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1

Lack of Pythium aphanidermatum transmission by adult fungus gnats (Bradysia impatiens) and investigation of larval vectoring capacity  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies have provided evidence for transmission of plant pathogens by greenhouse-inhabiting fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.). The goal of this study was to determine if fungus gnats are vectors of Pythium aphanidermatum. In the first of a series of laboratory experiment, 10 adult gnats were released i...

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Effect of fungus gnat Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae) feeding on subsequent Pythium aphanidermatum infection of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum)  

Science.gov (United States)

Dark-winged fungus gnats in the genus Bradysia (Diptera: Sciaridae) and root rot pathogens in the genus Pythium (Oomycetes) are important pests of greenhouse floriculture. Observations have pointed to a possible correlation between Pythium root rot disease and fungus gnat infestations; however, inte...

3

Fungus gnat (Bradysia impatiens) feeding and mechanical wounding inhibit Pythium aphanidermatum infection of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum)  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of laboratory tests were conducted to investigate potential effects of fungus gnat (Bradysia impatiens) feeding damage on susceptibility of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum) to infection by the root rot pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum. Effects were compared to those from similar t...

4

Fungus gnats, Bradysia spp. (Diptera: Sciaridae), and other arthropods in commercial bagged soilless growing media and rooted plant plugs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungus gnats, Bradysia spp., in greenhouses cause economic losses to horticultural producers by damaging young root systems during plant propagation, by spreading soilborne diseases, and by reducing the marketability of the crop. In a greenhouse cage study, our observations suggested that bagged soilless growing media or rooted plant plugs from wholesale distributors may be sources for the introduction of fungus gnats into commercial greenhouse facilities. To evaluate these possibilities, carefully collected samples of bagged soilless growing media stored in the greenhouse, as well as bagged soilless growing media and rooted plant plugs delivered from midwestern wholesale distributors, were incubated under controlled conditions in the laboratory. Fungus gnats emerged from soilless media stored in the greenhouse, soilless media delivered from wholesale distributors, and from rooted plant plugs delivered from wholesale distributors. These results demonstrate that pasteurization of even bagged soilless media may be essential to effectively managing greenhouse populations of fungus gnats. However, pasteurization is not an option for responding to contamination of rooted plant plugs. Preliminary evidence is provided that application of entomopathogenic nematodes may offer potential as a method for managing fungus gnats in plant plugs, so long as treatment is early. Other arthropods found contaminating soilless media and rooted plant plugs included the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), Collembola, Acari, Formicidae, Staphylinidae, Psychodidae, and other Diptera. PMID:15154474

Cloyd, Raymond A; Zaborski, Edmond R

2004-04-01

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Steinernema carpocapsae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) as a biological control agent against the fungus gnat Bradysia agrestis (Diptera: Sciaridae) in propagation houses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A recently introduced fungus gnat, Bradysia agrestis, has caused serious problems in Korean propagation houses where vegetable seedlings are produced for transplant into the fields. Although chemical insecticides are available against this pest, alternate control measures are needed. A Korean isolate of the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae Pocheon strain, was tested against this insect in the laboratory and propagation house. In the laboratory, S. carpocapsae affected oviposition, with the untreated females laying an average of 121+/-25 eggs, whereas the treated females averaged 7+/-2 eggs. The infectivity of S. carpocapsae to the fungus gnat was affected by the developmental stage and temperature, with highest mortality observed with the third and fourth instars and pupal stage. Nematode mortality in the second instar fungus gnat ranged between 23 and 35%, but showed no significant differences among the temperatures tested. The egg and first instar were not infected by the nematode. In nematode dispersal studies, adult female fungus gnats alone dispersed S. carpocapsae from the nematode-treated area to the control area at a higher rate than male and female gnats or male gnats alone. In the propagation house experiments with watermelon seedlings, no significant difference was observed in fungus gnat larval reduction at S. carpocapsae concentrations of 5, 10, or 20 infective juveniles (IJs)/g of soil at 7, 14, and 21 days after treatment. In comparison with the control, the S. carpocapsae treatments significantly reduced B. agrestis larval numbers. When the watermelon seed was treated with S. carpocapsae at sowing, the larval density of B. agrestis was significantly reduced, that is, the number of B. agrestis larvae ranged from four to eight and from five to eight in the nematode-treated plots compared with 26 and 30 in the control plots on the 17th and 34th day post-treatment, respectively. In the chemical insecticide treatments, diflubenzuron and chlorpyrifos were significantly more effective than S. carpocapsae and diazinon in reducing larval populations of the fungus gnat. Our data show that, although some of the chemical insecticides were more effective than S. carpocapsae Pocheon strain, the nematode was still an effective tool for management of the fungus gnat larvae and in protecting seedlings from damage in propagation houses.

Kim HH; Choo HY; Kaya HK; Lee DW; Lee SM; Jeon HY

2004-03-01

6

Repellency of naturally occurring volatile alcohols to fungus gnat Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila (Diptera: Sciaridae) adults under laboratory conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study, conducted under laboratory conditions, was designed to determine the repellent activity of 10 naturally occurring volatile alcohol constituents against adults of the fungus gnat, Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila (Lintner) (Diptera: Sciaridae). The essential oil constituents were octanoic acid, furfural, acetophenone, benzaldehyde, dimethoxybenzene, borneol, menthol, 1-octen-3-ol, and 7-hydroxycitronellol, and alpha-terpineol. alpha-Terpineol, octanoic acid and furfural were tested at several concentrations, whereas the remaining seven were tested at only one concentration. The essential oil constituents' menthol, 1-octen-3-ol, and borneol displayed the most repellent activity. The mean percentage of fungus gnat adults recovered from the test compound petri dishes associated with the three essential oil constituents was between 6 and 15% compared with between 36 and 50% for the petri dishes with distilled water. The mean +/- SEM number of fungus gnat adults present in the sample compartments associated with menthol (10.4 +/- 2.6), 1-octen-3-ol (18.8 +/- 2.4), and borneol (23.4 +/- 5.6) was statistically lower than those in the petri dishes containing distilled water (60.9 +/- 7.4, 49.8 +/- 4.0, and 79.7 +/- 13.5), respectively. Only the highest concentration of alpha-terpineol (8.0 micromol) displayed significant repellent activity against fungus gnat adults. The other essential constituents tested, including octanoic acid (all three concentrations), furfural (both concentrations), acetophenone, dimethoxybenzene, and 7-hydroxycitronellol, were not statistically different from the distilled water control. The results of this study indicate that certain essential oil constituents repel fungus gnat adults, which may be useful, from a practical standpoint, in deterring adults from laying eggs into growing media. PMID:22066193

Cloyd, Raymond A; Marley, Karen A; Larson, Richard A; Dickinson, Amy; Arieli, Bari

2011-10-01

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Repellency of naturally occurring volatile alcohols to fungus gnat Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila (Diptera: Sciaridae) adults under laboratory conditions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study, conducted under laboratory conditions, was designed to determine the repellent activity of 10 naturally occurring volatile alcohol constituents against adults of the fungus gnat, Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila (Lintner) (Diptera: Sciaridae). The essential oil constituents were octanoic acid, furfural, acetophenone, benzaldehyde, dimethoxybenzene, borneol, menthol, 1-octen-3-ol, and 7-hydroxycitronellol, and alpha-terpineol. alpha-Terpineol, octanoic acid and furfural were tested at several concentrations, whereas the remaining seven were tested at only one concentration. The essential oil constituents' menthol, 1-octen-3-ol, and borneol displayed the most repellent activity. The mean percentage of fungus gnat adults recovered from the test compound petri dishes associated with the three essential oil constituents was between 6 and 15% compared with between 36 and 50% for the petri dishes with distilled water. The mean +/- SEM number of fungus gnat adults present in the sample compartments associated with menthol (10.4 +/- 2.6), 1-octen-3-ol (18.8 +/- 2.4), and borneol (23.4 +/- 5.6) was statistically lower than those in the petri dishes containing distilled water (60.9 +/- 7.4, 49.8 +/- 4.0, and 79.7 +/- 13.5), respectively. Only the highest concentration of alpha-terpineol (8.0 micromol) displayed significant repellent activity against fungus gnat adults. The other essential constituents tested, including octanoic acid (all three concentrations), furfural (both concentrations), acetophenone, dimethoxybenzene, and 7-hydroxycitronellol, were not statistically different from the distilled water control. The results of this study indicate that certain essential oil constituents repel fungus gnat adults, which may be useful, from a practical standpoint, in deterring adults from laying eggs into growing media.

Cloyd RA; Marley KA; Larson RA; Dickinson A; Arieli B

2011-10-01

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Bradysia difformis Frey and Bradysia ocellaris (Comstock) : two additional neotropical species of black fungus gnats (Diptera: Sciaridae) of economic importance: a redescription and review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The first records for Brazil of two sciarid species, Bradysia difformis Frey, 1948 [= paupera (Tuomikoski, 1960)] and Bradysia ocellaris (Comstock, 1882) [= tritici (Coquillett, 1895)] (Diptera, Sciaridae) are presented. These are the first records of these species for the Neotropical region. Males and females of both species are fully described and illustrated. Information is given about synonymy and the location of the type material. Bradysia agrestis Sasakawa, 1978 is a new synonym of Bradysia difformis. Information about the zoogeographic distribution and habitats, of Bradysia difformis and Bradysia ocellaris is provided.

Menzel F; Smith JE; Colauto NB

2003-07-01

9

Association of fungus gnats with oomycetal plant pathogens  

Science.gov (United States)

Dark-winged fungus gnats in the genus Bradysia (Diptera: Sciaridae) are especially abundant in greenhouse plant production. It is thought that adult fungus gnats do not feed in the greenhouse setting; however sciarid larvae are known to feed on microorganisms in the soil, including various Oomycete...

10

Pseudocopulatory pollination in lepanthes (orchidaceae: pleurothallidinae) by fungus gnats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Lepanthes is one of the largest angiosperm genera (>800 species). Their non-rewarding, tiny and colourful flowers are structurally complex. Their pollination mechanism has hitherto remained unknown, but has been subject of ample speculation; the function of the minuscule labellum appendix is especially puzzling. Here, the pollination of L. glicensteinii by sexually deceived male fungus gnats is described and illustrated. METHODS: Visitors to flowers of L. glicensteinii were photographed and their behaviour documented; some were captured for identification. Occasional visits to flowers of L. helleri, L. stenorhyncha and L. turialvae were also observed. Structural features of flowers and pollinators were studied with SEM. KEY RESULTS: Sexually aroused males of the fungus gnat Bradysia floribunda (Diptera: Sciaridae) were the only visitors and pollinators of L. glicensteinii. The initial long-distance attractant seems to be olfactory. Upon finding a flower, the fly curls his abdomen under the labellum and grabs the appendix with his genitalic claspers, then dismounts the flower and turns around to face away from it. The pollinarium attaches to his abdomen during this pivoting manoeuvre. Pollinia are deposited on the stigma during a subsequent flower visit. The flies appear to ejaculate during pseudocopulation. The visitors of L. helleri, L. stenorhyncha and L. turialvae are different species of fungus gnats that display a similar behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: Lepanthes glicensteinii has genitalic pseudocopulatory pollination, the first case reported outside of the Australian orchid genus Cryptostylis. Since most species of Lepanthes have the same unusual flower structure, it is predicted that pollination by sexual deception is prevalent in the genus. Several morphological and phenological traits in Lepanthes seem well suited for exploiting male fungus gnats as pollinators. Correspondingly, some demographic trends common in Lepanthes are consistent with patterns of male sciarid behaviour.

Blanco MA; Barboza G

2005-04-01

11

Fungus gnats and Pythium in the attack on greenhouse plants: conspirators or just cohabitants  

Science.gov (United States)

Research conducted by collaborating Cornell University and USDA-ARS scientists investigated the potential for fungus gnats to vector Pythium root-rot pathogens. Fungus gnat larvae readily consumed Pythium oospores; the spores survived passage through the larval gut and, upon defecation, were able to...

12

Effectiveness of Defatted Mustard Meals Used to Control Fungus Gnats: 2000-2002  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Our objective is to develop a pesticidal product from mustard meals that can be used to control insect pests. We have focused our efforts on fungus gnats. This report details our current progress in developing a pesticidal product that can be used to control this plant pest.

McCaffrey, J. P.; Morra, M. J.

2005-07-01

13

Larval Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae) potential for vectoring Pythium root rot pathogens.  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the capacity of Bradysia impatiens (Johannsen) larvae to ingest propagules from two strains each of Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp. and P. ultimum Trow and transmit the pathogens to healthy geranium seedlings on a filter-paper substrate in petri dishes. The capacity of fungus gnat larvae to transmit P. aphanidermatum to seedlings rooted in a commercial peat-based potting mix and germination of Pythium oospores and hyphal swellings before and after passage through the guts of larval fungus gnats were also examined. Assays revealed that Pythium spp. transmission by larval fungus gnats varied greatly with the assay substrate and also with the number and nature of ingested propagules. Transmission was highest (65%) in the petri dish assays testing larvae fed P. aphanidermatum K-13, a strain that produced abundant oospores. Transmission of strain K-13 was much lower (Pythium spp. PMID:22085299

Braun, S E; Sanderson, J P; Wraight, S P

2012-03-01

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Larval Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae) potential for vectoring Pythium root rot pathogens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the capacity of Bradysia impatiens (Johannsen) larvae to ingest propagules from two strains each of Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp. and P. ultimum Trow and transmit the pathogens to healthy geranium seedlings on a filter-paper substrate in petri dishes. The capacity of fungus gnat larvae to transmit P. aphanidermatum to seedlings rooted in a commercial peat-based potting mix and germination of Pythium oospores and hyphal swellings before and after passage through the guts of larval fungus gnats were also examined. Assays revealed that Pythium spp. transmission by larval fungus gnats varied greatly with the assay substrate and also with the number and nature of ingested propagules. Transmission was highest (65%) in the petri dish assays testing larvae fed P. aphanidermatum K-13, a strain that produced abundant oospores. Transmission of strain K-13 was much lower (<6%) in plug cells with potting mix. Larvae were less efficient at vectoring P. ultimum strain PSN-1, which produced few oospores, and no transmission was observed with two non-oospore-producing strains: P. aphanidermatum Pa58 and P. ultimum P4. Passage of P. aphanidermatum K-13 through larval guts significantly increased oospore germination. However, decreased germination of hyphal swellings was observed following larval gut passage for strains of P. ultimum. These results expand previous studies suggesting that larval fungus gnats may vector Pythium spp.

Braun SE; Sanderson JP; Wraight SP

2012-03-01

15

Molecular phylogeny of black fungus gnats (Diptera: Sciaroidea: Sciaridae) and the evolution of larval habitats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The phylogeny of the family Sciaridae is reconstructed, based on maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and Bayesian analyses of 4809bp from two mitochondrial (COI and 16S) and two nuclear (18S and 28S) genes for 100 taxa including the outgroup taxa. According to the present phylogenetic analyses, Sciaridae comprise three subfamilies and two genus groups: Sciarinae, Chaetosciara group, Cratyninae, and Pseudolycoriella group+Megalosphyinae. Our molecular results are largely congruent with one of the former hypotheses based on morphological data with respect to the monophyly of genera and subfamilies (Sciarinae, Megalosphyinae, and part of postulated "new subfamily"); however, the subfamily Cratyninae is shown to be polyphyletic, and the genera Bradysia, Corynoptera, Leptosciarella, Lycoriella, and Phytosciara are also recognized as non-monophyletic groups. While the ancestral larval habitat state of the family Sciaridae, based on Bayesian inference, is dead plant material (plant litter+rotten wood), the common ancestors of Phytosciara and Bradysia are inferred to living plants habitat. Therefore, shifts in larval habitats from dead plant material to living plants may have occurred within the Sciaridae at least once. Based on the results, we discuss phylogenetic relationships within the family, and present an evolutionary scenario of development of larval habitats.

Shin S; Jung S; Menzel F; Heller K; Lee H; Lee S

2013-03-01

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Genetic diversity of Bradysia difformis (Sciaridae: Diptera) populations reflects movement of an invasive insect between forestry nurseries  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The fungus gnat, Bradysia difformis (Sciaridae: Diptera) has recently been recorded for the first time from South Africa where it has been found in forestry nurseries. The presence of this insect in all the major forestry nurseries as the dominant and only sciarid species raises intriguing questions regarding its origin and population genetic structure. A 395 bp portion of the mitochondrial COI gene was analysed from B. difformis individuals collected from four nursery populations in South Africa and three nursery populations in Europe. Shared haplotypes between South African and European populations indicated a historical connection. South African populations showed high genetic diversity and low genetic differentiation. These patterns most likely reflect multiple and/or relatively large introductions of B. difformis into South Africa from its origin combined with subsequent and continued movement of plants between nurseries.

Hurley BP; Slippers B; Wingfield BD; Govender P; Smith JE; Wingfield MJ

2010-04-01

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Transstadial transmission of Pythium in Bradysia impatiens and lack of adult vectoring capacity  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungus gnats have been shown to transmit a variety of plant pathogenic fungi that produce aerial dispersal stages. However, few studies have examined potential interactions between fungus gnats and oomycetes, including Pythium spp. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to determine if ...

18

Bradysia sp. em morangueiro/ Bradysia sp. in strawberry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese No trabalho, relatam-se os primeiros registros de Bradysia sp. (Insecta: Diptera: Sciaridae) em morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.), cultivado no Município de Eldorado do Sul, RS. O cultivo foi realizado em sacolas com três metros de comprimento, preenchidas com substrato composto de casca de arroz e turfa, dispostas horizontalmente sobre bancadas de madeira, em ambiente protegido. A presença de Bradysia sp. foi observada na segunda quinzena de agosto de 2005. Nest (more) e trabalho, estão descritos os sintomas apresentados no morangueiro pela praga, prováveis conseqüências sobre o aparecimento de doenças e uma breve descrição morfológica da Bradysia sp., adulto e fase larval. Abstract in english This paper describes the first record of Bradysia sp. (Insecta; Diptera; Sciaridae) in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa), cultivated in the city of Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil. Strawberry was planted in plastic bags filled with a mixture of burnt rice hulls and peat and cultivated in a greenhouse. The presence of Bradysia sp was noticed in the second fortnight of August, 2005. The symptoms in strawberry and the probable consequences in terms of disease arising were described in the present study, as well as the morphological characterization of Bradysia sp. and its illustrations.

Radin, Bernadete; Wolff, Vera Regina dos Santos; Lisboa, Bruno Brito; Witter, Sidia; Silveira, José Ricardo Pfeifer

2009-04-01

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GNAT1 associated with autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Congenital stationary night blindness is a nonprogressive retinal disorder manifesting as impaired night vision and is generally associated with other ocular symptoms, such as nystagmus, myopia, and strabismus. This study was conducted to further investigate the genetic basis of CSNB in a consanguineous Pakistani family. METHODS: A consanguineous family with multiple individuals manifesting cardinal symptoms of congenital stationary night blindness was ascertained. All family members underwent detailed ophthalmic examination, including fundus photographic examination and electroretinography. Blood samples were collected and genomic DNA was extracted. Exclusion and genome-wide linkage analyses were completed and two-point LOD scores were calculated. Bidirectional sequencing of GNAT1 was completed, and quantitative expression of Gnat1 transcript levels were investigated in ocular tissues at different postnatal intervals. RESULTS: The results of ophthalmic examinations were suggestive of early-onset stationary night blindness with no extraocular anomalies. The genome-wide scan localized the critical interval to chromosome 3, region p22.1-p14.3, with maximum two-point LOD scores of 3.09 at ? = 0, flanked by markers D3S3522 and D3S1289. Subsequently, a missense mutation in GNAT1, p.D129G, was identified, which segregated within the family, consistent with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance, and was not present in 192 ethnically matched control chromosomes. Expression analysis suggested that Gnat1 is expressed at approximately postnatal day (P)7 and is predominantly expressed in the retina. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that a homozygous missense mutation in GNAT1 is associated with autosomal recessive stationary night blindness.

Naeem MA; Chavali VR; Ali S; Iqbal M; Riazuddin S; Khan SN; Husnain T; Sieving PA; Ayyagari R; Riazuddin S; Hejtmancik JF; Riazuddin SA

2012-03-01

20

The GNAT library for local and remote gene mention normalization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

SUMMARY: Identifying mentions of named entities, such as genes or diseases, and normalizing them to database identifiers have become an important step in many text and data mining pipelines. Despite this need, very few entity normalization systems are publicly available as source code or web services for biomedical text mining. Here we present the Gnat Java library for text retrieval, named entity recognition, and normalization of gene and protein mentions in biomedical text. The library can be used as a component to be integrated with other text-mining systems, as a framework to add user-specific extensions, and as an efficient stand-alone application for the identification of gene and protein names for data analysis. On the BioCreative III test data, the current version of Gnat achieves a Tap-20 score of 0.1987. AVAILABILITY: The library and web services are implemented in Java and the sources are available from http://gnat.sourceforge.net. CONTACT: jorg.hakenberg@roche.com.

Hakenberg J; Gerner M; Haeussler M; Solt I; Plake C; Schroeder M; Gonzalez G; Nenadic G; Bergman CM

2011-10-01

 
 
 
 
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Characterization of the gene encoding human cone transducin [alpha]-subunit (GNAT2)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The human cone transducin [alpha]-subunit (GNAT2) gene has been completely characterized. The human GNAT2 transcription unit is 9967-bp in length and consists of eight exons with seven introns. The eight exons are identical to the reported cDNA sequence. Northern blot analysis of RNA from human retinas and a retinoblastoma cell line, WERI-RB1, reveals a 1.7-kb transcript for GNAT2. Multiple transcription initiation sites were mapped for human retina and WERI-RB1 RNA by primer extension and S1 nuclease protection assays. This gene has seven initiation sites spanning 31 bp. The sequence upstream of the GNAT2 gene shows a TATA box consensus sequence at -29, a CCAAT box consensus sequence at -58 (reverse orientations), and a sequence (CCATAT) similar to the CCAAT box consensus at -76. The GNAT2 upstream sequence shows no significant identity with the upstream region of the human rod transducin [alpha]-subunit gene (GNAT1) or with the upstream regions of the color visual pigment genes, indicating that the expression of GNAT2 may be regulated differently than these other rod- and cone-specific proteins. 35 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Morris, T.A. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)); Fong, Shao Ling (Indiana Univ., Indianapolis, IN (United States))

1993-08-01

22

Analysis of the sex ratio in Bradysia matogrossensis (Diptera, Sciaridae)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In sciarid flies, the control of sex determination and of the progeny sex ratio is exercised by the parental females, and is based on differential X-chromosome elimination in the initial stages of embryogenesis. In some species, the females produce unisexual progenies (monogenic females) while in others, the progenies consist of males and females (digenic females). The sex ratio of bisexual progenies is variable, and departs considerably from 1:1. Bradysia matogrossensis shows both monogenic and digenic reproduction. In a recently established laboratory strain of this species, 15% of the females were digenic, 10% produced only females, 13% produced only males, and 62% produced progenies with one predominant sex (33% predominantly of female and 29% predominantly male progenies). These progeny sex ratios were maintained in successive generations. Females from female-skewed progenies yielded female- and male-producing daughters in a 1:1 ratio. In contrast, daughters of females from male-skewed progenies produce bisexual or male-skewed progenies. The X-chromosome of B. matogrossensis shows no inversion or other gross aberration. These results suggest that the control of the progeny sex ratio (or differential X-chromosome elimination) involves more than one locus or, at least, more than one pair of alleles. The data also suggest that, in sciarid flies, monogeny and digeny may share a common control mechanism.

Rocha Lincoln S.; Perondini André Luiz P.

2000-01-01

23

Analysis of the sex ratio in Bradysia matogrossensis (Diptera, Sciaridae)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In sciarid flies, the control of sex determination and of the progeny sex ratio is exercised by the parental females, and is based on differential X-chromosome elimination in the initial stages of embryogenesis. In some species, the females produce unisexual progenies (monogenic females) while in others, the progenies consist of males and females (digenic females). The sex ratio of bisexual progenies is variable, and departs considerably from 1:1. Bradysia matogrossensis shows both monogenic and digenic reproduction. In a recently established laboratory strain of this species, 15% of the females were digenic, 10% produced only females, 13% produced only males, and 62% produced progenies with one predominant sex (33% predominantly of female and 29% predominantly male progenies). These progeny sex ratios were maintained in successive generations. Females from female-skewed progenies yielded female- and male-producing daughters in a 1:1 ratio. In contrast, daughters of females from male-skewed progenies produce bisexual or male-skewed progenies. The X-chromosome of B. matogrossensis shows no inversion or other gross aberration. These results suggest that the control of the progeny sex ratio (or differential X-chromosome elimination) involves more than one locus or, at least, more than one pair of alleles. The data also suggest that, in sciarid flies, monogeny and digeny may share a common control mechanism.Nas espécies de sciarídeos, o controle da determinação do sexo dos indivíduos, assim como da proporção sexual das progênies, é feito pelas fêmeas parentais e baseia-se em um mecanismo diferencial de eliminação de cromossomo X nas primeiras fases do desenvolvimento embrionário. Existem espécies cujas fêmeas produzem progênies de um único sexo (fêmeas monogênicas) e outras cujas proles incluem machos e fêmeas (fêmeas digênicas). A proporção sexual nas proles bissexuais é variável, desviando-se significativamente de 1:1. Bradysia matogrossensis apresenta características dos dois modos de reprodução. Em uma população recém-introduzida no laboratório, existem 15% de fêmeas digênicas, 10% de fêmeas produtoras de fêmeas, 13% de fêmeas produtoras de machos e 62% de fêmeas em cujas proles um sexo foi predominante sobre o outro (33% de progênies de fêmeas com raros machos e 29% de proles de machos com raras fêmeas). Foi mostrado que estas condições se mantêm sem alterações significativas por gerações sucessivas. Fêmeas derivadas de progênies com predominância de fêmeas produzem sempre filhas produtoras de fêmeas e produtoras de machos, na proporção de 1:1. Ao contrário, fêmeas derivadas de progênies bissexuais (com predominância de machos) produzem filhas que dão origem a proles apenas de machos ou, então, com predominância de machos. O cromossomo X de B. matogrossensis não apresenta inversão ou outra aberração visível citologicamente. Os resultados sugerem que no controle da eliminação do cromossomo X deve existir mais que um loco ou, então, mais que um simples par de alelos. Sugerem, também, que os dois modos de reprodução dos sciarídeos, monogenia e digenia, devem ter mecanismos de controle similares, uma hipótese nem sempre considerada em estudos anteriores.

Lincoln S. Rocha; André Luiz P. Perondini

2000-01-01

24

Analysis of the sex ratio in Bradysia matogrossensis (Diptera, Sciaridae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Nas espécies de sciarídeos, o controle da determinação do sexo dos indivíduos, assim como da proporção sexual das progênies, é feito pelas fêmeas parentais e baseia-se em um mecanismo diferencial de eliminação de cromossomo X nas primeiras fases do desenvolvimento embrionário. Existem espécies cujas fêmeas produzem progênies de um único sexo (fêmeas monogênicas) e outras cujas proles incluem machos e fêmeas (fêmeas digênicas). A proporção sexual na (more) s proles bissexuais é variável, desviando-se significativamente de 1:1. Bradysia matogrossensis apresenta características dos dois modos de reprodução. Em uma população recém-introduzida no laboratório, existem 15% de fêmeas digênicas, 10% de fêmeas produtoras de fêmeas, 13% de fêmeas produtoras de machos e 62% de fêmeas em cujas proles um sexo foi predominante sobre o outro (33% de progênies de fêmeas com raros machos e 29% de proles de machos com raras fêmeas). Foi mostrado que estas condições se mantêm sem alterações significativas por gerações sucessivas. Fêmeas derivadas de progênies com predominância de fêmeas produzem sempre filhas produtoras de fêmeas e produtoras de machos, na proporção de 1:1. Ao contrário, fêmeas derivadas de progênies bissexuais (com predominância de machos) produzem filhas que dão origem a proles apenas de machos ou, então, com predominância de machos. O cromossomo X de B. matogrossensis não apresenta inversão ou outra aberração visível citologicamente. Os resultados sugerem que no controle da eliminação do cromossomo X deve existir mais que um loco ou, então, mais que um simples par de alelos. Sugerem, também, que os dois modos de reprodução dos sciarídeos, monogenia e digenia, devem ter mecanismos de controle similares, uma hipótese nem sempre considerada em estudos anteriores. Abstract in english In sciarid flies, the control of sex determination and of the progeny sex ratio is exercised by the parental females, and is based on differential X-chromosome elimination in the initial stages of embryogenesis. In some species, the females produce unisexual progenies (monogenic females) while in others, the progenies consist of males and females (digenic females). The sex ratio of bisexual progenies is variable, and departs considerably from 1:1. Bradysia matogrossensis (more) shows both monogenic and digenic reproduction. In a recently established laboratory strain of this species, 15% of the females were digenic, 10% produced only females, 13% produced only males, and 62% produced progenies with one predominant sex (33% predominantly of female and 29% predominantly male progenies). These progeny sex ratios were maintained in successive generations. Females from female-skewed progenies yielded female- and male-producing daughters in a 1:1 ratio. In contrast, daughters of females from male-skewed progenies produce bisexual or male-skewed progenies. The X-chromosome of B. matogrossensis shows no inversion or other gross aberration. These results suggest that the control of the progeny sex ratio (or differential X-chromosome elimination) involves more than one locus or, at least, more than one pair of alleles. The data also suggest that, in sciarid flies, monogeny and digeny may share a common control mechanism.

Rocha, Lincoln S.; Perondini, André Luiz P.

2000-03-01

25

The development of Steinernema feltiae (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) in the sciarid fly Bradysia paupera (Diptera: Sciaridae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There was only one generation of Steinernema feltiae in Bradysia paupera. Infection occurred after 3 h, adults developed 27 h after invasion and new infective juveniles (IJ) were produced after 48 h. Stunted females were produced in B. paupera larvae and in other small hosts and these stunted females produced small IJs. The small IJs were capable of infecting hosts and normal sized Us were produced in succeeding generations in Galleria mellonella.

Gouge DH; Hague NGM

1995-04-01

26

Field and laboratory observations on the substrates of the mushroom fungus gnat Lycoriella auripila (Diptera: Sciaridae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Observations in mushroom houses showed that the number of larvae of L. auripila in the casing was higher than in the compost throughout the post-casing phase of culture. The intestines of larvae from casing contained both peat and fungal material. Choice of oviposition site was accordingly non-specific. Females from cropping houses appeared to consist of a mixture of monogenic (predominantly unsexual) and digenic (bisexual) strains. Males matured c. 2 days before females at 20 °C; such protandry appeared to be related to sexual differences in the extent of migration undertaken by the dimorphic sexes. Sciarids were reared from egg to adult equally effectively on (a) detached sporophores or on portions of (b) pileus, (c) stipe or (d) gills, all placed on moist peat, or on detached sporophores placed on a variety of inert substrates. Development was completed where sporophore material was the only food source and also occurred on peat to which only protein, particularly egg albumin, had been added. Hence, assuming no protein metabolism by a third organism, for development in the casing layer to occur, the mushroom need contribute only such proteins. However, their replacement by amino acids was not successful in limited tests. Addition of increasing amounts of the fungal metabolites mannitol and calcium oxalate to compost delayed development, and the accumulation of these materials during fungal growth may be responsible for the antagonism between mycelial and sciarid development which results in subsequent migration of emerging adults.

Binns ES

1980-10-01

27

Nuclear halo from Bradysia hygida (Diptera:Sciaridae) salivary gland polytene cells  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Observações à microscopia eletrônica e estudos bioquímicos de cromossomos e núcleos sem histonas tem suportado a hipótese que o DNA de eucariotos é organizado em alças associadas com o esqueleto cromossômico ou à matriz nuclear. A observação da matriz nuclear sem a remoção do DNA, através da digestão com enzimas de restrição, apresenta uma figura em halo que representa a liberação das alças de DNA. Um protocolo para a obtenção de halos nucleares de (more) núcleos politênicos de insetos, através da extração de proteínas usando o detergente LIS, é reportado nesse trabalho. Foram realizadas análises utilizando-se microscopia de fluorescência e microscopia de varredura confocal a laser. A extração de halos nucleares foi possível somente com o isolamento da fração nuclear em tampão sem espermina e espermidina. A obtenção de halos nucleares de núcleos politênicos de glândula salivar de Bradysia hygida contribui significativamente para o estudo da estrutura e função dessas organelas tão especiais. Abstract in english A protocol for recovered nuclear halos from insect polytene nuclei after the extraction of the nuclear proteins using LIS detergent is reported in this work. Analysis was carried out using fluorescence and confocal laser scan microscopy. The extraction of nuclear halos was possible only with nuclei-fraction isolation in hypotonic buffer without spermine and spermidine. The recovered nuclear halos from Bradysia hygida salivary gland polytene nuclei, contributed greatly to the study of the structure and function of these special organelles.

Polinarski, Celso Aparecido; Silva, José Luis da Conceição; Mikami, Liya Regina; Fernandez, Maria Aparecida

2005-05-01

28

Application of PINS and GNAT to the assay of 55-gal containers of radioactive waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Portable Isotropic Neutron Spectroscopy (PINS) and Gamma Neutron Assay Technique (GNAT) assay systems that were developed with funding from the office of Research and Development (NN20), were taken to the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) facility at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) and applied to the assay of surrogate and Rocky Flats Plant waste contained in 55-gal drums. PINS, a portable prompt {gamma} neutron activation analysis technique, was able to identify key elements in both the surrogate and real waste so that three-main waste categories: metal, combustible material, and cemented chlorinated sludge wastes could be identified. GNAT, a {gamma}, neutron assay technique for the identification and quantification of fissioning isotopes, was able to identify {sup 240}Pu in surrogate waste in which nine 1-g nuclear accident dosimeters were inserted. GNAT was also able to identify {sup 24O}Pu in real 55-gal waste drums containing 15- and 40-g of plutonium even in the presence of high activity concentrations of {sup 241}Am.

Gehrke, R.J.; Aryaeinejad, R.; Watts, K.D.; Staples, D.R.; Akers, D.W.

1994-03-01

29

Sublethal effects of eight insecticides on development and reproduction of {\\sl Bradysia odoriphaga}  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

After the LC_(20) and LC_(50) of eight insecticides to the 3rd instar larvae of Bradysia odoriphaga were determined, the effects of eight insecticides in sublethal doses to the biology of survival larvae were compared. The biological parameters included larval mortality after 72 h, adult survival rate 72 h after emergence, pupation rate, female pupa weight, emergence rate, sex proportion (?:?), eggs laid per female and egg hatchability. For chlorpyrifos, phoxim, abamectin and chlorfenapyr, the effect of sublethal doses were significant and in the order chlorpyrifos>phoxim>abamectin ? chlorfenapyr; but for benfuracarb, methomyl, carbosulfan, and imidacloprid, the effect was not obvious. Compared with the control, there were no diffrences except pupation rate and emergence rate in the survival individuals treated at the dose of LC_(50) with benfuracarb, methomyl, carbosulfan, imidacloprid.

Mu Wei; Liu Feng; Jia Zhongming; Zhao De; Mu Liyi

2005-01-01

30

Nail Fungus  

Science.gov (United States)

... may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Nail fungus By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/nail-fungus/DS00084 Definition Symptoms Causes Risk factors Complications Preparing ...

31

The GNAT method for nonlinear model reduction: effective implementation and application to computational fluid dynamics and turbulent flows  

CERN Document Server

The Gauss--Newton with approximated tensors (GNAT) method is a nonlinear model reduction method that operates on fully discretized computational models. It achieves dimension reduction by a Petrov--Galerkin projection associated with residual minimization; it delivers computational efficency by a hyper-reduction procedure based on the `gappy POD' technique. Originally presented in Ref. [1], where it was applied to implicit nonlinear structural-dynamics models, this method is further developed here and applied to the solution of a benchmark turbulent viscous flow problem. To begin, this paper develops global state-space error bounds that justify the method's design and highlight its advantages in terms of minimizing components of these error bounds. Next, the paper introduces a `sample mesh' concept that enables a distributed, computationally efficient implementation of the GNAT method in finite-volume-based computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) codes. The suitability of GNAT for parameterized problems is highlig...

Carlberg, Kevin; Cortial, Julien; Amsallem, David

2012-01-01

32

New gnat-midge species chironomus degelenus i sp. n. (diptera chironomidae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the first time the morphology of larvae, pupae, imago and karyotype of Chironomus degelenus I Sp. n. collected from Water-Body D-3-3 of the Degelen Mountain Massif has been described. The larvae have a species-specific structure and color of the head capsule, ventral-mental blades, and mandibula hamuli. The male gnat is characterized for grid structure in IX tergite. The karyotype of C. degelenus I Sp. n. has the following combination of chromosome arms: AB, CD, EF, and G (thummi complex), which is typical for Chironomus species. It was concluded that the origin of the new species of Chironomus degelenus I Sp. N. is related to the long-term genetic processes of Chironomini adaptation to the elevated radiation background level. (author)

2001-01-01

33

Transmission of the mycoparasite Coniothyrium minitans by collembolan Folsomia candida (Collembola: Entomobryidae) and glasshouse sciarid Bradysia sp. (Diptera: Sciaridae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Folsomia Candida was maintained on potato dextrose agar (PDA) plates precolonised by the mycoparasite Coniothyrium minitans for 3 yr but the sciarid Bradysia sp. survived for a maximum of only three generations. Collembolans and sciarid larvae from these cultures were able to transmit C. minitans to uninoculated PDA plates through the survival of spores in faecal pellets. Adult and larval sciarids also transmitted C. minitans from PDA culture to uninoculated PDA plates by contamination on the cuticle. In soil and sand both sciarids and collembolans were able to transmit C. minitans from C. m/m'tans-inoculated to uninoculated sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Inoculation of sclerotia with C. minitans enabled greater populations of larger collembolans to develop. In the glasshouse where C. minitans had been applied to the soil, one adult sciarid and four collembolans out of 70 and 101 insects collected respectively yielded C. minitans on placement onto PDA + Aureomycin.

Whipps JM; Budge SP

1993-08-01

34

Activity of an essential oil derived from Chenopodium ambrosioides on greenhouse insect pests.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study involved both greenhouse and laboratory experiments evaluating the effect of an essential oil product (QRD 400) derived from Chenopodium ambrosioides variety nr. Ambrosioides L. (Chenopodiaceae) on greenhouse insect pests that feed on different plant parts: citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso); longtailed mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti); western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), and fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.). Treatments were applied to coleus, Solenostemon scutellarioides plants; transvaal daisy, Gerbera jamesonii flowers; or growing medium, depending on the insect pest. The essential oil was most effective, based on adult emergence, on both the second and third instars of the fungus gnat Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila when applied as a drench to growing medium. In addition, there was a significant rate response for QRD 400 on fungus gnats. The QRD 400 treatment had the highest percentage of mortality on longtailed mealybug (55%) compared with the other treatments. However, the essential oil was less effective against citrus mealybug (3% mortality) and western flower thrips adults (18-34% mortality) compared with standard insecticides, such as acetamiprid (TriStar) and spinosad (Conserve), which are typically used by greenhouse producers. This lack of efficacy may be associated with volatility and short residual properties of the essential oil or with the essential oil taking longer to kill insect pests. Other insecticides and miticides evaluated, including sesame oil, garlic, paraffinic oil, and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, provided minimal control of the designated insect pests. In addition, adult rove beetle Atheta coriaria Kraatz adults were not effective in controlling the larval instars of fungus gnats when applied at a rate of five adults per container.

Cloyd RA; Chiasson H

2007-04-01

35

Activity of an essential oil derived from Chenopodium ambrosioides on greenhouse insect pests.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study involved both greenhouse and laboratory experiments evaluating the effect of an essential oil product (QRD 400) derived from Chenopodium ambrosioides variety nr. Ambrosioides L. (Chenopodiaceae) on greenhouse insect pests that feed on different plant parts: citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso); longtailed mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti); western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), and fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.). Treatments were applied to coleus, Solenostemon scutellarioides plants; transvaal daisy, Gerbera jamesonii flowers; or growing medium, depending on the insect pest. The essential oil was most effective, based on adult emergence, on both the second and third instars of the fungus gnat Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila when applied as a drench to growing medium. In addition, there was a significant rate response for QRD 400 on fungus gnats. The QRD 400 treatment had the highest percentage of mortality on longtailed mealybug (55%) compared with the other treatments. However, the essential oil was less effective against citrus mealybug (3% mortality) and western flower thrips adults (18-34% mortality) compared with standard insecticides, such as acetamiprid (TriStar) and spinosad (Conserve), which are typically used by greenhouse producers. This lack of efficacy may be associated with volatility and short residual properties of the essential oil or with the essential oil taking longer to kill insect pests. Other insecticides and miticides evaluated, including sesame oil, garlic, paraffinic oil, and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, provided minimal control of the designated insect pests. In addition, adult rove beetle Atheta coriaria Kraatz adults were not effective in controlling the larval instars of fungus gnats when applied at a rate of five adults per container. PMID:17461071

Cloyd, Raymond A; Chiasson, Helene

2007-04-01

36

Expression of a modified antimicrobial peptide BhSGAMP-1-S (Bradysia hygida) in Escherichia coli and characterization of its activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Bradysia hygida salivary glands antimicrobial peptide 1 (BhSGAMP-1) is one of the antimicrobial peptides involved in a preventive mechanism of defense of the fly Bradysia hygida. To know better about the molecular characterization of this antimicrobial peptide, we expressed and purified the modified BhSGAMP-1-S and investigated its antimicrobial activity. METHODS: We synthesized the gene of BhSGAMP-1-S designed with preferred codons of Escherichia coli and expressed it as a fusion protein in E. coli TB1 by using pMAL-c2X as vector. We purified the fusion protein using amylase resin affinity chromatography. In addition, we cleaved the fusion protein by enterokinase and the released recombinant BhSGAMP-1-S was separated by size exclusion chromatography, then followed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. We analyzed the antimicrobial activities of the purified recombinant BhSGAMP-1-S by bioassays. RESULTS: The fusion protein was mostly expressed in soluble form under the optimized conditions. The recombinant BhSGAMP-1-S was produced with a pure yield of 0.38 mg/100 mL culture medium. Antimicrobial assays demonstrated that the recombinant BhSGAMP-1-S was active against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. CONCLUSION: It appears to be the first successful production of the recombinant BhSGAMP-1-S from fly Bradysia hygida. Data presented here confirm that the recombinant BhSGAMP-1-S is now ready for further studying and characterizing their antimicrobial properties.

Wang J; Gao Q; Liu Q; Xiang L; Wang Y; Wang D

2010-09-01

37

Effect of pesticides on adult rove beetle Atheta coriaria (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) survival in growing medium.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rove beetle Atheta coriaria (Kraatz) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) is a natural enemy (biological control agent) commercially available for control of certain greenhouse insect pests, including fungus gnats, shore flies, and thrips. This study assessed the compatibility of pesticides (insecticides and fungicides) used in greenhouses with A. coriaria adults. Treatments were applied to 473-ml deli squat containers half-filled with a growing medium. We evaluated the effects of the pesticides when releases of A. coriaria adults were performed both before and after application of the designated pesticide solutions. All three of the neonicotinoid-based insecticides (clothianidin, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam) were directly harmful to A. coriaria adults with flonicamid, Metarhizium anisopliae strain52, and spinosad) and insect growth regulator azadirachtin were also not directly toxic to A. coriaria adults. Furthermore, many of these same treatments did not inhibit the ability of adult A. coriaria to consume fungus gnat (Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila) larvae in a feeding behavior experiment. Although the neonicotinoid-based insecticides were directly harmful to adult A. coriaria, when adults were released 48, 72, or 96 h after application, survival increased dramatically over time. This study has quantitatively demonstrated that certain pesticides (both insecticides and fungicides) are compatible with and can be used along with A. coriaria in systems that use this natural enemy to manage fungus gnat larvae. PMID:19886438

Cloyd, Raymond A; Timmons, Nicholas R; Goebel, Jessica M; Kemp, Kenneth E

2009-10-01

38

The development of integrated pest management for the control of mushroom sciarid flies, Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour) and Bradysia ocellaris (Comstock), in cultivated mushrooms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mushrooms are susceptible to a range of diseases and pests that can cause serious crop loss. Effective pest and pathogen control is a very important factor for the maintenance of efficient production of cultivated mushrooms. Integrated pest management in mushrooms is reliant upon four main principals/elements: sanitation, exclusion, monitoring and pest control. Bradysia ocellaris (Comstock) and Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour) (Diptera: Sciaridae) are major pests of cultivated mushrooms, Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach. These pests cause losses in yield through larval damage of the compost, mycelium and sporophores, and affect the structural features of the compost itself. Adult flies of these species also act as vectors for the introduction of mites and fungal diseases in cultivated mushrooms.

Shamshad A

2010-10-01

39

The development of integrated pest management for the control of mushroom sciarid flies, Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour) and Bradysia ocellaris (Comstock), in cultivated mushrooms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mushrooms are susceptible to a range of diseases and pests that can cause serious crop loss. Effective pest and pathogen control is a very important factor for the maintenance of efficient production of cultivated mushrooms. Integrated pest management in mushrooms is reliant upon four main principals/elements: sanitation, exclusion, monitoring and pest control. Bradysia ocellaris (Comstock) and Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour) (Diptera: Sciaridae) are major pests of cultivated mushrooms, Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach. These pests cause losses in yield through larval damage of the compost, mycelium and sporophores, and affect the structural features of the compost itself. Adult flies of these species also act as vectors for the introduction of mites and fungal diseases in cultivated mushrooms. PMID:20597099

Shamshad, Afsheen

2010-10-01

40

Edible fungus leisure food  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides an edible fungus leisure food, which is characterized in that: the edible fungus leisure food is prepared by frying edible fungus added with appropriate salt, and can be also prepared from 0.5 to 5 kg of the edible fungus, 10 to 300 g of chili, 10 to 200 g of prickly ash, 5 to 100 g of sesame seeds, or/and 20 to 500 g of lobster sauces, or/and 10 to 300 g of ham, or/and 10 to 300 g of beef thelephora, or/and 10 to 300 g of dried shrimp. The snack food not only maintains the original nutritive substances, the edible effect of plant dietary fibre and shape characteristics of the edible fungus, but also has the characteristics of full color, smell and taste of products, instant taking and the like, so that the edible fungus with strong seasonality, fresh-keeping difficulty, unique flavor, comprehensive nutrition and strong health care function becomes a new generation product having vogue, unique flavor and instant taking, and the snack food meets different demands of people on the edible fungus.

XINGLI WANG

 
 
 
 
41

The DNA puff BhB10-1 gene is differentially expressed in various tissues of Bradysia hygida late larvae and constitutively transcribed in transgenic Drosophila  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english We extended the characterization of the DNA puff BhB10-1 gene of Bradysia hygida by showing that, although its mRNA is detected only at the end of the fourth larval instar, BhB10-1 expression is not restricted to the salivary gland, the tissue in which this gene is amplified. Different amounts of BhB10-1 mRNA were detected in other larval tissues such as gut, Malpighian tubules, fat body, brain and cuticle, suggesting that this gene is expressed differentially in the vari (more) ous tissues analyzed. Analysis of transgenic Drosophila carrying the BhB10-1 transcription unit and flanking sequences revealed that the tested fragment promotes transcription in a constitutive manner. We suggest that either cis-regulatory elements are missing in the transgene or factors that temporally regulate the BhB10-1 gene in B. hygida are not conserved in Drosophila.

Monesi, N.; Sousa, J.F.; Paçó-Larson, M.L.

2001-07-01

42

The DNA puff BhB10-1 gene is differentially expressed in various tissues of Bradysia hygida late larvae and constitutively transcribed in transgenic Drosophila  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We extended the characterization of the DNA puff BhB10-1 gene of Bradysia hygida by showing that, although its mRNA is detected only at the end of the fourth larval instar, BhB10-1 expression is not restricted to the salivary gland, the tissue in which this gene is amplified. Different amounts of BhB10-1 mRNA were detected in other larval tissues such as gut, Malpighian tubules, fat body, brain and cuticle, suggesting that this gene is expressed differentially in the various tissues analyzed. Analysis of transgenic Drosophila carrying the BhB10-1 transcription unit and flanking sequences revealed that the tested fragment promotes transcription in a constitutive manner. We suggest that either cis-regulatory elements are missing in the transgene or factors that temporally regulate the BhB10-1 gene in B. hygida are not conserved in Drosophila.

Monesi N.; Sousa J.F.; Paçó-Larson M.L.

2001-01-01

43

Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae) presents two eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A gene homologues: partial characterization of the eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A-F1 gene.  

Science.gov (United States)

Elongation factor 1A is a highly conserved protein that participates in translation. We report the occurrence of two genes homologous to the eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A in Bradysia hygida and describe the partial cloning and characterization of the B. hygida eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A-F1 (BheEF1A-F1) gene. The pattern of BheEF1A-F1 expression in the salivary gland at the end of the fourth larval instar was investigated using real-time PCR. The results showed that BheEF1A-F1 expression levels are relatively constant at the time when rapid changes in protein synthesis occur in this tissue. In situ hybridization experiments coupled to Southern blot analyses showed that the BheEF1A-F1 gene is located at position 3d of the A chromosome and a second gene homologous to eEF1A is located at position 6a of the X chromosome. Southern blot analyses showed that both the BheEF1A-F1 gene and the second gene homologous to eEF1A constitute non-amplified genes. The present results contribute to the molecular characterization of a sciarid eEF1A gene. PMID:20414584

Candido-Silva, J A; Monesi, N

2010-04-16

44

Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae) presents two eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A gene homologues: partial characterization of the eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A-F1 gene.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Elongation factor 1A is a highly conserved protein that participates in translation. We report the occurrence of two genes homologous to the eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A in Bradysia hygida and describe the partial cloning and characterization of the B. hygida eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A-F1 (BheEF1A-F1) gene. The pattern of BheEF1A-F1 expression in the salivary gland at the end of the fourth larval instar was investigated using real-time PCR. The results showed that BheEF1A-F1 expression levels are relatively constant at the time when rapid changes in protein synthesis occur in this tissue. In situ hybridization experiments coupled to Southern blot analyses showed that the BheEF1A-F1 gene is located at position 3d of the A chromosome and a second gene homologous to eEF1A is located at position 6a of the X chromosome. Southern blot analyses showed that both the BheEF1A-F1 gene and the second gene homologous to eEF1A constitute non-amplified genes. The present results contribute to the molecular characterization of a sciarid eEF1A gene.

Candido-Silva JA; Monesi N

2010-05-01

45

Effect of compost and casing treatments of insecticides against the sciarid Bradysia ocellaris (Diptera: Sciaridae) and on the total yield of cultivated mushrooms, Agaricus bisporus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Bradysia ocellaris (Comstock) is one of the major pests of cultivated mushrooms, Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach. The feeding of sciarid fly larvae causes damage to the cultivation substrates, compost and casing. A comparative study of insecticidal treatments incorporated into compost and casing against B. ocellaris was conducted during 2003-2004. Treatments with an organophosphate, diazinon, a pyrazole, fipronil, and an insect growth regulator (IGR), triflumuron, were incorporated into casing. Another IGR, cyromazine, was incorporated into compost. Insecticidal incorporation into compost and casing has been associated with reductions in mushroom yield. Therefore, the effect of these insecticidal treatments on the overall yield was evaluated. RESULTS: A combined treatment, incorporation of cyromazine at 10 mg kg(-1) into compost and of triflumuron at 20 mg kg(-1) into casing, provided 100% control against B. ocellaris. There was no apparent reduction in yield as a result of incorporation of the tested chemicals into either compost or casing. CONCLUSION: The results obtained from this study suggest that incorporation of insecticides into both compost and casing is required to control a moderate to high pressure of insect pests. There were no significant yield reductions as a result of the incorporation of pesticides in the Australian mushroom-growing system.

Shamshad A; Clift AD; Mansfield S

2009-04-01

46

The DNA puff gene BhC4-1 of Bradysia hygida is specifically transcribed in early prepupal salivary glands of Drosophila melanogaster.  

Science.gov (United States)

The BhC4-1 gene of the sciarid Bradysia hygida is located at DNA puff C4 and is amplified and actively transcribed in the salivary gland at the end of the last larval instar. We show here that a 3.6 kb fragment from the upstream region of the BhC4-1 gene is able to drive transcription in transgenic Drosophila specifically in prepupal salivary gland in a temporally regulated manner. The mRNA is present in maximal amounts in prepupae +3 h; in prepupae +9 h the levels of BhC4-1 mRNA decline, and it is no longer detected in pupae +24 h. Taken together these results suggest that most, if not all, of the key promoter regulatory elements were included in the DNA fragments employed to transform Drosophila. Moreover, strong expression of the transgenes implies conservation of the regulatory elements involved, since Drosophila transcription factors appear to recognize B. hygida regulatory DNA sequences. Quantitative Southern blot hybridization indicates that the sequences from DNA puff C4 are not amplified at detectable levels in salivary glands of transgenic prepupae when the BhC4-1 gene is transcribed. Transcription of a DNA puff in the absence of amplification indicates that the induction of these processes involves distinct mechanisms. PMID:9933409

Monesi, N; Jacobs-Lorena, M; Paçó-Larson, M L

1998-12-01

47

The DNA puff gene BhC4-1 of Bradysia hygida is specifically transcribed in early prepupal salivary glands of Drosophila melanogaster.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The BhC4-1 gene of the sciarid Bradysia hygida is located at DNA puff C4 and is amplified and actively transcribed in the salivary gland at the end of the last larval instar. We show here that a 3.6 kb fragment from the upstream region of the BhC4-1 gene is able to drive transcription in transgenic Drosophila specifically in prepupal salivary gland in a temporally regulated manner. The mRNA is present in maximal amounts in prepupae +3 h; in prepupae +9 h the levels of BhC4-1 mRNA decline, and it is no longer detected in pupae +24 h. Taken together these results suggest that most, if not all, of the key promoter regulatory elements were included in the DNA fragments employed to transform Drosophila. Moreover, strong expression of the transgenes implies conservation of the regulatory elements involved, since Drosophila transcription factors appear to recognize B. hygida regulatory DNA sequences. Quantitative Southern blot hybridization indicates that the sequences from DNA puff C4 are not amplified at detectable levels in salivary glands of transgenic prepupae when the BhC4-1 gene is transcribed. Transcription of a DNA puff in the absence of amplification indicates that the induction of these processes involves distinct mechanisms.

Monesi N; Jacobs-Lorena M; Paçó-Larson ML

1998-12-01

48

Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae) presents two eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A gene homologues: partial characterization of the eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A-F1 gene  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Elongation factor 1A is a highly conserved protein that participates in translation. We report the occurrence of two genes homologous to the eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A in Bradysia hygida and describe the partial cloning and characterization of the B. hygida eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A-F1 (BheEF1A-F1) gene. The pattern of BheEF1A-F1 expression in the salivary gland at the end of the fourth larval instar was investigated using real-time PCR. The results showed that BheEF1A-F1 expression levels are relatively constant at the time when rapid changes in protein synthesis occur in this tissue. In situ hybridization experiments coupled to Southern blot analyses showed that the BheEF1A-F1 gene is located at position 3d of the A chromosome and a second gene homologous to eEF1A is located at position 6a of the X chromosome. Southern blot analyses showed that both the BheEF1A-F1 gene and the second gene homologous to eEF1A constitute non-amplified genes. The present results contribute to the molecular characterization of a sciarid eEF1A gene.

J.A. Candido-Silva; N. Monesi

2010-01-01

49

Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae) presents two eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A gene homologues: partial characterization of the eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A-F1 gene  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Elongation factor 1A is a highly conserved protein that participates in translation. We report the occurrence of two genes homologous to the eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A in Bradysia hygida and describe the partial cloning and characterization of the B. hygida eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A-F1 (BheEF1A-F1) gene. The pattern of BheEF1A-F1 expression in the salivary gland at the end of the fourth larval instar was investigated using real-time PCR. The results showed that (more) BheEF1A-F1 expression levels are relatively constant at the time when rapid changes in protein synthesis occur in this tissue. In situ hybridization experiments coupled to Southern blot analyses showed that the BheEF1A-F1 gene is located at position 3d of the A chromosome and a second gene homologous to eEF1A is located at position 6a of the X chromosome. Southern blot analyses showed that both the BheEF1A-F1 gene and the second gene homologous to eEF1A constitute non-amplified genes. The present results contribute to the molecular characterization of a sciarid eEF1A gene.

Candido-Silva, J.A.; Monesi, N.

2010-05-01

50

Step-changes in the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Gulf of Maine, as documented by the GNATS time series  

Science.gov (United States)

We identify step-changes in the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Gulf of Maine (GoM) using the Gulf of Maine North Atlantic Time Series (GNATS), a series of oceanographic measurements obtained between September 1998 and December 2010 along a transect in the GoM running from Portland, ME, to Yarmouth, NS. GNATS sampled a period of extremes in precipitation and river discharge (4 of the 8 wettest years of the last century occurred between 2005 and 2010). Coincident with increased precipitation, we observed the following shifts: (1) decreased salinity and density within the surface waters of the western GoM; (2) both reduced temperature and vertical temperature gradients in the upper 50 m; (3) increased colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) concentrations and particle scattering in the western GoM; (4) increased concentrations of nitrate and phosphate across all but the eastern GoM; (5) increased silicate, particularly in the western GoM, with a sharp increase in the ratio of silicate to dissolved inorganic nitrogen; (6) sharply decreased carbon fixation by phytoplankton; (7) moderately decreased chlorophyll, particulate organic carbon (POC) and particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) in the central GoM and (8) decreased POC- and PIC-specific growth rates. Gulf-wide anomaly analyses suggest that (1) the surface density changes were predominantly driven by temperature, (2) dissolved nutrients, as well as POC/PON, varied in Redfield ratios and (3) anomalies for salinity, density, CDOM, particle backscattering and silicate were significantly correlated with river discharge. Precipitation and river discharge appear to be playing a critical role in controlling the long-term productivity of the Gulf of Maine by supplying CDOM and detrital material, which ultimately competes with phytoplankton for light absorption.

Balch, William M.; Drapeau, D. T.; Bowler, B. C.; Huntington, Thomas G.

2012-01-01

51

Sphenoid sinus fungus ball.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this retrospective study is to present a large series of patients with sphenoid sinus fungus ball (SSFB) and describe clinical manifestations, diagnostic workup, surgical treatment, and eventual complications of this disease. We included patients operated on for this disease over a 14-year period. All patients benefited from mid-to-long-term follow-up. There were 28 patients (18 females, 10 males, mean age 64 years). Main symptoms were posterior rhinorrhea and headache. Less common symptoms were alteration of vision or ocular mobility and cacosmia. Preoperative diagnosis was based on nasal endoscopy and CT scanning. MRI was performed in case of suspicion of a tumor, an intraorbital or intracranial invasion. Treatment consisted in endoscopic transnasal or transethmoidal sphenoidotomy with removal of the fungus ball. Specimens were sent to pathology and mycology to confirm diagnosis. Postoperative complications consisted of two cases of epistaxis and two other cases of bacterial superinfection of the operated sphenoid cavity. No recurrence of the fungus ball was seen after a mean follow-up of 13 months. To conclude, SSFB is a relatively uncommon entity, usually due to Aspergillus infection. Although not invasive, if left untreated, it can lead to long-term serious complications. Preoperative nasal endoscopic examination and CT scan are the standard tools for diagnosis. Endoscopic sphenoidotomy with removal of the fungus ball is the current treatment because it has proven effective and has a low morbidity and recurrence rate.

Karkas A; Rtail R; Reyt E; Timi N; Righini CA

2013-03-01

52

Nail fungus treatment and composition  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Compositions and methods for treating or preventing fungal infections of the nail are provided. The topical composition includes the use of chlorine dioxide, chlorite salts, benzoyl peroxide, an alpha hydroxy acid, antifungal and antibiotic agents. Also provided is a heat-generating device for use in treating at least one nail infected with fungus and a toe sock device.

SWENHOLT KAREN C

53

NAIL FUNGUS TREATMENT AND COMPOSITION  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Compositions and methods for treating or preventing fungal infections of the nail are provided. The topical composition includes the use of chlorine dioxide, chlorite salts, benzoyl peroxide, an alpha hydroxy acid, antifungal and antibiotic agents. Also provided is a heat-generating device for use in treating at least one nail infected with fungus and a toe sock device.

SWENHOLT KAREN C

54

Method of treating nail fungus  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method of treating nail fungus is disclosed. The method comprises applying a therapeutic polyurea composition to an affected nail. Such nail composition is selected from a reaction solution, a stabilized reaction solution, a blocked reaction solution or a mixture of any of the foregoing solutions.

SAWYER KENNETH I

55

Tea fungus beverage and its preparing process  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to a tea fungus beverage and its preparation method. Said beverage is formed from black tea, rock candy, water, edible essence and tea fungus mother liquor. Its preparation method includes the following steps: mixing black tea, rock candy and water according to a certain ratio, boiling and cooling, then adding tea fungus mother liquor according to a certain ratio, making precipitation, filtering, adding edible essence or adding edible essence and edible alcohol, bottling, sealing and making fermentation so as to obtain the invented tea fungus beverage.

HONGJUN JIANG

56

DICARBOXYLIC ACID PRODUCTION IN A FILAMENTOUS FUNGUS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to a recombinant fungus comprising an enzyme which catalyses the conversion of malic acid to fumaric acid in the cytosol. The invention further relates to a process for the production of a dicarboxylic acid such as fumaric acid and succinic acid, wherein the recombinant fungus is used.

VERWAAL RENE; WU LIANG; DAMVELD ROBBERTUS ANTONIUS; SAGT CORNELIS MARIA JACOBUS

57

Production method of black fungus chicken cake  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a method for preparing an edible tree fungus-chicken cake. The method is realized by the following steps: 10g of edible tree fungus is weighed and minced for use 10g of green vegetable is weighed and minced for use. 30g of chicken breast is weighed, minced after tendon and skin thereof are removed, and is added with chopped fistular onion, chopped ginger and seasoning and fried for use 60g of wheat flour is weighed, added with the edible tree fungus and the minced chicken breast, and evenly mixed with water and the mixed raw materials are placed into a hot oiling boiling pot, fried to 90% cooked, and then sprinkled with the green vegetable to obtain the edible tree fungus-chicken cake. The method has the beneficial effects that: 1. the preparation process is simple, the edible tree fungus-chicken cake has rich nutrition, and the nutrients of the edible tree fungus, the green vegetable and the chicken are undamaged in the preparation course and 2. each ingredient has the advantages thereof, combination of all the ingredients generates rich and balanced nutrition and brings a special taste, therefore, the edible tree fungus-chicken cake is especially suitable for persons who have special requirements for taste.

YAN WANG

58

Edible fungus stick tying machine  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to an edible fungus stick tying machine which comprises a motor, a transmission case, a wheel disk, a travel switch, an adjustable connecting rod, a panel, a quadrant cam, a transitional connecting rod, an open-close device, a tying blade connecting rod, a tying blade, a U-shaped aluminum buckle, a press block, a aluminum buckle feeding slide rail, a drill drift, a molding mold, a control button, a contactor, a fungus stick support and a machine frame, wherein the motor is connected with the wheel disk through the transmission case the wheel disk is connected with the quadrant cam through the adjustable eccentric shaft and the adjustable connecting rod the quadrant cam is fixed on the panel through a bearing and a shaft and can rotate around the shaft in a specified region the quadrant cam is connected with the drill drift through the transitional connecting rod the drill drift is fed into the molding mold through the U-shaped aluminum buckle on the vertical slide rail fixed on the panel the tying blade connecting rod makes a contact movement with the end surface of the quadrant cam through a small bearing on the open-close device, so that the tying blade is opened and closed one end of the tying blade connecting rod is movably connected with the open-close device, and the other end of the tying blade connecting rod is movably connected with the tying blade and the open-close device is fixed on the panel through the small bearing and the shaft.

SHIHE CHEN

59

Effect of pesticides on adult rove beetle Atheta coriaria (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) survival in growing medium.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The rove beetle Atheta coriaria (Kraatz) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) is a natural enemy (biological control agent) commercially available for control of certain greenhouse insect pests, including fungus gnats, shore flies, and thrips. This study assessed the compatibility of pesticides (insecticides and fungicides) used in greenhouses with A. coriaria adults. Treatments were applied to 473-ml deli squat containers half-filled with a growing medium. We evaluated the effects of the pesticides when releases of A. coriaria adults were performed both before and after application of the designated pesticide solutions. All three of the neonicotinoid-based insecticides (clothianidin, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam) were directly harmful to A. coriaria adults with < or = 3.2 adults recovered (out of 20) among all three treatments across all experiments. In addition, the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos at the low (0.25 fl oz/100 gal) and high (0.50 fl oz/100 gal) label rates; the plant-derived essential oil product (Indoor Pharm) containing soybean and rosemary oil; and the insecticide/miticide chlorfenpyr were directly harmful to A. coriaria adults with recovery rates -8.6 (out of 20) among all the treatments. The fungicides (azoxystrobin, fosetyl-aluminum, and mefenoxam) were not directly toxic to A. coriaria adults, with < or = 17.7 adults recovered (out of 20) across all experiments. The insecticides (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, flonicamid, Metarhizium anisopliae strain52, and spinosad) and insect growth regulator azadirachtin were also not directly toxic to A. coriaria adults. Furthermore, many of these same treatments did not inhibit the ability of adult A. coriaria to consume fungus gnat (Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila) larvae in a feeding behavior experiment. Although the neonicotinoid-based insecticides were directly harmful to adult A. coriaria, when adults were released 48, 72, or 96 h after application, survival increased dramatically over time. This study has quantitatively demonstrated that certain pesticides (both insecticides and fungicides) are compatible with and can be used along with A. coriaria in systems that use this natural enemy to manage fungus gnat larvae.

Cloyd RA; Timmons NR; Goebel JM; Kemp KE

2009-10-01

60

Enraizamento de estacas de três espécies silvestres de Passiflora Cutting rooting of three wild Passiflora species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Em ambiente com nebulização controlada, estacas herbáceas com um par de folhas, contendo 2 ou 3 nós, foram testadas quanto ao enraizamento, utilizando-se de bandeja de poliestireno com célula de 95cm³ e saco plástico de 15x25x0,02cm com 1.730 cm³. Foram testadas estacas de Passiflora actinia, P. serrato-digitata e P. setacea. Observou-se que P. serrato-digitata apresentou 94,3% de estacas enraizadas com brotos e 2,4% de mortalidade; enquanto P. actinia e P. setacea apresentaram, respetivamente, 30,5% e 28,6% de estacas enraizadas com brotos e 56,8% e 60,7% de mortalidade. A alta mortalidade das estacas foi atribuída ao estado fenológico das matrizes de P. actinia e P. setacea e ao ataque de larvas de bradisia (Bradysia spp.) Estacas com dois e três nós não apresentaram diferenças significativas, e o recipiente saco plástico de 1.730 cm³ proporcionou melhor desenvolvimento das mudas.Steam cuttings of three wild Passiflora species where tested for rooting in a mist regulated greenhouse. Cuttings with two or three buds were used with two kinds of containers: polystyrene trays with 95 cm³ cells and perforated plastic bags of 15x25x0.02cm, with 1,730 cm³. Passiflora serrato-digitata was the best, with 94.3% of rooted cuttings with shoots e only 2.4% of death cuttings. P. actinia and P. setacea showed , respectivelly, 30.5% and 28.6% of rooted cuttings and 56.8% and 60.7%, of death cuttings. The high death were attribute to phenological phases of P. actinia and P. setacea or injury caused by fungus-gnat larvae (Bradysia spp.). Cuttings with two or three buds didn't show differences among them. Plastic bags proporcioned the best results, increasing rooted cuttings and plant development.

Marcelo Fideles Braga; Erivanda Carvalho dos Santos; Nilton Tadeu Vilela Junqueira; Alex Antonio Torres Cortes de Sousa; Fábio Gelape Faleiro; Leylanne Nogueira Rezende; Keize Pereira Junqueira

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Assembled house for planting edible fungus  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses an edible fungus planting house which can be assembled, and aims to provide an edible fungus planting house which has good ventilation, is beneficial to the growth of edible fungi, and is convenient to move. The edible fungus planting house which can be assembled comprises a frame (1) and a thin plate (3), wherein the thin plate (3) is fixed on the frame (1) to form five sides on a cube an upper row, an middle row and a lower row of ventilating windows (4) and a row of doors (5) which can be opened and closed are arranged on one long side of the thin plate (3), the same structure is arranged on the other long side of the thin plate (3), and a row of draught drums (2) are arranged on the top surface of the thin plate (3). The utility model is mainly used for planting the edible fungi.

ZUOSHAN XING; HONGZHONG LI; CHANGQING CHEN

62

Process for preparing edible medicinal fungus and feed from dregs  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention proposes the process of producing medicated edible fungus and feed with gleditschia horrida residue. The production process of medicated edible fungus with gleditschia horrida residue includes the steps of: regulating the pH value of gleditschia horrida residue before air drying mixing the gleditschia horrida residue with proper amount of edible fungus growth promoter, N, P, S and K elements essential for the edible fungus to grow and water to form the culture material and inoculating fungus seed and growing the medicated edible fungus. The feed producing process includes the same culture material producing steps as said before, the step of inoculating fungus seed to the culture material and the step of growing the fungus until the mycelium grows fully just before developing sporophore, with the culture material being used as feed directly.

KE YUZHI

63

STEROIDS FROM THE MARINE FUNGUS GEOTRICHUM SP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ergosterol 1, peroxyergosterol 2, ergosta-4,6,8(14), 22-tetraen-3-one 3 and 24-ethyl-cholesta-4-ene-3-one 4 were isolated from the cultures of a fungus Geotrichum sp. obtained from a marine sediment. It was established that no other sterols were present in the extract. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods

AURELIO SAN-MARTÍN; SILVIA OREJARENA; CLAUDIA GALLARDO; MARIO SILVA; JOSÉ BECERRA; RODRIGO REIN0S0; MARIA C CHAMY; KAREN VERGARA; JUANA ROVIROSA

2008-01-01

64

Ribonucleic acids in different tea fungus beverages  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In human nutrition, nucleic acids have to be balanced and limited up to 2 g/day because purines are degraded to urate, and excessive production of urate is a cause of gout which primarily affects adult males. Tea fungus beverage is a well known drink with high nutritional value and certain curative ...

Malbaša Radomir V.; Lon?ar Eva S.; Kolarov Ljiljana A.

65

Waste edible fungus chaff for breeding insects  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to waste edible fungus chaff for breeding insects in the eyes of ordinary people, the waste edible fungus chaff is waste after culturing mushroom one time, even if the chaff isuseful, the chaff is only scattered on the ground or is buried deeply for being used as fertilizers, and one part of the chaff is combusted in-situ, thereby causing pollution of air and water sourcesunder the guidance of agricultural specialists in Beijing academy of agricultural sciences, beneficial attempts are carried out, scientific data is finally mastered after repeated trial and practiceis carried out by engineering technical personnel compared with all indexes of insects which are cultured by fungus chaff feed and common feed respectively, the survival condition of the insects is improved obviously, in particular to crude protein which is increased about ten percent, and the technical data of amino acid and trace elements are increased obviously therefore, partial wheat bran is replaced by the waste edible fungus chaff for being used as insect feed ideally. The processing proposal adopts local processing or adopts that the chaff is transported to a base for processing, people pays attention to natural disasters such as rain, snow and wind in the processing and transporting processes, and the phenomenon of mildewing and going bad is prevented.

GUIFU LIU

66

Erythritol Production by a Yeastlike Fungus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A yeastlike fungus, probably belonging to the genus Torula, was isolated from fresh pollen and was shown to produce erythritol in yields of 35 to 40% of the sugar utilized. The ability to produce erythritol is an inherent characteristic of the isolate, but unfavorable fermentation conditions can lea...

Hajny, G. J.; Smith, J. H.; Garver, J. C.

67

Spread of Rare Fungus from Vancouver Island  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Cryptococcus gattii, a rare fungus normally found in the tropics, has infected people and animals on Vancouver Island, Canada. Dr. David Warnock, Director, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases, CDC, discusses public health concerns about further spread of this organism.  Created: 12/20/2006 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 12/29/2006.

2006-12-20

68

Death from Fungus in the Soil  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Dr. Shira Shafir, Assistant Professor of Epidemiology at the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, discusses her study about fungus found in soil.  Created: 12/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/18/2012.

2012-12-17

69

STEROIDS FROM THE MARINE FUNGUS GEOTRICHUM SP  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Ergosterol 1, peroxyergosterol 2, ergosta-4,6,8(14), 22-tetraen-3-one 3 and 24-ethyl-cholesta-4-ene-3-one 4 were isolated from the cultures of a fungus Geotrichum sp. obtained from a marine sediment. It was established that no other sterols were present in the extract. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods

SAN-MARTÍN, AURELIO; OREJARENA, SILVIA; GALLARDO, CLAUDIA; SILVA, MARIO; BECERRA, JOSÉ; REIN0S0, RODRIGO; CHAMY, MARIA C; VERGARA, KAREN; ROVIROSA, JUANA

2008-03-01

70

Edible fungus solid spawn rapid inoculation device  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An edible fungus solid spawn rapid inoculation device comprises a cylindrical machine body as a main body, with a charging hole (2) disposed in the upside of the front end of the machine body and discharging holes (7) disposed in the rear end of the machine body. The edible fungus solid spawn rapid inoculation device is characterized in that spiral conveyors (4) driven by a power shaft (1) and a reamer (3) below the charging hole are disposed inside the machine body distribution shields (6) are disposed near the rear end of the machine body, are provided with the plurality of discharging holes (7), and are connected with a plurality of flexible pipes the flexible spiral conveyors are disposed in the flexible pipes and outer ends of the flexible pipes are connected with a handle switch. The edible fungus solid spawn rapid inoculation device is adaptive to conventional productive technology, equipment and operation level, and, as an oiling machine, enables inoculation of a plurality of inoculation bags to be performed simultaneously with a plurality of inoculation guns, with a worker employing an operation mode similar to the operation of refueling vehicles with an oil gun, thereby improving production efficiency greatly.

JING LIU; LEI CAI; XUEJUN ZHU; JINGBO FAN

71

Metabolites From The Marine Fungus Cladosporium Cladosporioides  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El ácido p-metilbenzoico y el peroxiergosterol fueron aislados e identificados por métodos espectroscópicos en el cultivo del hongo Cladosporium cladosporioides, obtenido de una esponja marina. En la medida de nuestro conocimiento este es el primer informe del aislamiento como producto natural del ácido p-metilbenzoico. Abstract in english p-Methylbenzoic acid and peroxyergosterol were isolated and identified by spectroscopic methods from cultures of the fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides isolated from a marine sponge. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that p-methylbenzoic acid had been isolated as a natural product.

San-Martín, A.; Painemal, K.; Díaz, Y.; Martínez, C.; Rovirosa, J.

2005-12-01

72

ERYTHRITOL PRODUCTION BY A YEASTLIKE FUNGUS.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A yeastlike fungus, probably belonging to the genus Torula, was isolated from fresh pollen and was shown to produce erythritol in yields of 35 to 40% of the sugar utilized. The ability to produce erythritol is an inherent characteristic of the isolate, but unfavorable fermentation conditions can lead to the production of glycerol at the expense of erythritol. By the use of a synthetic medium, it was shown that the concentrations of both nitrogen and phosphorous in the medium must be closely controlled to obtain satisfactory erythritol yields.

HAJNY GJ; SMITH JH; GARVER JC

1964-05-01

73

[Invasive aspergillosis with an intrapulmonary fungus ball in childhood  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The clinical and radiological findings of invasive aspergillosis in two children with leukemia are reported. The diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis is still a problem. The fungus is only rarely demonstrated by mycological or serological methods. Therefore the radiological demonstration of an intrapulmonary "fungus ball" in the compromised host is of clinical significance, because it is characteristic of invasive aspergillosis.

Hausdorf G; Erttmann R

1983-03-01

74

[Physiologically active substances from the fungus Coriolus hirsutus (Fr.) Quel  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The fungus Coriolus hirsutus is able to synthesize physiologically active compounds with a high antioxidant activity. The level of the antioxidant activity is mainly determined by phenolic constituents and makes up 90-95% of ionol activity. The experiments carried out in test animals have shown hypolipidemic and hypocholesterolemic effects of the fungus alcohol extract.

Babitskaia VG; Shcherba VV; Oleshko VS; Osadchaia OV

1994-07-01

75

Termite-egg mimicry by a sclerotium-forming fungus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mimicry has evolved in a wide range of organisms and encompasses diverse tactics for defence, foraging, pollination and social parasitism. Here, I report an extraordinary case of egg mimicry by a fungus, whereby the fungus gains competitor-free habitat in termite nests. Brown fungal balls, called ‘t...

Matsuura, Kenji

76

Ribonucleic acids in different tea fungus beverages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In human nutrition, nucleic acids have to be balanced and limited up to 2 g/day because purines are degraded to urate, and excessive production of urate is a cause of gout which primarily affects adult males. Tea fungus beverage is a well known drink with high nutritional value and certain curative effects. Its benefits have been proved in a number of studies but it is still necessary to examine some potential harmful effects of this beverage. The aim of this paper was to investigate content of ribonucleic acids (RNA) produced during tea fungus fermentation on a usual substrate sweetened black tea, and on Jerusalem artichoke tubers (J.A.T) extract using method by Munro and Fleck (1966). pH, ribonucleic acids and also the production of proteins that affect purity of nucleic acids preparations were monitored. A higher value of RNA has been noticed in J.A.T. beverage (0.57 mg/ml) and with observation of usual daily dose of the beverage it is completely safe and useful one.

Malbaša Radomir V.; Lon?ar Eva S.; Kolarov Ljiljana A.

2003-01-01

77

Sterol biosynthesis by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ri-T-DNA-transformed carrot roots were used for investigating sterol metabolism by the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus intraradices under three distinct experimental conditions: (i) a symbiotic stage (fungus still attached to the host roots); (ii) a detached stage (fungus physically separated from the roots); and (iii) a germinating stage (germinating spores). In all three stages, G. intraradices was found to contain a mixture of 24-alkylated sterols, with 24-methyl and 24-ethyl cholesterol as the main compounds, but no ergosterol, the predominant sterol in most fungi. Feeding experiments with [1-14C]sodium acetate were performed to check the ability of the fungus to synthesize sterols. Whatever the experimental conditions, G. intraradices was able to actively take up exogenous acetate and to incorporate it into sterols and their precursors. Our data provide first evidence for de novo sterol synthesis by an AM fungus.

Fontaine J; Grandmougin-Ferjani A; Hartmann MA; Sancholle M

2001-12-01

78

Edible fungus cultivation technology using bean dreg liquid  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides a method for liquidly culturing edible fungus mycelia using soybean residue as main material. The different edible fungus mycelia are liquidly cultured by adding different ratio of sucrose or glucose, different ratio of magnesium salt, phosphate, calcium salt and ferric salt into the main materials of soybean residue immersion liquid and soybean residue. The method is suitable for liquidly culturing most edible funguses and has advantages of big density of mycelial pellet, easy separation, high biological conversion rate, low material cost, simple technology, easy industrialization. The produced edible fungus mycelia can be used in producing healthy food and drug such as edible healthy soybean powder, edible fungus polysaccharide preparation, edible healthy drink and the like.

YUPING DING; YONGXUN ZHAO; GUIYUN JING; DAMING YONG; JIAN SHEN

79

SYSTEMIC INFECTION AND RELATED FUNGUS: AN OVERVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A fungus is a member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds (British English: moulds), as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which are separate from plants, animals, and bacteria. One major difference is that fungal cells have cell walls that contain chitin, unlike the cell walls of plants, which contain cellulose. Many fungi play a crucial role in decomposition (breaking things down) and returning nutrients to the soil. They are also used in medicine, an example is the antibiotic penicillin, as well as in industry and food preparation. In the present time the microbes are to be seen as disease causing organisms harming the mankind. The harm done by this community cannot be taken lightly as they are also useful in many ways. The above article is an effort to bring out the various fungal issued related to human.

Mishra Aditya Kumar; Saha Rajsekhar

2011-01-01

80

Osmoprotectant particles for enhancing fungus growth  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An osmoprotectant particle for use in enhancing fungus growth and particularly for use with edible mushrooms. The osmoprotectant particle includes a carrier particle (12), either a protein or a neutral material and a plurality of osmoprotectant microdroplets (14) containing a water soluble phosphoglyceride (such as hydroxy lecithin) and betain or choline which are attached to a plurality of recesses (16) formed about the carrier particle. Denaturation of the protein and/or control of a surface-to-volume ratio restricts access to the microdroplets such that only mushroom mycelia occuring in the later flushes will be able to utilise the phospholipid droplets. A method is provided for producing the osmoprotectant particles utilising either the protein carrier particle or the neutral carrier particle.

HOLTZ R BARRY

 
 
 
 
81

Is the Fungus Magnaporthe Losing DNA Methylation?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The long terminal repeat retrotransposon, Magnaporthe gypsy-like element (MAGGY), has been shown to be targeted for cytosine methylation in a subset of Magnaporthe oryzae field isolates. Analysis of the F1 progeny from a genetic cross between methylation-proficient (Br48) and methylation-deficient (GFSI1-7-2) isolates revealed that methylation of the MAGGY element was governed by a single dominant gene. Positional cloning followed by gene disruption and complementation experiments revealed that the responsible gene was the DNA methyltransferase, MoDMT1, an orthologue of Neurospora crassa Dim-2. A survey of MAGGY methylation in 60 Magnaporthe field isolates revealed that 42 isolates from rice, common millet, wheat, finger millet and buffelgrass were methylation-proficient while 18 isolates from foxtail millet, Green bristlegrass, Japanese panicgrass, Torpedo grass, Guinea grass and Crabgrass were methylation-deficient. Phenotypic analyses showed that MoDMT1 plays no major role in development, and pathogenicity of the fungus. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the average copy number of genomic MAGGY elements was not significantly different between methylation-deficient and -proficient field isolates even though the levels of MAGGY transcript were generally higher in the former group. MoDMT1 gene sequences in the methylation-deficient isolates suggested that at least three independent mutations were responsible for the loss of MoDMT1 function. Overall, our data suggest that MoDMT1 is not essential for the natural life cycle of the fungus, and raise the possibility that the genus Magnaporthe may be losing the mechanism of DNA methylation on the evolutionary time scale.

Ikeda KI; Vu BV; Kadotani N; Tanaka M; Murata T; Shiina K; Chuma I; Tosa Y; Nakayashiki H

2013-08-01

82

VECTOR CONSTRUCTION FOR TRANSFORMATION OF BASIDIOMYCETE FUNGUS, POLYPORUS BRUMALIS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A vector for transforming Polyporus brumalis containing laccase gene which is derived from the Polyporus brumalis is provided to have transformant of white-rotting fungus and produce fungus having enhanced lignin lysis function. A recombination vector for transforming a Polyporus brumalis comprises a liccase gene (sequence No. 9 (SEQ ID NO:9)). The recombination vector further comprises PgpdA promoter (sequence No. 5). The recombinant vector comprises a sequence of the sequence number 10. The recombination vector comprises GFP gene (sequence number 13). The laccase gene is over-expressed by having transformant of white-rotting fungus having enhanced lignin lysis function.

KIM MYUNG KIL; RYU SUN HWA

83

One and only toe nail/finger nail fungus killer  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This new art is medicine that kills (cures) thick ugly toe/finger nail fungus, (or any kind of nail fungus) and the major difference with this medicine, is that this medicine is applied to the external body using a combination of sodium monofluorophosphate, sodium fluoride, and a cream/gum base. After this medicine is applied, the toe/finger nail is covered with a plastic/rubber "toe/finger housing" for 24 hours a day, and any type of nail fungus will be dead in 6 to 10 days. This "toe/finger housing" also works with other medicine.

MILLER BRETT KENNETH

84

Biodegradation of Pentachlorophenol by the White Rot Fungus 'Phanerochaete chrysosporium'.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extensive biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance and mineralization of (14)C PCP in nutrient nitrogen-limited culture.Mass balance analyses demonstrated the forma...

G. J. Mileski J. A. Bumpus M. A. Jurek S. D. Aust

1988-01-01

85

Contributions to the study of Pseudopeziza trifolii (Bernh.) Fuck. fungus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper communicates the results of the laboratory experiments concerning the behaviour of the Pseudopeziza trifolii (Bernh.) Fuck. fungus that produces the clover brown leaf spot, in different culture mediums. The mycelium of the fungus develops at its best on the peptone-glucose-agar medium. The appearance of pycnides of Sporonema phacidioides Desm. type in vitro, has been reported for the fourth time in Romania especially developing on the potatoe-dextrosis-agar and plum-agar mediums.

Olga PALL; Ioan BOBES; Despina MUSAT

1966-01-01

86

Topical solution and method for the treatment of nail fungus  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A composition and method for the treatment of nail fungus includes a first composition, including an ethyl ether component, and a second composition, including an iodine component, which when combined, form a highly penetrating anti-fungal solution. An infected nail is placed in the solution for from about 5 seconds to about 1 minute and then removed. Generally, one such treatment is sufficient to remove nail fungus from an infected nail, however, treatments may be repeated when necessary.

MONAHAN ELMER P

87

The biochemical basis of the fungus-attine ant symbiosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The natural history of the fungus-growing ants provides a spectacular example of a symbiotic association of two very different types of organisms. An anthropomorphic description is difficult to resist. The ants are efficient and industrious farmers. Their single crop is a fungus, grown on a substrate of leaves in carefully fertilized, welltended gardens. Virtually every facet of the ants' behavior and life cycle has been shaped by their association with the fungus they culture. A characteristic feature of the ants' gardening technique is the application of their fecal material to the garden and to substrate being prepared for incorporation into the garden. We have established the biochemical significance of this behavior. The fecal material contains proteolytic enzymes which compensate for a deficiency of such enzymes in the fungus. In addition, the nitrogenous components in the fecal material facilitate the initial growth of the fungus. In biochemical terms, then, one can say that the ants contribute their enzymatic apparatus to degrade protein and the fungus contributes its enzymatic apparatus to degrade cellulose. As in the case of so many other natural symbiotic and parasitic associations, the basis is an integration of complementary metabolic capabilities and deficiencies.

Martin MM

1970-07-01

88

Biological control of Ascaris suum eggs by Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ascaris suum is a gastrointestinal nematode parasite of swines. The aim of this study was to observe Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus on biological control of A. suum eggs after fungus passage through swines gastrointestinal tract. Eighteen pigs, previously dewormed, were randomly divided into three groups: group 1, treated with the fungus isolate VC4; group 2, treated with the fungus isolate VC1 and group 3 did not receive fungus (control). In the treated groups, each animal received a 9 g single dose of mycelium mass containing P. chlamydosporia (VC1 or VC4). Thereafter, animal fecal samples were collected at the following intervals: 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h after treatment beginning and these were poured in Petri dishes containing 2% water-agar culture medium. Then, 1,000 A. suum eggs were poured into each dish and kept in an incubator at 26 °C and in the dark for 30 days. After this period, approximately 100 eggs were removed from each Petri dish and morphologically analyzed under light microscopy following the ovicidal activity parameters. The higher percentage observed for isolated VC4 eggs destruction was 57.5% (36 h) after fungus administration and for isolate VC1 this percentage was 45.8% (24 h and 72 h) (p > 0.01). P. chlamydosporia remained viable after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of swines, maintaining its ability of destroying A. suum eggs.

Ferreira SR; de Araújo JV; Braga FR; Araujo JM; Frassy LN; Ferreira AS

2011-12-01

89

Biological control of Ascaris suum eggs by Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ascaris suum is a gastrointestinal nematode parasite of swines. The aim of this study was to observe Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus on biological control of A. suum eggs after fungus passage through swines gastrointestinal tract. Eighteen pigs, previously dewormed, were randomly divided into three groups: group 1, treated with the fungus isolate VC4; group 2, treated with the fungus isolate VC1 and group 3 did not receive fungus (control). In the treated groups, each animal received a 9 g single dose of mycelium mass containing P. chlamydosporia (VC1 or VC4). Thereafter, animal fecal samples were collected at the following intervals: 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h after treatment beginning and these were poured in Petri dishes containing 2% water-agar culture medium. Then, 1,000 A. suum eggs were poured into each dish and kept in an incubator at 26 °C and in the dark for 30 days. After this period, approximately 100 eggs were removed from each Petri dish and morphologically analyzed under light microscopy following the ovicidal activity parameters. The higher percentage observed for isolated VC4 eggs destruction was 57.5% (36 h) after fungus administration and for isolate VC1 this percentage was 45.8% (24 h and 72 h) (p > 0.01). P. chlamydosporia remained viable after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of swines, maintaining its ability of destroying A. suum eggs. PMID:21796329

Ferreira, Sebastião Rodrigo; de Araújo, Jackson Victor; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Frassy, Luiza Neme; Ferreira, Aloízio Soares

2011-07-28

90

Production method of mulberry twig bamboo fungus  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a production method of mulberry twig bamboo fungus, comprising the following steps: collecting provenance and strains for purifying and culturing preparing planted raw material selecting field excavation furrow spreading, sowing, managing in the hyphae period, and managing in the mature period. The production method is characterized in that the planted raw material is prepared from the following components in parts by weight: 80 parts of dry mulberry twig, 10-15 parts of dry corn cob and 5-10 parts of dry bamboo the raw material with tissue cells which are dead due to drying is cut and bound into small section of 3-10 cm, and the corn cob are cut into 3-5 cm. The above raw materials are evenly mixed and are performed with fermentation treatment. The invention fully utilizes locally abundant mulberry twig resources to replace relative few bamboo resources so as to avoid the defects of smashing raw materials and adding chemical materials, the cylinder structure of the mulberry twig is favourable for ventilating, and various nutrient elements contained in the mulberry twig are favourable for the health of people.

CHENG XIANG

91

Malaria mosquitoes attracted by fatal fungus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Insect-killing fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are being evaluated as possible active ingredients for use in novel biopesticides against mosquito vectors that transmit malaria. Fungal pathogens infect through contact and so applications of spores to surfaces such as walls, nets, or other resting sites provide possible routes to infect mosquitoes in and around domestic dwellings. However, some insects can detect and actively avoid fungal spores to reduce infection risk. If true for mosquitoes, such behavior could render the biopesticide approach ineffective. Here we find that the spores of B. bassiana are highly attractive to females of Anopheles stephensi, a major anopheline mosquito vector of human malaria in Asia. We further find that An. stephensi females are preferentially attracted to dead and dying caterpillars infected with B. bassiana, landing on them and subsequently becoming infected with the fungus. Females are also preferentially attracted to cloth sprayed with oil-formulated B. bassiana spores, with 95% of the attracted females becoming infected after a one-minute visit on the cloth. This is the first report of an insect being attracted to a lethal fungal pathogen. The exact mechanisms involved in this behavior remain unclear. Nonetheless, our results indicate that biopesticidal formulations comprising B. bassiana spores will be conducive to attraction and on-source visitation by malaria vectors.

George J; Jenkins NE; Blanford S; Thomas MB; Baker TC

2013-01-01

92

Allergens of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Beauveria bassiana is an important entomopathogenic fungus currently under development as a bio-control agent for a variety of insect pests. Although reported to be non-toxic to vertebrates, the potential allergenicity of Beauveria species has not been widely studied. Methods IgE-reactivity studies were performed using sera from patients displaying mould hypersensitivity by immunoblot and immunoblot inhibition. Skin reactivity to B. bassiana extracts was measured using intradermal skin testing. Results Immunoblots of fungal extracts with pooled as well as individual sera showed a distribution of IgE reactive proteins present in B. bassiana crude extracts. Proteinase K digestion of extracts resulted in loss of IgE reactive epitopes, whereas EndoH and PNGaseF (glycosidase) treatments resulted in minor changes in IgE reactive banding patterns as determined by Western blots. Immunoblot inhibitions experiments showed complete loss of IgE-binding using self protein, and partial inhibition using extracts from common allergenic fungi including; Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium herbarum, Candida albicans, Epicoccum purpurascens, and Penicillium notatum. Several proteins including a strongly reactive band with an approximate molecular mass of 35 kDa was uninhibited by any of the tested extracts, and may represent B. bassiana specific allergens. Intradermal skin testing confirmed the in vitro results, demonstrating allergenic reactions in a number of individuals, including those who have had occupational exposure to B. bassiana. Conclusions Beauveria bassiana possesses numerous IgE reactive proteins, some of which are cross-reactive among allergens from other fungi. A strongly reactive potential B. bassiana specific allergen (35 kDa) was identified. Intradermal skin testing confirmed the allergenic potential of B. bassiana.

Westwood Greg S; Huang Shih-Wen; Keyhani Nemat O

2005-01-01

93

Edible fungus tumor health capsule and preparation method thereof  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides an edible fungus tumor health food and a preparation method thereof. The edible fungus tumor health food is prepared from 35 to 45 percent of glossy ganoderma powder, 35 to 45 percent of coriolus versicolor powder, 10 percent of agaricus blazei murrill powder, and 10 to 25 percent of cordyceps powder into a capsule series food. The preparation method comprises the following steps of: carrying out microwave sterilization on selected dry carpophores sterilizing harmful microbes and ovum in mushrooms discharging water of the mushrooms, and then drying the mushrooms to make the water content of the mushrooms below 10 percent and then crushing the mushrooms, and evenly mixing to prepare the health food. The invention changes a conventional edible fungus cooking method, reduces the loss of the nutrient content of the edible fungus, has simple production process, and provides the edible fungus health food which integrates medicinal effects of glossy ganoderma, coriolus versicolor, agaricus blazei murrill and cordyceps and has the advantages of convenient carrying and eating.

XINGLI WANG

94

Concomitant inverted papilloma and fungus ball in unilateral maxillary sinus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PROBLEM: The concomitant appearance of an inverted papilloma and a fungus ball in unilateral maxillary sinus is rare. These disease entities may be difficult to distinguish before surgery. METHODOLOGY: A male patient presented with the characteristic symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis. A preoperative sinus computed tomography scan revealed unilateral sinus opacification, hyperdense calcified spots, and bony erosion of the medial maxillary sinus wall. RESULTS: During the operation, a cheesy, clay-like fungus ball was removed. In addition, a papillary appearance of the sinus mucosa led to the suspicion of inverted papilloma behind the fungus ball and nasal polyps. The histopathology showed an inverted papilloma concomitant with a fungal ball and some inflammatory polyps. CONCLUSION: In addition to preoperative imaging, one should be aware of the potential etiology; careful intraoperative reevaluation is imperative for clinicians to avoid misdiagnosis and to provide adequate management of the underlying disease.

Hsin LJ; Yang SW

2013-01-01

95

Bioremediation using white rot fungus; Hakushoku fushokukin wo mochiita baioremedeieshon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years, environmental pollution caused by organic chloride compounds and endocrine disturbing substances (environmental hormones) has spread all over the country. Among various researches in respect to environmental preservation technology, bioremediation using white rot fungus (environment remedying technology using microorganism) is paid attention. Coriolus versicolor, which is a typical white rot fungus, produces oxidase of laccase, manganese peroxide or the like. It is confirmed by the examination results of the degradation of phenols using these enzymes that alkyl phenols and bisphenol A which is environmental hormone are degraded by laccase. Further, the degradation of dioxins is an example using Phanerochaete sp. Additional, the applications of white rot fungus to various aspects such as the degradation of petroleum and dyes are investigated and good results are obtained. (NEDO)

Sakurai, Akihiko [Fukui University, Fukui (Japan)

1999-02-05

96

Isolation and identification of iron ore-solubilising fungus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Potential mineral-solubilising fungi were successfully isolated from the surfaces of iron ore minerals. Four isolates were obtained and identified by molecular and phylogenetic methods as close relatives of three different genera, namely Penicillium (for isolate FO), Alternaria (for isolates SFC2 and KFC1) and Epicoccum (for isolate SFC2B). The use of tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) in phosphate-solubilising experiments confirmed isolate FO as the only phosphate solubili (more) ser among the isolated fungi. The bioleaching capabilities of both the fungus and its spent liquid medium were tested and compared using two types of iron ore materials, conglomerate and shale, from the Sishen Iron Ore Mine as sources of potassium (K) and phosphorus (P). The spent liquid medium removed more K (a maximum of 32.94% removal, from conglomerate), than the fungus (a maximum of 21.36% removal, from shale). However, the fungus removed more P (a maximum of 58.33% removal, from conglomerate) than the spent liquid medium (a maximum of 29.25% removal, from conglomerate). The results also indicated a potential relationship between the removal of K or P and the production of organic acids by the fungus. A high production of gluconic acid could be related to the ability of the fungus to reduce K and P. Acetic, citric and maleic acids were also produced by the fungus, but in lower quantities. In addition, particle size and iron ore type were also shown to have significant effects on the removal of potassium and phosphorus from the iron ore minerals. We therefore conclude that the spent liquid medium from the fungal isolate FO can potentially be used for biobeneficiation of iron ore minerals.

Adeleke, Rasheed; Cloete, Eugene; Khasa, Damase

2010-10-01

97

Wheat-bran dietary fiber composite functional fungus powder product and preparation process thereof  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides a wheat-bran dietary fiber composite functional fungus powder product and a preparation process thereof. The wheat-bran dietary fiber composite functional fungus powder product with function of wheat-bran dietary fiber and nutrition and immunity functions of edible fungus polysaccharide is prepared by taking wheat bran as a matrix and adopting solid ferment of edible-medicinal fungus Agaricus blazei suspension in specific conditions. The preparation process uses the wheat bran as the matrix and adopts the solid ferment of the edible-medicinal fungus Agaricus blazei suspension in specific conditions to promote extracellular enzymolysis and nutrition metabolism of fungus Agaricus blazei, digests starch polysaccharide of the wheat bran, degrades macromolecular araboxylan thereof and converts metabolites for producing edible fungus polysaccharides, fungus protein and the like and the method is simple, has strong operability, is suitable for large-scale production, and has remarkable economic benefit.

HENGSHENG SHEN; JUNCHEN CHEN; BAOSHA TANG; YIBIN LI

98

Oxidation of persistent environmental pollutants by a white rot fungus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium degraded DDT (1,1,-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane), 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,4,5,2',-4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, lindane (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocylohexane), and benzo(a)pyrene to carbon dioxide. Model studies, based on the use of DDT, suggest that the ability of Phanerochaete chrysosporium to metabolize these compounds is dependent on the extracellular lignin-degrading enzyme system of this fungus.

Bumpus, J.A.; Tien, M.; Wright, D.; Aust, S.D.

1985-06-21

99

Oxidation of persistent environmental pollutants by a white rot fungus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium degraded DDT (1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane), 3,4,3'4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,4,5,2',-4'5'-hexachlorobiphenyl 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, lindane (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane), and benzo(a)pyrene to carbon dioxide. Model studies, based on the use of DDT, suggest that the ability of Phanerochaete chrysosporium to metabolize these compounds is dependent on the extracellular lignin-degrading enzyme system of this fungus.

Bumpus, J.A.; Tien, M.; Wright, D.; Aust, S.D.

1985-01-01

100

Liquid Media for Chlamydospore Production of the Fungus Pochonia Chlamydsporia  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This invention refers to the creation of liquid media to grow the fungus Pechonica chlamydosporia designed to produce conidia of the aleuriospore type, also denominated chlamydospores. These media using easily carried out fermentation processes, achieved productions over 10<6 >chlamydospores/ml. The chlamydospores can then be easily extracted using processes of filtration and separation of solid particles in liquid suspensions. These chlamydospores can be mass collected and utilized to formulate products to use in biological control of Meloidogyne spp. by the nemathophagous fungus P. chlranaydosporia, either in small scale trials or at commercial scale.

ATUNES FRANCO CARLOS MANUEL

 
 
 
 
101

Liquid media for chlamydospore production of the fungus pochonia chlamydsporia  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This invention refers to the creation of liquid media to grow the fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia designed to produce conidia of the aleuriospore type, also denominated chlamydospores. These media using easily carried out fermentation processes, achieved productions over 10<6> chlamydospores/ml. The chlamydospores can then be easily extracted using processes of filtration and separation of solid particles in liquid suspensions. These chlamydospores can be mass collected and utilized to formulate products to use in biological control of Meloidogyne spp. by the nemathophagous fungus P. chlamydosporia, either in small scale trials or at commercial scale.

MANUEL ATUNES FRANCO CARLOS

102

Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae), wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow) and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i) 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii) four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. Results We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-?-1,3(4)-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-?-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Conclusion Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily accessible hemicellulose components of the ray-parenchyma cells in the wood xylem. Furthermore, the detection of xylanolytic enzymes exclusively in larvae (which feed on fungus colonized wood) and not in adults (which feed only on fungi) indicates that only larvae (pre-) digest plant cell wall structures. This implies that in X. saxesenii and likely also in many other ambrosia beetles, adults and larvae do not compete for the same food within their nests - in contrast, larvae increase colony fitness by facilitating enzymatic wood degradation and fungus cultivation.

De Fine Licht Henrik H; Biedermann Peter H W

2012-01-01

103

Oxidation of persistent environmental pollutants by a white rot fungus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium degraded DDT [1,1,-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane], 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,4,5,2',-4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, lindane (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocylohexane), and benzo[a]pyrene to carbon dioxide. Model studies, based on the use of DDT, suggest that the ability of Phanerochaete chrysosporium to metabolize these compounds is dependent on the extracellular lignin-degrading enzyme system of this fungus.

Bumpus JA; Tien M; Wright D; Aust SD

1985-06-01

104

Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: INTRODUCTION: In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae), wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow) and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i) 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii) four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. RESULTS: We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-?-1,3(4)-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-?-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. CONCLUSION: Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily accessible hemicellulose components of the ray-parenchyma cells in the wood xylem. Furthermore, the detection of xylanolytic enzymes exclusively in larvae (which feed on fungus colonized wood) and not in adults (which feed only on fungi) indicates that only larvae (pre-) digest plant cell wall structures. This implies that in X. saxesenii and likely also in many other ambrosia beetles, adults and larvae do not compete for the same food within their nests - in contrast, larvae increase colony fitness by facilitating enzymatic wood degradation and fungus cultivation.

De Fine Licht HH; Biedermann PH

2012-01-01

105

[Marine fungus Stilbella aciculosa as a potential producer of prostaglandins].  

Science.gov (United States)

The amount and composition of fatty acids in the fungus Stilbella aciculosa associated with the marine macroorganism Apostichopus japonica (trepang) were determined by gas-liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In the culture liquid of S. aciculosa, prostaglandins (PG) of groups E and F were revealed by UV spectroscopy. This finding was confirmed by the presence of direct precursors of PG, polyunsaturated eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, in the culture liquid. The biomass of this fungus contained PG of group B. PMID:18825978

Kafanova, T V; Busarova, N G; Khudiakova, Iu V; Isa?, S V

106

Set depth nail notcher and method for treating nail fungus  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A set depth nail notcher for cutting a notch of predetermined depth in a nail plate comprising a handle having a smooth flat surface, a longitudinal cutting edge protruding from the smooth flat surface to a height equal to the predetermined depth of the notch. A method for treating nail, especially toenail, fungus comprising cutting a notch to a predetermined depth in a nail or a toe of finger infected with fungus and applying a topical anti-fungal medication to the toe or finger through the notch.

FELDMAN LEONARD

107

SET DEPTH NAIL NOTCHER AND METHOD FOR TREATING NAIL FUNGUS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This invention is a depth nail notch (408) for cutting a notch of predetermined depth in a nail plate comprising a handle (415) having a smooth flat surface (412), a longitudinal cutting edge (420) protruding from the smooth flat surface (412) to a height equal to the predetermined depth of the notch. A method for treating nail, especially toenail fungus comprising cutting a notch to a predetermined depth in a fingernail or a toenail infected with fungus, and applying a topical anti-fungal medication to the toe or finger through the notch.

FELDMAN Leonard

108

Golden fungus yoghourt with nutrition health-care functions and preparation method thereof  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses golden fungus yoghurt with functions of nourishment and heath care, and a preparation method thereof. The golden fungus yoghurt is mainly prepared by the following steps: a golden fungus entity extracting solution or a golden fungus mycelium extracting solution is added with fresh milk, milk powder, sucrose, fruit juice and water, is mixed, evenly stirred and heated to the temperature between 50 and 60 DEG C and is canned, sterilized, inoculated with lactobacillus and fermented to obtain the golden fungus yoghurt. The golden fungus yoghurt contains golden fungus polysaccharides, various proteins, eight amino acids necessary to human body, various vitamins, organic selenium, organic germanium and various compositions, has the nutrition of golden fungus and the taste of sweetness, sourness, fineness and smoothness of the yoghurt, has the health-care functions of moistening lung, replenishing blood, diminish inflammation, detoxicating, removing stasis, generating new tissues, nourishing and refreshing brain, strengthening body resistance, consolidating constitution, strengthening heart, building body, resisting aging, inflammation, radiation, cancer and so on and compared with the prior yoghurt, the golden fungus yoghurt has richer nutrition and better mouthfeel. If people often eat the golden fungus yoghurt, the golden fungus yoghurt can promote the secretion of digestive juice, increase gastric acid, strengthen the digestion and absorption capacity of human body, promote appetite and strengthen human immunity, so that the golden fungus yoghurt is a natural nutritious health-care product integrating nutrition, health care and medicine edibility together.

CHANGJIN DONG; CONG DONG

109

p-Terphenyls from fungus Paxillus curtisii chelate irons: a proposed role of p-terphenyls in fungus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Diverse p-terphenyl compounds, named curtisians, have been isolated from the fungus Paxillus curtisii, and degradation of wood by this fungus is thought to be progressed by iron chelation of p-terphenyl curtisians. In this study, the iron chelation ability of p-terphenyls has been proved by chrome azurol S (CAS) assay, reducing power, and UV-visible spectroscopic analyses. The catechol moiety of p-terphenyl is an essential factor for the potent iron chelation ability, and thus deacylated curtisian with a tetrahydroxyl moiety in the central ring of p-terphenyl is more effective than acylated curtisians.

Lee IK; Ki DW; Kim SE; Lee MS; Song JG; Yun BS

2013-05-01

110

p-Terphenyls from fungus Paxillus curtisii chelate irons: a proposed role of p-terphenyls in fungus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diverse p-terphenyl compounds, named curtisians, have been isolated from the fungus Paxillus curtisii, and degradation of wood by this fungus is thought to be progressed by iron chelation of p-terphenyl curtisians. In this study, the iron chelation ability of p-terphenyls has been proved by chrome azurol S (CAS) assay, reducing power, and UV-visible spectroscopic analyses. The catechol moiety of p-terphenyl is an essential factor for the potent iron chelation ability, and thus deacylated curtisian with a tetrahydroxyl moiety in the central ring of p-terphenyl is more effective than acylated curtisians. PMID:23648854

Lee, In-Kyoung; Ki, Dae-Won; Kim, Seong-Eun; Lee, Myeong-Seok; Song, Ja-Gyeong; Yun, Bong-Sik

2013-05-01

111

Será fungo?/ Is it a fungus?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Estima-se que as infecções fúngicas superficiais afectem 20 a 25% da população mundial e a sua incidência continua a aumentar. A maioria é causada por dermatófitos, que são fungos que necessitam de queratina para crescer. As alterações produzidas por estes fungos designam-se de dermatofitoses, epidermofitias ou tinhas. Em Medicina Geral e Familiar é habitual o clínico deparar-se com questões como: «Dr., apareceram-me umas manchas na pele, será um fungo?». (more) Algumas vezes, particularmente em doentes com risco especial como os polimedicados, os diabéticos, os imunodeprimidos ou as crianças, torna-se difícil saber quando é adequado instituir terapêutica oral. O presente artigo tem como objectivo efectuar uma breve revisão das dermatofitoses, com especial enfoque na sua abordagem terapêutica. As tinhas classificam-se de acordo com a sua localização anatómica: tinea capitis no couro cabeludo, tinea pedis nos pés, tinea corporis no corpo, tinea cruris na região inguinal e tinea unguium nas unhas. Um exame clínico cuidado é o primeiro e mais importante passo no diagnóstico das epidermofitias. No entanto, este pode ser estabelecido através de um dos diversos exames: microscopia com hidróxido de potássio, cultura, lâmpada de Wood e biópsia. Na prática clínica, a recolha de amostras para microscopia e cultura é aconselhada quando há necessidade de terapêutica oral, a infecção parece refractária ao tratamento inicial ou o diagnóstico é incerto. Apesar do tratamento tópico ser suficiente, na maioria das dermatofitoses, a terapêutica oral é aconselhada nas tinhas do couro cabeludo, da barba e das unhas. Os antifúngicos tópicos do grupo das alilaminas possibilitam tratamentos mais curtos e taxas de cura maiores do que os antifúngicos do grupo dos azóis. A terbinafina, o itraconazol e o fluconazol são os fármacos mais utilizados para tratamento sistémico. Abstract in english Superficial mycoses are believed to affect 20% to 25% of the world?s population and its incidence continues to increase. They are mainly caused by dermatophytes, which are fungi that require keratin for their growth. Skin lesions produced by these fungi are named dermatomycosis, dermatophytosis, ringworm or tinea. In Family Medicine, the clinician often has to deal with questions such as: «Dr., some weird spots have appeared in my skin, is it a fungus?». Frequently it (more) is difficult to decide whether it is appropriate to initiate systemic therapy, particularly in higher risk patients, such as the polimedicated, the immunodepressed, the diabetics and the children. This article intends to review dermatophyte infections, focusing especially on their therapeutic management. Tinea is generally classified according to its anatomic location: tinea capitis is located on the scalp, tinea pedis on the feet, tinea corporis on the body, tinea cruris on the groin, and tinea unguium on the nails. A thorough clinical examination is the primary and most important step to diagnose a dermatophyte infection. Yet, it can be established using potassium hydroxide microscopy, fungal culture, Wood?s lamp examination or histologic examination. Samples should be taken for microscopy and culture in severe or extensive skin fungal infections, when oral treatment is being considered, when skin infections are refractory to initial treatment, or when the diagnosis is uncertain. Although topical treatment is enough in the majority of dermatomycosis, oral antifungals are recommended when considering tinea capitis, tinea barbae and tinea unguium. Cure rates are higher and treatment courses are shorter with topical allylamines than with azoles. Terbinafine, itraconazole and fluconazole formulations are the most commonly used antifungals in systemic therapy.

Tomaz, Diana

2011-01-01

112

Volatile antimicrobials from Muscodor crispans, a novel endophytic fungus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Muscodor crispans is a recently described novel endophytic fungus of Ananas ananassoides (wild pineapple) growing in the Bolivian Amazon Basin. The fungus produces a mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs); some of the major components of this mixture, as determined by GC/MS, are propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-; 1-butanol, 3-methyl-;1-butanol, 3-methyl-, acetate; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-methylbutyl ester; and ethanol. The fungus does not, however, produce naphthalene or azulene derivatives as has been observed with many other members of the genus Muscodor. The mixture of VOCs produced by M. crispans cultures possesses antibiotic properties, as does an artificial mixture of a majority of the components. The VOCs of the fungus are effective against a wide range of plant pathogens, including the fungi Pythium ultimum, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Mycosphaerella fijiensis (the black sigatoka pathogen of bananas), and the serious bacterial pathogen of citrus, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. In addition, the VOCs of M. crispans killed several human pathogens, including Yersinia pestis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus. Artificial mixtures of the fungal VOCs were both inhibitory and lethal to a number of human and plant pathogens, including three drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The gaseous products of Muscodor crispans potentially could prove to be beneficial in the fields of medicine, agriculture, and industry. PMID:19797357

Mitchell, Angela M; Strobel, Gary A; Moore, Emily; Robison, Richard; Sears, Joe

2009-10-01

113

Volatile antimicrobials from Muscodor crispans, a novel endophytic fungus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Muscodor crispans is a recently described novel endophytic fungus of Ananas ananassoides (wild pineapple) growing in the Bolivian Amazon Basin. The fungus produces a mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs); some of the major components of this mixture, as determined by GC/MS, are propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-; 1-butanol, 3-methyl-;1-butanol, 3-methyl-, acetate; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-methylbutyl ester; and ethanol. The fungus does not, however, produce naphthalene or azulene derivatives as has been observed with many other members of the genus Muscodor. The mixture of VOCs produced by M. crispans cultures possesses antibiotic properties, as does an artificial mixture of a majority of the components. The VOCs of the fungus are effective against a wide range of plant pathogens, including the fungi Pythium ultimum, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Mycosphaerella fijiensis (the black sigatoka pathogen of bananas), and the serious bacterial pathogen of citrus, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. In addition, the VOCs of M. crispans killed several human pathogens, including Yersinia pestis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus. Artificial mixtures of the fungal VOCs were both inhibitory and lethal to a number of human and plant pathogens, including three drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The gaseous products of Muscodor crispans potentially could prove to be beneficial in the fields of medicine, agriculture, and industry.

Mitchell AM; Strobel GA; Moore E; Robison R; Sears J

2010-01-01

114

Biodegradation of pentachlorophenol by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Extensive biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance and mineralization of ({sup 14}C)PCP in nutrient nitrogen-limited culture. Mass balance analyses demonstrated the formation of water-soluble metabolites of ({sup 14}C)PCP during degradation. Involvement of the lignin-degrading system of this fungus was suggested by the fact that the time of onset, time course, and eventual decline in the rate of PCP mineralization were similar to those observed for ({sup 14}C)lignin degradation. Also, a purified ligninase was shown to be able to catalyze the initial oxidation of PCP. Although biodegradation of PCP was decreased in nutrient nitrogen-sufficient (i.e., nonligninolytic) cultures of P. chrysosporium, substantial biodegradation of PCP did occur, suggesting that in addition to the lignin-degrading system, another degradation system may also be responsible for some of the PCP degradation observed. Toxicity studies showed that PCP concentrations above 4 mg/liter (15 {mu}M) prevented growth when fungal cultures were identified by inoculation with spores. The lethal effects of PCP could, however, be the circumvented by allowing the fungus to establish a mycelial mat before adding PCP. With this procedure, the fungus was able to grow and mineralize ({sup 14}C)PCP at concentrations as high as 500 mg/liter (1.9 mM).

Mileski, G.J.; Bumpus, J.A.; Jurek, M.A.; Aust, S.D. (Utah State Univ., Logan (USA))

1988-12-01

115

Biodegradation of pentachlorophenol by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Extensive biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance and mineralization of [14C]PCP in nutrient nitrogen-limited culture. Mass balance analyses demonstrated the formation of water-soluble metabolites of [14C]PCP during degradation. Involvement of the lignin-degrading system of this fungus was suggested by the fact that the time of onset, time course, and eventual decline in the rate of PCP mineralization were similar to those observed for [14C]lignin degradation. Also, a purified ligninase was shown to be able to catalyze the initial oxidation of PCP. Although biodegradation of PCP was decreased in nutrient nitrogen-sufficient (i.e., nonligninolytic) cultures of P. chrysosporium, substantial biodegradation of PCP did occur, suggesting that in addition to the lignin-degrading system, another degradation system may also be responsible for some of the PCP degradation observed. Toxicity studies showed that PCP concentrations above 4 mg/liter (15 ?M) prevented growth when fungal cultures were identified by inoculation with spores. The lethal effects of PCP could, however, be the circumvented by allowing the fungus to establish a mycelial mat before adding PCP. With this procedure, the fungus was able to grow and mineralize [14C]PCP at concentrations as high as 500 mg/liter (1.9 mM)

1988-01-01

116

Herpes-type virus particles associated with a fungus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A cultutre of the fungus Thraustochytrium, isolated from an estuary, was infected by ani enveloped virus. The nucleocapsid measured 110 nanometers in diameter and containied a core of DNA. The virus replicated in the nucleus. These findings stronigly suggest that the particles are a herpes-type virus.

Kazama FY; Schornstein KL

1972-08-01

117

Herpes-type virus particles associated with a fungus.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cultutre of the fungus Thraustochytrium, isolated from an estuary, was infected by ani enveloped virus. The nucleocapsid measured 110 nanometers in diameter and containied a core of DNA. The virus replicated in the nucleus. These findings stronigly suggest that the particles are a herpes-type virus. PMID:5054143

Kazama, F Y; Schornstein, K L

1972-08-25

118

Efficiency of Actinomycetes Against Phytopathogenic Fungus of Chilli Anthracnose  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Phytopathogenic fungus as Colletotricum gloeosporioides is a cause of disease on chilli and wide varieties of agricultural crops resulting in yield loss. The aim of this study was to screened actinomycetes according to its ability to produce various secondary metabolites with inhibition activ...

K. Khucharoenphaisan; K. Sinma; C. Lorrungruang

119

[Effect of the fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus on Taenia saginata eggs].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

With the aim of demonstrating the effectiveness of the fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus on Taenia saginata eggs under laboratory conditions, a trial was set up in Petri dishes with water-agar 2%. There was ovicidal activity (p < 0.05) in relation to the control group on the tenth day of interaction and an internal colonization rate of 25.5% in the eggs.

Braga FR; Araújo JV; Araujo JM; Carvalho RO; Silva AR

2008-11-01

120

Efficiency of Actinomycetes Against Phytopathogenic Fungus of Chilli Anthracnose  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phytopathogenic fungus as Colletotricum gloeosporioides is a cause of disease on chilli and wide varieties of agricultural crops resulting in yield loss. The aim of this study was to screened actinomycetes according to its ability to produce various secondary metabolites with inhibition activity against chilli anthracnose. Firstly, actinomycetes from previously study were tested for antagonistic activity toward the fungus by the dual culture technique. Finally, extracellular antifungal metabolites produced by selected isolates were evaluated for antifungal potential toward the fungus with agar core technique. Eighty three strains of actinomycetes were screened for their antifungal as well as phytopathogenic activity. Among these, 26 isolates were shown the inhibition activities against Colletotricum gloeosporioides chi in which was isolated from infected chilli. The culture supernatants obtained from 21 actinomycetes strains were affective against the fungus. More interestingly, 7 isolates produced affective thermostable compound that having activity after treated with temperature of 121°C for 20 min. In total, the isolate R58 was most promising on the basis of its interesting antimicrobial activity and it could reduce anthracnose disease of chilli comparing to the absence of biocontrol agent. Based on morphological character, its 16S rDNA sequence and phylogenetic tree analysis, isolate R58 belong to the Streptomyces malaysiensis. These findings have increased the scope of agriculturally important actinomycetes.

K. Khucharoenphaisan; K. Sinma; C. Lorrungruang

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Nematicidal activity of beauvericin produced by the fungus Fusarium bulbicola.  

Science.gov (United States)

A nematicide, beauvericin (1), was isolated from cultures of the fungus Fusarium bulbicola, and its structure was identified by spectroscopic analysis. Compound 1 showed nematicidal activities against the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. PMID:20469639

Shimada, Atsumi; Fujioka, Shozo; Koshino, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Yasuo

122

Nematicidal activity of beauvericin produced by the fungus Fusarium bulbicola.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A nematicide, beauvericin (1), was isolated from cultures of the fungus Fusarium bulbicola, and its structure was identified by spectroscopic analysis. Compound 1 showed nematicidal activities against the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

Shimada A; Fujioka S; Koshino H; Kimura Y

2010-03-01

123

Two new depsipeptides from the marine fungus Spicellum roseum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Investigation of the secondary metabolites of the marine-derived fungus Spicellum roseum yielded two new cyclohexadepsipeptides, spicellamide A (1) and spicellamide B (2). The structures of 1 and 2 were determined based on extensive evaluations of NMR and MS data. The absolute configuration was deduced after hydrolysis using Marfey's method, chiral chromatography, as well as NOESY and modeling data.

Kralj A; Kehraus S; Krick A; van Echten-Deckert G; König GM

2007-04-01

124

Two new depsipeptides from the marine fungus Spicellum roseum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigation of the secondary metabolites of the marine-derived fungus Spicellum roseum yielded two new cyclohexadepsipeptides, spicellamide A (1) and spicellamide B (2). The structures of 1 and 2 were determined based on extensive evaluations of NMR and MS data. The absolute configuration was deduced after hydrolysis using Marfey's method, chiral chromatography, as well as NOESY and modeling data. PMID:17354168

Kralj, Ana; Kehraus, Stefan; Krick, Anja; van Echten-Deckert, Gerhild; König, Gabriele M

2007-03-12

125

Molecular Karyotype of the White Rot Fungus Pleurotus ostreatus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus is an edible basidiomycete with increasing agricultural and biotechnological importance. Genetic manipulation and breeding of this organism are restricted because of the lack of knowledge about its genomic structure. In this study, we analyzed the genomic con...

Larraya, Luis M.; Pérez, Gumer; Peñas, María M.; Baars, Johan J. P.; Mikosch, Thomas S. P.; Pisabarro, Antonio G.

126

Metabolism of phenanthrene by the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus, grown for 11 days in basidiomycetes rich medium containing [14C] phenanthrene, metabolized 94% of the phenanthrene added. Of the total radioactivity, 3% was oxidized to CO2. Approximately 52% of phenanthrene was metabolized to trans-9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihyd...

Bezalel, L; Hadar, Y; Fu, P P; Freeman, J P; Cerniglia, C E

127

Zeatin and zeatin riboside from a mycorrhizal fungus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The puffball fungus Rhizopogon roseolus produces and releases three cytokinins when it is cultured in liquid media. Two of these compounds have been isolated in crystalline form from such media and were found to have properties identical to those of synthetic zeatin and zeatin riboside.

Miller CO

1967-09-01

128

OXIDATIVE DEGRADATION OF PHENANTHRENE BY THE LIGNINOLYTIC FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM  

Science.gov (United States)

The ligninolytic fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium oxidized phenanthrene and phenanthrene-9,10-quinone (PQ) at their C-9 and C-10 positions to give a ring-fission product, 2,2'-diphenic acid (DPA), which was identified in chromatographic and isotope dilution experiments. PA form...

129

Oxidative degradation of phenanthrene by the ligninolytic fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ligninolytic fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium oxidized phenanthrene and phenanthrene-9,10-quinone (PQ) at their C-9 and C-10 positions to give a ring-fission product, 2,2'-diphenic acid (DPA), which was identified in chromatographic and isotope dilution experiments. DPA formation from phenanth...

Hammel, K E; Gai, W Z; Green, B; Moen, M A

130

BIODEGRADATION OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM  

Science.gov (United States)

Extensive biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance and mineralization of [14C]PCP in nutrient nitrogen-limited culture. Mass balance analyses demonstrated the formation of water-soluble met...

131

Biodegradation of pentachlorophenol by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Extensive biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance and mineralization of [14C]PCP in nutrient nitrogen-limited culture. Mass balance analyses demonstrated the formation of water-soluble metabolites of [14C]PCP...

Mileski, G J; Bumpus, J A; Jurek, M A; Aust, S D

132

Manganese peroxidases of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ligninolytic enzymes produced by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida in liquid culture were studied. Only manganese peroxidase (MnP) activity could be detected in the supernatant liquid of the cultures. Lignin peroxidase (LiP) and laccase activities were not detected under a variety of di...

Rüttimann-Johnson, C; Cullen, D; Lamar, R T

133

Biodegradation of pentachlorophenol by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Extensive biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance and mineralization of [14C]PCP in nutrient nitrogen-limited culture. Mass balance analyses demonstrated the formation of water-soluble metabolites of [14C]PCP during degradation. Involvement of the lignin-degrading system of this fungus was suggested by the fact the time of onset, time course, and eventual decline in the rate of PCP mineralization were similar to those observed for [14C]lignin degradation. Also, a purified ligninase was shown to be able to catalyze the initial oxidation of PCP. Although biodegradation of PCP was decreased in nutrient nitrogen-sufficient (i.e., nonligninolytic) cultures of P. chrysosporium, substantial biodegradation of PCP did occur, suggesting that in addition to the lignin-degrading system, another degradation system may also be responsible for some of the PCP degradation observed. Toxicity studies showed that PCP concentrations above 4 mg/liter (15 microM) prevented growth when fungal cultures were initiated by inoculation with spores. The lethal effects of PCP could, however, be circumvented by allowing the fungus to establish a mycelial mat before adding PCP. With this procedure, the fungus was able to grow and mineralize [14C]PCP at concentrations as high as 500 mg/liter (1.9 mM).

Mileski GJ; Bumpus JA; Jurek MA; Aust SD

1988-12-01

134

Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Introduction In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae), wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for t...

De Fine Licht Henrik H; Biedermann Peter H W

135

Characterization of polyadenylate from the fungus Trichoderma viride.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Polyribonucleotide segments, about 60 nucleotides long and consisting of about 95% adenylic acid residues, were isolated from whole cell ribonucleic acid of the deuteromyceteous fungus Trichoderma viride. Similar findings in two other groups of the true fungi raise the possibility that short polyade...

Rosen, D; Edelman, M; Galun, E

136

Genetic variability in the pistachio late blight fungus, Alternaria alternata  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic variation in the pistachio late blight fungus, Alternaria alternata, was investigated by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in the rDNA region. Southern hybridization of EcoRI, HindIII, and Xbal digested fungal DNA with a RNA probe derived from Alt1, an rDNA clone isolated from ...

137

PATHWAYS OF GLUCOSE CATABOLISM IN THE SMUT FUNGUS 'USTILAGO VIOLACEA'  

Science.gov (United States)

The pathways of glucose catabolism were examined in haploid and diploid strains of the smut fungus Ustilago violacea. Radiorespirometric studies indicated that both of the haploid mating types and diploid strains of the basidiomycete catabolized glucose through the Embden-Meyerho...

138

Changes in ribonuclease with age in the fungus Rhizoctonia solani.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The enzyme ribonuclease (RNase) which was isolated from Rhizoctonia solani Kuehn degraded ribonucleic acid from both Torula yeast and from Rhizoctonia solani mycelia. As the Rhizoctonia mycelia aged, there was an increase in both the total and the specific activities of the RNase present in the mycelia. This change is discussed in relation to the age dependent decrease in protein synthesis in this fungus.

Gottlieb D; Sharma VD

1976-01-01

139

Removal of disperse dyes by the fungus Cunninghamella polymorpha.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A disperse dye-removing fungus, Cunninghamella polymorpha, was isolated from soil. C. polymorpha efficiently removed an average 93% of 17 tested disperse dyes in 120 h, and 90% of C. I. Disperse Blue 60 was removed even at a high concentration of 500 mg/l. The dye removal was due to the sorption of dye to the fungal cells.

Sugimori D; Banzawa R; Kurozumi M; Okura I

1999-01-01

140

Removal of disperse dyes by the fungus Cunninghamella polymorpha.  

Science.gov (United States)

A disperse dye-removing fungus, Cunninghamella polymorpha, was isolated from soil. C. polymorpha efficiently removed an average 93% of 17 tested disperse dyes in 120 h, and 90% of C. I. Disperse Blue 60 was removed even at a high concentration of 500 mg/l. The dye removal was due to the sorption of dye to the fungal cells. PMID:16232462

Sugimori, D; Banzawa, R; Kurozumi, M; Okura, I

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

[Sphenoid sinusitis with intracranial extension produced by an emergent fungus].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This is a case of fungal sphenoid sinusitis in a diabetic patient with non-specific symptoms and bone erosion radiological findings in the superior and posterior sphenoid walls. Surgical treatment was performed by transnasal endoscopic approach and voriconazole orally thereafter. The histopathological study found fungus hyphal without mucosa invasion and the molecular study determined DNA to be Phialemonium curvatum, an unusual pathogen.

Escamilla Carpintero Y; Espasa Soley M; Bella Cueto MR; Prenafeta Moreno M

2011-03-01

142

Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Attine ants live in symbiosis with a basidiomycetous fungus that they rear on a substrate of plant material. This indirect herbivory implies that the symbiosis is likely to be nitrogen deprived, so that specific mechanisms may have evolved to enhance protein availability. We therefore hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results: We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing eight genera. We mapped these activity profiles on an independently obtained molecular phylogeny of the symbionts and show that total proteinase activity in lower attine symbionts peaks at ca. pH 6. The higher attine symbionts that have no known free-living relatives had much higher proteinase activities than the lower attine symbionts. Their total in vitro proteinase activity peaked at pH values around 5, which is close to the pH that the ants maintain in their fungus gardens, suggesting that the pH optimum of fungal proteinases may have changed after the irreversible domestication of evolutionary more derived fungal symbionts. This notion is also supported by buffering capacities of fungus gardens at pH 5.2 being remarkably high, and suggests that the fungal symbiont actively helps to maintain garden acidity at this specific level. Metalloproteinases dominated the activity profiles of lower attine gardens and may thus represent the ancestral type of proteinase production, whereas serine proteinase activity dominated the activity profiles of the higher attine gardens reared by Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex, suggesting that there may be trade-offs in the production of these enzyme classes. Remarkably, the single symbiont that is shared by species of the crown group of Atta and Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants mostly showed metalloproteinase activity, suggesting that recurrent changes in enzyme production may have occurred throughout the domestication history of fungus-garden symbionts. Conclusions: Proteinase pH optima and buffering capacities of fungal symbionts appear to have evolved remarkable adaptations to living in obligate symbiosis with farming ants. Although the functional roles of serine and metalloproteinases in fungus gardens are unknown, the differential production of these classes of proteolytic enzymes suggest that substrate specificity may be important and that trade-offs may prevent the simultaneous upregulation of both classes of enzymes.

Semenova, Tatyana; Hughes, David Peter

2011-01-01

143

DETOXIFICATION OF CORN ANTIMICROBIAL COMPOUNDS BY THE ENDOPHYTIC FUNGUS FUSARIUM VERTICILLIOIDES AND THE SIGNIFICANCE TO PLANT-FUNGUS INTERACTIONS  

Science.gov (United States)

Fusarium verticillioides (= F. moniliforme) is a fungus of significant economic importance because of its deleterious effects on plant and animal health and the quality of their products. Corn, the primary host for F. verticillioides, produces the preformed antimicrobial compounds DIMBOA (2,4-dihyd...

144

Morphophysiological Differences between the Metapleural Glands of Fungus-Growing and Non-Fungus-Growing Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)  

Science.gov (United States)

The metapleural gland is an organ exclusive to ants. Its main role is to produce secretions that inhibit the proliferation of different types of pathogens. The aim of the present study was to examine the morphophysiological differences between the metapleural gland of 3 non–fungus-growing ants of the tribes Ectatommini, Myrmicini, and Blepharidattini and that of 5 fungus-growing ants from 2 basal and 3 derived attine genera. The metapleural gland of the non–fungus-growing ants and the basal attine ants has fewer secretory cells than that of the derived attine ants (leaf-cutting ants). In addition, the metapleural gland of the latter had more clusters of secretory cells and sieve plates, indicating a greater storage capacity and demand for secretion in these more advanced farming ants. The glands of the derived attine ants also produced higher levels of polysaccharides and acidic lipids than those of Myrmicini, Blepharidattini, and basal attines. Our results confirm morphophysiological differences between the metapleural glands of the derived attines and those of the basal attines and non–fungus-growing ants, suggesting that the metapleural glands of the derived attines (leaf-cutting ants) are more developed in morphology and physiology, with enhanced secretion production (acidic lipids and protein) to protect against the proliferation of unwanted fungi and bacteria in the fungal garden, it is possible that leaf-cutting ants may have evolved more developed metapleural glands in response to stronger pressure from parasites.

Vieira, Alexsandro Santana; Bueno, Odair Correa; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

2012-01-01

145

Candicidin-producing Streptomyces support leaf-cutting ants to protect their fungus garden against the pathogenic fungus Escovopsis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leaf-cutting ants such as Acromyrmex octospinosus live in obligate symbiosis with fungi of the genus Leucoagaricus, which they grow with harvested leaf material. The symbiotic fungi, in turn, serve as a major food source for the ants. This mutualistic relation is disturbed by the specialized pathogenic fungus Escovopsis sp., which can overcome Leucoagaricus sp. and thus destroy the ant colony. Microbial symbionts of leaf-cutting ants have been suggested to protect the fungus garden against Escovopsis by producing antifungal compounds [Currie CR, Scott JA, Summerbell RC, Malloch D (1999) Fungus-growing ants use antibiotic-producing bacteria to control garden parasites. Nature 398:701-704.]. To date, however, the chemical nature of these compounds has remained elusive. We characterized 19 leaf-cutting ant-associated microorganisms (5 Pseudonocardia, 1 Dermacoccus, and 13 Streptomyces) from 3 Acromyrmex species, A. octospinosus, A. echinatior, and A. volcanus, using 16S-rDNA analysis. Because the strain Streptomyces sp. Ao10 proved highly active against the pathogen Escovopsis, we identified the molecular basis of its antifungal activity. Using bioassay-guided fractionation, high-resolution electrospray mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS), and UV spectroscopy, and comparing the results with an authentic standard, we were able identify candicidin macrolides. Candicidin macrolides are highly active against Escovopsis but do not significantly affect the growth of the symbiotic fungus. At least one of the microbial isolates from each of the 3 leaf-cutting ant species analyzed produced candicidin macrolides. This suggests that candicidins play an important role in protecting the fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants against pathogenic fungi. PMID:19270078

Haeder, Susanne; Wirth, Rainer; Herz, Hubert; Spiteller, Dieter

2009-03-06

146

Candicidin-producing Streptomyces support leaf-cutting ants to protect their fungus garden against the pathogenic fungus Escovopsis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Leaf-cutting ants such as Acromyrmex octospinosus live in obligate symbiosis with fungi of the genus Leucoagaricus, which they grow with harvested leaf material. The symbiotic fungi, in turn, serve as a major food source for the ants. This mutualistic relation is disturbed by the specialized pathogenic fungus Escovopsis sp., which can overcome Leucoagaricus sp. and thus destroy the ant colony. Microbial symbionts of leaf-cutting ants have been suggested to protect the fungus garden against Escovopsis by producing antifungal compounds [Currie CR, Scott JA, Summerbell RC, Malloch D (1999) Fungus-growing ants use antibiotic-producing bacteria to control garden parasites. Nature 398:701-704.]. To date, however, the chemical nature of these compounds has remained elusive. We characterized 19 leaf-cutting ant-associated microorganisms (5 Pseudonocardia, 1 Dermacoccus, and 13 Streptomyces) from 3 Acromyrmex species, A. octospinosus, A. echinatior, and A. volcanus, using 16S-rDNA analysis. Because the strain Streptomyces sp. Ao10 proved highly active against the pathogen Escovopsis, we identified the molecular basis of its antifungal activity. Using bioassay-guided fractionation, high-resolution electrospray mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS), and UV spectroscopy, and comparing the results with an authentic standard, we were able identify candicidin macrolides. Candicidin macrolides are highly active against Escovopsis but do not significantly affect the growth of the symbiotic fungus. At least one of the microbial isolates from each of the 3 leaf-cutting ant species analyzed produced candicidin macrolides. This suggests that candicidins play an important role in protecting the fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants against pathogenic fungi.

Haeder S; Wirth R; Herz H; Spiteller D

2009-03-01

147

Effects of reduced-risk pesticides and plant growth regulators on rove beetle (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In many regions, pest management of greenhouse crops relies on the use of biological control agents; however, pesticides are also widely used, especially when dealing with multiple arthropod pests and attempting to maintain high esthetic standards. As such, there is interest in using biological control agents in conjunction with chemical control. However, the prospects of combining natural enemies and pesticides are not well known in many systems. The rove beetle, Atheta coriaria (Kraatz), is a biological control agent mainly used against fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.). This study evaluated the effects of reduced-risk pesticides and plant growth regulators on A. coriaria adult survival, development, and prey consumption under laboratory conditions. Rove beetle survival was consistently higher when adults were released 24 h after rather than before applying pesticides. The pesticides acetamiprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, and cyfluthrin were harmful to rove beetle adults, whereas Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, azadirachtin, and organic oils (cinnamon oils, rosemary oil, thyme oil, and clove oil) were nontoxic to A. coriaria adults. Similarly, the plant growth regulators acymidol, paclobutrazol, and uniconazole were not harmful to rove beetle adults. In addition, B. bassiana, azadirachtin, kinoprene, organic oils, and the plant growth regulators did not negatively affect A. coriaria development. However, B. bassiana did negatively affect adult prey consumption. This study demonstrated that A. coriaria may not be used when applying the pesticides, acetamiprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, and cyfluthrin, whereas organic oils, B. bassiana, azadirachtin, and the plant growth regulators evaluated may be used in conjunction with A. coriaria adults. As such, these compounds may be used in combination with A. coriaria in greenhouse production systems.

Echegaray ER; Cloyd RA

2012-12-01

148

Effects of reduced-risk pesticides and plant growth regulators on rove beetle (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

In many regions, pest management of greenhouse crops relies on the use of biological control agents; however, pesticides are also widely used, especially when dealing with multiple arthropod pests and attempting to maintain high esthetic standards. As such, there is interest in using biological control agents in conjunction with chemical control. However, the prospects of combining natural enemies and pesticides are not well known in many systems. The rove beetle, Atheta coriaria (Kraatz), is a biological control agent mainly used against fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.). This study evaluated the effects of reduced-risk pesticides and plant growth regulators on A. coriaria adult survival, development, and prey consumption under laboratory conditions. Rove beetle survival was consistently higher when adults were released 24 h after rather than before applying pesticides. The pesticides acetamiprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, and cyfluthrin were harmful to rove beetle adults, whereas Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, azadirachtin, and organic oils (cinnamon oils, rosemary oil, thyme oil, and clove oil) were nontoxic to A. coriaria adults. Similarly, the plant growth regulators acymidol, paclobutrazol, and uniconazole were not harmful to rove beetle adults. In addition, B. bassiana, azadirachtin, kinoprene, organic oils, and the plant growth regulators did not negatively affect A. coriaria development. However, B. bassiana did negatively affect adult prey consumption. This study demonstrated that A. coriaria may not be used when applying the pesticides, acetamiprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, and cyfluthrin, whereas organic oils, B. bassiana, azadirachtin, and the plant growth regulators evaluated may be used in conjunction with A. coriaria adults. As such, these compounds may be used in combination with A. coriaria in greenhouse production systems. PMID:23356075

Echegaray, Erik R; Cloyd, Raymond A

2012-12-01

149

Biodegradation of pentachlorophenol by the white rot fungus phanerochaete chrysosporium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Extensive biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance and mineralization of (14)C PCP in nutrient nitrogen-limited culture.Mass balance analyses demonstrated the formation of water-soluble metabolites of (14)C PCP during degradation. Involvement of the lignin-degrading system of the fungus was suggested by the fact that the time of onset, time course, and eventual decline in the rate of PCP mineralization were similar to those observed for (14)C lignin degradation. Also, a purified ligninase was shown to be able to catalyze the initial oxidation of PCP. Although biodegradation of PCP was decreased in nutrient nitrogen-sufficient (i.e., nonligninolytic) cultures of P. chrysosporium, substantial biodegradation of PCP did occur, suggesting that in addition to the lignin-degrading system, another degradation system may also be responsible for some of the PCP degradation observed. (Copyright (c) 1988 American Society for Microbiology.)

Mileski, G.J.; Bumpus, J.A.; Jurek, M.A.; Aust, S.D.

1988-01-01

150

Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Fusarium semitectum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development of environmental friendly procedures for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles through biological processes is evolving into an important branch of nanobiotechnology. In this paper, we report on the use of fungus 'Fusarium semitectum' for the extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate solution (i.e. through the reduction of Ag+ to Ag0). Highly stable and crystalline silver nanoparticles are produced in solution by treating the filtrate of the fungus F. semitectum with the aqueous silver nitrate solution. The formations of nanoparticles are understood from the UV-vis and X-ray diffraction studies. Transmission electron microscopy of the silver particles indicated that they ranged in size from 10 to 60 nm and are mostly spherical in shape. Interestingly the colloidal suspensions of silver nanoparticles are stable for many weeks. Possible medicinal applications of these silver nanoparticles are envisaged.

2008-05-06

151

Mycocrystallization of gold ions by the fungus Cylindrocladium floridanum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The size and morphology determines the thermodynamic, physical and electronic properties of metal nanoparticles. The extracellular synthesis of gold nanoparticles by fungus, Cylindrocladium floridanum, which acts as a source of reducing and stabilizing agent has been described. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using techniques such as UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). Based on the evidence of HR-TEM, the synthesized particles were found to be spherical with an average size of 19.05 nm. Powder XRD pattern proved the formation of (111)-oriented face-centered cubic crystals of metallic gold. This microbial approach by fungus for the green synthesis of spherical gold nanoparticles has many advantages such as economic viability, scaling up and environment friendliness.

Narayanan KB; Sakthivel N

2013-06-01

152

Biotransformation of ?-bromoacetophenones by the marine fungus Aspergillus sydowii.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The biotransformation reactions of ?-bromoacetophenone (1), p-bromo-?-bromoacetophenone (2), and p-nitro-?-bromoacetophenone (3) by whole cells of the marine fungus Aspergillus sydowii Ce19 have been investigated. Fungal cells that had been grown in artificial sea water medium containing a high concentration of chloride ions (1.20 M) catalysed the biotransformation of 1 to 2-bromo-1-phenylethanol 4 (56%), together with the ?-chlorohydrin 7 (9%), 1-phenylethan-1,2-diol 9 (26%), acetophenone 10 (4%) and phenylethanol 11 (5%) identified by GC-MS analysis. In addition, it was observed that the enzymatic reaction was accompanied by the spontaneous debromination of 1 to yield ?-chloroacetophenone 5 (9%) and ?-hydroxyacetophenone 6 (18%) identified by GC-FID analysis. When 2 and 3 were employed as substrates, various biotransformation products were detected but the formation of halohydrins was not observed. It is concluded that marine fungus A. sydowii Ce19 presents potential for the biotransformations of bromoacetophenone derivatives.

Rocha LC; Ferreira HV; Pimenta EF; Berlinck RG; Rezende MO; Landgraf MD; Seleghim MH; Sette LD; Porto AL

2010-10-01

153

Carotenoid pigments in the fungus of Coltsfoot (Coleosporium tussilaginis)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Investigations were carried out on the carotenoid pigments in the fruiting bodies of the parasitic fungus Coleosporium tussilaginis (Pers.) Kleb., harvested in autumn from the lower mide of the leaves of coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara L.). The fructification of this fungus held only g-carotene and m-carotene. There were found no ranthophylls, epoxides; neither carboxyl nor carboxyl groups. The content of g-carotene was of 22 mg/100 g D.M. and that of b-carotene of 15 mg/100 g D.M. The content of both carotenoids was 10-12 times higher in camparison with their content in carrots. The fructification bodies of Coleosporium tussilaginis represents an important natural source of g- and b-carotene.

Gavrila NEAMTU; Gh. ILLYES; Maria OTOIU

1983-01-01

154

Life cycle of the pathogenic fungus Sphaeropsis sapinea Dyko & Sutton  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study of the parasitic fungus Sphaeropsis sapinea life cycle shows that the conidia disseminate most massively during the period April-May, i. e. during the critical time of infection, but also during the period June-August. Infection can occur through the buds in the spring, before their flushing, but also in the summer of the year of their development. Infection occurs most frequently through the bark of the young shoots, because of which they die while needle infections mostly lead to the so-called localized infections. Both male and female flowers can be infected, as well as the current-year and second-year cones. In some cases this fungus can behave as a latent parasite, i. e. endophyte.

Milijaševi? Tanja

2003-01-01

155

Metabolism of p-cresol by the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cresols are phenolic compounds that are industrial pollutants. Degradation of p-cresol by several species of fungus has been reported. Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 28282 metabolizes both phenylacetic and homogentisic acids. This study shows that A. fumigatus ATCC 28282 also is capable of growth on p-cresol as its sole carbon source. Two metabolic routes for p-cresol degradation are described in the paper, but the relative contributions of each pathway is not evaluated. 21 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Jones, K.H.; Trudgill, P.W.; Hopper, D.J. (Univ. of Wales, Aberystwyth (United Kingdom))

1993-04-01

156

The yeast spectrum of the 'tea fungus Kombucha'.  

Science.gov (United States)

The tea fungus 'Kombucha' is a symbiosis of Acetobacter, including Acetobacter xylinum as a characteristic species, and various yeasts. A characteristic yeast species or genus has not yet been identified. Kombucha is mainly cultivated in sugared black tea to produce a slightly acidulous effervescent beverage that is said to have several curative effects. In addition to sugar, the beverage contains small amounts of alcohol and various acids, including acetic acid, gluconic acid and lactic acid, as well as some antibiotic substances. To characterize the yeast spectrum with special consideration given to facultatively pathogenic yeasts, two commercially available specimens of tea fungus and 32 from private households in Germany were analysed by micromorphological and biochemical methods. Yeasts of the genera Brettanomyces, Zygosaccharomyces and Saccharomyces were identified in 56%, 29% and 26% respectively. The species Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Candida kefyr were only demonstrated in isolated cases. Furthermore, the tests revealed pellicle-forming yeasts such as Candida krusei or Issatchenkia orientalis/occidentalis as well as species of the apiculatus yeasts (Kloeckera, Hanseniaspora). Thus, the genus Brettanomyces may be a typical group of yeasts that are especially adapted to the environment of the tea fungus. However, to investigate further the beneficial effects of tea fungus, a spectrum of the other typical genera must be defined. Only three specimens showed definite contaminations. In one case, no yeasts could be isolated because of massive contamination with Penicillium spp. In the remaining two samples (from one household), Candida albicans was demonstrated. The low rate of contamination might be explained by protective mechanisms, such as formation of organic acids and antibiotic substances. Thus, subjects with a healthy metabolism do not need to be advised against cultivating Kombucha. However, those suffering from immunosuppression should preferably consume controlled commercial Kombucha beverages. PMID:8559192

Mayser, P; Fromme, S; Leitzmann, C; Gründer, K

157

The yeast spectrum of the 'tea fungus Kombucha'.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The tea fungus 'Kombucha' is a symbiosis of Acetobacter, including Acetobacter xylinum as a characteristic species, and various yeasts. A characteristic yeast species or genus has not yet been identified. Kombucha is mainly cultivated in sugared black tea to produce a slightly acidulous effervescent beverage that is said to have several curative effects. In addition to sugar, the beverage contains small amounts of alcohol and various acids, including acetic acid, gluconic acid and lactic acid, as well as some antibiotic substances. To characterize the yeast spectrum with special consideration given to facultatively pathogenic yeasts, two commercially available specimens of tea fungus and 32 from private households in Germany were analysed by micromorphological and biochemical methods. Yeasts of the genera Brettanomyces, Zygosaccharomyces and Saccharomyces were identified in 56%, 29% and 26% respectively. The species Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Candida kefyr were only demonstrated in isolated cases. Furthermore, the tests revealed pellicle-forming yeasts such as Candida krusei or Issatchenkia orientalis/occidentalis as well as species of the apiculatus yeasts (Kloeckera, Hanseniaspora). Thus, the genus Brettanomyces may be a typical group of yeasts that are especially adapted to the environment of the tea fungus. However, to investigate further the beneficial effects of tea fungus, a spectrum of the other typical genera must be defined. Only three specimens showed definite contaminations. In one case, no yeasts could be isolated because of massive contamination with Penicillium spp. In the remaining two samples (from one household), Candida albicans was demonstrated. The low rate of contamination might be explained by protective mechanisms, such as formation of organic acids and antibiotic substances. Thus, subjects with a healthy metabolism do not need to be advised against cultivating Kombucha. However, those suffering from immunosuppression should preferably consume controlled commercial Kombucha beverages.

Mayser P; Fromme S; Leitzmann C; Gründer K

1995-07-01

158

Drink with fungus culture fluid and its preparing method  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a drink with fungus culture fluid and its preparing method, wherein the beverage comprises the following components, water 5kg, white sugar 400-500g, tea 100-150g, mvcoderm 3-6 blocks, poria cocos wolf 2-10g, white atractylodes rhizome 2-10g, licorice root 2-10g, and polyporus umbellatus 2-10g.

SHENG XIAOYUN

159

Assessing organismal aging in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Podospora anserina is an extensively studied model organism to unravel the mechanism of organismal aging. This filamentous fungus is short-lived and accessible to experimentation. Aging and lifespan are controlled by genetic and environmental traits and, in this model, have a strong mitochondrial etiology. Here, we describe methods and protocols to manipulate and study the aging process in P. anserina at different levels including biochemistry, cell biology, genetics, and physiology.

Osiewacz HD; Hamann A; Zintel S

2013-01-01

160

[Sphenoid sinusitis with intracranial extension produced by an emergent fungus].  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case of fungal sphenoid sinusitis in a diabetic patient with non-specific symptoms and bone erosion radiological findings in the superior and posterior sphenoid walls. Surgical treatment was performed by transnasal endoscopic approach and voriconazole orally thereafter. The histopathological study found fungus hyphal without mucosa invasion and the molecular study determined DNA to be Phialemonium curvatum, an unusual pathogen. PMID:20307872

Escamilla Carpintero, Yolanda; Espasa Soley, Mateu; Bella Cueto, M Rosa; Prenafeta Moreno, Mario

2010-03-21

 
 
 
 
161

Morphology of the rust fungus Puccinia boroniae revisited.  

Science.gov (United States)

Puccinia boroniae Henns. is a rust fungus endemic to Australia, infecting various Boronia spp. This study describes and illustrates, using light and scanning electron microscopy, the telial stage, teliospore germination and basidiospore production of specimens collected from commercial Boronia plantations in Western Australia. Unusual formation of a single basidiospore per germinating teliospore, and the pycnial stage, observed on Boronia megastigma leaves, are reported for the first time for P. boroniae. PMID:16722223

Driessen, S A; O'Brien, P A; Hardy, G E St J

162

Morphology of the rust fungus Puccinia boroniae revisited.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Puccinia boroniae Henns. is a rust fungus endemic to Australia, infecting various Boronia spp. This study describes and illustrates, using light and scanning electron microscopy, the telial stage, teliospore germination and basidiospore production of specimens collected from commercial Boronia plantations in Western Australia. Unusual formation of a single basidiospore per germinating teliospore, and the pycnial stage, observed on Boronia megastigma leaves, are reported for the first time for P. boroniae.

Driessen SA; O'Brien PA; Hardy GE

2005-11-01

163

Biosorption of strontium from aqueous solution by fungus Aspergillus terreus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The biosorption characteristics of strontium ions using fungus Aspergillus terreus were investigated. Experimental parameters affecting the biosorption process such as pH, contact time, initial metal concentration, and temperature were studied. MATHEMATICAL DESCRIPTION: Fungus A. terreus exhibited the highest strontium uptake capacity at 15°C at an initial strontium ion concentration of 876 mg L(-1) and an initial pH of 9. Biosorption capacity increased from 219 to 308 mg g(-1) with a decrease in temperature from 45°C to 15°C at this initial strontium concentration. The equilibrium data fitted very well to the Langmuir adsorption model in the concentration range of strontium ions and at all the temperatures studied. CONCLUSION: Evaluation of the experimental data in terms of biosorption dynamics showed that the biosorption of strontium onto fungus followed the pseudo-second-order dynamics well (R(2)?>?0.985). The calculated thermodynamics parameters (-1.64?

Khani MH; Pahlavanzadeh H; Alizadeh K

2012-07-01

164

Comparative studies of the secretome of fungus-growing ants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Leafcutter ants of the species Acromyrmex echinatior live in symbiosis with the fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. The ants harvest fragments of leaves and carry them to the nest where they place the material on the fungal colony. The fungus secretes a wide array of proteins to degrade the leaves into nutrients that the ants can feed on. The focus of this study is to discover, characterize and compare the secreted proteins. In order to do so cDNA libraries are constructed from mRNA extracted from the fungus material. The most efficient technology to screen cDNA libraries selectively for secreted and membrane-bound proteins is the TAST (Transposon Assisted Signal Trapping) technology (Becker et al. 2004,Microbiol Methods 57, 123-133). The TAST screening will give a list of full length gene sequences encoding secreted proteins. The main part of the secretome will consist of biomass degrading enzymes, but also antimicrobial proteins will probably be in the secretome. To date only a few enzymes from the Leucoagaricus secretome have been identified. We expect to discover novel proteins and to gain a better understanding of the biodegrading pathways of Leucoagaricus. Ultimately, this work may identify enzymes that can be used in biomass conversion processes. (Poster # 426)

Linde, Tore; Grell, Morten Nedergaard

2009-01-01

165

Viruses of the white root rot fungus, Rosellinia necatrix.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rosellinia necatrix is a filamentous ascomycete that is pathogenic to a wide range of perennial plants worldwide. An extensive search for double-stranded RNA of a large collection of field isolates led to the detection of a variety of viruses. Since the first identification of a reovirus in this fungus in 2002, several novel viruses have been molecularly characterized that include members of at least five virus families. While some cause phenotypic alterations, many others show latent infections. Viruses attenuating the virulence of a host fungus to its plant hosts attract much attention as agents for virocontrol (biological control using viruses) of the fungus, one of which is currently being tested in experimental fields. Like the Cryphonectria parasitica/viruses, the R. necatrix/viruses have emerged as an amenable system for studying virus/host and virus/virus interactions. Several techniques have recently been developed that enhance the investigation of virus etiology, replication, and symptom induction in this mycovirus/fungal host system.

Kondo H; Kanematsu S; Suzuki N

2013-01-01

166

[Effect of companion fungus on hyphal growth and polysaccharide content of Polyporus umbellatus].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of companion fungus on hyphal growth and polysaccharide content of Polyporus umbellata. METHOD: The mycelia and culture filtrate of companion fungus were added to the liquid culture system, and the biomass yield and polysaccharide of P. umbellatus were measured. RESULT: Mycelia and appropriate unsterilized culture filtrate of companion fungus could enhance the biomass yield of P. umbellatus significantly, while sterilized culture filtrate of companion fungus could decrease the biomass yield of P. umbellatus significantly. Either mycelia or culture filtrate of companion fungus could increase the intracellular polysaccharide content of P. umbellatus significantly. At the same time, they also could decrease extracellular polysaccharide content of P. umbellatus evidently. CONCLUSION: The mycelia and culture filtrate of companion fungus could be used in further fermentation of P. umbellatus.

Xing XK; Guo SX

2008-07-01

167

Degradation of Phenanthrene by a chilean white rot fungus Anthracophyllum discolor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Anthracophyllum discolor, a white rot fungus of southern Chile, has been an efficient degrader of clorophenols and azo dyes. This fungus produces ligninolytic enzymes being manganese peroxidase (Mn) the major one produced. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of phenanthrene concentration of ligninolytic activity of A. Discolor measured by poly R-478 decolorazation, and to evaluate the potential of this fungus for degrading phenanthrene in liquid media. (Author)

Acevedo, F.; Cuevas, R.; Rubilar, O.; Tortella, G.; Diez, M. C.

2009-07-01

168

Application of endogenous fungus in cultivation of snow lotus seedling and snow lotus  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a method for using endogenous fungus to cultivate saussurea sp, wherein two used endogenous fungus are DSE-1(Mycocentrospora sp.) and DSE-2(Leptodontidium sp.) and the method comprises that cultivating fungus and saussurea seed, then transplanting them into symbiotic substrate to be cultivated. The invention can avoid seed maintain process or shorten said process. And it can avoid hormone and chemical accelerator, to improve the quality and the content of active component.

GUO SHUNXING WU

169

Automatic punching bagging and tying machine for mixed edible fungus material  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to edible fungus producing machine, and is especially one kind of automatic punching type mixed edible fungus material bagging machine. The automatic punching type mixed edible fungus material bagging machine includes a frame a bin type feeding mechanism a cylinder for feeding and pressing material a site rotating disc with bag taking, opening and holding mechanism, loading mechanism, and bag rotating and tying mechanism a central shaft a rotating table and bag tank. The automatic punching type mixed edible fungus material bagging machine can complete bag taking, bag opening, bag loading and bag tying automatically. The machine may be also computer controlled.

TU XUANLAI TU

170

Caste-specific symbiont policing by workers of Acromyrmex fungus-growing ants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The interaction between leaf-cutting ants and their fungus garden mutualists is ideal for studying the evolutionary stability of interspecific cooperation. Although the mutualism has a long history of diffuse coevolution, there is ample potential for conflicts between the partners over the mixing and transmission of symbionts. Symbiont transmission is vertical by default, and both the ants and resident fungus actively protect the fungal monoculture growing in their nest against secondary introductions of genetically dissimilar symbionts from other colonies. An earlier study showed that mixtures of major and minor Acromyrmex workers eliminate alien fungus fragments even in subcolonies where their resident symbiont is not present. We hypothesize that the different tasks and behaviors performed by majors and minors are likely to select for differential responses to alien fungi. Major workers forage and cut new leaves and masticate them after delivery in the upper parts of the fungus garden and so are likely to more frequently encounter alien fungus than minor workers maintaining the established fungus garden and caring for the brood. We show that major workers of Acromyrmex echinatior indeed express stronger incompatibility reactions toward alien fungus garden fragments than minor workers. This implies that only the major workers, through recognition and exclusion of foreign fungus clones at their point of entry to the nest, have a realistic possibility to eliminate alien fungal tissue before it gets incorporated in the fungus garden and starts competing with the resident fungal symbiont.

Ivens, Aniek B.F.; Nash, David R.

2009-01-01

171

Isolated Fungal Promoters and Gene Transcription Terminators and Methods of Protein and Chemical Production in a Fungus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

Dai, Ziyu (Richland, WA); Lasure, Linda L. (Fall City, WA); Magnuson, Jon K. (Pasco, WA)

2008-11-11

172

Isolated fungal promoters and gene transcription terminators and methods of protein and chemical production in a fungus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

Dai, Ziyu (Richland, WA); Lasure, Linda L. (Fall City, WA); Magnuson, Jon K. (Pasco, WA)

2008-11-11

173

Directed evolution of a filamentous fungus for thermotolerance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Filamentous fungi are the most widely used eukaryotic biocatalysts in industrial and chemical applications. Consequently, there is tremendous interest in methodology that can use the power of genetics to develop strains with improved performance. For example, Metarhizium anisopliae is a broad host range entomopathogenic fungus currently under intensive investigation as a biologically based alternative to chemical pesticides. However, it use is limited by the relatively low tolerance of this species to abiotic stresses such as heat, with most strains displaying little to no growth between 35–37°C. In this study, we used a newly developed automated continuous culture method called the Evolugator™, which takes advantage of a natural selection-adaptation strategy, to select for thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae strain 2575 displaying robust growth at 37°C. Results Over a 4 month time course, 22 cycles of growth and dilution were used to select 2 thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae. Both variants displayed robust growth at 36.5°C, whereas only one was able to grow at 37°C. Insect bioassays using Melanoplus sanguinipes (grasshoppers) were also performed to determine if thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae retained entomopathogenicity. Assays confirmed that thermotolerant variants were, indeed, entomopathogenic, albeit with complex alterations in virulence parameters such as lethal dose responses (LD50) and median survival times (ST50). Conclusion We report the experimental evolution of a filamentous fungus via the novel application of a powerful new continuous culture device. This is the first example of using continuous culture to select for complex phenotypes such as thermotolerance. Temperature adapted variants of the insect-pathogenic, filamentous fungus M. anisopliae were isolated and demonstrated to show vigorous growth at a temperature that is inhibitory for the parent strain. Insect virulence assays confirmed that pathogenicity can be retained during the selection process. In principle, this technology can be used to adapt filamentous fungi to virtually any environmental condition including abiotic stress and growth substrate utilization.

de Crecy Eudes; Jaronski Stefan; Lyons Benjamin; Lyons Thomas J; Keyhani Nemat O

2009-01-01

174

Tubulin inhibitors from an endophytic fungus isolated from Cedrus deodara.  

Science.gov (United States)

From an endophytic fungus, a close relative of Talaromyces sp., found in association with Cedrus deodara, four compounds including two new ones (2 and 4) were isolated and characterized. The structures of two compounds (1 and 4) were confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The compounds displayed a range of cytotoxicities against human cancer cell lines (HCT-116, A-549, HEP-1, THP-1, and PC-3). All the compounds were found to induce apoptosis in HL-60 cells, as evidenced by fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy studies. Also, the compounds caused significant microtubule inhibition in HL-60 cells. PMID:23387901

Kumar, Manjeet; Qadri, Masroor; Sharma, Parduman Raj; Kumar, Arvind; Andotra, Samar S; Kaur, Tandeep; Kapoor, Kamini; Gupta, Vivek K; Kant, Rajni; Hamid, Abid; Johri, Sarojini; Taneja, Subhash C; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed; Shah, Bhahwal Ali

2013-02-06

175

Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of fungus Phomopsis stipata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our purpose was to determine the anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of the metabolites produced by the endophitic fungus Phomopsis stipata (Lib.) B. Sutton, (Diaporthaceae), cultivated in different media. The antimycobacterial activity was assessed through the Resazurin Microtiter Assay (REMA) and the cytotoxicity test performed on macrophage cell line. The extracts derived from fungi grown on Corn Medium and Potato Dextrose Broth presented the smallest values of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and low cytotoxicity, which implies a high selectivity index. This is the first report on the chemical composition and antitubercular activity of metabolites of P. stipata, as well as the influence of culture medium on these properties.

Karina Andrade de Prince; Renata Sordi; Fernando Rogério Pavan; Adolfo Carlos Barreto Santos; Angela R. Araujo; Sergio R.A. Leite; Clarice Q. F. Leite

2012-01-01

176

A convenient method of extracting total DNA from lichen fungus  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The process of the new method is that the upper or lower cortex and thaus of lichens are broken by liquid nitrogen,then fungi cell walls are destroyed by benzyl chloride (Phch_(2)Cl) under weak base condition,so the total DNA of lichen fungus is gained. The method is simple and convenient,so it can save both time and money. The gained total DNA has little miscellaneous proteins and DNA production is high. The DNA could be used for PCR amplification,RELP analysis and sequencing analysis.

Shi Xiangyang; Wei Jiangchun; Jiang Yumei; Tian Suzhong; Guo Shouyu

1997-01-01

177

Butyrolactone and cycloheptanetrione from mangrove-associated fungus Aspergillus terreus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A new butyrolactone, 7?-hydroxybutyrolactone III (1) and three new cycloheptanetriones, terretrione A-C (2-4), together with five known compounds, butyrolactone I, cyclo(Leu-Pro), cyclo(Val-Pro), cyclo(Ile-Pro), cyclo(Phe-Pro), were isolated from mangrove-associated marine fungus Aspergillus terreus. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of physical data analysis (NMR, high resolution-electrospray ionization (HR-ESI)-MS), especially by 2D-NMR techniques. These compounds showed weak cytotoxicity in vitro against HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A2780 cell lines.

Shen Y; Zou J; Xie D; Ge H; Cao X; Dai J

2012-01-01

178

Two new steroids from an endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two new steroids, (14?,22E)-9,14-dihydroxyergosta-4,7,22-triene-3,6-dione (1) and (5?,6?,15?,22E)-6-ethoxy-5,15-dihydroxyergosta-7,22-dien-3-one (2), together with three known steroids, calvasterols A and B (3 and 4, resp.), and ganodermaside D (5), were isolated from the culture broth of an endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp. isolated from Aconitum carmichaeli. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, and their inhibitory activities against six pathogenic fungi were evaluated. Most of the compounds showed moderate or weak antifungal activities in a broth-microdilution assay.

Wu SH; Huang R; Miao CP; Chen YW

2013-07-01

179

Reaction of sorghum genotypes to the anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum graminicola  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The reactions of 22 sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) genotypes to six previously identified races of the sorghum anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum graminicola, were evaluated under greenhouse and field conditions. Races were inoculated in separate tests in the greenhouse. In the field, spreader rows of a susceptible genotype were artificially inoculated with a mixture of the six races of the pathogen. In the greenhouse tests, nine genotypes showed resistance to all six races. In the field high levels of dilatory resistance was observed in the sorghum genotypes CMSXS169 and CMSXS373.

CASELA CARLOS R.; SANTOS FREDOLINO G.; FERREIRA ALEXANDRE S.

2001-01-01

180

Cyclohexadepsipeptides from the insect pathogenic fungus Hirsutella nivea BCC 2594.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new cyclohexadepsipeptides, hirsutatins A (1) and B (2), were isolated from a culture filtrate of the insect pathogenic fungus Hirsutella nivea BCC 2594. Structures of these compounds were elucidated primarily by NMR and mass spectroscopic analyses. The alpha-carbon stereochemistry of 1 was established by HPLC analysis of its acid hydrolysate using a chiral column. Hirsutatin B (2) exhibited activity against the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum K1 with an IC50 value of 5.8 microg/mL, while hirsutatin A (1) was inactive at a concentration of 20 microg/mL. PMID:16309324

Isaka, Masahiko; Palasarn, Somporn; Sriklung, Kanlayanee; Kocharin, Kanokarn

2005-11-01

 
 
 
 
181

Cyclohexadepsipeptides from the insect pathogenic fungus Hirsutella nivea BCC 2594.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two new cyclohexadepsipeptides, hirsutatins A (1) and B (2), were isolated from a culture filtrate of the insect pathogenic fungus Hirsutella nivea BCC 2594. Structures of these compounds were elucidated primarily by NMR and mass spectroscopic analyses. The alpha-carbon stereochemistry of 1 was established by HPLC analysis of its acid hydrolysate using a chiral column. Hirsutatin B (2) exhibited activity against the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum K1 with an IC50 value of 5.8 microg/mL, while hirsutatin A (1) was inactive at a concentration of 20 microg/mL.

Isaka M; Palasarn S; Sriklung K; Kocharin K

2005-11-01

182

[Acute renal failure and fungus ball: A case report].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fungus ball is rarely associated with acute renal failure (ARF). We report the case of a 65-year-old diabetic patient who has been admitted for a right kidney infection. Urinary exam showed a leucocyturia with a negative urine culture. Ultrasonography showed pelvicaliceal dilation. Nephroscopy revealed a fungal material in ureter. Culture of this material was positive for Candida tropicalis. After endoscopic and antifongic therapy, the serum creatinin decreased from 336 micromol/L to 150 micromol/L, indicating the good evolution of his renal function.

Aloui S; Gorcii M; Skhiri H; Bouraoui S; Frih A; Ben Dhia N; Elmay M

2010-06-01

183

[Acute renal failure and fungus ball: A case report].  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungus ball is rarely associated with acute renal failure (ARF). We report the case of a 65-year-old diabetic patient who has been admitted for a right kidney infection. Urinary exam showed a leucocyturia with a negative urine culture. Ultrasonography showed pelvicaliceal dilation. Nephroscopy revealed a fungal material in ureter. Culture of this material was positive for Candida tropicalis. After endoscopic and antifongic therapy, the serum creatinin decreased from 336 micromol/L to 150 micromol/L, indicating the good evolution of his renal function. PMID:20409771

Aloui, Sabra; Gorcii, Mohamed; Skhiri, Hbib; Bouraoui, Samia; Frih, Ameur; Ben Dhia, Nasr; Elmay, Mezri

2010-04-20

184

Two new terpenoids from endophytic fungus Periconia sp. F-31.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two new terpenoids, (+)-(3S,6S,7R,8S)-periconone A (1) and (-)-(1R,4R,6S,7S)-2-caren-4,8-olide (2), have been isolated from an endophytic fungus Periconia sp., which was collected from the plant Annona muricata. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. In the in vitro assays, the two compounds showed low cytotoxic activities against six human tumor cell lines (HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A549, A2780 and MCF-7) with IC(50)>10(-5) M.

Ge HL; Zhang DW; Li L; Xie D; Zou JH; Si YK; Dai J

2011-01-01

185

Microsatellites from the charcoal rot fungus (Macrophomina phaseolina).  

Science.gov (United States)

Microsatellite loci were identified from the charcoal rot fungus (Macrophomina phaseolina). Primer pairs for 46 loci were developed, and of these, 13 were optimized and screened using genomic DNA from 55 fungal isolates collected predominantly from two soybean fields in Mississippi. Twelve of the optimized loci were polymorphic and the number of alleles per locus ranged from 6 to 22. These microsatellites will be useful in population and pathogenicity studies to correspond with development of potential disease-resistant soybean and other susceptible crops. PMID:21564800

Baird, Richard E; Wadl, Phillip A; Wang, Xinwang; Johnson, Denita H; Rinehart, Timothy A; Abbas, Hamed K; Shier, Thomas; Trigiano, Robert N

2009-03-02

186

Microsatellites from the charcoal rot fungus (Macrophomina phaseolina).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Microsatellite loci were identified from the charcoal rot fungus (Macrophomina phaseolina). Primer pairs for 46 loci were developed, and of these, 13 were optimized and screened using genomic DNA from 55 fungal isolates collected predominantly from two soybean fields in Mississippi. Twelve of the optimized loci were polymorphic and the number of alleles per locus ranged from 6 to 22. These microsatellites will be useful in population and pathogenicity studies to correspond with development of potential disease-resistant soybean and other susceptible crops.

Baird RE; Wadl PA; Wang X; Johnson DH; Rinehart TA; Abbas HK; Shier T; Trigiano RN

2009-05-01

187

Two new antimicrobial metabolites from the endophytic fungus, Seimatosporium sp.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two new acaranoic acids, named seimatoporic acid A and B (1, and 2), together with six known compounds, R-(-)-mellein (3), cis-4-hydroxymellein (4), trans-4-hydroxymellein (5), 4R-hydroxy-5-methylmellein (6), (-)-5-hydroxymethylmellein (7), and ergosterol (8) were isolated from an endophytic fungus, Seimatosporium sp, by a bioassay-guided procedure. The structures of the new compounds have been assigned from analysis of the 1H and 13C NMR spectra, DEPT, and by 2D COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY experiments. A mixture of compounds 1 and 2 showed strong antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea, Septoria tritici, and Pyricularia oryzae.

Hussain H; Krohn K; Schulz B; Draeger S; Nazir M; Saleem M

2012-03-01

188

Two new antimicrobial metabolites from the endophytic fungus, Seimatosporium sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new acaranoic acids, named seimatoporic acid A and B (1, and 2), together with six known compounds, R-(-)-mellein (3), cis-4-hydroxymellein (4), trans-4-hydroxymellein (5), 4R-hydroxy-5-methylmellein (6), (-)-5-hydroxymethylmellein (7), and ergosterol (8) were isolated from an endophytic fungus, Seimatosporium sp, by a bioassay-guided procedure. The structures of the new compounds have been assigned from analysis of the 1H and 13C NMR spectra, DEPT, and by 2D COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY experiments. A mixture of compounds 1 and 2 showed strong antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea, Septoria tritici, and Pyricularia oryzae. PMID:22545398

Hussain, Hidayat; Krohn, Karsten; Schulz, Barbara; Draeger, Siegfried; Nazir, Mamona; Saleem, Muhammad

2012-03-01

189

Antibacterial spirobisnaphthalenes from the North American cup fungus Urnula craterium.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Urnucratins A-C (1-3), which possess an unusual bisnaphthospiroether skeleton with one oxygen bridge and one C-C bridge and represent a new subclass of bisnaphthalenes, were isolated from the North American cup fungus Urnula craterium. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were determined by means of HRMS, NMR, and quantum chemical CD calculations. Urnucratin A (1) was found to be active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, and Streptococcus pyogenes with MIC values of 2, 1, and 0.5 ?g/mL, respectively.

Liu XT; Schwan WR; Volk TJ; Rott M; Liu M; Huang P; Liu Z; Wang Y; Zitomer NC; Sleger C; Hartsel S; Monte A; Zhang L

2012-09-01

190

Cultivation of tea fungus on malt extract medium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The possibility of application of malt extract as a source of carbohydrate in a medium for tea fungus was investigated. The beverage obtained on such medium was compared with that prepared in a traditional way with sucrose medium. The presence of easily adoptable sugars, glucose and fructose, as dominant in malt medium results in a very effective fermentation, which gives much more sour beverage for the same time and makes it possible to reduce the fermentation period. The obtained beverage has satisfactory sensorial characteristics.

Cvetkovi? Dragoljub D.; Markov Siniša L.

2002-01-01

191

Chaenothecopsis khayensis, a new resinicolous calicioid fungus on African mahogany.  

Science.gov (United States)

The new species Chaenothecopsis khayensis (Ascomycota, Mycocaliciaceae) is described from Ghana, western Africa, on the resin of Khaya anthotheca and K. ivorensis. The species is distinctive in forming asci without crosiers and in possessing ascospores that are faintly longitudinally striate. Analysis of large subunit rDNA gene sequences positioned this species within a clade corresponding to the Mycocaliciales and identified its closest relative as Sphinctrina leucopoda. Chaenothecopsis khayensis occurs commonly on resin exuding from trees damaged by the larvae of the mahogany shoot borer (Hypsipyla sp.), and we discuss the possible ecological relationship between the fungus and these moths. PMID:21471291

Tuovila, Hanna; Cobbinah, Joseph R; Rikkinen, Jouko

2011-04-06

192

Chaenothecopsis khayensis, a new resinicolous calicioid fungus on African mahogany.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The new species Chaenothecopsis khayensis (Ascomycota, Mycocaliciaceae) is described from Ghana, western Africa, on the resin of Khaya anthotheca and K. ivorensis. The species is distinctive in forming asci without crosiers and in possessing ascospores that are faintly longitudinally striate. Analysis of large subunit rDNA gene sequences positioned this species within a clade corresponding to the Mycocaliciales and identified its closest relative as Sphinctrina leucopoda. Chaenothecopsis khayensis occurs commonly on resin exuding from trees damaged by the larvae of the mahogany shoot borer (Hypsipyla sp.), and we discuss the possible ecological relationship between the fungus and these moths.

Tuovila H; Cobbinah JR; Rikkinen J

2011-05-01

193

[A new sesquiterpenoid from fungus Colletotrichum sp. and its cytotoxicity].  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel sesquiterpenoid (1) and three known compounds identified as isoaltenuene (2), altenuene (3), and alternariol 4, 10-O-dimethyl ether (4), were isolated in our investigation of the cytotoxic constituents from solid cultures of the endophytic fungus Colletotrichum sp. The structures of these compounds were elucidated through spectroscopic data analysis. All compounds exhibited cytotoxic activity against lung cancer cell line A549, breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1. Compound 4 could induce the PANC-1 cells inflation or death, but couldn't induce apoptosis at the IC50 of 60.2 microg x mL(-1). PMID:23984524

Yang, Zhi-Jun; Yang, Tian; Luo, Min-Yu; Xia, Xing; Chen, Dai-Jie; Qian, Xiu-Ping

2013-06-01

194

[A new sesquiterpenoid from fungus Colletotrichum sp. and its cytotoxicity].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A novel sesquiterpenoid (1) and three known compounds identified as isoaltenuene (2), altenuene (3), and alternariol 4, 10-O-dimethyl ether (4), were isolated in our investigation of the cytotoxic constituents from solid cultures of the endophytic fungus Colletotrichum sp. The structures of these compounds were elucidated through spectroscopic data analysis. All compounds exhibited cytotoxic activity against lung cancer cell line A549, breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1. Compound 4 could induce the PANC-1 cells inflation or death, but couldn't induce apoptosis at the IC50 of 60.2 microg x mL(-1).

Yang ZJ; Yang T; Luo MY; Xia X; Chen DJ; Qian XP

2013-06-01

195

BIODEGRADATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHATETE CHRYSOSPORIUM: INVOLVEMENT OF THE LIGNIN DEGRADING SYSTEM  

Science.gov (United States)

The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade's wide variety of structurally diverse organic compounds, including a number of environmentall3 persistent organopollutants. he unique biodegradative abilities of this fungus appears to be dependent upon ...

196

BIODEGRADATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOPORIUM: INVOLVEMENT OF THE LIGNIN DEGRADING SYSTEM  

Science.gov (United States)

The white-rot fungus Phanrochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade a wide variety of structurally diverse organic compounds, including a number of environmentally persistent organopollutants. The unique biodegradative abilities of this fungus appears to be depend...

197

Biodegradation of Environmental Pollutants by the White Rot Fungus 'Phanerochaete chrysosporium': Involvement of the Lignin Degrading System.  

Science.gov (United States)

The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade a wide variety of structurally diverse organic compounds, including a number of environmentally persistent organopollutants. The unique biodegradative abilities of this fungus app...

J. A. Bumpus S. D. Aust

1993-01-01

198

Melaleuca quinquenervia plants differ in susceptibility towards fungus Puccinia psidii infection and disease development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Puccinia psidii (rust fungus) attacks immature healthy foliage of Melaleuca quinquenervia (melaleuca), an invasive plant in southern Florida, U.S.A. Melaleuca plants grown under same growing conditions manifest either susceptible or resistant reactions towards this fungus. We hypothesize that the va...

199

Biosorption of copper(II) and chromium(VI) by modified tea fungus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The tea fungus was found to have good adsorption capacities for heavy metal ions. In this work it was treated with HCl or NaOH at 20°C or 100°C, with the aim to improve its adsorption ability. The sorption of Cu(II) and Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solutions by raw and treated tea fungus was investig...

Š?iban Marina B.; Prodanovi? Jelena M.; Razmovski Radojka N.

200

Partial resistance of tomatoes against Phytophthora infestans, the late blight fungus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the Netherlands, the source of inoculum of the late blight fungus on tomatoes is the late blight fungus on potato crops. In regions of Europe mentioned, where tomatoes are grown in the open, P. infestans on tomatoes is the main source of inoculum. Especially in Bulgaria and Hungary, the effect of...

Turkesteen, L.J.

 
 
 
 
201

Specific, non-nutritional association between an ascomycete fungus and Allomerus plant-ants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ant–fungus associations are well known from attine ants, whose nutrition is based on a symbiosis with basidiomycete fungi. Otherwise, only a few non-nutritional ant–fungus associations have been recorded to date. Here we focus on one of these associations involving Allomerus plant-ants that build ga...

Ruiz-González, Mario X.; Malé, Pierre-Jean G.; Leroy, Céline; Dejean, Alain; Gryta, Hervé; Jargeat, Patricia; Quilichini, Angélique

202

Degradation of Chlorbromuron and Related Compounds by the Fungus Rhizoctonia solani1  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ability of the soil fungus Rhizoctonia solani to degrade phenyl-substituted urea herbicides was investigated. The fungus was able to transform chlorbromuron [3-(3-chloro-4-bromophenyl)-1-methyl-1-methoxyurea] to the demethylated product [3-(3-chloro-4-bromophenyl)-1-methoxyurea], which was isola...

Weinberger, Martin; Bollag, Jean-Marc

203

Genomic Resources of Magnaporthe oryzae (GROMO): A comprehensive and integrated database on rice blast fungus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Magnaporthe oryzae, rice blast fungus, is the most devastating pathogen of rice. It has emerged as a model phytopathogen for the study of host-pathogen interactions. A large body of data has been generated on different aspects of biology of this fungus a...

Thakur Shalabh; Jha Sanjay; Roy-Barman Subhankar; Chattoo Bharat

204

Metabolism and Cometabolism of Cyclic Ethers by a Filamentous Fungus, a Graphium sp.?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The filamentous fungus Graphium sp. (ATCC 58400) grows on gaseous n-alkanes and diethyl ether. n-Alkane-grown mycelia of this strain also cometabolically oxidize the gasoline oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). In this study, we characterized the ability of this fungus to metabolize and cometa...

Skinner, Kristin; Cuiffetti, Lynda; Hyman, Michael

205

Differential response by Melaleuca quinquenervia trees to attack by the rust fungus Puccinia psidii in Florida  

Science.gov (United States)

Melaleuca quinquenervia (melaleuca, paperbark tree) is an exotic invasive tree in Florida, Hawaii, and some Caribbean islands. Puccinia psidii (guava rust-fungus) is a Neotropical rust fungus, reported to attack many species in the Myrtaceae and one genus in the Heteropyxidaceae, both members of the...

206

Virus infection decreases the attractiveness of white clover plants for a non-vectoring herbivore.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant pathogens and insect herbivores are prone to share hosts under natural conditions. Consequently, pathogen-induced changes in the host plant can affect herbivory, and vice versa. Even though plant viruses are ubiquitous in the field, little is known about plant-mediated interactions between viruses and non-vectoring herbivores. We investigated the effects of virus infection on subsequent infestation by a non-vectoring herbivore in a natural genotype of Trifolium repens (white clover). We tested whether infection with White clover mosaic virus (WClMV) alters (1) the effects of fungus gnat feeding on plant growth, (2) the attractiveness of white clover for adult fungus gnat females, and (3) the volatile emission of white clover plants. We observed only marginal effects of WClMV infection on the interaction between fungus gnat larvae and white clover. However, adult fungus gnat females clearly preferred non-infected over WClMV-infected plants. Non-infected and virus-infected plants could easily be discriminated based on their volatile blends, suggesting that the preference of fungus gnats for non-infected plants may be mediated by virus-induced changes in volatile emissions. The compound ?-caryophyllene was exclusively detected in the headspace of virus-infected plants and may hence be particularly important for the preference of fungus gnat females. Our results demonstrate that WClMV infection can decrease the attractiveness of white clover plants for fungus gnat females. This suggests that virus infections may contribute to protecting their hosts by decreasing herbivore infestation rates. Consequently, it is conceivable that viruses play a more beneficial role in plant-herbivore interactions than generally thought. PMID:22526939

van Molken, Tamara; de Caluwe, Hannie; Hordijk, Cornelis A; Leon-Reyes, Antonio; Snoeren, Tjeerd A L; van Dam, Nicole M; Stuefer, Josef F

2012-04-17

207

Virus infection decreases the attractiveness of white clover plants for a non-vectoring herbivore.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plant pathogens and insect herbivores are prone to share hosts under natural conditions. Consequently, pathogen-induced changes in the host plant can affect herbivory, and vice versa. Even though plant viruses are ubiquitous in the field, little is known about plant-mediated interactions between viruses and non-vectoring herbivores. We investigated the effects of virus infection on subsequent infestation by a non-vectoring herbivore in a natural genotype of Trifolium repens (white clover). We tested whether infection with White clover mosaic virus (WClMV) alters (1) the effects of fungus gnat feeding on plant growth, (2) the attractiveness of white clover for adult fungus gnat females, and (3) the volatile emission of white clover plants. We observed only marginal effects of WClMV infection on the interaction between fungus gnat larvae and white clover. However, adult fungus gnat females clearly preferred non-infected over WClMV-infected plants. Non-infected and virus-infected plants could easily be discriminated based on their volatile blends, suggesting that the preference of fungus gnats for non-infected plants may be mediated by virus-induced changes in volatile emissions. The compound ?-caryophyllene was exclusively detected in the headspace of virus-infected plants and may hence be particularly important for the preference of fungus gnat females. Our results demonstrate that WClMV infection can decrease the attractiveness of white clover plants for fungus gnat females. This suggests that virus infections may contribute to protecting their hosts by decreasing herbivore infestation rates. Consequently, it is conceivable that viruses play a more beneficial role in plant-herbivore interactions than generally thought.

van Molken T; de Caluwe H; Hordijk CA; Leon-Reyes A; Snoeren TA; van Dam NM; Stuefer JF

2012-10-01

208

Expression of organophosphate hydrolase in the filamentous fungus Gliocladium virens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The broad-spectrum organophosphate hydrolase (OPH; EC 3.1.8.1) encoded by the organophosphate-degrading gene (opd) from Pseudomonas diminuta MG and Flavobacterium sp. ATCC 27551 possesses capabilities of both P-O bond hydrolysis (e.g. paraoxon) and P-F bond hydrolysis [e.g. sarin and diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP)]. In the present study a 9.4-kb plasmid, pCL1, was used to transform the saprophytic fungus Gliocladium virens. pCL1 was derived from pJS294 by placing the fungal promoter (prom1) from Cochliobolus heterostrophus upstream and the trpC terminator from Aspergillus nidulans down-stream of the opd gene. Southern analysis of restricted genomic DNA from various transformants indicated that integration occurred non-specifically at multiple sites. Western blot analysis of mycelial extracts from transformants confirmed the production of a processed form of the enzyme in the fungus. Maximal levels of OPH activity (rate of p-nitrophenol production from paraoxon) were observed after 168 h of culture and activity levels correlated with biomass production in mature vegetative growth.

Dave KI; Lauriano C; Xu B; Wild JR; Kenerley CM

1994-05-01

209

Expression of organophosphate hydrolase in the filamentous fungus Gliocladium virens.  

Science.gov (United States)

The broad-spectrum organophosphate hydrolase (OPH; EC 3.1.8.1) encoded by the organophosphate-degrading gene (opd) from Pseudomonas diminuta MG and Flavobacterium sp. ATCC 27551 possesses capabilities of both P-O bond hydrolysis (e.g. paraoxon) and P-F bond hydrolysis [e.g. sarin and diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP)]. In the present study a 9.4-kb plasmid, pCL1, was used to transform the saprophytic fungus Gliocladium virens. pCL1 was derived from pJS294 by placing the fungal promoter (prom1) from Cochliobolus heterostrophus upstream and the trpC terminator from Aspergillus nidulans down-stream of the opd gene. Southern analysis of restricted genomic DNA from various transformants indicated that integration occurred non-specifically at multiple sites. Western blot analysis of mycelial extracts from transformants confirmed the production of a processed form of the enzyme in the fungus. Maximal levels of OPH activity (rate of p-nitrophenol production from paraoxon) were observed after 168 h of culture and activity levels correlated with biomass production in mature vegetative growth. PMID:7764970

Dave, K I; Lauriano, C; Xu, B; Wild, J R; Kenerley, C M

1994-05-01

210

[Transformation of the fungus ball type pulmonary aspergillosis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Though the concept of semi-invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was advocated in 1981 by Gefter et al., its histopathological appearance has not yet been reported in detail. Pathological studies on fungus ball type pulmonary aspergillosis (PA) were originally made mainly in regard to related bronchi. Chronic-progressive destructive changes cannot be completely explained from this viewpoint alone. Clinically, since bloody sputum and hemoptysis appeared frequently, further studies on the pulmonary vasculature were considered necessary. In the resected lungs of 3 cases of semi-invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, the pathological features of pulmonary vasculature were characterized by numerous fungal clots within pulmonary arteries and veins, marked destruction of pulmonary blood vessels and extensive intravascular fibrin deposition. Intravascular fibrin deposition causes stasis of blood flow, promotes intravascular proliferation of aspergilli and probably accelerates pulmonary destruction caused by blood stasis. Important pathological findings of fungus ball type pulmonary aspergillosis of the semi-invasive subtype with clinical aspects of chronic-progressive lung destruction caused by severe inflammation, were reported for both the vascular and the bronchial system.

Nomura T; Sawazaki H; Saiki S

2000-01-01

211

Dibutyl phthalate biodegradation by the white rot fungus, Polyporus brumalis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, white rot fungus, Polyporus brumalis, was applied to degrade dibutyl phthalate (DBP), a major environmental pollutant. The degradation potential and resulting products were evaluated with HPLC and GC/MS. As DBP concentration increased to 250, 750, and 1,250 microM, the mycelial growth of P. brumalis was inhibited. However, growth was still observed in the 1,250 microM concentration. DBP was nearly eliminated from culture medium of P. brumalis within 12 days, with 50% of DBP adsorbed by the mycelium. Diethyl phthalate (DEP) and monobutyl phthalate (MBP) were detected as intermediate degradation products of DBP. In culture medium, the concentration of DEP was higher than that of MBP during the incubation period. After 12-15 days, the concentrations of both decreased rapidly in the culture medium. The primary final degradation product of DBP in culture medium was phthalic acid anhydride, as well as trace amounts of aromatic compounds, such as alpha-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, benzyl alcohol, and O-hydroxyphenylacetic acid. According to these results, the degradation of DBP in culture medium by the white rot fungus, P. brumalis, may be completed through two pathways-transesterification and de-esterification-which successively combine into an intracellular degradation pathway. PMID:17221890

Lee, Soo-Min; Lee, Jae-Won; Koo, Bon-Wook; Kim, Myung-Kil; Choi, Don-Ha; Choi, In-Gyu

2007-08-15

212

Interactions of polysporous cultures of antagonistic fungus Peneiphora gigantea (Fr.) Massee and some decay fungi of spruce from Stara planina  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the control of the fungus Heterobasidion annosum the most frequently applied method is stump treatment with biological preparations containing dehydrated spores of the saprophytic fungus Phlebiopsis gigantea (syn. Peniophora gigantea /Fr./ Massee). In the field, this fungus is a competitor to the...

Lazarev Vladimir; Radulovi? Zlatan; Milanovi? Slobodan

213

Quantitative proteomic analysis of the response of the wood-rot fungus, Schizophyllum commune, to the biocontrol fungus, Trichoderma viride.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: Investigation of changes in the protein profile of the wood-rot fungus, Schizophyllum commune, when paired against the biocontrol fungus, Trichoderma viride, for 48 h. METHODS AND RESULTS: Variations in protein profile resulting from contact with T. viride were assessed by spot separation using 2 dimensional protein gel electrophoresis followed by MALDI-TOF-TOF MS/MS protein identification. Contact with T. viride elicited a systematic response in S. commune, characterized by marked increases in proteins involved for transcription and translation (61%) and cell wall/hyphal biogenesis and stabilization (17%), whereas metabolism-associated proteins decreased in amounts (64%). Trichoderma viride, however, exhibited typical mycoparasitic behaviour with increases in the amounts of proteins involved in proteolysis and carbohydrate metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: The protein profile of S. commune confronted by T. viride indicates the up-regulation of mechanisms specifically targeted at the mycoparasitic machinery of T. viride, particularly cell wall lysis and antibiosis. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The proteomic responses observed in S. commune may occur in natural environments, providing an insight to the mechanism involved in conferring resistance to mycoparasitic attack. This study, therefore, warrants further investigation for the targeted design of more robust biocontrol agents.

Ujor VC; Peiris DG; Monti M; Kang AS; Clements MO; Hedger JN

2012-04-01

214

Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of fungus Phomopsis stipata  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Our purpose was to determine the anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of the metabolites produced by the endophitic fungus Phomopsis stipata (Lib.) B. Sutton, (Diaporthaceae), cultivated in different media. The antimycobacterial activity was assessed through the Resazurin Microtiter Assay (REMA) and the cytotoxicity test performed on macrophage cell line. The extracts derived from fungi grown on Corn Medium and Potato Dextrose Broth presented the smallest values of Mi (more) nimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and low cytotoxicity, which implies a high selectivity index. This is the first report on the chemical composition and antitubercular activity of metabolites of P. stipata, as well as the influence of culture medium on these properties.

Prince, Karina Andrade de; Sordi, Renata; Pavan, Fernando Rogério; Santos, Adolfo Carlos Barreto; Araujo, Angela R.; Leite, Sergio R.A.; Leite, Clarice Q. F.

2012-03-01

215

Waterfowl: potential environmental reservoirs of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Infections with Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (B. dendrobatidis), the causal agent of chytridiomycosis, have been shown to play an important role in the decline of amphibians worldwide. Spread of the fungus is poorly understood. Bird movement might possibly contribute to the spread of B. dendrobatidis in the environment. Therefore, 397 wild geese in Belgium were screened for presence of B. dendrobatidis on their toes using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). In addition, chemotaxis towards, adhesion, survival after desiccation and proliferation of B. dendrobatidis on keratinous toe scales from waterfowl were examined in vitro. qPCR revealed that 76 geese (15%) were positive for B. dendrobatidis. Results of the in vitro tests showed that B. dendrobatidis is attracted to the keratinous toes of aquatic birds on which they can adhere and even proliferate. However, desiccation is poorly tolerated. This suggests waterfowl are potential environmental reservoirs for B. dendrobatidis.

Garmyn A; Van Rooij P; Pasmans F; Hellebuyck T; Van Den Broeck W; Haesebrouck F; Martel A

2012-01-01

216

Waterfowl: potential environmental reservoirs of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infections with Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (B. dendrobatidis), the causal agent of chytridiomycosis, have been shown to play an important role in the decline of amphibians worldwide. Spread of the fungus is poorly understood. Bird movement might possibly contribute to the spread of B. dendrobatidis in the environment. Therefore, 397 wild geese in Belgium were screened for presence of B. dendrobatidis on their toes using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). In addition, chemotaxis towards, adhesion, survival after desiccation and proliferation of B. dendrobatidis on keratinous toe scales from waterfowl were examined in vitro. qPCR revealed that 76 geese (15%) were positive for B. dendrobatidis. Results of the in vitro tests showed that B. dendrobatidis is attracted to the keratinous toes of aquatic birds on which they can adhere and even proliferate. However, desiccation is poorly tolerated. This suggests waterfowl are potential environmental reservoirs for B. dendrobatidis. PMID:22514705

Garmyn, An; Van Rooij, Pascale; Pasmans, Frank; Hellebuyck, Tom; Van Den Broeck, Wim; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Martel, An

2012-04-13

217

Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 inhibitor from an anamorphic fungus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (Tdp1) is an enzyme that catalyzes hydrolysis of 3'-phosphotyrosyl bonds and is involved in repair of irreversible topoisomerase I (Top1)-DNA covalent complexes. Tdp1 inhibitors are regarded as potential cancer therapeutics in combination with Top1 inhibitors, which are currently used to treat human cancers. While screening for Tdp1 inhibitors, we discovered a novel compound, JBIR-21 (1), from the culture of an anamorphic fungus, RF-13305. The structure of 1 was established by extensive NMR and MS analyses. Compound 1 showed inhibitory activity against Tdp1 (IC(50) value, 18 ?M) and cytotoxic activity against cancer cell lines (IC(50) values, 3.5-13 ?M). Compound 1 also exhibited antitumor activity in a mouse xenograft model without adverse effects.

Takagi M; Ueda JY; Hwang JH; Hashimoto J; Izumikawa M; Murakami H; Sekido Y; Shin-ya K

2012-04-01

218

Two new steroids from an endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new steroids, (14?,22E)-9,14-dihydroxyergosta-4,7,22-triene-3,6-dione (1) and (5?,6?,15?,22E)-6-ethoxy-5,15-dihydroxyergosta-7,22-dien-3-one (2), together with three known steroids, calvasterols A and B (3 and 4, resp.), and ganodermaside D (5), were isolated from the culture broth of an endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp. isolated from Aconitum carmichaeli. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, and their inhibitory activities against six pathogenic fungi were evaluated. Most of the compounds showed moderate or weak antifungal activities in a broth-microdilution assay. PMID:23847072

Wu, Shao-Hua; Huang, Rong; Miao, Cui-Ping; Chen, You-Wei

2013-07-01

219

Cytotoxic lasiodiplodin derivatives from the fungus Syncephalastrum racemosum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical investigation of fungal biomass of the fungus Syncephalastrum racemosum led to the isolation of new natural products (3R),(5S)-5-hydroxy-de-O-methyllasiodiplodin (1), 6-oxode-O-methyllasiodiplodin (2), in addition to five known compounds, de-O-methyllasiodiplodin (3), lasiodiplodin (4), (3R),(5R)-5-hydroxy-de-O-methyllasiodiplodin (5), ergosterol (6), and ergosterol peroxide (7). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by a modified Mosher's method. Compound 1 showed cytotoxicity against cholangiocarcinoma, KKU-M139, KKU-M156, and KKU-M213 cell lines with IC(50) values in the range of 14-19 ?g/mL, while 3 showed cytotoxicity against KB, BC1, and NCI-H187 cell lines with IC(50) values of 12.67, 9.65, and 11.07 ?g/mL, respectively. PMID:22210028

Buayairaksa, Mongkol; Kanokmedhakul, Somdej; Kanokmedhakul, Kwanjai; Moosophon, Panawan; Hahnvajanawong, Chariya; Soytong, Kasem

2011-12-31

220

Cytotoxic lasiodiplodin derivatives from the fungus Syncephalastrum racemosum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chemical investigation of fungal biomass of the fungus Syncephalastrum racemosum led to the isolation of new natural products (3R),(5S)-5-hydroxy-de-O-methyllasiodiplodin (1), 6-oxode-O-methyllasiodiplodin (2), in addition to five known compounds, de-O-methyllasiodiplodin (3), lasiodiplodin (4), (3R),(5R)-5-hydroxy-de-O-methyllasiodiplodin (5), ergosterol (6), and ergosterol peroxide (7). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by a modified Mosher's method. Compound 1 showed cytotoxicity against cholangiocarcinoma, KKU-M139, KKU-M156, and KKU-M213 cell lines with IC(50) values in the range of 14-19 ?g/mL, while 3 showed cytotoxicity against KB, BC1, and NCI-H187 cell lines with IC(50) values of 12.67, 9.65, and 11.07 ?g/mL, respectively.

Buayairaksa M; Kanokmedhakul S; Kanokmedhakul K; Moosophon P; Hahnvajanawong C; Soytong K

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
221

Strain of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for controlling subterranean termites  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Alates of the Formosan subterranean termite (FST), Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, collected after swarming in 2002 died within 48 hrs, and the cadavers were visibly infected with a fungus. Fungi were picked from the cadavers, transferred to media and ultimately isolated to purity. A single fungal isolate, C4-B, taxonomically identified as Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff), was found to cause rapid mortality of FST alates. This is the first report of a biological control agent for termite alates. Strain C4-B was more lethal to both alates and workers when compared to M. anisopliae strain ESC1, marketed as the termite biocontrol agent BioBlast TM . 100% of FST alates exposed to C4-B spores (106 spores/[mu]l) were killed in 3 days. Field studies where C4-B spores were dispersed on grassy lawns resulted in 100% mortality of alates by day 5.

RAINA ASHOK K; WRIGHT MAUREEN S; LAX ALAN R

222

Biosorption of cadmium using the fungus Aspergillus niger  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sorption experiments using the Aspergillus niger fungus for cadmium removal were carried out to study the factors influencing and optimizing the biosorption of this metal. The effects of pH, time, biomass concentration, and initial concentration of the heavy metal on the rate of metallic biosorption were examined. An experimental design was also used to determine the values of the under study variables that provided the greatest biosorption efficiency. A technique for biomass recovery was also developed with the objective of determining the capacity of the regenerated biomass to biosorb the metals in solution. This research proved that with a pH of 4.75, a biomass concentration of 0.7 g/L, and a heavy metal concentration varying between 5 and 10 mg/L a biosorption process of biosorption with Aspergillus niger could be successfully used for heavy metal removal from oil field water in the oil industry.

L.M. Barros Júnior; G.R. Macedo; M.M.L. Duarte; E.P. Silva; A.K.C.L. Lobato

2003-01-01

223

Biosorption of cadmium using the fungus Aspergillus niger  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Sorption experiments using the Aspergillus niger fungus for cadmium removal were carried out to study the factors influencing and optimizing the biosorption of this metal. The effects of pH, time, biomass concentration, and initial concentration of the heavy metal on the rate of metallic biosorption were examined. An experimental design was also used to determine the values of the under study variables that provided the greatest biosorption efficiency. A technique for bio (more) mass recovery was also developed with the objective of determining the capacity of the regenerated biomass to biosorb the metals in solution. This research proved that with a pH of 4.75, a biomass concentration of 0.7 g/L, and a heavy metal concentration varying between 5 and 10 mg/L a biosorption process of biosorption with Aspergillus niger could be successfully used for heavy metal removal from oil field water in the oil industry.

Barros Júnior, L.M.; Macedo, G.R.; Duarte, M.M.L.; Silva, E.P.; Lobato, A.K.C.L.

2003-09-01

224

Two new compounds from gorgonian-associated fungus Aspergillus sp.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One new gamma-lactone derivative 5-hydroxy-3-isopropyl-4-methoxyfuranone (1) and one new lactam derivative dehydrated-marinamide (2), along with two known compounds marinamide (3) and marinamide methyl ester (4) were isolated from the fermentation broth of the marine gorgonian-associated fungus Aspergillus sp. SCSGAF0093. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and spectrometric analysis. Compound 1 showed significant toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina) with a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 1.25 microM, and 3 inhibited protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 23.3 microg/mL.

Xu XY; Zhang XY; He F; Peng J; Nong XH; Qi SH

2013-08-01

225

Efficacy of Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria Bassiana and Gamma Irradiation Against the Greater Date Moth, Arenipses Sabella  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) was isolated locally from dead larvae of the greater date moth, Arenipses sabella (Hampson) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The effect of three exposure methods and two environmental factors (temperature and relative humidity) on pathogenicity of the fungus with different concentrations to A. sabella second instar larvae were examined. The study demonstrated that the entomopathogenic fungus was most efficient in the control of second instar larvae at 25 degree C and 100% humidity and the percent of mortality was increased when increasing the concentration of fungus. The mode of exposure of fungus to larvae directly sprayed, larvae exposed to the treated dates or larvae both sprayed and exposed to the treated dates showed 56.66, 26.66 and 75% mortality, respectively, at concentration 1x1010 spores/ml and three days post-treatment. The F1 larvae resulting from irradiated male pupae with 150 Gy were more susceptible to pathogenic fungus at low concentration ((1x108 spores/ml) than non-irradiated ones. The scanning electron microscope was used to delineate the morphological stages of fungus to the germinated conidia and the hyphae penetrating the larva cuticle.

2011-01-01

226

Toluene biofiltration by the fungus Scedosporium apiospermum TB1.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The performance of biofilters inoculated with the fungus Scedosporium apiospermum was evaluated. This fungus was isolated from a biofilter which operated with toluene for more than 6 months. The experiments were performed in a 2.9 L reactor packed with vermiculite or with vermiculite-granular activated carbon as packing material. The initial moisture content of the support and the inlet concentration of toluene were 70% and 6 g/m3, respectively. As the pressure drop increased from 5-40 mm H2O a strong initial growth was observed. Stable operation was maintained for 20 days with a moisture content of 55% and a biomass of 33 mg biomass/g dry support. These conditions were achieved with intermittent addition of culture medium, which permitted a stable elimination capacity (EC) of 100 g/m3(reactor)h without clogging. Pressure drop across the bed and CO2 production were related to toluene elimination. Measurement of toluene, at different levels of the biofilter, showed that the system attained higher local EC (200 g/m3(r)h) at the reactor outlet. These conditions were related to local humidity conditions. When the mineral medium was added periodically before the EC decreases, EC of approximately 258 g/m3(r)h were maintained with removal efficiencies of 98%. Under these conditions the average moisture content was 60% and 41 mg biomass/g dry support was produced. No sporulation was observed. Evaluation of bacterial content and activities showed that the toluene elimination was only due to S. apiospermum catabolism.

García-Peña EI; Hernández S; Favela-Torres E; Auria R; Revah S

2001-01-01

227

Chemically armed mercenary ants protect fungus-farming societies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The ants are extraordinary in having evolved many lineages that exploit closely related ant societies as social parasites, but social parasitism by distantly related ants is rare. Here we document the interaction dynamics among a Sericomyrmex fungus-growing ant host, a permanently associated parasitic guest ant of the genus Megalomyrmex, and a raiding agro-predator of the genus Gnamptogenys. We show experimentally that the guest ants protect their host colonies against agro-predator raids using alkaloid venom that is much more potent than the biting defenses of the host ants. Relatively few guest ants are sufficient to kill raiders that invariably exterminate host nests without a cohabiting guest ant colony. We also show that the odor of guest ants discourages raider scouts from recruiting nestmates to host colonies. Our results imply that Sericomyrmex fungus-growers obtain a net benefit from their costly guest ants behaving as a functional soldier caste to meet lethal threats from agro-predator raiders. The fundamentally different life histories of the agro-predators and guest ants appear to facilitate their coexistence in a negative frequency-dependent manner. Because a guest ant colony is committed for life to a single host colony, the guests would harm their own interests by not defending the host that they continue to exploit. This conditional mutualism is analogous to chronic sickle cell anemia enhancing the resistance to malaria and to episodes in human history when mercenary city defenders offered either net benefits or imposed net costs, depending on the level of threat from invading armies.

Adams, Rachelle M M; Liberti, Joanito

2013-01-01

228

Chemically armed mercenary ants protect fungus-farming societies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ants are extraordinary in having evolved many lineages that exploit closely related ant societies as social parasites, but social parasitism by distantly related ants is rare. Here we document the interaction dynamics among a Sericomyrmex fungus-growing ant host, a permanently associated parasitic guest ant of the genus Megalomyrmex, and a raiding agro-predator of the genus Gnamptogenys. We show experimentally that the guest ants protect their host colonies against agro-predator raids using alkaloid venom that is much more potent than the biting defenses of the host ants. Relatively few guest ants are sufficient to kill raiders that invariably exterminate host nests without a cohabiting guest ant colony. We also show that the odor of guest ants discourages raider scouts from recruiting nestmates to host colonies. Our results imply that Sericomyrmex fungus-growers obtain a net benefit from their costly guest ants behaving as a functional soldier caste to meet lethal threats from agro-predator raiders. The fundamentally different life histories of the agro-predators and guest ants appear to facilitate their coexistence in a negative frequency-dependent manner. Because a guest ant colony is committed for life to a single host colony, the guests would harm their own interests by not defending the host that they continue to exploit. This conditional mutualism is analogous to chronic sickle cell anemia enhancing the resistance to malaria and to episodes in human history when mercenary city defenders offered either net benefits or imposed net costs, depending on the level of threat from invading armies.

Adams RM; Liberti J; Illum AA; Jones TH; Nash DR; Boomsma JJ

2013-09-01

229

Sperm length evolution in the fungus-growing ants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Eusocial insects offer special opportunities for the comparative study of sperm traits because sperm competition is absent (in species with obligatory monandry) or constrained (in lineages where queens mate multiply but never remate later in life). We measured sperm length in 19 species of fungus-growing ants, representing 9 of the 12 recognized genera, and mapped these onto the ant phylogeny. We show that average sperm length across species is highly variable and decreases with mature colony size in basal genera with singly mated queens, suggesting that sperm production or storage constraints affect the evolution of sperm length. Sperm length does not decrease further in multiply mating leaf-cutting ants, despite substantial further increases in colony size. In a combined analysis, sexual dimorphism explained 63.1% of the variance in sperm length between species. As colony size was not a significant predictor in this analysis, we conclude that sperm production trade-offs in males have been the major selective force affecting sperm length across the fungus-growing ants, rather than storage constraints in females. The relationship between sperm length and sexual dimorphism remained robust in phylogenetically independent contrasts. Some of the remaining variation was explained by the relative size of the sperm-storage organ, but only in the multiply mating leaf-cutting ants, suggesting that sperm-storage constraints become important for the evolution of sperm length in this derived group. Mate number affected sperm length to a minor extent, and only in interaction with other predictor variables, suggesting that sperm competition has not been a major selective force for sperm length evolution in these ants.

Baer, B.; Dijkstra, M. B.

2009-01-01

230

Reaction of some soybean mutant lines to natural rust fungus caused by (phakopsora pachyrhizi SYD)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reaction of some soybean mutant lines to natural rust fungus caused by (Phakopsora pachyrhizi SYD). Eleven soybean mutant lines of orba variety derived from gamma fungus disease in the wet season 1985/86 at the experimental station of Citayam, Bogor. Based on IWGSR rating system, soybean mutant lines No 18/Psj was moderately resistant to rust fungus disease. The other mutant lines, 14/PsJ, 15/PsJ, 19/PsJ, 20/PsJ, 106/PsJ, 102/PsJ, 111/PsJ, 118/PsJ, 119/PsJ and 220/PsJ were susceptible. (author). 11 refs.

1988-01-01

231

Cladosporium sp. , a potential fungus for bioremediation of wood-treating wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fungus, Cladosporium sp., was isolated from a very old wood-treating plant sludge pond in Weed, California. A preliminary study showed no inhibition of mycelial growth at 5,500 {mu}g polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) per ml of potato dextrose agar (PDA). Pentachlorophenol (PCP) inhibited mycelial growth at 10 {mu}g/ml of PDA. Rates of breakdown of both PAHs and PCP in the soil and water system were studied using this fungus. The results of this study and the application of this fungus for cleaning up contaminated sites will be discussed.

Borazjani, H.; Ferguson, B.; Hendrix, F.; McFarland, L.; McGinnis, G.; Pope, D.; Strobel, D.; Wagner, J. (Mississippi Forest Products Utilization Lab., Mississippi State (USA))

1989-01-01

232

[Scytalidium dimidiatum an opportunistic fungus for both man and Mangifera indica trees in Venezuela].  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to confirm the presence of Scytalidium dimidiatum on Mangifera indica (mango) trees, in a plantation managed by a diabetic patient with a white grain mycetoma of the foot caused by the same fungus. Samples from necrotic apices, roots, burned leaves and rotten stems from eight trees were processed by the Smith and Furcolow's mineral oil technique (modified). Several isolates from the apex material and clinical samples from the diabetic patient isolated in pure culture a fungus with the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of that in S. dimidiatum. This fungus should be considered as an opportunistic microorganism for both humans and M. indica. PMID:16309356

Padin, Carmiña; Fernández-Zeppenfeldt, Guillermo; Yegres, Francisco; Richard-Yegres, Nicole

2005-09-01

233

[Scytalidium dimidiatum an opportunistic fungus for both man and Mangifera indica trees in Venezuela].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to confirm the presence of Scytalidium dimidiatum on Mangifera indica (mango) trees, in a plantation managed by a diabetic patient with a white grain mycetoma of the foot caused by the same fungus. Samples from necrotic apices, roots, burned leaves and rotten stems from eight trees were processed by the Smith and Furcolow's mineral oil technique (modified). Several isolates from the apex material and clinical samples from the diabetic patient isolated in pure culture a fungus with the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of that in S. dimidiatum. This fungus should be considered as an opportunistic microorganism for both humans and M. indica.

Padin C; Fernández-Zeppenfeldt G; Yegres F; Richard-Yegres N

2005-09-01

234

Biodegradation of hazardous waste using white rot fungus: Project planning and concept development document  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been shown to effectively degrade pollutants such as trichlorophenol, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and other halogenated aromatic compounds. These refractory organic compounds and many others have been identified in the tank waste, groundwater and soil of various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The treatment of these refractory organic compounds has been identified as a high priority for DOE's Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) waste treatment programs. Unlike many bacteria, the white rot fungus P. chrysosporium is capable of degrading these types of refractory organics and may be valuable for the treatment of wastes containing multiple pollutants. The objectives of this project are to identify DOE waste problems amenable to white rot fungus treatment and to develop and demonstrate white rot fungus treatment process for these hazardous organic compounds. 32 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

1990-01-01

235

Bioproduction of bile acids and the glycine conjugates by Penicillium fungus.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been found that the Penicillium endophytic filamentous fungus with the young stems of Scurrula atroprupurea (Loranthaceae) produces cholic acid, deoxycholic acid and the glycine conjugates. PMID:18404349

Ohashi, Kazuyoshi; Miyagawa, Yoshitaka; Nakamura, Yuhki; Shibuya, Hirotaka

2007-08-21

236

The Production of Polysaccharide Degrading Enzymes By Phytopathogenic Fungus Verticillium tricorpus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The growth of phytopathogenic fungus Verticillium tricorpus on 15 carbohydrate substrates was monitored to analyse the range of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes and glucosidases production. The secretions of endo and exoenzymes, capable of degrading cellulosic, hemicellulosic and pectinolytic...

Ali H. Bahkali

237

Xylanase Superproducer: Genome Sequence of a Compost-Loving Thermophilic Fungus, Thermomyces lanuginosus Strain SSBP.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report here the draft genome sequence of Thermomyces lanuginosus strain SSBP, which was isolated from soil in South Africa. This fungus produces the largest amount of xylanase ever reported in the literature.

McHunu NP; Permaul K; Abdul Rahman AY; Saito JA; Singh S; Alam M

2013-01-01

238

Modelling the Hyphal Growth of the Wood-decay Fungus Physisporinus vitreus  

CERN Multimedia

The white-rot fungus, Physisporinus vitreus, degrades the membranes of bordered pits in tracheids and consequently increases the permeability of wood, which is a process that can be used by the wood industry to improve the uptake of wood preservatives and environmentally benign wood modification substances to enhance the use and sustainability of native conifer wood species. To understand and apply this process requires an understanding of how a complex system (fungus-wood) interacts under defined conditions. We present a three-dimensional fungal growth model (FGM) of the hyphal growth of P. vitreus in the heartwood of Norway spruce. The model considers hyphae and nutrients as discrete structures and links the microscopic interactions between fungus and wood (e.g. degradation rate and degree of opening of pits) with macroscopic system properties, such penetration depth of the fungus, biomass and distribution of destroyed pits in early- and latewood. Simulations were compared with experimental data. The growth...

Fuhr, M J; Schwarze, F W M R; Herrmann, H J

2011-01-01

239

Ascospiroketals A and B, unprecedented cycloethers from the marine-derived fungus Ascochyta salicorniae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chemical investigation of the marine-derived fungus Ascochyta salicorniae led to the isolation of two novel natural products, ascospiroketals A (1) and B (2). From a biosynthetic standpoint, the compounds possess new ring systems. [structure: see text].

Seibert SF; Krick A; Eguereva E; Kehraus S; König GM

2007-01-01

240

Persistence of the entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium muscarium Zare & Gams under ambient conditions in the field.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Positive results of laboratory trials, which proofed the effectiveness of the entomopathogenic fungus L. muscarium against endophytic larvae of the horse chestnut leafminer moth Cameraria ohridella DESCHKA et DIMIC, led to outdoor trials. One aspect of these trials was to determine the persistence of the fungus, which was used as commercial product Mycotal (Koppert, NL) and as strain V24 from the section Phytomedicine. In different variants several spore concentrations and the influence of an oil-containing adjuvant (Koppert, NL) were tested. The persistence of the fungus was determined through the number of colony forming units (cfu) after impressing the leaves on agar plates. The fungus could be detected until 14 days past application (dpa), with differences between the variants, despite most unfavourable weather conditions, like above-average of temperature and hours with sunshine as well as low humidity and heavy rainfall. In all variants were found dead and moulding larvae within the mines.

Lerche S; Sermann H; Büttner C

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Development of 11 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the blackberry rust fungus Phragmidium violaceum  

Science.gov (United States)

Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the Uredinales fungus Phragmidium violaceum, which causes leaf rust on European blackberry (Rubus fruticosus L. aggregate). Allele frequency ranged between two and seventeen alleles per locus with no evidence of linkage disequilibrium amon...

242

Biosorption of copper(II) and chromium(VI) by modified tea fungus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The tea fungus was found to have good adsorption capacities for heavy metal ions. In this work it was treated with HCl or NaOH at 20°C or 100°C, with the aim to improve its adsorption ability. The sorption of Cu(II) and Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solutions by raw and treated tea fungus was investigated in the batch mode. The largest quantity of adsorbed Cu(II), of about 55 mg/g, was achieved by tea fungus modified with NaOH at 100°C. For Cr(VI), the largest quantity of adsorbed anions, of about 58 mg/g, was achieved by the adsorbent modified with NaOH at 20°C. It was shown that acid modification of tea fungus biomass was not effective. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43005 i br. TR 31002

Š?iban Marina B.; Prodanovi? Jelena M.; Razmovski Radojka N.

2012-01-01

243

Novel Technique for Isolating Microstructures Present in Shake Cultures of the Fungus Ceratocystis ulmi  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Microstructures found in shake cultures of Ceratocystis ulmi, the fungus causing Dutch elm disease, have been isolated by a novel technique using the effect of bubbling gas through the culture filtrate.

Richards, Wayne C.; Takai, Shozo

244

Biodegradation of phenolic compounds from coking wastewater by immobilized white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, immobilized with the wood chips of Italian poplar, was employed for biodegradation of phenolic compounds in coking wastewater. The immobilized fungus, dried by vacuum freeze desiccator, was kept high activity after a 9-month preservation and easy to be activated and domesticated. The removal rates of phenolic compounds and COD by immobilized fungus were 87.05% and 72.09% in 6 days, which were obviously higher than that by free fungus. For phenolic compounds biodegradation, a pH ranging from 4.0 to 6.0 and a temperature ranging from 28 degrees C to 37 degrees C create suitable conditions, and optimum 5.0 and 35 degrees C, respectively. The optimum removal rate of phenolic compounds was over 84% and COD was 80% in 3 days. And the biodegradation of phenolic compounds followed the first-order kinetics. It is an efficient and convenient method for coking wastewater treatment.

Lu Y; Yan L; Wang Y; Zhou S; Fu J; Zhang J

2009-06-01

245

Xylanase Superproducer: Genome Sequence of a Compost-Loving Thermophilic Fungus, Thermomyces lanuginosus Strain SSBP.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report here the draft genome sequence of Thermomyces lanuginosus strain SSBP, which was isolated from soil in South Africa. This fungus produces the largest amount of xylanase ever reported in the literature. PMID:23788551

McHunu, Nokuthula Peace; Permaul, Kugen; Abdul Rahman, Ahmad Yamin; Saito, Jennifer A; Singh, Suren; Alam, Maqsudul

2013-06-20

246

Capillary electrophoresis for protein profiling of the dimorphic, Pathogenic Fungus, Penicillium marneffei.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Penicillium marneffei is an endemic, dimorphic fungus that exhibits very significant morbidity among immune compromised persons living or having traveled in Southeast Asia. The dimorphic nature of P. marneffei, which is believed to be a major contributing factor to infection by this fungus, is thermally regulated. At 25 °C, the fungus grows as a mold, but converts to a yeast phase when incubated at 37 °C. Hence, protein profiling of these developing forms will help ascertain the underpinning molecular mechanisms associated with this phase transition, and perhaps provide clues to virulence in this pathogenic fungus. This chapter outlines the basic procedures previously used to demonstrate distinct differences in protein expression between the mold and yeast phases of P. marneffei.

Chandler JM; Trenary HR; Walker GR; Cooper CR

2013-01-01

247

Biodegradation of hazardous waste using white rot fungus: Project planning and concept development document  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been shown to effectively degrade pollutants such as trichlorophenol, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and other halogenated aromatic compounds. These refractory organic compounds and many others have been identified in the tank waste, groundwater and soil of various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The treatment of these refractory organic compounds has been identified as a high priority for DOE's Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT E) waste treatment programs. Unlike many bacteria, the white rot fungus P. chrysosporium is capable of degrading these types of refractory organics and may be valuable for the treatment of wastes containing multiple pollutants. The objectives of this project are to identify DOE waste problems amenable to white rot fungus treatment and to develop and demonstrate white rot fungus treatment process for these hazardous organic compounds. 32 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

Luey, J.; Brouns, T.M.; Elliott, M.L.

1990-11-01

248

Susceptibility of Neoaplectana spp. and Heterorhabditis heliothidis to the Endoparasitic Fungus Drechmeria coniospora  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Adhesive conidia of the nematophagous fungus, Drechmeria coniospora (Drechsler) W. Gams and Jansson (Moniliales: Deuteromycetes), would occasionally attach but never penetrate the infective stages of insect parasitic Neoaplectana carpocapsae, N. glaseri, N. bibionis, N. intermedia, and Heterorhabdit...

Poinar, George O.; Jansson, Hans-Börje

249

Persistence of the entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium muscarium Zare & Gams under ambient conditions in the field.  

Science.gov (United States)

Positive results of laboratory trials, which proofed the effectiveness of the entomopathogenic fungus L. muscarium against endophytic larvae of the horse chestnut leafminer moth Cameraria ohridella DESCHKA et DIMIC, led to outdoor trials. One aspect of these trials was to determine the persistence of the fungus, which was used as commercial product Mycotal (Koppert, NL) and as strain V24 from the section Phytomedicine. In different variants several spore concentrations and the influence of an oil-containing adjuvant (Koppert, NL) were tested. The persistence of the fungus was determined through the number of colony forming units (cfu) after impressing the leaves on agar plates. The fungus could be detected until 14 days past application (dpa), with differences between the variants, despite most unfavourable weather conditions, like above-average of temperature and hours with sunshine as well as low humidity and heavy rainfall. In all variants were found dead and moulding larvae within the mines. PMID:20222590

Lerche, Sandra; Sermann, Helga; Büttner, Carmen

2009-01-01

250

Secalonic acid D; A cytotoxic constituent from marine lichen-derived fungus Gliocladium sp. T31.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Secalonic acid D (SAD) was isolated as the major secondary metabolite of the marine lichen-derived fungus Gliocladium sp. T31. Its structure was established on the basic of physico-chemical and spectroscopic data. This is the first report on the isolation of SAD from this fungus, as well as its inhibitory effect on K562 cell cycle and its cytotoxicity against several tumor cell lines in vitro.

Ren H; Tian L; Gu Q; Zhu W

2006-01-01

251

Influence of the fungus Trichoderma harzianum on the enzyme and polysaccharide composition of Silene vulgaris Callus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Activities of polygalacturonase and 1,3-?-glucanase increased in campion (Silene vulgaris) callus cells during co-cultivation with the fungus Trichoderma harzianum. This was associated with a decrease in galacturonic acid residues in the pectic polysaccharide of campion silenan and also in the production of pectin by the callus. Co-cultivation of the callus and the fungus resulted in an increase in contents of arabinose residues in the intracellular arabinogalactan and in contents of galactose residues in the extracellular arabinogalactan.

Günter EA; Kapustina OM; Ovodov YS

2013-03-01

252

Exploring the potential for actinobacteria as defensive symbionts in fungus-growing termites.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play a role as defensive symbionts against Pseudoxylaria in fungus-growing termites. We sampled for Actinobacteria from 30 fungus-growing termite colonies, spanning the three main termite genera and two geographically distant sites. Our isolations yielded 360 Actinobacteria, from which we selected subsets for morphological (288 isolates, grouped in 44 morphotypes) and for 16S rRNA (35 isolates, spanning the majority of morphotypes) characterisation. Actinobacteria were found throughout all sampled nests and colony parts and, phylogenetically, they are interspersed with Actinobacteria from origins other than fungus-growing termites, indicating lack of specificity. Antibiotic-activity screening of 288 isolates against the fungal cultivar and competitor revealed that most of the Actinobacteria-produced molecules with antifungal activity. A more detailed bioassay on 53 isolates, to test the specificity of antibiotics, showed that many Actinobacteria inhibit both Pseudoxylaria and Termitomyces, and that the cultivar fungus generally is more susceptible to inhibition than the competitor. This suggests that either defensive symbionts are not present in the system or that they, if present, represent a subset of the community isolated. If so, the antibiotics must be used in a targeted fashion, being applied to specific areas by the termites. We describe the first discovery of an assembly of antibiotic-producing Actinobacteria occurring in fungus-growing termite nests. However, due to the diversity found, and the lack of both phylogenetic and bioactivity specificity, further work is necessary for a better understanding of the putative role of antibiotic-producing bacteria in the fungus-growing termite mutualistic system.

Visser AA; Nobre T; Currie CR; Aanen DK; Poulsen M

2012-05-01

253

Insect symbioses: a case study of past, present, and future fungus-growing ant research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fungus-growing ants (Attini: Formicidae) engage in an obligate mutualism with fungi they cultivate for food. Although biologists have been fascinated with fungus-growing ants since the resurgence of natural history in the modern era, the early stages of research focused mainly on the foraging behavior of the leaf-cutters (the most derived attine lineage). Indeed, the discovery that the ants actually use leaf fragments to manure a fungus did not come until the 1800s. More recently, three additional microbial symbionts have been described, including specialized microfungal parasites of the ant's fungus garden, antibiotic-producing actinobacteria that help protect the fungus garden from the parasite, and a black yeast that parasitizes the ant-actinobacteria mutualism. The fungus-growing ant symbiosis serves as a particularly useful model system for studying insect-microbe symbioses, because, to date, it contains four well-characterized microbial symbionts, including mutualists and parasites that encompass micro-fungi, macro-fungi, yeasts, and bacteria. Here, we discuss approaches for studying insect-microbe symbioses, using the attine ant-microbial symbiosis as our framework. We draw attention to particular challenges in the field of symbiosis, including the establishment of symbiotic associations and symbiont function. Finally, we discuss future directions in insect-microbe research, with particular focus on applying recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies.

Caldera, Eric J; Poulsen, Michael

2009-01-01

254

Specific, non-nutritional association between an ascomycete fungus and Allomerus plant-ants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ant-fungus associations are well known from attine ants, whose nutrition is based on a symbiosis with basidiomycete fungi. Otherwise, only a few non-nutritional ant-fungus associations have been recorded to date. Here we focus on one of these associations involving Allomerus plant-ants that build galleried structures on their myrmecophytic hosts in order to ambush prey. We show that this association is not opportunistic because the ants select from a monophyletic group of closely related fungal haplotypes of an ascomycete species from the order Chaetothyriales that consistently grows on and has been isolated from the galleries. Both the ants' behaviour and an analysis of the genetic population structure of the ants and the fungus argue for host specificity in this interaction. The ants' behaviour reveals a major investment in manipulating, growing and cleaning the fungus. A molecular analysis of the fungus demonstrates the widespread occurrence of one haplotype and many other haplotypes with a lower occurrence, as well as significant variation in the presence of these fungal haplotypes between areas and ant species. Altogether, these results suggest that such an interaction might represent an as-yet undescribed type of specific association between ants and fungus in which the ants cultivate fungal mycelia to strengthen their hunting galleries.

Ruiz-González MX; Malé PJ; Leroy C; Dejean A; Gryta H; Jargeat P; Quilichini A; Orivel J

2011-06-01

255

Specific, non-nutritional association between an ascomycete fungus and Allomerus plant-ants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ant-fungus associations are well known from attine ants, whose nutrition is based on a symbiosis with basidiomycete fungi. Otherwise, only a few non-nutritional ant-fungus associations have been recorded to date. Here we focus on one of these associations involving Allomerus plant-ants that build galleried structures on their myrmecophytic hosts in order to ambush prey. We show that this association is not opportunistic because the ants select from a monophyletic group of closely related fungal haplotypes of an ascomycete species from the order Chaetothyriales that consistently grows on and has been isolated from the galleries. Both the ants' behaviour and an analysis of the genetic population structure of the ants and the fungus argue for host specificity in this interaction. The ants' behaviour reveals a major investment in manipulating, growing and cleaning the fungus. A molecular analysis of the fungus demonstrates the widespread occurrence of one haplotype and many other haplotypes with a lower occurrence, as well as significant variation in the presence of these fungal haplotypes between areas and ant species. Altogether, these results suggest that such an interaction might represent an as-yet undescribed type of specific association between ants and fungus in which the ants cultivate fungal mycelia to strengthen their hunting galleries. PMID:21084334

Ruiz-González, Mario X; Malé, Pierre-Jean G; Leroy, Céline; Dejean, Alain; Gryta, Hervé; Jargeat, Patricia; Quilichini, Angélique; Orivel, Jérôme

2010-11-17

256

Ethanol Production from Lignocellulose by the Dimorphic Fungus Mucor Indicus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ethanol production from dilute-acid lignocellulosic hydrolyzate by the dimorphic fungus Mucor indicus was investigated. A mixture of different forest wood chips dominated by spruce was hydrolyzed with 0.5 g/L sulfuric acid at 15 bar for 10 min, yielding different sugars including galactose, glucose, mannose, and xylose, but also different fermentation inhibitors such as acetic acid, furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), and phenolic compounds. We induced different morphological growth of M. indicus from purely filamentous, mostly filamentous, mostly yeast-like to purely yeast-like. The different forms were then used to ferment the hydrolyzate. They tolerated the presence of the inhibitors under anaerobic batch cultivation well and the ethanol yield was 430-440 g/kg consumed sugars. The ethanol productivity depended on the morphology. Judging from these results, we conclude that M. indicus, is useful for ethanol production from toxic substrates independent of its morphology. Keywords: bio-ethanol, lignocellulosic materials, dilute acid hydrolysis, Mucor indicus, dimorphic fungi

Lennartsson, P.R.; Taherzadeh, M.J. (School of Engineering, Univ. of Boraas, SE-50190, Boraas (Sweden)). e-mail: Patrik.Lennartsson@hb.se; Karimi, K. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan Univ. of Technology, 84156-83111, Isfahan (IR)); Edebo, L. (Dept. of Clinical Bacteriology, Univ. of Goeteborg, SE-41346, Goeteborg (Sweden))

2008-10-15

257

Inferring dispersal patterns of the generalist root fungus Armillaria mellea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Investigating the dispersal of the root-pathogenic fungus Armillaria mellea is necessary to understand its population biology. Such an investigation is complicated by both its subterranean habit and the persistence of genotypes over successive host generations. As such, host colonization by resident mycelia is thought to outcompete spore infections. We evaluated the contributions of mycelium and spores to host colonization by examining a site in which hosts pre-date A. mellea. Golden Gate Park (San Francisco, CA, USA) was established in 1872 primarily on sand dunes that supported no resident mycelia. Genotypes were identified by microsatellite markers and somatic incompatibility pairings. Spatial autocorrelation analyses of kinship coefficients were used to infer spore dispersal distance. The largest genotypes measured 322 and 343 m in length, and 61 of the 90 total genotypes were recovered from only one tree. The absence of multilocus linkage disequilibrium and the high proportion of unique genotypes suggest that spore dispersal is an important part of the ecology and establishment of A. mellea in this ornamental landscape. Spatial autocorrelations indicated a significant spatial population structure consistent with limited spore dispersal. This isolation-by-distance pattern suggests that most spores disperse over a few meters, which is consistent with recent, direct estimates based on spore trapping data.

Travadon R; Smith ME; Fujiyoshi P; Douhan GW; Rizzo DM; Baumgartner K

2012-03-01

258

Inferring dispersal patterns of the generalist root fungus Armillaria mellea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigating the dispersal of the root-pathogenic fungus Armillaria mellea is necessary to understand its population biology. Such an investigation is complicated by both its subterranean habit and the persistence of genotypes over successive host generations. As such, host colonization by resident mycelia is thought to outcompete spore infections. We evaluated the contributions of mycelium and spores to host colonization by examining a site in which hosts pre-date A. mellea. Golden Gate Park (San Francisco, CA, USA) was established in 1872 primarily on sand dunes that supported no resident mycelia. Genotypes were identified by microsatellite markers and somatic incompatibility pairings. Spatial autocorrelation analyses of kinship coefficients were used to infer spore dispersal distance. The largest genotypes measured 322 and 343 m in length, and 61 of the 90 total genotypes were recovered from only one tree. The absence of multilocus linkage disequilibrium and the high proportion of unique genotypes suggest that spore dispersal is an important part of the ecology and establishment of A. mellea in this ornamental landscape. Spatial autocorrelations indicated a significant spatial population structure consistent with limited spore dispersal. This isolation-by-distance pattern suggests that most spores disperse over a few meters, which is consistent with recent, direct estimates based on spore trapping data. PMID:22211298

Travadon, Renaud; Smith, Matthew E; Fujiyoshi, Phillip; Douhan, Greg W; Rizzo, David M; Baumgartner, Kendra

2011-12-23

259

Protein profiling of the dimorphic pathogenic fungus, Sporothrix schenckii.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sporotrichosis is a common cutaneous mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii, which exhibits a temperature-dependent dimorphic switch. At 25°C, it grows in a mycelial phase, while at 37°C, it forms unicellular yeast cells. The formation of yeast cells was thought to be a requisite for the pathogenicity of S. schenckii. To identify fragments that might be related to morphogenesis, whole-cell proteins from the mold and early yeast stages of S. schenckii were analyzed using 2DE. Among thousands of protein molecules displayed, more than 300 showed a differential expression between the two phases. In particular, 24 yeast-specific proteins were identified using MALDI-TOF/MS. One of the most interesting proteins was a hybrid histidine kinase, DRK1, a global regulator of dimorphism and virulence in Blastomyces dermatitidis and Histoplasma capsulatum that was abundant in the yeast phase. Our study introduced a new approach to study dimorphism in S. schenckii, and the data may help us better understand the molecular mechanisms of phase transition.

Zhang Z; Hou B; Xin Y; Liu X

2012-01-01

260

Regulation of cell separation in the dimorphic fungus Ustilago maydis.  

Science.gov (United States)

During its haploid phase the dimorphic fungus Ustilago maydis grows vegetatively by budding. We have identified two genes, don1 and don3, which control the separation of mother and daughter cells. Mutant cells form tree-like clusters in liquid culture and grow as ring-like (donut-shaped) colonies on solid medium. In wild-type U. maydis cells, two distinct septa are formed during cytokinesis and delimit a fragmentation zone. Cells defective for either don1 or don3 display only a single septum and fail to complete cell separation. don1 encodes a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) of the Dbl family specific for Rho/Rac GTPases. Don3 belongs to the germinal-centre-kinase (GC) subfamily of Ste20-like protein kinases. We have isolated the U. maydis homologues of the small GTP binding proteins Rho2, Rho3, Rac1 and Cdc42. Out of these, only Cdc42 interacts specifically with Don1 and Don3 in the yeast two-hybrid system. We propose that Don1 and Don3 regulate the initiation of the secondary septum, which is required for proper cell separation. PMID:12100561

Weinzierl, Gerhard; Leveleki, Leonora; Hassel, Annette; Kost, Gerhard; Wanner, Gerhard; Bölker, Michael

2002-07-01

 
 
 
 
261

Regulation of cell separation in the dimorphic fungus Ustilago maydis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During its haploid phase the dimorphic fungus Ustilago maydis grows vegetatively by budding. We have identified two genes, don1 and don3, which control the separation of mother and daughter cells. Mutant cells form tree-like clusters in liquid culture and grow as ring-like (donut-shaped) colonies on solid medium. In wild-type U. maydis cells, two distinct septa are formed during cytokinesis and delimit a fragmentation zone. Cells defective for either don1 or don3 display only a single septum and fail to complete cell separation. don1 encodes a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) of the Dbl family specific for Rho/Rac GTPases. Don3 belongs to the germinal-centre-kinase (GC) subfamily of Ste20-like protein kinases. We have isolated the U. maydis homologues of the small GTP binding proteins Rho2, Rho3, Rac1 and Cdc42. Out of these, only Cdc42 interacts specifically with Don1 and Don3 in the yeast two-hybrid system. We propose that Don1 and Don3 regulate the initiation of the secondary septum, which is required for proper cell separation.

Weinzierl G; Leveleki L; Hassel A; Kost G; Wanner G; Bölker M

2002-07-01

262

[Furfural degradation by filamentous fungus Amorphotheca resinae ZN1].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Some degradation products from lignocellulose pretreatment strongly inhibit the activities of cellulolytic enzymes and ethanol fermentation strains, thus the efficient removal of the inhibitor substances ("detoxification") is the inevitable step for the biotransformation processes. In this study, the biological detoxification of furfural by a newly isolated fungus, Amorphotheca resinae ZN1, was studied and the metabolic pathways of furfural degradation was analyzed. The metabolic pathway of furfural degradation in A. resinae ZN1 was described as follows: first, furfural was quickly converted into the low toxic furfuryl alcohol; then the furfuryl alcohol was gradually converted into furfural again but under the low concentration under aerobic condition, which was not lethal to the growth of the fungi; furfural continued to be oxidized to furoic acid by A. resinae ZN1. It is likely that furoic acid was further degraded in the TCA cycle to complete the biological degradation of furfural. The present study provided the important experimental basis for speeding up the biodetoxification of furfural by A. resinae ZN1 and the rate-limiting step in the lignocellulose biotransformation to ethanol.

Wang X; Zhang J; Xin X; Bao J

2012-09-01

263

Protein profiling of the dimorphic pathogenic fungus, Sporothrix schenckii.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sporotrichosis is a common cutaneous mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii, which exhibits a temperature-dependent dimorphic switch. At 25°C, it grows in a mycelial phase, while at 37°C, it forms unicellular yeast cells. The formation of yeast cells was thought to be a requisite for the pathogenicity of S. schenckii. To identify fragments that might be related to morphogenesis, whole-cell proteins from the mold and early yeast stages of S. schenckii were analyzed using 2DE. Among thousands of protein molecules displayed, more than 300 showed a differential expression between the two phases. In particular, 24 yeast-specific proteins were identified using MALDI-TOF/MS. One of the most interesting proteins was a hybrid histidine kinase, DRK1, a global regulator of dimorphism and virulence in Blastomyces dermatitidis and Histoplasma capsulatum that was abundant in the yeast phase. Our study introduced a new approach to study dimorphism in S. schenckii, and the data may help us better understand the molecular mechanisms of phase transition. PMID:21842181

Zhang, Zhenying; Hou, Binbin; Xin, Yi; Liu, Xiaoming

2011-08-13

264

Mycoviruses infecting the endophytic and entomopathogenic fungus Tolypocladium cylindrosporum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A mixed virus infection in a strain of the endophytic and entomopathogenic fungus Tolypocladium cylindrosporum was deduced from a study of the transmission to conidia of several double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) elements. The transmission rates of each dsRNA were different, and monosporic isolates harbouring different combinations of the original set of six dsRNAs were obtained. A 5196 bp dsRNA element was sequenced and represents the genome of T. cylindrosporum virus 1 (TcV1), a new member of the genus Victorivirus in the Totiviridae family. This virus was transmitted to 81.4% of the conidia; in contrast, four dsRNAs of 3.1-3.7 kbp were transmitted only to 4.7% of the monosporic isolates obtained from the infected parental strain. These four dsRNAs did not show segregation during transmission, and one of them was shown by sequence analysis to encode an RdRp, suggesting that the four molecules might represent the whole genome of a quadripartite chrysovirus. A third possible virus with a genome of approximately 4.2 kbp was transmitted to 79.1% of the monosporic isolates produced by the infected strain. Ribavirin was used to cure T. cylindrosporum from viruses, and TcV1 was sensitive to this drug. All monosporic cultures derived from the infected strain treated with 80 and 100 ?M concentrations of the drug were free of TcV1.

Herrero N; Zabalgogeazcoa I

2011-09-01

265

Mycoviruses infecting the endophytic and entomopathogenic fungus Tolypocladium cylindrosporum.  

Science.gov (United States)

A mixed virus infection in a strain of the endophytic and entomopathogenic fungus Tolypocladium cylindrosporum was deduced from a study of the transmission to conidia of several double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) elements. The transmission rates of each dsRNA were different, and monosporic isolates harbouring different combinations of the original set of six dsRNAs were obtained. A 5196 bp dsRNA element was sequenced and represents the genome of T. cylindrosporum virus 1 (TcV1), a new member of the genus Victorivirus in the Totiviridae family. This virus was transmitted to 81.4% of the conidia; in contrast, four dsRNAs of 3.1-3.7 kbp were transmitted only to 4.7% of the monosporic isolates obtained from the infected parental strain. These four dsRNAs did not show segregation during transmission, and one of them was shown by sequence analysis to encode an RdRp, suggesting that the four molecules might represent the whole genome of a quadripartite chrysovirus. A third possible virus with a genome of approximately 4.2 kbp was transmitted to 79.1% of the monosporic isolates produced by the infected strain. Ribavirin was used to cure T. cylindrosporum from viruses, and TcV1 was sensitive to this drug. All monosporic cultures derived from the infected strain treated with 80 and 100 ?M concentrations of the drug were free of TcV1. PMID:21736906

Herrero, Noemí; Zabalgogeazcoa, Iñigo

2011-06-28

266

Ecological and Evolutionary Determinants of Bark Beetle —Fungus Symbioses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ectosymbioses among bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae) and fungi (primarily ophiostomatoid Ascomycetes) are widespread and diverse. Associations range from mutualistic to commensal, and from facultative to obligate. Some fungi are highly specific and associated only with a single beetle species, while others can be associated with many. In addition, most of these symbioses are multipartite, with the host beetle associated with two or more consistent partners. Mycangia, structures of the beetle integument that function in fungal transport, have evolved numerous times in the Scolytinae. The evolution of such complex, specialized structures indicates a high degree of mutual dependence among the beetles and their fungal partners. Unfortunately, the processes that shaped current day beetle-fungus symbioses remain poorly understood. Phylogeny, the degree and type of dependence on partners, mode of transmission of symbionts (vertical vs. horizontal), effects of the abiotic environment, and interactions among symbionts themselves or with other members of the biotic community, all play important roles in determining the composition, fidelity, and longevity of associations between beetles and their fungal associates. In this review, I provide an overview of these associations and discuss how evolution and ecological processes acted in concert to shape these fascinating, complex symbioses.

Diana L. Six

2012-01-01

267

Manganese peroxidases of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ligninolytic enzymes produced by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida in liquid culture were studied. Only manganese peroxidase (MnP) activity could be detected in the supernatant liquid of the cultures. Lignin peroxidase (LiP) and laccase activities were not detected under a variety of different culture conditions. The highest MnP activity levels were obtained in nitrogen-limited cultures grown under an oxygen atmosphere. The enzyme was induced by Mn(II). The initial pH of the culture medium did not significantly affect the MnP production. Three MnP isozymes were identified (MnPI, MnPII, and MnPIII) and purified to homogeneity by anion-exchange chromatography followed by hydrophobic chromatography. The isozymes are glycoproteins with approximately the same molecular mass (around 45 kDa) but have different pIs. The pIs are 5.3, 4.2, and 3.3 for MnPI, MnPII, and MnPIII, respectively. The three isozymes are active in the same range of pHs (pHs 3.0 to 6.0) and have optimal pHs between 4.5 and 5.0. Their amino-terminal sequences, although highly similar, were distinct, suggesting that each is the product of a separate gene.

Rüttimann-Johnson C; Cullen D; Lamar RT

1994-02-01

268

Characterization of Transposable Elements in the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Laccaria bicolor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background: The publicly available Laccaria bicolor genome sequence has provided a considerable genomic resource allowing systematic identification of transposable elements (TEs) in this symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungus. Using a TEspecific annotation pipeline we have characterized and analyzed TEs in the L. bicolor S238N-H82 genome. Methodology/Principal Findings: TEs occupy 24% of the 60 Mb L. bicolor genome and represent 25,787 full-length and partial copy elements distributed within 171 families. The most abundant elements were the Copia-like. TEs are not randomly distributed across the genome, but are tightly nested or clustered. The majority of TEs exhibits signs of ancient transposition except some intact copies of terminal inverted repeats (TIRS), long terminal repeats (LTRs) and a large retrotransposon derivative (LARD) element. There were three main periods of TE expansion in L. bicolor: the first from 57 to 10 Mya, the second from 5 to 1 Mya and the most recent from 0.5 Mya ago until now. LTR retrotransposons are closely related to retrotransposons found in another basidiomycete, Coprinopsis cinerea. Conclusions: This analysis 1) represents an initial characterization of TEs in the L. bicolor genome, 2) contributes to improve genome annotation and a greater understanding of the role TEs played in genome organization and evolution and 3) provides a valuable resource for future research on the genome evolution within the Laccaria genus.

Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL; Murat, Claude [INRA, Nancy, France; Morin, Emmanuelle [INRA, Nancy, France; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Le Tacon, F [UMR, France; Martin, Francis [INRA, Nancy, France

2012-01-01

269

Cellulase from the white-rot fungus Polyporus anceps  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ability of two different fungi - Trichoderma reesei RUT C30, and Polyporus anceps - to produce cellulase enzymes were compared. Cellulases have the ability to convert cellulose to sugars which in turn can be used as a substrate for fermentation. Since cellulose is a major component of biomass, cellulases will play an important role in the use of biomass as a feedstock for fermentation. To convert lignocellulosics to liquid fuels requires large amounts of cellulase. P. anceps, a cellulolytic wood-degrading fungus gave indication of being able to hydrolyse substantial amounts of poplar shavings to sugar. Filtrates from both fungi showed similar activities against carboxymethylcellulose and salicin, but with P. anceps the Avicel and filter paper activities were poor. T. reesei filtrates in all cases were superior in the release of sugar from filter paper. Based on these results it was clear that P. anceps was inferior to T. reesei RUT C30 in it ability to produce cellulase by submerged fermentation in conventional batch cultures. It was considered unlikely to be a serious competitor to T. reesei. Similar studies on other potentially useful organisms were recommended. Refs., tabs., figs.

Reade, A.E. [Nova Scotia Research Foundation Corporation, Dartmouth, NS (Canada)

1988-12-31

270

[Macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of Chinese caterpillar fungus].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chinese Caterpillar Fungus (CCF) is one of the rare Chinese traditional drugs. As the resource is reducing sharply, the price is rising higher and higher, and there have been much more adulterants in the markets, but until now we don't have a scientific and accurate research on the identification study for this drug. On the basis of resource investigation, during the study of the samples collected by ourselves and the specimens stored in the museum, using the macroscopic and microscopic methods, referring to the literatures of entomology, emphasizing on the characteristics of polypide part, we have studied this species in detail of the macroscopic characters such as the insertion position of the stroma part, the annulations and segments of the caterpillar, the abdominal leg, the pinaculum, and the microscopic characters of the body wall; firstly added the microscopic character of the crotchets on the planta of abdominal leg. The result turned out that the characters which we have studied are regular and stable, and it have laid the foundation for the powder products and patent medicines which have used the crude drug of CCF.

Kang S; Zhang J; Lin RC

2013-03-01

271

Untangling the transcriptome from fungus-infected plant tissues.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The development of sequencing technology allows low-cost generation of sequence data. The huge amount of raw sequence data now available has introduced many challenges associated with analysis of these large-scale data banks. For example, it is very important to distinguish materials of plant and fungal origin in fungus-infected plant tissue. The origin of transcripts that were sequenced from Library 895-M6 (poplar tissue infected by Marssonina brunnea) on Illumina/Solexa GA IIx was determined by combining three methods: (1) based on the taxonomic information of homologous sequences; (2) based on the reference genome sequence; (3) based on the transcriptome sequence of the host and its pathogen obtained from Library 895 (poplar) and Library M6 (M. brunnea) as well as Library 895-M6 (mixture of poplar and M. brunnea). We idenified accurately the origin of 80,978 (99.5%) contigs in the mixed poplar and M. brunnea sample (Library 895-M6) by integrating the results from the three methods. The results of this study demonstrate that a combination of these three approaches described here is an effective strategy for determining the origin of sequences in a mixed pool, and provides a basis for further transcriptome analysis of the mixed sample.

Zhu S; Dai YM; Zhang XY; Ye JR; Wang MX; Huang MR

2013-05-01

272

Biosynthesis of vanillin by the fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus MIP 95001  

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Full Text Available Vanillin (a substance popularly known as vanilla flavor) is one of the most widely used compounds, mainly by food and pharmaceutical industries. This substance can be obtained from the orchid Vanilla planifolia, but this is costly and time consuming. Thus, other methods for obtaining vanillin have been studied. Within this context, the aim of this work was to study the biosynthesis of vanillin by three strains of Pycnoporus sanguineus through the use of vanillic acid as a precursor. The strains were cultured in Petri dishes with a potato dextrose agar medium. Fragments of the media with the fungus were then inoculated in Erlenmeyer flasks with a liquid medium of potato broth and 0.3 g.L-1 of vanillic acid. The flasks remained in a shaker for eight days at 28°C and 120 rpm. Samples were withdrawn once a day (0.8 mL.day-1) for analysis of vanillin, glucose, total phenols, total proteins, and laccase. The results showed that only the MIP 95001 strain promoted the biosynthesis of vanillin. The highest concentration of vanillin was detected on the fourth day of cultivation (8.75 mg.dL-1). The results illustrate the ability to biosynthesize vanillin using Pycnoporus sanguineus (MIP 95001), which suggests a possible route for the biotechnological production of this flavor.

Sabrina Moro Villela Pacheco; Ayres Ferreira Morgado; Agenor Furigo Junior

2013-01-01

273

Alachlor oxidation by the filamentous fungus Paecilomyces marquandii.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Alachlor, a popular chloroacetanilide herbicide, can be a potential health risk factor. Soil microorganisms are primarily responsible for conversion and migration of alachlor in natural environment, but knowledge concerning alachlor biodegradation is not complete. Therefore, we studied the ability of Paecilomyces marquandii, soil fungus tolerant to heavy metals, to eliminate alachlor and proposed a new pathway of its transformation. After 7 days of incubation only 3.3% of alachlor was detected from an initial concentration 50mgL(-1) and 20.1% from a concentration 100mgL(-1). The qualitative IDA LC-MS analysis showed the presence of ten metabolites. All of them were dechlorinated mainly through oxidation, but also reductive dechlorination was observed. The main route of alachlor conversion progressed via N-acetyl oxidation resulting in the formation of mono-, di- and trihydroxylated byproducts. N-acetyl oxidation as a dominant route of alachlor metabolism by fungi has not been described so far. The toxicity of alachlor tested with Artemia franciscana did not increase after treatment with P. marquandii cultures. Paecilomyces marquandii strain seems to be an interesting model for the research on alachlor conversion by soil microscopic fungi, due to its dechlorination and hydroxylation ability as well as high tolerance to heavy metals.

S?aba M; Szewczyk R; Pi?tek MA; D?ugo?ski J

2013-07-01

274

Identification of naphthalene metabolism by white rot fungus Pleurotus eryngii.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of biomaterials or microorganisms in PAHs degradation had presented an eye-catching performance. Pleurotus eryngii is a white rot fungus, which is easily isolated from the decayed woods in the tropical rain forest, used to determine the capability to utilize naphthalene, a two-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as source of carbon and energy. In the meantime, biotransformation of naphthalene to intermediates and other by-products during degradation was investigated in this study. Pleurotus eryngii had been incubated in liquid medium formulated with naphthalene for 14 days. The presence of metabolites of naphthalene suggests that Pleurotus eryngii begin the ring cleavage by dioxygenation on C1 and C4 position to give 1,4-naphthaquinone. 1,4-Naphthaquinone was further degraded to benzoic acid, where the proposed terepthalic acid is absent in the cultured extract. Further degradation of benzoic acid by Pleurotus eryngii shows the existence of catechol as a result of the combination of decarboxylation and hydroxylation process. Unfortunately, phthalic acid was not detected in this study. Several enzymes, including manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, laccase, 1,2-dioxygenase and 2,3-dioxygenase are enzymes responsible for naphthalene degradation. Reduction of naphthalene and the presence of metabolites in liquid medium showed the ability of Pleurotus eryngii to utilize naphthalene as carbon source instead of a limited glucose amount.

Hadibarata T; Teh ZC; Rubiyatno; Zubir MM; Khudhair AB; Yusoff AR; Salim MR; Hidayat T

2013-10-01

275

Fungi of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.)-Their Deteriorative Ability, Quality Stability and the Role of the Fungus-Eating Insects  

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Full Text Available Studies on the deteriorative ability and quality stability of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) and the effect of the fungus-eating insects (Necrobia rufipes, Alphitobius diaperinus, Crematogaster sp. and Tenebrio molitor) were carried out in the Post Graduate Entomology and Plant Pathology Laboratories of the Department of Applied and Environmental Biology and also in Food Science Laboratory of the Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt. Results showed Aspergillus niger van Tieghem, Rhizopus stolonifer Lind and Penicillium italiucum Wehmer as the seed-borne fungi of coconut. Frequency of occurrence was 80% for Aspergillus niger and 100% for both Rhizopus stolonifer and Penicillium italicum. On storage stability, heat drying offered significantly higher protection to coconut copra. Percentage consumption of fungal hyphae by the fungus-eating insects varied with Tenebrio molitor consuming 100% of the three aforementioned fungi. A. diaperinius contributed up to 84.1% reduction of A. niger as against 80.3% reduction by Necrobia rufipes of A. niger, Crematogaster sp. offered the least reduction (64.2%).

E.C. Chuku; O.K. Ogbalu; J.A. Osakwe

2007-01-01

276

Fungi of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.)-Their Deteriorative Ability, Quality Stability and the Role of the Fungus-Eating Insects  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies on the deteriorative ability and quality stability of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) and the effect of the fungus-eating insects (Necrobia rufipes, Alphitobius diaperinus, Crematogaster sp. and Tenebrio molitor) were carried out in the Post Graduate Entomology and Plant Pathology Laboratories of the Department of Applied and Environmental Biology and also in Food Science Laboratory of the Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt. Results showed Aspergillus niger van Tieghem, Rhizopus stolonifer Lind and Penicillium italiucum Wehmer as the seed-borne fungi of coconut. Frequency of occurrence was 80% for Aspergillus niger and 100% for both Rhizopus stolonifer and Penicillium italicum. On storage stability, heat drying offered significantly higher protection to coconut copra. Percentage consumption of fungal hyphae by the fungus-eating insects varied with Tenebrio molitor consuming 100% of the three aforementioned fungi. A. diaperinius contributed up to 84.1% reduction of A. niger as against 80.3% reduction by Necrobia rufipes of A. niger, Crematogaster sp. offered the least reduction (64.2%).

Chuku, E. C.; Ogbalu, O. K.; Osakwe, J. A.

277

Antiviral activity of Inonotus obliquus fungus extract towards infection caused by hepatitis C virus in cell cultures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fractions of Inonotus obliquus fungus water extract exhibited a virucidal effect towards hepatitis C virus: it 100-fold reduced its infective properties within 10 min. The antiviral effects of fungus extracts manifested after preventive (24 h before infection) and therapeutic use (during infection of porcine embryo kidney cells). Moreover, the data indicate that the birch fungus extracts inhibit production of infective virus by porcine embryo kidney cells.

Shibnev VA; Mishin DV; Garaev TM; Finogenova NP; Botikov AG; Deryabin PG

2011-09-01

278

Antiviral activity of Inonotus obliquus fungus extract towards infection caused by hepatitis C virus in cell cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fractions of Inonotus obliquus fungus water extract exhibited a virucidal effect towards hepatitis C virus: it 100-fold reduced its infective properties within 10 min. The antiviral effects of fungus extracts manifested after preventive (24 h before infection) and therapeutic use (during infection of porcine embryo kidney cells). Moreover, the data indicate that the birch fungus extracts inhibit production of infective virus by porcine embryo kidney cells. PMID:22462058

Shibnev, V A; Mishin, D V; Garaev, T M; Finogenova, N P; Botikov, A G; Deryabin, P G

2011-09-01

279

Antifungal activity of altenusin isolated from the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Altenusin is a biphenyl derivative isolated from different species of fungi, which presents several biological activities. AIMS: We report the antifungal activity of the altenusin isolated from the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp., against clinical isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and its action on cell walls of P. brasiliensis and the nonpathogenic yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. METHODS: In vitro antifungal activity of altenusin was evaluated using the broth microdilution method against 11 strains of P. brasiliensis and one strain of S. pombe. The effects of the altenusin on the cell wall were estimated using the sorbitol protection assay. RESULTS: The altenusin presented strong activity against P. brasiliensis with MIC values ranging between 1.9 and 31.2 ?g/ml, and 62.5 ?g/ml for S. pombe. Our results demonstrated that the MIC values for altenusin were increased for P. brasiliensis Pb18 and for S. pombe when the medium was supplemented with sorbitol. Additionally, S. pombe cells treated with altenusin were more rounded in shape than untreated cells. CONCLUSIONS: Altenusin showed activity against clinical strains of P. brasiliensis at the concentration tested, and this compound probably affects fungal cell walls. These findings suggest that altenusin could act through the inhibition of cell wall synthesis or assembly in P. brasiliensis and S. pombe, and could be considered as a lead compound for the design of new antifungals.

Johann S; Rosa LH; Rosa CA; Perez P; Cisalpino PS; Zani CL; Cota BB

2012-10-01

280

Extraction of DNA from plant and fungus tissues in situ  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background When samples are collected in the field and transported to the lab, degradation of the nucleic acids contained in the samples is frequently observed. Immediate extraction and precipitation of the nucleic acids reduces degradation to a minimum, thus preserving accurate sequence information. An extraction method to obtain high quality DNA in field studies is described. Findings DNA extracted immediately after sampling was compared to DNA extracted after allowing the sampled tissues to air dry at 21°C for 48 or 72 hours. While DNA extracted from fresh tissues exhibited little degradation, DNA extracted from all tissues exposed to 21°C air for 48 or 72 hours exhibited varying degrees of degradation. Yield was higher for extractions from fresh tissues in most cases. Four microcentrifuges were compared for DNA yield: one standard electric laboratory microcentrifuge (max rcf?=?16,000×g), two battery-operated microcentrifuges (max rcf?=?5,000 and 3,000 ×g), and one manually-operated microcentrifuge (max rcf?=?120×g). Yields for all centrifuges were similar. DNA extracted under simulated field conditions was similar in yield and quality to DNA extracted in the laboratory using the same equipment. Conclusions This CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) DNA extraction method employs battery-operated and manually-operated equipment to isolate high quality DNA in the field. The method was tested on plant and fungus tissues, and may be adapted for other types of organisms. The method produced high quality DNA in laboratory tests and under simulated field conditions. The field extraction method should prove useful for working in remote sites, where ice, dry ice, and liquid nitrogen are unavailable; where degradation is likely to occur due to the long distances between the sample site and the laboratory; and in instances where other DNA preservation and transportation methods have been unsuccessful. It may be possible to adapt this method for genomic, metagenomic, transcriptomic and metabolomic projects using samples collected in situ.

Abu Almakarem Amal S; Heilman Katie L; Conger Heather L; Shtarkman Yury M; Rogers Scott O

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Energy-saving steam sterilizing device for edible fungus  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model belongs to an energy-saving edible fungi sterilizer which relates to the technical field of steam sterilizing installations for edible fungi and comprises a chimney, a furnace body, a water tank and a support. The technical scheme is as follows ovoid briquettes on ovoid briquette trolleys (7) are burnt, smoke is exhausted from an outlet flue (22) through the chimney (1), burning causes steam to be generated in a main water tank filled with water, the steam is led to edible fungus bags which are covered by agricultural films and are needed to be sterilized, the temperature of 100 DEG C needs to be achieved and be maintained for 10 to 14 hours, and the process of sterilization is accomplished. A nilometer (13) is observed at any time during sterilization when the water level is on the low side, reserved hot water of an assistant water tank (4), a chimney water tank (1) and a furnace cavity water tank (16) is led into the main water tank (5) so as to ensure that the steam can be uninterruptedly supplied, thus the phenomenon of abrupt temperature reduction cannot occur when the water is fed the two ovoid briquette trolleys (7) are arranged in a furnace cavity (17) and can be alternatively used when the ovoid briquettes are changed, thus the phenomenon of abrupt temperature reduction cannot occur when the ovoid briquettes are changed besides, the ovoid briquettes are used as fuel, and the labouriousness that a person needs to be especially pointed to be on duty to keep the fire burning can be avoided. The utility model has the advantages of simple structure, easy production, low cost, high efficiency and obvious effect of energy conservation and is suitable for household small and medium scale production.

JINLIANG BAO

282

Distribution pattern and maintenance of ectomycorrhizal fungus diversity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ectomycorrhiza (ECM) are symbionts formed between soil fungi and plant root systems, in which the fungus exchanges soil-derived nutrients for carbohydrates obtained from the host plant. As an important component of terrestrial ecosystems, ECM fungi can play an essential role in biodiversity maintenance and plant community succession. Understanding the distribution pattern and maintenance of ECM fungal diversity is therefore critical to the study of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. An analysis of results of recent research indicates that ECM fungal diversity increases with increasing latitude, i.e. from tropical to subtropical and temperate regions. The role of dispersal in ECM fungal distribution is dependent on spatial scale. Thus, it has been found to be weak across global and local scales, but strong at regional and small scales. At the local scale, its influence has also been shown to be host-dominant dependent; thus, it is important in host non-dominant ecosystems, but not in host dominant ecosystems. Selection by plant, animal, microbe and abiotic factors can also affect the distribution pattern of ECM fungi, according to studies of temperate ecosystems. In contrast, studies of tropical ecosystems indicate that selection on ECM fungal distribution can be either strong or weak. ECM fungal diversity is also influenced by plant diversity and productivity. The plant diversity hypothesis at host genus-level fits well with ECM fungal diversity in temperate, subtropical and tropical forest ecosystems; in contrast, the productivity diversity hypothesis is only supported by some studies in temperate forest ecosystems. We propose that future studies should focus on the distribution pattern, maintenance mechanism and ecosystem function of ECM fungal diversity at a global scale, taking account ofscenarios of global climate change.

Cheng Gao; Liangdong Guo

2013-01-01

283

Metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into bacterial communities in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Herbivores gain access to nutrients stored in plant biomass largely by harnessing the metabolic activities of microbes. Leaf-cutter ants of the genus Atta are a hallmark example; these dominant neotropical herbivores cultivate symbiotic fungus gardens on large quantities of fresh plant forage. As the external digestive system of the ants, fungus gardens facilitate the production and sustenance of millions of workers. Using metagenomic and metaproteomic techniques, we characterize the bacterial diversity and physiological potential of fungus gardens from two species of Atta. Our analysis of over 1.2?Gbp of community metagenomic sequence and three 16S pyrotag libraries reveals that in addition to harboring the dominant fungal crop, these ecosystems contain abundant populations of Enterobacteriaceae, including the genera Enterobacter, Pantoea, Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Escherichia. We show that these bacterial communities possess genes associated with lignocellulose degradation and diverse biosynthetic pathways, suggesting that they play a role in nutrient cycling by converting the nitrogen-poor forage of the ants into B-vitamins, amino acids and other cellular components. Our metaproteomic analysis confirms that bacterial glycosyl hydrolases and proteins with putative biosynthetic functions are produced in both field-collected and laboratory-reared colonies. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fungus gardens are specialized fungus-bacteria communities that convert plant material into energy for their ant hosts. Together with recent investigations into the microbial symbionts of vertebrates, our work underscores the importance of microbial communities in the ecology and evolution of herbivorous metazoans.

Aylward FO; Burnum KE; Scott JJ; Suen G; Tringe SG; Adams SM; Barry KW; Nicora CD; Piehowski PD; Purvine SO; Starrett GJ; Goodwin LA; Smith RD; Lipton MS; Currie CR

2012-09-01

284

Aspergillus niger fungus capable of poisoning plant parasitic nematodes, preparation method and application thereof  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a culture method of a fungus capable of poisoning plant parasitic nematodes, and a preparation method of a metabolite thereof and application thereof, and belongs to the technical field of microbial pesticides. A fungus strain (Aspergillus niger Y-61) related in the invention was collected in China General Microbiological Culture Collection Center on August 7, 2008, and the collection number is CGMCC No.2631. The taxonomic status of the Y-61 is a mitosporic fungus, hyphomycetes, moniliales, moniliaceae, aspergillus and aspergillus niger. The fungus metabolite is prepared by liquid fermentation and culture, has outstanding characteristics of high toxicity to the plant parasitic nematodes, especially root-knot nematodes, and has obvious nematodes killing effect and the influence of the strain fermentation broth on Meloidogyne incognita juveniles (J2) and oocyst hatching is determined indoors. Treatment of the fermentation broth with different diluted concentrations is significantly different from the aseptic water treatment, and the preventive effect of the fermentation broth with less than one-fifth concentration is be equivalent to that of 10mug/ml of cadusafos. The fungus has good application and development prospects.

TING LIU; WEICHENG LIU; JIANHUA LIU; JIYAN QIU; CAIGE LU; DEWEN LIU

285

Palaeoanellus dimorphus gen. et sp. nov. (Deuteromycotina): a Cretaceous predatory fungus.  

Science.gov (United States)

In habitats where nitrogen is the limiting factor, carnivorous fungi gain an advantage by preying on nematodes and other microorganisms. These fungi are abundant in modern terrestrial ecosystems, but they are not predestined for preservation as fossils. Conclusions on their evolutionary history are therefore mainly based on molecular studies that are generally limited to those taxa that have survived until today. Here we present a fossil dimorphic fungus that was found in Late Albian amber from southwestern France. This fungus possessed unicellular hyphal rings as trapping devices and formed blastospores from which a yeast stage developed. The fossil probably represents an anamorph of an ascomycete and is described as Palaeoanellus dimorphus gen. et sp. nov. Because predatory fungi with regular yeast stages are not known from modern ecosystems, the fungus is assumed to not be related to any Recent carnivorous fungus and to belong to an extinct lineage of carnivorous fungi. The inclusions represent the only record of fossil fungi that developed trapping devices, so far. The fungus lived c. 100 million years ago in a limnetic-terrestrial microhabitat, and it was a part of a highly diverse biocenosis at the forest floor of a Cretaceous coastal amber forest. PMID:21632336

Schmidt, Alexander R; Dörfelt, Heinrich; Perrichot, Vincent

2008-10-01

286

The dynamics of plant cell-wall polysaccharide decomposition in leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The degradation of live plant biomass in fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants is poorly characterised but fundamental for understanding the mutual advantages and efficiency of this obligate nutritional symbiosis. Controversies about the extent to which the garden-symbiont Leucocoprinus gongylophorus degrades cellulose have hampered our understanding of the selection forces that induced large scale herbivory and of the ensuing ecological footprint of these ants. Here we use a recently established technique, based on polysaccharide microarrays probed with antibodies and carbohydrate binding modules, to map the occurrence of cell wall polymers in consecutive sections of the fungus garden of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior. We show that pectin, xyloglucan and some xylan epitopes are degraded, whereas more highly substituted xylan and cellulose epitopes remain as residuals in the waste material that the ants remove from their fungus garden. These results demonstrate that biomass entering leaf-cutting antfungus gardens is only partially utilized and explain why disproportionally large amounts of plant material are needed to sustain colony growth. They also explain why substantial communities of microbial and invertebrate symbionts have evolved associations with the dump material from leaf-cutting ant nests, to exploit decomposition niches that the ant garden-fungus does not utilize. Our approach thus provides detailed insight into the nutritional benefits and shortcomings associated with fungus-farming in ants.

Moller, Isabel Eva; de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard

2011-01-01

287

Biodegradation of crystal violet by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Biodegradation of crystal violet (N,N,N',N',N'',N''-hexamethylpararosaniline) in ligninolytic (nitrogen-limited) cultures of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance of crystal violet and by the identification of three metabolites (N,N,N',N',N''-pentamethylpararosaniline, N,N,N',N''-tetramethylpararosaniline, and N,N',N''-trimethylpararosaniline) formed by sequential N-demethylation of the parent compound. Metabolite formation also occurred when crystal violet was incubated with the extracellular fluid obtained from ligninolytic cultures of this fungus, provided that an H2O2-generating system was supplied. This, as well as the fact that a purified ligninase catalyzed N-demethylation of crystal violet, demonstrated that biodegradation of crystal violet by this fungus is dependent, at least in part, upon its lignin-degrading system. In addition to crystal violet, six other triphenylmethane dyes (pararosaniline, cresol red, bromphenol blue, ethyl violet, malachite green, and brilliant green) were shown to be degraded by the lignin-degrading system of this fungus. An unexpected result was the finding that substantial degradation of crystal violet also occurred in nonligninolytic (nitrogen-sufficient) cultures of P. chrysosporium, suggesting that in addition to the lignin-degrading system, another mechanism exists in this fungus which is also able to degrade crystal violet.

Bumpus JA; Brock BJ

1988-05-01

288

Full-automatic water pump control device for edible fungus breeding  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model relates to a full-automatic water pump control device for edible fungus breeding, which belongs to water pump control devices and comprises a temperature sensor (1), a humidity sensor (2), an idle load preventive sensor (3), an automatic controller (4), a power terminal (5), a power switch (6) and a water pump terminal (7). The temperature sensor (1), the humidity sensor (2) and the idle load preventive sensor (3) are respectively connected with the automatic controller (4), a first terminal of the power terminal (5) is connected with a first end of the power switch (6), a second terminal of the power terminal (5) is connected with a first output end of the automatic controller (4), a second end of the power switch (6) is connected with one end of the water pump terminal (7), and the other end of the water pump terminal (7) is connected with a second output end of the automatic controller. The full-automatic water pump control device for edible fungus breeding is convenient in use, and capable of automatically starting or stopping a water pump to spray water to fungus bags so as to prevent high-temperature burn of the fungus bags and to increase humidity according to temperature and humidity of the fungus bags and water sufficiency.

HAIFENG LIU

289

Metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into bacterial communities in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herbivores gain access to nutrients stored in plant biomass largely by harnessing the metabolic activities of microbes. Leaf-cutter ants of the genus Atta are a hallmark example; these dominant neotropical herbivores cultivate symbiotic fungus gardens on large quantities of fresh plant forage. As the external digestive system of the ants, fungus gardens facilitate the production and sustenance of millions of workers. Using metagenomic and metaproteomic techniques, we characterize the bacterial diversity and physiological potential of fungus gardens from two species of Atta. Our analysis of over 1.2?Gbp of community metagenomic sequence and three 16S pyrotag libraries reveals that in addition to harboring the dominant fungal crop, these ecosystems contain abundant populations of Enterobacteriaceae, including the genera Enterobacter, Pantoea, Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Escherichia. We show that these bacterial communities possess genes associated with lignocellulose degradation and diverse biosynthetic pathways, suggesting that they play a role in nutrient cycling by converting the nitrogen-poor forage of the ants into B-vitamins, amino acids and other cellular components. Our metaproteomic analysis confirms that bacterial glycosyl hydrolases and proteins with putative biosynthetic functions are produced in both field-collected and laboratory-reared colonies. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fungus gardens are specialized fungus-bacteria communities that convert plant material into energy for their ant hosts. Together with recent investigations into the microbial symbionts of vertebrates, our work underscores the importance of microbial communities in the ecology and evolution of herbivorous metazoans. PMID:22378535

Aylward, Frank O; Burnum, Kristin E; Scott, Jarrod J; Suen, Garret; Tringe, Susannah G; Adams, Sandra M; Barry, Kerrie W; Nicora, Carrie D; Piehowski, Paul D; Purvine, Samuel O; Starrett, Gabriel J; Goodwin, Lynne A; Smith, Richard D; Lipton, Mary S; Currie, Cameron R

2012-03-01

290

Metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into bacterial communities in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Herbivores gain access to nutrients stored in plant biomass largely by harnessing the metabolic activities of microbes. Leaf-cutter ants of the genus Atta are a hallmark example; these dominant Neotropical herbivores cultivate symbiotic fungus gardens on massive quantities of fresh plant forage. As the external digestive system of the ants, fungus gardens facilitate the production and sustenance of millions of workers in mature Atta colonies. Here we use metagenomic, and metaproteomic techniques to characterize the bacterial diversity and overall physiological potential of fungus gardens from two species of Atta. Our analysis of over 1.2 Gbp of community metagenomic sequence and three 16S pyrotag libraries reveals that, in addition to harboring the dominant fungal crop, these ecosystems contain abundant populations of Enterobacteriaceae, including the genera Enterobacter, Pantoea, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, and Escherichia. We show that these bacterial communities possess genes commonly associated with lignocellulose degradation, and likely participate in the processing of plant biomass. Additionally, we demonstrate that bacteria in these environments encode a diverse suite of biosynthetic pathways, and that they may enrich the nitrogen-poor forage of the ants with B-vitamins, amino acids, and proteins. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fungus gardens are highly-specialized fungus-bacteria communities that efficiently convert plant material into usable energy for their ant hosts. Together with recent investigations into the microbial symbionts of vertebrates, our work underscores the importance of microbial communities to the ecology and evolution of herbivorous metazoans.

Aylward, Frank O.; Burnum, Kristin E.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Suen, Garret; Tringe, Susannah G.; Adams, Sandra M.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Starrett, Gabriel J.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Currie, Cameron R.

2012-09-01

291

ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION AND PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF WHITE ROT FUNGUS AND HETEROLOGOUS EXPRESSION OF GENE ENCODING LACCASE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to isolate wild white rot fungus and characterize the organism with respect to laccase gene. White rot fungus was isolated from decay wood sample and was subjected to Phylogenetic analysis by using basidiomycete-specific ITS primers for identification. mRNA of laccase enzyme was isolated, amplified by RT-PCR with specific forward and reverse primer that targeted the nucleotides present in right and left border of the mRNA. Amplified gene was tried to be transformed in to E.coli cells and the transformants were subjected for colony PCR, plate assay and decolorisation assay. All the results very clearly indicated the presence of laccase gene in the isolated white rot fungus and also the successful transformation of the gene in to E.coli cells.

R. INDIRA PRIYADARSINI; V. BHUVANESWARI; K. SURESH KUMAR

2011-01-01

292

Fungus Ball Diagnosed on Computed Tomography (CT) Guided Needle Aspiration and Biopsy of Thoracic Lesions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background/Objective: CT-guided biopsy provides results in a short period and can be applied on outpatient and even high-risk patients; however, some studies do not recommend it in lesions with benign histology probability. The purpose was to report our experience regarding fungus ball diagnosis on CT-guided biopsy and to identify the complication rate of the procedure. "nPatients and Methods: We evaluated 99 CT-guided biopsies of infected thoracic lesions performed from March 2004 to December 2008 retrospectively. All biopsies were performed by one radiologist with Westcott needle number 20 and 18. The CTs were assessed by a trained general practitioner for the size and location of lesions and diagnosis of pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum, then all CTs were double checked by the same radiologist. Diagnosis of fungus lesions and their differentiations were based on pathology reports. "nResults: During this four-year study, 20 fungus lesions (15 men and five women) were found. The mean age of the patients were 54.75 years (ranging: 19-77). In these series, there were 16 (80%) aspergillosis, two (10%) mucor mycosis and two undifferentiated fungus balls. The mean diameter of the lesions was 5.650 cm (range: 1-11.5 cm) and the distance of the lesions to the chest wall was 0.75 cm (range: 0-3 cm). Nine (45%) fungus lesions were located in the left upper, four (20%) in the right lower, four (20%) in the right upper and the rest (15%) in the left lower and right middle lobes. Pneumothorax occurred in two cases (one aspergillosis and one mucor mycosis), while the chest tube was placed only for the patient with mucor mycosis in order to manage the compli-cation. "nConclusion: CT-guided needle biopsy seems to be a safe and feasible diagnostic modality with a low-risk probability of complications for fungus balls.

Sepideh Rouhi; Mehrdad Bakhshayeshkaram

2010-01-01

293

Levels of specificity of Xylaria species associated with fungus-growing termites: a phylogenetic approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fungus-growing termites live in obligate mutualistic symbiosis with species of the basidiomycete genus Termitomyces, which are cultivated on a substrate of dead plant material. When the termite colony dies, or when nest material is incubated without termites in the laboratory, fruiting bodies of the ascomycete genus Xylaria appear and rapidly cover the fungus garden. This raises the question whether certain Xylaria species are specialised in occupying termite nests or whether they are just occasional visitors. We tested Xylaria specificity at four levels: (1) fungus-growing termites, (2) termite genera, (3) termite species, and (4) colonies. In South Africa, 108 colonies of eight termite species from three termite genera were sampled for Xylaria. Xylaria was isolated from 69% of the sampled nests and from 57% of the incubated fungus comb samples, confirming high prevalence. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS region revealed 16 operational taxonomic units of Xylaria, indicating high levels of Xylaria species richness. Not much of this variation was explained by termite genus, species, or colony; thus, at level 2-4 the specificity is low. Analysis of the large subunit rDNA region, showed that all termite-associated Xylaria belong to a single clade, together with only three of the 26 non-termite-associated strains. Termite-associated Xylaria thus show specificity for fungus-growing termites (level 1). We did not find evidence for geographic or temporal structuring in these Xylaria phylogenies. Based on our results, we conclude that termite-associated Xylaria are specific for fungus-growing termites, without having specificity for lower taxonomic levels.

Visser, Andre; Ros, V I D

2009-01-01

294

COMPARISON THE DYE REMOVAL ACTIVITY OF SYSTEMS CONTAINED SURFACTANTS AND FUNGUS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dye decolorization ability of the systems contained only R. arrhizus, only cationic surfactants and both of them were studied. The optimal pH (3-7), initial dye (50-800 mg/L) and surfactant concentration (0.5 and 1 mM) for Alkythrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) was determined in three days incubation period and the difference of Remazol Blue dye removal activity between Dodecylthrimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB), Hegzadecylthrimethyl ammonium bromide (HTAB) and CTAB was identified. In the surfactant effect experiments it was observed that maximum dye removal activity occured in the system contained both fungus and 0.5 mM CTAB as, 77.52%, while the dye removal activity of only fungus and only CTAB were 21.2% and 71.2% in 100 mg/L dye concentration. The optimal conditions for dye removal were pH 5, low initial dye concentratios such as 100 mg/L and 1 mM CTAB concentration at the end of three days incubation period and the 95.4% dye removed by the sytem contained both fungus and CTAB. The dye removal activiy of the system contained fungus and cationic surfactants (DTAB, CTAB and HTAB) was compaired in the same optimal conditions and observed that maximum dye removal occured in the system that contained fungus and 1 mM HTAB, as 98.4%. The systems that contained surfactant and fungus are new approcahes for effective dye removal from textile effluents. According to this study, the CMC of surfactant is an important issue to increase dye removal efficiency.

ÜLKÜYE DUDU GÜL; GÖNÜL DÖNMEZ

2012-01-01

295

Complete Genome of Enterobacteriaceae Bacterium Strain FGI 57, a Strain Associated with Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Enterobacteriaceae bacterium strain FGI 57 was isolated from a fungus garden of the leaf-cutter ant Atta colombica. Analysis of its single 4.76-Mbp chromosome will shed light on community dynamics and plant biomass degradation in ant fungus gardens.

Aylward FO; Tremmel DM; Bruce DC; Chain P; Chen A; Walston Davenport K; Detter C; Han CS; Han J; Huntemann M; Ivanova NN; Kyrpides NC; Markowitz V; Mavrommatis K; Nolan M; Pagani I; Pati A; Pitluck S; Deshpande S; Goodwin L; Woyke T; Currie CR

2013-01-01

296

Plant growth promoting potential of the fungus Discosia sp. FIHB 571 from tea rhizosphere tested on chickpea, maize and pea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ITS region sequence of a phosphate-solubilizing fungus isolated from the rhizosphere of tea growing in Kangra valley of Himachal Pradesh showed 96% identity with Discosia sp. strain HKUCC 6626 ITS 1, 5.8S rRNA gene and ITS 2 complete sequence, and 28S rRNA gene partial sequence. The fungus exhib...

Rahi, P.; Vyas, P.; Sharma, S.; Gulati, Ashu; Gulati, Arvind

297

Complete Genome of Enterobacteriaceae Bacterium Strain FGI 57, a Strain Associated with Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens  

Science.gov (United States)

The Enterobacteriaceae bacterium strain FGI 57 was isolated from a fungus garden of the leaf-cutter ant Atta colombica. Analysis of its single 4.76-Mbp chromosome will shed light on community dynamics and plant biomass degradation in ant fungus gardens.

Aylward, Frank O.; Tremmel, Daniel M.; Bruce, David C.; Chain, Patrick; Chen, Amy; Walston Davenport, Karen; Detter, Chris; Han, Cliff S.; Han, James; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Nolan, Matt; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Pitluck, Sam; Deshpande, Shweta; Goodwin, Lynne; Woyke, Tanja

2013-01-01

298

Complete Genome of Serratia sp. Strain FGI 94, a Strain Associated with Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens  

Science.gov (United States)

Serratia sp. strain FGI 94 was isolated from a fungus garden of the leaf-cutter ant Atta colombica. Analysis of its 4.86-Mbp chromosome will help advance our knowledge of symbiotic interactions and plant biomass degradation in this ancient ant-fungus mutualism.

Aylward, Frank O.; Tremmel, Daniel M.; Starrett, Gabriel J.; Bruce, David C.; Chain, Patrick; Chen, Amy; Davenport, Karen W.; Detter, Chris; Han, Cliff S.; Han, James; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Nolan, Matt; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Pitluck, Sam; Teshima, Hazuki; Deshpande, Shweta; Goodwin, Lynne; Woyke, Tanja

2013-01-01

299

Enhancement of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) biomass production under drought conditions by the ectomycorrhizal fungus Sebacina vermifera.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Experiments were conducted to examine the effects of cocultivating the important bioenergy crop switchgrass with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Sebacina vermifera under severe drought conditions. Plants cocultivated with the fungus produced significantly higher biomass and had a higher macronutrient content than uninoculated control plants under both adequately watered and drought conditions.

Ghimire SR; Craven KD

2011-10-01

300

Enhancement of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) biomass production under drought conditions by the ectomycorrhizal fungus Sebacina vermifera.  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiments were conducted to examine the effects of cocultivating the important bioenergy crop switchgrass with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Sebacina vermifera under severe drought conditions. Plants cocultivated with the fungus produced significantly higher biomass and had a higher macronutrient content than uninoculated control plants under both adequately watered and drought conditions. PMID:21841032

Ghimire, Sita R; Craven, Kelly D

2011-08-12

 
 
 
 
301

A MANNANASE, MANA, OF THE POLYCENTRIC ANAEROBIC FUNGUS ORPINOMYCES SP. STRAIN PC-2 HAS CARBOHYDRATE BINDING AND DOCKING MODULES  

Science.gov (United States)

The anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces sp. strain PC-2 produces a broad spectrum of glycoside hydrolases, most of which are components of a high molecular mass cellusomal complex. Here we report about a cDNA (manA) having 1,924 bp isolated from the fungus and found to encode a polypeptide of 579 amino ac...

302

Molecular phylogeny of bark and ambrosia beetles reveals multiple origins of fungus farming during periods of global warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Fungus farming is an unusual life style in insects that has evolved many times in the wood boring weevils named ‘ambrosia beetles’. Multiple occurrences of this behaviour allow for a detailed comparison of the different origins of fungus farming through time, its...

Jordal Bjarte H; Cognato Anthony I

303

Nonintegrative transformation in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina: stabilization of a linear vector by the chromosomal ends of Tetrahymena thermophila.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of the chromosomal ends of Tetrahymena thermophila on the stability of linear transforming molecules in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina was tested. A derivative of an integrative vector for this fungus has been constructed, so that after linearization, the ends of the plasmid ar...

Perrot, M; Barreau, C; Bégueret, J

304

Speciation despite globally overlapping distributions in Penicillium chrysogenum: the population genetics of Alexander Fleming’s lucky fungus  

Science.gov (United States)

Eighty years ago, Alexander Fleming described the antibiotic effects of a fungus that had contaminated his bacterial culture, kick starting the antimicrobial revolution. The fungus was later ascribed to a globally distributed asexual species, Penicillium chrysogenum. Recently, the species has been...

305

A novel tricyclic polyketide and its biosynthetic precursor azaphilone derivatives from the endophytic fungus Dothideomycete sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Azaphilone derivatives 1 and 2 and a novel tricyclic polyketide 3, together with a known azaphilone, austdiol (4), were isolated from the endophytic fungus Dothideomycete sp., which was isolated from a Thai medicinal plant, Tiliacora triandra. Compound 3 is the first polyketide having a tricyclic 6,6,6 ring system, which is similar to that of a terpenoid skeleton. The absolute configurations of stereogenic centers in 1-3 were addressed by Mosher's method and biosynthetic analogy with a known azaphilone isolated from the same fungus. Cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated. PMID:22847560

Senadeera, Sarath P D; Wiyakrutta, Suthep; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Kittakoop, Prasat

2012-07-30

306

A novel tricyclic polyketide and its biosynthetic precursor azaphilone derivatives from the endophytic fungus Dothideomycete sp.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Azaphilone derivatives 1 and 2 and a novel tricyclic polyketide 3, together with a known azaphilone, austdiol (4), were isolated from the endophytic fungus Dothideomycete sp., which was isolated from a Thai medicinal plant, Tiliacora triandra. Compound 3 is the first polyketide having a tricyclic 6,6,6 ring system, which is similar to that of a terpenoid skeleton. The absolute configurations of stereogenic centers in 1-3 were addressed by Mosher's method and biosynthetic analogy with a known azaphilone isolated from the same fungus. Cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated.

Senadeera SP; Wiyakrutta S; Mahidol C; Ruchirawat S; Kittakoop P

2012-09-01

307

A new eremophilane-type sesquiterpene from the phytopatogen fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Sphaeropsidaceae)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The phytopatogenic fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae, isolated from guava, was cultivated in rice for 32 days at room temperature. Extraction with CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}:MeOH (3:7), followed by chromatography fractionation of the extract provided ergosterol. From the fungus culture in Czapeck medium for 40 days at room temperature, were isolated isocoumarin cis-4-hydroxymeleine and an eremophilane-type sesquiterpene. The latter compound is being reported for the first time in the literature. Also, this is the first time that an eremophilane sesquiterpene is described for Lasiodiplodia genus. (author)

Nunes, Fatima M.; Oliveira, Maria da Conceicao F. de; Arriaga, Angela M.C.; Lemos, Telma L.G.; Andrade-Neto, Manoel; Mattos, Marcos C. de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: mcfo@ufc.br; Mafezoli, Jair [Universidade de Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Curso de Farmacia; Viana, Francisco M.P.; Ferreira, Viviane M. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Lab. de Fitopatologia; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Ferreira, Antonio G. [Universidade Federal de Sa Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

2008-07-01

308

A new eremophilane-type sesquiterpene from the phytopatogen fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Sphaeropsidaceae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The phytopatogenic fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae, isolated from guava, was cultivated in rice for 32 days at room temperature. Extraction with CH2Cl2:MeOH (3:7), followed by chromatography fractionation of the extract provided ergosterol. From the fungus culture in Czapeck medium for 40 days at room temperature, were isolated isocoumarin cis-4-hydroxymeleine and an eremophilane-type sesquiterpene. The latter compound is being reported for the first time in the literature. Also, this is the first time that an eremophilane sesquiterpene is described for Lasiodiplodia genus. (author)

2008-01-01

309

Development of microsatellite markers for the guava rust fungus, Puccinia psidii  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We developed and characterized 15 polymorphic microsatellite markers present in the genome of the guava rust fungus, Puccinia psidii. The primers for these microsatellite markers were designed by sequencing clones from a genomic DNA library enriched for a simple sequence repeat (SSR) motif of (AG). All these 15 primer pairs successfully amplified DNA fragments from a sample of 22 P. psidii isolates, revealing a total of 71 alleles. The observed heterozygosity at the 15 loci ranged from 0.05 to 1.00. The SSR markers developed would be useful for population genetics study of the rust fungus.

ZHONG SHAOBIN; YANG BAOJUN; ALFENAS ACELINOCOUTO

2008-03-01

310

PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES: Development of microsatellite markers for the guava rust fungus, Puccinia psidii.  

Science.gov (United States)

We developed and characterized 15 polymorphic microsatellite markers present in the genome of the guava rust fungus, Puccinia psidii. The primers for these microsatellite markers were designed by sequencing clones from a genomic DNA library enriched for a simple sequence repeat (SSR) motif of (AG). All these 15 primer pairs successfully amplified DNA fragments from a sample of 22 P. psidii isolates, revealing a total of 71 alleles. The observed heterozygosity at the 15 loci ranged from 0.05 to 1.00. The SSR markers developed would be useful for population genetics study of the rust fungus. PMID:21585788

Zhong, Shaobin; Yang, Baojun; Alfenas, Acelino Couto

2008-03-01

311

Expressed sequence tag analysis of marine fungus Schizochytrium producing docosahexaenoic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) biosynthesis pathway in marine fungus Schizochytrium sp. FJU-512, a cDNA library of the fungus was constructed and analyzed. The titers of primary library were up to 5.0 x 10(6). A total of 4005 ESTs were assembled into 1947 unigenes. Sequences annotation and function analysis were carried out by using Blast, GO and KEGG programs. Compared with other eukaryote genomes, Schizochytrium sp. FJU-512 ESTs shared at least 26.6% genes with Arabidopsis thaliana (E Schizochytrium sp. FJU-512 had undergone PKS pathway. PMID:18755227

Huang, Jianzhong; Jiang, Xianzhang; Zhang, Xiaowei; Chen, Weihua; Tian, Baoyu; Shu, Zhengyu; Hu, Songnian

2008-08-05

312

Process for producing ethanol from plant biomass using the fungus paecilomyces sp.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process in cludes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces, which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and xylose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this fungus, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. Finally, ethanol is recovered from the fermented substrate.

Wu, Jung Fu (Lakewood, CO)

1989-01-01

313

Conditions for selective degradation of lignin by the fungus Ganoderma australis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The white-rot fungus Ganoderma australis selectively degrades lignin in the ecosystem 'palo podrido'. Using conditions that simulate those of 'palo podrido' in the laboratory, it was found that low nitrogen content and low O{sub 2} tension stimulate the production of manganese peroxidase and lignin degradation, and depress cellulose degradation and cellulase production. The inverse is found at high nitrogen concentration and high O{sub 2} tension. This agrees with previous results indicating that low O{sub 2} tension and low nitrogen stimulate selective lignin degradation by this fungus. (orig.).

Rios, S.; Eyzaguirre, J. (Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Lab. de Bioquimica)

1992-08-01

314

Biological synthesis of strontium carbonate crystals using the fungus Fusarium oxysporum.  

Science.gov (United States)

The total biological synthesis of SrCO3 crystals of needlelike morphology arranged into higher order quasi-linear superstructures by challenging microorganisms such as fungi with aqueous Sr2+ ions is described. We term this procedure "total biological synthesis" since the source of carbonate ions that react with aqueous Sr2+ ions is the fungus itself. We believe that secretion of proteins during growth of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum is responsible for modulating the morphology of strontianite crystals and directing their hierarchical assembly into higher order superstructures. PMID:15274591

Rautaray, Debabrata; Sanyal, Ambarish; Adyanthaya, Suguna D; Ahmad, Absar; Sastry, Murali

2004-08-01

315

Biosynthesis of CaCO3 crystals of complex morphology using a fungus and an actinomycete.  

Science.gov (United States)

The biosynthesis of CaCO3 by reaction of aqueous Ca2+ ions with a fungus, Fusarium sp., and an actinomycete, Rhodococcus sp. (both plant organisms), is described. In the case of the fungus, cruciform-shaped calcite crystals are obtained (SEM picture A) while the actinomycete yielded the unstable polymorph of CaCO3, vaterite (SEM picture B). Specific proteins secreted by the microorganisms are responsible for the morphology and crystallography control observed. A highlight of this approach is that the microorganisms also provide CO2 for reaction with the Ca2+ ions, making the crystals completely biogenic. PMID:14640611

Rautaray, Debabrata; Ahmad, Absar; Sastry, Murali

2003-12-01

316

Cyclodepsipeptides, sesquiterpenoids, and other cytotoxic metabolites from the filamentous fungus Trichothecium sp. (MSX 51320).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two new cyclodepsipeptides (1 and 2), two new sesquiterpenoids (3 and 4), and the known compounds guangomide A (5), roseotoxin S, and three simple trichothecenes were isolated from the cytotoxic organic extract of a terrestrial filamentous fungus, Trichothecium sp. The structures were determined using NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Absolute configurations of the cyclodepsipeptides were established by employing chiral HPLC, while the relative configurations of 3 and 4 were determined via NOESY data. The isolation of guangomide A was of particular interest, since it was reported previously from a marine-derived fungus.

Sy-Cordero AA; Graf TN; Adcock AF; Kroll DJ; Shen Q; Swanson SM; Wani MC; Pearce CJ; Oberlies NH

2011-10-01

317

Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Endophytic Fungus Fennellia nivea NRRL 5504  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antioxidant is an interesting bioactivity since it has several correlations with disease such as Alzheimer, cancer, ageing and many others in which were promoted by free radicals. Investigation on our endophytic fungus collection namely Fennelia nivea NRRL 5504 revealed that the fermented medium has antioxidant property against DPPH through free radical scavenging effect. Fermentation in liquid medium i.e. Potatoes Dextrose Broth, resulted that the fermented medium reached about 86.51% (p-1 equivalent to pyrogallol. By exposure above, we have alternative source of antioxidant that came from our endophytic fungus collection which we isolated previously from Typhonium divaricatum Lodd.

Vienna Saraswaty; Yoice Srikandace; N.A. Simbiyani; Jasmansyah; Henry Setiyanto; Zalinar Udin

2013-01-01

318

Ureteric obstruction due to fungus-ball in a chronically immunosuppressed patient.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Candida albicans is a fungus that can cause opportunistic urinary tract infections in immunocompromised patients. Disseminated fungaemia secondary to Candida albicans is associated with considerable mortality and therefore merits aggressive treatment. Diagnostic investigations for urosepsis and disseminated fungaemaia secondary to Candida albicans include positive urine and blood cultures. Herein, we describe an extremely unusual case of disseminated fungaemia associated with an obstructive fungus-ball in the distal ureter of an immunosuppressed patient. We also describe a novel application of an established endourological technique for managing this clinical scenario and discuss appropriate perioperative management strategies.

Davis NF; Smyth LG; Mulcahy E; Scanlon T; Casserly L; Flood HD

2013-05-01

319

Metabolism of carbohydrates in the fungus Aspergillus niger under the action of light  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of visible light with 410, 520 and 610 nm wave lengths on carbonhydrate transformation and absorption by Aspergillus niger fungus is studied. It is shown that the light stimulates the absorption by the fungus of the medium carbohydrates and their biochemical modifications. This leads to amplification of biomass accumulation and citric acid liberation to the medium. An increase of citric acid content in the cultural liquid is counected either with producer biomass growth or with amplification of biomass unit ability to citrate biosynthesis or with simultaneous realization of the both ways indicated.

1988-01-01

320

Fungus-specific translation elongation factor 3 gene present in Pneumocystis carinii.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Historically, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia has been the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with AIDS. Antiprotozoan drugs are effective in the treatment and prophylaxis of P. carinii pneumonia, which lends credence to the widely held view that P. carinii is a protozoan. However, recent genetic evidence suggests that P. carinii should be classified as a fungus. Translation elongation factor 3 (EF-3) is an essential, soluble translation component which is unique to fungal protein synthesis and is not required for protein synthesis in other eukaryotes. We have identified and isolated a gene for EF-3 from P. carinii, adding more evidence for this organism's assignment as a fungus.

Ypma-Wong MF; Fonzi WA; Sypherd PS

1992-10-01

 
 
 
 
321

[Study on the chemical constituents of endophytic fungus Fimetariella rabenhorstii isolated from Aquilaria sinensis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To study the chemical constituents of endophytic fungus Fimetariella rabenhorsti isolated from Aquilaria sinensis. METHODS: Chemical constituents of the fungus were isolated and purified by column chromatography and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral data. RESULTS: Five compounds were isolated and identified as 4-hydroxy-phenylethyl alcohol (1),nicotinic acid (2), D-galacitol(3), 2-anilino-1,4-naphthoquinone (4), N-phenylacetamide (5). CONCLUSION: Compounds 1-5 are isolated from the genus Fimetariella for the first time, compound 5 is rare in natural products.

Tao MH; Li DL; Zhang WM; Tan JW; Wei XY

2011-02-01

322

Set depth nail notcher with patch system and method for treating nail fungus  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A kit including a patch laden with topical anti-fungal medication and a set depth nail notcher for cutting a notch of predetermined depth in a nail plate comprising a handle having a smooth flat surface, a longitudinal cutting edge protruding from the smooth flat surface to a height equal to the predetermined depth of the notch. A method for treating nail, especially toenail, fungus comprising cutting a notch to a predetermined depth in a nail or a toe of finger infected with fungus and applying a topical anti-fungal medication to the toe or finger from a patch through the notch.

FELDMAN LEONARD

323

SET DEPTH NAIL NOTCHER WITH PATCH SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR TREATING NAIL FUNGUS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A kit including a patch laden with topical anti-fungal medication and a set depth nail notcher for cutting a notch of predetermined depth in a nail plate comprising a handle having a smooth flat surface, a longitudinal cutting edge protruding from the smooth flat surface to a height equal to the predetermined depth of the notch. A method for treating nail, especially toenail, fungus comprising cutting a notch to a predetermined depth in a nail or a toe of finger infected with fungus and applying a topical anti-fungal medication to the toe or finger from a patch through the notch.

FELDMAN Leonard

324

Modeling the biomass growth and enzyme secretion by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium: a stochastic-based approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been identified to be an environmentally useful microorganism for the degradation of various hazardous pollutants, mainly because of its ligninolytic enzyme system, particularly the lignin peroxidase (LiP) secreted by the fungus. In the present work, the behavior of the fungus in liquid medium due to variation in physico-chemical parameters, i.e., glucose concentration, nitrogen concentration, agitation, etc., was studied. Increment of the initial concentration of glucose in the medium increases the biomass growth and LiP activity, when cultured under controlled conditions. The biomass growth and LiP activity by the fungus was modeled following stochastic approach. The behavior of growth and enzyme activity of the fungus observed from the model were found to be in agreement with the experiments qualitatively.

Sen K; Pakshirajan K; Santra SB

2012-06-01

325

Modeling the biomass growth and enzyme secretion by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium: a stochastic-based approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been identified to be an environmentally useful microorganism for the degradation of various hazardous pollutants, mainly because of its ligninolytic enzyme system, particularly the lignin peroxidase (LiP) secreted by the fungus. In the present work, the behavior of the fungus in liquid medium due to variation in physico-chemical parameters, i.e., glucose concentration, nitrogen concentration, agitation, etc., was studied. Increment of the initial concentration of glucose in the medium increases the biomass growth and LiP activity, when cultured under controlled conditions. The biomass growth and LiP activity by the fungus was modeled following stochastic approach. The behavior of growth and enzyme activity of the fungus observed from the model were found to be in agreement with the experiments qualitatively. PMID:22588736

Sen, K; Pakshirajan, Kannan; Santra, S B

2012-05-16

326

Co-evolutionary patterns and diversification of ant-fungus associations in the asexual fungus-farming ant Mycocepurus smithii in Panama.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Partner fidelity through vertical symbiont transmission is thought to be the primary mechanism stabilizing cooperation in the mutualism between fungus-farming (attine) ants and their cultivated fungal symbionts. An alternate or additional mechanism could be adaptive partner or symbiont choice mediating horizontal cultivar transmission or de novo domestication of free-living fungi. Using microsatellite genotyping for the attine ant Mycocepurus smithii and ITS rDNA sequencing for fungal cultivars, we provide the first detailed population genetic analysis of local ant-fungus associations to test for the relative importance of vertical vs. horizontal transmission in a single attine species. M. smithii is the only known asexual attine ant, and it is furthermore exceptional because it cultivates a far greater cultivar diversity than any other attine ant. Cultivar switching could permit the ants to re-acquire cultivars after garden loss, to purge inferior cultivars that are locally mal-adapted or that accumulated deleterious mutations under long-term asexuality. Compared to other attine ants, symbiont choice and local adaptation of ant-fungus combinations may play a more important role than partner-fidelity feedback in the co-evolutionary process of M. smithii and its fungal symbionts.

Kellner K; Fernández-Marín H; Ishak HD; Sen R; Linksvayer TA; Mueller UG

2013-06-01

327

Co-evolutionary patterns and diversification of ant-fungus associations in the asexual fungus-farming ant Mycocepurus smithii in Panama.  

Science.gov (United States)

Partner fidelity through vertical symbiont transmission is thought to be the primary mechanism stabilizing cooperation in the mutualism between fungus-farming (attine) ants and their cultivated fungal symbionts. An alternate or additional mechanism could be adaptive partner or symbiont choice mediating horizontal cultivar transmission or de novo domestication of free-living fungi. Using microsatellite genotyping for the attine ant Mycocepurus smithii and ITS rDNA sequencing for fungal cultivars, we provide the first detailed population genetic analysis of local ant-fungus associations to test for the relative importance of vertical vs. horizontal transmission in a single attine species. M. smithii is the only known asexual attine ant, and it is furthermore exceptional because it cultivates a far greater cultivar diversity than any other attine ant. Cultivar switching could permit the ants to re-acquire cultivars after garden loss, to purge inferior cultivars that are locally mal-adapted or that accumulated deleterious mutations under long-term asexuality. Compared to other attine ants, symbiont choice and local adaptation of ant-fungus combinations may play a more important role than partner-fidelity feedback in the co-evolutionary process of M. smithii and its fungal symbionts. PMID:23639137

Kellner, K; Fernández-Marín, H; Ishak, H D; Sen, R; Linksvayer, T A; Mueller, U G

2013-05-03

328

Effects of greenhouse pesticides on the soil-dwelling predatory mite Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Acari: Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) under laboratory conditions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Knowledge of the effects of pesticides on biological control agents is required for the successful implementation of integrated pest management (IPM) programs in greenhouse production systems. Laboratory assays were conducted to assess the effects of an acaricide (dicofol), two insecticides (chlorpyrifos and pyriproxyfen), and two fungicides (fosetyl-Al and mefenoxam) on Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Womersley), a soil-dwelling predatory mite widely marketed in North America under the name Hypoaspis miles (Berlese) as a biological control agent of dark-winged fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.). Eggs, larvae, protonymphs, deutonymphs, and adult male and female mites were first assayed using dicofol, an acaricide used in the experiments as a positive control, applied to filter paper in an enclosed arena. Protonymphs were assayed for lethal and sublethal effects against the remaining pesticides at maximum label-recommended rates applied to filter paper, by using dicofol as a positive control and water as a negative control. The larva and protonymph were the life stages most susceptible to dicofol, with estimated 24-h LC50 values of 9 and 26 mg m(-2), respectively. Chlorpyrifos was highly toxic to the protonymphs of S. scimitus, causing >95% mortality after 24-h exposure and 100% mortality after 48 h. In contrast, the insect growth regulator (IGR) pyriproxyfen was much less toxic to protonymphs of S. scimitus; pyriproxyfen caused no significant mortality, compared with <5% mortality in the water control. Mortality caused by the fungicides was also relatively low; 72-h exposure to fosetyl-Al and mefenoxam resulted in 17.4 and 27.5% mortality, respectively. The IGR and fungicides increased the duration of the protonymphal stage by 1.2-1.8-fold, but they had no effect on the duration of subsequent life stages, nor on the duration of preoviposition, oviposition, and postoviposition periods of adult females. Total numbers and viability of eggs laid by mites exposed to the IGR and fungicides did not differ from the negative control, although the average rate of egg production during the oviposition of mites exposed to fosetyl-Al was increased. Pyriproxyfen, fosetyl-Al, and mefenoxam are likely to be compatible with S. scimitus under field conditions, because these pesticides caused little mortality of protonymphs, and they did not negatively affect the development and reproduction of S. scimitus under extreme laboratory conditions. In contrast, the use of chlorpyrifos in conjunction with S. scimitus is not recommended unless more comprehensive testing under semifield or field conditions demonstrates compatibility.

Cabrera AR; Cloyd RA; Zaborski ER

2004-06-01

329

Effects of greenhouse pesticides on the soil-dwelling predatory mite Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Acari: Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) under laboratory conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowledge of the effects of pesticides on biological control agents is required for the successful implementation of integrated pest management (IPM) programs in greenhouse production systems. Laboratory assays were conducted to assess the effects of an acaricide (dicofol), two insecticides (chlorpyrifos and pyriproxyfen), and two fungicides (fosetyl-Al and mefenoxam) on Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Womersley), a soil-dwelling predatory mite widely marketed in North America under the name Hypoaspis miles (Berlese) as a biological control agent of dark-winged fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.). Eggs, larvae, protonymphs, deutonymphs, and adult male and female mites were first assayed using dicofol, an acaricide used in the experiments as a positive control, applied to filter paper in an enclosed arena. Protonymphs were assayed for lethal and sublethal effects against the remaining pesticides at maximum label-recommended rates applied to filter paper, by using dicofol as a positive control and water as a negative control. The larva and protonymph were the life stages most susceptible to dicofol, with estimated 24-h LC50 values of 9 and 26 mg m(-2), respectively. Chlorpyrifos was highly toxic to the protonymphs of S. scimitus, causing >95% mortality after 24-h exposure and 100% mortality after 48 h. In contrast, the insect growth regulator (IGR) pyriproxyfen was much less toxic to protonymphs of S. scimitus; pyriproxyfen caused no significant mortality, compared with fosetyl-Al and mefenoxam resulted in 17.4 and 27.5% mortality, respectively. The IGR and fungicides increased the duration of the protonymphal stage by 1.2-1.8-fold, but they had no effect on the duration of subsequent life stages, nor on the duration of preoviposition, oviposition, and postoviposition periods of adult females. Total numbers and viability of eggs laid by mites exposed to the IGR and fungicides did not differ from the negative control, although the average rate of egg production during the oviposition of mites exposed to fosetyl-Al was increased. Pyriproxyfen, fosetyl-Al, and mefenoxam are likely to be compatible with S. scimitus under field conditions, because these pesticides caused little mortality of protonymphs, and they did not negatively affect the development and reproduction of S. scimitus under extreme laboratory conditions. In contrast, the use of chlorpyrifos in conjunction with S. scimitus is not recommended unless more comprehensive testing under semifield or field conditions demonstrates compatibility. PMID:15279255

Cabrera, Ana R; Cloyd, Raymond A; Zaborski, Edmond R

2004-06-01

330

Isolation and characterization of glyoxylate dehydrogenase from the fungus Sclerotium rolfsii.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Glyoxylate dehydrogenase (glyoxylate:NAD+ oxidoreductase) was purified 600-fold in three steps from crude extracts of the fungus Sclerotium rolfsii (Corticium rolfsii Curzi). Two of the purification steps involved dye-affinity chromatography. The enzyme is a tetramer of Mr 250 000, with identical subunits of Mr 57 000. Inhibition studies suggest that there is one essential thiol group per active site.

Balmforth AJ; Thomson A

1984-02-01

331

(+)-Ascosalitoxin and vermelhotin, a calmodulin inhibitor, from an endophytic fungus isolated from Hintonia latiflora  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical investigation of the endophytic fungus 39140-2, isolated from the medicinal plant Hintonia latiflora, yielded the known polyketide vermelhotin (1) and a new salycilic aldehyde derivative, namely 9S,11R-(+)-ascosalitoxin (2). The structure and absolute configuration of the new compound was ...

332

Metabolites from the endophytic fungus Sporormiella minimoides isolated from Hintonia latiflora  

Science.gov (United States)

An extract of the solid cultures of Sporormiella minimoides (Sporormiaceae) isolated as an endophytic fungus from Hintonia latiflora (Rubiaceae), yielded three polyketides, 3,6-dimethoxy-8-methyl-1H,6H-benzo[de]isochromene-1,9-dione, 3-hydroxy-1,6,10-trimethoxy-8-methyl-1H,3H-benzo[de]isochromen-9-o...

333

BIOTRANSFORMATION OF 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE (TNT) BY A PLANT-ASSOCIATED FUNGUS FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM  

Science.gov (United States)

The capability of a plant-associated fungus, Fusarium oxyvorum, to transform TNT in liquid cultures was investigated. TNT was transformed into 2-amino-4, 6-dinitrotoluene (2-A-DNT), 4-amino-2, 6-dinitrotoluene (4-A- DNT), and 2, 4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2, 4-DAT) via 2- and 4-hy...

334

Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus and Different Phosphorus Doses Against Cotton Wilt Caused Verticillium dahliae Kleb.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this work was to study the influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus (AMF) and different phosphorus dosages on the development of Verticillium dahliae Kleb. induced wilt in cotton. Sayar-314 cotton variety which is sensitive to Verticillium wilt, AMF G. intraradice...

Aysel Bars Orak; Semra Demir

335

Plasticizers Increase Adhesion of the Deteriogenic Fungus Aureobasidium pullulans to Polyvinyl Chloride  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Initial adhesion of fungi to plasticized polyvinyl chloride (pPVC) may determine subsequent colonization and biodeterioration processes. The deteriogenic fungus Aureobasidium pullulans was used to investigate the physicochemical nature of adhesion to both unplasticized PVC (uPVC) and pPVC containing...

Webb, Jeremy S.; Van der Mei, Henny C.; Nixon, Marianne; Eastwood, Ian M.; Greenhalgh, Malcolm; Read, Simon J.

336

Marilones A–C, phthalides from the sponge-derived fungus Stachylidium sp.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The marine-derived fungus Stachylidium sp. was isolated from the sponge Callyspongia sp. cf. C. flammea. Culture on a biomalt medium supplemented with sea salt led to the isolation of three new phthalide derivatives, i.e., marilones A–C (1–3), and the known compound silvaticol (4). The skeleton of m...

Almeida, Celso; Kehraus, Stefan; Prudêncio, Miguel; König, Gabriele M

337

Antimicrobial Activity of a Chelatable Poly(Arginyl-Histidine) Produced by the Ergot Fungus Verticillium kibiense  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have recently developed a convenient method of screening a broad range of microorganisms that produce ?-poly-l-lysine (M. Nishikawa and K. Ogawa, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:3575-3581, 2002). Using this method, we found an ergot fungus that secretes a charged polypeptide other than ?-poly-l-lysi...

Nishikawa, Masanobu; Ogawa, Ken'ichi

338

Biological Control of Meloidogyne hapla on Alfalfa and Tomato with the FungusMeria coniospora  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was to determine whether Arthrobotrys flagrans, A. oligospora, and Meria coniospora would control the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla on alfalfa and tomato. Alfalfa seeds were coated with a fungus-rye powder in 2% cellulose and were planted in infested soil. Three-week-old seedlings ...

Townshend, J. L.; Meskine, M.; Barron, G. L.

339

Differential gene expression during conidiation in the grape powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator  

Science.gov (United States)

Asexual sporulation (conidiation) is coordinately regulated in the grape powdery mildew fungus Erysiphe necator, but nothing is known about its genetic regulation. We hypothesized that genes required for conidiation in other fungi would be up-regulated at conidiophore initiation and/or full conidia...

340

Multiple Sex Pheromones and Receptors of a Mushroom-producing Fungus Elicit Mating in Yeast  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The mushroom-producing fungus Schizophyllum commune has thousands of mating types defined, in part, by numerous lipopeptide pheromones and their G protein-linked receptors. Compatible combinations of pheromones and receptors encoded by different mating types regulate a pathway of sexual development ...

Fowler, Thomas J.; DeSimone, Susan M.; Mitton, Michael F.; Kurjan, Janet; Raper, Carlene A.

 
 
 
 
341

Optimization of protease production by the fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium and its action against Angiostrongylus vasorum larvae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objectives of this study were to optimize protease production from the nematophagous fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34a) and evaluate its larvicidal activity and biological stability. An isolate of the nematophagous fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34a) was used to produce the enzyme. The Plackett-Burman design was used in order to scan which components of the culture medium could have a significant influence on protease production by the fungus NF34a. An in vitro assay was also performed to evaluate the larvicidal activity of NF34a. It was observed that only one component of the culture medium (yeast extract), at the levels studied, had any significant effect (p < 0.05) on protease production. There was a reduction (p < 0.01) in the mean number of larvae recovered from the treated groups, compared with the control groups. The results confirm previous reports on the efficiency of nematophagous fungi for controlling nematode larvae that are potentially zoonotic. Thus, given the importance of biological control, we suggest that further studies should be conducted on the protease produced by the fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium.

Soares FE; Braga FR; Araújo JV; Lima Wdos S; Mozzer LR; Queiroz JH

2013-04-01

342

Optimization of protease production by the fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium and its action against Angiostrongylus vasorum larvae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this study were to optimize protease production from the nematophagous fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34a) and evaluate its larvicidal activity and biological stability. An isolate of the nematophagous fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34a) was used to produce the enzyme. The Plackett-Burman design was used in order to scan which components of the culture medium could have a significant influence on protease production by the fungus NF34a. An in vitro assay was also performed to evaluate the larvicidal activity of NF34a. It was observed that only one component of the culture medium (yeast extract), at the levels studied, had any significant effect (p < 0.05) on protease production. There was a reduction (p < 0.01) in the mean number of larvae recovered from the treated groups, compared with the control groups. The results confirm previous reports on the efficiency of nematophagous fungi for controlling nematode larvae that are potentially zoonotic. Thus, given the importance of biological control, we suggest that further studies should be conducted on the protease produced by the fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium. PMID:23856736

Soares, Filippe Elias de Freitas; Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; Araújo, Jackson Victor de; Lima, Walter dos Santos; Mozzer, Lanuze Rose; Queiroz, José Humberto de

343

Dissolved oxygen levels affect dimorphic growth by the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea  

Science.gov (United States)

The entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea is capable of dimorphic growth (hyphal or yeast-like) in submerged culture. In shake flask studies, we evaluated the impact of aeration on the mode of growth of I. fumosorosea. Using 250 mL baffled Erlenmeyer flasks, culture volumes of 50, 100, 150, a...

344

Fungus Ball Diagnosed on Computed Tomography (CT) Guided Needle Aspiration and Biopsy of Thoracic Lesions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background/Objective: CT-guided biopsy provides results in a short period and can be applied on outpatient and even high-risk patients; however, some studies do not recommend it in lesions with benign histology probability. The purpose was to report our experience regarding fungus ball diagnosis on ...

Sepideh Rouhi; Mehrdad Bakhshayeshkaram

345

Bag cultured edible fungus liquid spawn full automatic inoculation machine and operation process thereof  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a bag cultured edible fungus liquid spawn full automatic inoculation machine and an operation process thereof, which is mainly used in the automatic inoculation production of edible fungus liquid spawn. The bag cultured edible fungus liquid spawn full automatic inoculation machine comprises a roller conveyor, an inoculation purification working cavity, a to-be-inoculated cultivation bag frame input buffer area, a double station multipoint automatic inoculation sealing part, an inoculated cultivation bag frame output buffer area, an automatic controller and the like and can full-automatically accomplish operations of inoculation work environment purification, cultivation bag frame input and output, cultivation bag automatic quantitative inoculation and seal and the like. The bag cultured edible fungus liquid spawn full automatic inoculation machine of the invention has high degree of automation, is unlikely to generate pollution, has greatly reduced requirement on the machine sterile work environment, has simple and compact structure, is suitable for batch inoculation productions of the masses of farmers and medium-sized and small enterprises, and has great popularization and application value.

XILIANG ZHANG; PINGPING LI; CUIYUN MAO; YONGGUANG HU; JUNJIE YUAN; JIZHANG WANG; LIQIANG CHEN; XIARONG ZHANG; FENG ZHANG; JIN YUAN

346

COLONY FOUNDATION, NEST ARCHITECTURE, AND DEMOGRAPHY OF THE FUNGUS-GROWING ANT, MYCOCEPURUS SMITHI (HYMENOPTERA, FORMICIDAE)  

Science.gov (United States)

The genus Mycocepurus is a phylogenetically basal attine ant whose biology may provide insight into the evolutionary origin and ancestral behaviours associated with fungus-growing that uniquely characterizes this tribe. Mycocepurus smithi from Puerto Rico produces sexual females from July to Septem...

347

Short read sequencing for Genomic Analysis of the brown rot fungus Fibroporia radiculosa  

Science.gov (United States)

The practical capability of short read sequencing for whole genome gene prediction was investigated for Fibroporia radiculosa, a copper-tolerant basidiomycete fungus that causes brown rot decay of wood. Illumina GAIIX reads from a single run of a paired-end library (75 nt read length, 300 bp insert...

348

Genetic control of horizontal virus transmission in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Vegetative incompatibility in fungi has long been known to reduce the transmission of viruses between individuals, but the barrier to transmission is incomplete. In replicated laboratory assays, we showed conclusively that the transmission of viruses between individuals of the chestnut blight fungus...

Cortesi, P; McCulloch, C E; Song, H; Lin, H; Milgroom, M G

349

The availability of a lactose medium for tea fungus culture and Kombucha fermentation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Kombucha is a traditional beverage that is prepared by fermenting sucrose-sweetened black tea. A medium is inoculated with a cellulose pellicle (popularly known as a “tea fungus”) or fermentation brought from previous cultivation process. Our aim was to test the possibility of obtaining a Kombuc...

Markov S.L.; Cvetkovi? D.D.; Veli?anski Aleksandra S.

350

Tea fungus fermentation on a substrate with iron(ii)-ions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Iron is essential element for human metabolism and it is a constituent of both heme- containing and nonheme proteins. Its deficiency can cause serious diseases, i.e. iron-deficiency anemia, with some fatal consequences. Tea fungus beverage has high nutritional value and some pharmaceutical effects. ...

Malbaša Radomir V.; Lon?ar Eva S.; Kolarov Ljiljana A.

351

Nematicidal activities of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and oidiolactone D produced by the fungus Oidiodendron sp.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two nematicides, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (4-HPA) (1) and oidiolactone D (2), were isolated from cultures of the fungus Oidiodendron sp., and their structures were identified by spectroscopic analyses. Compound 2 showed nematicidal activities against the root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans, and the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Compound 1 was also active against these two nematodes but to a lesser extent.

Ohtani K; Fujioka S; Kawano T; Shimada A; Kimura Y

2011-01-01

352

Phosphate Uptake in an Obligately Marine Fungus II. Role of Culture Conditions, Energy Sources, and Inhibitors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Phosphate uptake in the obligately marine fungus, Thraustochytrium roseum, is maximal at pH 7.5 to 7.8, is dependent on temperature, and varies with phosphate concentration. Pyruvate and succinate stimulate phosphate uptake, although they do not increase respiration. The uncoupling agents, 2,4-dinit...

Siegenthaler, Paul A.; Belsky, Melvin M.; Goldstein, Solomon; Menna, Maria

353

Convergent coevolution in the domestication of coral mushrooms by fungus-growing ants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Comparisons of phylogenetic patterns between coevolving symbionts can reveal rich details about the evolutionary history of symbioses. The ancient symbiosis between fungus-growing ants, their fungal cultivars, antibiotic-producing bacteria and cultivar-infecting parasites is dominated by a pattern of parallel coevolution, where the symbionts of each functional group are members of monophyletic groups. However, there is one outstanding exception in the fungus-growing ant system, the unidentified cultivar grown only by ants in the Apterostigma pilosum group. We classify this cultivar in the coral-mushroom family Pterulaceae using phylogenetic reconstructions based on broad taxon sampling, including the first mushroom collected from the garden of an ant species in the A. pilosum group. The domestication of the pterulaceous cultivar is independent from the domestication of the gilled mushrooms cultivated by all other fungus-growing ants. Yet it has the same overall assemblage of coevolved ant-cultivar-parasite-bacterium interactions as the other ant-grown fungal cultivars. This indicates a pattern of convergent coevolution in the fungus-growing ant system, where symbionts with both similar and very different evolutionary histories converge to functionally identical interactions.

Munkacsi, A.B.; Pan, J.J.

2004-01-01

354

Enzymatic Mechanisms Involved in Phenanthrene Degradation by the White Rot Fungus Pleurotus ostreatus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The enzymatic mechanisms involved in the degradation of phenanthrene by the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus were examined. Phase I metabolism (cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase and epoxide hydrolase) and phase II conjugation (glutathione S-transferase, aryl sulfotransferase, UDP-glucuronosyltransf...

Bezalel, L.; Hadar, Y.; Cerniglia, C. E.

355

Benzopyranones from the Endophytic Fungus Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12 and Their Bioactivities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The endophytic fungus Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12 was isolated from the hybrid ‘Neva’ of Populus deltoides Marsh × P. nigra L. In this study, four benzopyranones were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12, and identified as palmariol B (1), 4-hydroxymellein (...

Xiangjie Meng; Ziling Mao; Jingfeng Lou; Liang Xu; Lingyun Zhong; Youliang Peng; Ligang Zhou; Mingan Wang

356

Inoculum production of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus microcarpus in an airlift bioreactor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many important tree species in reforestation programs are dependent on ectomycorrhizal symbiosis in order to survive and grow, mainly in poor soils. The exploitation of this symbiosis to increase plant productivity demands the establishment of inoculum production methods. This study aims to propose an inoculum production method of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus microcarpus (isolate UFSC-Pt116) using liquid fermentation in an airlift bioreactor with external circulation. The fungus grew as dark dense pellets during a batch fermentation at 25.5 degrees C and air inlet of 0.26-0.43 vvm. The maximum biomass (dry weight) achieved in the airlift bioreactor was approximately 5 g.l(-1) after 10-11 days. The specific growth rate (micro(x)) in the exponential phase was 0.576 day(-1), the yield factor (Y(X/S)) 0.418, and the productivity (P(X)) 0.480 g.l(-1).day(-1). This specific growth rate was higher than that observed by other authors during fermentation processes with other Pisolithus isolates. The method seems to be very suitable for biomass production of this fungus. However, new studies on the fungus growth morphology in this system, as well as on the efficiency of the process for the cultivation of other ectomycorrhizal fungi, are necessary. It is also necessary to test the infectivity and efficiency of the inoculum towards the hosts.

Rossi MJ; Souza JA; Oliveira VL

2002-07-01

357

Biodegradation of crystal violet by the white rot fungus phanerochaete chrysosporium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biodegradation of crystal violet (N,N,N',N',N',N''- hexamethylpararosaniline) in ligninolytic (nitrogen-limited) cultures of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance of crystal violet and by the identification of three metabolites (N,N,N',N',N'' -pentamethylpararosaniline, N,N,N',N'' -tetramethylpararosaniline, and N,N',N'' -trimethylpararosaniline) formed by sequential N-demethylation of the parent compound. Metabolite formation also occurred when crystal violet was incubated with the extracellular fluid obtained from ligninolytic cultures of this fungus, provided that an H2O2-generating system was supplied. This, as well as the fact that a purified ligninase catalyzed N-demethylation of crystal violet, demonstrated that biodegradation of crystal violet by this fungus is dependent, at least in part, upon its lignin-degrading system. In addition to crystal violet, six other triphenylmethane dyes (pararosaniline, cresol red, bromphenol blue, ethyl violet, malachite green, and brilliant green) were shown to be degraded by the lignin-degrading system of this fungus.

Bumpus, J.A.; Brock, B.J.

1988-01-01

358

trans-Ribosylzeatin: Its Biosynthesis in Zea mays Endosperm and the Mycorrhizal Fungus, Rhizopogon roseolus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

When [8-(14)C]-N(6)-(Delta(2)-isopentenyl) adenosine is incubated with the endosperm of corn (2 weeks after pollination), it is converted to [(14)C]-N(6)-(4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-trans-enyl) adenosine, trans-ribosylzeatin. This biosynthetic step, N(6)-(Delta(2)-isopentenyl) adenosine to ribosylzeatin, also occurs in the mycorrhizal fungus, Rhizopogon roseolus.

Miura G; Hall RH

1973-03-01

359

Molecular analysis of the LTR retrotransposon Ylt1 from the genome of dimorphic fungus Yarrowia lipolytica  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The retrotransposon Ylt1 was described previously from the genome of the dimorphic fungus Yarrowia lipolytica. Remarkably, Ylt1 is currently the largest LTR retrotransposon reported from fungal genomes. However, little was known about its biology and its interactions with host genome. So, the aim of...

Andriy Kovalchuk

360

Using copper sulfate to control fungus on eggs in catfish hatcheries  

Science.gov (United States)

Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is used by the catfish industry for controlling parasites and as an economical treatment to control fungus (Saprolegnia spp.) on channel catfish eggs. Several studies were designed at SNARC to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of CuSO4 to channel catfish eggs in pursuit o...

 
 
 
 
361

Altered transcriptional response to nutrient availability in hypovirus-infected chestnut blight fungus.  

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The gene lac-1, encoding the enzyme laccase, is one of several genes of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, that are suppressed by virulence-attenuating mycoviruses of the hypovirus group. Two antagonistic regulatory pathways have been shown to govern the activity of the lac-1 prom...

Larson, T G; Nuss, D L

362

Functional analysis of the kinome of the wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum  

Science.gov (United States)

As in many other eukaryotes, protein kinases play major regulatory roles in filamentous fungi. Although the genomes of numerous plant pathogenic fungi have been sequenced, systematic characterization of their kinomes has not been reported. The wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum has 116 putative ...

363

Abundant respirable ergot alkaloids from the common airborne fungus Aspergillus fumigatus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ergot alkaloids are mycotoxins that interact with several monoamine receptors, negatively affecting cardiovascular, nervous, reproductive, and immune systems of exposed humans and animals. Aspergillus fumigatus, a common airborne fungus and opportunistic human pathogen, can produce ergot alkaloids in broth culture. The objectives of this study were to determine if A. fumigatus accumulates ergot alkaloids in a respirable form in or on its conidia, to quantify ergot alkaloids associated with conidia produced on several different substrates, and to measure relevant physical properties of the conidia. We found at least four ergot alkaloids, fumigaclavine C, festuclavine, fumigaclavine A, and fumigaclavine B (in order of abundance), associated with conidia of A. fumigatus. Under environmentally relevant conditions, the total mass of ergot alkaloids often constituted >1% of the mass of the conidium. Ergot alkaloids were extracted from conidia produced on all media tested, and the greatest quantities were observed when the fungus was cultured on latex paint or cultured maize seedlings. The values for physical properties of conidia likely to affect their respirability (i.e., diameter, mass, and specific gravity) were significantly lower for A. fumigatus than for Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus niger, and Stachybotrys chartarum. The demonstration of relatively high concentrations of ergot alkaloids associated with conidia of A. fumigatus presents opportunities for investigations of potential contributions of the toxins to adverse health effects associated with the fungus and to aspects of the biology of the fungus that contribute to its success.

Panaccione DG; Coyle CM

2005-06-01

364

Uncommon Neosartorya udagawae fungus as a causative agent of severe corneal infection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report the first documented case of a posttraumatic fungal keratitis caused by Neosartorya udagawae. The patient was empirically treated with fluconazole until a corneal scraping grew an Aspergillus fumigatus-like fungus, and itraconazole therapy was then established. A sequence-based approach assigned the isolate to the species. Five months after completion of antifungal therapy, endophthalmitis occurred and orbital exenteration was necessary.

Posteraro B; Mattei R; Trivella F; Maffei A; Torre A; De Carolis E; Posteraro P; Fadda G; Sanguinetti M

2011-06-01

365

Gene Silencing by RNA Interference in the White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium?  

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The effectiveness of RNA interference (RNAi) is demonstrated in the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The manganese-containing superoxide dismutase gene (MnSOD1) was used as the target for RNAi. The plasmid constructed for gene silencing contained a transcriptional unit for hairpi...

Matityahu, Avi; Hadar, Yitzhak; Dosoretz, Carlos G.; Belinky, Paula A.

366

Identification of a novel cytochrome P-450 gene from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  

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A gene fragment belonging to the cytochrome P-450 superfamily has been cloned and identified from stationary cultures of the filamentous fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium by reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR. A set of degenerate primers homologous to highly conserved regions of known cytochrome P-450 ...

Kullman, S W; Matsumura, F

367

BIODEGRADATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM  

Science.gov (United States)

The white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium secretes a unique hydrogen peroxide-dependent oxidase capable of degrading lignin, a highly complex, chemically resistant, non-repeating heteropolymer. ue to its ability to generate carbon-centered radicals, this enzyme is able to...

368

Biodegradation of pentachlorophenol by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (1988)  

Science.gov (United States)

Extensive biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance and mineralization of [14C]PCP in nutrient nitrogen-limited culture. Mass balance analyses demonstrated the formation of water-soluble met...

369

Anti-fungus agent born from scent of Japanese horseradish; `Wasabi no kaori` kara umareta kokinzai  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes anti-fungus performance of essential oil extracted from mustard (containing allyl isofulfocyanate oil at 90% or more). The extracted material has high volatility and strong stimulation. Therefore, in order to use it for anti-fungal purpose, the material should be discharged slowly into an enclosed space to produce an atmosphere with its concentration higher than a certain level. The anti-fungus effect of allyl isofulfocyanate oil is reportedly capable of suppressing growth of fungus, ferments, and gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria at concentration level in gas phase from 4 to 27 ppm. Minimum growth detention concentration has also been investigated. Equivalent result has been acquired also from essential oil extracted from mustard oil. Water soluble preparation or water-system preparation that can be sprayed directly from it have been developed to rinse foodstuffs and treat fungus in foodstuffs containing water in package such as pickles. Divided powders of sustained release type carried on cellulose beads or micro-capsule preparations are available recently. Its application area is expanding remarkably. This paper also describes a result of evaluating the colon bacillus proliferation suppressing effect as an example of the effect tests. Effects to original flavors of foodstuffs are also important. (NEDO)

Sekiyama, Y.

1999-01-01

370

Purification and Partial Characterization of a Laccase from the White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete flavido-alba  

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In addition to excreting lignin-degrading peroxidases, the white rot fungus Phanerochaete flavido-alba also excretes a laccase. This protein was purified to homogeneity and found to have a molecular weight of 94,000 and an isoelectric point lower than 3.55. Its UV-visible spectrum is typical of copp...

Perez, J.; Martinez, J.; de la Rubia, T.

371

Biodegradation of crystal violet by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  

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Biodegradation of crystal violet (N,N,N',N',N'',N''-hexamethylpararosaniline) in ligninolytic (nitrogen-limited) cultures of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance of crystal violet and by the identification of three metabolites (N,N,N',N',N''-pentamet...

Bumpus, J A; Brock, B J

372

Initial Steps in the Degradation of Methoxychlor by the White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

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The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium mineralized [ring-(sup14)C]methoxychlor [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)ethane] and metabolized it to a variety of products. The three most prominent of these were identified as the 1-dechloro derivative 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)e...

Grifoll, M.; Hammel, K. E.

373

Purification and Partial Characterization of a Laccase from the White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete flavido-alba.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In addition to excreting lignin-degrading peroxidases, the white rot fungus Phanerochaete flavido-alba also excretes a laccase. This protein was purified to homogeneity and found to have a molecular weight of 94,000 and an isoelectric point lower than 3.55. Its UV-visible spectrum is typical of copper-containing proteins.

Perez J; Martinez J; de la Rubia T

1996-11-01

374

Involvement of Cytochrome P450 in Pentachlorophenol Transformation in a White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

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The occurrence of cytochrome P450 and P450-mediated pentachlorophenol oxidation in a white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated in this study. The carbon monoxide difference spectra indicated induction of P450 (103±13 pmol P450 per mg protein in the microsomal fraction) by pentach...

Ning, Daliang; Wang, Hui

375

Biotransformation of the Herbicide Atrazine by the White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biotransformation of atrazine by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by a 48% decrease of the initial herbicide concentration in the growth medium within the first 4 days of incubation, which corresponded to the mycelium-growing phase. Results clearly established the mi...

Mougin, Christian; Laugero, Chantal; Asther, Michele; Dubroca, Jacqueline; Frasse, Pierre; Asther, Marcel

376

Identification of the gene encoding the major cellobiohydrolase of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Previous studies have shown that the cellobiohydrolases of the white rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium are encoded by a family of structurally related genes. In this investigation, we identified and sequenced the most highly transcribed gene, cbh1-4. Evidence suggests that in this fungus...

Vanden Wymelenberg, A; Covert, S; Cullen, D

377

Identification of the gene encoding the major cellobiohydrolase of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous studies have shown that the cellobiohydrolases of the white rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium are encoded by a family of structurally related genes. In this investigation, we identified and sequenced the most highly transcribed gene, cbh1-4. Evidence suggests that in this fungus the dominant isozyme, CBH1, is encoded by chb1-4.

Vanden Wymelenberg A; Covert S; Cullen D

1993-10-01

378

Characterization of Carbohydrate-Binding Cytochrome b562 from the White-Rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

cDNA encoding a hemoprotein similar to the cytochrome domain of extracellular flavocytochrome cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) was cloned from the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The deduced amino acid sequence implies that there is a two-domain structure consisting of an N-terminal cyto...

Yoshida, Makoto; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Wada, Masahisa; Kaneko, Satoshi; Suzuki, Norio; Matsumura, Hirotoshi; Nakamura, Nobuhumi

379

Sphenospora Kevorkianii, a rust fungus (Uredinales: Raveneliaceae) on the orchid Pleurothallis mentigera  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A rust disease on the Brazilian orchid Pleurothallis mentigera was found in Mata do Jambreiro, a tropical forest in Minas Gerais State, caused by a fungus identified as Sphenospora kevorkianii Linder is described. P. mentigera Kraenzl. is added to S. kevorkianii host range.

Pereira Olinto L.; Cavallazzi José R.P.; Rollemberg Christtianno L.; Kasuya Maria C.M.

2002-01-01

380

Growth characteristics of the thermophilic fungus Scytalidium thermophilum in relation to production of mushroom compost.  

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Scytalidium thermophilum is an important thermophilic fungus in the production of mushroom compost. I investigated the characteristics of this organism and present a simple model with which fungal growth in compost can be described. The model is used to predict better circumstances for rapid indoor ...

Wiegant, W.M.

 
 
 
 
381

Growth Characteristics of the Thermophilic Fungus Scytalidium thermophilum in Relation to Production of Mushroom Compost  

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Scytalidium thermophilum is an important thermophilic fungus in the production of mushroom compost. I investigated the characteristics of this organism and present a simple model with which fungal growth in compost can be described. The model is used to predict better circumstances for rapid indoor ...

Wiegant, W. M.

382

Bacterium induces cryptic meroterpenoid pathway in the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Stimulating encounter: The intimate, physical interaction between the soil-derived bacterium Streptomyces rapamycinicus and the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus led to the activation of an otherwise silent polyketide synthase (PKS) gene cluster coding for an unusual prenylated polyphenol (fumicycline A). The meroterpenoid pathway is regulated by a pathway-specific activator gene as well as by epigenetic factors.

König CC; Scherlach K; Schroeckh V; Horn F; Nietzsche S; Brakhage AA; Hertweck C

2013-05-01

383

Investigation of the Effect of Heating, Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza and Thermophilic Fungus on Cotton Wilt Disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, combinations of spores of a thermophilic fungus (Talaromyces flavus), Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM) and microsclerotia of Verticillium dahliae under various temperature treatment (31-38°C) in triplicate trial, were investigated and results were compared with those of non-treated controls. Five cotton seeds were planted in each pot containing 3 kg of pasteurized soil. In each pot, combinations of 4x103 VAM spores, 2.5x10 9 spores of thermophilic fungus (T. flavus ) and 5x105 microsclerotia of V. dahliae were added. Symptoms of Verticillium wilt were observed after 45 days. Index of disease severity was measured. Results indicated that pre-heating of microsclerotia at 31 and 35°C for 10 and 14 h, respectively, caused a 15% reduction in leaf infection index. Presence of VAM and thermophilic fungus (T. flavus) spores caused 23 and 50% reductions in the disease development , respectively. Concurrent presence of mycorrhiza and thermophilic fungus spores caused a 10-20% reduction in disease development. These findings provide a promising approach to the control of Verticillium wilt of cotton. However, heat treatment of soil may prove difficult. Further studies in this regard are required and useful agricultural practices such as seasonal heating may be applied in the cotton fields.

L. Naraghi; H. Zareh-Maivan; A. Heydari; H. Afshari-Azad

2007-01-01

384

A strain of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for controlling subterranean termites  

Science.gov (United States)

Alates of the Formosan subterranean termite (FST), Coptotermes formosanus (Shiraki), collected after swarming in 2002 died within 48 hrs, and the cadavers were visibly infected with a fungus. Fungi were picked from the cadavers, transferred to media and ultimately isolated to purity. The individual ...

385

Npc1 is involved in sterol trafficking in the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum  

Science.gov (United States)

The ortholog of the human gene NPC1 was identified in the plant pathogenic, filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum by shared amino acid sequence, protein domain structure and cellular localization of the mature fungal protein. The Fusarium Npc1 gene shares 34% amino acid sequence identity and 51% s...

386

Gene cluster involved in melanin biosynthesis of the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata produces melanin, a black pigment, from acetate via 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene. To isolate a fungal gene required for melanin biosynthesis, we transformed an A. alternata Brm1- (light brown) mutant with the DNA of a wild-type strain genomic library construct...

Kimura, N; Tsuge, T

387

Chemical Constituents of a Marine-Derived Endophytic Fungus Penicillium commune G2M  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cultivation of the endophytic fungus Penicillium commune, which was isolated from the semi-mangrove plant Hibiscus tiliaceus,afforded one new compound 1-O-(2,4-dihydroxy-6-methylbenzoyl)-glycerol (1) along with thirteen known products, including 1-O-acetylglycerol (2), N-acetyltryptophan (3), 3-indo...

Hui-Jiao Yan; Shu-Shan Gao; Chun-Shun Li; Xiao-Ming Li; Bin-Gui Wang

388

The Predicted Secretome of the Plant Pathogenic Fungus Fusarium graminearum: A Refined Comparative Analysis  

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The fungus Fusarium graminearum forms an intimate association with the host species wheat whilst infecting the floral tissues at anthesis. During the prolonged latent period of infection, extracellular communication between live pathogen and host cells must occur, implying a role for secreted fungal...

Brown, Neil A.; Antoniw, John; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E.

389

Antagonistic effects of the endophytic fungus Meira geulakonigii on the citrus rust mite Phyllocoptruta oleivora.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: The fungus Meira geulakonigii has been shown to reduce populations of citrus rust mite (CRM; Phyllocoptruta oleivora) on citrus leaves and fruits, in both the field and laboratory. However, attempts to isolate the fungus from leaves and fruits have been unsuccessful. The aims of this study were therefore to determine whether M. geulakonigii is a citrus endophyte, and to assess possible mechanisms involved in its mite-antagonist activity. METHODS AND RESULTS: A quantitative real-time PCR and regular PCR approaches were developed to detect M. geulakonigii in both the field and laboratory. The fungus was detected throughout. Different methods revealed that M. geulakonigii is an endophyte, which colonizes both the peel of grapefruits. Applications of conidia protected the grapefruits against CRM, and fungal secretions extracted from growth media caused 100% CRM mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Meira geulakonigii is a beneficial endophyte of grapefruits that colonizes the fruit's peel, and protects it from CRM. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Findings from this study demonstrate the endophytic nature of M. geulakonigii in its interaction with grapefruits. In addition, a molecular approach was developed to specifically detect the fungus inside the grapefruit peel. This approach can be used to assess the natural occurrence of M. geulakonigii in grapefruit.

Paz Z; Burdman S; Gerson U; Sztejnberg A

2007-12-01

390

TESTING OF THE INSECT PEST CONTROL FUNGUS BEAUVERIA BASSIANA IN GRASS SHRIMP PALAEMONETES PUGIO  

Science.gov (United States)

Embryos, larvae and adult grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio were exposed to spores of the insect-control fungus Beauveria bassiana. onidiospores attached to embryos held by gravid females and remained with the egg mass for at least 6 d. In the first experiment where individual deve...

391

Herbarone, a Rearranged Heptaketide Derivative from the Sea Hare Associated Fungus Torula herbarum  

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Herbarone (1), a novel heptaketide with a tetrahydro-5,9-methanobenzo[8]annulen-10(5H)-one skeleton, together with the new ent-astropaquinones B (2) and C (3) and four known pyranonaphthoquinones (4-7), was isolated from the sea hare associated fungus Torula herbarum. The structures of the new compo...

Geng, Wan-Li; Wang, Xian-You; Kurtán, Tibor; Mándi, Attila; Tang, Hua; Schulz, Barbara; Sun, Peng; Zhang, Wen; Kurtán Tibor (1973-) (vegyész, angol szakfordító)

392

There is no structural relationship between nasal septal deviation, concha bullosa, and paranasal sinus fungus balls.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aims to determine the relationship between nasal septal deviation, concha bullosa, and chronic rhinosinusitis by using a definitive pathological and simplified model. Fifty-two consecutive sinus computed tomography scans were performed on patients who received endoscopic sinus surgery and whose final diagnosis was paranasal sinus fungus balls. The incidences of nasal septal deviation and concha bullosa for patients diagnosed with paranasal sinus fungus balls among the study group were 42.3% and 25%, respectively. About 63.6% sinuses with fungus balls were located on the ipsilateral side of the nasal septal deviation, and 46.2% were located on the ipsilateral side of the concha bullosa. When examined by Pearson's chi-square test and the chi-squared goodness-of-fit test, no significant statistical difference for the presence of paranasal sinus fungus balls between ipsilateral and contralateral sides of nasal septal deviation and concha bullosa was noted (P = 0.292 and P = 0.593, resp.). In conclusion, we could not demonstrate any statistically significant correlation between the location of infected paranasal sinus, the direction of nasal septal deviation, and the location of concha bullosa, in location-limited rhinosinusitis lesions such as paranasal sinus fungal balls. We conclude that the anatomical variants discussed herein do not predispose patients to rhinosinusitis.

Tsai TL; Lan MY; Ho CY

2012-01-01

393

There is no structural relationship between nasal septal deviation, concha bullosa, and paranasal sinus fungus balls.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to determine the relationship between nasal septal deviation, concha bullosa, and chronic rhinosinusitis by using a definitive pathological and simplified model. Fifty-two consecutive sinus computed tomography scans were performed on patients who received endoscopic sinus surgery and whose final diagnosis was paranasal sinus fungus balls. The incidences of nasal septal deviation and concha bullosa for patients diagnosed with paranasal sinus fungus balls among the study group were 42.3% and 25%, respectively. About 63.6% sinuses with fungus balls were located on the ipsilateral side of the nasal septal deviation, and 46.2% were located on the ipsilateral side of the concha bullosa. When examined by Pearson's chi-square test and the chi-squared goodness-of-fit test, no significant statistical difference for the presence of paranasal sinus fungus balls between ipsilateral and contralateral sides of nasal septal deviation and concha bullosa was noted (P = 0.292 and P = 0.593, resp.). In conclusion, we could not demonstrate any statistically significant correlation between the location of infected paranasal sinus, the direction of nasal septal deviation, and the location of concha bullosa, in location-limited rhinosinusitis lesions such as paranasal sinus fungal balls. We conclude that the anatomical variants discussed herein do not predispose patients to rhinosinusitis. PMID:23326212

Tsai, Tung-Lung; Lan, Ming-Ying; Ho, Ching-Yin

2012-12-26

394

Marilones A–C, phthalides from the sponge-derived fungus Stachylidium sp.  

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The marine-derived fungus Stachylidium sp. was isolated from the sponge Callyspongia sp. cf. C. flammea. Culture on a biomalt medium supplemented with sea salt led to the isolation of three new phthalide derivatives, i.e., marilones A–C (1–3), and the k...

Celso Almeida; Stefan Kehraus; Miguel Prudêncio; Gabriele M. König

395

Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the white-rot fungus Physisporinus vitreus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The biotechnologically important white-rot fungus Physisporinus vitreus was co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens AGL-1 carrying plasmids with nourseothricin resistance as the selectable marker gene and red fluorescence protein as a visual marker. Mitotically stable transformed isolates were obtained showing red fluorescence protein activity.

Schubert M; Stührk C; Fuhr MJ; Schwarze FW

2013-09-01

396

Biosynthesis and degradation of storage protein in spores of the fungus Botryodiplodia theobromae.  

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Muiridin, a spore-specific protein of the fungus Botryodiplodia theobromae, comprises about 25% of the mature pycnidiospore protein. It has an apparent molecular weight of 16,000 to 17,000 and is rich in glutamine, asparagine, and arginine. Muiridin is synthesized in developing spores via a precurso...

Petersen, G R; Dahlberg, K R; Van Etten, J L

397

SnoRNAs from the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa: structural, functional and evolutionary insights  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background SnoRNAs represent an excellent model for studying the structural and functional evolution of small non-coding RNAs involved in the post-transcriptional modification machinery for rRNAs and snRNAs in eukaryotic cells. Identification of snoRNAs from Neurospora crassa, an important model organism playing key roles in the development of modern genetics, biochemistry and molecular biology will provide insights into the evolution of snoRNA genes in the fungus kingdom. Results Fifty five box C/D snoRNAs were identified and predicted to guide 71 2'-O-methylated sites including four sites on snRNAs and three sites on tRNAs. Additionally, twenty box H/ACA snoRNAs, which potentially guide 17 pseudouridylations on rRNAs, were also identified. Although not exhaustive, the study provides the first comprehensive list of two major families of snoRNAs from the filamentous fungus N. crassa. The independently transcribed strategy dominates in the expression of box H/ACA snoRNA genes, whereas most of the box C/D snoRNA genes are intron-encoded. This shows that different genomic organizations and expression modes have been adopted by the two major classes of snoRNA genes in N. crassa . Remarkably, five gene clusters represent an outstanding organization of box C/D snoRNA genes, which are well conserved among yeasts and multicellular fungi, implying their functional importance for the fungus cells. Interestingly, alternative splicing events were found in the expression of two polycistronic snoRNA gene hosts that resemble the UHG-like genes in mammals. Phylogenetic analysis further revealed that the extensive separation and recombination of two functional elements of snoRNA genes has occurred during fungus evolution. Conclusion This is the first genome-wide analysis of the filamentous fungus N. crassa snoRNAs that aids in understanding the differences between unicellular fungi and multicellular fungi. As compared with two yeasts, a more complex pattern of methylation guided by box C/D snoRNAs in multicellular fungus than in unicellular yeasts was revealed, indicating the high diversity of post-transcriptional modification guided by snoRNAs in the fungus kingdom.

Liu Na; Xiao Zhen-Dong; Yu Chun-Hong; Shao Peng; Liang Yin-Tong; Guan Dao-Gang; Yang Jian-Hua; Chen Chun-Long; Qu Liang-Hu; Zhou Hui

2009-01-01

398

Forage collection, substrate preparation, and diet composition in fungus-growing ants  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1. Variation and control of nutritional input is an important selective force in the evolution of mutualistic interactions and may significantly affect coevolutionary modifications in partner species. 2. The attine fungus-growing ants are a tribe of more than 230 described species (12 genera) that use a variety of different substrates to manure the symbiotic fungus they cultivate inside the nest. Common 'wisdom' is that the conspicuous leaf-cutting ants primarily use freshly cut plant material, whereas most of the other attine species use dry and partly degraded plant material such as leaf litter and caterpillar frass, but systematic comparative studies of actual resource acquisition across the attine ants have not been done. 3. Here we review 179 literature records of diet composition across the extant genera of fungus-growing ants. The records confirm the dependence of leaf-cutting ants on fresh vegetation but find that flowers, dry plant debris, seeds (husks), and insect frass are used by all genera, whereas other substrates such as nectar and insect carcasses are only used by some. 4. Diet composition was significantly correlated with ant substrate preparation behaviours before adding forage to the fungus garden, indicating that diet composition and farming practices have co-evolved. Neither diet nor preparation behaviours changed when a clade within the paleoattine genus Apterostigma shifted from rearing leucocoprinous fungi to cultivating pterulaceous fungi, but the evolutionary derived transition to yeast growing in the Cyphomyrmex rimosus group, which relies almost exclusively on nectar and insect frass, was associated with specific changes in diet composition. 5. The co-evolutionary transitions in diet composition across the genera of attine ants indicate that fungus-farming insect societies have the possibility to obtain more optimal fungal crops via artificial selection, analogous to documented practice in human subsistence farming.

DE FINE LICHT HENRIKH; BOOMSMA JACOBUSJ

2010-06-01

399

The prediction of protein-protein interaction networks in rice blast fungus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein interaction (PPI) maps are useful tools for investigating the cellular functions of genes. Thus far, large-scale PPI mapping projects have not been implemented for the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea, which is responsible for the most severe rice disease. Inspired by recent advances in PPI prediction, we constructed a PPI map of this important fungus. Results Using a well-recognized interolog approach, we have predicted 11,674 interactions among 3,017 M. grisea proteins. Although the scale of the constructed map covers approximately only one-fourth of the M. grisea's proteome, it is the first PPI map for this crucial organism and will therefore provide new insights into the functional genomics of the rice blast fungus. Focusing on the network topology of proteins encoded by known pathogenicity genes, we have found that pathogenicity proteins tend to interact with higher numbers of proteins. The pathogenicity proteins and their interacting partners in the entire network were then used to construct a subnet called a pathogenicity network. These data may provide further clues for the study of these pathogenicity proteins. Finally, it has been established that secreted proteins in M. grisea interact with fewer proteins. These secreted proteins and their interacting partners were also compiled into a network of secreted proteins, which may be helpful in constructing an interactome between the rice blast fungus and rice. Conclusion We predicted the PPIs of M. grisea and compiled them into a database server called MPID. It is hoped that MPID will provide new hints as to the functional genomics of this fungus. MPID is available at http://bioinformatics.cau.edu.cn/zzd_lab/MPID.html.

He Fei; Zhang Yan; Chen Hao; Zhang Ziding; Peng You-Liang

2008-01-01

400

Forage collection, substrate preparation, and diet composition in fungus-growing ants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

2. The attine fungus-growing ants are a tribe of more than 230 described species (12 genera) that use a variety of different substrates to manure the symbiotic fungus they cultivate inside the nest. Common 'wisdom' is that the conspicuous leaf-cutting ants primarily use freshly cut plant material, whereas most of the other attine species use dry and partly degraded plant material such as leaf litter and caterpillar frass, but systematic comparative studies of actual resource acquisition across the attine ants have not been done. 3. Here we review 179 literature records of diet composition across the extant genera of fungus-growing ants. The records confirm the dependence of leaf-cutting ants on fresh vegetation but find that flowers, dry plant debris, seeds (husks), and insect frass are used by all genera, whereas other substrates such as nectar and insect carcasses are only used by some. 4. Diet composition was significantly correlated with ant substrate preparation behaviours before adding forage to the fungus garden, indicating that diet composition and farming practices have co-evolved. Neither diet nor preparation behaviours changed when a clade within the paleoattine genus Apterostigma shifted from rearing leucocoprinous fungi to cultivating pterulaceous fungi, but the evolutionary derived transition to yeast growing in the Cyphomyrmex rimosus group, which relies almost exclusively on nectar and insect frass, was associated with specific changes in diet composition. 5. The co-evolutionary transitions in diet composition across the genera of attine ants indicate that fungus-farming insect societies have the possibility to obtain more optimal fungal crops via artificial selection, analogous to documented practice in human subsistence farming

Licht, H.H.D.; Boomsma, J.J.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Molecular phylogeny of bark and ambrosia beetles reveals multiple origins of fungus farming during periods of global warming.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Fungus farming is an unusual life style in insects that has evolved many times in the wood boring weevils named 'ambrosia beetles'. Multiple occurrences of this behaviour allow for a detailed comparison of the different origins of fungus farming through time, its directionality, and possible ancestral states. We tested these hypotheses with a phylogeny representing the largest data set to date, nearly 4 kb of nucleotides from COI, EF-1?, CAD, ArgK, 28S, and 200 scolytine taxa. RESULTS: Phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian or parsimony approaches placed the root of Scolytinae close to the tribe Scolytini and Microborus, but otherwise indicated low resolution at older nodes. More recent clades were well resolved, including ten origins of fungus farming. There were no subsequent reversals to bark or phloem feeding in the fungus farming clades. The oldest origin of fungus farming was estimated near 50 Ma, long after the origin of Scolytinae (100-120 Ma). Younger origins included the species rich Xyleborini, dated to 21 Ma. Sister group comparisons and test of independence between traits indicated that neither gregarious larval feeding nor regular inbreeding by sibling mating was strongly correlated with the origin of fungus farming. CONCLUSION: Origins of fungus farming corresponded mainly with two periods of global warming in the Cenozoic era, which were characterised by broadly distributed tropical forests. Hence, it seems likely that warm climates and expanding tropical angiosperm forests played critical roles in the successful radiation of diverse fungus farming groups. However, further investigation will likely reveal additional biological factors that promote fungus farming.

Jordal BH; Cognato AI

2012-01-01

402

Molecular phylogeny of bark and ambrosia beetles reveals multiple origins of fungus farming during periods of global warming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Fungus farming is an unusual life style in insects that has evolved many times in the wood boring weevils named ‘ambrosia beetles’. Multiple occurrences of this behaviour allow for a detailed comparison of the different origins of fungus farming through time, its directionality, and possible ancestral states. We tested these hypotheses with a phylogeny representing the largest data set to date, nearly 4 kb of nucleotides from COI, EF-1?, CAD, ArgK, 28S, and 200 scolytine taxa. Results Phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian or parsimony approaches placed the root of Scolytinae close to the tribe Scolytini and Microborus, but otherwise indicated low resolution at older nodes. More recent clades were well resolved, including ten origins of fungus farming. There were no subsequent reversals to bark or phloem feeding in the fungus farming clades. The oldest origin of fungus farming was estimated near 50 Ma, long after the origin of Scolytinae (100-120 Ma). Younger origins included the species rich Xyleborini, dated to 21 Ma. Sister group comparisons and test of independence between traits indicated that neither gregarious larval feeding nor regular inbreeding by sibling mating was strongly correlated with the origin of fungus farming. Conclusion Origins of fungus farming corresponded mainly with two periods of global warming in the Cenozoic era, which were characterised by broadly distributed tropical forests. Hence, it seems likely that warm climates and expanding tropical angiosperm forests played critical roles in the successful radiation of diverse fungus farming groups. However, further investigation will likely reveal additional biological factors that promote fungus farming.

Jordal Bjarte H; Cognato Anthony I

2012-01-01

403

Identification of citrinin as the defence metabolite of Penicillium corylophilum stressed with the antagonist fungus Beauveria bassiana.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Penicillium corylophilum isolated from mosquitoes was cultivated in liquid media leading to the first reported identification of citrinin (1a) as one metabolic component of this fungus. The produced amount of 1a indicated this compound as the most abundant secondary metabolite of this fungus. Stressing the culture of P. corylophilum with the presence of the antagonistic fungus Beauveria bassiana increased in 65% the production of 1a. Similar results were obtained with the presence of other fungi in the culture media, indicating that citrinin is the main defence metabolite of P. corylophilum. In agreement with this conclusion, citrinin showed a reasonable fungicidal activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and B. bassiana.

Dos Santos CM; da Costa GL; Figueroa-Villar JD

2012-01-01

404

The effect of fungicides on survival of the crayfish plague fungus, Aphanomyces astaci, Oomycetes, growing on fish scales.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Zoospores from the crayfish plague fungus Aphanomyces astaci could germinate and grow in vitro on scales of Salmo salar. The fungicidal activity of different compounds was tested against the fungus growing on fish scales as well as in lake water. Malachite green was the most effective fungicide, but scale mucus protected the fungus from this compound to some extent. For complete inhibition of spore germination in scale mucus 2 mg1-1 was required compared to 1 1 mg1-1 in lake water.

Häll L; Unestam T

1980-11-01

405

Biotite weathering and nutrient uptake by ectomycorrhizal fungus, Suillus tomentosus, in liquid-culture experiments  

Science.gov (United States)

Ectomycorrhiza-forming fungi (EMF) alter the nutrient-acquisition capabilities of vascular plants, and may play an important role in mineral weathering and the partitioning of products of weathering in soils under nutrient-limited conditions. In this study, we isolated the weathering function of Suillus tomentosus in liquid-cultures with biotite micas incubated at room temperature. We hypothesized that the fungus would accelerate weathering by hyphal attachment to biotite surfaces and transmission of nutrient cations via direct exchange into the fungal biomass. We combined a mass-balance approach with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to estimate weathering rates and study dissolution features on biotite surfaces. Weathering of biotite flakes was about 2-3 orders of magnitude faster in shaken liquid-cultures with fungus compared to shaken controls without fungus, but with added inorganic acids. Adding fungus in nonshaken cultures caused a higher dissolution rate than in inorganic pH controls without fungus, but it was not significantly faster than organic pH controls without fungus. The K +, Mg 2+ and Fe 2+ from biotite were preferentially partitioned into fungal biomass in the shaken cultures, while in the nonshaken cultures, K + and Mg 2+ was lost from biomass and Fe 2+ bioaccumulated much less. Fungal hyphae attached to biotite surfaces, but no significant surface changes were detected by SEM. When cultures were shaken, the AFM images of basal planes appeared to be rougher and had abundant dissolution channels, but such channel development was minor in nonshaken conditions. Even under shaken conditions the channels only accounted for only 1/100 of the total dissolution rate of 2.7 × 10 -10 mol of biotite m -2 s -1. The results suggest that fungal weathering predominantly occurred not by attachment and direct transfer of nutrients via hyphae, but because of the acidification of the bulk liquid by organic acids, fungal respiration (CO 2), and complexation of cations which accelerated dissolution of biotite. Results further suggest that both carbohydrate source (abundant here) and a host with which nutrients are exchanged (missing here) may be required for EMF to exert an important weathering effect in soils. Unsaturated conditions and physical dispersal of nutrient-rich minerals in soils may also confer a benefit for hyphal growth and attachment, and promote the attachment-mediated weathering which has been observed elsewhere on soil mineral surfaces.

Balogh-Brunstad, Zsuzsanna; Kent Keller, C.; Thomas Dickinson, J.; Stevens, Forrest; Li, C. Y.; Bormann, Bernard T.

2008-06-01

406

The development of a spatially-explicit, individual-based, disease model for frogs and the chytrid fungus  

Science.gov (United States)

Background / Question / Methods The fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (BD), has been associated with amphibian population declines and even extinctions worldwide. Transmission of the fungus between amphibian hosts occurs via motile zoospores, which are produced on...

407

Benzyl Derivatives with in Vitro Binding Affinity for Human Opioid Receptors and Cannabinoid Receptors from the Fungus Eurotium repens  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioassay-guided fractionation of the fungus Eurotium repens resulted in the isolation of two benzyl derivatives, repenol A (1) and repenol B (2). Seven known secondary metabolites were also isolated including five benzaldehyde compounds, flavoglaucin (3), tetrahydroauroglaucin (4), dihydroauroglauci...

408

Reinvestigation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome annotation by comparison to the genome of a related fungus: Ashbya gossypii  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although, the S. cerevisiae genome is rightly considered as one of the most accurately sequenced and annotated eukaryotic genomes, it still benefits substantially from comparison to the completed sequence and syntenic gene map of Ashbya gossypii, an evolutionarily related fungus.

Brachat, Sophie; Dietrich, Fred S; Voegeli, Sylvia; Zhang, Zhihong; Stuart, Larissa; Lerch, Anita; Gates, Krista

409

Heavy-metal remediation by a fungus as a means of production of lead and cadmium carbonate crystals.  

Science.gov (United States)

We show here that reaction of the fungus, Fusarium oxysporum, with the aqueous heavy-metal ions Pb2+ and Cd2+ results in the one-step formation of the corresponding metal carbonates. The metal carbonates are formed by reaction of the heavy-metal ions with CO2 produced by the fungus during metabolism and thus provide a completely biological method for production of crystals of metal carbonates. The PbCO3 and CdCO3 crystals thus produced have interesting morphologies that are shown to arise because of interaction of the growing crystals with specific proteins secreted by the fungus during reaction. An additional advantage of this approach is that the reaction leads to detoxification of the aqueous solution and could have immense potential for bioremediation of heavy metals. Under conditions of this study, the metal ions are not toxic to the fungus, which readily grows after exposure to the metal ions. PMID:16042445

Sanyal, Ambarish; Rautaray, Debabrata; Bansal, Vipul; Ahmad, Absar; Sastry, Murali

2005-08-01

410

Pathogenicity of the bioherbicide fungus chondrostereum purpureum to some trees and shrubs of southern Vancouver Island. FRDA report No. 246  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chondrostereum purpureum is a common stem-invading fungus of trees and shrubs. The fungus has attracted interest as a bioherbicide, but a better understanding of its biology is required. This study was undertaken to determine the range of virulence of isolates of C. purpureum from a given region on major hardwood species in British Columbia. The investigators inoculated wounds of stems of standing red alder (Alnus rubra) and bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum) saplings with 11 isolates of the fungus and measured the resulting stem cankers as an index of virulence. They also inoculated eight hardwood and shrub species with two isolates to demonstrate the range of susceptibility of species to the fungus, as well as the intraspecific variation.

Wall, R.E.

1996-11-01

411

Modelling the Biomass Growth and Enzyme Secretion by the White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete Chrysosporium in Presence of A Toxic Pollutant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is well known for its ability to degrade toxic pollutants owing to its efficient extracellular ligninase system. However, biomass growth and enzyme secretion in presence of toxic pollutant is not well understood. In the present study, using the model azo dye Direct Red-80, biomass growth and lignin peroxidase secretion by the fungus was studied during its degradation and a stochastic based model was applied to simulate the behavior of the fungus. Also, glucose concentration in the medium was varied in order to observe its effect on the dye degradation. Results revealed that glucose at an optimum concentration of 10 gL-1 is essential for biomass growth, LiP secretion, as well as the dye decolourization. Modeling the behavior of the fungus with the presence of both glucose and dye has shown significant similarity.

Kausik Sen; Kannan Pakshirajan; Sitangshu Bikas Santra

2012-01-01

412

Comparison of radial growth rate of the mutualistic fungus of Atta sexdens rubropilosa forel in two culture media  

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Full Text Available In vitro culture of the mutualistic fungus of leaf-cutting ants is troublesome due to its low growth rate, which leads to storage problems and contaminants accumulation. This paper aims at comparing the radial growth rate of the mutualistic fungus of Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel in two different culture media (Pagnocca B and MEA LP). Although total MEA LP radial growth was greater all along the bioassay, no significant difference was detected between growth efficiencies of the two media. Previous evidences of low growth rate for this fungus were confirmed. Since these data cannot point greater efficiency of one culture medium over the other, MEA LP medium is indicated for in vitro studies with this mutualistic fungus due its simpler composition and translucent color, making the analysis easier.

C.H Miyashira; D.G Tanigushi; A.M Gugliotta; D.Y.A.C Santos

2010-01-01

413

Compatibility of the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana with neem against sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, on eggplant  

Science.gov (United States)

A study on the compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) with neem was conducted against sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), on eggplant. Initially, three concentrations of B. bassiana (106, 1...

414

Biodegradation of environmental pollutants by the white rot fungus phanerochaete chrysosporium: Involvement of the lignin degrading system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade a wide variety of structurally diverse organic compounds, including a number of environmentally persistent organopollutants. The unique biodegradative abilities of this fungus appears to be dependent upon its lignin-degrading system. The non-specific and partially extracellular nature of this system suggests that it may be useful as a supplementary means to treat organochemical wastes.

Bumpus, J.A.; Aust, S.D.

1993-01-01

415

Isolation and fusion of protoplasts from the phytopathogenic fungus sclerotium rolfsii(sacc.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Sclerotium rolfsii (Sacc.) is a serious plant pathogenic fungus and lacks perfect (basidial) stage in production. Protoplast fusion technology was employed to reconstruct fusants from this fungus. Two strains designated as A and R were used. Maximum protoplast yields of 3.8x10(5)/g mycelia and 2.8x10(5)/g mycelia were formed in strains A and R respectively. Osmotic stabilizer sucrose 1M gave maximum yield. Lysing enzyme at the rate of 15mg/ml was found best for yield. Fusion of protoplasts from strains A and R was carried out in fusion media containing PEG 4000 30% (w/v) with 0.2mM CaCl2. Four fusants F1, F2, F3 and F4 were recovered. Morphological, physiological and pathogenic characters of fusants were compared with parent strains on carrots, beans and tomato. PMID:24031488

Cai, Yun; Christias, Christos

2010-03-01

416

Isolation and fusion of protoplasts from the phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotium rolfsii (Sacc.)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sclerotium rolfsii (Sacc.) is a serious plant pathogenic fungus and lacks perfect (basidial) stage in production. Protoplast fusion technology was employed to reconstruct fusants from this fungus. Two strains designated as A and R were used. Maximum protoplast yields of 3.8x10(5) /g mycelia and 2.8x10(5) /g mycelia were formed in strains A and R respectively. Osmotic stabilizer sucrose 1M gave maximum yield. Lysing enzyme at the rate of 15mg/ml was found best for yield. Fusion of protoplasts from strains A and R was carried out in fusion media containing PEG 4000 30% (w/v) with 0.2mM CaCl2. Four fusants F1, F2, F3 and F4 were recovered. Morphological, physiological and pathogenic characters of fusants were compared with parent strains on carrots, beans and tomato.

Sikandar Hayat; Christos Christias

2010-01-01

417

Isolation and fusion of protoplasts from the phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotium rolfsii (Sacc.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Sclerotium rolfsii (Sacc.) is a serious plant pathogenic fungus and lacks perfect (basidial) stage in production. Protoplast fusion technology was employed to reconstruct fusants from this fungus. Two strains designated as A and R were used. Maximum protoplast yields of 3.8x10(5) /g mycelia and 2.8x10(5) /g mycelia were formed in strains A and R respectively. Osmotic stabilizer sucrose 1M gave maximum yield. Lysing enzyme at the rate of 15mg/ml was found best for yield. F (more) usion of protoplasts from strains A and R was carried out in fusion media containing PEG 4000 30% (w/v) with 0.2mM CaCl2. Four fusants F1, F2, F3 and F4 were recovered. Morphological, physiological and pathogenic characters of fusants were compared with parent strains on carrots, beans and tomato.

Hayat, Sikandar; Christias, Christos

2010-03-01

418

Isolation and fusion of protoplasts from the phytopathogenic fungus sclerotium rolfsii(sacc.).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sclerotium rolfsii (Sacc.) is a serious plant pathogenic fungus and lacks perfect (basidial) stage in production. Protoplast fusion technology was employed to reconstruct fusants from this fungus. Two strains designated as A and R were used. Maximum protoplast yields of 3.8x10(5)/g mycelia and 2.8x10(5)/g mycelia were formed in strains A and R respectively. Osmotic stabilizer sucrose 1M gave maximum yield. Lysing enzyme at the rate of 15mg/ml was found best for yield. Fusion of protoplasts from strains A and R was carried out in fusion media containing PEG 4000 30% (w/v) with 0.2mM CaCl2. Four fusants F1, F2, F3 and F4 were recovered. Morphological, physiological and pathogenic characters of fusants were compared with parent strains on carrots, beans and tomato.

Cai Y; Christias C

2010-01-01

419

Cloning and properties of a cyanide hydratase gene from the phytopathogenic fungus Gloeocercospora sorghi.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Cht gene encoding cyanide hydratase (CHT, EC 4.2.1.66), which detoxifies HCN and is thought to be important in fungal infection of cyanogenic plants, has been cloned from the phytopathogenic fungus Gloeocercospora sorghi. The gene was isolated by screening an expression library of G. sorghi using a CHT-specific antibody and using one of the positive cDNA clones as a probe in Southern hybridization to identify a 3.1 kb PstI genomic fragment. This PstI fragment expressed CHT activity when transformed into Aspergillus nidulans, a fungus that normally lacks CHT activity. Sequence analysis identified a single open reading frame of 1,107 base pairs which encodes a polypeptide of 40,904 daltons. The deduced amino acid sequence of CHT shares 36.5% identity to a nitrilase from the bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae.

Wang P; VanEtten HD

1992-09-01

420

Cloning and properties of a cyanide hydratase gene from the phytopathogenic fungus Gloeocercospora sorghi.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Cht gene encoding cyanide hydratase (CHT, EC 4.2.1.66), which detoxifies HCN and is thought to be important in fungal infection of cyanogenic plants, has been cloned from the phytopathogenic fungus Gloeocercospora sorghi. The gene was isolated by screening an expression library of G. sorghi using a CHT-specific antibody and using one of the positive cDNA clones as a probe in Southern hybridization to identify a 3.1 kb PstI genomic fragment. This PstI fragment expressed CHT activity when transformed into Aspergillus nidulans, a fungus that normally lacks CHT activity. Sequence analysis identified a single open reading frame of 1,107 base pairs which encodes a polypeptide of 40,904 daltons. The deduced amino acid sequence of CHT shares 36.5% identity to a nitrilase from the bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae. PMID:1382413

Wang, P; VanEtten, H D

1992-09-16

 
 
 
 
421

Fungus ball in HIV-infected patients Bola fúngica em pacientes HIV-infectados  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aspergillus is a phagocyte opportunistic fungus that causes aspergillosis, an unusual disease in patients with AIDS. Six cases of fungal ball in patients with AIDS are reported here. In this group, all patients had hemoptysis and tuberculosis as the underlying lung disease. The diagnosis of pulmonary fungus ball was based on the clinical and radiographic feature, combined with serological and mycological evidence of Aspergillus fumigatus.Os fungos filamentosos são oportunistas de fagócitos, motivo pelo qual aspergilose é incomum em pacientes com Aids. A apresentação clínica depende do estado imune, tamanho do inóculo fúngico e doença de base. São relatados neste trabalho seis casos de bola fúngica em pacientes com Aids. Neste grupo, todos tiveram tuberculose como doença de base e hemoptise foi o principal sintoma. O diagnóstico da bola fúngica foi através da apresentação clínica, achados radiológicos combinados com imunodifusão radial dupla, exame micológico direto e cultivo do material do trato respiratório, sendo A. fumigatus o agente isolado

Luciana Silva Guazzelli; Gisela Unis; Melissa Orzechowski Xavier; Cecília Bittencourt Severo; Pedro Dornelles Picon; Luiz Carlos Severo

2009-01-01

422

Induced production of mycotoxins in an endophytic fungus from the medicinal plant Datura stramonium L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epigenetic modifiers, including DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) or histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, are useful to induce the expression of otherwise dormant biosynthetic genes under standard laboratory conditions. We isolated several endophytic fungi from the medicinal plant Datura stramonium L., which produces pharmaceutically important tropane alkaloids, including scopolamine and hyoscyamine. Although none of the endophytic fungi produced the tropane alkaloids, supplementation of a DNMT inhibitor, 5-azacytidine, and/or a HDAC inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, to the culture medium induced the production of mycotoxins, including alternariol, alternariol-5-O-methyl ether, 3'-hydroxyalternariol-5-O-methyl ether, altenusin, tenuazonic acid, and altertoxin II, by the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. This is the first report of a mycotoxin-producing endophytic fungus from the medicinal plant D. stramonium L. This work demonstrates that treatments with epigenetic modifiers induce the production of mycotoxins, thus providing a useful tool to explore the biosynthetic potential of the microorganisms. PMID:22967766

Sun, Jieyin; Awakawa, Takayoshi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Abe, Ikuro

2012-08-24

423

Induced production of mycotoxins in an endophytic fungus from the medicinal plant Datura stramonium L.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Epigenetic modifiers, including DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) or histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, are useful to induce the expression of otherwise dormant biosynthetic genes under standard laboratory conditions. We isolated several endophytic fungi from the medicinal plant Datura stramonium L., which produces pharmaceutically important tropane alkaloids, including scopolamine and hyoscyamine. Although none of the endophytic fungi produced the tropane alkaloids, supplementation of a DNMT inhibitor, 5-azacytidine, and/or a HDAC inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, to the culture medium induced the production of mycotoxins, including alternariol, alternariol-5-O-methyl ether, 3'-hydroxyalternariol-5-O-methyl ether, altenusin, tenuazonic acid, and altertoxin II, by the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. This is the first report of a mycotoxin-producing endophytic fungus from the medicinal plant D. stramonium L. This work demonstrates that treatments with epigenetic modifiers induce the production of mycotoxins, thus providing a useful tool to explore the biosynthetic potential of the microorganisms.

Sun J; Awakawa T; Noguchi H; Abe I

2012-10-01

424

Evariquinone, isoemericellin, and stromemycin from a sponge derived strain of the fungus Emericella variecolor.  

Science.gov (United States)

From a strain of the fungus Emericella variecolor derived from the marine sponge Haliclona valliculata, two new natural products, evariquinone and isoemericellin, were isolated after HPLC-UV, -MS, and -NMR studies of the extract and their structures were elucidated by mass spectrometry and NMR experiments. Evariquinone showed antiproliferative activity towards KB and NCI-H460 cells at a concentration of 3.16 microg/ml. Furthermore, the fungus was found to produce the known metabolites stromemycin, shamixanthone, and 7-hydroxyemodin. Chemical degradation, NMR decoupling experiments, and spin-system simulation provided evidence for the double bonds in stromemycin to be all E-configured. ROESY experiments established the monosaccharide moiety to be glucose. PMID:12770594

Bringmann, Gerhard; Lang, Gerhard; Steffens, Stefan; Günther, Eckhard; Schaumann, Karsten

2003-06-01

425

Isolation and fusion of protoplasts from the phytopathogenic fungus sclerotium rolfsii(sacc.)  

Science.gov (United States)

Sclerotium rolfsii (Sacc.) is a serious plant pathogenic fungus and lacks perfect (basidial) stage in production. Protoplast fusion technology was employed to reconstruct fusants from this fungus. Two strains designated as A and R were used. Maximum protoplast yields of 3.8x105/g mycelia and 2.8x105/g mycelia were formed in strains A and R respectively. Osmotic stabilizer sucrose 1M gave maximum yield. Lysing enzyme at the rate of 15mg/ml was found best for yield. Fusion of protoplasts from strains A and R was carried out in fusion media containing PEG 4000 30% (w/v) with 0.2mM CaCl2. Four fusants F1, F2, F3 and F4 were recovered. Morphological, physiological and pathogenic characters of fusants were compared with parent strains on carrots, beans and tomato.

Cai, Yun; Christias, Christos

2010-01-01

426

Growth in rice cells requires de novo purine biosynthesis by the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Increasing incidences of human disease, crop destruction and ecosystem perturbations are attributable to fungi and threaten socioeconomic progress and food security on a global scale. The blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is the most devastating pathogen of cultivated rice, but its metabolic requirements in the host are unclear. Here we report that a purine-requiring mutant of M. oryzae could develop functional appressoria, penetrate host cells and undergo the morphogenetic transition to elaborate bulbous invasive hyphae from primary hyphae, but further in planta growth was aborted. Invasive hyphal growth following rice cell ingress is thus dependent on de novo purine biosynthesis by the pathogen and, moreover, plant sources of purines are neither available to the mutant nor required by the wild type during the early biotrophic phase of infection. This work provides new knowledge about the metabolic interface between fungus and host that might be applicable to other important intracellular fungal pathogens.

Fernandez J; Yang KT; Cornwell KM; Wright JD; Wilson RA

2013-08-01

427

Towards a better understanding of the evolution of specialized parasites of fungus-growing ant crops  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fungus-growing ants have interacted and partly coevolved with specialised microfungal parasites of the genus Escovopsis since the origin of ant fungiculture about 50 million years ago. Here, we review the recent progress in understanding the patterns of specificity of this ant-parasite association, covering both the colony/population level and comparisons between phylogenetic clades. We use a modified version of Tinbergen’s four categories of evolutionary questions to structure our review in complementary approaches addressing both proximate questions of development and mechanism, and ultimate questions of (co)adaptation and evolutionary history. Using the same scheme, we identify future research questions that are likely to be particularly illuminating for understanding the ecology and evolution of Escovopsis parasitism of the cultivar maintained by fungus-growing ants

Yek, Sze Huei; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

2012-01-01

428

Two novel eremophilane sesquiterpenes from an endophytic Xylariaceous fungus isolated from leaves of Cupressus lusitanica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Dois novos sesquiterpenos eremofilanos, cupressolideo A e cupressolideo B, além de dois outros conhecidos, foram isolados a partir do extrato AcOEt do meio de cultura de uma espécie de Xylaria, isolada como fungo endofítico dos tecidos sadios das folhas de Cupressus lusitanica. Estudos espectroscópicos, usando EM e RMN, levaram às estruturas dos dois sesquiterpenos de esqueleto eremofilanos, novos na literatura. Abstract in english Two new eremophilane sesquiterpenes, cupressolide A and cupressolide B, along with two known sesquiterpenes, has been characterized from the EtOAc extract of a liquid medium where a Xylariaceous fungus, isolated as an endophytic fungus from health tissues of Cupressus lusitanica leaves, was cultivated. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by analyses of their MS and NMR spectroscopic data.

Amaral, Luciana S.; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson

2010-01-01

429

Benzopyranones from the endophytic fungus Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12 and their bioactivities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The endophytic fungus Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12 was isolated from the hybrid 'Neva' of Populus deltoides Marsh × P. nigra L. In this study, four benzopyranones were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12, and identified as palmariol B (1), 4-hydroxymellein (2), alternariol 9-methyl ether (3), and botrallin (4) by means of physicochemical and spectroscopic analysis. All the compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial, antifungal, antinematodal and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. 4-Hydroxymellein (2) exhibited stronger antibacterial activity than the other compounds. Palmariol B (1) showed stronger antimicrobial, antinematodal and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities than alternariol 9-methyl ether (3) which indicated that the chlorine substitution at position 2 may contribute to its bioactivity. The results indicate the potential of this endophytic fungus as a source of bioactive benzopyranones.

Meng X; Mao Z; Lou J; Xu L; Zhong L; Peng Y; Zhou L; Wang M

2012-01-01

430

Cytotoxic metabolites produced by Alternaria no.28, an endophytic fungus isolated from Ginkgo biloba.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

From the medicinal plant Ginkgo biloba the fungal endophyte Alternaria no.28 was isolated. Extract of the fungus grown in liquid culture media exhibited marked cytotoxic activity when tested in vitro against brine shrimp (Artemia salina). Eight compounds were isolated from the extract of cultures of this endophytic fungus and were elucidated as alterperylenol (1), altertoxin I (2), alternariol (3), alternariol monomethyl ether (4), tenuazonic acid (5) and its derivative (6), together with ergosterol and ergosta-4, 6, 8, 22-tetraen-3-one by means of spectroscopic analysis. Among them, both 5 and 6 showed significant cytotoxic effects in the brine shrimp bioassy, with mortality rates of 73.6% and 68.9%, respectively, at a concentration of 10 microg x mL(-1), and they were first isolated from endophytic fungi.

Qin JC; Zhang YM; Hu L; Ma YT; Gao JM

2009-11-01

431

Benzopyranones from the endophytic fungus Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12 and their bioactivities.  

Science.gov (United States)

The endophytic fungus Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12 was isolated from the hybrid 'Neva' of Populus deltoides Marsh × P. nigra L. In this study, four benzopyranones were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12, and identified as palmariol B (1), 4-hydroxymellein (2), alternariol 9-methyl ether (3), and botrallin (4) by means of physicochemical and spectroscopic analysis. All the compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial, antifungal, antinematodal and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. 4-Hydroxymellein (2) exhibited stronger antibacterial activity than the other compounds. Palmariol B (1) showed stronger antimicrobial, antinematodal and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities than alternariol 9-methyl ether (3) which indicated that the chlorine substitution at position 2 may contribute to its bioactivity. The results indicate the potential of this endophytic fungus as a source of bioactive benzopyranones. PMID:23011274

Meng, Xiangjie; Mao, Ziling; Lou, Jingfeng; Xu, Liang; Zhong, Lingyun; Peng, Youliang; Zhou, Ligang; Wang, Mingan

2012-09-25

432

Cytotoxic metabolites produced by Alternaria no.28, an endophytic fungus isolated from Ginkgo biloba.  

Science.gov (United States)

From the medicinal plant Ginkgo biloba the fungal endophyte Alternaria no.28 was isolated. Extract of the fungus grown in liquid culture media exhibited marked cytotoxic activity when tested in vitro against brine shrimp (Artemia salina). Eight compounds were isolated from the extract of cultures of this endophytic fungus and were elucidated as alterperylenol (1), altertoxin I (2), alternariol (3), alternariol monomethyl ether (4), tenuazonic acid (5) and its derivative (6), together with ergosterol and ergosta-4, 6, 8, 22-tetraen-3-one by means of spectroscopic analysis. Among them, both 5 and 6 showed significant cytotoxic effects in the brine shrimp bioassy, with mortality rates of 73.6% and 68.9%, respectively, at a concentration of 10 microg x mL(-1), and they were first isolated from endophytic fungi. PMID:19967976

Qin, Jian-Chun; Zhang, Ya-Mei; Hu, Ling; Ma, Ya-Tuan; Gao, Jin-Ming

2009-11-01

433

Growth Characteristics of the Thermophilic Fungus Scytalidium thermophilum in Relation to Production of Mushroom Compost  

Science.gov (United States)

Scytalidium thermophilum is an important thermophilic fungus in the production of mushroom compost. I investigated the characteristics of this organism and present a simple model with which fungal growth in compost can be described. The model is used to predict better circumstances for rapid indoor production of mushroom compost. I conclude that inoculation of the starting material with prepared compost either before or after the pasteurization phase has only a minor effect on the shortening of the composting process. This is because the initial growth rate of the fungus is much higher than its growth rate later. A lower temperature (53.5°C instead of the usual 56 to 58°C) during the pasteurization phase may be most profitable for rapid compost production; such a temperature may reduce the time that is needed for the last phase of the production process by at least 1 day.

Wiegant, W. M.

1992-01-01

434

Two distinct secretion systems facilitate tissue invasion by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To cause plant diseases, pathogenic micro-organisms secrete effector proteins into host tissue to suppress immunity and support pathogen growth. Bacterial pathogens have evolved several distinct secretion systems to target effector proteins, but whether fungi, which cause the major diseases of most crop species, also require different secretory mechanisms is not known. Here we report that the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae possesses two distinct secretion systems to target effectors during plant infection. Cytoplasmic effectors, which are delivered into host cells, preferentially accumulate in the biotrophic interfacial complex, a novel plant membrane-rich structure associated with invasive hyphae. We show that the biotrophic interfacial complex is associated with a novel form of secretion involving exocyst components and the Sso1 t-SNARE. By contrast, effectors that are secreted from invasive hyphae into the extracellular compartment follow the conventional secretory pathway. We conclude that the blast fungus has evolved distinct secretion systems to facilitate tissue invasion.

Giraldo MC; Dagdas YF; Gupta YK; Mentlak TA; Yi M; Martinez-Rocha AL; Saitoh H; Terauchi R; Talbot NJ; Valent B

2013-01-01

435

Growth in rice cells requires de novo purine biosynthesis by the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing incidences of human disease, crop destruction and ecosystem perturbations are attributable to fungi and threaten socioeconomic progress and food security on a global scale. The blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is the most devastating pathogen of cultivated rice, but its metabolic requirements in the host are unclear. Here we report that a purine-requiring mutant of M. oryzae could develop functional appressoria, penetrate host cells and undergo the morphogenetic transition to elaborate bulbous invasive hyphae from primary hyphae, but further in planta growth was aborted. Invasive hyphal growth following rice cell ingress is thus dependent on de novo purine biosynthesis by the pathogen and, moreover, plant sources of purines are neither available to the mutant nor required by the wild type during the early biotrophic phase of infection. This work provides new knowledge about the metabolic interface between fungus and host that might be applicable to other important intracellular fungal pathogens.

Fernandez, Jessie; Yang, Kuan Ting; Cornwell, Kathryn M.; Wright, Janet D.; Wilson, Richard A.

2013-01-01

436

Bioactive secondary metabolites from the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study reports the chemical investigation and cytotoxic activity of the secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco. This plant was collected from the Beni-Mellal Mountain in Morocco and belongs to the Lamiaceae family and is named in Morocco “Salmia”. The endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. was isolated from the tissues of the stem of this plant. The fungal strain was identified by PCR. The crude organic extract of the fungal strain was proven to be active when tested for cytotoxicity against L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. Chemical investigation of the secondary metabolites showed that cochliodinol is the main component beside isocochliodinol. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined on the basis of NMR analysis (1H, 13C, COSY and HMBC) as well as by mass spectrometry using ESI (Electron Spray Ionisation) as source.

Debbab A.; Aly HA.; Edrada-Ebel RA.; Müller WEG.; Mosaddak M.; Hakiki A.; Ebel R.; Proksch P.

2009-01-01

437

A new beta-glucosidase gene from the zygomycete fungus Rhizomucor miehei.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, a beta-glucosidase coding gene (bgl) of the zygomycete fungus Rhizomucor miehei has been cloned and characterized. The gene comprises a total of 2,826 bp including the coding sequence of a 717 amino acids length putative protein and 10 introns dispersed in the whole coding region. The putative N-and C-terminal catalytic domains (aa 68 to aa 274 and aa 358-601, respectively) were identified; the two domains are connected with a 84-amino-acids linker. The catalytic region showed an extensive sequence homology with other fungal beta-glucosidases classified as family 3 glycoside hydrolases. The isolated Rhizomucor gene was expressed in the related fungus Mucor circinelloides. Transformant Mucor strains maintained the introduced plasmid in an autoreplicative manner and showed significantly higher cellobiase activity than the recipient strain.

Takó M; Tóth A; G Nagy L; Krisch J; Vágvölgyi C; Papp T

2010-01-01

438

Potential of thermophilic fungus Rhizomucor pusillus NRRL 28626 in biotransformation of antihelmintic drug albendazole.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present investigation, thermophilic fungus Rhizomucor pusillus was used to study biotransformation of antihelmintic drug albendazole to produce its active metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide and novel metabolites of commercial interest. A two-stage fermentation procedure was followed for biotransformation of albendazole. The transformation was identified and structures were confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Four metabolites albendazole sulfoxide, the active metabolite, albendazole sulfone, N-methyl metabolite of albendazole sulfoxide, and a novel metabolite were produced. The study demonstrates the biotransformation ability of thermophilic fungus R. pusillus NRRL28626 in the production of, the active metabolite of albendazole which has industrial and economic importance, other metabolites and a novel metabolite in an ecofriendly way.

Prasad GS; Girisham S; Reddy SM

2011-11-01

439

Potential of thermophilic fungus Rhizomucor pusillus NRRL 28626 in biotransformation of antihelmintic drug albendazole.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present investigation, thermophilic fungus Rhizomucor pusillus was used to study biotransformation of antihelmintic drug albendazole to produce its active metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide and novel metabolites of commercial interest. A two-stage fermentation procedure was followed for biotransformation of alb