspects of the biology, behavior, and management of this species. PMID:26470252

  13. Metacridamides A and B, macrocycles from conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum

    OpenAIRE

    Krasnoff, Stuart B.; Englich, Ulrich; Miller, Paula G; Shuler, Michael L; Raymond P. Glahn; Donzelli, Bruno G. G.; Gibson, Donna M

    2012-01-01

    Metarhizium acridum, an entomopathogenic fungus, has been commercialized and used successfully for biocontrol of grasshopper pests in Africa and Australia. Its conidia produce two novel 17-membered macrocycles, metacridamides A (1) and B (2), which consist of a Phe unit condensed with a nonaketide. Planar structures were elucidated by a combination of mass spectrometric and NMR techniques. Following hydrolysis of 1, chiral amino acid analysis assigned the L-configuration to the Phe unit. A cr...

  14. Induced autolysis of fungus Aspergillus terreus AT-490 grown on agricultural and food industry wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autolysis of the biomass of fungus Aspergillus terreus AT-490 grown on citrus meal and tomato residues was studied. The optimal conditions of conducting it were determined: preliminary ultrasonic treatment for 5 min, temperature 55 degrees C, concentration of dry materials 50 g/liter, duration 23 hr, inducer 3% ethanol. The amino acid composition of the biomass of A. terreus AT-490 was determined

  15. Antifungal compounds of Xylaria sp., an endophytic fungus isolated from Palicourea marcgravii (Rubiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five compounds, 2-hexyl-3-methyl-butanodioic acid (1), cytochalasin D (2), 7-dechlorogriseofulvin (3), cytochalasin B (4) and griseofulvin (5), have been isolated from the endophytic fungus Xylaria sp., and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. In the bioautography assay against Cladosporium cladosporioides and Cladosporium sphaerospermum, compounds 1 and 2 were found to be active while compounds 3, 4 and 5 did not show antifungal activity. (author)

  16. A Hair & a Fungus: Showing Kids the Size of a Microbe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Dana L.

    2013-01-01

    A simple method is presented to show kids the size of a microbe--a fungus hypha--compared to a human hair. Common household items are used to make sterile medium on a stove or hotplate, which is dispensed in the cells of a weekly plastic pill box. Mold fungi can be easily and safely grown on the medium from the classroom environment. A microscope…

  17. The rhizosphere microbial community in a multiple parallel mineralization system suppresses the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum

    OpenAIRE

    Fujiwara, Kazuki; Iida, Yuichiro; Iwai, Takashi; Aoyama, Chihiro; Inukai, Ryuya; Ando, Akinori; Ogawa, Jun; Ohnishi, Jun; Terami, Fumihiro; Takano, Masao; Shinohara, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    The rhizosphere microbial community in a hydroponics system with multiple parallel mineralization (MPM) can potentially suppress root-borne diseases. This study focused on revealing the biological nature of the suppression against Fusarium wilt disease, which is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum, and describing the factors that may influence the fungal pathogen in the MPM system. We demonstrated that the rhizosphere microbiota that developed in the MPM system could suppress Fusarium wil...

  18. The mycorrhizal fungus (¤Glomus intraradices¤) affects microbial activity in the rhizosphere of pea plants (¤Pisum sativum¤)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wamberg, C.; Christensen, S.; Jakobsen, I.; Müller, A.K.; Sørensen, S.J.

    2003-01-01

    Pea plants were grown in gamma-irradiated soil in pots with and without addition of the AM fungus Glomus intraradices at sufficient N and limiting P. Depending on the growth phase of the plant presence of AM had negative or positive effect on rhizosphere activity. Before flowering during nutrient...... rhizosphere community during plant growth also supported by changes in the bacteria (DGGE). (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  19. Psychrophilin A and cycloaspeptide D, novel cyclic peptides from the psychrotolerant fungus Penicillium ribeum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Petur; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Frydenvang, K.; Christophersen, C.

    2004-01-01

    Two fungal metabolites, psychrophilin A (1) and cycloaspeptide D (2), together with the known cycloaspeptide A (3) were isolated from the psychrotolerant fungus Penicillium ribeum. using high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and preparative HPLC. The structures were determined from 1D and 2D NMR techniques, HREIMS, tandem mass spectrometry (ESMS/MS), and X-ray crystallography. The amino acid residues of psychrophilin A (1) and cycloaspeptide D (2) were all found to possess the L confi...

  20. Psychrophilin A and cycloaspeptide D, novel cyclic peptides from the psychrotolerant fungus Penicillium ribeum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Petur Weihe; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Christophersen, Carsten

    2004-01-01

    Two fungal metabolites, psychrophilin A (1) and cycloaspeptide D (2), together with the known cycloaspeptide A (3) were isolated from the psychrotolerant fungus Penicillium ribeum using high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and preparative HPLC. The structures were determined from 1D and 2D NMR techniques, HREIMS, tandem mass spectrometry (ESMS/MS), and X-ray crystallography. The amino acid residues of psychrophilin A (1) and cycloaspeptide D (2) were all found to possess the l config...

  1. Physiological evaluation of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei in production processes by marker gene expression analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Penttilä Merja; Söderlund Hans; Kivioja Teemu; Bailey Michael; Rautio Jari J; Saloheimo Markku

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Biologically relevant molecular markers can be used in evaluation of the physiological state of an organism in biotechnical processes. We monitored at high frequency the expression of 34 marker genes in batch, fed-batch and continuous cultures of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei by the transcriptional analysis method TRAC (TRanscript analysis with the aid of Affinity Capture). Expression of specific genes was normalised either with respect to biomass or to overall...

  2. CJ-15,183, a new inhibitor of squalene synthase produced by a fungus, Aspergillus aculeatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, S; Hirai, H; Ishiguro, M; Kambara, T; Kojima, Y; Matsunaga, T; Nishida, H; Suzuki, Y; Sugiura, A; Harwood, H J; Huang, L H; Kojima, N

    2001-11-01

    A new squalene synthase (SSase) inhibitor, CJ-15,183 (I) was isolated from the fermentation broth of a fungus, Aspergillus aculeatus CL38916. The compound potently inhibited rat liver and Candida albicans microsomal SSases and also inhibited the human enzyme. It also showed antifungal activities against filamentous fungi and a yeast. The structure was determined to be an aliphatic tetracarboxylic acid compound consisting of an alkyl gamma-lactone, malic acid and isocitric acid moieties by spectroscopic studies. PMID:11827032

  3. Pathogenicity test of the fungus Aspergillus clavatus on aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Aphididae)

    OpenAIRE

    Seye, Fawrou; Bawin, Thomas; Delvigne, Frank; Francis, Frédéric(*)

    2012-01-01

    Pea aphid is a pest of many cultivated and wild plants, but also a vector of several viral diseases. To control this pest, the most widely used methods are physical, chemical and more recently an integrated approach that includes biological control. With the use of pathogenic agents against insects, the use of entomopathogenic fungi is one of the most promising. The present study demonstrated the possibility of using an entomopathogenic fungus Aspergillus clavatus against aphids. In laborator...

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Antibacterial Compound from a Mangrove-Endophytic Fungus, Penicillium chrysogenum MTCC 5108

    OpenAIRE

    Devi, Prabha; Rodrigues, Cheryl; Naik, C. G.; D’Souza, L

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms, especially endophytic fungi that reside in the tissue of living mangrove plants, seem to play a major role in meeting the general demand for new biologically active substances. During the course of screening for biologically active secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms, an antibiotic compound containing an indole and a diketopiperazine moiety was isolated from the culture medium of Penicilliumchrysogenum, (MTCC 5108), an endophytic fungus on the mangrove plant Porte...

  5. Optimal Parameters for in Vitro Development of the Fungus Hydrocarbonoclastic Penicillium sp

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia Eugenia Ojeda-Morales; Miguel Ángel Hernández-Rivera; José Gabriel Martínez-Vázquez; Yolanda Córdova-Bautista; Yuridia Evelin Hernández-Cardeño

    2013-01-01

    México has extensive areas that have been impacted by oil spills for several decades. Current bioremediation technologies mostly used microorganisms to decontaminate sites with hydrocarbons. This research evaluated the conditions for the optimal development of the strain of a hydrocarbonoclastic fungus, which was found in samples of soil contaminated with 4.0 × 105 mg·mL-1 in a biorreactor. To reach it, by bioaugmentation, the same development of Penicilliu...

  6. New bioactive metabolites produced by Phomopsis cassiae, an endophytic fungus in Cassia spectabilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new metabolites, ethyl 2,4-dihydroxy-5,6-dimethylbenzoate (1) and phomopsilactone (2) were isolated from Phomopsis cassiae, an endophytic fungus in Cassia spectabilis. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR, MS and IR spectral data. Compounds 1 and 2 displayed strong antifungal activity against the phytopatogenic fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, as well as cytotoxicity against human cervical tumor cell line (HeLa), in in vitro assays. (author)

  7. Karyotypic Variation within Clonal Lineages of the Rice Blast Fungus, Magnaporthe grisea

    OpenAIRE

    Talbot, Nicholas J.; Salch, Yangkyo P.; Ma, Margery; Hamer, John E.

    1993-01-01

    We have analyzed the karyotype of the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea, by using pulsed-filed gel electrophoresis. We tested whether the electrophoretic karyotype of an isolate was related to its pathotype, as determined by infection assays, or its genetic lineage, as determined by DNA fingerprinting. Highly reproducible electrophoretic karyotypes were obtained for a collection of U.S. and Chinese isolates representing a diverse collection of pathotypes and genetic lineages. Chromosomes ...

  8. Cytoplasmic- and extracellular-proteome analysis of Diplodia seriata: a phytopathogenic fungus involved in grapevine decline

    OpenAIRE

    Cobos Rebeca; Barreiro Carlos; Mateos Rosa; Coque Juan-José R

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The phytopathogenic fungus Diplodia seriata, whose genome remains unsequenced, produces severe infections in fruit trees (fruit blight) and grapevines. In this crop is recognized as one of the most prominent pathogens involved in grapevine trunk disease (or grapevine decline). This pathology can result in the death of adult plants and therefore it produces severe economical losses all around the world. To date no genes or proteins have been characterized in D. seriata that...

  9. Short-Read Sequencing for Genomic Analysis of the Brown Rot Fungus Fibroporia radiculosa

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Juliet D.; Perkins, Andy D; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Schroeder, Steven G.; Burgess, Shane C; Diehl, Susan V.

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of short-read sequencing for genomic analysis was demonstrated for Fibroporia radiculosa, a copper-tolerant fungus that causes brown rot decay of wood. The effect of read quality on genomic assembly was assessed by filtering Illumina GAIIx reads from a single run of a paired-end library (75-nucleotide read length and 300-bp fragment size) at three different stringency levels and then assembling each data set with Velvet. A simple approach was devised to determine which filter ...

  10. Colonization of Corn, Zea mays, by the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana†

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Bruce L.; Lewis, Leslie C.

    2000-01-01

    Light and electron microscopy were used to describe the mode of penetration by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin into corn, Zea mays L. After inoculation with a foliar spray of conidia, germinating hyphae grew randomly across the leaf surface. Often a germ tube formed from a conidium and elongated only a short distance before terminating its growth. Not all developing hyphae on the leaf surface penetrated the cuticle. However, when penetration did occur, the p...

  11. Sensitivity of the Entomogenous Fungus Beauveria bassiana to Selected Plant Growth Regulators and Spray Additives

    OpenAIRE

    Storey, Greggory K.; Gardner, Wayne A.

    1986-01-01

    Mefluidide was the only one of four plant growth regulators that caused little to no significant inhibition of in vitro germination and growth of the entomogenous fungus Beauveria bassiana. Silaid, paclobutrazol, and flurprimidol significantly inhibited germination and growth. Mortality of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, resulting from B. bassiana was significantly reduced when larvae were exposed to conidia plus soil treated with paclobutrazol. Larval mortality resulting from conidia p...

  12. The dynamics of plant cell-wall polysaccharide decomposition in leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens

    OpenAIRE

    Moller, Isabel Eva; de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Harholt, Jesper; Willats, William George Tycho; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2011-01-01

    The degradation of live plant biomass in fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants is poorly characterised but fundamental for understanding the mutual advantages and efficiency of this obligate nutritional symbiosis. Controversies about the extent to which the garden-symbiont Leucocoprinus gongylophorus degrades cellulose have hampered our understanding of the selection forces that induced large scale herbivory and of the ensuing ecological footprint of these ants. Here we use a recently establish...

  13. Systems analysis of plant cell wall degradation by the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Chaoguang; Beeson, William T.; Iavarone, Anthony T.; Sun, Jianping; Marletta, Michael A; CATE, JAMIE H.D.; Glass, N Louise

    2009-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa is a model laboratory organism, but in nature is commonly found growing on dead plant material, particularly grasses. Using functional genomics resources available for N. crassa, which include a near-full genome deletion strain set and whole genome microarrays, we undertook a system-wide analysis of plant cell wall and cellulose degradation. We identified approximately 770 genes that showed expression differences when N. crassa was cultured on ground M...

  14. Variation in fungal enzyme spectra may affect mutualistic division of labour between ants and fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    Partners in obligate mutualisms often contribute complementary elements to joint pathways for synthesizing or degrading metabolites. Their committed cooperation can make new niches accessible, with evolutionary diversification and speciation as possible consequences. However, when individual...... partners vary in metabolic performance, division of labour may not always be optimized and co-evolutionary trajectories become less predictable. The higher fungus-growing (attine) ants consist of the leafcutter ants (Acromyrmex and Atta), which rear a single fungal species throughout their Latin American...

  15. Detection and Identification of Fungi from Fungus Balls of the Maxillary Sinus by Molecular Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Willinger, Birgit; Obradovic, Alexandra; Selitsch, Brigitte; Beck-Mannagetta, Johann; Buzina, Walter; Braun, Hannes; Apfalter, Petra; Hirschl, Alexander M; Makristathis, Athanasios; Rotter, Manfred

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find a reliable method for the detection and identification of fungi in fungus balls of the maxillary sinus and to evaluate the spectrum of fungi in these samples. One hundred twelve samples were obtained from patients with histologically proven fungal infections; 81 samples were paraffin-embedded tissue sections of the maxillary sinus. In 31 cases, sinus contents without paraffin embedding were sent for investigation. PCR amplification with universal fungal prime...

  16. Potential of ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius to tolerate and to degrade trifluoroacetate into fluoroform

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Albina R.; Ramos, Miguel A.; Cravo, Sara; Afonso, Carlos; Castro, Paula M. L

    2014-01-01

    Trifluoroacetate (TFA) is a persistent fluorinated organic compound originated from the degradation of fluorinated compounds, such as HCFC and isoflurane, or as a side product from the thermolysis of fluoropolymers, like Teflon. TFA can reach soil through precipitation, where it persists in water and soil, and may contribute to forest decline. In this study, we assessed the capacity of P. tinctorius, an ectomycorrhizal fungus (ECMF), to tolerate and/or degrade TFA. In vitro studies in glucose...

  17. Conidia of the insect pathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, fail to adhere to mosquito larval cuticle

    OpenAIRE

    Greenfield, Bethany P.J.; Lord, Alex M.; Dudley, Ed; Butt, Tariq M.

    2014-01-01

    Adhesion of conidia of the insect pathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, to the arthropod host cuticle initially involves hydrophobic forces followed by consolidation facilitated by the action of extracellular enzymes and secretion of mucilage. Gene expression analysis and atomic force microscopy were used to directly quantify recognition and adhesion between single conidia of M. anisopliae and the cuticle of the aquatic larval stage of Aedes aegypti and a representative terrestrial ho...

  18. Isolation and Structural Elucidation of Chondrosterins F–H from the Marine Fungus Chondrostereum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jian Lan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The marine fungus Chondrostereum sp. was collected from a soft coral of the species Sarcophyton tortuosum from the South China Sea. Three new compounds, chondrosterins F–H (1, 4 and 5, together with three known compounds, incarnal (2, arthrosporone (3, and (2E-decene-4,6,8-triyn-1-ol (6, were isolated. Their structures were elucidated primarily based on NMR and MS data. Incarnal (2 exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against various cancer cell lines.

  19. Aniquinazolines A–D, Four New Quinazolinone Alkaloids from Marine-Derived Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus nidulans

    OpenAIRE

    Bin-Gui Wang; Ming-Hui Wang; Chun-Shun Li; Chun-Yan An; Xiao-Ming Li; Gang-Ming Xu

    2013-01-01

    Four new quinazolinone alkaloids, namely, aniquinazolines A–D (1–4), were isolated and identified from the culture of Aspergillus nidulans MA-143, an endophytic fungus obtained from the leaves of marine mangrove plant Rhizophora stylosa. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, and their absolute configurations were determined on the basis of chiral HPLC analysis of the acidic hydrolysates. The structure for 1 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffrac...

  20. Growth of the fungus Cladosporium sphaerospermum with toluene as the sole carbon and energy source.

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, F.J.; Hage, K C; De Bont, J.A.M.

    1995-01-01

    The fungus Cladosporium sphaerospermum was isolated from a biofilter used for the removal of toluene from waste gases. This is the first report describing growth of a eukaryotic organism with toluene as the sole source of carbon and energy. The oxygen consumption rates, as well as the measured enzyme activities, of toluene-grown C. sphaerospermum indicate that toluene is degraded by an initial attack on the methyl group.

  1. Susceptibility of the tick Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis to isolates of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qiaoyun; Sun, Ming; Guan, Guiquan; Liu, Zhijie; Chen, Ze; Liu, Aihong; Li, Youquan; Ma, Miling; Yang, Jifei; Niu, Qingli; Liu, Junlong; Han, Xueqing; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jianxun

    2014-10-01

    Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis, a prevalent tick species in China, causes severe economic losses. In this study, we investigated the pathogenicity of six isolates of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae to engorged female H. qinghaiensis using concentrations of 10(6), 10(7) and 10(8) conidia ml(-1). The results indicated that M.aAT08 and M.aAT13 isolates were highly virulent against the ticks. Metarhizium anisopliae has potential for biocontrol of H. qinghaiensis. PMID:24677224

  2. Cytotoxic Anthranilic Acid Derivatives from Deep Sea Sediment-Derived Fungus Penicillium paneum SD-44

    OpenAIRE

    Bin-Gui Wang; Yan-Hua Lu; Shu-Shan Gao; Chun-Shun Li; Xiao-Ming Li

    2013-01-01

    Five new anthranilic acid derivatives, penipacids A–E (1–5), together with one known analogue (6), which was previously synthesized, were characterized from the ethyl acetate extract of the marine sediment-derived fungus Penicillium paneum SD-44. Their structures were elucidated mainly by extensive NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analysis. The cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of the isolated compounds were evaluated. Compounds 1, and 5 exhibited inhibitory activity against hum...

  3. Biotransformation of the Herbicide Atrazine by the White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    OpenAIRE

    Mougin, Christian; Laugero, Chantal; Asther, Michele; Dubroca, Jacqueline; Frasse, Pierre; Asther, Marcel

    1994-01-01

    Biotransformation of atrazine by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by a 48% decrease of the initial herbicide concentration in the growth medium within the first 4 days of incubation, which corresponded to the mycelium-growing phase. Results clearly established the mineralization of the ethyl group of the herbicide. Analysis of the growth medium showed the formation of hydroxylated and/or N-dealkylated metabolites of atrazine during fungal degradation.

  4. Biotechnological applications of the gene transfer from the beneficial fungus Trichoderma harzianum to plants

    OpenAIRE

    Hermosa, Rosa; Botella, Leticia; Montero-Barrientos, Marta; Alonso-Ramírez, Ana; Arbona, Vicent; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Monte, Enrique; Nicolás, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Alternative and ecological strategies are necessary and demanded for disease management in order to reduce the use of pesticides in agriculture. Thus, the use of biological control agents such as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) or several strains of the beneficial fungus Trichoderma spp. to combat plant diseases is the basis of biocontrol of plant pathogens and is a good approach to reach this healthy and environmentally adequate objective.

  5. Efficacy of Edible Film Incorporated with Essential Oils against White-rot Decay Fungus (Trametes versicolor)

    OpenAIRE

    Saifon Phothisuwan; Narumol Matan

    2013-01-01

    Antifungal activities of edible film incorporated with essential oils (cinnamon oil, clove oil, anise oil, citronella oil, orange oil, tangerine oil, turmeric oil, guava leave oil, nutmeg oil and lime oil) against a white-rot decay fungus (Trametes versicolor) identified from rubberwood were investigated. The disc dilution method was employed to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) by mixing edible film with essential oil at ratios 1:...

  6. Two new pyrone derivatives from the plant endophytic fungus Exserohilum sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruxin; Niu, Shubin; Guo, Liangdong; Zhang, Yang

    2014-10-01

    Two new a-pyrones, Exserolide G-H (1-2), together with one known metabolite, stemphypyrone (3), were isolated from the solid-substrate fermentation cultures of the plant endophytic fungus Exserohilum sp. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated primarily by analysis of NMR data. Compounds 1-3 were tested for cytotoxicity against a small panel of human carcinoma cell lines. Compound 1 showed cytotoxicity against HeLa, A549 and HCT116 cells. PMID:25522545

  7. BIOMIMETIC SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES FROM AN ENDOPHYTIC FUNGUS AND THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL EFFICACY

    OpenAIRE

    Nirjanta Devi Nameirakpam; Shankar. P Dheeban; Sutha S.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, an endophytic fungus, Penicillium sps. was isolated from the medicinal plant, Centella asiatica. The extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the filtrate of cell mass of an isolated Penicillium sps was monitored and the UV-Vis absorption spectrum recorded for the solution shows the characteristic surface plasmon resonance band for silver nanoparticles in the range of 390-440 nm. The SEM studies confirmed the formation of silver particles in the size of 100 nm, a...

  8. A geminivirus-related DNA mycovirus that confers hypovirulence to a plant pathogenic fungus

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xiao; Li, Bo; Fu, Yanping; Jiang, Daohong; Ghabrial, Said A.; Li, Guoqing; Peng, Youliang; Xie, Jiatao; Cheng, Jiasen; Huang, Junbin; Yi, Xianhong

    2010-01-01

    Mycoviruses are viruses that infect fungi and have the potential to control fungal diseases of crops when associated with hypovirulence. Typically, mycoviruses have double-stranded (ds) or single-stranded (ss) RNA genomes. No mycoviruses with DNA genomes have previously been reported. Here, we describe a hypovirulence-associated circular ssDNA mycovirus from the plant pathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The genome of this ssDNA virus, named Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirulence-assoc...

  9. A Host Factor Involved in Hypovirus Symptom Expression in the Chestnut Blight Fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica? †

    OpenAIRE

    Faruk, M. Iqbal; Eusebio-Cope, Ana; Suzuki, Nobuhiro

    2007-01-01

    The prototype hypovirus CHV1-EP713 causes virulence attenuation and severe suppression of asexual sporulation and pigmentation in its host, the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. We identified a factor associated with symptom induction in C. parasitica using a transformation of C. parasitica strain EP155 with a full-length cDNA clone from a mild mutant virus strain, Cys(72). This was accomplished by using mutagenesis of the transformant fungal strain TCys(72)-1 by random integr...

  10. Ras GTPases Modulate Morphogenesis, Sporulation and Cellulase Gene Expression in the Cellulolytic Fungus Trichoderma reesei

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, JiWei; Zhang, Yanmei; Zhong, Yaohua; Qu, Yinbo; Wang, Tianhong

    2012-01-01

    Background The model cellulolytic fungus Trichoderma reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina) is capable of responding to environmental cues to compete for nutrients in its natural saprophytic habitat despite its genome encodes fewer degradative enzymes. Efficient signalling pathways in perception and interpretation of environmental signals are indispensable in this process. Ras GTPases represent a kind of critical signal proteins involved in signal transduction and regulation of gene expression...

  11. Infection by the systemic fungus Epichloë glyceriae alters clonal growth of its grass host, Glyceria striata.

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Jean J; Clay, Keith

    2003-01-01

    Parasites and pathogens are hypothesized to change host growth, reproduction and/or behaviour to increase their own transmission. However, studies which clearly demonstrate that parasites or pathogens are directly responsible for changes in hosts are lacking. We previously found that infection by the systemic fungus Epichloë glyceriae was associated with greater clonal growth by its host, Glyceria striata. Whether greater clonal growth resulted directly from pathogen infection or indirectly f...

  12. Multiple gains and losses of Wolbachia symbionts across a tribe of fungus-growing ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, C L; Fernández-Marín, H; Smith, J E; Hughes, W O H

    2010-09-01

    Although the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia is ubiquitous in insects, it has a unique relationship with New World ants on which particular bacterial strains have specialized. However, data are from distantly related hosts and detailed phylogenetic information which could reveal transmission dynamics are lacking. Here, we investigate host-Wolbachia relationships in the monophyletic fungus-growing ant tribe Attini, screening 23 species and using multilocus sequence typing to reliably identify Wolbachia strains. This technique reduces the significant problem of recombination seen using traditional single gene techniques. The relationship between Wolbachia and the fungus-growing ants appears complex and dynamic. There is evidence of co-cladogenesis, supporting vertical transmission; however, this is incomplete, demonstrating that horizontal transmission has also occurred. Importantly, the infection prevalence is frequently different between closely related taxa, with the Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants appearing particularly prone to infection and there being no consistent relationship with any of the major life history transitions. We suggest that infection loss and horizontal transmission have driven epidemics or selective sweeps of Wolbachia, resulting in multiple gains and losses of infection across the fungus-growing ants. PMID:20738784

  13. High expression level of antioxidants and pharmaceutical bioactivities of endophytic fungus Chaetomium globosum JN711454.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Khaled A; El-Beih, Ahmed A; Abdel-Rahman, Tahany M; El-Diwany, Ahmed I

    2016-02-17

    In order to maximize antioxidant activity of pharmaceutical bioactive endophytic fungus Chaetomium globosum JN711454 during fermentation process, designed fermentation experiments of culture media for three levels of eight culture factors were performed using a Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) design with layout L18 (2(1) × 3(7)). The agitation and the potato extract were the most significant affecting factors, and their interaction contributed significantly to fungus activity. The production of antioxidants was more favorable for static condition with 25 g potato extract/100 m. The remaining factors had no strong impact when considered individually. The validation of statistically optimized medium indicated the improvement of antioxidant activity to a level of twofold with approximately overall 40% enhancement in activity. The extract of optimized medium was investigated for various pharmaceutical bioactivities; it revealed a moderate antimicrobial activity, strong anticancer activity against HepG-2, UACC62 cell lines, an antiviral activity against HSV-2 virus, and strong inhibitory activity to butyrylcholinesterase enzyme, one of the neurohydrolase enzymes that play a major role in development of Alzheimer's disease. As a result of applying statistical fermentation designs, the optimized conditions of endophytic fungus C. globosum JN711454 developed a cost-effective production medium by using inexpensive commercial potato extracts statically, which can lower the energy requirement and could become an efficient, economic, and viable fermentation process for production of pharmaceutical secondary metabolites. PMID:25569373

  14. Ambispora granatensis, a new arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, associated with Asparagus officinalis in Andalucia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palenzuela, Javier; Barea, José-Miguel; Ferrol, Nuria; Oehl, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    A new dimorphic fungal species in the arbuscular mycorrhiza-forming Glomeromycota, Ambispora granatensis, was isolated from an agricultural site in the province of Granada (Andalucía, Spain) growing in the rhizosphere of Asparagus officinalis. It was propagated in pot cultures with Trifolium pratense and Sorghum vulgare. The fungus also colonized Ri T-DNA transformed Daucus carota roots but did not form spores in these root organ cultures. The spores of the acaulosporoid morph are 90-150 ?m diam and hyaline to white to pale yellow. They have three walls and a papillae-like rough irregular surface on the outer surface of the outer wall. The irregular surface might become difficult to detect within a few hours in lactic acid-based mountings but are clearly visible in water. The structural central wall layer of the outer wall is only 0.8-1.5 ?m thick. The glomoid spores are formed singly or in small, loose spore clusters of 2-10 spores. They are hyaline to pale yellow, (25)40-70 ?m diam and have a bilayered spore wall without ornamentation. Nearly full length sequences of the 18S and the ITS regions of the ribosomal gene place the new fungus in a separate clade next to Ambispora fennica and Ambispora gerdemannii. The acaulosporoid spores of the new fungus can be distinguished easily from all other spores in genus Ambispora by the conspicuous thin outer wall. PMID:20952800

  15. Cellophane based mini-prep method for DNA extraction from the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique-Silva Flavio

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methods for the extraction of DNA from filamentous fungi are frequently laborious and time consuming because most of the available protocols include maceration in liquid nitrogen after the mycelium has been grown in a liquid culture. This paper describes a new method to replace those steps, which involves the growth of the mycelium on cellophane disks overlaid on solid medium and the use of glass beads for cell wall disruption. Results Extractions carried out by this method provided approximately 2 ?g of total DNA per cellophane disk for the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. To assess the DNA's quality, we made a PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction amplification of a gene introduced by a transformation in this fungus's genome (hph gene, with successful results. We also confirmed the quality of the DNA by the use of Southern blotting to analyze the presence of the same gene, which was easily detected, resulting in a sharply defined and strong band. Conclusions The use of this method enabled us to obtain pure DNA from Trichoderma reesei, dispensing with the laborious and time-consuming steps involved in most protocols. The DNA obtained was found to be suitable for PCR and Southern blot analyses. Another advantage of this method is the fact that several samples can be processed simultaneously, growing the fungus on multiple well cell culture plates. In addition, the absence of maceration also reduces sample handling, minimizing the risks of contamination, a particularly important factor in work involving PCR.

  16. Resistance of some early mutant lines of soybean to rust fungus (Phakospora pachyrhizi Syd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A trial for resistance to rust fungus (Phakospora pachyrhizi Syd.) was conducted on 11 early mutant lines of soybean M6 (derived from Orba variety with a dose of 0.4 kGy of Co-60) at Citayam Experimental Station, Bogor, in the wet season of 80/81. Based on IWGSR rating system, soybean mutant lines number M6/40/6 was moderately susceptible to rust fungus (Phakospora pachyrhizi Syd). While 10 other soybean mutant lines M6/40/1, M6/40/2, M6/40/3, M6/40/4, M6/40/5, M6/40/7, M6/40/8, M6/40/9, M6/40/10 and M6/40/11 were susceptible to rust fungus. Significant differences in yield were observed between the early mutant lines M6/40/6 (moderate susceptible), 10 other mutant lines (susceptible) and ringgit variety (susceptible). However, a significant lower yield was produced by those mutant lines compared with the yield of orba variety. (author)

  17. Phenanthrene uptake by Medicago sativa L. under the influence of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Naiying [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Department of Chemistry, Shangqiu Normal College, Shangqiu 476000 (China); Huang Honglin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhang Shuzhen, E-mail: szzhang@rcees.ac.c [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhu Yongguan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Christie, Peter [Agri-Environment Branch, Agriculture Food and Environmental Science Division, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom); Zhang Yong [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Environmental Science Research Centre, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2009-05-15

    Phenanthrene uptake by Medicago sativa L. was investigated under the influence of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. Inoculation of lucerne with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus etunicatum L. resulted in higher phenanthrene accumulation in the roots and lower accumulation in the shoots compared to non-mycorrhizal controls. Studies on sorption and desorption of phenanthrene by roots and characterization of heterogeneity of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal roots using solid-state {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 13}C NMR) demonstrated that increased aromatic components due to mycorrhizal inoculation resulted in enhanced phenanthrene uptake by the roots but lower translocation to the shoots. Direct visualization using two-photon excitation microscopy (TPEM) revealed higher phenanthrene accumulation in epidermal cells of roots and lower transport into the root interior and stem in mycorrhizal plants than in non-mycorrhizal controls. These results provide some insight into the mechanisms by which arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation may influence the uptake of organic contaminants by plants. - Colonization by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus promoted root uptake and decreased shoot uptake of phenanthrene by Medicago sativa L.

  18. Phenanthrene uptake by Medicago sativa L. under the influence of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phenanthrene uptake by Medicago sativa L. was investigated under the influence of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. Inoculation of lucerne with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus etunicatum L. resulted in higher phenanthrene accumulation in the roots and lower accumulation in the shoots compared to non-mycorrhizal controls. Studies on sorption and desorption of phenanthrene by roots and characterization of heterogeneity of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal roots using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C NMR) demonstrated that increased aromatic components due to mycorrhizal inoculation resulted in enhanced phenanthrene uptake by the roots but lower translocation to the shoots. Direct visualization using two-photon excitation microscopy (TPEM) revealed higher phenanthrene accumulation in epidermal cells of roots and lower transport into the root interior and stem in mycorrhizal plants than in non-mycorrhizal controls. These results provide some insight into the mechanisms by which arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation may influence the uptake of organic contaminants by plants. - Colonization by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus promoted root uptake and decreased shoot uptake of phenanthrene by Medicago sativa L.

  19. De novo biosynthesis of cytokinins in the biotrophic fungus Claviceps purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsch, Janine; Vrabka, Josef; Oeser, Birgitt; Novák, Ond?ej; Galuszka, Petr; Tudzynski, Paul

    2015-08-01

    Disease symptoms of some phytopathogenic fungi are associated with changes in cytokinin (CK) levels. Here, we show that the CK profile of ergot-infected rye plants is also altered, although no pronounced changes occur in the expression of the host plant's CK biosynthesis genes. Instead, we demonstrate a clearly different mechanism: we report on the first fungal de novo?CK biosynthesis genes, prove their functions and constitute a biosynthetic pathway. The ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea produces substantial quantities of CKs in culture and, like plants, expresses enzymes containing the isopentenyltransferase and lonely guy domains necessary for de novo isopentenyladenine production. Uniquely, two of these domains are combined in one bifunctional enzyme, CpIPT-LOG, depicting a novel and potent mechanism for CK production. The fungus also forms trans-zeatin, a reaction catalysed by a CK-specific cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, which is encoded by cpp450 forming a small cluster with cpipt-log. Deletion of cpipt-log and cpp450 did not affect virulence of the fungus, but ?cpp450 mutants exhibit a hyper-sporulating phenotype, implying that CKs are environmental factors influencing fungal development. PMID:25753486

  20. Identification of Fungus Flora Associated with Lagenaria Siceraria (Molina Standl in Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koffi Ahébé Marie-Hélène

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl is a cucurbit which seeds are consumed by people in rural and urban Africa. This plant is subjected to a strong parasitic and diseases pressure that reduces seeds production. Efficient fight against plant parasite, particularly fungus is a prerequisite for an improved productivity. This study was undertaken in five localities (Alepe, Bondoukou, Bongouanou, Divo and Korhogo belonging to three agroecological areas of Côte d’Ivoire. The aim was to identify fungal genera infecting L. siceraria in order to design an efficient control measure. Leaf samples with necrosis and discoloration symptoms were collected throughout the localities and subsequently, fungus were isolated and identified in laboratory. From a total of 750 samples collected, 7 types of symptoms were distinguished. Fungal genera found in all of the localities were Aspergillus, Botryosphaeria, Cochliobolus, Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia and Phoma. Only Pestalotiopsis was specific to the locality of Divo. An ANOVA test performed on the data showed a significant difference between fungal genera in terms of isolation frequency. Principal components analysis revealed that fungus distribution in each locality was correlated with climatic factors.

  1. Production of Obionin A and Derivatives by the Sooty Blotch Fungus Microcyclospora malicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surup, Frank; Medjedovi?, Ajda; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Stadler, Marc

    2015-10-01

    A multitude of sooty blotch and flyspeck fungi, mainly belonging to the Ascomycetes order Capnodiales, causes dark blemishes and flyspeck-like spots on apples worldwide. Different sooty blotch and flyspeck fungi can coexist in the same orchard and even on a single fruit. Our preceding experiments revealed an activity of Microcyclospora malicola strain 1930 against the anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum fioriniae in dual culture assays. Extracts of M. malicola strain 1930 showed a broad bioactivity against filamentous fungus Mucor hiemalis and gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. A bioactivity-guided isolation led to the identification of obionin A (1) as the main active principle. In addition to 1, which was previously isolated from the marine fungus Leptosphaeria obiones, we isolated three derivatives. Metabolite 2 bears a keto function at C-6, besides the replacement of oxygen by nitrogen at position 10. Two more derivatives are adducts (3, 4) of acetone as work-up artifacts. Because obionin A (1) and its derivative 2 showed cytotoxic effects and antifungal activities, we propose a role of these secondary metabolites in the antagonism between M. malicola and other apple colonizing sooty blotch and flyspeck fungi, other epiphytes, or apple pathogens competing for the same ecological niche. PMID:25856439

  2. Lipid and fatty acid profile of the edible fungus Laetiporus sulphurous. Antifungal and antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinanoglou, Vassilia J; Zoumpoulakis, Panagiotis; Heropoulos, George; Proestos, Charalampos; ?iri?, Ana; Petrovic, Jovana; Glamoclija, Jasmina; Sokovic, Marina

    2015-06-01

    Laetiporus sulphureus is a saprophyte belonging to a specific group of wood-decomposing Basidiomycetes growing on deciduous trees. This fungus has been characterized as a herbal medicine and is also known for its antimicrobial properties. In the present study, high energy extraction techniques using different solvents were compared to obtain maximum yield of the edible fungus Laetiporus sulphureus total lipids. The lipid classes and fatty acid composition of the fruiting bodies' total lipids has been studied using GC-FID and Iatroscan TLC-FID analysis. Among the lipids, the neutral lipids predominated followed by phospholipids and glycolipids. Triglycerides were the most abundant in the neutral lipid fraction, whereas phosphatidylcholine in phospholipids. The existence of relatively high amount of sterols may be correlated to fungus pharmaceutical properties. Total lipids were found to contain high unsaturated degree fatty acids (UFA/SFA>3.4) and dominated of C18:2?-6, C18:1?-9 and C16:0 fatty acids. Antibacterial and antifungal properties of mushrooms' lipid extracts from two different solvents were also examined. Results indicated that hexane extracts possessed better antifungal and slightly better antibacterial activity compared to chloroform extracts though both were less active than the commercial antimicrobial agents. PMID:26028707

  3. Which Fungus Originally was Trichophyton mentagrophytes? Historical Review and Illustration by a Clinical Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, Annemay; Cattin, Vincent; Fratti, Marina; Mignon, Bernard; Monod, Michel

    2015-08-01

    Several dermatophytes producing numerous pyriform or round microconidia were called Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Among these dermatophytes are the teleomorph species Arthroderma benhamiae, Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii and Arthroderma simii, and other species such as Trichophyton interdigitale, Trichophyton erinacei and Trichophyton quinckeanum for which only the anamorph is known. Confusion exists about which fungus should be really called T. mentagrophytes and about the rational use of this name in practice. We report a case of beard ringworm (tinea barbae) with A. vanbreuseghemii. According to both clinical signs and the type of hair parasitism, this case was exactly compatible to the first description of a non-favic dermatophytosis by Gruby under the name of "mentagrophyte" from which was derived the dermatophyte epithet mentagrophytes. In addition, the phenotypic characters of the isolated fungus in cultures perfectly matched with those of the first description of a dermatophyte under T. mentagrophytes by Blanchard (Parasites animaux et parasites végétaux à l'exclusion des Bactéries, Masson, Paris, 1896). In conclusion, T. mentagrophytes corresponds to the fungus later named A. vanbreuseghemii. However, because the neotype of T. mentagrophytes was not adequately designated in regard to the ancient literature, we would privilege the use of A. vanbreuseghemii and abandon the name of T. mentagrophytes. PMID:25912796

  4. Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus and Different Phosphorus Doses Against Cotton Wilt Caused Verticillium dahliae Kleb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysel Bars Orak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus (AMF and different phosphorus dosages on the development of Verticillium dahliae Kleb. induced wilt in cotton. Sayar-314 cotton variety which is sensitive to Verticillium wilt, AMF G. intraradices and phosphorus dosages of 0, 40 and 80 kg ha-1 were used in the experiments implemented under naturally V. dahliae-contaminated field conditions during the years of 2007 and 2008. According to the obtained results, it was found that there occurred a reduction in the disease chart. Also, it was observed that the application reduced the severity of the disease by 22-29.22% in green portions of cotton plants and their stem sections in field divisions particularly to which G. intraradices and phosphorus of 40 kg ha-1 had been applied together in both years. On the other hand, phosphorus dosage of 80 kg ha-1 had a negative effect in suppressing the infection. Phosphorus (P content of cotton plants leaves increased in mycorrhizal fungus treated divisions compared with those untreated. Besides, due to the infection, cotton yield decreased by 14-21% in the divisions without AMF application. It was also concluded that if AM fungus was applied along with lower dosages of phosphorus, it would mitigate the severity of V. dahliae-induced infection in cotton, increase the yield despite the infection and induce phosphorus uptake in the plant.

  5. Performance of the Biocontrol Fungus Piriformospora indica on Wheat Under Greenhouse and Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfling, Albrecht; Wirsel, Stefan G R; Lind, Volker; Deising, Holger B

    2007-04-01

    ABSTRACT The endophyte Piriformospora indica colonizes roots of a range of host plants and increases biomass production and resistance to fungal pathogens and, thus has been considered a biocontrol fungus. However, the field performance of this fungus has not yet been tested in temperate climates. Therefore, we evaluated the performance of this fungus in different substrata under greenhouse and practical field conditions. Roots of winter wheat were colonized efficiently, and biomass was particularly increased on poor substrata. In greenhouse experiments, symptom severity of a typical leaf (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici), stem base (Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides), and root (Fusarium culmorum) pathogen was reduced significantly. However, in field experiments, symptoms caused by the leaf pathogen did not differ in Piriformospora indica-colonized compared with control plants. In the field, Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides disease severity was significantly reduced in plants colonized by the endophyte. Increased numbers of sheath layers and hydrogen peroxide concentrations after B. graminis attack were detected in Piriformospora indica-colonized plants, suggesting that root colonization causes induction of systemic resistance or priming of the host plant. Although the endophyte is not well suited for growth at Central European temperature conditions, it remains to be shown whether P. indica is more suitable for tropical or subtropical farming. PMID:18943293

  6. A Hydrophobin of the Chestnut Blight Fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, Is Required for Stromal Pustule Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmierczak, Pam; Kim, Dae Hyuk; Turina, Massimo; Van Alfen, Neal K.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrophobins are abundant small hydrophobic proteins that are present on the surfaces of many filamentous fungi. The chestnut blight pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica was shown to produce a class II hydrophobin, cryparin. Cryparin is the most abundant protein produced by this fungus when grown in liquid culture. When the fungus is growing on chestnut trees, cryparin is found only in the fungal fruiting body walls. Deletion of the gene encoding cryparin resulted in a culture phenotype typical of hydrophobin deletion mutants of other fungi, i.e., easily wettable (nonhydrophobic) hyphae. When grown on the natural substrate of the fungus, however, cryparin-null mutation strains were unable to normally produce its fungal fruiting bodies. Although the stromal pustules showed normal development initially, they were unable to erupt through the bark of the tree. The hydrophobin cryparin thus plays an essential role in the fitness of this important plant pathogen by facilitating the eruption of the fungal fruiting bodies through the bark of its host tree. PMID:15879527

  7. A fibronectin receptor on Candida albicans mediates adherence of the fungus to extracellular matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binding of fibronectin, an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein, to Candida albicans was measured, and adherence of the fungus to immobilized ECM proteins, fibronectin, laminin, types I and IV collagen, and subendothelial ECM was studied. 125I-labeled fibronectin was inhibited from binding to the fungus by unlabeled human plasma fibronectin and by Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), Gly-Arg-Gly-Glu-Ser-Pro (GRGESP), and Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr-Pro (GRGDTP), but binding was not inhibited by Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-Pro. Soluble fibronectin, RGD, GRGESP, and GRGDTP also inhibited fungal adherence to the individual immobilized ECM proteins in a complex pattern, but only soluble fibronectin (10(-7) M) inhibited fungal adherence to subendothelial ECM. Thus, C. albicans possesses at least one type of cell surface receptor for binding soluble fibronectin that can be inhibited with peptides. This receptor apparently is used to bind the fungus to immobilized ECM proteins and to subendothelial ECM and may play a role in the initiation of disseminated disease by bloodborne fungi by providing for adherence of the microorganisms to ECM proteins

  8. Mechanism of antibacterial activity of the white-rot fungus Hypholoma fasciculare colonizing wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Wietse; Folman, Larissa B; Gunnewiek, Paulien J A Klein; Svensson, Teresia; Bastviken, David; Oberg, Gunilla; del Rio, José C; Boddy, Lynne

    2010-05-01

    In a previous study it was shown that the number of wood-inhabiting bacteria was drastically reduced after colonization of beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood blocks by the white-rot fungus Hypholoma fasciculare, or sulfur tuft (Folman et al. 2008). Here we report on the mechanisms of this fungal-induced antibacterial activity. Hypholoma fasciculare was allowed to invade beech and pine (Pinus sylvestris) wood blocks that had been precolonized by microorganisms from forest soil. The changes in the number of bacteria, fungal biomass, and fungal-related wood properties were followed for 23 weeks. Colonization by the fungus resulted in a rapid and large reduction in the number of bacteria (colony-forming units), which was already apparent after 4 weeks of incubation. The reduction in the number of bacteria coincided with fungal-induced acidification in both beech and pine wood blocks. No evidence was found for the involvement of toxic secondary metabolites or reactive oxygen species in the reduction of the number of bacteria. Additional experiments showed that the dominant bacteria present in the wood blocks were not able to grow under the acidic conditions (pH 3.5) created by the fungus. Hence our research pointed at rapid acidification as the major factor causing reduction of wood-inhabiting bacteria upon colonization of wood by H. fasciculare. PMID:20555400

  9. A fibronectin receptor on Candida albicans mediates adherence of the fungus to extracellular matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klotz, S.A.; Smith, R.L. (Overton Brooks VA Medical Center, Shreveport, LA (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Binding of fibronectin, an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein, to Candida albicans was measured, and adherence of the fungus to immobilized ECM proteins, fibronectin, laminin, types I and IV collagen, and subendothelial ECM was studied. 125I-labeled fibronectin was inhibited from binding to the fungus by unlabeled human plasma fibronectin and by Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), Gly-Arg-Gly-Glu-Ser-Pro (GRGESP), and Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr-Pro (GRGDTP), but binding was not inhibited by Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-Pro. Soluble fibronectin, RGD, GRGESP, and GRGDTP also inhibited fungal adherence to the individual immobilized ECM proteins in a complex pattern, but only soluble fibronectin (10(-7) M) inhibited fungal adherence to subendothelial ECM. Thus, C. albicans possesses at least one type of cell surface receptor for binding soluble fibronectin that can be inhibited with peptides. This receptor apparently is used to bind the fungus to immobilized ECM proteins and to subendothelial ECM and may play a role in the initiation of disseminated disease by bloodborne fungi by providing for adherence of the microorganisms to ECM proteins.

  10. Isolation of Phosphate-solubilizing Fungus and Its Application in Solubilization of Rock Phosphates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Aiqun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms have been obtained to improve the agronomic value of Rock Phosphates (RPs, but the phosphorus solubilizing rate by these approaches is very slow. It is important to explore a high-efficient phosphate-solubilizing approach with a kind of microorganisms. This study aimed to isolate a high-efficient level of phosphate-solubilizing fungus from rhizosphere soil samples phosphate mines (Liuyang County, Hunan province, China and apply it in solubilization of RPs. The experiments were carried out by the conventional methodology for morphological and biochemical fungus characterization and the analysis of 18s rRNA sequence. Then the effects of time, temperature, initial pH, phosphorus (P sources, RPs concentration, shaking speed and silver ion on the content of soluble P released by this isolate were investigated. The results showed this isolate was identified as Galactomyces geotrichum P14 (P14 in GeneBank and the maximum amount of soluble P was 1252.13 mg L-1 within 40 h in a modified phosphate growth agar’s medium (without agar where contained tricalcium phosphate (TCP as sole phosphate source. At the same time, it could release phosphate and solubilize various rock phosphates. The isolated fungus can convert RPs from insoluble form into plant available form and therefore it hold great potential for biofertilizers to enhance soil fertility and promote plant growth.

  11. Structures of a putative ?-class glutathione S-transferase from the pathogenic fungus Coccidioides immitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pathogenic fungus C. immitis causes coccidioidomycosis, a potentially fatal disease. Here, apo and glutathione-bound crystal structures of a previously uncharacterized protein from C. immitis that appears to be a ?-class glutathione S-transferase are presented. Coccidioides immitis is a pathogenic fungus populating the southwestern United States and is a causative agent of coccidioidomycosis, sometimes referred to as Valley Fever. Although the genome of this fungus has been sequenced, many operons are not properly annotated. Crystal structures are presented for a putative uncharacterized protein that shares sequence similarity with ?-class glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) in both apo and glutathione-bound forms. The apo structure reveals a nonsymmetric homodimer with each protomer comprising two subdomains: a C-terminal helical domain and an N-terminal thioredoxin-like domain that is common to all GSTs. Half-site binding is observed in the glutathione-bound form. Considerable movement of some components of the active site relative to the glutathione-free form was observed, indicating an induced-fit mechanism for cofactor binding. The sequence homology, structure and half-site occupancy imply that the protein is a ?-class glutathione S-transferase, a maleylacetoacetate isomerase (MAAI)

  12. Larvicidal effects of endophytic and basidiomycete fungus extracts on Aedes and Anopheles larvae (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Bucker

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In vitro bioassays were performed to access the larvicidal activity of crude extracts from the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis virgulata (Melanconiales, Amphisphaeriaceae and the saprophytic fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus (Basidiomycetes, Polyporaceae against the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Anopheles nuneztovari. Methods The extracts were tested at concentrations of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500ppm. Ethyl acetate mycelia (EAM extracts and liquid culture media (LCM from Pe. virgulata and Py. sanguineus were tested against third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and An. nuneztovari. Results The larvicidal activity of the EAM extracts from Pe. virgulata against Ae. aegypti had an LC50=101.8ppm, and the extract from the basidiomycete fungus Py. sanguineus had an LC50=156.8ppm against the Ae. aegypti larvae. The Pe. virgulata extract had an LC50=16.3ppm against the An. nuneztovari larvae, and the Py. sanguineus extract had an LC50=87.2ppm against these larvae. Conclusions These results highlight the larvicidal effect of EAM extracts from the endophyte Pe. virgulata against the two larval mosquitoes tested. Thus, Pe. virgulata and Py. sanguineus have the potential for the production of bioactive substances against larvae of these two tropical disease vectors, with An. nuneztovari being more susceptible to these extracts.

  13. Research into the influence of the in vitro biological parameters on the development of Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary Fungus colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna NEMES

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the period 2002-2003 under laboratory conditions it was determined the influence of biological parameters (temperature, relative air humidity, energetically and plastically resources and the composition of the cultivation environment on the growth of the Phytophthora infestans fungus colonies.The biological parameters determined in vitro for the Ph. infestans fungus showed that the fungus needs mesophyll conditions. The energetically and plastically resources are important to its growth, being indispensable to the colonies’ evolution.

  14. Research into the influence of the in vitro biological parameters on the development of Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary Fungus colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Zsuzsanna NEMES; Popa, Daniela; Anca BACIU; Luiza MIKE

    2008-01-01

    In the period 2002-2003 under laboratory conditions it was determined the influence of biological parameters (temperature, relative air humidity, energetically and plastically resources and the composition of the cultivation environment) on the growth of the Phytophthora infestans fungus colonies.The biological parameters determined in vitro for the Ph. infestans fungus showed that the fungus needs mesophyll conditions. The energetically and plastically resources are important to its growth, ...

  15. Pan-European Distribution of White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) Not Associated with Mass Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Vanessa; Fuller, Hubert; Forget, Frédéric; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Kurth, Andreas; Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw; Borel, Christophe; Bosch, Thijs; Cherezy, Thomas; Drebet, Mikhail; Görföl, Tamás; Haarsma, Anne-Jifke; Herhaus, Frank; Hallart, Guénael; Hammer, Matthias; Jungmann, Christian; Le Bris, Yann; Lutsar, Lauri; Masing, Matti; Mulkens, Bart; Passior, Karsten; Starrach, Martin; Wojtaszewski, Andrzej; Zöphel, Ulrich; Teeling, Emma C.

    2011-01-01

    Background The dramatic mass mortalities amongst hibernating bats in Northeastern America caused by “white nose-syndrome” (WNS) continue to threaten populations of different bat species. The cold-loving fungus, Geomyces destructans, is the most likely causative agent leading to extensive destruction of the skin, particularly the wing membranes. Recent investigations in Europe confirmed the presence of the fungus G. destructans without associated mass mortality in hibernating bats in six countries but its distribution remains poorly known. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected data on the presence of bats with white fungal growth in 12 countries in Europe between 2003 and 2010 and conducted morphological and genetic analysis to confirm the identity of the fungus as Geomyces destructans. Our results demonstrate the presence of the fungus in eight countries spanning over 2000 km from West to East and provide compelling photographic evidence for its presence in another four countries including Romania, and Turkey. Furthermore, matching prevalence data of a hibernaculum monitored over two consecutive years with data from across Europe show that the temporal occurrence of the fungus, which first becomes visible around February, peaks in March but can still be seen in some torpid bats in May or June, is strikingly similar throughout Europe. Finally, we isolated and cultured G. destructans from a cave wall adjacent to a bat with fungal growth. Conclusions/Significance G. destructans is widely found over large areas of the European continent without associated mass mortalities in bats, suggesting that the fungus is native to Europe. The characterisation of the temporal variation in G. destructans growth on bats provides reference data for studying the spatio-temporal dynamic of the fungus. Finally, the presence of G. destructans spores on cave walls suggests that hibernacula could act as passive vectors and/or reservoirs for G. destructans and therefore, might play an important role in the transmission process. PMID:21556356

  16. Detection and characterization of a novel Gammapartitivirus in the phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum acutatum strain HNZJ001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jie; Chen, Dan; Lei, Xiang Hua; Zhu, Hong Jian; Zhu, Jun Zi; Da Gao, Bi

    2014-09-22

    Spherical virus-like particles about 40nm in diameter were observed under transmission electron microscope (TEM) and two dsRNA bands (dsRNA-1 and dsRNA-2) were detected on agarose gel after extraction from the mycelial preparation of a Colletotrichum acutatum strain HNZJ001 that isolated from an anthracnose lesion on immature pepper fruit. The complete nucleotide sequences of the dsRNAs were determined. DsRNA-1 (1762 nt) and dsRNA-2 (1381 nt) each contained a single open reading frame and potentially encoded 62 kDa and 40 kDa proteins, respectively. The 62 kDa protein showed similarity to the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of partitiviruses, while the 40 kDa product had no significant similarity to any published capsid protein throughout all databases, besides of low homology with the hypothetical "capsid" protein of a few partitiviruses in fungus Ustilaginoidea virens. Genome comparison and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the virus is closely related to the mycovirus in the family Partitiviridae. The results suggested a novel two-segment dsRNA virus be detected. We name it Colletotrichum acutatum partitivirus 1 (CaPV1). RT-PCR detection, using a primer pair based on the RdRp of the dsRNA-1 showed very high efficiency of CaPV1 transmission into the progenies of the fungus. Virus curing and fungal phenotype observation for evaluation of the impact of CaPV1 in host fungus were also carried out. PMID:25008759

  17. Volatile emissions from an epiphytic fungus are semiochemicals for eusocial wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Thomas Seth; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Landolt, Peter J

    2012-11-01

    Microbes are ubiquitous on plant surfaces. However, interactions between epiphytic microbes and arthropods are rarely considered as a factor that affects arthropod behaviors. Here, volatile emissions from an epiphytic fungus were investigated as semiochemical attractants for two eusocial wasps. The fungus Aureobasidium pullulans was isolated from apples, and the volatile compounds emitted by fungal colonies were quantified. The attractiveness of fungal colonies and fungal volatiles to social wasps (Vespula spp.) were experimentally tested in the field. Three important findings emerged: (1) traps baited with A. pullulans caught 2750 % more wasps on average than unbaited control traps; (2) the major headspace volatiles emitted by A. pullulans were 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 2-phenylethyl alcohol; and (3) a synthetic blend of fungal volatiles attracted 4,933 % more wasps on average than unbaited controls. Wasps were most attracted to 2-methyl-1-butanol. The primary wasp species attracted to fungal volatiles were the western yellowjacket (Vespula pensylvanica) and the German yellowjacket (V. germanica), and both species externally vectored A. pullulans. This is the first study to link microbial volatile emissions with eusocial wasp behaviors, and these experiments indicate that volatile compounds emitted by an epiphytic fungus can be responsible for wasp attraction. This work implicates epiphytic microbes as important components in the community ecology of some eusocial hymenopterans, and fungal emissions may signal suitable nutrient sources to foraging wasps. Our experiments are suggestive of a potential symbiosis, but additional studies are needed to determine if eusocial wasp-fungal associations are widespread, and whether these associations are incidental, facultative, or obligate. PMID:22644482

  18. Evolution of ant-cultivar specialization and cultivar switching in Apterostigma fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2004-01-01

    Almost all of the more than 200 species of fungus-growing ants (Formicidae: Attini) cultivate litter-decomposing fungi in the family Lepiotaceae (Basidiomycota: Agaricales). The single exception to this rule is a subgroup of ant species within the lower attine genus Apterostigma, which cultivate pterulaceous fungi distantly related to the Lepiotaceae. Comparison of cultivar and ant phylogenies suggests that a switch from lepiotaceous to pterulaceous fungiculture occurred only once in the history of the fungus-growing ants. This unique switch occurred after the origin of the genus Apterostigma, such that the basal Apterostigma lineages retained the ancestral attine condition of lepiotaceous fungiculture, and none of the Apterostigma lineages in the monophyletic group of pterulaceous fungiculturists are known to have reverted back to lepiotaceous fungiculture. The origin of pterulaceous fungiculture in attine ants may have involved a unique transition from the ancestral cultivation of litter-decomposing lepiotaceous fungi to the cultivation of wood-decomposing pterulaceous fungi. Phylogenetic analyses further indicate that distantly related Apterostigma ant species sometimes cultivate the same cultivar lineage, indicating evolutionarily frequent, and possibly ongoing, exchanges of fungal cultivars between Apterostigma ant species. The pterulaceous cultivars form two sister clades, and different Apterostigma ant lineages are invariably associated with, and thus specialized on, only one of the two cultivar clades. However, within clades Apterostigma ant species are able to switch between fungi. This pattern of broad specialization by attine ants on defined cultivar clades, coupled with flexible switching between fungi within cultivar clades, is also found in other attine lineages and appears to be a general phenomenon of fungicultural evolution in all fungus-growing ants.

  19. Fungus infection in immunocompromised rabbits: correlation of thin-section CT findings and histopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the thin-section CT findings of pulmonary candidiasis, aspergillosis and cryptococcosis with histopathology in immunocompromised rabbits and improve the diagnostic accuracy of fungus infection. Methods: Healthy New Zealand white rabbits were used for immunocompromised animal models. Thin-section CT scan was performed before and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 d after inoculation. The pattern and distribution of the pulmonary abnormalities were retrospectively assessed by two thoracic radiologists and compared with histopathology. The granulocyte count was compared before and after administration of immunosuppressive agents. The paired t test, chi square test and the Fisher's exact test were used for the statistics. Results: Fourteen rabbits had candidiasis, 16 rabbits had eryptococcosis, 15 rabbits had aspergillosis. The granulocyte counts before and after administration of immunosuppressive agents were (2.91±0.92) and (0.35±0.19) x 109/L respectively in candidiasis group, there was a significant difference (t=12.484, P9/L in aspergillosis group, there was a significant difference (t=5.792, P9/L in cryptococcosis group, there was a significant difference (t=8.199, P0.05). Ground glass opacity (GGO) and consolidation were the two most common findings in immunocompromised rabbits with three fungus infections, areas of GGO was correlated with the congestion, hemorrhage, inflammatory cell infiltration and interstitial hyperplasia in pathology. Consolidation was correlated with the severe congestion, hemorrhage, inflammatory cell infiltration, interstitial hyperplasia, necrosis and vascular embolism in pathology. Conclusion: GGO and consolidation are the two most common findings of fungus infections in immunocompromised animal models and thin-section CT findings can reflect the pathological changes. (authors)

  20. Identifying the transition between single and multiple mating of queens in fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Murakami, Takahiro

    2002-01-01

    Obligate mating of females (queens) with multiple males has evolved only rarely in social Hymenoptera (ants, social bees, social wasps) and for reasons that are fundamentally different from those underlying multiple mating in other animals. The monophyletic tribe of ('attine') fungus-growing ants is known to include evolutionarily derived genera with obligate multiple mating (the Acromyrmex and Atta leafcutter ants) as well as phylogenetically basal genera with exclusively single mating (e.g. Apterostigma, Cyphomyrmex, Myrmicocrypta). All attine genera share the unique characteristic of obligate dependence on symbiotic fungus gardens for food, but the sophistication of this symbiosis differs considerably across genera. The lower attine genera generally have small, short-lived colonies and relatively non-specialized fungal symbionts (capable of living independently of their ant hosts), whereas the four evolutionarily derived higher attine genera have highly specialized, long-term clonal symbionts. In this paper, we investigate whether the transition from single to multiple mating occurred relatively recently in the evolution of the attine ants, in conjunction with the novel herbivorous 'leafcutter' niche acquired by the common ancestor of Acromyrmex and Atta, or earlier, at the transition to rearing specialized long-term clonal fungi in the common ancestor of the larger group of higher attines that also includes the genera Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex. We use DNA microsatellite analysis to provide unambiguous evidence for a single, late and abrupt evolutionary transition from exclusively single to obligatory multiple mating. This transition is historically correlated with other evolutionary innovations, including the extensive use of fresh vegetation as substrate for the fungus garden, a massive increase in mature colony size and morphological differentiation of the worker caste.

  1. Yellow Pigment Aurovertins Mediate Interactions between the Pathogenic Fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia and Its Nematode Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-li; Li, Lin-fang; Li, Dong-xian; Wang, Baile; Zhang, Keqin; Niu, Xuemei

    2015-07-29

    Nematophagous fungi are globally distributed soil fungi and well-known natural predators of soil-dwelling nematodes. Pochonia chlamydosporia can be found in diverse nematode-suppressive soils as a parasite of nematode eggs and is one of the most studied potential biological control agents of nematodes. However, little is known about the functions of small molecules in the process of infection of nematodes by this parasitic fungus or about small-molecule-mediated interactions between the pathogenic fungus and its host. Our recent study demonstrated that a P. chlamydosporia strain isolated from root knots of tobacco infected by the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita produced a class of yellow pigment metabolite aurovertins, which induced the death of the free-living nematode Panagrellus redivevus. Here we report that nematicidal P. chlamydosporia strains obtained from the nematode worms tended to yield a total yellow pigment aurovertin production exceeding the inhibitory concentration shown in nematicidal bioassays. Aurovertin D was abundant in the pigment metabolites of P. chlamydosporia strains. Aurovertin D showed strong toxicity toward the root-knot nematode M. incognita and exerted profound and detrimental effects on the viability of Caenorhabditis elegans even at a subinhibitory concentration. Evaluation of the nematode mutation in the ? subunit of F1-ATPase, together with the application of RNA interference in screening each subunit of F1FO-ATPase in the nematode worms, demonstrated that the ? subunit of F1-ATPase might not be the specific target for aurovertins in nematodes. The resistance of C. elegans daf-2(e1370) and the hypersensitivity of C. elegans daf-16(mu86) to aurovertin D indicated that DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor in nematodes was triggered in response to the aurovertin attack. These findings advance our understanding of the roles of aurovertin production in the interactions between nematodes and the pathogen fungus P. chlamydosporia. PMID:26151481

  2. Effect of vacuum and thermal shock on laser treatment of Trichophyton rubrum (toenail fungus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Guillermo; Sun, Feng; Carlier, Pierre; Young, Erica; Hennings, David; González, F. Javier

    2010-02-01

    The eradication of Trichophyton rubrum has been attempted via laser irradiation because it could result advantageous relative to current clinical therapies. Anticipating that the necessary thermal effects could unintentionally damage the underlying toe dermal layer, we have explored two auxiliary approaches: (a) laser irradiation under vacuum pressure, with and without water dousing and, (b) cooling followed by laser heating (thermal shock). The rationale is that at low pressures, the temperature necessary to achieve water evaporation/boiling is significantly reduced, thus requiring lower fluences. Similarly, a thermal shock induced by cooling followed by laser irradiation may require lower fluences to achieve fungus necrosis. For all experiments presented we use a Cooltouch, model CT3 plus, 1320 nm laser to irradiate fungi colonies. The vacuum pressure experiments exposed fungi colonies to a subatmospheric pressure of 84.7 kPa (25 inHg) with and without water dousing for 5 min, followed by irradiation with 4.0 J/cm2 fluence and 40-90 J total energies. The thermal shock experiments consisted of three sections at 4.8 J/cm2: cooling the fungus to 0 °C at 0.39 °C/min and then irradiating to 45-60 °C cooling to -20 °C at 1.075 °C/min and irradiating to 45 °C and cooling to -20 °C at 21.5 °C/min and irradiating to 45 °C. Fungus growth rate over a 1-week period assessed the feasibility of these procedures. Results indicated both approaches hamper the growth rate of fungi colonies relative to untreated control samples, especially water dousing under vacuum conditions and slow cooling rate preceding irradiation for thermal shock effect.

  3. Exploring the Chemodiversity and Biological Activities of the Secondary Metabolites from the Marine Fungus Neosartorya pseudofischeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Ling Liang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of fungal metabolites can be remarkably influenced by various cultivation parameters. To explore the biosynthetic potentials of the marine fungus, Neosartorya pseudofischeri, which was isolated from the inner tissue of starfish Acanthaster planci, glycerol-peptone-yeast extract (GlyPY and glucose-peptone-yeast extract (GluPY media were used to culture this fungus. When cultured in GlyPY medium, this fungus produced two novel diketopiperazines, neosartins A and B (1 and 2, together with six biogenetically-related known diketopiperazines,1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2, 3-dimethyl-1,4-dioxopyrazino[1,2-a]indole (3, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-methyl-3-methylen e-1,4-dioxopyrazino[1,2-a]indole (4, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-methyl-1,3,4-trioxopyrazino[1,2-a] indole (5, 6-acetylbis(methylthiogliotoxin (10, bisdethiobis(methylthiogliotoxin (11, didehydrobisdethiobis(methylthiogliotoxin (12 and N-methyl-1H-indole-2-carboxamide (6. However, a novel tetracyclic-fused alkaloid, neosartin C (14, a meroterpenoid, pyripyropene A (15, gliotoxin (7 and five known gliotoxin analogues, acetylgliotoxin (8, reduced gliotoxin (9, 6-acetylbis(methylthiogliotoxin (10, bisdethiobis(methylthio gliotoxin (11 and bis-N-norgliovictin (13, were obtained when grown in glucose-containing medium (GluPY medium. This is the first report of compounds 3, 4, 6, 9, 10 and 12 as naturally occurring. Their structures were determined mainly by MS, 1D and 2D NMR data. The possible biosynthetic pathways of gliotoxin-related analogues and neosartin C were proposed. The antibacterial activity of compounds 2–14 and the cytotoxic activity of compounds 4, 5 and 7–13 were evaluated. Their structure-activity relationships are also preliminarily discussed.

  4. Xanthepinone, an antimicrobial polyketide from a soil fungus closely related to Phoma medicaginis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liermann, Johannes C; Kolshorn, Heinz; Opatz, Till; Thines, Eckhard; Anke, Heidrun

    2009-10-01

    The isolation, biological characterization, and structure elucidation of xanthepinone, a novel antifungal metabolite isolated from the broth of submerged cultures of a soil fungus, are described. Xanthepinone inhibits the conidial germination of Magnaporthe grisea (2 microg/mL), Phytophthora infestans (5 microg/mL), and Botrytis cinerea (10 microg/mL) while showing only weak antibacterial activity; cytotoxicity was not observed up to 50 microg/mL. Molecular taxonomy revealed that the producing strain is close to species in the genus Phoma as well as to uncultured soil fungi and endophytes. PMID:19795903

  5. Primary structure of cytochrome c gene from the white root rot fungus Rosellinia necatrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimi, Tadanori; Taguchi, Hiroyuki; Morinaga, Tsutomu

    2003-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the cytochrome c (CytC) gene of the white root rot fungus Rosellinia necatrix was analyzed. The structure of this gene, which had three introns in the coding region, was similar to that of Aspergillus nidulans. The second intron of the R. necatrix CytC gene was not present in Neurospora crassa or Fusarium oxysporum. However, the amino acid sequence of R. necatrix was most similar to that of Neurospora crassa. Thus, it seemed that the second intron of the R. necatrix CytC gene was inserted into its present position after R. necatrix and its closest relatives diverged evolutionarily. PMID:12619691

  6. Fungus-growing ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on Santa Catarina Island, Brazil: patterns of occurrence

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Benedito, Cortês Lopes; Harold, Gordon Fowler.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic survey on fungus-growing ants (Attini) was made at 14 beaches on Santa Catarina Island (SC), Brazil. The samplings were manual, in soil or litterfall, in the following habitats: sandy beach, herbaceous vegetation and shrubby vegetation. From 12 species of Attini (ten of Acromyrmex Mayr a [...] nd two of Cyphomyrmex Mayr), the most frequent were Cyphomyrmex morschi Emery and Acromyrmex crassispinus Forel, collected, respectively, on eight and ten of the monitored beaches. Altogether, Sorensen’s similarity coefficients were high (range: 0.59-0.80), in spite of the lower numbers of ant species on sandy beaches

  7. Identification of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase genes from the white-rot fungus Phlebia brevispora

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Ryoich; Kondo, Ryuichiro; Shen, Ming-hao; OCHIAI, Hideharu; Hisamatsu, Shin; Sonoki, Shigenori

    2012-01-01

    Three cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP) genes, designated pb-1, pb-2 and pb-3, were isolated from the white-rot fungus, Phlebia brevispora, using reverse transcription PCR with degenerate primers constructed based on the consensus amino acid sequence of eukaryotic CYPs in the O2-binding, meander and heme-binding regions. Individual full-length CYP cDNAs were cloned and sequenced, and the relative nucleotide sequence similarity of pb-1 (1788 bp), pb-2 (1881 bp) and pb-3 (1791 bp) was more th...

  8. Biodecolorization of Phenolic Paper Mill Effluent by Ligninolytic Fungus Trametes versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Prabu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A white rot fungus isolated from soil samples enriched by continuous pulp and paper mill effluent irrigation and identified as Trametes versicolor was capable of decolorization and degradation of phenol from paper mill effluent. 14C synthetic lignin mineralization assays showed that Trametes versicolor assimilated 24.3% of the total label. There was 76% effluent decolourization along with 78% COD reduction. The effluent chlorinated phenol degradation was 85% by Trametes versicolor, when added with 1% glucose as co-substrate.

  9. Biotransformation of a tetrahydrofuran lignan by the endophytic fungus Phomopsis Sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verza, Michelle; Arakawa, Nilton S.; Lopes, Norberto P.; Pupo, Monica T.; Said, Suraia; Carvalho, Ivone [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Kato, Massuo J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: carronal@usp.br

    2009-07-01

    The biotrasformation of the tetrahydrofuran lignan, (-)-grandisin, by the endophitic fungus Phomopsis sp, obtained from Viguiera arenaria, led to the formation of a new compound determined as 3,4-dimethyl-2- (4'-hydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyphenyl)-5-methoxy-tetrahydrofuran. The metabolite was evaluated against the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas's disease, and showed a trypanocidal activity (IC{sub 50} 9.8 {mu}mol L{sup -1}) similar to the natural precursor (IC{sub 50} 3.7 {mu}mol L{sup -1}). (author)

  10. Terpenoids from the Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus YK-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Li, Da-Hong; Li, Zhan-Lin; Sun, Yan-Jun; Hua, Hui-Ming; Liu, Tao; Bai, Jiao

    2015-01-01

    Two new ?-bergamotane sesquiterpenoids, E-?-trans-5,8,11-trihydroxybergamot-9-ene (1) and ?-trans-2?,5,15-trihydroxybergamot-10-ene (2), were isolated from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus fumigatus YK-7, along with three known terpenoids 3-5. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods (1D and 2D NMR, HR-ESI-MS). Antiproliferative effects on human leukemic monocyte lymphoma U937 and human prostate cancer PC-3 cell lines were measured in vitro. Compound 4 exhibited potent activity against the U937 cell line with an IC50 value of 4.2 ?M. PMID:26729074

  11. Biotransformation of chalcones by the endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus isolated from Paspalum maritimum trin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fungus Aspergillus flavus isolated as endophytic of the plant Paspalum maritimum Trin. was evaluated for its potential application in biotransformation reactions. The compounds chalcone (1), 3,4,5-trimethoxychalcone (2) and 2,3,4,4'-tetramethoxy chalcone (3) were biotransformed, respectively, in dihydrochalcone (4), 3,4,5-trimethoxydihydrochalcone (5) and 2,3,4,4'-tetramethoxydihydrochalcone (6). The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR techniques, and MS analysis. The dihydrochalcones 5 and 6 are new compounds. (author)

  12. Punctaporonins H–M: Caryophyllene-Type Sesquiterpenoids from the Sponge-Associated Fungus Hansfordia sinuosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehong Wu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Six new caryophyllene-based sesquiterpenoids named punctaporonins H–M (1–6, together with punctaporonin B (7 and humulane (8 were isolated from the fermentation broth of the sponge-derived fungus Hansfordia sinuosae. Their structures were determined by the extensive HRESIMS and NMR spectroscopic analysis, including the X-ray crystallographic data for the assignment of the absolute configurations of punctaporonins H–I (1–2. The isolated compounds were evaluated for antihyperlipidemic, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities, and punctaporonin K (4 exhibited potent effects to reduce the triglycerides and total cholesterol in the intracellular levels.

  13. A putative amino acid transporter is specifically expressed in Haustoria of the rust fungus Uromyces fabae

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Matthias; Neef, Ulrike; Struck, Christine; Göttfert, Michael; Mendgen, Kurt

    1997-01-01

    A cDNA library constructed from haustoria of the rust fungus Uromyces fabae was screened for clones that are differentially expressed in haustoria. One family of cDNAs (in planta induced gene 2 [PIG2]) was isolated and found to encode a protein with high homologies to fungal amino acid transporters. A cDNA clone containing the complete coding region of PIG2 and the corresponding genomic clone were isolated and sequenced, revealing the presence of 17 introns in the PIG2 gene. Expression of PIG...

  14. Novel trypsin inhibitors from the white rot fungus Abortiporus biennis. Partial purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuchowski, J; Jaszek, M; Grzywnowicz, K

    2009-02-01

    Novel trypsin inhibitors from the white rot fungus Abortiporus biennis were isolated, partially purified, and characterized. The inhibitors were purified by heat treatment, anion-exchange chromatography, and gel filtration. SDS-PAGE of the purified preparation demonstrated the presence of two proteins with molecular masses of 20 and 21.5 kDa. The A. biennis inhibitors were most active against trypsin, while chymotrypsin alpha, proteinase K, and Carlsberg subtilisin were inhibited to a smaller extent. The inhibitors are acidic proteins with remarkably high heat stability. PMID:19267680

  15. Genes Expressed during the Biotrophic Phase of the Rust Fungus Uromyces fabae

    OpenAIRE

    Hempel, Uta

    2005-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the study of genes expressed during the biotrophic phase of the rust fungus Uromyces fabae, an obligate biotrophic pathogen of Vicia faba (broad bean).As a first step, a previously initiated partial Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) sequencingproject was completed and the results were analyzed. The aim of this project was to sequence at least 1 000 ESTs and to compare them to publicly available sequences. 58% of the 1 000 plus sequences analyzed using the BLASTX algor...

  16. Five Sesquiterpenoids from a Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp. Isolated from a Gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Yan Wei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Three new phenolic bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoids: (+-methyl sydowate (1, 7-deoxy-7,14-didehydrosydonic acid (2, and 7-deoxy-7,8-didehydrosydonic acid (3, together with two known fungal metabolites were isolated from the fermentation broth of a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp., which was isolated in turn from a gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea collected from the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated by combined spectroscopic methods, and the structure of 1 was further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray data.

  17. D-lysergic acid-activating enzyme from the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, U; Zocher, R; Krengel, U; Kleinkauf, H

    1984-01-01

    A D-lysergic acid-activating enzyme from the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea was purified about 145-fold. The enzyme was able to catalyse both the D-lysergic acid-dependent ATP-pyrophosphate exchange and the formation of ATP from D-lysergic acid adenylate and pyrophosphate. Both reactions were also catalysed to a decreased but significant extent with respect to dihydrolysergic acid. The molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to lie between 135 and 140 kDa. The involvement of the enzyme in the biosynthesis of ergot peptide alkaloids is discussed. Images Fig. 4. PMID:6326747

  18. Identification and characterization of genes required for hyphal morphogenesis in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans.

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, S. D.; A. F. Hofmann; Tedford, H W; Lee, M.P.

    1999-01-01

    In the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, germination of an asexual conidiospore results in the formation of a hyphal cell. A key feature of spore germination is the switch from isotropic spore expansion to polarized apical growth. Here, temperature-sensitive mutations are used to characterize the roles of five genes (sepA, hypA, podB-podD) in the establishment and maintenance of hyphal polarity. Evidence that suggests that the hypA, podB, and sepA genes are required for multiple aspect...

  19. Isariotins E and F, spirocyclic and bicyclic hemiacetals from the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria tenuipes BCC 12625.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyapaiboonsri, Taridaporn; Yoiprommarat, Seangaroon; Intereya, Kamolphan; Rachtawee, Pranee; Hywel-Jones, Nigel L; Isaka, Masahiko

    2009-04-01

    New spirocyclic and bicyclic hemiacetals, isariotins E (1) and F (2), together with TK-57-164A (3) were isolated from the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria tenuipes BCC 12625. The absolute configuration of 3 was addressed by application of the modified Mosher's method. Isariotin F (2) exhibited activity against the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum K1 with an IC(50) value of 5.1 microM and cytotoxic activities against cancer cell lines (KB, BC, and NCI-H187) and nonmalignant (Vero) cells with respective IC(50) values of 15.8, 2.4, 1.6, and 2.9 microM. PMID:19265430

  20. Isolation of the Mating-Type Genes of the Phytopathogenic Fungus Magnaporthe Grisea Using Genomic Subtraction

    OpenAIRE

    KANG, S; Chumley, F. G.; Valent, B

    1994-01-01

    Using genomic subtraction, we isolated the mating-type genes (Mat1-1 and Mat1-2) of the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea. Transformation of M. grisea strains of one mating type with a linearized cosmid clone carrying the opposite mating-type gene resulted in many ``dual maters,'' strains that contain both mating-type genes and successfully mate with both Mat1-1 and Mat1-2 testers. Dual maters differed in the frequency of production of perithecia in pure culture. Ascospores isolated from ...

  1. Proteomic analysis of proteins differentially expressed in conidia and mycelium of the entomopathogenic fungus Aschersonia placenta.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Qiu, J.; Su, Y.; Gelbi?, Ivan; Qiu, Y.; Xie, X.; Guan, X.

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 58, ?. 12 (2012), s. 1327-1334. ISSN 0008-4166 Grant ostatní: National Natural Science Foundation of China (CN) 30500005; National Natural Science Foundation of China (CN) 31070026; National Natural Science Foundation of China (CN) 31170025; Fujian Province University(CN) JK2011013; Fujian Provincial Science Foundation(CN) 2010J06007; Chinese National Programs(CN) 2011AA10A203; Fujian Provincial Science Foundation(CN) 0b08b005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : entomopathogenic fungus * Aschersonia placenta * fungal developmental stages Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.199, year: 2012

  2. Efficacy of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum in controlling the tick Rhipicephalus annulatus under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samish, M; Rot, A; Ment, D; Barel, S; Glazer, I; Gindin, G

    2014-12-15

    High infectivity of entomopathogenic fungi to ticks under laboratory conditions has been demonstrated in many studies. However, the few reports on their use under field conditions demonstrate large variations in their success, often with no clear explanation. The present study evaluated the factors affecting the efficacy of the fungus Metarhizium brunneum against the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus. It demonstrates how environmental conditions and ground cover affect the efficiency of the fungus under field conditions. During the summer, 93% of tick females exposed to fungus-contaminated ground died within 1 week, whereas during the winter, only 62.2% died within 6 weeks. Nevertheless, the hatchability of their eggs was only 6.1% during the summer and 0.0% during winter. Covering the ground with grass, leaves or gravel improved fungal performance. Aside from killing female ticks, the fungus had a substantial effect on tick fecundity. Fungal infection reduced the proportion of female ticks laying full-size egg masses by up to 91%, and reduced egg hatchability by up to 100%. To reduce the negative effect of outdoor factors on fungal activity, its conidia were mixed with different oils (olive, canola, mineral or paraffin at 10% v/v) and evaluated in both laboratory and field tests for efficacy. All tested oils without conidia sprayed on the sand did not influence tick survival or weight of the laid eggs but significantly reduced egghatchability. Conidia in water with canola or mineral oil spread on agarose and incubated for 18 h showed 57% and 0% germination, respectively. Comparing, under laboratory conditions, the effects of adding each of the four oils to conidia in water on ticks demonstrated no effect on female mortality or weight of the laid egg mass, but the percentage of hatched eggs was reduced. In outdoor trials, female ticks placed on the ground sprayed with conidia in water yielded an average of 175 larvae per female and there was no hatching of eggs laid by females placed on ground sprayed with conidia in water with canola or mineral oils. PMID:25468024

  3. Phosphorus uptake of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus is not effected by the biocontrol bacterium ¤Burkholderia cepacia¤

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnskov, S.; Larsen, J.; Jakobsen, I.

    2002-01-01

    The biocontrol bacterium Burkholderia cepacia is known to suppress a broad range of root pathogenic fungi, while its impact on other beneficial non-target organisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is unknown. Direct interactions between five B. cepacia strains and the AM fungus, Glomus...... (NLFAs), respectively. Hyphal P transport was also unaffected by the biocontrol bacterium, which either stimulated, reduced or had no effect on length of the external mycelium of G. intraradices. The cyclic PLFAs cy17:0 and cy19:0 were suggested to be useful markers for estimation of biomass of B...

  4. Psychrophilin A and cycloaspeptide D, novel cyclic peptides from the psychrotolerant fungus Penicillium ribeum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Petur; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2004-01-01

    Two fungal metabolites, psychrophilin A (1) and cycloaspeptide D (2), together with the known cycloaspeptide A (3) were isolated from the psychrotolerant fungus Penicillium ribeum. using high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and preparative HPLC. The structures were determined from 1D and 2D NMR techniques, HREIMS, tandem mass spectrometry (ESMS/MS), and X-ray crystallography. The amino acid residues of psychrophilin A (1) and cycloaspeptide D (2) were all found to possess the L configuration by Marfey's method. Psychrophilin A (1) is the first natural cyclic peptide containing a nitro group instead of an amino group.

  5. Butyrolactones from the Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus versicolor and their Anti-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Activity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Min, Zhou; Jie, Lou; Yin-Ke, Li; Yue-De, Wang; Kun, Zhou; Bing-Kun, Ji; Wei, Dong; Xue-Mei, Gao; Gang, Du; Qiu-Fen, Hu.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available New butyrolactones aspernolides C and D, along with two known butyrolactones (A and B) were isolated from the culture of the endophytic fungus Aspergillus versicolor. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic ressonance te [...] chniques, and electronic circular dichroism. The butyrolactones aspernolides C and D were tested for their anti-tobacco mosaic virus activity. The results showed that butyrolactones aspernolides C and D exhibited moderate anti-tobacco mosaic virus activity with IC50 values of 64.2 and 88.6 ?M, respectively.

  6. Sesquiterpenes produced by endophytic fungus Phomopsis cassiae with antifungal and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new diastereoisomeric cadinanes sesquiterpenes 3,9-dihydroxycalamenene (1-2), along with the known 3-hydroxycalamen-8-one (3) and aristelegone-A (4), were isolated from ethyl acetate extract of Phomopsis cassiae, an endophytic fungus in Cassia spectabilis. Their structures, including relative stereochemistry, were determined on the basis of detailed interpretation of 2D NMR spectra and comparison with related known compounds. Compounds 1-4 displayed antifungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, as well as inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. (author)

  7. Improving durability of Wood-polymer composite processed by gamma radiation against the Polyporus sanguineus fungus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of wood durability was done measuring the wood weight lost after 90 days and the change of surface morphology. This study was done with the fungus Polyporus sanguineus in three wood species: Catahua (Hura crepitans L.), Mohena (Aniba amazonica Meiz), and Capirona (Calycophy spruceanum Be) without treatment and wood-polymer composite obtained by gamma irradiation. The Capirona and Mohena composites improve its durability, while the Catahua composite maintains its level of durability. Regarding surface morphology, there is no a significant change between the untreated woods and Capirona and Mohena composites. While the untreated Catahua shows deterioration of its surface. (orig.)

  8. Mineralization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by the White Rot Fungus Pleurotus ostreatus

    OpenAIRE

    Bezalel, L.; Hadar, Y.; Cerniglia, C. E.

    1996-01-01

    The white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus was able to mineralize to (sup14)CO(inf2) 7.0% of [(sup14)C]catechol, 3.0% of [(sup14)C]phenanthrene, 0.4% of [(sup14)C]pyrene, and 0.19% of [(sup14)C]benzo[a]pyrene by day 11 of incubation. It also mineralized [(sup14)C]anthracene (0.6%) much more slowly (35 days) and [(sup14)C]fluorene (0.19%) within 15 days. P. ostreatus did not mineralize fluoranthene. The activities of the enzymes considered to be part of the ligninolytic system, laccase and manga...

  9. Mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezalel, L.; Hadar, Y. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel); Cerniglia, C.E. [National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR (United States)

    1996-01-01

    White rot fungi, including Pleurotus ostreatus, have the ability to efficiently degrade lignin, a naturally occurring aromatic polymer. Previous work has found these organisms were able to degrade PAHs and in some cases to mineralize them; most of the work was done with Phanerochaete chrysosporium. P. ostreatus differs from P. chrysosporium in its lignin degradation mechanism. In this study, enzymatic activities were monitored during P. ostreatus growth in the presence of PAHs and the fungus`s ability to mineralize catechol and various PAHs was demonstrated. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Fungus Ball Diagnosed on Computed Tomography (CT) Guided Needle Aspiration and Biopsy of Thoracic Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrdad Bakhshayeshkaram; Sepideh Rouhi

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objective: CT-guided biopsy provides results in a short period and can be applied on outpatient and even high-risk patients; however, some studies do not recommend it in lesions with benign histology probability. The purpose was to report our experience regarding fungus ball diagnosis on CT-guided biopsy and to identify the complication rate of the procedure. "nPatients and Methods: We evaluated 99 CT-guided biopsies of infected thoracic lesions performed from March 2004 to De...

  11. Morphological, molecular and ecological aspects of the South American hypogeous fungus Alpova austroalnicola sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouhra, Eduardo R; Dominguez, Laura S; Becerra, Alejandra G; Trappe, James M

    2005-01-01

    Field studies in Argentina's Yunga District revealed Alpova austroalnicola sp. nov., a hypogeous fungus associated with Alnus acuminata ssp. acuminata. Morphological and molecular studies based on amplification and sequencing of the nuclear LSU rDNA gene showed its unique identity within Alpova. Related genera included in the analyses were Boletus edulis, Rhizopogon spp., Suillus luteus and Truncocolumella citrina. Additional observations of animal diggings around the sites and microscopic examination of fecal pellets of the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus novemcinctus) indicate A. austroalnicola is consumed and its spores dispersed by animals. PMID:16392248

  12. Control of bovine gastrointestinal nematode parasites using pellets of the nematode-trapping fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo Jackson Victor; Guimarães Marcos Pezzi; Campos Artur Kanadani; Sá Nilo Chaves de; Sarti Priscilla; Assis Rafaela Carolina Lopes

    2004-01-01

    The viability of a formulation of the fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium associated with ivermectin was evaluated for the biological control of bovine gastrointestinal nematode parasites. Four groups of five calves each were placed in pastures with a stocking rate of 1.6 animal/hectare. In group 1 (control), the calves did not receive any treatment. In group 2, each animal received 20g of pellets of M. thaumasium orally twice a week during a six-month period that began with the onset of the rai...

  13. Adaptation of marine derived fungus Chaetomium globosum (NIOCC 36) to alkaline stress using antioxidant properties

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravindran, C.; Naveenan, T.

    Hydroxy Anisole (BHA), Butylated Hydroxy Toluene (BHT) were obtained from Merck, Mumbai, India. α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) were purchased from Sigma Aldrich (Steinheim Germany). H 2 O 2, HPLC grade methanol, Ammonium ferrous sulphate, deoxy...) containing 10,000 units of sodium benzyl penicillin and 0.05 g of streptomycin sulfate per 100 ml of medium to inhibit bacterial growth. The isolated fungus was inoculated at the centers of MEA medium plates of different pH viz., 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12...

  14. [Treatment of fungus infection with diabetic foot--importance of the foot care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinjo, Takamichi

    2008-12-01

    Fungus infection is high frequently complicated of the diabetic foot. Especially onychomycosis make a injury neighbor toe skin or paronychia. This tiny lesion make a bacterial infection, and progress to foot gangrene unfortunately if patient delayed treatment. So it is important to do daily check of the foot and regularly foot care included nail care. Toenail onychomycosis need medicational treatment just after microscopically diagnosis. It is important to check the interaction between the antifungal medicine and other medicine, and side effect after started treatment. PMID:19069095

  15. Functional and structural diversity in GH62 ?-L-arabinofuranosidases from the thermophilic fungus Scytalidium thermophilum

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Amrit Pal; Nocek, Boguslaw P; Xu, Xiaohui; Lowden, Michael J.; Leyva, Juan Francisco; Peter J. Stogios; Hong CUI; Di Leo, Rosa; Powlowski, Justin; Tsang, Adrian; Savchenko, Alexei

    2014-01-01

    The genome of the thermophilic fungus Scytalidium thermophilum (strain CBS 625.91) harbours a wide range of genes involved in carbohydrate degradation, including three genes, abf62A, abf62B and abf62C, predicted to encode glycoside hydrolase family 62 (GH62) enzymes. Transcriptome analysis showed that only abf62A and abf62C are actively expressed during growth on diverse substrates including straws from barley, alfalfa, triticale and canola. The abf62A and abf62C genes were expressed in Esche...

  16. Aniquinazolines A-D, four new quinazolinone alkaloids from marine-derived endophytic fungus Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Chun-Yan; Li, Xiao-Ming; Li, Chun-Shun; Wang, Ming-Hui; Xu, Gang-Ming; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2013-07-01

    Four new quinazolinone alkaloids, namely, aniquinazolines A-D (1-4), were isolated and identified from the culture of Aspergillus nidulans MA-143, an endophytic fungus obtained from the leaves of marine mangrove plant Rhizophora stylosa. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, and their absolute configurations were determined on the basis of chiral HPLC analysis of the acidic hydrolysates. The structure for 1 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All these compounds were examined for antibacterial and cytotoxic activity as well as brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality. PMID:23880937

  17. Potent toxic macrocyclic trichothecenes from the marine-derived fungus Myrothecium verrucaria Hmp-F73.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Liu, Li; Wang, Nan; Wang, Shu-Jin; Hu, Jing-Chun; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2011-12-01

    Activity-guided fractionation of a methanol extract from the culture broth of Myrothecium verrucaria Hmp-F73, a fungus associated with the sponge Hymeniacidon perleve, afforded six macrocyclic trichothecenes, verrucarin J (1), 8-hydroxyverrucarin J (2), verrucarin A (3), 8-acetoxyroridin H (4), isororidin E (5), and roridin E (6), along with trichoverrin B (7). All seven metabolites displayed potent toxicity to the brine shrimp (Artemia salina). In addition, compounds 2, 3, and 6 showed weak phytotoxic activities against lettuce seeds. A preliminary structure-activity relationship of the metabolites is also discussed. PMID:22312738

  18. Aniquinazolines A–D, Four New Quinazolinone Alkaloids from Marine-Derived Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus nidulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin-Gui Wang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Four new quinazolinone alkaloids, namely, aniquinazolines A–D (1–4, were isolated and identified from the culture of Aspergillus nidulans MA-143, an endophytic fungus obtained from the leaves of marine mangrove plant Rhizophora stylosa. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, and their absolute configurations were determined on the basis of chiral HPLC analysis of the acidic hydrolysates. The structure for 1 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All these compounds were examined for antibacterial and cytotoxic activity as well as brine shrimp (Artemia salina lethality.

  19. Identifying the transition between single and multiple mating of queens in fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Murakami, Takahiro; Schultz, Ted R; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2002-01-01

    Obligate mating of females (queens) with multiple males has evolved only rarely in social Hymenoptera (ants, social bees, social wasps) and for reasons that are fundamentally different from those underlying multiple mating in other animals. The monophyletic tribe of ('attine') fungus-growing ants...... 'leafcutter' niche acquired by the common ancestor of Acromyrmex and Atta, or earlier, at the transition to rearing specialized long-term clonal fungi in the common ancestor of the larger group of higher attines that also includes the genera Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex. We use DNA microsatellite analysis to...

  20. Identifying the Transition between Single and Multiple Mating of Queens in Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Murakami, Takahiro; Schultz, Ted R.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2002-01-01

    Obligate mating of females (queens) with multiple males has evolved only rarely in social Hymenoptera (ants, social bees, social wasps) and for reasons that are fundamentally different from those underlying multiple mating in other animals. The monophyletic tribe of ('attine') fungus-growing ants...... 'leafcutter' niche acquired by the common ancestor of Acromyrmex and Atta, or earlier, at the transition to rearing specialized long-term clonal fungi in the common ancestor of the larger group of higher attines that also includes the genera Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex. We use DNA microsatellite analysis to...

  1. [Effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on laccase production by white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus D1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdniakova, N N; Nikiforova, S V; Makarov, O E; Turkovskaia, O V

    2011-01-01

    The effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the dynamics of laccase production by the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus D1 under conditions of submerged cultivation on Kirk's medium has been studied. It has been shown that phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and chrysene actively induce this enzyme, whereas fluorene and anthrecene had a smaller effect. Addition of Mn2+ ions to cultivation medium elevates the laccase activity twofold and more in the presence of all the studied PAHs. Electrophoresis under nondenaturing conditions demonstrates induction of additional laccase species by xenobiotics. Ligninolytic peroxidase activities are undetectable under the conditions used. PMID:22232903

  2. Biotransformation of chalcones by the endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus isolated from Paspalum maritimum trin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Marivaldo J.C.; Nunes, Fatima M.; Bitencourt, Heriberto R.; Borges, Fabio C.; Guilhon, Giselle M.S.P.; Arruda, Mara S.P.; Marinho, Andrey M. R.; Santos, Alberdan S.; Alves, Claudio N.; Santos, Lourivaldo S., E-mail: lss@ufpa.b [Universidade Federal do Para (IQ/FEQ/UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Tecnologia. Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica; Brasil, Davi S.B. [Universidade Federal do Para (PPGQ/IQ/UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Quimica

    2011-07-01

    The fungus Aspergillus flavus isolated as endophytic of the plant Paspalum maritimum Trin. was evaluated for its potential application in biotransformation reactions. The compounds chalcone (1), 3,4,5-trimethoxychalcone (2) and 2,3,4,4'-tetramethoxy chalcone (3) were biotransformed, respectively, in dihydrochalcone (4), 3,4,5-trimethoxydihydrochalcone (5) and 2,3,4,4'-tetramethoxydihydrochalcone (6). The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR techniques, and MS analysis. The dihydrochalcones 5 and 6 are new compounds. (author)

  3. A Fatty Acid Glycoside from a Marine-Derived Fungus Isolated from Mangrove Plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Li Mei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available To study the antimicrobial components from the endophytic fungus A1 of mangrove plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea Gaertn. F., a new fatty acid glucoside was isolated by column chromatography from the broth of A1, and its structure was identified as R-3-hydroxyundecanoic acid methylester-3-O-?-l-rhamnopyranoside (1 by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR (HMQC, 1H-1H COSY and HMBC and chemical methods. Antimicrobial assay showed compound 1 possessed modest inhibitory effect on Saphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA using the filter paper disc agar diffusion method.

  4. Anticancer activity of new depsipeptide compound isolated from an endophytic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verekar, Shilpa Amit; Mishra, Prabhu Dutt; Sreekumar, Eyyammadichiyil Sankaranarayanan; Deshmukh, Sunil Kumar; Fiebig, Heinz-Herbert; Kelter, Gerhard; Maier, Armin

    2014-10-01

    A novel depsipeptide (PM181110) was purified from an endophytic fungus Phomopsis glabrae isolated from the leaves of Pongamia pinnata (family Fabaceae). The chemical structure of PM181110 was elucidated using physiochemical properties, 2D NMR and other spectroscopic methods. PM181110 is very close in structure to FE399. The compound exhibited in vitro anticancer activity against 40 human cancer cell lines with a mean IC50 value of 0.089??M and ex vivo efficacy towards 24 human tumor xenografts (mean IC50=0.245??M). PMID:24824817

  5. Degradation of 1,4-Dioxane and Cyclic Ethers by an Isolated Fungus

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamiya, Kunichika; Hashimoto, Syunji; Ito, Hiroyasu; Edmonds, John S.; Morita, Masatoshi

    2005-01-01

    By using 1,4-dioxane as the sole source of carbon, a 1,4-dioxane-degrading microorganism was isolated from soil. The fungus, termed strain A, was able to utilize 1,4-dioxane and many kinds of cyclic ethers as the sole source of carbon and was identified as Cordyceps sinensis from its 18S rRNA gene sequence. Ethylene glycol was identified as a degradation product of 1,4-dioxane by the use of deuterated 1,4-dioxane-d8 and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. A degradation pathway invo...

  6. Sulfation and Enhanced Antioxidant Capacity of an Exopolysaccharide Produced by the Medicinal Fungus Cordyceps sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Jing-Kun Yan; Wen-Qiang Wang; Hai-Le Ma; Jian-Yong Wu

    2012-01-01

    EPS-1 was an exopolysaccharide produced by the medicinal fungus Cordyceps sinensis (Cs-HK1). In the present study, EPS-1 was sulfated with chlorosulfonic acid (CSA)-pyridine (Pyr) at different volume ratios, yielding four sulfated derivatives, SEPS-1A, B, C and D, with different degrees of substitution (DS: 0.25–1.38) and molecular weights (17.1–4.1 kDa). The sulfation of EPS-1 occurred most frequently at the C-6 hydroxyl groups due to their higher reactivity. In aqueous s...

  7. Pyrone derivatives from the endophytic fungus Alternaria tenuissima SP-07 of Chinese herbal medicine Salvia przewalskii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Zheng; Luo, Xiao-Hong; Xiao, Jie; Zhai, Ming-Ming; Yuan, Yun; Zhu, Ying; Crews, Phillip; Yuan, Cheng-Shan; Wu, Quan-Xiang

    2014-12-01

    Three new pyrones, solanapyrones P-R (1-3), were afforded by the extracts of the endophytic fungus Alternaria tenuissima SP-07 isolated from the fresh root of Chinese herbal medicine Salvia przewalskii, along with the known solanapyrones (4-6) and benzopyrones (7-9). Solanapyrones P (1) and Q (2) possess an unprecedented nor-solanapyrone skeleton as natural products. Their structures were determined on the basis of NMR and HR-ESI-MS analysis. The plausible biosynthetic pathways to those unknown compounds were discussed. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activities against six bacteria. PMID:25284429

  8. A new minor diketopiperazine from the sponge-derived fungus Simplicillium sp. YZ-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bing-Fei; Fang, Sheng-Tao; Li, Wen-Zuo; Liu, Su-Jing; Wang, Jian-Hua; Xia, Chuan-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the cultures of a sponge-derived fungus Simplicillium sp. YZ-11 led to the isolation of a new minor diketopiperazine alkaloid cyclo-(2-hydroxy-Pro-Gly) (1) and a natural lactone (S)-dihydro-5-[(S)- hydroxyphenylmethyl]-2(3H)-furanone (2), together with five known ergostane-type sterols (3-7). Their structures were established based on extensive spectroscopic methods ((1)H and (13)C NMR, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC and HMBC) and optical rotation analysis. PMID:25835596

  9. Pestalafuranones F–J, Five New Furanone Analogues from the Endophytic Fungus Nigrospora sp. BM-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqi Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Five new 2(5H-furanone-type derivatives, pestalafuranones F–J (compounds 3–7, together with two known compounds, pestalafuranones A (1 and B (2, were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract from the fermentation broth of the endophytic fungus Nigrospora sp. BM-2 in a hypersaline medium. The structures of these metabolites were elucidated by EIMS, HREIMS and NMR spectroscopic data. Compounds 1–7 exhibited no cytotoxic activities against the MDA-MB-231 and Caski cancer cell lines.

  10. Pestalafuranones F–J, Five New Furanone Analogues from the Endophytic Fungus Nigrospora sp. BM-2

    OpenAIRE

    Hongqi Zhang; Zhangshuang Deng; Zhiyong Guo; Xuan Tu; Junzhi Wang; Kun Zou

    2014-01-01

    Five new 2(5H)-furanone-type derivatives, pestalafuranones F–J (compounds 3–7), together with two known compounds, pestalafuranones A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract from the fermentation broth of the endophytic fungus Nigrospora sp. BM-2 in a hypersaline medium. The structures of these metabolites were elucidated by EIMS, HREIMS and NMR spectroscopic data. Compounds 1–7 exhibited no cytotoxic activities against the MDA-MB-231 and Caski cancer cell lines.

  11. Four new tetramic acid and one new furanone derivatives from the plant endophytic fungus Neopestalotiopsis sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shasha; Chen, Shenxi; Wang, Bo; Niu, Shubin; Wu, Wenping; Guo, Liangdong; Che, Yongsheng

    2015-06-01

    Four new tetramic acid analogues neopestalotins A-D (1-4), one new furanone derivative neopestalotin E (6), and the known compound hymenosetin have been isolated from the solid cultures of the plant endophytic fungus Neopestalotiopsis sp. The structures of the new compounds were determined mainly by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were assigned by circular dichroism (CD) data, whereas those of 3 and 4 were deduced by a combination of CD and heteronuclear long range coupling (HETLOC) data. Compound 2 showed modest antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus col, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. PMID:25818228

  12. Mono- and bis-furanone derivatives from the endolichenic fungus Peziza sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Ren, Jinwei; Ge, Mei; Li, Li; Guo, Liangdong; Chen, Daijie; Che, Yongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Seven new mono- and bis-furanones, pezizolides A-G (1-7), have been isolated from the crude extract of the endolichenic fungus Peziza sp. inhabiting the lichen Xanthoparmelia sp. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated mainly by NMR and MS methods. The absolute configuration of 1-4 was assigned by the application of CD exciton chirality method, and 1 was further supported by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations, whereas that of 5 was deduced by Snatzke's method following the relative configuration analysis of its acetonide. The cytotoxity and antimicrobial activity of compounds 1-7 were tested. PMID:24185012

  13. Pestalafuranones F-J, five new furanone analogues from the endophytic fungus Nigrospora sp. BM-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongqi; Deng, Zhangshuang; Guo, Zhiyong; Tu, Xuan; Wang, Junzhi; Zou, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Five new 2(5H)-furanone-type derivatives, pestalafuranones F-J (compounds 3-7), together with two known compounds, pestalafuranones A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract from the fermentation broth of the endophytic fungus Nigrospora sp. BM-2 in a hypersaline medium. The structures of these metabolites were elucidated by EIMS, HREIMS and NMR spectroscopic data. Compounds 1-7 exhibited no cytotoxic activities against the MDA-MB-231 and Caski cancer cell lines. PMID:24434694

  14. The methane fermentation of Citrus unshu peel pretreated with fungus enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akao, T.; Mizuki, E.; Saito, H.; Okumura, S. (Material Research Inst. (JP). Fukuoka Industrial Technology Center); Murao, S. (Kumamoto Inst. of Technology (JP). Dept. of Applied Microbial Technology)

    1992-01-01

    Of five fungi isolated from Citrus unshu peels, an Aspergillus sp. strain designated A-1 had the highest activity in macerating peels. When C. unshu peel slurry was treated with Aspergillus sp. A-1 crude enzymes for 48 h, the 200-mesh filter passing rate reached 89.8%. Most of the peel oil (95.8%) was removed by 48-h enzyme treatment with agitation. Pretreatment of peels with fungus enzymes resulted in 50% increase in the amount of limit load for anaerobic digestion. (author).

  15. Three New Resveratrol Derivatives from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Alternaria sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Jinhua Wang; Cox, Daniel G.; Weijia Ding; Guanghao Huang; Yongcheng Lin; Chunyuan Li

    2014-01-01

    Three new resveratrol derivatives, namely, resveratrodehydes A–C (1–3), were isolated from the mangrove endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. R6. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by analysis of their MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. All compounds showed broad-spectrum inhibitory activities against three human cancer cell lines including human breast MDA-MB-435, human liver HepG2, and human colon HCT-116 by MTT assay (IC50 < 50 μM). Among them, compounds 1 and 2 both exhibi...

  16. Microsporols A-C from the Plant Endophytic Fungus Pestalotiopsis microspore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianfu; Wang, Yadan; Liu, Shuchun; Liu, Xinzhong; Guo, Liangdong

    2015-10-01

    Three new ambuic acid derivatives, microsporols A-C (1-3) and the known compound ambuic acid (4), were isolated from the solid-substrate fermentation cultures of the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis microspora. Their structures were elucidated primarily by NMR experiments. The absolute configurations of the 6,7-diol moiety in 1 and 2 were assigned using the Snatzke's method, whereas that of 3 was deduced by circular dichroism (CD) exciton chirality method. Compounds 1, 3, and 4 showed moderate 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibitory effects. PMID:26669093

  17. Biotransformation of a tetrahydrofuran lignan by the endophytic fungus Phomopsis Sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biotrasformation of the tetrahydrofuran lignan, (-)-grandisin, by the endophitic fungus Phomopsis sp, obtained from Viguiera arenaria, led to the formation of a new compound determined as 3,4-dimethyl-2- (4'-hydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyphenyl)-5-methoxy-tetrahydrofuran. The metabolite was evaluated against the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas's disease, and showed a trypanocidal activity (IC50 9.8 ?mol L-1) similar to the natural precursor (IC50 3.7 ?mol L-1). (author)

  18. Phenotypic classes of phenoloxidase-negative mutants of the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    OpenAIRE

    Liwicki, R; Paterson, A.; M. J. MacDonald; Broda, P

    1985-01-01

    This paper reports the isolation of phenoloxidase-negative mutants of the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium and the results of a survey of idiophasic functions among these mutants. The mutant strains were isolated from a medium containing o-anisidine after gamma irradiation of wild-type spores and fell into four classes, divided by the manner in which they mineralized 14C-lignin wheat lignocellulose. Examples are strain LMT7, which degraded lignin at a rate similar to that of the w...

  19. Meroterpenes from Endophytic Fungus A1 of Mangrove Plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Proksch

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Four new meroterpenes, guignardones F–I (1–4, together with two known compounds guignardones A (5 and B (6 were isolated from the endophytic fungus A1 of the mangrove plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea. Their structures and relative configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic data and single-crystal X-ray crystallography. A possible biogenetic pathway of compounds 1–6 was also proposed. All compounds were evaluated for inhibitory activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and Staphylococcus aureus.

  20. [Mechanism of overproduction of secreted enzymes in the mycelial fungus Penicillium canescens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavilova, E A; Antonova, S V; Barsukov, E D; VinetskiÄ­, Iu P

    2003-01-01

    The fungus Penicillium canescens strain F178 (VKPM) and its niaD- mutant exhibited an increased capability of synthesizing extracellular enzymes beta-galactosidase (70-80 U/ml) and xylanase (100 U/ml). The synthesis was induced by arabinose and its catabolite, arabitol. A deficiency in arabitol dehydrogenase, leading to arabitol accumulation in the cell, was detected in the chain of reactions of arabinose catabolism. The increased synthesis of beta-galactosidase and xylanase in P. canescens is accounted for by (1) cellular accumulation of the inducer (arabitol) at low concentrations of arabinose in the medium and (2) prevalence of induction over repression. PMID:12754825