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Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and neonicotinoid insecticides on the fungus gnat Bradysia sp nr. coprophila (Lintner) (Diptera: Sciaridae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner subsp. israelensis (Bti), the neonicotinoid insecticides dinotefuran, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and clothianidin and the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen were evaluated to determine their efficacy against the larval stages of the fungus gnat Bradysia sp nr. coprophila (Lintner) in the laboratory. Treatments were applied as a drench to the growing medium in polypropylene deli containers. The Bti treatments had no effect on either instar tested, whereas all the other compounds negatively affected both the second and third instars. This study demonstrates that the soil bacterium B. thuringiensis var. israelensis may not be active on these larval stages, whereas the neonicotinoid insecticides and the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen are effective on these stages. The fact that Bti is not effective on the second and third instars of the fungus gnat means that greenhouse producers using this insecticide must make applications before fungus gnat populations build up and before overlapping generations develop. PMID:16408320

Cloyd, Raymond A; Dickinson, Amy

2006-02-01

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Fungus gnats and other Diptera in South African forestry nurseries and their possible association with the pitch canker fungus  

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Fusarium circinatum is the causal agent of a serious disease of seedlings in South African pine nurseries. Insects, especially fungus gnats (Diptera: Sciaridae, Mycetophlidae), are suspected of transmitting this fungus in nurseries. The aim of this study was to ascertain which species of gnats are present in South African pine nurseries, and to consider whether these and other Diptera carry F. circinatum. Dipteran fauna were surveyed in four major forestry nurseries between 2000 and 2001. Fun...

Hurley, Brett P.; Govender, Prem; Coutinho, Teresa A.; Wingfield, Brenda D.; Wingfield, Michael J.

2007-01-01

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Effectiveness of Defatted Mustard Meals Used to Control Fungus Gnats: 2000-2002  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Our objective is to develop a pesticidal product from mustard meals that can be used to control insect pests. We have focused our efforts on fungus gnats. This report details our current progress in developing a pesticidal product that can be used to control this plant pest.

McCaffrey, J. P.; Morra, M. J.

2005-07-01

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Larval Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae) potential for vectoring Pythium root rot pathogens.  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the capacity of Bradysia impatiens (Johannsen) larvae to ingest propagules from two strains each of Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp. and P. ultimum Trow and transmit the pathogens to healthy geranium seedlings on a filter-paper substrate in petri dishes. The capacity of fungus gnat larvae to transmit P. aphanidermatum to seedlings rooted in a commercial peat-based potting mix and germination of Pythium oospores and hyphal swellings before and after passage through the guts of larval fungus gnats were also examined. Assays revealed that Pythium spp. transmission by larval fungus gnats varied greatly with the assay substrate and also with the number and nature of ingested propagules. Transmission was highest (65%) in the petri dish assays testing larvae fed P. aphanidermatum K-13, a strain that produced abundant oospores. Transmission of strain K-13 was much lower (potting mix. Larvae were less efficient at vectoring P. ultimum strain PSN-1, which produced few oospores, and no transmission was observed with two non-oospore-producing strains: P. aphanidermatum Pa58 and P. ultimum P4. Passage of P. aphanidermatum K-13 through larval guts significantly increased oospore germination. However, decreased germination of hyphal swellings was observed following larval gut passage for strains of P. ultimum. These results expand previous studies suggesting that larval fungus gnats may vector Pythium spp. PMID:22085299

Braun, S E; Sanderson, J P; Wraight, S P

2012-03-01

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Transstadial transmission of Pythium in Bradysia impatiens and lack of adult vectoring capacity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungus gnats have been shown to transmit a variety of plant-pathogenic fungi that produce aerial dispersal stages. However, few studies have examined potential interactions between fungus gnats and oomycetes, including Pythium spp. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to determine whether fungus gnat adults are vectors of several common greenhouse Pythium spp., including Pythium aphanidermatum, P. irregulare, and P. ultimum. An additional objective was to determine whether P. aphanidermatum can be maintained transstadially in the gut of a fungus gnat larva through the pupal stadium to be transmitted by the subsequent adult. Adult fungus gnats did not pick up infectious Pythium propagules from diseased plants and transmit them to healthy plants in any experiment. Species-specific primers and a probe for real-time polymerase chain reaction were developed to detect the presence of P. aphanidermatum DNA in fungus gnat tissue samples. P. aphanidermatum DNA was detectable in the larval and pupal stages; however, none was detected in adult fungus gnats. These results are in agreement with previous studies that have suggested that adult fungus gnats are unlikely vectors of Pythium spp. PMID:20718667

Braun, Sarah E; Castrillo, Louela A; Sanderson, John P; Daughtrey, Margery L; Wraight, Stephen P

2010-12-01

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Users manual for GNATS2 (a finite element computer program for the general nonlinear analysis of two-dimensional structures). [MESH2, GNATS, GPRINT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

GNATS is a system of three user-oriented finite element computer programs designed for the nonlinear analysis of axisymmetric and two-dimensional static structures. A preprocessor program, MESH2, provides the two-dimensional finite element mesh. The main program, GNATS, solves the nonlinear structural problem including the effects of large displacements, large strains, and elastic-plastic material behavior. A Lagrangian coordinate system is used in GNATS for describing the euilibrium configuration of the body. A postprocessor program, GPRINT, prints the selected values of displacements, stresses, and strains. The input data required for using MESH2, GNATS, and GPRINT for a nonlinear structural analysis is described. Dynamic dimensions are used for all arrays in these programs. The maximum problem size, therefore, is limited only by the computer being used. 61 figures, 4 tables.

Callabresi, M.L.; Chiesa, M.L.

1980-07-01

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Nuclear halo from Bradysia hygida (Diptera:Sciaridae) salivary gland polytene cells  

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A protocol for recovered nuclear halos from insect polytene nuclei after the extraction of the nuclear proteins using LIS detergent is reported in this work. Analysis was carried out using fluorescence and confocal laser scan microscopy. The extraction of nuclear halos was possible only with nuclei-fraction isolation in hypotonic buffer without spermine and spermidine. The recovered nuclear halos from Bradysia hygida salivary gland polytene nuclei, contributed greatly to the study of the stru...

2005-01-01

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Nuclear halo from Bradysia hygida (Diptera:Sciaridae) salivary gland polytene cells  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Observações à microscopia eletrônica e estudos bioquímicos de cromossomos e núcleos sem histonas tem suportado a hipótese que o DNA de eucariotos é organizado em alças associadas com o esqueleto cromossômico ou à matriz nuclear. A observação da matriz nuclear sem a remoção do DNA, através da digestã [...] o com enzimas de restrição, apresenta uma figura em halo que representa a liberação das alças de DNA. Um protocolo para a obtenção de halos nucleares de núcleos politênicos de insetos, através da extração de proteínas usando o detergente LIS, é reportado nesse trabalho. Foram realizadas análises utilizando-se microscopia de fluorescência e microscopia de varredura confocal a laser. A extração de halos nucleares foi possível somente com o isolamento da fração nuclear em tampão sem espermina e espermidina. A obtenção de halos nucleares de núcleos politênicos de glândula salivar de Bradysia hygida contribui significativamente para o estudo da estrutura e função dessas organelas tão especiais. Abstract in english A protocol for recovered nuclear halos from insect polytene nuclei after the extraction of the nuclear proteins using LIS detergent is reported in this work. Analysis was carried out using fluorescence and confocal laser scan microscopy. The extraction of nuclear halos was possible only with nuclei- [...] fraction isolation in hypotonic buffer without spermine and spermidine. The recovered nuclear halos from Bradysia hygida salivary gland polytene nuclei, contributed greatly to the study of the structure and function of these special organelles.

Celso Aparecido, Polinarski; José Luis da Conceição, Silva; Liya Regina, Mikami; Maria Aparecida, Fernandez.

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Nuclear halo from Bradysia hygida (Diptera:Sciaridae salivary gland polytene cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A protocol for recovered nuclear halos from insect polytene nuclei after the extraction of the nuclear proteins using LIS detergent is reported in this work. Analysis was carried out using fluorescence and confocal laser scan microscopy. The extraction of nuclear halos was possible only with nuclei-fraction isolation in hypotonic buffer without spermine and spermidine. The recovered nuclear halos from Bradysia hygida salivary gland polytene nuclei, contributed greatly to the study of the structure and function of these special organelles.Observações à microscopia eletrônica e estudos bioquímicos de cromossomos e núcleos sem histonas tem suportado a hipótese que o DNA de eucariotos é organizado em alças associadas com o esqueleto cromossômico ou à matriz nuclear. A observação da matriz nuclear sem a remoção do DNA, através da digestão com enzimas de restrição, apresenta uma figura em halo que representa a liberação das alças de DNA. Um protocolo para a obtenção de halos nucleares de núcleos politênicos de insetos, através da extração de proteínas usando o detergente LIS, é reportado nesse trabalho. Foram realizadas análises utilizando-se microscopia de fluorescência e microscopia de varredura confocal a laser. A extração de halos nucleares foi possível somente com o isolamento da fração nuclear em tampão sem espermina e espermidina. A obtenção de halos nucleares de núcleos politênicos de glândula salivar de Bradysia hygida contribui significativamente para o estudo da estrutura e função dessas organelas tão especiais.

Celso Aparecido Polinarski

2005-05-01

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Aspectos alimentares e de criação de Bradysia hygida Sauaia & Alves (Diptera, Sciaridae em laboratório Aspects on alimentation and rearing of Bradysia hygida Sauaia & Alves (Diptera, Sciaridae in laboratory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In nature, the Sciaridae live in moist and shady places, where exists vegetable material in decomposition. It is very dificult to determine the proper Sciaridae's alimentary habit and then, it is dificult, also, to rear Sciaridae species in laboratory. To improvement the Bradysia hygida rearing, the objectives of this research were to analyse the nutritive value of mucuna bean foliage for the larves, to verify the role of the ground (as larvae substrate and in diet composition and also to verify the possibility of ground substituition by another kind of substrate. Two kinds of sand were employed in the place of the ground and three diets, free of ground, were prepared. The parameters analysed were: duration of the life cicle, porcentage of emergence, egg production by female and adult size. The results showed that the mucuna bean foliage have a good nutritive value for B. hygida rearing; the ground, as substrate, can be substituted by any of the sands and the ground, in the diet, is also dispensable. The alimentary habits of Sciaridae is discussed.

Iara S. Joachim Bravo

1993-01-01

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Three New Species of Mesosciophilid Gnats from the Middle-Late Jurassic of China (Insecta: Diptera: Nematocera: Mesosciophilidae)  

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Three extinct new species from the Callovian or Oxfordian (uppermost Middle Jurassic or lowermost Upper Jurassic) Daohugou beds in Inner Mongolia, China is described as Mesosciophila abstracta sp. n., Mesosciophilodes synchrona sp. n. and Paramesosciophilodes eximia sp. n. (Family Mesosciophilidae). All the records of mesosciophilid gnats are briefly reviewed.

Zhang, J. F.

2008-01-01

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Clinical and genetic investigation of a large Tunisian family with complete achromatopsia: identification of a new nonsense mutation in GNAT2 gene.  

Science.gov (United States)

Complete achromatopsia is a rare autosomal recessive disease associated with CNGA3, CNGB3, GNAT2 and PDE6C mutations. This retinal disorder is characterized by complete loss of color discrimination due to the absence or alteration of the cones function. The purpose of the present study was the clinical and the genetic characterization of achromatopsia in a large consanguineous Tunisian family. Ophthalmic evaluation included a full clinical examination, color vision testing and electroretinography. Linkage analysis using microsatellite markers flanking CNGA3, CNGB3, GNAT2 and PDE6C genes was performed. Mutations were screened by direct sequencing. A total of 12 individuals were diagnosed with congenital complete achromatopsia. They are members of six nuclear consanguineous families belonging to the same large consanguineous family. Linkage analysis revealed linkage to GNAT2. Mutational screening of GNAT2 revealed three intronic variations c.119-69G>C, c.161+66A>T and c.875-31G>C that co-segregated with a novel mutation p.R313X. An identical GNAT2 haplotype segregating with this mutation was identified, indicating a founder mutation. All patients were homozygous for the p.R313X mutation. This is the first report of the clinical and genetic investigation of complete achromatopsia in North Africa and the largest family with recessive achromatopsia involving GNAT2; thus, providing a unique opportunity for genotype-phenotype correlation for this extremely rare condition. PMID:21107338

Ouechtati, Farah; Merdassi, Ahlem; Bouyacoub, Yosra; Largueche, Leila; Derouiche, Kaouther; Ouragini, Houyem; Nouira, Sonia; Tiab, Leila; Baklouti, Karim; Rebai, Ahmed; Schorderet, Daniel F; Munier, Francis L; Zografos, Leonidas; Abdelhak, Sonia; El Matri, Leila

2011-01-01

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The DNA puff BhB10-1 gene is differentially expressed in various tissues of Bradysia hygida late larvae and constitutively transcribed in transgenic Drosophila  

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We extended the characterization of the DNA puff BhB10-1 gene of Bradysia hygida by showing that, although its mRNA is detected only at the end of the fourth larval instar, BhB10-1 expression is not restricted to the salivary gland, the tissue in which this gene is amplified. Different amounts of BhB10-1 mRNA were detected in other larval tissues such as gut, Malpighian tubules, fat body, brain and cuticle, suggesting that this gene is expressed differentially in the various tissues analyzed....

2001-01-01

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Activity of an essential oil derived from Chenopodium ambrosioides on greenhouse insect pests.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study involved both greenhouse and laboratory experiments evaluating the effect of an essential oil product (QRD 400) derived from Chenopodium ambrosioides variety nr. Ambrosioides L. (Chenopodiaceae) on greenhouse insect pests that feed on different plant parts: citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso); longtailed mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti); western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), and fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.). Treatments were applied to coleus, Solenostemon scutellarioides plants; transvaal daisy, Gerbera jamesonii flowers; or growing medium, depending on the insect pest. The essential oil was most effective, based on adult emergence, on both the second and third instars of the fungus gnat Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila when applied as a drench to growing medium. In addition, there was a significant rate response for QRD 400 on fungus gnats. The QRD 400 treatment had the highest percentage of mortality on longtailed mealybug (55%) compared with the other treatments. However, the essential oil was less effective against citrus mealybug (3% mortality) and western flower thrips adults (18-34% mortality) compared with standard insecticides, such as acetamiprid (TriStar) and spinosad (Conserve), which are typically used by greenhouse producers. This lack of efficacy may be associated with volatility and short residual properties of the essential oil or with the essential oil taking longer to kill insect pests. Other insecticides and miticides evaluated, including sesame oil, garlic, paraffinic oil, and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, provided minimal control of the designated insect pests. In addition, adult rove beetle Atheta coriaria Kraatz adults were not effective in controlling the larval instars of fungus gnats when applied at a rate of five adults per container. PMID:17461071

Cloyd, Raymond A; Chiasson, Helene

2007-04-01

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The DNA puff BhB10-1 gene is differentially expressed in various tissues of Bradysia hygida late larvae and constitutively transcribed in transgenic Drosophila  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We extended the characterization of the DNA puff BhB10-1 gene of Bradysia hygida by showing that, although its mRNA is detected only at the end of the fourth larval instar, BhB10-1 expression is not restricted to the salivary gland, the tissue in which this gene is amplified. Different amounts of Bh [...] B10-1 mRNA were detected in other larval tissues such as gut, Malpighian tubules, fat body, brain and cuticle, suggesting that this gene is expressed differentially in the various tissues analyzed. Analysis of transgenic Drosophila carrying the BhB10-1 transcription unit and flanking sequences revealed that the tested fragment promotes transcription in a constitutive manner. We suggest that either cis-regulatory elements are missing in the transgene or factors that temporally regulate the BhB10-1 gene in B. hygida are not conserved in Drosophila.

N., Monesi; J.F., Sousa; M.L., Paçó-Larson.

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5-Bromo-2’-deoxyuridine induces visible morphological alteration in the DNA puffs of the anterior salivary gland region of Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english 5-Bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdUrd) has long been known to interfere with cell differentiation. We found that treatment ofBradysia hygida larvae with BrdUrd during DNA puff anlage formation in the polytene chromosomes of the salivary gland S1 region noticeably affects anlage morphology. However, [...] it does not affect subsequent metamorphosis to the adult stage. The chromatin of the chromosomal sites that would normally form DNA puffs remains very compact and DNA puff expansion does not occur with administration of 4 to 8 mM BrdUrd. Injection of BrdUrd at different ages provoked a gradient of compaction of the DNA puff chromatin, leading to the formation of very small to almost normal puffs. By immunodetection, we show that the analogue is preferentially incorporated into the DNA puff anlages. When BrdUrd is injected in a mixture with thymidine, it is not incorporated into the DNA, and normal DNA puffs form. Therefore, incorporation of this analogue into the amplified DNA seems to be the cause of this extreme compaction. Autoradiographic experiments and silver grains counting showed that this treatment decreases the efficiency of RNA synthesis at DNA puff anlages.

de Almeida, J.C.; Sauaia, H.; Viana, J.C..

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A 28-fold increase in secretory protein synthesis is associated with DNA puff activity in the salivary gland of Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae  

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Full Text Available When the first group of DNA puffs is active in the salivary gland regions S1 and S3 of Bradysia hygida larvae, there is a large increase in the production and secretion of new salivary proteins demonstrable by [3H]-Leu incorporation. The present study shows that protein separation by SDS-PAGE and detection by fluorography demonstrated that these polypeptides range in molecular mass from about 23 to 100 kDa. Furthermore, these proteins were synthesized mainly in the S1 and S3 salivary gland regions where the DNA puffs C7, C5, C4 and B10 are conspicuous, while in the S2 region protein synthesis was very low. Others have shown that the extent of amplification for DNA sequences that code for mRNA in the DNA puffs C4 and B10 was about 22 and 10 times, respectively. The present data for this group of DNA puffs are consistent with the proposition that gene amplification is necessary to provide some cells with additional gene copies for the production of massive amounts of proteins within a short period of time (Spradling AC and Mahowald AP (1980 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 77: 1096-1100.

de-Almeida J.C.

1997-01-01

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Identificación y caracterización de la mosca negra Bradysia difformis (Diptera: Sciaridae) en el cultivo de nochebuena (Euphorbia pulcherrima) en el centro de México / Identification and characterization of the black fly, Bradysia difformis (Diptera: Sciaridae) on "poinsettia" crops (Euphorbia pulcherrima) of central Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar y caracterizar los estados de desarrollo de la especie de mosca negra más abundante asociada al cultivo de nochebuena Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, ex Klotzsch en la zona productora del centro del país. La recolección de material entomológico se realiz [...] ó en invernaderos de las localidades de Atlacomulco (México), Tenango de las Flores (Puebla), Xochimilco (Distrito Federal) y Zacatepec y Tetela del Monte (Morelos). Se obtuvieron 2,141 especímenes adultos de Diptera, siendo la especie más abundante (99.5%) Bradysia difformis Frey (Diptera: Sciaridae). El ciclo de vida de esta especie se completó entre 26-28 días bajo condiciones controladas de temperatura y humedad (25°C y 70% HR). La diferenciación de los estadíos larvales fue realizada mediante la morfometría de la cápsula cefálica para los estadíos I vs II, cuyas probabilidades de error fueron muy bajas (1:10,000); en cambio, la diferenciación entre los estadíos II vs III, y III vs IV resultó con una probabilidad de error alta, entre 17:100 y 36:100 individuos, respectivamente. Por esta razón se recomienda explorar otras características que en adición a la medida de anchura de sus cápsulas cefálicas permitan discriminar los diferentes estadíos de desarrollo. Este es el primer registro de B. difformis en México, aun cuando ya se había reportado este género afectando las plantas de nochebuena. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the developmental stages of the most abundant black fly species associated with poinsettia crops (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch) in the producing area of Central Mexico. Collecting samples were conducted in greenhouses of the location [...] s of Atlacomulco (Mexico), Tenango de las Flores (Puebla), Xochimilco (Mexico City), and Zacatepec and Tetela del Monte (Morelos). A total of 2,141 adult specimens of Diptera were obtained, being Bradysia difformis Frey (Diptera: Sciaridae) the most abundant species (99.5%). Life cycle of this species was completed between 26-28 days under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity (25°C and 70% RH). The differentiation of larval instars by morphometrics of the head capsule between instars I vs II, showed very low error probabilities (1:10,000); while differentiation between instars II vs III, and III vs IV resulted with higher error probabilities, between 17:100 and 36:100 individuals, respectively. For this reason it is recommended to explore other features in addition to measurements of width of the cephalic capsules for discriminating different larval stages. This is the first record of B. difformis for Mexico, although this genus was previously reported affecting poinsettia crops.

VILLANUEVA-SÁNCHEZ, Evert; IBÁÑEZ-BERNAL, Sergio; LOMELÍ-FLORES, J. Refugio; VALDEZ-CARRASCO, Jorge.

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Smaller than a gnat  

CERN Multimedia

"CERN in Geneva is the largest research center for particle physics in the world; the Institute is a Mecca for scientists. Particle are projected into each other in gigantic ring accelerators to gain information from their reactions about the force and relations inside the elements. These experiments require high vacuum - Oerlikon Leybold Vacuum recently competed in a Eyropean call for bids for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and won the contract." (1,5 page)

2006-01-01

20

Fungus-growing ants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungus-growing ants (Attini) are in reality unique fungus-culturing insects.There are several hundred species in some dozen genera, of which Acromyrmex and Atta are the conspicuous leaf-cutters. The center of their activities is the fungus garden, which is also the site of the queen and brood. The garden, in most species, is made from fresh green leaves or other vegetal material. The ants forage for this, forming distinct trails to the vegetation that is being harvested. The cut leaves or other substrate are brought into the nest and prepared for the fungus. Fresh leaves and flowers are cut into pieces a millimeter or two in diameter; the ants form them into a pulpy mass by pinching them with the mandibles and adding saliva. Anal droplets are deposited on the pieces, which are then forced into place in the garden. Planting of the fungus is accomplished by an ant's picking up tufts of the adjacent mycelium and dotting the surface of the new substrate with it. The combination of salivary and anal secretions, together with the constant care given by the ants, facilitates the growth of the ant fungus only, despite constant possibilities for contamination. When the ants are removed, alien fungi and other organisms flourish. A mature nest of Atta Sexdens may consist of 2000 chambers, some temporarily empty, some with refuse, and the remainder with fungus gardens. Thousands of kilograms of fresh leaves will have been used. A young laboratory colony of Atta cephalotes will use 1 kilogram of fresh leaves for one garden. The attines are the chief agents for introducing organic matter into the soil in tropical rain forests; this matter becomes the nucleus for a host of other organisms, including nematodes and arthropods, after it is discarded by the ants. One ant species cultures a yeast; all others grow a mycelium. In the higher species the mycelium forms clusters of inflated hyphae. Mycologists accept as valid two names for confirmed fruiting stages: Leucocoprinus ( or Leucoagaricus) gongylophora (Moeller 1893) and Lepiota n. sp. PMID:17757227

Weber, N A

1966-08-01

 
 
 
 
21

Mycotoxins, fungus and 'electrohypersensitivity'.  

Science.gov (United States)

'Electrohypersensitivity' is often explained as a psychological syndrome. Our modern environment contains a lot of different substances and some of them are toxic. Mycotoxins are types of toxins that are biologically very active and that affect living organisms. Mycotoxins and fungi capable of producing toxins have been detected in ventilation systems, water damage and in foodstuff. Many of those displaying symptoms caused by electromagnetic fields have fungus infections or have been living in fungus-contaminated environments for long periods. In animal studies mycotoxins have shown the same effects as those seen in the 'electrohypersensitivity' syndrome. Phototoxic reactions are well known in veterinary medicine and in medical science, so the question is whether the 'electrohypersensitivity' syndrome is caused by 'phototoxic' reactions? PMID:10985910

Anttila, K

2000-09-01

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Scientists Map DNA of Deadly Fungus  

Science.gov (United States)

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Scientists Map DNA of Deadly Fungus Cryptococcus neoformans can be ... deadly fungus say their achievement offers a genetic map for finding weaknesses in the fungus in order ...

23

Hey! A Gnat Bit Me!  

Science.gov (United States)

... little antiseptic. An adult can find an anti-itch cream or anti-itch medicine that you swallow at the drugstore to ... red patches on the skin that sting and itch) on your skin. The doctor can treat allergic ...

24

Survey of hypogeous fungus Transylvanians  

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Full Text Available On the base of the published literature, this paper is a comprehensive enumeration of the hypogeous fungus from Transylvania. It contents 81 species and 4 varieties. Two species from the presented, Balsamia vulgaris and Tuber melanospermum, are dubious in Transylvania. The species are enumerated alphabeticaly in three classes: Phycomycetes, Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes.

Denes PAZMANY

1990-08-01

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Survey of hypogeous fungus Transylvanians  

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On the base of the published literature, this paper is a comprehensive enumeration of the hypogeous fungus from Transylvania. It contents 81 species and 4 varieties. Two species from the presented, Balsamia vulgaris and Tuber melanospermum, are dubious in Transylvania. The species are enumerated alphabeticaly in three classes: Phycomycetes, Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes

1990-01-01

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Effect of pesticides on adult rove beetle Atheta coriaria (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) survival in growing medium.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rove beetle Atheta coriaria (Kraatz) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) is a natural enemy (biological control agent) commercially available for control of certain greenhouse insect pests, including fungus gnats, shore flies, and thrips. This study assessed the compatibility of pesticides (insecticides and fungicides) used in greenhouses with A. coriaria adults. Treatments were applied to 473-ml deli squat containers half-filled with a growing medium. We evaluated the effects of the pesticides when releases of A. coriaria adults were performed both before and after application of the designated pesticide solutions. All three of the neonicotinoid-based insecticides (clothianidin, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam) were directly harmful to A. coriaria adults with < or = 3.2 adults recovered (out of 20) among all three treatments across all experiments. In addition, the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos at the low (0.25 fl oz/100 gal) and high (0.50 fl oz/100 gal) label rates; the plant-derived essential oil product (Indoor Pharm) containing soybean and rosemary oil; and the insecticide/miticide chlorfenpyr were directly harmful to A. coriaria adults with recovery rates -8.6 (out of 20) among all the treatments. The fungicides (azoxystrobin, fosetyl-aluminum, and mefenoxam) were not directly toxic to A. coriaria adults, with < or = 17.7 adults recovered (out of 20) across all experiments. The insecticides (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, flonicamid, Metarhizium anisopliae strain52, and spinosad) and insect growth regulator azadirachtin were also not directly toxic to A. coriaria adults. Furthermore, many of these same treatments did not inhibit the ability of adult A. coriaria to consume fungus gnat (Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila) larvae in a feeding behavior experiment. Although the neonicotinoid-based insecticides were directly harmful to adult A. coriaria, when adults were released 48, 72, or 96 h after application, survival increased dramatically over time. This study has quantitatively demonstrated that certain pesticides (both insecticides and fungicides) are compatible with and can be used along with A. coriaria in systems that use this natural enemy to manage fungus gnat larvae. PMID:19886438

Cloyd, Raymond A; Timmons, Nicholas R; Goebel, Jessica M; Kemp, Kenneth E

2009-10-01

27

Nuclear flow in a filamentous fungus  

CERN Document Server

The syncytial cells of a filamentous fungus consist of a mass of growing, tube-like hyphae. Each extending tip is fed by a continuous flow of nuclei from the colony interior, pushed by a gradient in turgor pressure. The myco-fluidic flows of nuclei are complex and multidirectional, like traffic in a city. We map out the flows in a strain of the model filamentous fungus {\\it N. crassa} that has been transformed so that nuclei express either hH1-dsRed (a red fluorescent nuclear protein) or hH1-GFP (a green-fluorescent protein) and report our results in a fluid dynamics video.

Hickey, Patrick C; Read, Nick; Glass, N Louise; Roper, Marcus

2012-01-01

28

White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) in Bat, France  

Science.gov (United States)

White-nose syndrome is caused by the fungus Geomyces destructans and is responsible for the deaths of >1,000,000 bats since 2006. This disease and fungus had been restricted to the northeastern United States. We detected this fungus in a bat in France and assessed the implications of this finding.

Puechmaille, Sebastien J.; Verdeyroux, Pascal; Fuller, Hubert; Gouilh, Meriadeg Ar; Bekaert, Michael

2010-01-01

29

STEROIDS FROM THE MARINE FUNGUS GEOTRICHUM SP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ergosterol 1, peroxyergosterol 2, ergosta-4,6,8(14, 22-tetraen-3-one 3 and 24-ethyl-cholesta-4-ene-3-one 4 were isolated from the cultures of a fungus Geotrichum sp. obtained from a marine sediment. It was established that no other sterols were present in the extract. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods

AURELIO SAN-MARTÍN

2008-03-01

30

Death from Fungus in the Soil  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Dr. Shira Shafir, Assistant Professor of Epidemiology at the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, discusses her study about fungus found in soil.  Created: 12/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/18/2012.

2012-12-17

31

Spread of Rare Fungus from Vancouver Island  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Cryptococcus gattii, a rare fungus normally found in the tropics, has infected people and animals on Vancouver Island, Canada. Dr. David Warnock, Director, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases, CDC, discusses public health concerns about further spread of this organism.  Created: 12/20/2006 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 12/29/2006.

2006-12-20

32

Ant-fungus species combinations engineer physiological activity of fungus gardens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungus-gardening insects are among the most complex organisms because of their extensive co-evolutionary histories with obligate fungal symbionts and other microbes. Some fungus-gardening insect lineages share fungal symbionts with other members of their lineage and thus exhibit diffuse co-evolutionary relationships, while others exhibit little or no symbiont sharing, resulting in host-fungus fidelity. The mechanisms that maintain this symbiont fidelity are currently unknown. Prior work suggested that derived leaf-cutting ants in the genus Atta interact synergistically with leaf-cutter fungi (Attamyces) by exhibiting higher fungal growth rates and enzymatic activities than when growing a fungus from the sister-clade to Attamyces (so-called 'Trachymyces'), grown primarily by the non-leaf cutting Trachymyrmex ants that form, correspondingly, the sister-clade to leaf-cutting ants. To elucidate the enzymatic bases of host-fungus specialization in leaf-cutting ants, we conducted a reciprocal fungus-switch experiment between the ant Atta texana and the ant Trachymyrmex arizonensis and report measured enzymatic activities of switched and sham-switched fungus gardens to digest starch, pectin, xylan, cellulose and casein. Gardens exhibited higher amylase and pectinase activities when A. texana ants cultivated Attamyces compared with Trachymyces fungi, consistent with enzymatic specialization. In contrast, gardens showed comparable amylase and pectinase activities when T. arizonensis cultivated either fungal species. Although gardens of leaf-cutting ants are not known to be significant metabolizers of cellulose, T. arizonensis were able to maintain gardens with significant cellulase activity when growing either fungal species. In contrast to carbohydrate metabolism, protease activity was significantly higher in Attamyces than in Trachymyces, regardless of the ant host. Activity of some enzymes employed by this symbiosis therefore arises from complex interactions between the ant host and the fungal symbiont. PMID:24803469

Seal, J N; Schiøtt, M; Mueller, U G

2014-07-15

33

The agricultural pathology of ant fungus gardens  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gardens of fungus-growing ants (Formicidae: Attini) traditionally have been thought to be free of microbial parasites, with the fungal mutualist maintained in nearly pure “monocultures.” We conducted extensive isolations of “alien” (nonmutualistic) fungi from ant gardens of a phylogenetically representative collection of attine ants. Contrary to the long-standing assumption that gardens are maintained free of microbial pathogens and parasites, they are in fact host to specialized para...

Currie, Cameron R.; Mueller, Ulrich G.; Malloch, David

1999-01-01

34

STEROIDS FROM THE MARINE FUNGUS GEOTRICHUM SP  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Ergosterol 1, peroxyergosterol 2, ergosta-4,6,8(14), 22-tetraen-3-one 3 and 24-ethyl-cholesta-4-ene-3-one 4 were isolated from the cultures of a fungus Geotrichum sp. obtained from a marine sediment. It was established that no other sterols were present in the extract. Their structures were elucidat [...] ed by spectroscopic methods

AURELIO, SAN-MARTÍN; SILVIA, OREJARENA; CLAUDIA, GALLARDO; MARIO, SILVA; JOSÉ, BECERRA; RODRIGO, REIN0S0; MARIA C, CHAMY; KAREN, VERGARA; JUANA, ROVIROSA.

35

Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Introduction In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae), wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow) and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent ...

2012-01-01

36

Symbiotic Fungi Produce Laccases Potentially Involved in Phenol Degradation in Fungus Combs of Fungus-Growing Termites in Thailand†  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fungus-growing termites efficiently decompose plant litter through their symbiotic relationship with basidiomycete fungi of the genus Termitomyces. Here, we investigated phenol-oxidizing enzymes in symbiotic fungi and fungus combs (a substrate used to cultivate symbiotic fungi) from termites belonging to the genera Macrotermes, Odontotermes, and Microtermes in Thailand, because these enzymes are potentially involved in the degradation of phenolic compounds during fungus comb aging. Laccase ac...

Taprab, Yaovapa; Johjima, Toru; Maeda, Yoshimasa; Moriya, Shigeharu; Trakulnaleamsai, Savitr; Noparatnaraporn, Napavarn; Ohkuma, Moriya; Kudo, Toshiaki

2005-01-01

37

Antimicrobial steroids from the fungus Fomitopsis pinicola.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phytochemical examination of the dichloromethane extract of the European fungus Fomitopsis pinicola led to the isolation of a new lanostanoid derivative identified from spectral and chemical evidences as 3 alpha-(4-carboxymethyl-3-hydroxy-3-methylbutanoyloxy)-lanosta++ +-8,24-dien-21-oic acid. In addition, seven known triterpenes, polyporenic acid C, 3 alpha-acetyloxylanosta-8,24-dien-21-oic acid, ergosta-7,22-dien-3 beta-ol,21-hydroxylanosta-8,24-dien-3-one, pinicolic acid A, trametenolic acid B and pachymic acid, were also isolated. Antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis in a TLC bioassay was observed for five of the isolated steroids. PMID:8728714

Keller, A C; Maillard, M P; Hostettmann, K

1996-03-01

38

Metabolites From The Marine Fungus Cladosporium Cladosporioides  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish El ácido p-metilbenzoico y el peroxiergosterol fueron aislados e identificados por métodos espectroscópicos en el cultivo del hongo Cladosporium cladosporioides, obtenido de una esponja marina. En la medida de nuestro conocimiento este es el primer informe del aislamiento como producto natural del á [...] cido p-metilbenzoico. Abstract in english p-Methylbenzoic acid and peroxyergosterol were isolated and identified by spectroscopic methods from cultures of the fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides isolated from a marine sponge. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that p-methylbenzoic acid had been isolated as a natural produc [...] t.

San-Martín, A.; Painemal, K.; Díaz, Y.; Martínez, C.; Rovirosa, J..

39

MINERALIZATION OF RECALCITRANT ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY A WHITE ROT FUNGUS  

Science.gov (United States)

The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is able to degrade lignin, a structurally complex, naturally occurring and environmentally persistent, non-repeating heteropolyrner. revious studies have shown that this fungus is also able-to degrade a wide variety of synthetic or...

40

Genome Sequence of the Pathogenic Fungus Sporothrix schenckii (ATCC 58251)  

Science.gov (United States)

Sporothrix schenckii is a pathogenic dimorphic fungus that grows as a yeast and as mycelia. This species is the causative agent of sporotrichosis, typically a skin infection. We report the genome sequence of S. schenckii, which will facilitate the study of this fungus and of the Sporothrix schenckii group.

Perez-Sanchez, Lizaida; Abouelleil, Amr; Goldberg, Jonathan; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Birren, Bruce W.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

[The fungus maitake (Grifola frondosa) and its therapeutic potential].  

Science.gov (United States)

Grifola frondosa (Dicks.) Gray is a polyporaceous fungus and, due to its medical properties, has been used in Eastern cultures for thousands of years. A review of previously published literature on this fungus, its ethnomycological, nutritional, pharmacological and medical aspects were investigated. PMID:18785781

Illana-Esteban, Carlos

2008-09-30

42

Ribonucleic acids in different tea fungus beverages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In human nutrition, nucleic acids have to be balanced and limited up to 2 g/day because purines are degraded to urate, and excessive production of urate is a cause of gout which primarily affects adult males. Tea fungus beverage is a well known drink with high nutritional value and certain curative effects. Its benefits have been proved in a number of studies but it is still necessary to examine some potential harmful effects of this beverage. The aim of this paper was to investigate content of ribonucleic acids (RNA produced during tea fungus fermentation on a usual substrate sweetened black tea, and on Jerusalem artichoke tubers (J.A.T extract using method by Munro and Fleck (1966. pH, ribonucleic acids and also the production of proteins that affect purity of nucleic acids preparations were monitored. A higher value of RNA has been noticed in J.A.T. beverage (0.57 mg/ml and with observation of usual daily dose of the beverage it is completely safe and useful one.

Malbaša Radomir V.

2003-01-01

43

Fungus ball in the urinary tract: A rare entity  

Science.gov (United States)

A fungal mass in the urinary tract (fungus ball), mainly occurring in compromised patients, is a rare and dangerous complication of candiduria. We report 2 cases of fungus ball associated with hydronephrosis and sepsis. As reported in the literature, we treated the first patient by prompt relief of obstruction by nephrostomy and local and systemic antifungal agent. The second patient failed to respond to this treatment due to a distal ureteral stenosis and required open surgery with fungus ball removal and ureteral reimplantation. Despite a large success in urinary tract drainage with antifungal treatments, some cases need a modified approach due to anatomical modification.

Praz, Valentin; Burruni, Rodolfo; Meid, Florian; Wisard, Marc; Jichlinski, Patrice; Tawadros, Thomas

2014-01-01

44

Morphophysiological Differences between the Metapleural Glands of Fungus-Growing and Non–Fungus-Growing Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The metapleural gland is an organ exclusive to ants. Its main role is to produce secretions that inhibit the proliferation of different types of pathogens. The aim of the present study was to examine the morphophysiological differences between the metapleural gland of 3 non–fungus-growing ants of the tribes Ectatommini, Myrmicini, and Blepharidattini and that of 5 fungus-growing ants from 2 basal and 3 derived attine genera. The metapleural gland of the non–fungus-growing ants and the bas...

2012-01-01

45

Macrocyclic Trichothecene Production by the Fungus Epibiont of Baccharis Coridifolia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cultures of the fungus epibiont from the herbaceous shrub B. coridifolia yielded four macrocyclic trichothecenes. As these toxins are the same as those found in B. coridifolia, the relationship between the plant and the epibiont must be considered as mutualistic.

Rosso, M. L.; Maier, M. S.; Bertoni, M. D.

2000-01-01

46

An insect parasitoid carrying an ochratoxin producing fungus  

Science.gov (United States)

The insect parasitoid Prorops nasuta has been introduced from Africa to many coffee-producing countries in an attempt to control the coffee berry borer. In this paper, we report on the sequencing of the ITS LSU-rDNA and beta-tubulin loci used to identify a fungus isolated from the cuticle of a P. nasuta that emerged from coffee berries infected with the coffee berry borer. The sequences were compared with deposits in GenBank and the fungus was identified as Aspergillus westerdijkiae. The fungus tested positive for ochratoxin A production, with varying levels depending on the media in which it was grown. These results raise the possibility that an insect parasitoid might be disseminating an ochratoxin-producing fungus in coffee plantations.

Vega, Fernando E.; Posada, Francisco; Gianfagna, Thomas J.; Chaves, Fabio C.; Peterson, Stephen W.

2006-06-01

47

Solubilization of lignin by the ruminal anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ability of the ruminal anaerobic phycomycete Neocallimastix patriciarum to digest model lignin compounds and lignified structures in plant material was studied in batch culture. The fungus did not degrade or transform model lignin compounds that were representative of the predominant intermonomer linkages in lignin, nor did it solubilize acid detergent lignin that had been isolated from spear grass. In a stem fraction of sorghum, 33.6% of lignin was apparently solubilized by the fungus. S...

Mcsweeney, C. S.; Dulieu, A.; Katayama, Y.; Lowry, J. B.

1994-01-01

48

Extracellular proteases of the rust fungus Uromyces viciae-fabae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

On thigmo-inductive membranes the broad bean rust fungus Uromyces viciae-fabae differentiates complex infection structures including haustorial mother cells. Using this in vitro system, formation of extracellular proteases of the obligately biotrophic fungus was studied during infection structure differentiation. Enzyme activities occur when appressoria are formed, and extracellular washing fluids of substomatal vesicles, infection hyphae, and haustorial mother cells show complex protease pat...

Rauscher, Martina; Mendgen, Kurt; Deising, Holger

1995-01-01

49

Specificity in the interaction between an epibiotic clavicipitalean fungus and its convolvulaceous host in a fungus/plant symbiotum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ipomoea asarifolia and Turbina corymbosa (Convolvulaceae) are associated with epibiotic clavicipitalean fungi responsible for the presence of ergoline alkaloids in these plants. Experimentally generated plants devoid of these fungi were inoculated with different epibiotic and endophytic fungi resulting in a necrotic or commensal situation. A symbiotum of host plant and its respective fungus was best established by integration of the fungus into the morphological differentiation of the host pl...

Steiner, Ulrike; Hellwig, Sabine; Leistner, Eckhard

2008-01-01

50

Isolated Polynucleotides and Methods of Promoting a Morphology in a Fungus  

Science.gov (United States)

The invention includes isolated polynucleotide molecules that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention includes a method of enhancing a bioprocess utilizing a fungus. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to a promoter. The polynucleotide sequence is expressed to promote a first morphology. The first morphology of the transformed fungus enhances a bioprocess relative to the bioprocess utilizing a second morphology.

Lasure, Linda L. (Fall City, WA) [Fall City, WA; Dai, Ziyu (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA

2008-10-21

51

Allergens of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Beauveria bassiana is an important entomopathogenic fungus currently under development as a bio-control agent for a variety of insect pests. Although reported to be non-toxic to vertebrates, the potential allergenicity of Beauveria species has not been widely studied. Methods IgE-reactivity studies were performed using sera from patients displaying mould hypersensitivity by immunoblot and immunoblot inhibition. Skin reactivity to B. bassiana extracts was measured using intradermal skin testing. Results Immunoblots of fungal extracts with pooled as well as individual sera showed a distribution of IgE reactive proteins present in B. bassiana crude extracts. Proteinase K digestion of extracts resulted in loss of IgE reactive epitopes, whereas EndoH and PNGaseF (glycosidase treatments resulted in minor changes in IgE reactive banding patterns as determined by Western blots. Immunoblot inhibitions experiments showed complete loss of IgE-binding using self protein, and partial inhibition using extracts from common allergenic fungi including; Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium herbarum, Candida albicans, Epicoccum purpurascens, and Penicillium notatum. Several proteins including a strongly reactive band with an approximate molecular mass of 35 kDa was uninhibited by any of the tested extracts, and may represent B. bassiana specific allergens. Intradermal skin testing confirmed the in vitro results, demonstrating allergenic reactions in a number of individuals, including those who have had occupational exposure to B. bassiana. Conclusions Beauveria bassiana possesses numerous IgE reactive proteins, some of which are cross-reactive among allergens from other fungi. A strongly reactive potential B. bassiana specific allergen (35 kDa was identified. Intradermal skin testing confirmed the allergenic potential of B. bassiana.

Keyhani Nemat O

2005-01-01

52

Effects of reduced-risk pesticides and plant growth regulators on rove beetle (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

In many regions, pest management of greenhouse crops relies on the use of biological control agents; however, pesticides are also widely used, especially when dealing with multiple arthropod pests and attempting to maintain high esthetic standards. As such, there is interest in using biological control agents in conjunction with chemical control. However, the prospects of combining natural enemies and pesticides are not well known in many systems. The rove beetle, Atheta coriaria (Kraatz), is a biological control agent mainly used against fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.). This study evaluated the effects of reduced-risk pesticides and plant growth regulators on A. coriaria adult survival, development, and prey consumption under laboratory conditions. Rove beetle survival was consistently higher when adults were released 24 h after rather than before applying pesticides. The pesticides acetamiprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, and cyfluthrin were harmful to rove beetle adults, whereas Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, azadirachtin, and organic oils (cinnamon oils, rosemary oil, thyme oil, and clove oil) were nontoxic to A. coriaria adults. Similarly, the plant growth regulators acymidol, paclobutrazol, and uniconazole were not harmful to rove beetle adults. In addition, B. bassiana, azadirachtin, kinoprene, organic oils, and the plant growth regulators did not negatively affect A. coriaria development. However, B. bassiana did negatively affect adult prey consumption. This study demonstrated that A. coriaria may not be used when applying the pesticides, acetamiprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, and cyfluthrin, whereas organic oils, B. bassiana, azadirachtin, and the plant growth regulators evaluated may be used in conjunction with A. coriaria adults. As such, these compounds may be used in combination with A. coriaria in greenhouse production systems. PMID:23356075

Echegaray, Erik R; Cloyd, Raymond A

2012-12-01

53

Septal deviation is associated with maxillary sinus fungus ball in male patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungus is one of the causes of chronic rhinosinusitis. If the fungus occupies the sinus but does not invade the sinonasal mucosa, this is called sinus fungus ball. Any association between anatomical variations and fungus ball remains unclear. Sinus fungus ball is defined as non-invasive chronic fungal rhinosinusitis occurring in immunocompetent patients, and the maxillary sinus is the most commonly affected. The etiology of maxillary sinus fungus ball remains unclear. This study assessed the potential contribution of anatomical variations, such as deviated nasal septum, concha bullosa, and Haller cell to the development of fungus ball in the maxillary sinus. Concha bullosa and Haller cell are structural variations that narrow the nasal airflow passage and contribute to chronic rhinosinusitis. The involvement of these variations has been investigated in chronic sinusitis but not in sinus fungus ball. Preoperative computed tomography findings of 103 patients with maxillary sinus fungus ball were evaluated retrospectively. Septal deviation and Haller cell were not correlated with the side of maxillary sinus fungus ball. Concha bullosa was more common on the unaffected side (p = 0.099). When we analyzed males and females separately, maxillary sinus fungus ball was more common on the concave side of the deviated septum in only male patients (p = 0.006). The high incidence of maxillary fungus ball in the concave side may reflect the consequences of the traumatic effects caused by wall shear stress of the high-velocity airflow and the increased chance of inhaling fungus spores. PMID:24646922

Oshima, Hidetoshi; Nomura, Kazuhiro; Sugawara, Mitsuru; Arakawa, Kazuya; Oshima, Takeshi; Katori, Yukio

2014-01-01

54

Bioremediation using white rot fungus; Hakushoku fushokukin wo mochiita baioremedeieshon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years, environmental pollution caused by organic chloride compounds and endocrine disturbing substances (environmental hormones) has spread all over the country. Among various researches in respect to environmental preservation technology, bioremediation using white rot fungus (environment remedying technology using microorganism) is paid attention. Coriolus versicolor, which is a typical white rot fungus, produces oxidase of laccase, manganese peroxide or the like. It is confirmed by the examination results of the degradation of phenols using these enzymes that alkyl phenols and bisphenol A which is environmental hormone are degraded by laccase. Further, the degradation of dioxins is an example using Phanerochaete sp. Additional, the applications of white rot fungus to various aspects such as the degradation of petroleum and dyes are investigated and good results are obtained. (NEDO)

Sakurai, Akihiko [Fukui University, Fukui (Japan)

1999-02-05

55

Isolation and identification of iron ore-solubilising fungus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Potential mineral-solubilising fungi were successfully isolated from the surfaces of iron ore minerals. Four isolates were obtained and identified by molecular and phylogenetic methods as close relatives of three different genera, namely Penicillium (for isolate FO, Alternaria (for isolates SFC2 and KFC1 and Epicoccum (for isolate SFC2B. The use of tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO42in phosphate-solubilising experiments confirmed isolate FO as the only phosphate solubiliser among the isolated fungi. The bioleaching capabilities of both the fungus and its spent liquid medium were tested and compared using two types of iron ore materials, conglomerate and shale, from the Sishen Iron Ore Mine as sources of potassium (K and phosphorus (P. The spent liquid medium removed more K (a maximum of 32.94% removal, from conglomerate, than the fungus (a maximum of 21.36% removal, from shale. However, the fungus removed more P (a maximum of 58.33% removal, from conglomerate than the spent liquid medium (a maximum of 29.25% removal, from conglomerate. The results also indicated a potential relationship between the removal of K or P and the production of organic acids by the fungus. A high production of gluconic acid could be related to the ability of the fungus to reduce K and P. Acetic, citric and maleic acids were also produced by the fungus, but in lower quantities. In addition, particle size and iron ore type were also shown to have significant effects on the removal of potassium and phosphorus from the iron ore minerals. We therefore conclude that the spent liquid medium from the fungal isolate FO can potentially be used for biobeneficiation of iron ore minerals.

Damase Khasa

2010-09-01

56

Isolation and identification of iron ore-solubilising fungus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Potential mineral-solubilising fungi were successfully isolated from the surfaces of iron ore minerals. Four isolates were obtained and identified by molecular and phylogenetic methods as close relatives of three different genera, namely Penicillium (for isolate FO), Alternaria (for isolates SFC2 an [...] d KFC1) and Epicoccum (for isolate SFC2B). The use of tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) in phosphate-solubilising experiments confirmed isolate FO as the only phosphate solubiliser among the isolated fungi. The bioleaching capabilities of both the fungus and its spent liquid medium were tested and compared using two types of iron ore materials, conglomerate and shale, from the Sishen Iron Ore Mine as sources of potassium (K) and phosphorus (P). The spent liquid medium removed more K (a maximum of 32.94% removal, from conglomerate), than the fungus (a maximum of 21.36% removal, from shale). However, the fungus removed more P (a maximum of 58.33% removal, from conglomerate) than the spent liquid medium (a maximum of 29.25% removal, from conglomerate). The results also indicated a potential relationship between the removal of K or P and the production of organic acids by the fungus. A high production of gluconic acid could be related to the ability of the fungus to reduce K and P. Acetic, citric and maleic acids were also produced by the fungus, but in lower quantities. In addition, particle size and iron ore type were also shown to have significant effects on the removal of potassium and phosphorus from the iron ore minerals. We therefore conclude that the spent liquid medium from the fungal isolate FO can potentially be used for biobeneficiation of iron ore minerals.

Rasheed, Adeleke; Eugene, Cloete; Damase, Khasa.

57

Exploring the Potential for Actinobacteria as Defensive Symbionts in Fungus-Growing Termites  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play a role as defensive symbionts against Pseudoxylaria in fungus-growing termites. We sampled for Actinobacteria from 30 fungus-growing termite colonies, spanning the three main termite genera and two ...

Visser, A. A.; Mesquita Nobre, T.; Currie, C. R.; Aanen, D. K.; Poulsen, M.

2012-01-01

58

Carotenoid pigments in the fungus of Coltsfoot (Coleosporium tussilaginis)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Investigations were carried out on the carotenoid pigments in the fruiting bodies of the parasitic fungus Coleosporium tussilaginis (Pers.) Kleb., harvested in autumn from the lower mide of the leaves of coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara L.). The fructification of this fungus held only g-carotene and m-carotene. There were found no ranthophylls, epoxides; neither carboxyl nor carboxyl groups. The content of g-carotene was of 22 mg/100 g D.M. and that of b-carotene of 15 mg/100 g D.M. The content o...

Neamtu, Gavrila; Illyes, Gh; Otoiu, Maria

1983-01-01

59

Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae, wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. Results We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-?-1,3(4-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-?-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Conclusion Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily accessible hemicellulose components of the ray-parenchyma cells in the wood xylem. Furthermore, the detection of xylanolytic enzymes exclusively in larvae (which feed on fungus colonized wood and not in adults (which feed only on fungi indicates that only larvae (pre- digest plant cell wall structures. This implies that in X. saxesenii and likely also in many other ambrosia beetles, adults and larvae do not compete for the same food within their nests - in contrast, larvae increase colony fitness by facilitating enzymatic wood degradation and fungus cultivation.

De Fine Licht Henrik H

2012-06-01

60

Rare sesquiterpenes from the algicolous fungus Drechslera dematioidea.  

Science.gov (United States)

From the inner tissue of the marine red alga Liagora viscida the fungus Drechslera dematioidea was isolated. After mass cultivation, the fungus was investigated for its secondary metabolite content, and 10 new sesquiterpenoids [isosativenetriol (1), drechslerines A (2) and B (3), 9-hydroxyhelminthosporol (5), drechslerines C-G (6-10), and sativene epoxide (12)] were isolated. Compounds 8 and 10 exhibited antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum strains K1 and NF54. The known compounds helminthosporol (4), cis-sativenediol (11), isocochlioquinone A (14), isocochlioquinone C (15), and cochlioquinone B (16) were also isolated. All structures were elucidated using spectroscopic methods, mainly 1D and 2D NMR and MS. PMID:11908970

Osterhage, Claudia; König, Gabriele M; Höller, Ulrich; Wright, Anthony D

2002-03-01

 
 
 
 
61

Tree Planters' Notes, Volume 46, Number 2, Spring 1995.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contents: Certified Seed and Artificial Forest Regeneration; Missoula Technology and Development Center's 1995 Nursery and Reforestation Programs; Trees Grow Better With Water; Botrytis cinerea Carried by Adult Fungus Gnats (Diptera: Sciaridae) in Contain...

R. Nisley

1995-01-01

62

Será fungo? / Is it a fungus?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estima-se que as infecções fúngicas superficiais afectem 20 a 25% da população mundial e a sua incidência continua a aumentar. A maioria é causada por dermatófitos, que são fungos que necessitam de queratina para crescer. As alterações produzidas por estes fungos designam-se de dermatofitoses, epide [...] rmofitias ou tinhas. Em Medicina Geral e Familiar é habitual o clínico deparar-se com questões como: «Dr., apareceram-me umas manchas na pele, será um fungo?». Algumas vezes, particularmente em doentes com risco especial como os polimedicados, os diabéticos, os imunodeprimidos ou as crianças, torna-se difícil saber quando é adequado instituir terapêutica oral. O presente artigo tem como objectivo efectuar uma breve revisão das dermatofitoses, com especial enfoque na sua abordagem terapêutica. As tinhas classificam-se de acordo com a sua localização anatómica: tinea capitis no couro cabeludo, tinea pedis nos pés, tinea corporis no corpo, tinea cruris na região inguinal e tinea unguium nas unhas. Um exame clínico cuidado é o primeiro e mais importante passo no diagnóstico das epidermofitias. No entanto, este pode ser estabelecido através de um dos diversos exames: microscopia com hidróxido de potássio, cultura, lâmpada de Wood e biópsia. Na prática clínica, a recolha de amostras para microscopia e cultura é aconselhada quando há necessidade de terapêutica oral, a infecção parece refractária ao tratamento inicial ou o diagnóstico é incerto. Apesar do tratamento tópico ser suficiente, na maioria das dermatofitoses, a terapêutica oral é aconselhada nas tinhas do couro cabeludo, da barba e das unhas. Os antifúngicos tópicos do grupo das alilaminas possibilitam tratamentos mais curtos e taxas de cura maiores do que os antifúngicos do grupo dos azóis. A terbinafina, o itraconazol e o fluconazol são os fármacos mais utilizados para tratamento sistémico. Abstract in english Superficial mycoses are believed to affect 20% to 25% of the world?s population and its incidence continues to increase. They are mainly caused by dermatophytes, which are fungi that require keratin for their growth. Skin lesions produced by these fungi are named dermatomycosis, dermatophytosis, rin [...] gworm or tinea. In Family Medicine, the clinician often has to deal with questions such as: «Dr., some weird spots have appeared in my skin, is it a fungus?». Frequently it is difficult to decide whether it is appropriate to initiate systemic therapy, particularly in higher risk patients, such as the polimedicated, the immunodepressed, the diabetics and the children. This article intends to review dermatophyte infections, focusing especially on their therapeutic management. Tinea is generally classified according to its anatomic location: tinea capitis is located on the scalp, tinea pedis on the feet, tinea corporis on the body, tinea cruris on the groin, and tinea unguium on the nails. A thorough clinical examination is the primary and most important step to diagnose a dermatophyte infection. Yet, it can be established using potassium hydroxide microscopy, fungal culture, Wood?s lamp examination or histologic examination. Samples should be taken for microscopy and culture in severe or extensive skin fungal infections, when oral treatment is being considered, when skin infections are refractory to initial treatment, or when the diagnosis is uncertain. Although topical treatment is enough in the majority of dermatomycosis, oral antifungals are recommended when considering tinea capitis, tinea barbae and tinea unguium. Cure rates are higher and treatment courses are shorter with topical allylamines than with azoles. Terbinafine, itraconazole and fluconazole formulations are the most commonly used antifungals in systemic therapy.

Tomaz, Diana.

63

Phenolic Compound Utilization by the Soft Rot Fungus Lecythophora hoffmannii  

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Nine phenolic compounds were metabolized by the soft rot fungus Lecythophora hoffmannii via protocatechuic acid and subsequently cleaved by protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase as determined by oxygen uptake, substrate depletion, and ring cleavage analysis. Catechol was metabolized by catechol 1,2-dioxygenase. Fungal utilization of these aromatic compounds may be important in the metabolism of wood decay products.

Bugos, Robert C.; Sutherland, John B.; Adler, John H.

1988-01-01

64

OXIDATION OF PERSISTANT ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY A WHITE ROT FUNGUS  

Science.gov (United States)

The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium degraded DDT [1,1,-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane], 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,4,5,2',-4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, lindane (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocylohexane), and benzo[a]pyrene t...

65

Macrocyclic Trichothecene Production by the Fungus Epibiont of Baccharis Coridifolia  

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Full Text Available Cultures of the fungus epibiont from the herbaceous shrub B. coridifolia yielded four macrocyclic trichothecenes. As these toxins are the same as those found in B. coridifolia, the relationship between the plant and the epibiont must be considered as mutualistic.

M. L. Rosso

2000-03-01

66

Oxidative Degradation of Phenanthrene by the Ligninolytic Fungus 'Phanerochaete chrysosposium'.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ligninolytic fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium oxidized phenanthrene and phenanthrene-9,10-quinone (PQ) at their C-9 and C-10 positions to give a ring-fission product, 2,2'-diphenic acid (DPA), which was identified in chromatographic and isotope dilu...

K. E. Hammel W. Z. Gai B. Green M. A. Moen

1992-01-01

67

Volatile antimicrobials from Muscodor crispans, a novel endophytic fungus.  

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Muscodor crispans is a recently described novel endophytic fungus of Ananas ananassoides (wild pineapple) growing in the Bolivian Amazon Basin. The fungus produces a mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs); some of the major components of this mixture, as determined by GC/MS, are propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-; 1-butanol, 3-methyl-;1-butanol, 3-methyl-, acetate; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-methylbutyl ester; and ethanol. The fungus does not, however, produce naphthalene or azulene derivatives as has been observed with many other members of the genus Muscodor. The mixture of VOCs produced by M. crispans cultures possesses antibiotic properties, as does an artificial mixture of a majority of the components. The VOCs of the fungus are effective against a wide range of plant pathogens, including the fungi Pythium ultimum, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Mycosphaerella fijiensis (the black sigatoka pathogen of bananas), and the serious bacterial pathogen of citrus, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. In addition, the VOCs of M. crispans killed several human pathogens, including Yersinia pestis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus. Artificial mixtures of the fungal VOCs were both inhibitory and lethal to a number of human and plant pathogens, including three drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The gaseous products of Muscodor crispans potentially could prove to be beneficial in the fields of medicine, agriculture, and industry. PMID:19797357

Mitchell, Angela M; Strobel, Gary A; Moore, Emily; Robison, Richard; Sears, Joe

2010-01-01

68

Leucopaxillus lepistoides, a new steppe fungus in Poland  

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Full Text Available The paper presents information on Leucopaxillus lepistoides (Maire Singer, a new species for Poland. This fungus was found in two localities: the neighbourhood of Busko Zdrój and Ch?ciny (Little Polish Upland, S-Poland. Both localities were in the xerothermic grasslands belonging to the Cirsio-Brachypodion Order, Festuco-Brometea Class.

Janusz ?uszczy?ski

2006-12-01

69

Nematicidal activity of beauvericin produced by the fungus Fusarium bulbicola.  

Science.gov (United States)

A nematicide, beauvericin (1), was isolated from cultures of the fungus Fusarium bulbicola, and its structure was identified by spectroscopic analysis. Compound 1 showed nematicidal activities against the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. PMID:20469639

Shimada, Atsumi; Fujioka, Shozo; Koshino, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Yasuo

2010-01-01

70

Morphophysiological Differences between the Metapleural Glands of Fungus-Growing and Non-Fungus-Growing Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)  

Science.gov (United States)

The metapleural gland is an organ exclusive to ants. Its main role is to produce secretions that inhibit the proliferation of different types of pathogens. The aim of the present study was to examine the morphophysiological differences between the metapleural gland of 3 non–fungus-growing ants of the tribes Ectatommini, Myrmicini, and Blepharidattini and that of 5 fungus-growing ants from 2 basal and 3 derived attine genera. The metapleural gland of the non–fungus-growing ants and the basal attine ants has fewer secretory cells than that of the derived attine ants (leaf-cutting ants). In addition, the metapleural gland of the latter had more clusters of secretory cells and sieve plates, indicating a greater storage capacity and demand for secretion in these more advanced farming ants. The glands of the derived attine ants also produced higher levels of polysaccharides and acidic lipids than those of Myrmicini, Blepharidattini, and basal attines. Our results confirm morphophysiological differences between the metapleural glands of the derived attines and those of the basal attines and non–fungus-growing ants, suggesting that the metapleural glands of the derived attines (leaf-cutting ants) are more developed in morphology and physiology, with enhanced secretion production (acidic lipids and protein) to protect against the proliferation of unwanted fungi and bacteria in the fungal garden, it is possible that leaf-cutting ants may have evolved more developed metapleural glands in response to stronger pressure from parasites.

Vieira, Alexsandro Santana; Bueno, Odair Correa; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

2012-01-01

71

Susceptibility of rice to the blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interaction between rice and the blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea is the focus of extensive studies on rice disease resistance and fungal infection mechanisms. Here, we review the characteristics of susceptible rice blast infections in terms of physiology, cytology and both host and pathogen transcriptional responses. The success of the infection and the type of disease symptoms strongly depend on environmental and developmental cues. After its penetration into a host cell, the fungus differentiates invasive hyphae that fill up the plant cell lumen and are in direct contact with the membrane of the infected cell. The infected plant cell is alive, displaying considerable vesicle accumulation near the fungus, which is consistent with the establishment of a biotrophic phase at this stage of the infection. Colonization of host tissues by the fungus occurs through the perforation of cell walls from adjacent cells, likely using plasmodesmata as breaking points, or through hyphal growth in the apoplasm. After a few days of biotrophic growth within rice tissues, the fungus switches to a necrotrophic-like phase associated with the onset of sporulation, leading to visible lesions. Genome-wide transcriptomic studies have shown that classical plant defence responses are triggered during a susceptible infection, although the kinetics and amplitude of these responses are slower and lower than in resistant interactions. Infected rice cells are submitted to an intense transcriptional reprogramming, where responses to hormones such as auxins, abscissic acid and jasmonates are likely involved. Consistent with the extensive plant-fungal exchanges during the biotrophic phase, many rice genes expressed during infection encode plasma membrane proteins. At the onset of lesion formation (5 days after the start of infection), M. grisea is actively reprogramming its transcription towards active DNA, RNA and protein syntheses to sustain its rapid growth in infected tissues. A striking characteristic of M. grisea genes expressed at this stage of the infection is the over-representation of genes encoding secreted proteins, mainly of unknown function. However, some of these secreted proteins are enzymes involved in cell wall, protein and lipid degradation, suggesting that the fungus is starting to degrade host polymers and cell walls or is remodelling its own cell wall. The next challenge will be to decipher the role of these induced plant and fungal genes in the susceptible interaction. PMID:17905473

Ribot, Cécile; Hirsch, Judith; Balzergue, Sandrine; Tharreau, Didier; Nottéghem, Jean-Loup; Lebrun, Marc-Henri; Morel, Jean-Benoit

2008-01-01

72

Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Fusarium semitectum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development of environmental friendly procedures for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles through biological processes is evolving into an important branch of nanobiotechnology. In this paper, we report on the use of fungus 'Fusarium semitectum' for the extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate solution (i.e. through the reduction of Ag+ to Ag0). Highly stable and crystalline silver nanoparticles are produced in solution by treating the filtrate of the fungus F. semitectum with the aqueous silver nitrate solution. The formations of nanoparticles are understood from the UV-vis and X-ray diffraction studies. Transmission electron microscopy of the silver particles indicated that they ranged in size from 10 to 60 nm and are mostly spherical in shape. Interestingly the colloidal suspensions of silver nanoparticles are stable for many weeks. Possible medicinal applications of these silver nanoparticles are envisaged

2008-05-06

73

Carotenoid pigments in the fungus of Coltsfoot (Coleosporium tussilaginis  

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Full Text Available Investigations were carried out on the carotenoid pigments in the fruiting bodies of the parasitic fungus Coleosporium tussilaginis (Pers. Kleb., harvested in autumn from the lower mide of the leaves of coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara L.. The fructification of this fungus held only g-carotene and m-carotene. There were found no ranthophylls, epoxides; neither carboxyl nor carboxyl groups. The content of g-carotene was of 22 mg/100 g D.M. and that of b-carotene of 15 mg/100 g D.M. The content of both carotenoids was 10-12 times higher in camparison with their content in carrots. The fructification bodies of Coleosporium tussilaginis represents an important natural source of g- and b-carotene.

Maria OTOIU

1983-08-01

74

Life cycle of the pathogenic fungus Sphaeropsis sapinea Dyko & Sutton  

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Full Text Available The study of the parasitic fungus Sphaeropsis sapinea life cycle shows that the conidia disseminate most massively during the period April-May, i. e. during the critical time of infection, but also during the period June-August. Infection can occur through the buds in the spring, before their flushing, but also in the summer of the year of their development. Infection occurs most frequently through the bark of the young shoots, because of which they die while needle infections mostly lead to the so-called localized infections. Both male and female flowers can be infected, as well as the current-year and second-year cones. In some cases this fungus can behave as a latent parasite, i. e. endophyte.

Milijaševi? Tanja

2003-01-01

75

Mutualistic fungi control crop diversity in fungus-growing ants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Leaf-cutting ants rear clonal fungi for food and transmit the fungi from mother to daughter colonies so that symbiont mixing and conflict, which result from competition between genetically different clones, are avoided. Here we show that despite millions of years of predominantly vertical transmission, the domesticated fungi actively reject mycelial fragments from neighboring colonies, and that the strength of these reactions are in proportion to the overall genetic difference between these symbionts. Fungal incompatibility compounds remain intact during ant digestion, so that fecal droplets, which are used for manuring newly grown fungus, elicit similar hostile reactions when applied to symbionts from other colonies. Symbiont control over new mycelial growth by manurial imprinting prevents the rearing of multiple crops in fungus gardens belonging to the same colony.

Poulsen, Michael; Boomsma, Jacobus J

2005-01-01

76

Gaeumannomyces graminis, the take-all fungus and its relatives.  

Science.gov (United States)

SUMMARY Take-all, caused by the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, is the most important root disease of wheat worldwide. Many years of intensive research, reflected by the large volume of literature on take-all, has led to a considerable degree of understanding of many aspects of the disease. However, effective and economic control of the disease remains difficult. The application of molecular techniques to study G. graminis and related fungi has resulted in some significant advances, particularly in the development of improved methods for identification and in elucidating the role of the enzyme avenacinase as a pathogenicity determinant in the closely related oat take-all fungus (G. graminis var. avenae). Some progress in identifying other factors that may be involved in determining host range and pathogenicity has been made, despite the difficulties of performing genetic analyses and the lack of a reliable transformation system. PMID:20565593

Freeman, Jacqueline; Ward, Elaine

2004-07-01

77

Enhancement of ?-xylosidase productivity in cellulase producing fungus Acremonium cellulolyticus  

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Enzymatic hydrolysis is one of the most important processes in bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Acremonium cellulolyticus is a filamentous fungus with high cellulase production but productivity of hemicellulase, especially ?-xylosidase, is lower than other filamentous fungi. We identified 2.4 Kb ?-xylosidase gene in the A. cellulolyticus genome sequence information and it encoded 798 amino acids without introns. To enhance hemicellulase productivity in A. cellulolyticus, ...

Kanna, Machi; Yano, Shinichi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Tatsuya; Sawayama, Shigeki

2011-01-01

78

Reaction of sorghum genotypes to the anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum graminicola  

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The reactions of 22 sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) genotypes to six previously identified races of the sorghum anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum graminicola, were evaluated under greenhouse and field conditions. Races were inoculated in separate tests in the greenhouse. In the field, spreader rows of a susceptible genotype were artificially inoculated with a mixture of the six races of the pathogen. In the greenhouse tests, nine genotypes showed resistance to all six races. In the field high level...

2001-01-01

79

Temperature-Regulated Transcription in the Pathogenic Fungus Cryptococcus neoformans  

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The basidiomycete fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pathogen of worldwide importance that causes meningitis, leading to death in immunocompromised individuals. Unlike many basidiomycete fungi, C. neoformans is thermotolerant, and its ability to grow at 37°C is considered to be a virulence factor. We used serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) to characterize the transcriptomes of C. neoformans strains that represent two varieties with different polysaccharide capsule sero...

Steen, Barbara R.; Lian, Tian; Zuyderduyn, Scott; Macdonald, William Kim; Marra, Marco; Jones, Steven J. M.; Kronstad, James W.

2002-01-01

80

Carbohydrate Storage in the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana  

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The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana was grown in 1% (wt/vol) gelatin-liquid media singly supplemented with a monosaccharide (glucose or fructose), a disaccharide (maltose or trehalose), a polyol (glycerol, mannitol, or sorbitol), or the amino sugar N-acetyl-d-glucosamine. The relative contributions of the carbohydrate, protein, and water contents in the fungal biomass were determined. Carbohydrates composed 18 to 42% of the mycelial dry weight, and this value was lowest in unsupple...

Bidochka, Michael J.; Low, Nicholas H.; Khachatourians, George G.

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Dimorphic mating-type chromosomes in the fungus Microbotryum violaceum.  

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Fungi often mate as haploids, and sex chromosomes (i.e., mating-type chromosomes) that are dimorphic for their size or overall DNA content have never been reported in this kingdom. Using electrophoretic techniques for karyotype analysis, a highly dimorphic chromosome pair that determines mating compatibility is shown to occur in populations of the fungus Microbotryum violaceum. This substantiates the evolution of such dimorphism as a general feature associated with haploid determination of ma...

Hood, Michael E.

2002-01-01

82

Oxalate Efflux Transporter from the Brown Rot Fungus Fomitopsis palustris? †  

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An oxalate-fermenting brown rot fungus, Fomitopsis palustris, secretes large amounts of oxalic acid during wood decay. Secretion of oxalic acid is indispensable for the degradation of wood cell walls, but almost nothing is known about the transport mechanism by which oxalic acid is secreted from F. palustris hyphal cells. We characterized the mechanism for oxalate transport using membrane vesicles of F. palustris. Oxalate transport in F. palustris was ATP dependent and was strongly inhibited ...

Watanabe, Tomoki; Shitan, Nobukazu; Suzuki, Shiro; Umezawa, Toshiaki; Shimada, Mikio; Yazaki, Kazufumi; Hattori, Takefumi

2010-01-01

83

Waterfowl: potential environmental reservoirs of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis  

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Infections with Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (B. dendrobatidis), the causal agent of chytridiomycosis, have been shown to play an important role in the decline of amphibians worldwide. Spread of the fungus is poorly understood. Bird movement might possibly contribute to the spread of B. dendrobatidis in the environment. Therefore, 397 wild geese in Belgium were screened for presence of B. dendrobatidis on their toes using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). In addition, chemotaxis towards, a...

Garmyn, An; Rooij, Pascale; Pasmans, Frank; Hellebuyck, Tom; Den Broeck, Wim; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Martel, An

2012-01-01

84

Lactic acid production from xylose by the fungus Rhizopus oryzae  

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Lignocellulosic biomass is considered nowadays to be an economically attractive carbohydrate feedstock for large-scale fermentation of bulk chemicals such as lactic acid. The filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae is able to grow in mineral medium with glucose as sole carbon source and to produce optically pure l(+)-lactic acid. Less is known about the conversion by R. oryzae of pentose sugars such as xylose, which is abundantly present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. This paper describes the co...

2006-01-01

85

Characterization of the pitch canker fungus, Fusarium circinatum, from Chile  

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Fusarium circinatum is the causal agent of the pine disease commonly referred to as pitch canker. During 2001, a Fusarium species was isolated from dying Pinus radiata clonal hedges in various forestry nurseries in Chile and was subsequently identified as F. circinatum. The aim of the study reported here was to provide a detailed characterization of Chilean isolates of the fungus. Morphological characters included microconidia carried on false heads and produced on polyphialides. Sterile coil...

Jacobs, Adriaana; Coutinho, Teresa A.; Wingfield, Michael J.; Ahumada, Rodrigo; Wingfield, Brenda D.

2007-01-01

86

Oxidative degradation of phenanthrene by the ligninolytic fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  

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The ligninolytic fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium oxidized phenanthrene and phenanthrene-9,10-quinone (PQ) at their C-9 and C-10 positions to give a ring-fission product, 2,2'-diphenic acid (DPA), which was identified in chromatographic and isotope dilution experiments. DPA formation from phenanthrene was somewhat greater in low-nitrogen (ligninolytic) cultures than in high-nitrogen (nonligninolytic) cultures and did not occur in uninoculated cultures. The oxidation of PQ to DPA involved bo...

Hammel, K. E.; Gai, W. Z.; Green, B.; Moen, M. A.

1992-01-01

87

Metabolism of phenanthrene by the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.  

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The white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus, grown for 11 days in basidiomycetes rich medium containing [14C] phenanthrene, metabolized 94% of the phenanthrene added. Of the total radioactivity, 3% was oxidized to CO2. Approximately 52% of phenanthrene was metabolized to trans-9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (phenanthrene trans-9,10-dihydrodiol) (28%), 2,2'-diphenic acid (17%), and unidentified metabolites (7%). Nonextractable metabolites accounted for 35% of the total radioactivity. The...

Bezalel, L.; Hadar, Y.; Fu, P. P.; Freeman, J. P.; Cerniglia, C. E.

1996-01-01

88

Transcriptional responses in Honey Bee larvae infected with chalkbrood fungus  

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Abstract Background Diseases and other stress factors working synergistically weaken honey bee health and may play a major role in the losses of bee populations in recent years. Among a large number of bee diseases, chalkbrood has been on the rise. We present here the experimental identification of honey bee genes that are differentially expressed in response to infection of honey bee larvae with the chalkbrood fungus, Ascosphaera apis. Results We used ...

Aronstein Katherine A; Murray Keith D; Saldivar Eduardo

2010-01-01

89

Heterologous expression of the CYP51 gene of the obligate fungus Blumeria graminis in the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea.  

Science.gov (United States)

As it is extremely difficult to make DNA transformation for the obligate fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), we developed a heterologous expression system for characterization of a Bgt gene, CYP51, which encodes 14?-demethylase. The CYP51 gene from Bgt was transformed into the necrotrophic fungus, Botrytis cinerea. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that the Bgt CYP51 was transcribed in B. cinerea. Green fluorescence was observed in the transformants of B. cinerea carrying the Bgt CYP51-GFP fusion cassette, suggesting that its translation was successful. Fungicide sensitivity tests revealed that B. cinerea transformed with Bgt CYP51 showed reduced sensitivity to a sterol demethylation inhibitor triadimefon, but not to a benzimidazole fungicide carbendazim. These results indicated that this heterologous expression system can be used for functional analysis of other Bgt genes. PMID:21895843

Yan, Lei-Yan; Chen, Yan-Feng; Yang, Qian-Qian; Ma, Zhong-Hua

2012-01-01

90

Host status of false brome grass to the leaf rust fungus Puccinia brachypodii and the stripe rust fungus P. Striiformis  

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Purple false brome grass (Brachypodium distachyon) has recently emerged as a model system for temperate grasses and is also a potential model plant to investigate plant interactions with economically important pathogens such as rust fungi. We determined the host status of five Brachypodium species to three isolates of Puccinia brachypodii, the prevalent rust species on Brachypodium sylvaticum in nature, and to one isolate each of three formae speciales of the stripe rust fungus P. striiformis...

Barbieri, M.; Marcel, T. C.; Niks, R. E.

2011-01-01

91

Degradation of Phenanthrene by a chilean white rot fungus Anthracophyllum discolor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Anthracophyllum discolor, a white rot fungus of southern Chile, has been an efficient degrader of clorophenols and azo dyes. This fungus produces ligninolytic enzymes being manganese peroxidase (Mn) the major one produced. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of phenanthrene concentration of ligninolytic activity of A. Discolor measured by poly R-478 decolorazation, and to evaluate the potential of this fungus for degrading phenanthrene in liquid media. (Author)

Acevedo, F.; Cuevas, R.; Rubilar, O.; Tortella, G.; Diez, M. C.

2009-07-01

92

Degradation of Phenanthrene by a chilean white rot fungus Anthracophyllum discolor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anthracophyllum discolor, a white rot fungus of southern Chile, has been an efficient degrader of clorophenols and azo dyes. This fungus produces ligninolytic enzymes being manganese peroxidase (Mn)) the major one produced. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of phenanthrene concentration of ligninolytic activity of A. Discolor measured by poly R-478 decolorazation, and to evaluate the potential of this fungus for degrading phenanthrene in liquid media. (Author)

2008-09-00

93

Isolated fungal promoters and gene transcription terminators and methods of protein and chemical production in a fungus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

Dai, Ziyu; Lasure, Linda L; Magnuson, Jon K

2014-05-27

94

Ultrastructural analysis of the behavior of the dimorphic fungus Microbotryum violaceum in fungus-induced anthers of female Silene latifolia flowers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of male organs is induced in female flowers of the dioecious plant Silene latifolia by infection with the fungus Microbotryum violaceum. Stamens in a healthy female flower grow only to stage 6, whereas those in an infected female flower develop to the mature stage (stage 12), at which the stamens are filled with fungal teliospores instead of pollen grains. To investigate these host-parasite interactions, young floral buds and fungus-induced anthers of infected female flowers were examined by electron microscopy following fixation by a high-pressure freezing method. Using this approach, we found that parasitic hyphae of this fungus contain several extracellular vesicles and have a consistent appearance up to stage 8. At that stage, parasitic hyphae are observed adjacent to dying sporogenous cells in the infected female anther. At stage 9, an increased number of dead and dying sporogenous cells is observed, among which the sporogenous hyphae of the fungus develop and form initial teliospores. Several types of electron-dense material are present in proximity to some fungi at this stage. The initial teliospores contain two types of vacuoles, and the fungus cell wall contains abundant carbohydrate, as revealed by silver protein staining. The sporogenous cell is probably sensitive to infection by the fungus, resulting in disruption. In addition, the fungus accelerates cell death in the anther and utilizes constituents of the dead host cell to form the mature teliospore. PMID:16333578

Uchida, Wakana; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Kawano, Shigeyuki

2005-12-01

95

Efficient gene targeting in the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata.  

Science.gov (United States)

To characterize homologous recombination of transforming DNA in the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata, we have compared the frequencies of gene targeting by circular and linear DNA fragments in the fungus. The A. alternata BRM1 gene, which is an essential gene for melanin biosynthesis, was selected as a target locus. BRM1 targeting events are easily identified because loss of function leads to a change in mycelial color from black to light brown. We constructed targeting vectors by inserting 0.6 to 3.1 kb internal BRM1 segments into a plasmid containing the hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene. When circular plasmids were used, melanin-deficient (Mel-) transformants accounted for 30 to 80% of hygromycin B-resistant (HyR) transformants, correlating closely with the size of the BRM1 segment in the transforming DNA. Restriction enzyme digestion within the BRM1 region greatly enhanced the frequency of gene targeting: integration of the linear plasmids was almost completely attributable to homologous recombination, regardless of the size of the BRM1 segments. Plasmids carrying both BRM1 segments and rDNA segments were transformed into the fungus to examine the effect of the number of target copies on homologous recombination. Using the circular plasmids, Mel- transformants accounted for only 5% of HyR transformants. In contrast, when the linear plasmid produced by restriction enzyme digestion within the BRM1 segment was used, almost all transformants were Mel-. These results indicate that homologous integration of circular molecules in A. alternata is sensitive to the length of homology and the number of targets, and that double-strand breaks in transforming DNA greatly enhance homologous recombination. PMID:7651337

Shiotani, H; Tsuge, T

1995-07-28

96

Directed evolution of a filamentous fungus for thermotolerance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Filamentous fungi are the most widely used eukaryotic biocatalysts in industrial and chemical applications. Consequently, there is tremendous interest in methodology that can use the power of genetics to develop strains with improved performance. For example, Metarhizium anisopliae is a broad host range entomopathogenic fungus currently under intensive investigation as a biologically based alternative to chemical pesticides. However, it use is limited by the relatively low tolerance of this species to abiotic stresses such as heat, with most strains displaying little to no growth between 35–37°C. In this study, we used a newly developed automated continuous culture method called the Evolugator™, which takes advantage of a natural selection-adaptation strategy, to select for thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae strain 2575 displaying robust growth at 37°C. Results Over a 4 month time course, 22 cycles of growth and dilution were used to select 2 thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae. Both variants displayed robust growth at 36.5°C, whereas only one was able to grow at 37°C. Insect bioassays using Melanoplus sanguinipes (grasshoppers were also performed to determine if thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae retained entomopathogenicity. Assays confirmed that thermotolerant variants were, indeed, entomopathogenic, albeit with complex alterations in virulence parameters such as lethal dose responses (LD50 and median survival times (ST50. Conclusion We report the experimental evolution of a filamentous fungus via the novel application of a powerful new continuous culture device. This is the first example of using continuous culture to select for complex phenotypes such as thermotolerance. Temperature adapted variants of the insect-pathogenic, filamentous fungus M. anisopliae were isolated and demonstrated to show vigorous growth at a temperature that is inhibitory for the parent strain. Insect virulence assays confirmed that pathogenicity can be retained during the selection process. In principle, this technology can be used to adapt filamentous fungi to virtually any environmental condition including abiotic stress and growth substrate utilization.

Lyons Thomas J

2009-08-01

97

Bioactive isocoumarins isolated from the endophytic fungus Microdochium bolleyi.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three new isocoumarin derivatives ( 2- 4) were isolated together with monocerin ( 1) from Microdochium bolleyi, an endophytic fungus from Fagonia cretica, a herbaceous plant of the semiarid coastal regions of Gomera. Compounds 2 and 3 are both 12-oxo epimers of 1, and 4 is a ring-opened derivative of 1. The structures were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis and comparison with reported data. The absolute configurations were determined by a modified Mosher's method. Compounds 1, 3, and 4 showed good antifungal, antibacterial, and antialgal activities against Microbotryum violaceum, Escherichia coli, Bacillus megaterium, and Chlorella fusca. Compound 2 was moderately antifungal and antialgal. PMID:18510362

Zhang, Wen; Krohn, Karsten; Draeger, Siegfried; Schulz, Barbara

2008-06-01

98

Nucleoside derivatives from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillusversicolor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four nucleoside derivatives (1-4) were isolated from the fungus Aspergillus versicolor derived from the gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea collected in the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic method of NMR and MS analysis. All isolated metabolites were evaluated for their cytotoxicity, antibacterial activity and lethality towards brine shrimp Artemia salina. Compounds 1/2 exhibited selective antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis with an MIC value of 12.5 ?M. It should be noted that 1 and 2, whose structures were listed in SciFinder Scholar, had no associated reference. This is the first report about their isolation, structure elucidation and biological activities. PMID:24670197

Chen, Min; Fu, Xiu-Mei; Kong, Chui-Jian; Wang, Chang-Yun

2014-01-01

99

Two new terpenoids from endophytic fungus Periconia sp. F-31.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new terpenoids, (+)-(3S,6S,7R,8S)-periconone A (1) and (-)-(1R,4R,6S,7S)-2-caren-4,8-olide (2), have been isolated from an endophytic fungus Periconia sp., which was collected from the plant Annona muricata. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. In the in vitro assays, the two compounds showed low cytotoxic activities against six human tumor cell lines (HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A549, A2780 and MCF-7) with IC(50)>10(-5) M. PMID:22130377

Ge, Han-Lin; Zhang, De-Wu; Li, Li; Xie, Dan; Zou, Jian-Hua; Si, Yi-Kang; Dai, Jungui

2011-01-01

100

Chaenothecopsis khayensis, a new resinicolous calicioid fungus on African mahogany.  

Science.gov (United States)

The new species Chaenothecopsis khayensis (Ascomycota, Mycocaliciaceae) is described from Ghana, western Africa, on the resin of Khaya anthotheca and K. ivorensis. The species is distinctive in forming asci without crosiers and in possessing ascospores that are faintly longitudinally striate. Analysis of large subunit rDNA gene sequences positioned this species within a clade corresponding to the Mycocaliciales and identified its closest relative as Sphinctrina leucopoda. Chaenothecopsis khayensis occurs commonly on resin exuding from trees damaged by the larvae of the mahogany shoot borer (Hypsipyla sp.), and we discuss the possible ecological relationship between the fungus and these moths. PMID:21471291

Tuovila, Hanna; Cobbinah, Joseph R; Rikkinen, Jouko

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Metabolism of p-Cresol by the Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus  

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The fungus Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 28282 was shown to grow on p-cresol as its sole source of carbon and energy. A pathway for metabolism of this compound was proposed. This has protocatechuate as the ring-fission substrate with cleavage and metabolism by an ortho-fission pathway. The protocatechuate was formed by two alternative routes, either by initial attack on the methyl group, which is oxidized to carboxyl, followed by ring-hydroxylation, or by ring-hydroxylation as the first step wit...

Jones, Kerina H.; Trudgill, Peter W.; Hopper, David J.

1993-01-01

102

Pitch canker fungus, Fusarium circinatum : implications for South African forestry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fusarium circinatum, the causal agent of pitch canker of mature pines and root/collar rot of pine seedlings/cuttings, has resulted in large-scale losses to pine forestry in various parts of the world. The disease caused by this fungus is now regarded as one of the most important threats to pine plantations by a pathogen. Fusarium circinatum was first discovered in South Africa in 1990 where it infected Pinus patula seedlings in a nursery. Subsequently, the pathogen spread to pine nur...

Mitchell, R. G.; Steenkamp, Emma Theodora; Coutinho, Teresa A.; Wingfield, Michael J.

2011-01-01

103

Arsenate resistant Penicillium coffeae: a potential fungus for soil bioremediation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioremediation is an effective method for the treatment of major metal contaminated sites. Fungi were isolated from soil samples collected from different arsenate contaminated areas across India. An isolate, Penicillium coffeae, exhibited resistance to arsenate up to 500 mM. Results indicated that pretreatment of biomass with alkali (NaOH) enhanced the percentage of adsorption to 66.8% as compared to that of live and untreated dead biomass whose adsorption was 22.9% and 60.2% respectively. The physiological parameters evaluated in this study may help pilot studies aimed at bioremediation of arsenate contaminated effluents using arsenate resistant fungus P. coffeae. PMID:24474468

Bhargavi, S D; Savitha, J

2014-03-01

104

Cytotoxic metabolites from the antarctic psychrophilic fungus Oidiodendron truncatum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new epipolythiodioxopiperazines, named chetracins B and C (1 and 2), and five new diketopiperazines, named chetracin D (4) and oidioperazines A-D (5, 10, 12, and 13), were isolated from the fungus Oidiodendron truncatum GW3-13, along with six known compounds (3, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 11). Their structures were elucidated by extensive NMR, MS, and CD analyses, as well as chemical transformation. An in vitro MTT cytotoxicity assay revealed potent biological activity for 1 in the nanomolar range against a panel of five human cancer lines. PMID:22583079

Li, Liyuan; Li, Dehai; Luan, Yepeng; Gu, Qianqun; Zhu, Tianjiao

2012-05-25

105

Cultivation of tea fungus on malt extract medium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The possibility of application of malt extract as a source of carbohydrate in a medium for tea fungus was investigated. The beverage obtained on such medium was compared with that prepared in a traditional way with sucrose medium. The presence of easily adoptable sugars, glucose and fructose, as dominant in malt medium results in a very effective fermentation, which gives much more sour beverage for the same time and makes it possible to reduce the fermentation period. The obtained beverage has satisfactory sensorial characteristics.

Cvetkovi? Dragoljub D.

2002-01-01

106

BIODEGRADATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHATETE CHRYSOSPORIUM: INVOLVEMENT OF THE LIGNIN DEGRADING SYSTEM  

Science.gov (United States)

The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade's wide variety of structurally diverse organic compounds, including a number of environmentall3 persistent organopollutants. he unique biodegradative abilities of this fungus appears to be dependent upon ...

107

BIODEGRADATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOPORIUM: INVOLVEMENT OF THE LIGNIN DEGRADING SYSTEM  

Science.gov (United States)

The white-rot fungus Phanrochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade a wide variety of structurally diverse organic compounds, including a number of environmentally persistent organopollutants. The unique biodegradative abilities of this fungus appears to be depend...

108

Structure and functions of the GNAT superfamily of acetyltransferases.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferases are an enormous superfamily of enzymes that are universally distributed in nature and that use acyl-CoAs to acylate their cognate substrates. In this review, we will examine those members of this superfamily that have been both structurally and mechanistically characterized. These include aminoglycoside N-acetyltransferases, serotonin N-acetyltransferase, glucosamine-6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase, the histone acetyltransferases, mycothiol synthase, protein N-myristoyltransferase, and the Fem family of amino acyl transferases. PMID:15581578

Vetting, Matthew W; S de Carvalho, Luiz Pedro; Yu, Michael; Hegde, Subray S; Magnet, Sophie; Roderick, Steven L; Blanchard, John S

2005-01-01

109

Factors affecting fungus-induced larval mortality in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background Entomopathogenic fungi have shown great potential for the control of adult malaria vectors. However, their ability to control aquatic stages of anopheline vectors remains largely unexplored. Therefore, how larval characteristics (Anopheles species, age and larval density), fungus (species and concentration) and environmental effects (exposure duration and food availability) influence larval mortality caused by fungus, was studied. Methods Laboratory bioassays were performed on the ...

Bukhari, S. T.; Middelman, A.; Koenraadt, C. J. M.; Takken, W.; Knols, B. G. J.

2010-01-01

110

Specificity in the symbiotic association between fungus-growing ants and protective Pseudonocardia bacteria  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fungus-growing ants (tribe Attini) engage in a mutualism with a fungus that serves as the ants' primary food source, but successful fungus cultivation is threatened by microfungal parasites (genus Escovopsis). Actinobacteria (genus Pseudonocardia) associate with most of the phylogenetic diversity of fungus-growing ants; are typically maintained on the cuticle of workers; and infection experiments, bioassay challenges and chemical analyses support a role of Pseudonocardia in defence against Escovopsis through antibiotic production. Here we generate a two-gene phylogeny for Pseudonocardia associated with 124 fungus-growing ant colonies, evaluate patterns of ant-Pseudonocardia specificity and test Pseudonocardia antibiotic activity towards Escovopsis. We show that Pseudonocardia associated with fungus-growing ants are not monophyletic: the ants have acquired free-living strains over the evolutionary history of the association. Nevertheless, our analysis reveals a significant pattern of specificity between cladesof Pseudonocardia and groups of related fungus-growing ants. Furthermore, antibiotic assays suggest that despite Escovopsis being generally susceptible to inhibition by diverse Actinobacteria, the ant-derived Pseudonocardia inhibit Escovopsis more strongly than they inhibit other fungi, and are better at inhibiting this pathogen than most environmental Pseudonocardia strains tested. Our findings support a model that many fungus-growing ants maintain specialized Pseudonocardia symbionts that help with garden defence.

Cafaro, Matías J; Poulsen, Michael

2011-01-01

111

Genome Sequence of the Mucoromycotina Fungus Umbelopsis isabellina, an Effective Producer of Lipids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Umbelopsis isabellina is a fungus in the subdivision Mucoromycotina, many members of which have been shown to be oleaginous and have become important organisms for producing oil because of their high level of intracellular lipid accumulation from various feedstocks. The genome sequence of U. isabellina NBRC 7884 was determined and annotated, and this information might provide insights into the oleaginous properties of this fungus.

Takeda, Itaru; Tamano, Koichi; Yamane, Noriko; Ishii, Tomoko; Miura, Ai; Umemura, Myco; Terai, Goro; Baker, Scott E.; Koike, Hideaki; Machida, Masayuki

2014-02-27

112

Interactions of polysporous cultures of antagonistic fungus Peneiphora gigantea (Fr.) Massee and some decay fungi of spruce from Stara planina  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the control of the fungus Heterobasidion annosum the most frequently applied method is stump treatment with biological preparations containing dehydrated spores of the saprophytic fungus Phlebiopsis gigantea (syn. Peniophora gigantea /Fr./ Massee). In the field, this fungus is a competitor to the fungus Heterobasidion annosum. This paper presents the results of laboratory analyses of interactions of decay fungi isolated from the root and butt of uprooted spruce trees in the Nature Park "St...

Lazarev Vladimir; Radulovi? Zlatan; Milanovi? Slobodan

2005-01-01

113

Interactions of polysporous cultures of antagonistic fungus Peneiphora gigantea (Fr.) Massee and some decay fungi of spruce from Stara planina  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the control of the fungus Heterobasidion annosum the most frequently applied method is stump treatment with biological preparations containing dehydrated spores of the saprophytic fungus Phlebiopsis gigantea (syn. Peniophora gigantea /Fr./ Massee). In the field, this fungus is a competitor to the fungus Heterobasidion annosum. This paper presents the results of laboratory analyses of interactions of decay fungi isolated from the root and butt of uprooted spruce trees in the Nature Park &am...

Lazarev Vladimir; Radulovi? Zlatan; Milanovi? Slobodan

2005-01-01

114

Interaction of Rhizobium sp. with Toxin-Producing Fungus in Culture Medium and in a Tropical Soil †  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Experiments were conducted to determine the influence of a toxin-producing fungus on a rhizobial population in yeast-mannitol medium and in a tropical soil. The fungus, which was isolated from a highly weathered soil (Tropeptic Eutrustox), was identified as a Metarhizum sp. The density of rhizobial populations established in yeast-mannitol medium in the absence of the fungus was 105 times higher than that established in its presence. However, the fungus did not exert similar antagonistic infl...

Habte, Mitiku; Barrion, Melinda

1984-01-01

115

Fungi of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.)-Their Deteriorative Ability, Quality Stability and the Role of the Fungus-Eating Insects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Studies on the deteriorative ability and quality stability of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) and the effect of the fungus-eating insects (Necrobia rufipes, Alphitobius diaperinus, Crematogaster sp. and Tenebrio molitor) were carried out in the Post Graduate Entomology and Plant Pathology Laboratories of the Department of Applied and Environmental Biology and also in Food Science Laboratory of the Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt....

2007-01-01

116

Cellulose degradation by Leucocoprinus gongylophorus, the fungus cultured by the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leucocoprinus gongylophorus, the fungus cultured by the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa, is able to degrade efficiently cellulose, microcrystaline cellulose, carboximethylcellulose, and cellobiose. Analysis of the degradation products indicate that the fungus produce extracellular beta-glucosidase, exo- and endo-glucanase. The importance of cellulose degradation to the association of fungus and ant is discussed. PMID:7574556

Bacci, M; Anversa, M M; Pagnocca, F C

1995-01-01

117

Accumulation and chemical states of radiocesium by fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Science.gov (United States)

After accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the fall-out radiocesium was deposited on the ground. Filamentous fungus is known to accumulate radiocesium in environment, even though many minerals are involved in soil. These facts suggest that fungus affect the migration behavior of radiocesium in the environment. However, accumulation mechanism of radiocesium by fungus is not understood. In the present study, accumulation and chemical states change of Cs by unicellular fungus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been studied to elucidate the role of microorganisms in the migration of radiocesium in the environment. Two different experimental conditions were employed; one is the accumulation experiments of radiocesium by S. cerevisiae from the agar medium containing 137Cs and a mineral of zeolite, vermiculite, smectite, mica, or illite. The other is the experiments using stable cesium to examine the chemical states change of Cs. In the former experiment, the cells were grown on membrane filter of 0.45 ?m installed on the agar medium. After the grown cells were weighed, radioactivity in the cells was measured by an autoradiography technique. The mineral weight contents were changed from 0.1% to 1% of the medium. In the latter experiment, the cells were grown in the medium containing stable Cs between 1 mM and 10mM. The Cs accumulated cells were analyzed by SEM-EDS and EXAFS. The adsorption experiments of cesium by the cells under resting condition were also conducted to test the effect of cells metabolic activity. Without mineral in the medium, cells of S. cerevisiae accumulated 1.5x103 Bq/g from the medium containing 137Cs of 2.6x102 Bq/g. When mineral was added in the medium, concentration of 137Cs in the cells decreased. The concentration of 137Cs in the cells from the medium containing different minerals were in the following order; smectite, illite, mica > vermiculite > zeolite. This order was nearly the same as the inverse of distribution coefficient of mineral for 137Cs in the medium solution. The concentration of 137Cs in the cells lowered in the medium containing higher mineral content. These results indicate that radiocesium was competively accumulated in the cells with minerals in the soil. Higher concentration of stable Cs was accumulated in the cells in the metabolically active condition than in the resting cells condition. XAFS analyses showed that the k3-weighted extended-XAFS functions and the radial structural function of Cs accumulated by the cells in the metabolically active condition were similar to those in the resting condition, indicating that chemical states of the accumulated Cs were nearly the same between both conditions. These results indicate that the fungus accumulates radiocesium by competitively with minerals in the soils, and performs higher retardation of the migration of Cs in the metabolically active condition than the resting one. A part of this study is the results of "Multidisciplinary investigation on radiocesium fate and transport for safety assessment for interim storage and disposal of heterogeneous waste" carried out under the Initiatives for Atomic Energy Basic and Generic Strategic Research by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.

Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Yamasaki, Shinya; Yu, Qianqian

2014-05-01

118

Interactions of polysporous cultures of antagonistic fungus Peneiphora gigantea (Fr. Massee and some decay fungi of spruce from Stara planina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the control of the fungus Heterobasidion annosum the most frequently applied method is stump treatment with biological preparations containing dehydrated spores of the saprophytic fungus Phlebiopsis gigantea (syn. Peniophora gigantea /Fr./ Massee. In the field, this fungus is a competitor to the fungus Heterobasidion annosum. This paper presents the results of laboratory analyses of interactions of decay fungi isolated from the root and butt of uprooted spruce trees in the Nature Park "Stara Planina", and their relation to the fungus Ph. gigantea. The interactions of these fungi were analyzed at the temperatures of 20°C, 25°C and 30°C.

Lazarev Vladimir

2005-01-01

119

Reproduction without sex: conidiation in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trichoderma spp. have served as models for asexual reproduction in filamentous fungi for over 50 years. Physical stimuli, such as light exposure and mechanical injury to the mycelium, trigger conidiation; however, conidiogenesis itself is a holistic response determined by the cell's metabolic state, as influenced by the environment and endogenous biological rhythms. Key environmental parameters are the carbon and nitrogen status and the C?:?N ratio, the ambient pH and the level of calcium ions. Recent advances in our understanding of the molecular biology of this fungus have revealed a conserved mechanism of environmental perception through the White Collar orthologues BLR-1 and BLR-2. Also implicated in the molecular regulation are the PacC pathways and the conidial regulator VELVET. Signal transduction cascades which link environmental signals to physiological outputs have also been revealed. PMID:20688823

Steyaert, Johanna M; Weld, Richard J; Mendoza-Mendoza, Artemio; Stewart, Alison

2010-10-01

120

Polyketides from the Halotolerant Fungus Myrothecium sp. GS-17  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two new polyketides, myrothecol (1 and 5-hydroxy-3-methyl-4-(1- hydroxylethyl-furan-2(5H-one (2, were isolated from the fermentation broth of the halotolerant fungus Myrothecium sp. GS-17 along with three known compounds, 5-hydroxyl-3-[(1S-1-hydroxyethyl]-4-methylfuran-2(5H-one (3, 3,5-dimethyl-4- hydroxylmethyl-5-methoxyfuran-2(5H-one (4, and 3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxymethyl-5- hydroxyfuran-2(5H-one (5. Compound 1 is the first natural occurring polyketide with a unique furylisobenzofuran skeleton. The structures of these compounds were established via extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D-, 2D-NMR, HRESI-MS, and crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.

Tao Liu

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
121

Photostabilization of an entomopathogenic fungus using composite clay matrices.  

Science.gov (United States)

To provide photostabilization for entomopathogenic fungi by anionic dyes, composite matrices based on clay-biopolymer combinations were prepared. In the first step, the negative surface charge of various clays (montmorillonite, attapulgite, bentonite and kaolinite) was reversed to positive by adsorption to the polycationic biopolymer chitosan. The second step involved adsorption of the toxicologically safe anionic dyes fast green (FG) and naphthol yellow S (NYS) to the clay complexes. Compared with cytotoxic photoprotectants like berberine, palmatine and acriflavine, the anionic dyes have no adverse effects up to a concentration of 1 M. In assays using various clay-chitosan-dye matrices and UV irradiation from a lamp source, it was evident that both FG and NYS provided considerable photostabilization for conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Aschersonia spp. that served as a model biocontrol agent. Apparently, because of the light-dispersing property, bentonite and attapulgite per se provided significant photoprotection. All clay matrices containing FG provided a substantial photostabilization effect. PMID:12785057

Cohen, Ephraim; Joseph, Tammar; Kahana, Frigita; Magdassi, Shlomo

2003-02-01

122

Autofluorescence of the fruiting body of the fungus Macrolepiota rhacodes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The autofluorescence (primary fluorescence, AF) of the freshly collected fruiting bodies of the fungus Macrolepiota rhacodes was studied in a Zeiss Jenalumar fluorescence microscope at a blue and a green excitation. The strongest yellow AF at blue excitation was displayed by irregular granules on the surface of the fungal pileus. A weaker yellow-green AF was exhibited by spherical cells and hyphae in the central part of the pileus while basidiospores emitted somewhat stronger AF. At green excitation, a considerable red AF was emitted only by basidiospores, other parts of the pileus showing a very weak red AF. M. rhacodes AF is much weaker than the AF of wood-rotting fungi, such as Fomes fomentarius, Daedalea quercina, Piptoporus betulinus, Fomitopsis pinicola and others. PMID:19381481

Zizka, Z; Gabriel, J

2008-01-01

123

[Chitinolytic activity of Bacillus Cohn.--phytopathogenic fungus antagonist].  

Science.gov (United States)

Among the 70 tested Bacillus spp. strains antagonistic to phytopathogenic fungi, 19 were found to possess chitinolytic activity when grown on solid media with 0.5% colloidal chitin. The chitinolytic activity of almost all of these 19 strains grown in liquid cultures ranged from 0.1 to 0.3 U/ml. One of the 19 strains exhibited exochitinase activity. In addition to chitinase, two strains also produced chitosanase and one strain, beta-1,3-glucanase. No correlation was found between the antifungal activity of the bacillar strains studied and their ability to synthesize extracellular chitinase. Among the 19 chitinolytic strains, the correlation between these parameters was also low (r x,y = 0.45), although the enzymatic preparations of most of these strains inhibited the growth of the phytopathogenic fungus Helminthosporium sativum. PMID:12901010

Aktuganov, G E; Melent'ev, A I; Kuz'mina, L Iu; Galimzianova, N F; Shirokov, A V

2003-01-01

124

Dimorphic mating-type chromosomes in the fungus Microbotryum violaceum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungi often mate as haploids, and sex chromosomes (i.e., mating-type chromosomes) that are dimorphic for their size or overall DNA content have never been reported in this kingdom. Using electrophoretic techniques for karyotype analysis, a highly dimorphic chromosome pair that determines mating compatibility is shown to occur in populations of the fungus Microbotryum violaceum. This substantiates the evolution of such dimorphism as a general feature associated with haploid determination of mating compatibility, which previously had been known only in haplodioecious plants (mosses and liverworts). Size-dimorphic sex chromosomes are present in a lineage of M. violaceum native to Europe, as well as a lineage native to North America. However, they are very different in size between these lineages, indicating either independent evolution of the dimorphism or a large degree of divergence since their isolation. Several DNA sequences that show sequence similarity to transposons were isolated from these sex chromosomes. PMID:11861552

Hood, Michael E

2002-02-01

125

Two new compounds from gorgonian-associated fungus Aspergillus sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

One new gamma-lactone derivative 5-hydroxy-3-isopropyl-4-methoxyfuranone (1) and one new lactam derivative dehydrated-marinamide (2), along with two known compounds marinamide (3) and marinamide methyl ester (4) were isolated from the fermentation broth of the marine gorgonian-associated fungus Aspergillus sp. SCSGAF0093. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and spectrometric analysis. Compound 1 showed significant toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina) with a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 1.25 microM, and 3 inhibited protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 23.3 microg/mL. PMID:24079168

Xu, Xin-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Yong; He, Fei; Peng, Jiang; Nong, Xu-Hua; Qi, Shu-Hua

2013-08-01

126

Biosorption of cadmium using the fungus Aspergillus niger  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sorption experiments using the Aspergillus niger fungus for cadmium removal were carried out to study the factors influencing and optimizing the biosorption of this metal. The effects of pH, time, biomass concentration, and initial concentration of the heavy metal on the rate of metallic biosorption were examined. An experimental design was also used to determine the values of the under study variables that provided the greatest biosorption efficiency. A technique for biomass recovery was also developed with the objective of determining the capacity of the regenerated biomass to biosorb the metals in solution. This research proved that with a pH of 4.75, a biomass concentration of 0.7 g/L, and a heavy metal concentration varying between 5 and 10 mg/L a biosorption process of biosorption with Aspergillus niger could be successfully used for heavy metal removal from oil field water in the oil industry.

L.M. Barros Júnior

2003-09-01

127

Garden sharing and garden stealing in fungus-growing ants  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungi cultivated by fungus-growing ants (Attini: Formicidae) are passed on between generations by transfer from maternal to offspring nest (vertical transmission within ant species). However, recent phylogenetic analyses revealed that cultivars are occasionally also transferred between attine species. The reasons for such lateral cultivar transfers are unknown. To investigate whether garden loss may induce ants to obtain a replacement cultivar from a neighboring colony (lateral cultivar transfer), pairs of queenright colonies of two Cyphomyrmex species were set up in two conjoined chambers; the garden of one colony was then removed to simulate the total crop loss that occurs naturally when pathogens devastate gardens. Garden-deprived colonies regained cultivars through one of three mechanisms: joining of a neighboring colony and cooperation in a common garden; stealing of a neighbor's garden; or aggressive usurpation of a neighbor's garden. Because pathogens frequently devastate attine gardens under natural conditions, garden joining, stealing and usurpation emerge as critical behavioral adaptations to survive garden catastrophes.

Adams, Rachelle M. M.; Mueller, U. G.; Holloway, Alisha K.; Green, Abigail M.; Narozniak, Joanie

128

Biomedical exploitation of the fungus-growing ant symbiosis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There is a constant need for discovering novel sources of compounds with antimicrobial properties, and recent studies support that symbiotic associations involving chemically mediated interactions may be a prominent source of novel compound discovery. Here I review a particularly promising natural system involving such interactions, the multipartite fungus-growing ant symbiosis. This includes a review of the ancient symbiosis involving intricate interactions between at least six symbionts, a review of the efforts that have been made in examining host-symbiont and symbiont-symbiont interactions, as well as the efforts made in identifying and characterizing chemical compounds mediating these interactions. Finally, I outline the prospects for future natural product discoveries from the system, touching on how advances in chemical analyses and whole-genome sequencing techniques will facilitate the process of natural product discovery of biomedical interest.

Poulsen, Michael

2010-01-01

129

Glycolipids of the filamentous fungus Absidia corymbifera F-295.  

Science.gov (United States)

The lipids extracted with CHCl(3)/MeOH mixtures from mycelium of the lower filamentous fungus Absidia corymbifera F-295 were found to contain three glycolipids. Based on the IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectra, plasma-desorption ionisation (PDI) mass spectra as well as chemical degradation results, the glycolipids were established to be 1-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-2-N-(2'-D-hydroxyhexadecanoyl)-9-methylsphinga-4(E),8(E)-dienine (glucosyl ceramide) and 2-O-(6'-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-beta-D-galactopyranosides of 2-D-hydroxy and erythro-2,3-dihydroxy fatty acids C(9), C(11), and C(13). They accounted for about 3.4, 0.8, and 0.4%, respectively, of the total lipids extracted. No lipids identical to the above monohydroxy and dihydroxy fatty acid glycosides have been reported. PMID:12691848

Batrakov, S G; Konova, I V; Sheichenko, V I; Galanina, L A

2003-04-01

130

The invasive chytrid fungus of amphibians paralyzes lymphocyte responses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, causes chytridiomycosis and is a major contributor to global amphibian declines. Although amphibians have robust immune defenses, clearance of this pathogen is impaired. Because inhibition of host immunity is a common survival strategy of pathogenic fungi, we hypothesized that B. dendrobatidis evades clearance by inhibiting immune functions. We found that B. dendrobatidis cells and supernatants impaired lymphocyte proliferation and induced apoptosis; however, fungal recognition and phagocytosis by macrophages and neutrophils was not impaired. Fungal inhibitory factors were resistant to heat, acid, and protease. Their production was absent in zoospores and reduced by nikkomycin Z, suggesting that they may be components of the cell wall. Evasion of host immunity may explain why this pathogen has devastated amphibian populations worldwide. PMID:24136969

Fites, J Scott; Ramsey, Jeremy P; Holden, Whitney M; Collier, Sarah P; Sutherland, Danica M; Reinert, Laura K; Gayek, A Sophia; Dermody, Terence S; Aune, Thomas M; Oswald-Richter, Kyra; Rollins-Smith, Louise A

2013-10-18

131

Ring B aromatic steroids from an endophytic fungus, Colletotrichum sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

The new (22E,24R)-3-acetoxy-19(10-->6)-abeo-ergosta-5,7,9,22-tetraen-3beta-ol (1) and the known (22E,24R)-19(10-->6)-abeo-ergosta-5,7,9,22-tetraen-3beta-ol (2), two interesting ergosteroids with rare aromatized ring B, together with seven known derivatives, namely (22E,24R)-ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3beta-ol (3), (22E,24R)-ergosta-4,7,22-trien-3-one (4), (22E,24R)-ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (5), (22E,24R)-5alpha,8alpha-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3beta-ol (6), (22E,24R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-3beta,5alpha,6beta-triol (7), (22E,24R)-6-acetoxy-ergosta-7,22-dien-3beta,5alpha,6beta-triol (8), and (22E,24R)-3,6-diacetoxy-ergosta-7,22-dien-3beta,5alpha,6beta-triol (9), were isolated from Colletotrichum sp., an endophytic fungus isolated from Ilex canariensis from Gomera. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis, comparison with reported data, and chemical interconversion. The isolation of these metabolites not only displays a beautiful array of chemical diversity, but also gives insight into the biosynthetic interconnections. Preliminary studies showed antimicrobial activity of these compounds against the fungus Microbotryum violaceum, the alga Chlorella fusca, and the bacteria Escherichia coli and Bacillus megaterium. PMID:19967971

Zhang, Wen; Draeger, Siegfried; Schulz, Barbara; Krohn, Karsten

2009-11-01

132

Modulation of antimicrobial metabolites production by the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Biosynthesis of active secondary metabolites by fungi occurs as a specific response to the different growing environments. Changes in this environment alter the chemical and biological profiles leading to metabolites diversification and consequently to novel pharmacological applications. In this wor [...] k, it was studied the influence of three parameters (fermentation length, medium composition and aeration) in the biosyntheses of antimicrobial metabolites by the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus in 10 distinct fermentation periods. Metabolism modulation in two culturing media, CYA and YES was evaluated by a 2² full factorial planning (ANOVA) and on a 2³ factorial planning, role of aeration, medium composition and carbohydrate concentration were also evaluated. In overall, 120 different extracts were prepared, their HPLC profiles were obtained and the antimicrobial activity against A. flavus, C. albicans, E. coli and S. aureus of all extracts was evaluated by microdilution bioassay. Yield of kojic acid, a fine chemical produced by the fungus A. parasiticus was determined in all extracts. Statistical analyses pointed thirteen conditions able to modulate the production of bioactive metabolites by A. parasiticus. Effect of carbon source in metabolites diversification was significant as shown by the changes in the HPLC profiles of the extracts. Most of the extracts presented inhibition rates higher than that of kojic acid as for the extract obtained after 6 days of fermentation in YES medium under stirring. Kojic acid was not the only metabolite responsible for the activity since some highly active extracts showed to possess low amounts of this compound, as determined by HPLC.

Adriana A.P., Bracarense; Jacqueline A., Takahashi.

133

Chemically armed mercenary ants protect fungus-farming societies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ants are extraordinary in having evolved many lineages that exploit closely related ant societies as social parasites, but social parasitism by distantly related ants is rare. Here we document the interaction dynamics among a Sericomyrmex fungus-growing ant host, a permanently associated parasitic guest ant of the genus Megalomyrmex, and a raiding agro-predator of the genus Gnamptogenys. We show experimentally that the guest ants protect their host colonies against agro-predator raids using alkaloid venom that is much more potent than the biting defenses of the host ants. Relatively few guest ants are sufficient to kill raiders that invariably exterminate host nests without a cohabiting guest ant colony. We also show that the odor of guest ants discourages raider scouts from recruiting nestmates to host colonies. Our results imply that Sericomyrmex fungus-growers obtain a net benefit from their costly guest ants behaving as a functional soldier caste to meet lethal threats from agro-predator raiders. The fundamentally different life histories of the agro-predators and guest ants appear to facilitate their coexistence in a negative frequency-dependent manner. Because a guest ant colony is committed for life to a single host colony, the guests would harm their own interests by not defending the host that they continue to exploit. This conditional mutualism is analogous to chronic sickle cell anemia enhancing the resistance to malaria and to episodes in human history when mercenary city defenders offered either net benefits or imposed net costs, depending on the level of threat from invading armies. PMID:24019482

Adams, Rachelle M M; Liberti, Joanito; Illum, Anders A; Jones, Tappey H; Nash, David R; Boomsma, Jacobus J

2013-09-24

134

Chemically armed mercenary ants protect fungus-farming societies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The ants are extraordinary in having evolved many lineages that exploit closely related ant societies as social parasites, but social parasitism by distantly related ants is rare. Here we document the interaction dynamics among a Sericomyrmex fungus-growing ant host, a permanently associated parasitic guest ant of the genus Megalomyrmex, and a raiding agro-predator of the genus Gnamptogenys. We show experimentally that the guest ants protect their host colonies against agro-predator raids using alkaloid venom that is much more potent than the biting defenses of the host ants. Relatively few guest ants are sufficient to kill raiders that invariably exterminate host nests without a cohabiting guest ant colony. We also show that the odor of guest ants discourages raider scouts from recruiting nestmates to host colonies. Our results imply that Sericomyrmex fungus-growers obtain a net benefit from their costly guest ants behaving as a functional soldier caste to meet lethal threats from agro-predator raiders. The fundamentally different life histories of the agro-predators and guest ants appear to facilitate their coexistence in a negative frequency-dependent manner. Because a guest ant colony is committed for life to a single host colony, the guests would harm their own interests by not defending the host that they continue to exploit. This conditional mutualism is analogous to chronic sickle cell anemia enhancing the resistance to malaria and to episodes in human history when mercenary city defenders offered either net benefits or imposed net costs, depending on the level of threat from invading armies.

Adams, Rachelle Martha Marie; Liberti, Joanito

2013-01-01

135

Reaction of some soybean mutant lines to natural rust fungus caused by (phakopsora pachyrhizi SYD)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reaction of some soybean mutant lines to natural rust fungus caused by (Phakopsora pachyrhizi SYD). Eleven soybean mutant lines of orba variety derived from gamma fungus disease in the wet season 1985/86 at the experimental station of Citayam, Bogor. Based on IWGSR rating system, soybean mutant lines No 18/Psj was moderately resistant to rust fungus disease. The other mutant lines, 14/PsJ, 15/PsJ, 19/PsJ, 20/PsJ, 106/PsJ, 102/PsJ, 111/PsJ, 118/PsJ, 119/PsJ and 220/PsJ were susceptible. (author). 11 refs

1988-01-01

136

Reaction of some soybean mutant lines to natural rust fungus caused by (phakopsora pachyrhizi syd)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reaction of some soybean mutant lines to natural rust fungus caused by (phakopsora pachyhizi syd). Eleven soybean mutant lines of orba variety derived from gamma fungus disease in the wet season 1985/86 at the experimental station of Citayam, Bogor. Based on IWGSR rating system, soybean mutant lines No 18/PsJ was moderately resistant to rust fungus disease. The other mutant lines, 14/PsJ, 15/PsJ, 20/PsJ, 102/PsJ, 106/PsJ, 111/PsJ, 118/PsJ, 119/PsJ and 220/PsJ were susceptible. (author). 4 figs.; 8 refs

1988-01-01

137

Infection of adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study describes a laboratory investigation on the use of the insect-pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. At a dosage of 1.6 × 1010 conidia/m2, applied on material that served as a mosquito resting site, an average of 87.1 ± 2.65% of Ae. aegypti and 89.3 ± 2.2% of Ae. albopictus became infected with the fungus. The life span of fungus-contaminated mosquitoes of both species was significantly reduced compared to uninfected m...

Scholte, E. J.; Takken, W.; Knols, B. G. J.

2007-01-01

138

Cladosporium sp. , a potential fungus for bioremediation of wood-treating wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fungus, Cladosporium sp., was isolated from a very old wood-treating plant sludge pond in Weed, California. A preliminary study showed no inhibition of mycelial growth at 5,500 {mu}g polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) per ml of potato dextrose agar (PDA). Pentachlorophenol (PCP) inhibited mycelial growth at 10 {mu}g/ml of PDA. Rates of breakdown of both PAHs and PCP in the soil and water system were studied using this fungus. The results of this study and the application of this fungus for cleaning up contaminated sites will be discussed.

Borazjani, H.; Ferguson, B.; Hendrix, F.; McFarland, L.; McGinnis, G.; Pope, D.; Strobel, D.; Wagner, J. (Mississippi Forest Products Utilization Lab., Mississippi State (USA))

1989-01-01

139

Degradation of Chlorbromuron and Related Compounds by the Fungus Rhizoctonia solani1  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of the soil fungus Rhizoctonia solani to degrade phenyl-substituted urea herbicides was investigated. The fungus was able to transform chlorbromuron [3-(3-chloro-4-bromophenyl)-1-methyl-1-methoxyurea] to the demethylated product [3-(3-chloro-4-bromophenyl)-1-methoxyurea], which was isolated and identified. Evidence was obtained that further degradation of chlorbromuron occurred. Several other phenylurea compounds (chloroxuron, diuron, fenuron, fluometuron, linuron, metobromuron, neburon, and siduron) were also metabolized by the fungus, indicating that R. solani may possess a generalized ability to attack this group of herbicides. Images

Weinberger, Martin; Bollag, Jean-Marc

1972-01-01

140

The response of the grape berry moth (Lobesia botrana) to a dietary phytopathogenic fungus (Botrytis cinerea): the significance of fungus sterols.  

Science.gov (United States)

A Tortricidae (Lobesia botrana) has a mutualistic relationship with the fungus (Botrytis cinerea). In this study, we investigated the growth, survival, fecundity and amount of sterols and steroids in larvae of this vineyard pest reared on artificial diets containing mycelium (3%) or purified sterols (0.01%) of the phytopathogenic fungus. Two principal questions related to the physiological and biochemical basis of this mutualistic relationship were addressed: (1) how the fungus influences growth, survival, fecundity, sterol and steroid contents of the insect and (2) are fungal sterols involved in the biochemical basis of mutualism? The presence of fungus in the diet led to a decrease of total duration of larval development (mean gain 5.1-9.4 days compared to the total duration in control of 42.9 days), an increase in survival (mean gain 50-76.3%) and fecundity (gain of 94-102%). These positive effects of the fungus on the biology and physiology of the insect were directly correlated to the presence of fungal sterols in the diet. Fungal sterols are one of the biochemical basis of the mutualistic relationship between L. botrana and B. cinerea. PMID:10980301

Mondy; Corio-Costet

2000-12-01

 
 
 
 
141

Interaction between the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans and infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloidea).  

Science.gov (United States)

The interaction between Duddingtonia flagrans and infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus was studied in vitro under optical and scanning electron microscopy. Trap formation by the fungus started 9 hours after inoculation and first larvae were found 11 hours after larval inoculation on colonies grown on the surface of dialysis membranes. Scanning electron micrographs were taken 12, 24, 36 and 48 h after larval predation. Details of predation structures and fungus-larvae interaction are described. A mucilaginous substance occurred at the points of adherence of traps to nematode cuticle. Bacteria were also found at some points of interaction between fungus and larval cuticle. Cuticle penetration by fungus hyphae occurred only 48 h after predation. PMID:18620628

Campos, A K; Araújo, J V; Guimarães, M P

2008-12-01

142

Molecular Mechanisms of Glucose Repression in the Filamentous Fungus 'Trichoderma reesei'.  

Science.gov (United States)

The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is one of the best studied cellulolytic organisms. It is also an industrially important producer of cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes. In this work carbon source regulation of cellulase and hemicellulase g...

M. Ilmen

1997-01-01

143

Persistence of the entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium muscarium Zare & Gams under ambient conditions in the field.  

Science.gov (United States)

Positive results of laboratory trials, which proofed the effectiveness of the entomopathogenic fungus L. muscarium against endophytic larvae of the horse chestnut leafminer moth Cameraria ohridella DESCHKA et DIMIC, led to outdoor trials. One aspect of these trials was to determine the persistence of the fungus, which was used as commercial product Mycotal (Koppert, NL) and as strain V24 from the section Phytomedicine. In different variants several spore concentrations and the influence of an oil-containing adjuvant (Koppert, NL) were tested. The persistence of the fungus was determined through the number of colony forming units (cfu) after impressing the leaves on agar plates. The fungus could be detected until 14 days past application (dpa), with differences between the variants, despite most unfavourable weather conditions, like above-average of temperature and hours with sunshine as well as low humidity and heavy rainfall. In all variants were found dead and moulding larvae within the mines. PMID:20222590

Lerche, Sandra; Sermann, Helga; Büttner, Carmen

2009-01-01

144

Modelling the Hyphal Growth of the Wood-decay Fungus Physisporinus vitreus  

CERN Document Server

The white-rot fungus, Physisporinus vitreus, degrades the membranes of bordered pits in tracheids and consequently increases the permeability of wood, which is a process that can be used by the wood industry to improve the uptake of wood preservatives and environmentally benign wood modification substances to enhance the use and sustainability of native conifer wood species. To understand and apply this process requires an understanding of how a complex system (fungus-wood) interacts under defined conditions. We present a three-dimensional fungal growth model (FGM) of the hyphal growth of P. vitreus in the heartwood of Norway spruce. The model considers hyphae and nutrients as discrete structures and links the microscopic interactions between fungus and wood (e.g. degradation rate and degree of opening of pits) with macroscopic system properties, such penetration depth of the fungus, biomass and distribution of destroyed pits in early- and latewood. Simulations were compared with experimental data. The growth...

Fuhr, M J; Schwarze, F W M R; Herrmann, H J

2011-01-01

145

Benomyl Tolerant Strains of the Fungus 'Verticillium lecanii' and Methods of Use for Biocontrol.  

Science.gov (United States)

Verticillium lecanii, an entomopathogenic fungus additionally known as a nematode antagonist, has been used as a biocontrol agent in insect management. Field application of fungicides used to control pathogenic fungi also inhibit beneficial fungi such as ...

S. Meyer

1990-01-01

146

Biodegradation of hazardous waste using white rot fungus: Project planning and concept development document  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been shown to effectively degrade pollutants such as trichlorophenol, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and other halogenated aromatic compounds. These refractory organic compounds and many others have been identified in the tank waste, groundwater and soil of various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The treatment of these refractory organic compounds has been identified as a high priority for DOE's Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) waste treatment programs. Unlike many bacteria, the white rot fungus P. chrysosporium is capable of degrading these types of refractory organics and may be valuable for the treatment of wastes containing multiple pollutants. The objectives of this project are to identify DOE waste problems amenable to white rot fungus treatment and to develop and demonstrate white rot fungus treatment process for these hazardous organic compounds. 32 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

1990-01-01

147

[The influence of cultural medium composition on the proteolytic enzyme secretion of fungus Rhizoctonia solani].  

Science.gov (United States)

It was shown that change of medium growth composition of photopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, especially accessible sources of nutrition, leads to change of both quantity of produced proteinases and their action specificity. The mineral source of nitrogen suppressed the fungus proteinase secretion on cultivation medium containing potato thermostable proteins but an organic source of nitrogen accelerated mycelium growth and increased proteinase secretion. On the basis of an analysis of a fungus extracellular proteinase substrate-specificity, it is established that the presence of thermostable proteins of a potato in the cultural liquid induces the secretion of trypsin-like proteinases mainly, and the addition of yeast extract to this growth medium induces the secretion of subtilisin-like ones, thus suppressing the trypsin-like enzymes production. This fact can indicate that mycelium of fungus R. solani loses pathogenic properties and becomes saprophytes when the growth medium was enriched by an organic source of nitrogen. PMID:20586290

Kudriavtseva, N N; Gvozdeva, E L; Sof'in, A V; Valueva, T A

2010-01-01

148

Elevated temperature clears chytrid fungus infections from tadpoles of the midwife toad, Alytes obstetricans  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is sensitive to high temperature. Hence, exposing amphibians to high temperature may be a method to clear Bd infection. However, the effect of exposure to elevated

Geiger, C. C.; Ku?pfer, E.; Scha?r, S.; Wolf, S.; Schmidt, B. R.

2011-01-01

149

Process for Producing Ethanol from Plant Biomass Using the Fungus Paecilomyces SP.  

Science.gov (United States)

A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces which has the ability...

J. F. Wu

1985-01-01

150

Biochemical Investigations of the Host-Parasite Relationship of Mosquitos and the Parasite Fungus 'Lagenidium sp'.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mosquito parasite Lagenidium giganteum was found to possess no detectable sterols, and the organism grew as a saprobe. The fungus took up phytosterols, such as beta-sitosterol, campesterol, ergosterol and desmosterol and these substances were found to...

A. J. Domnas

1975-01-01

151

There Is No Structural Relationship between Nasal Septal Deviation, Concha Bullosa, and Paranasal Sinus Fungus Balls  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aims to determine the relationship between nasal septal deviation, concha bullosa, and chronic rhinosinusitis by using a definitive pathological and simplified model. Fifty-two consecutive sinus computed tomography scans were performed on patients who received endoscopic sinus surgery and whose final diagnosis was paranasal sinus fungus balls. The incidences of nasal septal deviation and concha bullosa for patients diagnosed with paranasal sinus fungus balls among the study group w...

Tsai, Tung-lung; Lan, Ming-ying; Ho, Ching-yin

2012-01-01

152

Fungus ball in concha bullosa: an unusual cause of retro-orbital pain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungus ball in the concha bullosa is an extremely rare disease. We described a case of the fungus ball in the concha bullosa in a 22-year-old woman. Preoperative diagnosis was based on nasal endoscopy and computed tomography scanning. The patient was endoscopically operated on. The examination of the removed material was reported as fungal infection. This case was found worth writing because of the location of the concha bullosa and its rare occurrence in this location. PMID:24621753

Toplu, Yuksel; Toplu, Sibel A; Can, Sermin; Kuzucu, Cigdem

2014-03-01

153

What's in a name? Aschersonia insperata: a new pleoanamorphic fungus with characteristics of Aschersonia and Hirsutella.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new anamorphic species from a Philippine tropical forest occurs as reddish-orange to orange, tuberculate stromata on unidentified homopteran larvae, and produces both Aschersonia and Hirsutella-like synanamorphs. A molecular phylogenetic analysis was conducted to determine the most appropriate generic placement for this fungus. Based on its phylogenetic relationships, a comparison of the complexity and persistence of each anamorph, and the speculated relevance of each synanamorph to survival, we describe the new fungus as Aschersonia insperata sp. nov. PMID:16389976

Liu, Miao; Rombach, Michiel C; Humber, Richard A; Hodge, Kathie T

2005-01-01

154

Differential Adhesion and Infection of Nematodes by the Endoparasitic Fungus Meria coniospora (Deuteromycetes)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The conidia of the endoparasitic fungus Meria coniospora (Deuteromycetes) had different patterns of adhesion to the cuticles of the several nematode species tested; adhesion in some species was only to the head and tail regions, on others over the entire cuticle, whereas on others there was a complete lack of adhesion. After adhesion, the fungus usually infected the nematode. However, adhesion to third-stage larvae of five animal parasitic nematodes, all of which carry the cast cuticle from t...

Jansson, Hans-bo?rje; Jeyaprakash, A.; Zuckerman, Bert M.

1985-01-01

155

Humidity preference for fungus culturing by workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The hygropreference of gardening workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa was investigated in the laboratory using a gradient of relative humidity. Gardening workers were placed, together with pieces of fungus garden, in small, interconnected nest chambers offering four different relative humidities: 33%, 75%, 84% and 98% RH. Workers were allowed to move freely between them and to relocate the fungus following their humidity preference. While workers distributed themselv...

Roces, Flavio; Kleineidam, Christoph

2000-01-01

156

Colonization of Soybean Cyst Nematode Females, Cysts, and Gelatinous Matrices by the Fungus Verticillium lecanii  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Heterodera glycines was grown in monoxenic culture on soybean roots and then inoculated with the antagonistic fungus Verticillium lecanii. Use of root explant cultures allowed evaluation of the fungus-nematode interaction with the nematode attached to roots or removed from the host, and avoided contamination with other fungi. From 16 hours to 14 days following inoculation, female and cyst samples were examined with the light microscope, or prepared for either conventional or low-temperature s...

Meyer, S. L. F.; Wergin, W. P.

1998-01-01

157

A Hydrophobin of the Chestnut Blight Fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, Is Required for Stromal Pustule Eruption  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hydrophobins are abundant small hydrophobic proteins that are present on the surfaces of many filamentous fungi. The chestnut blight pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica was shown to produce a class II hydrophobin, cryparin. Cryparin is the most abundant protein produced by this fungus when grown in liquid culture. When the fungus is growing on chestnut trees, cryparin is found only in the fungal fruiting body walls. Deletion of the gene encoding cryparin resulted in a culture phenotype typical ...

Kazmierczak, Pam; Kim, Dae Hyuk; Turina, Massimo; Alfen, Neal K.

2005-01-01

158

Bioactive secondary metabolites from the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study reports the chemical investigation and cytotoxic activity of the secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco. This plant was collected from the Beni-Mellal Mountain in Morocco and belongs to the Lamiaceae family and is named in Morocco “Salmia”. The endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. was isolated from the tissues of the stem of this plant. The fungal strain was identified by PCR. The crude organic extr...

Debbab A.; Ha, Aly; Ra, Edrada-ebel; Weg, Mu?ller; Mosaddak M.; Hakiki A.; Ebel R.; Proksch P.

2009-01-01

159

Characterization of a Sapstaining Fungus, Ophiostoma floccosum, Isolated from the Sapwood of Pinus thunbergii in Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

An Ophiostoma fungus was isolated from a stump of Pinus thunbergii in a forest on the West coast of Korea. Microscopic analysis using a light microscope, a stereo microscope, and a scanning electron microscope revealed that it had morphological features of Pesotum and Sporothix synanarmorphs. Based on the ?-tubulin gene sequence analysis, the fungus was identified as the anamorph of Ophiostoma floccosum. Mycological properties of the species including its growth properties on different culture media were described. PMID:23983499

Yun, Yeo Hong; Hyun, Min Woo; Suh, Dong Yeon; Kim, Seong Hwan

2009-03-01

160

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Outline of this thesisIn this thesis the conditions for optimal PAH oxidation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 were evaluated. In Chapter 2, culture conditions like aeration and cosubstrate concentrations, which influenced the oxidation of the PAH compound anthracene and the ligninolytic indicator dye Poly R-478 by the white rot fungus, were studied. Two parameters were identified as the most important PAH oxidation rate-limiting factors: the hydrogen pero...

Kotterman, M. J. J.

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Genome Sequence of the Mucoromycotina Fungus Umbelopsis isabellina, an Effective Producer of Lipids  

Science.gov (United States)

Umbelopsis isabellina is a fungus in the subdivision Mucoromycotina, many members of which have been shown to be oleaginous and have become important organisms for producing oil because of their high level of intracellular lipid accumulation from various feedstocks. The genome sequence of U. isabellina NBRC 7884 was determined and annotated, and this information might provide insights into the oleaginous properties of this fungus.

Takeda, Itaru; Tamano, Koichi; Yamane, Noriko; Ishii, Tomoko; Miura, Ai; Umemura, Myco; Terai, Goro; Baker, Scott E.; Machida, Masayuki

2014-01-01

162

Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Facultative Anaerobic Filamentous Fungus from Japanese Rice Field Soil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A novel filamentous fungus strain designated RB-1 was isolated into pure culture from Japanese rice field soil through an anaerobic role tube technique. The strain is a mitosporic fungus that grows in both aerobic and strict anaerobic conditions using various mono-, di-, tri-, and polysaccharides with acetate and ethanol productions. The amount of acetate produced was higher than that of ethanol in both aerobic and anaerobic cultures. The characteristic verrucose or punctuate conidia of RB-1 ...

Tonouchi, Akio

2009-01-01

163

Bioecology of the fungus Sphaeropsis sapinea dyko & Sutton - agents of pinus species decline  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sphaeropsis sapinea is a cosmopolitan fungus, identified in more than 50 countries of the world, on all continents, but it is primarily the species of warm lands. It is also a polyphagous fungus recorded from 11 coniferous genera. The most endangered and the most frequent host plants are Pinus species - it occurs on 48 pine species, among which the most susceptible are Pinus Radiata, P. nigra, P. sylvestris, P. ponderosa, P. resinosa, P. mugo, P. pinaster and P. elliotti. The greatest damage ...

Milijaševi? Tanja

2002-01-01

164

New Filamentous Fungus Sagenomella chlamydospora Responsible for a Disseminated Infection in a Dog  

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A filamentous fungus that caused a fatal systemic infection in a dog has been identified as the new species Sagenomella chlamydospora. When the case was initially reported, the fungus was identified as Paecilomyces sp. This study emphasizes how difficult can be the identification of the causative agent of an infection when an uncommon microorganism is involved. This is the first time that this genus has been involved in animal infections, including humans.

Gene?, Josepa; Blanco, Jose? L.; Cano, Josep; Garci?a, Marta E.; Guarro, Josep

2003-01-01

165

Metabolism and Cometabolism of Cyclic Ethers by a Filamentous Fungus, a Graphium sp.?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The filamentous fungus Graphium sp. (ATCC 58400) grows on gaseous n-alkanes and diethyl ether. n-Alkane-grown mycelia of this strain also cometabolically oxidize the gasoline oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). In this study, we characterized the ability of this fungus to metabolize and cometabolize a range of cyclic ethers, including tetrahydrofuran (THF) and 1,4-dioxane (14D). This strain grew on THF and other cyclic ethers, including tetrahydropyran and hexamethylene oxide. However, ...

Skinner, Kristin; Cuiffetti, Lynda; Hyman, Michael

2009-01-01

166

Nutritional Requirements of the Edible Gall-producing Fungus Ustilago esculenta  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The parasitism of Ustilago esculenta P. Henn. in the perennial aquatic grass, Zizania latifolia (Griseb.) Turcz. results in the development of edible smut gall, “ Kah-Peh-Sung” which has long been extensively cultivated as a vegetable in Taiwan and southern China. The nutritional requirements of U. esculenta were investigated in a semi-defined liquid medium to explore further studies of the causative fungus and its interaction with host plant. The fungus grew as yeast...

2004-01-01

167

Macromolecular trafficking between a vesicular arbuscular endomycorrhizal fungus and roots of transgenic tobacco  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The root system of transgenic tobacco plants expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the 35S cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) promoter were colonized with the endomycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices. Translocation of EGFP protein from the root to the fungus was registered by light and confocal microscopy. Immunolocalization also showed the presence of EGFP in the mycelium of Glomus intraradices. Carboxyfluorescein feeding experiments on wild-type mycorr...

Morales-rayas, Roci?o; Ruiz-medrano, Roberto; Xoconostle-ca?zares, Beatriz

2011-01-01

168

Microbiomes of ant castes implicate new microbial roles in the fungus-growing ant Trachymyrmex septentrionalis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fungus-growing ants employ several defenses against diseases, including disease-suppressing microbial biofilms on their integument and in fungal gardens. Here, we compare the phenology of microbiomes in natural nests of the temperate fungus-growing ant Trachymyrmex septentrionalis using culture-dependent isolations and culture-independent 16S-amplicon 454-sequencing. 454-sequencing revealed diverse actinobacteria associated with ants, including most prominently Solirubrobacter (12.2–30.9% o...

Ishak, Heather D.; Miller, Jessica L.; Sen, Ruchira; Dowd, Scot E.; Meyer, Eli; Mueller, Ulrich G.

2011-01-01

169

Phenolic profile and antioxidative properties of the beefsteak fungus Fistulina hepatica  

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The phenolic composition of the edible beefsteak fungus Fistulina hepatica was determined by HPLC/DAD. The results showed a profile composed by caffeic, p-coumaric and ellagic acids, hyperoside and quercetin. Ellagic acid was the main compound in this species. Beefsteak fungus was also investigated for its capacity to act as a scavenger of DPPH radical and reactive oxygen species (superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and hypochlorous acid). Good results were obtained against DPPH and superoxi...

Silva, B. M.; Ribeiro, Ba?rbara; Rangel, Joana; Baptista, Paula; Seabra, R. M.

2006-01-01

170

Vertical transmission as the key to the colonization of Madagascar by fungus-growing termites?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The mutualism between fungus-growing termites (Macrotermitinae) and their mutualistic fungi (Termitomyces) began in Africa. The fungus-growing termites have secondarily colonized Madagascar and only a subset of the genera found in Africa is found on this isolated island. Successful long-distance colonization may have been severely constrained by the obligate interaction of the termites with fungal symbionts and the need to acquire these symbionts secondarily from the environment for most spec...

Nobre, T.; Eggleton, P.; Aanen, D. K.

2010-01-01

171

Levels of specificity of Xylaria species associated with fungus-growing termites: a phylogenetic approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fungus-growing termites live in obligate mutualistic symbiosis with species of the basidiomycete genus Termitomyces, which are cultivated on a substrate of dead plant material. When the termite colony dies, or when nest material is incubated without termites in the laboratory, fruiting bodies of the ascomycete genus Xylaria appear and rapidly cover the fungus garden. This raises the question whether certain Xylaria species are specialised in occupying termite nests or whether they are just oc...

Visser, A. A.; Ros, V. I. D.; Beer, Z. W.; Debets, A. J. M.; Hartog, E.; Kuyper, T. W.; Laessoe, T.; Slippers, B.; Aanen, D. K.

2009-01-01

172

Genome-wide Transcriptional Profiling of Appressorium Development by the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most significant pathogens affecting global food security. To cause rice blast disease the fungus elaborates a specialised infection structure called an appressorium. Here, we report genome wide transcriptional profile analysis of appressorium development using next generation sequencing (NGS). We performed both RNA-Seq and High-Throughput SuperSAGE analysis to compare the utility of these procedures for identifying differential gene expr...

2012-01-01

173

The prediction of protein-protein interaction networks in rice blast fungus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Protein-protein interaction (PPI) maps are useful tools for investigating the cellular functions of genes. Thus far, large-scale PPI mapping projects have not been implemented for the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea, which is responsible for the most severe rice disease. Inspired by recent advances in PPI prediction, we constructed a PPI map of this important fungus. Results Using a well-recognized interolog approach, we have pr...

2008-01-01

174

Starch metabolism in Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the symbiotic fungus of leaf-cutting ants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the symbiotic fungus of the leaf-cutting ants, degrades starch, this degradation being supposed to occur in the plant material which leafcutters forage to the nests, generating most of the glucose which the ants utilize for food. In the present investigation, we show that laboratory cultures of L. gongylophorus produce extracellular alpha-amylase and maltase which degrade starch to glucose, reinforcing that the ants can obtain glucose from starch through the symbiotic fungus. Glucose was found to repress alpha-amylase and, more severely, maltase activity, thus repressing starch degradation by L. gongylophorus, so that we hypothesize that: (1) glucose down-regulation of starch degradation also occurs in the Atta sexdens fungus garden; (2) glucose consumption from the fungus garden by A. sexdens stimulates degradation of starch from plant material by L. gongylophorus, which may represent a mechanism by which leafcutters can control enzyme production by the symbiotic fungus. Since glucose is found in the fungus garden inside the nests, down-regulation of starch degradation by glucose is supposed to occur in the nest and play a part in the control of fungal enzyme production by leafcutters. PMID:16380244

Silva, A; Bacci, M; Pagnocca, F C; Bueno, O C; Hebling, M J A

2006-01-01

175

Insect symbioses: a case study of past, present, and future fungus-growing ant research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fungus-growing ants (Attini: Formicidae) engage in an obligate mutualism with fungi they cultivate for food. Although biologists have been fascinated with fungus-growing ants since the resurgence of natural history in the modern era, the early stages of research focused mainly on the foraging behavior of the leaf-cutters (the most derived attine lineage). Indeed, the discovery that the ants actually use leaf fragments to manure a fungus did not come until the 1800s. More recently, three additional microbial symbionts have been described, including specialized microfungal parasites of the ant's fungus garden, antibiotic-producing actinobacteria that help protect the fungus garden from the parasite, and a black yeast that parasitizes the ant-actinobacteria mutualism. The fungus-growing ant symbiosis serves as a particularly useful model system for studying insect-microbe symbioses, because, to date, it contains four well-characterized microbial symbionts, including mutualists and parasites that encompass micro-fungi, macro-fungi, yeasts, and bacteria. Here, we discuss approaches for studying insect-microbe symbioses, using the attine ant-microbial symbiosis as our framework. We draw attention to particular challenges in the field of symbiosis, including the establishment of symbiotic associations and symbiont function. Finally, we discuss future directions in insect-microbe research, with particular focus on applying recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies.

Caldera, Eric J; Poulsen, Michael

2009-01-01

176

Identification and evaluation of SERI-NF1 fungus for ethanol production from xylose fermentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work aimed at identifying the SERI-NF1 fungus isolated by Solar Energy Research Institute investigators, as well as evaluating the fungus as an ethanol producer from xylose fermentations. Microscopic and physiological observations led to the conclusion that the fungus is Paecilomyces varioti Bainier 1907. The fungus grows relatively fast in PDA plates, and its cultures release a light sweet aromatic odor. In liquid cultures the fungus forms round mycelial balls (1--12 mm in diameter). It showed to be thermophilic (grown well at 26--36/degree/C) and thermotolerant (exposed for two hours to 60/degree/C resumed its growth), and to prefer pH levels close to neutrality. Cultures of the fungus were tested (in 125 ml flasks) for fermenting xylose to ethanol. Its growth in the liquid cultures was slow and formed mycelial balls. The yield of ethanol production was low. The amount of fungal mass has to be more than a few mycelial balls per flask to get a reasonable yield of ethanol. 17 refs., 1 fig.

Antonopoulos, A.A.

1989-01-01

177

Carbon utilization profile of a thermophilic fungus, Thermomyces lanuginosus using phenotypic microarray  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The thermophilic filamentous fungus, Thermomyces lanuginosus produces the largest amount of xylanase reported. In addition to this, it expresses large amount of other enzymes that have been used industrially or have academic interest. Thus, this fungus has a potential to be applied for biomass conversion to produce biofuel or other applications. In this study, the Biolog system was used to characterize the utilisation and growth of T. lanuginosus on 95 carbon sources. The carbohydrates based compounds, both single sugars and oligosaccharide, showed the best utilisation profile, with the pentose sugar xylose inducing the highest growth, followed by trehelose, raffinose, D-mannose turanose fructose and glucose. Among oligosaccharides, sucrose had the highest mycelium formation followed by stachyose, maltose, maltotriose, glycogen and dextrin. Interestingly the fungus also grew well on cellobiose suggesting that this fungus can produce cellulose hydrolysing proteins. D-alanine was the best amino acid to promote fungal growth while the effect of other amino acids tested was similar to the control. These results demonstrate the ability of this fungus to grow relatively well on most plant based compounds thus making this fungus a possible candidate for plant biomass conversion which can be applied to a number of biotechnological applications including biofuel production.

Nokuthula Peace Mchunu

2013-09-01

178

Microalgae harvesting via co-culture with filamentous fungus  

Science.gov (United States)

Microalgae harvesting is a labor- and energy-intensive process. For instance, classical harvesting technologies such as chemical addition and mechanical separation are economically prohibiting for biofuel production. Newer approaches to harvest microalgae have been developed in order to decrease costs. Among these new methods, fungal co-pelletization seems to be a promising technology. By co-culturing filamentous fungi with microalgae, it is possible to form pellets, which can easily be separated. In this study, different parameters for the cultivation of filamentous fungus (Aspergillus niger) and microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) to efficiently form cell pellets were evaluated under heterotrophic and phototrophic conditions, including organic carbon source (glucose, glycerol and sodium acetate) concentration, pH, initial concentration of fungal spores, initial concentration of microalgal cells, concentration of ionic strength (Calcium and Magnesium) and concentration of salinity (NaCl). In addition, zeta-potential measurements were carried out in order to get a better understanding of the mechanism of attraction. It was found that 2 g/L of glucose, a fungus to microalgae ratio of 1:300, and uncontrolled pH (around 7) are the best culturing conditions for co-pelletization. Under these conditions, it was possible to achieve a high harvesting performance (>90%). In addition, it was observed that most pellets formed in the co-culture were spherical with an average diameter of 3.5 mm and in concentrations of about 5 pellets per mL of culture media. Under phototrophic conditions, co-pelletization required the addition of glucose as organic carbon source to sustain the growth of fungi and to allow the harvesting of microalgae. Zeta-potential measurements indicated that (i) both microalgae and fungi have low zeta-potential values regardless of the pH on the bulk (i.e. <-10 mV) (ii) fungi can have a positive electric charge at low pH (ie. pH=3). These values suggest that it might be possible that the degree of repulsion and dispersion between these organisms is low which facilitates the attraction between them.

Gultom, Sarman Oktovianus

179

Metabolites from Microsphaeropsis olivacea, an endophytic fungus of Pilgerodendron uviferum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seven compounds belonging to different structural skeletons were isolated from Microsphaeropsis olivacea grown in liquid and solid media. The enalin derivative 7-hydroxy-2,4-dimethyl-3(2H)-benzofuranone is reported for the first time, while additional spectroscopic information is provided for the acetates of botrallin and ulocladol. The activity of the isolated compounds was assessed towards the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and their cytotoxicity against human lung fibroblasts. Graphislactone A and botrallin presented a moderate activity towards AChE, with IC50 of 8.1 and 6.1 microg/ml (27 and 19 microM, respectively). Under the same experimental conditions, the IC50 of the standard inhibitor galanthamine was 3 microg/ml. The cytotoxicity of both compounds was > 1000 and 330 microM, respectively. None of the compounds was promising as antibacterial or antifungic against phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria. Botrallin and graphislactone A were detected in the liquid potato-dextrose and yeast extract/malt extract/dextrose as well as on a solid substrate (rice). Butyrolactone I was obtained from the fungus growing on solid medium. PMID:15787237

Hormazabal, Emilio; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Astudillo, Luis; Rodríguez, Jaime; Theoduloz, Cristina

2005-01-01

180

Fungus mediated biosynthesis and characterization of zinc oxide nanorods  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently nanomaterials have been synthesized through biological approach due to its biocompatibility, inexpensive, eco friendly and it offers easiest experimental protocol and so on. ZnO can be potentially used in various applications. This present study reports the fungus mediated extra-cellular bio synthesis of ZnO nanorods using Fusarium Solani. The dried powder was calcined at 350°C for 1 hour in air. The thermal property of the as synthesized ZnO nanopowder was analyzed through Thermo gravimetric /Differential Thermo gravimetric (TGA / DTG) analysis. The structural and morphological properties of the calcined ZnO nanopowder were studied by XRD and SEM analysis respectively. X ray diffraction result revealed that a peak located at 2? = 36.2° with (101) plane confirms the presence of Zinc oxide with Hexagonal crystal system. The morphology of the calcined ZnO powder was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and it clearly indicates the presence of ZnO nanorods. The diameter of the nanorods is in the range of 60 to 95 nm.

Venkatesh, K. S.; Palani, N. S.; Krishnamoorthi, S. R.; Thirumal, V.; Ilangovan, R.

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
181

Ethanol Production from Lignocellulose by the Dimorphic Fungus Mucor Indicus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ethanol production from dilute-acid lignocellulosic hydrolyzate by the dimorphic fungus Mucor indicus was investigated. A mixture of different forest wood chips dominated by spruce was hydrolyzed with 0.5 g/L sulfuric acid at 15 bar for 10 min, yielding different sugars including galactose, glucose, mannose, and xylose, but also different fermentation inhibitors such as acetic acid, furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), and phenolic compounds. We induced different morphological growth of M. indicus from purely filamentous, mostly filamentous, mostly yeast-like to purely yeast-like. The different forms were then used to ferment the hydrolyzate. They tolerated the presence of the inhibitors under anaerobic batch cultivation well and the ethanol yield was 430-440 g/kg consumed sugars. The ethanol productivity depended on the morphology. Judging from these results, we conclude that M. indicus, is useful for ethanol production from toxic substrates independent of its morphology. Keywords: bio-ethanol, lignocellulosic materials, dilute acid hydrolysis, Mucor indicus, dimorphic fungi

Lennartsson, P.R.; Taherzadeh, M.J. (School of Engineering, Univ. of Boraas, SE-50190, Boraas (Sweden)). e-mail: Patrik.Lennartsson@hb.se; Karimi, K. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan Univ. of Technology, 84156-83111, Isfahan (IR)); Edebo, L. (Dept. of Clinical Bacteriology, Univ. of Goeteborg, SE-41346, Goeteborg (Sweden))

2008-10-15

182

Population structure of the wood decay fungus Fomitopsis pinicola.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three populations of the wood decay fungus Fomitopsis pinicola, one from each of three countries (Sweden, Russia and Lithuania), were studied by means of arbitrary primed PCR. The genetic structure of the populations was assessed by inferring the genotype of the genets by studying the haplotypes of several single-spore isolates from one sporocarp for each individual. Heterozygotes could therefore be detected with a dominant genetic marker. The amplified band and the null allele of all loci segregated in a way that was in agreement with a 50:50 ratio. Genetic analysis showed that the total population as well as the subpopulations had heterozygote frequencies in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg expectations. No population differentiation was detected in spite of large geographical distances among the populations studied. We also compared the methods of somatic incompatibility and AP-PCR in terms of their value in detecting fungal genets. This was tested for a sample of dikaryotic mycelia from Switzerland. For the tested material the two methods gave congruent results. PMID:10504434

Högberg, N; Holdenrieder, O; Stenlid, J

1999-09-01

183

SCP production by Chaetomium cellulolyticum, a new thermotolerant cellulolytic fungus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chaetomium cellulolyticum, a newly isolated cellulolytic fungus, showed 50 to 100% faster growth rates and over 80% more final biomass-protein formation than Trichoderma viride, a well-known high cellulase-producing cellulolytic organism, when cultivated on Solka-floc (a purified, predominantly amorphorous form of cellulose) or partially delignified sawdust (consisting of a mixture of hardwoods) as the sole-carbon source in the fermentation media. However, in both cases, T. viride produced much higher quantities of free cellulases at faster rates and also degraded more substrate than C. cellulolyticum. It is concluded that the synthesis mechanisms and/or the nature of the cellulase complexes of the two types of organisms are quite different such that C. cellulolyticum is more optimal for single-cell protein (SCP) production, while T. viride is more optimal for the production of extracellular cellulases. It was also found that the amino acid composition of C. cellulolyticum is generally better than that of T. viride and compares favorably with those of the FAO reference protein, alfalfa, and soya meal. In addition, preliminary feeding trials on rats have shown no adverse effects of the SCP produced by C. cellulolyticum fermentations.

Moo-Young, M.; Chahal, D.S.; Swan, J.E.; Robinson, C.W.

1977-04-01

184

Repetitive DNA in the automictic fungus Microbotryum violaceum.  

Science.gov (United States)

The small genomes of fungi are expected to have little repetitive content other than rDNA genes. Moreover, among asexual or highly selfing lineages, the diversity of repetitive elements is also expected to be very low. However, in the automictic fungus Microbotryum violaceum, a very large proportion of random DNA fragments from the autosomes and the fungal sex chromosomes are repetitive in nature, either as retrotransposon or helicase sequences. Among the retrotransposon sequences, examples were found from each major kind of elements, including copia, gypsy, and non-LTR sequences. The most numerous were copia-like elements, which are believed to be rare in fungi, particularly among basidiomycetes. The many helicase sequences appear to belong to the recently discovered Helitron type of transposable elements. Also, sequences that could not be identified as a known type of gene were also very repetitive within the database of random fragments from M. violaceum. The differentiated pair of fungal sex chromosomes and suppression of recombination may be the major forces determining the highly repetitive content in the small genome of M. violaceum. PMID:16010998

Hood, Michael E

2005-05-01

185

Bioactive aromatic derivatives from endophytic fungus, Cytospora sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new benzyl gamma-butyrolactone analogues, (R)-5-((S)-hydroxy(phenyl)-methyl)dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one (1) and its 6-acetate (2), and a new naphthalenone derivative (8), together with eight additional known aromatic derivatives, (S)-5-((S)-hydroxy(phenyl)-methyl)dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one (3), (S)-5-benzyl-dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one (4), 5-phenyl-4-oxopentanoic acid (5), gamma-oxo-benzenepentanoic acid methyl ester (6), 3-(2,5-dihydro-4-hydroxy-5-oxo-3-phenyl-2-furyl)propionic acid (7), (3R)-5-methylmellein (9), integracins A (10) and B (11) were isolated from Cytospora sp., an endophytic fungus isolated from Ilex canariensis from Gomera. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis, comparison with reported data, and chemical interconversion. The absolute configurations of the new compounds (1, 2, 8) were established on the basis of optical rotation or CD spectra analysis. Preliminary studies showed antimicrobial activity of these compounds against the fungi Microbotryum violaceum, Botrytis cinerea and Septoria tritici, the alga Chlorella fusca, and the bacterium Bacillus megaterium. PMID:21615028

Lu, Shan; Draeger, Siegfried; Schulz, Barbara; Krohn, Karsten; Ahmed, Ishtiaq; Hussain, Hidayat; Yi, Yanghua; Li, Ling; Zhang, Wen

2011-05-01

186

Human pathogenic fungus Trichophyton schoenleinii activates the NLRP3 inflammasome.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fungus Trichophyton schoenleinii (T. schoenleinii) is the causative agent of Trichophytosis and Tinea favosa of the scalp in certain regions of Eurasia and Africa. Human innate immune system plays an important role in combating with various pathogens including fungi. The inflammasome is one of the most critical arms of host innate immunity, which is a protein complex controlling maturation of IL-1?. To clarify whether T. schoenleinii is able to activate the inflammasome, we analyzed human monocytic cell line THP-1 for IL-1? production upon infection with T. schoenleinii strain isolated from Tinea favosa patients, and rapid IL-1? secretion from THP-1 cells was observed. Moreover, applying competitive inhibitors and gene specific silencing with shRNA, we found that T. schoenleinii induced IL-1? secretion, ASC pyroptosome formation as well as caspase-1 activation were all dependent on NLRP3. Cathepsin B activity, ROS production and K? efflux were required for the inflammasome activation by T. schoenleinii. Our data thus reveal that the NLRP3 inflammasome plays an important role in host defense against T. schoenleinii, and suggest that manipulating NLRP3 signaling can be a novel approach for control of diseases caused by T. schoenleinii infection. PMID:23686720

Li, Hua; Wu, Shuxian; Mao, Liming; Lei, Guowei; Zhang, Liping; Lu, Ailing; An, Liguo; Yang, Guiwen; Abliz, Paride; Meng, Guangxun

2013-07-01

187

Septum-directed secretion in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although exocytosis in fungal cells takes place at hyphal tips, there also seems a line of circumstantial evidence suggesting the occurrence of exocytosis at other sites of cells, such as septa. To investigate whether exocytosis takes place at fungal septa, we monitored dynamics of EGFP-fused ?-amylase (AmyB-EGFP), the representative secretory enzyme of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae. We found that AmyB-EGFP accumulates in Spitzenkörper at hyphal tips as well as septal periplasm between the plasma membrane and cell walls. The septal accumulation of AmyB-EGFP was a rapid process, and required microtubules but not F-actin. Thus, this process is independent of exocytosis at hyphal tips that requires both microtubules and F-actin. In addition, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis of EGFP-fused AoSnc1 revealed that secretory vesicles constitutively fuse with the septal plasma membrane. These results demonstrated that exocytosis takes place at septa in addition to hyphal tips. Analysis of two plasma membrane transporters, AoUapC and AoGap1, revealed that they preferentially accumulate at septa and the lateral plasma membrane with no clear accumulation at apical Spitzenkörper, suggesting that non-tip directed exocytosis is important for delivery of these proteins. PMID:21564341

Hayakawa, Yugo; Ishikawa, Eri; Shoji, Jun-Ya; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

2011-07-01

188

Effects of ozone on the germination of fungus spores  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Detached spores of 14 fungi varied in germination after exposure on agar to 10 to 100 parts per hundred million (p.p.hm.) ozone for 1 to 6 h. Large pigmented spores of Chaetomium sp., Stemphylium sarcinaeforme, S. loti, and Alternaria sp. were insensitive to 100 p.p.hm. Spores of Trichoderma viride, Aspergillus terreus, A. niger, Penicillium egyptiacum, Botrytis allii, and Rhizopus stolonifer were reduced in germination primarily by 100 and 50 p.p.hm. for the longer exposures. Small hyaline spores of Fusarium oxysporum, Colletotrichum lagenarium, Verticillium albo-atrum, and V. dahliae were the most sensitive, as their germination was prevented or reduced by most exposures to 100 and 50 pphm and occasionally reduced by doses as low as 25 pphm for 4 and 6 h. Ten parts per hundred million for 6 h had little inhibitory effect, but extended exposures up to 28 h reduced germination of A. terreus, A. niger, and P. egyptiacum spores to below 50% of the controls. The lower doses of ozone sometimes stimulated spore germination. Fungus colonies maintained in an ozone atmosphere had abnormal growth characteristics. Ozone had little inhibitory effect on air-dried spores in a liquid medium. 37 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

Hibben, C.R.; Stotzky, G.

1969-01-01

189

Efficient and versatile transformation systems in entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lack of genetic tools in entomopathogenic fungi, especially those for targeted homologous recombination, hindered the advance in this field. To facilitate the genetic study, we constructed a transformation system in entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium sp. strain HF627 using the uridine auxotrophic pyrG mutant strain as host and endogenous pyrG as marker. pUC19 harboring endogenous pyrG successfully restored the uridine auxotrophy of the host strain, and the integration of the vector DNA was confirmed by Southern hybridization. An autonomously replicating vector harboring an AMA1 sequence was constructed and applied to the constructed transformation system, which improved the transformation efficiency 16.7-fold. Southern hybridization revealed replication of the AMA1-harboring vector with an average copy number of 2.4. A ku80 knock-out strain was created to improve the efficiency of gene targeting. Deletion of the pyrG locus, which is homologous to the marker gene, from the ku80 knock-out strain achieved a targeting efficiency of 62.5 % against both trp1 and his3; the levels of these genes were 3.2- and 5-fold higher, respectively, than the ku80-intact strain. With the pyrG-deleted and ku80-inactivated strain constructed in this study, transformation and targeted homologous recombination were highly enhanced, by which genetic analysis in Lecanicillium spp. will be performed quickly and efficiently. PMID:23852265

Ishidoh, Kei-ichi; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Ihara, Fumio; Nihira, Takuya

2014-05-01

190

Alachlor oxidation by the filamentous fungus Paecilomyces marquandii.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alachlor, a popular chloroacetanilide herbicide, can be a potential health risk factor. Soil microorganisms are primarily responsible for conversion and migration of alachlor in natural environment, but knowledge concerning alachlor biodegradation is not complete. Therefore, we studied the ability of Paecilomyces marquandii, soil fungus tolerant to heavy metals, to eliminate alachlor and proposed a new pathway of its transformation. After 7 days of incubation only 3.3% of alachlor was detected from an initial concentration 50 mg L(-1) and 20.1% from a concentration 100 mg L(-1). The qualitative IDA LC-MS analysis showed the presence of ten metabolites. All of them were dechlorinated mainly through oxidation, but also reductive dechlorination was observed. The main route of alachlor conversion progressed via N-acetyl oxidation resulting in the formation of mono-, di- and trihydroxylated byproducts. N-acetyl oxidation as a dominant route of alachlor metabolism by fungi has not been described so far. The toxicity of alachlor tested with Artemia franciscana did not increase after treatment with P. marquandii cultures. Paecilomyces marquandii strain seems to be an interesting model for the research on alachlor conversion by soil microscopic fungi, due to its dechlorination and hydroxylation ability as well as high tolerance to heavy metals. PMID:23974531

S?aba, Miros?awa; Szewczyk, Rafa?; Pi?tek, Milena Adela; D?ugo?ski, Jerzy

2013-10-15

191

Linoleate diol synthase of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mycelia of two strains of Magnaporthe grisea, Guy 11 and TH3, were incubated with linoleic acid, and the metabolites were isolated and identified by GC-MS and LC-MS. The two main metabolites were identified as 8-hydroxylinoleic and 7,8-dihydroxylinoleic acids, and the former was further oxidized by n-2 and by n-3 hydroxylation to 8,16- and 8,17-dihydroxylinoleic acids. Lipoxygenase metabolites of linoleic acid could not be detected. The sequence of the genome of M. grisea has been released from the Whitehead Institute; it contains a gene with close homology to the linoleate diol synthase gene of the take-all fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis. Both genes appear to have the same organization, with four exons and three short introns, and the intron-exon borders were determined by reverse-transcription PCR and sequencing. The linoleate diol synthase precursor of G. graminis consists of 978 amino acids, whereas the putative diol synthase precursor of M. grisea contains 987 amino acids. The diol synthases of G. graminis and M. grisea can be aligned with 65% identical and 78% positive amino acid residues, and catalytically important amino acid residues were conserved. PMID:14870931

Cristea, Mirela; Osbourn, Anne E; Oliw, Ernst H

2003-12-01

192

Identification of naphthalene metabolism by white rot fungus Pleurotus eryngii.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of biomaterials or microorganisms in PAHs degradation had presented an eye-catching performance. Pleurotus eryngii is a white rot fungus, which is easily isolated from the decayed woods in the tropical rain forest, used to determine the capability to utilize naphthalene, a two-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as source of carbon and energy. In the meantime, biotransformation of naphthalene to intermediates and other by-products during degradation was investigated in this study. Pleurotus eryngii had been incubated in liquid medium formulated with naphthalene for 14 days. The presence of metabolites of naphthalene suggests that Pleurotus eryngii begin the ring cleavage by dioxygenation on C1 and C4 position to give 1,4-naphthaquinone. 1,4-Naphthaquinone was further degraded to benzoic acid, where the proposed terepthalic acid is absent in the cultured extract. Further degradation of benzoic acid by Pleurotus eryngii shows the existence of catechol as a result of the combination of decarboxylation and hydroxylation process. Unfortunately, phthalic acid was not detected in this study. Several enzymes, including manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, laccase, 1,2-dioxygenase and 2,3-dioxygenase are enzymes responsible for naphthalene degradation. Reduction of naphthalene and the presence of metabolites in liquid medium showed the ability of Pleurotus eryngii to utilize naphthalene as carbon source instead of a limited glucose amount. PMID:23334282

Hadibarata, Tony; Teh, Zee Chuang; Rubiyatno; Zubir, Meor Mohd Fikri Ahmad; Khudhair, Ameer Badr; Yusoff, Abdull Rahim Mohd; Salim, Mohd Razman; Hidayat, Topik

2013-10-01

193

Secondary metabolites of the sponge-derived fungus Acremonium persicinum.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports the isolation and characterization of six new acremine metabolites, 5-chloroacremine A (4), 5-chloroacremine H (5), and acremines O (6), P (7), Q (8), and R (9), together with the known acremines A (1), F (2), and N (3) from the fungus Acremonium persicinum cultured from the marine sponge Anomoianthella rubra. The relative configuration of acremine F (2) was determined by analyses of proton coupling constant values and NOESY data, and the absolute configuration confirmed as (1S, 4S, 6R) by X-ray crystallographic analysis of the borate ester derivative 15. Acremines O, P, and R were each shown to be of 8R configuration by ¹H NMR analyses of MPA esters. The relative configurations suggested for acremines P and Q were each deduced by molecular modeling together with NOESY and coupling constant data. The ³J(H-C) values in acremine P were measured using the pulse sequence EXSIDE, and the observed ³J(H8-C4) of 5.4 Hz and small ³J(H-C) values (diastereomer 8a. PMID:23883432

Suciati; Fraser, James A; Lambert, Lynette K; Pierens, Gregory K; Bernhardt, Paul V; Garson, Mary J

2013-08-23

194

Metabolism of Plant Polysaccharides by Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the Symbiotic Fungus of the Leaf-Cutting Ant Atta sexdens L.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Atta sexdens L. ants feed on the fungus they cultivate on cut leaves inside their nests. The fungus, Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, metabolizes plant polysaccharides, such as xylan, starch, pectin, and cellulose, mediating assimilation of these compounds by the ants. This metabolic integration may be an important part of the ant-fungus symbiosis, and it involves primarily xylan and starch, both of which support rapid fungal growth. Cellulose seems to be less important for symbiont nutrition, si...

1998-01-01

195

Differential Regulation and Posttranslational Processing of the Class II Hydrophobin Genes from the Biocontrol Fungus Hypocrea atroviridis?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hydrophobins are small extracellular proteins, unique to and ubiquitous in filamentous fungi, which mediate interactions between the fungus and environment. The mycoparasitic fungus Hypocrea atroviridis has recently been shown to possess 10 different class II hydrophobin genes, which is a much higher number than that of any other ascomycete investigated so far. In order to learn the potential advantage of this hydrophobin multiplicity for the fungus, we have investigated their expression patt...

Mikus, Marianna; Hatvani, Lo?ra?nt; Neuhof, Torsten; Komon?-zelazowska, Monika; Dieckmann, Ralf; Schwecke, Torsten; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Von Do?hren, Hans; Kubicek, Christian P.

2009-01-01

196

Fungi of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.-Their Deteriorative Ability, Quality Stability and the Role of the Fungus-Eating Insects  

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Full Text Available Studies on the deteriorative ability and quality stability of coconut (Cocos nucifera L. and the effect of the fungus-eating insects (Necrobia rufipes, Alphitobius diaperinus, Crematogaster sp. and Tenebrio molitor were carried out in the Post Graduate Entomology and Plant Pathology Laboratories of the Department of Applied and Environmental Biology and also in Food Science Laboratory of the Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt. Results showed Aspergillus niger van Tieghem, Rhizopus stolonifer Lind and Penicillium italiucum Wehmer as the seed-borne fungi of coconut. Frequency of occurrence was 80% for Aspergillus niger and 100% for both Rhizopus stolonifer and Penicillium italicum. On storage stability, heat drying offered significantly higher protection to coconut copra. Percentage consumption of fungal hyphae by the fungus-eating insects varied with Tenebrio molitor consuming 100% of the three aforementioned fungi. A. diaperinius contributed up to 84.1% reduction of A. niger as against 80.3% reduction by Necrobia rufipes of A. niger, Crematogaster sp. offered the least reduction (64.2%.

E.C. Chuku

2007-01-01

197

Effects of greenhouse pesticides on the soil-dwelling predatory mite Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Acari: Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) under laboratory conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowledge of the effects of pesticides on biological control agents is required for the successful implementation of integrated pest management (IPM) programs in greenhouse production systems. Laboratory assays were conducted to assess the effects of an acaricide (dicofol), two insecticides (chlorpyrifos and pyriproxyfen), and two fungicides (fosetyl-Al and mefenoxam) on Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Womersley), a soil-dwelling predatory mite widely marketed in North America under the name Hypoaspis miles (Berlese) as a biological control agent of dark-winged fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.). Eggs, larvae, protonymphs, deutonymphs, and adult male and female mites were first assayed using dicofol, an acaricide used in the experiments as a positive control, applied to filter paper in an enclosed arena. Protonymphs were assayed for lethal and sublethal effects against the remaining pesticides at maximum label-recommended rates applied to filter paper, by using dicofol as a positive control and water as a negative control. The larva and protonymph were the life stages most susceptible to dicofol, with estimated 24-h LC50 values of 9 and 26 mg m(-2), respectively. Chlorpyrifos was highly toxic to the protonymphs of S. scimitus, causing >95% mortality after 24-h exposure and 100% mortality after 48 h. In contrast, the insect growth regulator (IGR) pyriproxyfen was much less toxic to protonymphs of S. scimitus; pyriproxyfen caused no significant mortality, compared with effect on the duration of subsequent life stages, nor on the duration of preoviposition, oviposition, and postoviposition periods of adult females. Total numbers and viability of eggs laid by mites exposed to the IGR and fungicides did not differ from the negative control, although the average rate of egg production during the oviposition of mites exposed to fosetyl-Al was increased. Pyriproxyfen, fosetyl-Al, and mefenoxam are likely to be compatible with S. scimitus under field conditions, because these pesticides caused little mortality of protonymphs, and they did not negatively affect the development and reproduction of S. scimitus under extreme laboratory conditions. In contrast, the use of chlorpyrifos in conjunction with S. scimitus is not recommended unless more comprehensive testing under semifield or field conditions demonstrates compatibility. PMID:15279255

Cabrera, Ana R; Cloyd, Raymond A; Zaborski, Edmond R

2004-06-01

198

Caste specialization in behavioral defenses against fungus garden parasites in Acromyrmex octospinosus leaf-cutting ants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Division of labor and caste specialization plays an important role in many aspects of social insect colony organization, including parasite defense. Within leaf-cutting ant colonies, worker caste specialization permeates colony tasks ranging from foraging, substrate incorporation, brood care, and chemical defenses via glandular secretions and mutualistic bacteria. Leaf-cutting ants rely on protecting a mutualistic fungus they grow for food from microfungi in the genus Escovopsis that parasitizes the ant-fungus relationship. Here, we examine whether Acromyrmex octospinosus leaf-cutter ant castes (minors and majors) display task specialization in two behavioral defenses against Escovopsis: fungus grooming (the removal of Escovopsis spores) and weeding (the removal of large pieces of Escovopsis-infected fungus garden). Using behavioral observations, we show that minors are the primary caste that performs fungus grooming, while weeding is almost exclusively performed by majors. In addition, using a sub-colony infection experimental setup, we show that at the early stages of infection, minors more efficiently remove Escovopsis spores from the fungus garden, thereby restricting Escovopsis spore germination and growth. At later stages of infection, after Escovopsis spore germination, we find that major workers are as efficient as minors in defending the fungus garden, likely due to the increased importance of weeding. Finally, we show, using SEM imaging, that the number of sensory structures is similar between minor and major workers. If these structures are invoked in recognition of the parasites, this finding suggests that both castes are able to sense Escovopsis. Our findings support that leaf-cutter ant behavioral defense tasks against Escovopsis are subject to caste specialization, likely facilitated by worker sizes being optimal for grooming and weeding by minors and majors, respectively, with important consequences for cultivar defense

Abramowski, D; Currie, C R

2010-01-01

199

Factors affecting fungus-induced larval mortality in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi have shown great potential for the control of adult malaria vectors. However, their ability to control aquatic stages of anopheline vectors remains largely unexplored. Therefore, how larval characteristics (Anopheles species, age and larval density, fungus (species and concentration and environmental effects (exposure duration and food availability influence larval mortality caused by fungus, was studied. Methods Laboratory bioassays were performed on the larval stages of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi with spores of two fungus species, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. For various larval and fungal characteristics and environmental effects the time to death was determined and survival curves established. These curves were compared by Kaplan Meier and Cox regression analyses. Results Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae caused high mortality of An. gambiae and An. stephensi larvae. However, Beauveria bassiana was less effective (Hazard ratio (HR Metarhizium anisopliae. Anopheles stephensi and An. gambiae were equally susceptible to each fungus. Older larvae were less likely to die than young larvae (HR Conclusions This study shows that both fungus species have potential to kill mosquitoes in the larval stage, and that mortality rate depends on fungus species itself, larval stage targeted, larval density and amount of nutrients available to the larvae. Increasing the concentration of fungal spores or reducing the exposure time to spores did not show a proportional increase and decrease in mortality rate, respectively, because the spores clumped together. As a result spores did not provide uniform coverage over space and time. It is, therefore, necessary to develop a formulation that allows the spores to spread over the water surface. Apart from formulation appropriate delivery methods are also necessary to avoid exposing non-target organisms to fungus.

Takken Willem

2010-01-01

200

Monitoring of white-rot fungus during bioremediation of polychlorinated dioxin-contaminated fly ash  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bioremediation is a low-cost treatment alternative for the cleanup of polychlorinated-dioxin-contaminated soils and fly ash when pollution spread is wide-ranging. An interesting fungus, Ceriporia sp. MZ-340, with a high ability to degrade dioxin, was isolated from white rotten wood of a broadleaf tree from Kyushu Island in Japan. We have attempted to use the fungus for bioremediation of polychlorinated-dioxin-contaminated soil on site. However, we have to consider that this trial has the potential problem of introducing a biohazard to a natural ecosystem if this organism is naturalized. We have therefore developed a monitoring system for the introduced fungus as a part of the examination and evaluation of bioremediation in our laboratory. We have also developed a PCR-based assay to reliably detect the fungus at the bioremediation site. DNA isolated from the site was amplified by PCR using a specific primer derived from internal transcribed spacer region (ITS: ITS1, 5.8S rDNA and ITS2) sequences of ceriporia sp. MZ-340. We successfully monitored Ceriporia sp. MZ-340 down to 100 fg/{mu}l DNA and down to 2 mg/g mycelium. We also successfully monitored the fungus specifically at the bioremediation site. The polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran content was observed to decrease in response to treatment with the fungus. The species-specific PCR technique developed in the present work is useful in evaluating the possibility of on-site bioremediation using the fungus Ceriporia sp. MZ-340. (orig.)

Suhara, H.; Daikoku, C.; Kondo, R. [Lab. of Systematic Forest and Forest Products Sciences, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Takata, H. [Dept. of Geriatric Research, National Inst. for Longevity Sciences, Aichi (Japan); Suzuki, S.; Matsufuji, Y. [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Fukuoka Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Sakai, K. [Lab. of Forest Chemistry and Biochemistry, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

2003-07-01

 
 
 
 
201

Ethanol physiology in the warehouse-staining fungus, Baudoinia compniacensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fungus Baudoinia compniacensis colonizes the exterior surfaces of a range of materials, such as buildings, outdoor furnishings, fences, signs, and vegetation, in regions subject to periodic exposure to low levels of ethanol vapour, such as those in the vicinity of distillery aging warehouses and commercial bakeries. Here we investigated the basis of ethanol metabolism in Baudoinia and investigate the role of ethanol in cell germination and growth. Germination of mycelia of Baudoinia was enhanced by up to roughly 1d exposure to low ethanol concentrations, optimally 10ppm when delivered in vapour form and 5mm in liquid form. However, growth was strongly inhibited following exposure to higher ethanol concentrations for shorter durations (e.g., 1.7m for 6h). We found that ethanol was catabolized into central metabolism via alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ACDH). Isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDHs) were active in cells grown on glucose, but these enzymes were not expressed when ethanol was provided as a sole or companion carbon source. The glyoxylate cycle enzymes isocitrate lyase (ICL) and malate synthase (MS) activities observed in cells grown on acetate were comparable to those reported for other microorganisms. By replenishing tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, it is likely that the functionality of the glyoxylate cycle is important in the establishment of luxuriant growth of Baudoinia compniacensis on ethanol-exposed, nutrient-deprived, exposed surfaces. In other fungi, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ADH II catalyses the conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde, which then can be metabolized via the TCA cycle. ADH II is known to be strongly repressed in the presence of glucose. PMID:18951774

Ewaze, Juliet O; Summerbell, Richard C; Scott, James A

2008-11-01

202

Extraction of DNA from plant and fungus tissues in situ  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background When samples are collected in the field and transported to the lab, degradation of the nucleic acids contained in the samples is frequently observed. Immediate extraction and precipitation of the nucleic acids reduces degradation to a minimum, thus preserving accurate sequence information. An extraction method to obtain high quality DNA in field studies is described. Findings DNA extracted immediately after sampling was compared to DNA extracted after allowing the sampled tissues to air dry at 21°C for 48 or 72 hours. While DNA extracted from fresh tissues exhibited little degradation, DNA extracted from all tissues exposed to 21°C air for 48 or 72 hours exhibited varying degrees of degradation. Yield was higher for extractions from fresh tissues in most cases. Four microcentrifuges were compared for DNA yield: one standard electric laboratory microcentrifuge (max rcf?=?16,000×g, two battery-operated microcentrifuges (max rcf?=?5,000 and 3,000 ×g, and one manually-operated microcentrifuge (max rcf?=?120×g. Yields for all centrifuges were similar. DNA extracted under simulated field conditions was similar in yield and quality to DNA extracted in the laboratory using the same equipment. Conclusions This CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide DNA extraction method employs battery-operated and manually-operated equipment to isolate high quality DNA in the field. The method was tested on plant and fungus tissues, and may be adapted for other types of organisms. The method produced high quality DNA in laboratory tests and under simulated field conditions. The field extraction method should prove useful for working in remote sites, where ice, dry ice, and liquid nitrogen are unavailable; where degradation is likely to occur due to the long distances between the sample site and the laboratory; and in instances where other DNA preservation and transportation methods have been unsuccessful. It may be possible to adapt this method for genomic, metagenomic, transcriptomic and metabolomic projects using samples collected in situ.

Abu Almakarem Amal S

2012-06-01

203

The Hidden Habit of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana: First Demonstration of Vertical Plant Transmission  

Science.gov (United States)

Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip, obtained from a larva of the opium poppy stem gall wasp Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae), endophytically colonizes opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants and protects them against this pest. The goal of this study was to monitor the dynamics of endophytic colonization of opium poppy by B. bassiana after the fungus was applied to the seed and to ascertain whether the fungus is transmitted vertically via seeds. Using a species-specific nested PCR protocol and DNA extracted from surface-sterilised leaf pieces or seeds of B. bassiana-inoculated opium poppy plants, the fungus was detected within the plant beginning at the growth stage of rosette building and them throughout the entire plant growth cycle (about 120–140 days after sowing). The fungus was also detected in seeds from 50% of the capsules sampled. Seeds that showed positive amplification for B. bassiana were planted in sterile soil and the endophyte was again detected in more than 42% of the plants sampled during all plant growth stages. Beauveria bassiana was transmitted to seeds in 25% of the plants from the second generation that formed a mature capsule. These results demonstrate for the first time the vertical transmission of an entomopathogenic fungus from endophytically colonised maternal plants. This information is crucial to better understand the ecological role of entomopathogenic fungi as plant endophytes and may allow development of a sustainable and cost effective strategy for I. luteipes management in P. somniferum.

Quesada-Moraga, Enrique; Lopez-Diaz, Cristina; Landa, Blanca Beatriz

2014-01-01

204

The fungus gardens of leaf-cutter ants undergo a distinct physiological transition during biomass degradation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leaf-cutter ants are dominant herbivores in ecosystems throughout the Neotropics that feed on fungus gardens cultivated on fresh foliar biomass. Although recent investigations have shed light on how plant biomass is degraded in fungus gardens, the cycling of nutrients that takes place in these specialized microbial ecosystems is still not well understood. Here, using metabolomic and metaproteomic techniques, we examine the dynamics of nutrient turnover in these gardens. Our results reveal that numerous free amino acids and sugars are depleted throughout the process of biomass degradation, indicating that easily accessible nutrients from plant material are readily consumed by microbes in these ecosystems. Accumulation of cellobiose and lignin derivatives near the end of the degradation process is consistent with previous characterization of lignocellulases produced by the fungal cultivar of the ants. Our results also suggest that ureides may be an important source of nitrogen in fungus gardens, especially during nitrogen-limiting conditions. No free arginine was detected in our metabolomic experiments despite evidence that the host ants cannot produce this amino acid, suggesting that biosynthesis of this metabolite may be tightly regulated in fungus gardens. These results provide new insights into microbial community-level processes that underlie this important ant-fungus symbiosis. PMID:24992538

Huang, Eric L; Aylward, Frank O; Kim, Young-Mo; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M; Nicora, Carrie D; Hu, Zeping; Metz, Thomas O; Lipton, Mary S; Smith, Richard D; Currie, Cameron R; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E

2014-08-01

205

Biodegradation of crystal violet by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biodegradation of crystal violet (N,N,N',N',N'',N''-hexamethylpararosaniline) in ligninolytic (nitrogen-limited) cultures of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance of crystal violet and by the identification of three metabolites (N,N,N',N',N''-pentamethylpararosaniline, N,N,N',N''-tetramethylpararosaniline, and N,N',N''-trimethylpararosaniline) formed by sequential N-demethylation of the parent compound. Metabolite formation also occurred when crystal violet was incubated with the extracellular fluid obtained from ligninolytic cultures of this fungus, provided that an H2O2-generating system was supplied. This, as well as the fact that a purified ligninase catalyzed N-demethylation of crystal violet, demonstrated that biodegradation of crystal violet by this fungus is dependent, at least in part, upon its lignin-degrading system. In addition to crystal violet, six other triphenylmethane dyes (pararosaniline, cresol red, bromphenol blue, ethyl violet, malachite green, and brilliant green) were shown to be degraded by the lignin-degrading system of this fungus. An unexpected result was the finding that substantial degradation of crystal violet also occurred in nonligninolytic (nitrogen-sufficient) cultures of P. chrysosporium, suggesting that in addition to the lignin-degrading system, another mechanism exists in this fungus which is also able to degrade crystal violet. PMID:3389809

Bumpus, J A; Brock, B J

1988-05-01

206

Differential growth of the fungus Absidia cylindrospora on 13C/15N-labelled media.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many studies utilise enrichment of stable isotopes as tracers to follow the interactions occurring within soil food webs and methods have been developed to enrich bacteria, soil fauna and plant litter, Here for the first time we attempt to enrich a soil fungus to 99 atom% with (13)C and (15)N stable isotopes. In this study our objectives were to (a) assess whether the saprotrophic zygomycete fungus Absidia cylindrospora could grow on a medium enriched to 99 atom% with (13)C-glucose and (15)N-ammonium chloride, (b) to determine the level of enrichment obtained, and (c) to examine the change in growth rate of this fungus while it was growing on the dually enriched medium. To achieve this, the fungus was grown on agar enriched with (13)C and (15)N to 99 atom% and its growth rate monitored. The results showed that A. cylindrospora would grow on the highly labelled growth medium, but that its rate of growth was affected compared with the rate on either natural abundance media or media highly enriched with a single isotope ((13)C or (15)N). The implications of these results is that although the fungus is able to utilise these heavier isotopes, the biochemical processes involved in growth are affected, and consideration should be given to these differences when using stable isotope tracers in, for example, soil food web studies. PMID:21594920

Crotty, F V; Blackshaw, R P; Murray, P J

2011-06-15

207

Combining microtomy and confocal laser scanning microscopy for structural analyses of plant-fungus associations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The serious problem of extended tissue thickness in the analysis of plant-fungus associations was overcome using a new method that combines physical and optical sectioning of the resin-embedded sample by microtomy and confocal microscopy. Improved tissue infiltration of the fungal-specific, high molecular weight fluorescent probe wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 633 resulted in high fungus-specific fluorescence even in deeper tissue sections. If autofluorescence was insufficient, additional counterstaining with Calcofluor White M2R or propidium iodide was applied in order to visualise the host plant tissues. Alternatively, the non-specific fluorochrome acid fuchsine was used for rapid staining of both, the plant and the fungal cells. The intricate spatial arrangements of the plant and fungal cells were preserved by immobilization in the hydrophilic resin Unicryl™. Microtomy was used to section the resin-embedded roots or leaves until the desired plane was reached. The data sets generated by confocal laser scanning microscopy of the remaining resin stubs allowed the precise spatial reconstruction of complex structures in the plant-fungus associations of interest. This approach was successfully tested on tissues from ectomycorrhiza (Betula pendula), arbuscular mycorrhiza (Galium aparine; Polygala paniculata, Polygala rupestris), ericoid mycorrhiza (Calluna vulgaris), orchid mycorrhiza (Limodorum abortivum, Serapias parviflora) and on one leaf-fungus association (Zymoseptoria tritici on Triticum aestivum). The method provides an efficient visualisation protocol applicable with a wide range of plant-fungus symbioses. PMID:24249491

Rath, Magnus; Grolig, Franz; Haueisen, Janine; Imhof, Stephan

2014-05-01

208

Evaluation of the nutritive value of sugarcane residues inoculated with fungus Fomes sp  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective. Improve the nutritional value of mechanized sugarcane residues inoculating the fungus Fomes sp. EUM1. Materials and methods. The fungus Fomes was inoculated according to a 0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% (w/v treatment and incubated at a temperature of 35°C for 7, 10 and 13 days. It was obtained DM, OM, CP, ash, NDF and ADF and the effective degradation of DM, NDF and ADF, with an experimental factorial design of 3X3 and a completely randomized design. The factors were growing days in an Erlenmeyer flask (7, 10, and 13 and inoculum percentage (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3. The data were analyzed with the SAS statistical package. Results. Statistical significance was found in the interaction of the fungus growing days by percentage of inoculum, in the variables: DM, CP and pH. The NDF and ADF factor differed in the percentage of inoculum. Effective degradation showed significant for the same type of interaction in all the variables studied. Conclusions. The inoculation of the fungus increased ADF degradation by only 0.2% of the inoculum percentage, without any effect on effective degradation due to the use of soluble fractions at the beginning of the incubation. It is considered that the degradation occurs in stages that are important to consider for determining treatments to maximize the beneficial effects of the fungus in terms of ruminant nutrition.

Alex Olivera D.

2014-06-01

209

A case of fungus ball type pansinusitis caused by Schizophillum commune  

Science.gov (United States)

Schizophillum commune has been increasingly reported from allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) as well as fungus ball, brain abscess and several cases of maxillary or allergic fungal sinusitis. In the present study, we reported a case of fungus ball type pansinusitis from a 32-year-old woman in Iran. According to computed tomography (CT) scan, fungus ball type pan-sinusitis was likely to be the first diagnosis. Mycological examination revealed hyaline hyphae with small projection and also clamp connection structures on PDA medium. To identify the obtained isolate properly, molecular analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region was performed and indicated that the causing agent of the infection is surely Schizophillum commune. The patient completely recovered after surgical endoscopic operation and consequent post-operation MRI revealed clearance of sinuses.

Nazeri, Mehdi; Mohammadi Ardehali, Mojtaba; Moazeni, Maryam; Jamal Hashemi, Seyed; Fallahi, Ali akbar; Ehteram, Hassan; Rezaie, Sassan

2012-01-01

210

Large-scale expressed sequence tag analysis for the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cryphonectria parasitica is the causal fungal agent responsible for the chestnut blight disease. We report the generation of 14,263 expressed sequence tags representing 6318 unisequences for the fungus. Functional annotation of these unisequences revealed different gene expression patterns for wild-type and hypovirus-infected cultures at the sporulation stage and allowed the reconstruction of key C. parasitica signal transduction pathways conserved in the Sorbidaryomycetes. A list of homologous genes implicated in pathogenicity, sporulation, and virus replication in other fungi were also identified. A large-scale gene comparison indicated that C. parasitica is most closely related to the plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum but more closely related to the non-pathogen Neurospora crassa than to the rice pathogen Magnaporthe grisea. This transcriptional information lays a new and solid ground for further investigation of both the biology of the fungus and interaction between a hypovirus and the host fungus. PMID:18166491

Shang, Jinjie; Wu, Xiaosong; Lan, Xiuwan; Fan, Yunyan; Dong, Haitao; Deng, Ye; Nuss, Donald L; Chen, Baoshan

2008-03-01

211

ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION AND PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF WHITE ROT FUNGUS AND HETEROLOGOUS EXPRESSION OF GENE ENCODING LACCASE  

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Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to isolate wild white rot fungus and characterize the organism with respect to laccase gene. White rot fungus was isolated from decay wood sample and was subjected to Phylogenetic analysis by using basidiomycete-specific ITS primers for identification. mRNA of laccase enzyme was isolated, amplified by RT-PCR with specific forward and reverse primer that targeted the nucleotides present in right and left border of the mRNA. Amplified gene was tried to be transformed in to E.coli cells and the transformants were subjected for colony PCR, plate assay and decolorisation assay. All the results very clearly indicated the presence of laccase gene in the isolated white rot fungus and also the successful transformation of the gene in to E.coli cells.

R. INDIRA PRIYADARSINI

2011-03-01

212

Radiological aspect of fungus ball within a mucocele of the sphenoid sinus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paranasal sinus fungus ball is within the non-invasive forms and is characterized by the presence of aggregated hyphae that do not invade the sinus mucosa. Mucoceles are benign, expansile, cyst-like lesions of the paranasal sinuses. The mucoid secretions of mucoceles are usually sterile. However, secondary infections, mostly bacterial, may lead to the development of pyocoeles. Although an association between a fungus ball and a mucocele is rare in the paranasal sinuses, this disease entity should be considered in the differential diagnosis of expansile, cystic sinus lesions. In this article, clinical and radiological findings of a 61-year-old male patient with isolated sphenoid sinus fungus ball within a mucocele presented with headache and periorbital pain were discussed with recent literature. PMID:24617182

Inci, M F; Ozkan, F; Aksoy, A; Kelle?, M

2013-01-01

213

COMPARISON THE DYE REMOVAL ACTIVITY OF SYSTEMS CONTAINED SURFACTANTS AND FUNGUS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Dye decolorization ability of the systems contained only R. arrhizus, only cationic surfactants and both of them were studied. The optimal pH (3-7), initial dye (50-800 mg/L) and surfactant concentration (0.5 and 1 mM) for Alkythrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) was determined in three days incubatio [...] n period and the difference of Remazol Blue dye removal activity between Dodecylthrimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB), Hegzadecylthrimethyl ammonium bromide (HTAB) and CTAB was identified. In the surfactant effect experiments it was observed that maximum dye removal activity occured in the system contained both fungus and 0.5 mM CTAB as, 77.52%, while the dye removal activity of only fungus and only CTAB were 21.2% and 71.2% in 100 mg/L dye concentration. The optimal conditions for dye removal were pH 5, low initial dye concentratios such as 100 mg/L and 1 mM CTAB concentration at the end of three days incubation period and the 95.4% dye removed by the sytem contained both fungus and CTAB. The dye removal activiy of the system contained fungus and cationic surfactants (DTAB, CTAB and HTAB) was compaired in the same optimal conditions and observed that maximum dye removal occured in the system that contained fungus and 1 mM HTAB, as 98.4%. The systems that contained surfactant and fungus are new approcahes for effective dye removal from textile effluents. According to this study, the CMC of surfactant is an important issue to increase dye removal efficiency.

ÜLKÜYE, DUDU GÜL; GÖNÜL, DÖNMEZ.

214

Fungus symbionts colonizing the galleries of the ambrosia beetle Platypus quercivorus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Isolations were made to determine the fungal symbionts colonizing Platypus quercivorus beetle galleries of dead or dying Quercus laurifolia, Castanopsis cuspidata, Quercus serrata, Quercus crispula, and Quercus robur. For these studies, logs from oak wilt-killed trees were collected from Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Fungi were isolated from the: (1) entrances of beetle galleries, (2) vertical galleries, (3) lateral galleries, and (4) the larval cradle of P. quercivorus in each host tree. Among the fungus colonies which appeared on YM agar plates, 1,219 were isolated as the representative isolates for fungus species inhabiting in the galleries based on their cultural characteristics. The validity of the visual classification of the fungus colonies was checked and if necessary properly corrected using microsatellite-primed PCR fingerprints. The nucleotide sequence of the D1/D2 region of the large subunit nuclear rRNA gene detected 38 fungus species (104 strains) of which three species, i.e., Candida sp. 3, Candida kashinagacola (both yeasts), and the filamentous fungus Raffaelea quercivora were isolated from all the tree species. The two yeasts were most prevalent in the interior of galleries, regardless of host tree species, suggesting their close association with the beetle. A culture-independent method, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis was also used to characterize the fungus flora of beetle galleries. T-RFLP patterns showed that yeast species belonging to the genus Ambrosiozyma frequently occurred on the gallery walls along with the two Candida species. Ours is the first report showing the specific fungi inhabiting the galleries of a platypodid ambrosia beetle. PMID:21384214

Endoh, Rikiya; Suzuki, Motofumi; Okada, Gen; Takeuchi, Yuko; Futai, Kazuyoshi

2011-07-01

215

Complete Genome of Enterobacteriaceae Bacterium Strain FGI 57, a Strain Associated with Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Enterobacteriaceae bacterium strain FGI 57 was isolated from a fungus garden of the leaf-cutter ant Atta colombica. Analysis of its single 4.76-Mbp chromosome will shed light on community dynamics and plant biomass degradation in ant fungus gardens. PMID:23469353

Aylward, Frank O; Tremmel, Daniel M; Bruce, David C; Chain, Patrick; Chen, Amy; Walston Davenport, Karen; Detter, Chris; Han, Cliff S; Han, James; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia N; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Nolan, Matt; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Pitluck, Sam; Deshpande, Shweta; Goodwin, Lynne; Woyke, Tanja; Currie, Cameron R

2013-01-01

216

Biological control of horse cyathostomin (Nematoda: Cyathostominae) using the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans in tropical southeastern Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The viability of a fungal formulation using the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans was assessed for the biological control of horse cyathostomin. Two groups (fungus-treated and control without fungus treatment), consisting of eight crossbred mares (3-18 years of age) were fed on Cynodon sp. pasture naturally infected with equine cyathostome larvae. Each animal of the treated group received oral doses of sodium alginate mycelial pellets (1g/(10 kg live weight week)), during 6 months. Significant reduction (p<0.01) in the number of eggs per gram of feces and coprocultures was found for animals of the fungus-treated group compared with the control group. There was difference (p<0.01) of 78.5% reduction in herbage samples collected up to (0-20 cm) between the fungus-treated group and the control group, during the experimental period (May-October). Difference of 82.5% (p<0.01) was found between the fungus-treated group and the control group in the sampling distance (20-40 cm) from fecal pats. During the last 3 months of the experimental period (August, September and October), fungus-treated mares had significant weight gain (p<0.01) compared with the control group, an increment of 38 kg. The treatment with sodium alginate pellets containing the nematode-trapping fungus D. flagrans reduced cyathostomin in tropical southeastern Brazil and could be an effective tool for biological control of this parasitic nematode in horses. PMID:19497672

Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; Araújo, Jackson Victor; Silva, André Ricardo; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Carvalho, Rogério Oliva; Tavela, Alexandre Oliveira; Campos, Artur Kanadani; Carvalho, Giovanni Ribeiro

2009-08-26

217

Complete Genome of Enterobacteriaceae Bacterium Strain FGI 57, a Strain Associated with Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Enterobacteriaceae bacterium strain FGI 57 was isolated from a fungus garden of the leaf-cutter ant Atta colombica. Analysis of its single 4.76-Mbp chromosome will shed light on community dynamics and plant biomass degradation in ant fungus gardens.

Aylward, Frank O.; Tremmel, Daniel M.; Bruce, David C.; Chain, Patrick; Chen, Amy; Walston Davenport, Karen; Detter, Chris; Han, Cliff S.; Han, James; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Nolan, Matt

2013-01-01

218

Complete Genome of Serratia sp. Strain FGI 94, a Strain Associated with Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Serratia sp. strain FGI 94 was isolated from a fungus garden of the leaf-cutter ant Atta colombica. Analysis of its 4.86-Mbp chromosome will help advance our knowledge of symbiotic interactions and plant biomass degradation in this ancient ant-fungus mutualism.

Aylward, Frank O.; Tremmel, Daniel M.; Starrett, Gabriel J.; Bruce, David C.; Chain, Patrick; Chen, Amy; Davenport, Karen W.; Detter, Chris; Han, Cliff S.; Han, James; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas

2013-01-01

219

Transcriptional responses in Honey Bee larvae infected with chalkbrood fungus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Diseases and other stress factors working synergistically weaken honey bee health and may play a major role in the losses of bee populations in recent years. Among a large number of bee diseases, chalkbrood has been on the rise. We present here the experimental identification of honey bee genes that are differentially expressed in response to infection of honey bee larvae with the chalkbrood fungus, Ascosphaera apis. Results We used cDNA-AFLP ®Technology to profile transcripts in infected and uninfected bee larvae. From 64 primer combinations, over 7,400 transcriptionally-derived fragments were obtained A total of 98 reproducible polymorphic cDNA-AFLP fragments were excised and sequenced, followed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR analysis of these and additional samples. We have identified a number of differentially-regulated transcripts that are implicated in general mechanisms of stress adaptation, including energy metabolism and protein transport. One of the most interesting differentially-regulated transcripts is for a chitinase-like enzyme that may be linked to anti-fungal activities in the honey bee larvae, similarly to gut and fat-body specific chitinases found in mosquitoes and the red flour beetle. Surprisingly, we did not find many components of the well-characterized NF-?B intracellular signaling pathways to be differentially-regulated using the cDNA-AFLP approach. Therefore, utilizing qRT-PCR, we probed some of the immune related genes to determine whether the lack of up-regulation of their transcripts in our analysis can be attributed to lack of immune activation or to limitations of the cDNA-AFLP approach. Conclusions Using a combination of cDNA-AFLP and qRT-PCR analyses, we were able to determine several key transcriptional events that constitute the overall effort in the honey bee larvae to fight natural fungal infection. Honey bee transcripts identified in this study are involved in critical functions related to transcriptional regulation, apoptotic degradation of ubiquitinated proteins, nutritional regulation, and RNA processing. We found that immune regulation of the anti-fungal responses in honey bee involves highly coordinated activation of both NF-?B signaling pathways, leading to production of anti-microbial peptides. Significantly, activation of immune responses in the infected bee larvae was associated with down-regulation of major storage proteins, leading to depletion of nutritional resources.

Murray Keith D

2010-06-01

220

Conditions for selective degradation of lignin by the fungus Ganoderma australis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The white-rot fungus Ganoderma australis selectively degrades lignin in the ecosystem 'palo podrido'. Using conditions that simulate those of 'palo podrido' in the laboratory, it was found that low nitrogen content and low O{sub 2} tension stimulate the production of manganese peroxidase and lignin degradation, and depress cellulose degradation and cellulase production. The inverse is found at high nitrogen concentration and high O{sub 2} tension. This agrees with previous results indicating that low O{sub 2} tension and low nitrogen stimulate selective lignin degradation by this fungus. (orig.).

Rios, S.; Eyzaguirre, J. (Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Lab. de Bioquimica)

1992-08-01

 
 
 
 
221

Metabolism of carbohydrates in the fungus Aspergillus niger under the action of light  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of visible light with 410, 520 and 610 nm wave lengths on carbonhydrate transformation and absorption by Aspergillus niger fungus is studied. It is shown that the light stimulates the absorption by the fungus of the medium carbohydrates and their biochemical modifications. This leads to amplification of biomass accumulation and citric acid liberation to the medium. An increase of citric acid content in the cultural liquid is counected either with producer biomass growth or with amplification of biomass unit ability to citrate biosynthesis or with simultaneous realization of the both ways indicated

1988-01-01

222

Laccase activity from the fungus trametes hirsuta using an air-lift bioreactor  

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Aim: To produce high laccase activities from the white-rot fungus Trametes hirsuta in an in-house air-lift bioreactor (ALB). Methods and Results: Trametes hirsuta was grown in a 6-l ALB. A fed-batch strategy with glycerol as an addition resulted in maximum laccase activity of 19 400 U l)1, which was the highest reported from the fungus. Conclusion: The ALB configuration with additional glycerol resulted in high laccase activities. Significance and Impact of the Study: This study p...

Rodri?guez Couto, S.; Rodri?guez, A.; Paterson, R. R. M.; Lima, Nelson; Teixeira, J. A.

2006-01-01

223

Occurrence of keratinophilic fungus Lagenidium humanum Karling in the surface waters of Podlasie.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence of keratinophilic fungus Lagenidium humanum Karling was investigated, using the bait method, in relation to the environmental conditions in the surface waters of the River Bug, Supra?l and Zwierzyniec in Podlasie in the years 1995-2000. The fungus was found to be the most common at eutrophized sites of the River Supra?l and Bia?a, and snake exuviae was the most frequently colonized bait. It was revealed that the occurrence of Lagenidium humanum in the water reservoirs was mostly affected by the content of biogenes, suspended solids, oxidability and temperature. Its appearance was seasonal, being most common in spring and autumn. PMID:12533960

Kiziewicz, Bozena; Czeczuga, Bazyli

2002-01-01

224

Superoxide dismutase transgenes in sugarbeets confer resistance to oxidative agents and the fungus C. beticola.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugarbeets carrying superoxide dismutase transgenes were developed in order to investigate the possibility of enhancing their resistance to oxidative stress. Binary T-DNA vectors carrying the chloroplastic and cytosolic superoxide dismutase genes from tomato, were used for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sugarbeet petioles. The transgenic plants were subjected to treatments known to cause oxidative stress, such as the herbicide methyl viologen and a natural photosensitizer toxin produced by the fungus Cercospora beticola, namely cercosporin. The transgenic plants exhibited increased tolerance to methyl viologen, to pure cercosporin, as well as to leaf infection with the fungus C. beticola. PMID:15359600

Tertivanidis, Konstantinos; Goudoula, Catherine; Vasilikiotis, Christos; Hassiotou, Efthymia; Perl-Treves, Rafael; Tsaftaris, Athanasios

2004-06-01

225

A virus in a fungus in a plant: Three-way symbiosis required for thermal tolerance  

Science.gov (United States)

A mutualistic association between a fungal endophyte and a tropical panic grass allows both organisms to grow at high soil temperatures. We characterized a virus from this fungus that is involved in the mutualistic interaction. Fungal isolates cured of the virus are unable to confer heat tolerance, but heat tolerance is restored after the virus is reintroduced. The virus-infected fungus confers heat tolerance not only to its native monocot host but also to a eudicot host, which suggests that the underlying mechanism involves pathways conserved between these two groups of plants.

Marquez, L. M.; Redman, R. S.; Rodriguez, R. J.; Roossinck, M. J.

2007-01-01

226

Investigations on Aspergillus fumigatus double-stranded RNAs and their effects on the fungus  

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The aim of this research was to assess the incidence of dsRNA mycoviruses in the opportunistic human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, where previously no dsRNA viruses had been reported and to investigate the effects of any dsRNAs on the growth and pathogenicity of the fungus. Thus far 366 isolates (clinical and environmental) have been screened, 24 of which posses dsRNA elements. Successful efforts were made to completely characterise the two dsRNA segments of the isol...

Bhatti, Muhammad Faraz

2011-01-01

227

Process for producing ethanol from plant biomass using the fungus paecilomyces sp.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process in cludes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces, which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and xylose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this fungus, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. Finally, ethanol is recovered from the fermented substrate.

Wu, Jung Fu (Lakewood, CO)

1989-01-01

228

A new eremophilane-type sesquiterpene from the phytopatogen fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Sphaeropsidaceae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The phytopatogenic fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae, isolated from guava, was cultivated in rice for 32 days at room temperature. Extraction with CH2Cl2:MeOH (3:7), followed by chromatography fractionation of the extract provided ergosterol. From the fungus culture in Czapeck medium for 40 days at room temperature, were isolated isocoumarin cis-4-hydroxymeleine and an eremophilane-type sesquiterpene. The latter compound is being reported for the first time in the literature. Also, this is the first time that an eremophilane sesquiterpene is described for Lasiodiplodia genus. (author)

2008-01-01

229

A new eremophilane-type sesquiterpene from the phytopatogen fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Sphaeropsidaceae)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The phytopatogenic fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae, isolated from guava, was cultivated in rice for 32 days at room temperature. Extraction with CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}:MeOH (3:7), followed by chromatography fractionation of the extract provided ergosterol. From the fungus culture in Czapeck medium for 40 days at room temperature, were isolated isocoumarin cis-4-hydroxymeleine and an eremophilane-type sesquiterpene. The latter compound is being reported for the first time in the literature. Also, this is the first time that an eremophilane sesquiterpene is described for Lasiodiplodia genus. (author)

Nunes, Fatima M.; Oliveira, Maria da Conceicao F. de; Arriaga, Angela M.C.; Lemos, Telma L.G.; Andrade-Neto, Manoel; Mattos, Marcos C. de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: mcfo@ufc.br; Mafezoli, Jair [Universidade de Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Curso de Farmacia; Viana, Francisco M.P.; Ferreira, Viviane M. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Lab. de Fitopatologia; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Ferreira, Antonio G. [Universidade Federal de Sa Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

2008-07-01

230

Process for producing ethanol from plant biomass using the fungus Paecilomyces sp  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and xylose to ethanol is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this fungus, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. Finally, ethanol is recovered from the fermented substrate. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Wu, J.F.

1985-08-08

231

Process for producing ethanol from plant biomass using the fungus paecilomyces sp  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces, which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and xylose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this fungus, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. Finally, ethanol is recovered from the fermented substrate.

FuWu, J.

1989-06-20

232

Jesterone and hydroxy-jesterone antioomycete cyclohexenone epoxides from the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis jesteri.  

Science.gov (United States)

Jesterone and hydroxy-jesterone are novel highly functionalized cyclohexenone epoxides isolated from a newly described endophytic fungal species--Pestalotiopsis jesteri. They were purified from cultures of the fungus by bioassay guided fractionation using Pythium ultimum as the indicator organism. Jesterone, in particular, displays selective antimycotic activity against the oomycetous fungi which are some of the most plant pathogenic of all disease causing fungi. The possible importance of these cyclohexenones to the biology of the endophytic fungus-host plant relationship is also discussed. PMID:11382242

Li, J Y; Strobel, G A

2001-05-01

233

A new guaiane mannoside from a Eutypa-like fungus isolated from Murraya paniculata in Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Eutypa-like fungus was isolated from the stems of Murraya paniculata. The fungus was cultivated in liquid medium and produced the new guaiane-type sesquiterpenoid (1R,4S,5S,7R,10R)- 10-hydroxyguaianol 10-O-beta-mannopyranoside and the 3-hydroxy-5-phenylmethyl-(3S,5R)- tetrahydrofuran-2-one, a diastereomer of harzialactone A, obtained for the first time from a natural source. The structures of these metabolites were elucidated based on analysis of their spectroscopic data. (author)

Souza, Afonso D.L.; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Souza, Antonia Q.L.; Henrique-Silva, Flavio [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica e Evolucao; Pereira, Jose O. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias

2008-07-01

234

A new guaiane mannoside from a Eutypa-like fungus isolated from Murraya paniculata in Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Eutypa-like fungus was isolated from the stems of Murraya paniculata. The fungus was cultivated in liquid medium and produced the new guaiane-type sesquiterpenoid (1R,4S,5S,7R,10R)- 10-hydroxyguaianol 10-O-beta-mannopyranoside and the 3-hydroxy-5-phenylmethyl-(3S,5R)- tetrahydrofuran-2-one, a diastereomer of harzialactone A, obtained for the first time from a natural source. The structures of these metabolites were elucidated based on analysis of their spectroscopic data. (author)

2008-01-01

235

Metabolism of plant polysaccharides by leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the symbiotic fungus of the leaf-cutting ant atta sexdens L  

Science.gov (United States)

Atta sexdens L. ants feed on the fungus they cultivate on cut leaves inside their nests. The fungus, Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, metabolizes plant polysaccharides, such as xylan, starch, pectin, and cellulose, mediating assimilation of these compounds by the ants. This metabolic integration may be an important part of the ant-fungus symbiosis, and it involves primarily xylan and starch, both of which support rapid fungal growth. Cellulose seems to be less important for symbiont nutrition, since it is poorly degraded and assimilated by the fungus. Pectin is rapidly degraded but slowly assimilated by L. gongylophorus, and its degradation may occur so that the fungus can more easily access other polysaccharides in the leaves. PMID:9835568

Gomes De Siqueira C; Bacci; Pagnocca; Bueno; Hebling

1998-12-01

236

The method of isolation of epidermis of tomato and cucurnber leaves for microscopic investigation of pathogenic fungus development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There has been described a new, easy method of isolation and staining of epidermis from leaves and cotyledon of healthy cucumber and infected one with the fungus Pseudoperonospora cubensis Berk and Curt and from tomato leaves infected with the fungus Oidiurn licopersicum Cook and Massee. The epidermis was taken of with the use of transparent Scotch from the leaves and stained with toluidyne blue. This method is helpful in distinguising the differences in a structure of epidermis of healthy and infected leaves and in estimating the following: stage of development of the fungus on epidermis, number and size of haustorium in epidermis cells, number of spores of a fungus on the certain surface of the host leaf. This method is valuable because it enables to protect the material for a long time, which is very important during testing a big number of plants. Key words: leaf epidermis, method of isoIation, cucumber, tomato, pathogenic fungus.

Barbara Dyki

1996-12-01

237

Interaction of Rhizobium sp. with Toxin-Producing Fungus in Culture Medium and in a Tropical Soil †  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiments were conducted to determine the influence of a toxin-producing fungus on a rhizobial population in yeast-mannitol medium and in a tropical soil. The fungus, which was isolated from a highly weathered soil (Tropeptic Eutrustox), was identified as a Metarhizum sp. The density of rhizobial populations established in yeast-mannitol medium in the absence of the fungus was 105 times higher than that established in its presence. However, the fungus did not exert similar antagonistic influence on the rhizobial population incubated with it in the sterilized test soil. Rhizobial growth activity in yeast-mannitol medium was also insensitive to the presence of the fungus when the medium was amended with 1% (wt/vol) kaolinite or montmorillonite. The results suggest that clay minerals may be responsible for protecting rhizobia against toxin-producing fungi in soil.

Habte, Mitiku; Barrion, Melinda

1984-01-01

238

Interaction of Rhizobium sp. with Toxin-Producing Fungus in Culture Medium and in a Tropical Soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiments were conducted to determine the influence of a toxin-producing fungus on a rhizobial population in yeast-mannitol medium and in a tropical soil. The fungus, which was isolated from a highly weathered soil (Tropeptic Eutrustox), was identified as a Metarhizum sp. The density of rhizobial populations established in yeast-mannitol medium in the absence of the fungus was 10 times higher than that established in its presence. However, the fungus did not exert similar antagonistic influence on the rhizobial population incubated with it in the sterilized test soil. Rhizobial growth activity in yeast-mannitol medium was also insensitive to the presence of the fungus when the medium was amended with 1% (wt/vol) kaolinite or montmorillonite. The results suggest that clay minerals may be responsible for protecting rhizobia against toxin-producing fungi in soil. PMID:16346537

Habte, M; Barrion, M

1984-05-01

239

A molecular approach to explore the extent of the threatened fungus Hypocreopsis rhododendri within wood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypocreopsis rhododendri is a rare fungus that grows on woody stems in hyperoceanic climax scrub on the west coasts of Britain, Ireland, and France. Knowledge of the distribution and abundance of the fungus is based entirely on sporocarp records; it does not account for any occurrence as vegetative mycelia. To address this issue, a H. rhododendri-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed and used to assay Corylus avellana (hazel) stems for the presence of H. rhododendri mycelia. The primers ITSHrF and ITSHrR were designed within the internal transcribed spacer 2 region, and their specificity to H. rhododendri was established by their failure to amplify DNA extracted from 14 other Hypocreaceae species. The sensitivity of the assay was demonstrated by amplifying DNA extracted from 4 mg C. avellana wood spiked with 0.0013 % H. rhododendri mycelium. Samples of wood and bark were then taken from around and directly underneath 11 H. rhododendri sporocarps and assayed for the presence of H. rhododendri. PCR products were obtained from a third of the surface bark samples, but only one faint product was obtained from 70 samples taken from beneath the outer bark. The results support the view that H. rhododendri does not form mycelia within stems. We suggest that H. rhododendri is not a saprotrophic fungus, but instead appears to be a parasitic on the wood decay fungus Hymenochaete corrugata, with which it always occurs. Evidence that tissue of H. corrugata is present within the sporocarps of H. rhododendri is discussed. PMID:22385618

Grundy, Katherine C; Woodward, Steve; Genney, David R; Taylor, Andy F S

2012-03-01

240

Identification of the gene encoding the major cellobiohydrolase of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Previous studies have shown that the cellobiohydrolases of the white rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium are encoded by a family of structurally related genes. In this investigation, we identified and sequenced the most highly transcribed gene, cbh1-4. Evidence suggests that in this fungus the dominant isozyme, CBH1, is encoded by chb1-4.

Vanden Wymelenberg, A.; Covert, S.; Cullen, D.

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Optimization of protease production by the fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium and its action against Angiostrongylus vasorum larvae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this study were to optimize protease production from the nematophagous fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34a) and evaluate its larvicidal activity and biological stability. An isolate of the nematophagous fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34a) was used to produce the enzyme. The Plackett-Burman design was used in order to scan which components of the culture medium could have a significant influence on protease production by the fungus NF34a. An in vitro assay was also performed to evaluate the larvicidal activity of NF34a. It was observed that only one component of the culture medium (yeast extract), at the levels studied, had any significant effect (p < 0.05) on protease production. There was a reduction (p < 0.01) in the mean number of larvae recovered from the treated groups, compared with the control groups. The results confirm previous reports on the efficiency of nematophagous fungi for controlling nematode larvae that are potentially zoonotic. Thus, given the importance of biological control, we suggest that further studies should be conducted on the protease produced by the fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium. PMID:23856736

Soares, Filippe Elias de Freitas; Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; Araújo, Jackson Victor de; Lima, Walter dos Santos; Mozzer, Lanuze Rose; Queiroz, José Humberto de

2013-01-01

242

Amphibians acquire resistance to live and dead fungus overcoming fungal immunosuppression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emerging fungal pathogens pose a greater threat to biodiversity than any other parasitic group, causing declines of many taxa, including bats, corals, bees, snakes and amphibians. Currently, there is little evidence that wild animals can acquire resistance to these pathogens. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a pathogenic fungus implicated in the recent global decline of amphibians. Here we demonstrate that three species of amphibians can acquire behavioural or immunological resistance to B. dendrobatidis. Frogs learned to avoid the fungus after just one B. dendrobatidis exposure and temperature-induced clearance. In subsequent experiments in which B. dendrobatidis avoidance was prevented, the number of previous exposures was a negative predictor of B. dendrobatidis burden on frogs and B. dendrobatidis-induced mortality, and was a positive predictor of lymphocyte abundance and proliferation. These results suggest that amphibians can acquire immunity to B. dendrobatidis that overcomes pathogen-induced immunosuppression and increases their survival. Importantly, exposure to dead fungus induced a similar magnitude of acquired resistance as exposure to live fungus. Exposure of frogs to B. dendrobatidis antigens might offer a practical way to protect pathogen-naive amphibians and facilitate the reintroduction of amphibians to locations in the wild where B. dendrobatidis persists. Moreover, given the conserved nature of vertebrate immune responses to fungi and the fact that many animals are capable of learning to avoid natural enemies, these results offer hope that other wild animal taxa threatened by invasive fungi might be rescued by management approaches based on herd immunity. PMID:25008531

McMahon, Taegan A; Sears, Brittany F; Venesky, Matthew D; Bessler, Scott M; Brown, Jenise M; Deutsch, Kaitlin; Halstead, Neal T; Lentz, Garrett; Tenouri, Nadia; Young, Suzanne; Civitello, David J; Ortega, Nicole; Fites, J Scott; Reinert, Laura K; Rollins-Smith, Louise A; Raffel, Thomas R; Rohr, Jason R

2014-07-10

243

Specific, non-nutritional association between an ascomycete fungus and Allomerus plant-ants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ruiz-gonzález, MX.; Male, PG.; Leroy, C.; Dejean, A.; Gryta, H.; Jargeat, P.; Quilichini, A.... (2011). Specific, non-nutritional association between an ascomycete fungus and Allomerus plant-ants. Biology Letters. 7:475-479. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2010.0920.

Ruiz-gonza?lez, Mario X.; Male, Pierre-jean G.; Leroy, Ce?line; Dejean, Alain; Gryta, Herve?; Jargeat, Patricia; Quilichini, Ange?lique; Orivel, Je?ro?me

2011-01-01

244

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE MYCOTOXIN CITRININ OBTAINED FROM THE FUNGUS PENICILLIUM CITRINUM  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The mycotoxin Citrinin was obtained from the fungus Penicillium citrinum. It was tested for it's Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) against some gram positive strains viz. Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtillis, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Lactobacillus arabinosus and gram negative strains E.Coli, Shigella dysenteriae, shigella sonnei, shigella boydii, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis and Vibrio cholerae. Further the zone...

Mazumder, Papiya Mitrya; Mazumder, Rupa; Mazumder, A.; Sasmal, D. S.

2002-01-01

245

Improvement of barnyardgrass potential biocontrol fungus by NTG inducing and 60Co ?-ray irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Helminthosporium gramineum Rabenh f.sp. echinochloae (HGE), the Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa spp.) potential biocontrol fungus was induced by nitrosoguanidine (NTG, C2H5N5O3). The high yield of conidia production of inducing strain I262 was obtained. Conidia production of I262 increased 52.6% compared with its original fungus HGE. The experiments of nuclear irradiation were conducted by using I262 as starting strain. I262 was irradiated for 57 minutes by 60Co ?-rays at the dose of 650 Gy. Among selecting mutants, there are 7.75% strains' conidia production higher than that of I262. Among them, conidia production of mutants F II121, F II116 and F II140 increased 54.4%, 51.5% and 41.7% compared with that of I262, respectively. Conidia yield of mutants F II121 and F II116 were doubled compared with their original fungus HGE when using chemical in combine with physical technologies to treat the barnyardgrass' pathogen. The pathogenicity and control efficacy to barnyardgrass of high yield conidia production mutants were as the same as their original fungus HGE. (authors)

2004-12-01

246

Phenolic compounds, organic acids profiles and antioxidative properties of beefsteak fungus (Fistulina hepatica).  

Science.gov (United States)

The phenolic compounds and the organic acids composition of the edible beefsteak fungus Fistulina hepatica was determined by HPLC/DAD and HPLC/UV, respectively. The results showed a profile composed by five phenolic compounds (caffeic, p-coumaric and ellagic acids, hyperoside and quercetin) and six organic acids (oxalic, aconitic, citric, malic, ascorbic and fumaric acids). The quantification of the identified compounds revealed that ellagic acid (ca. 49.7%) and malic acid (ca. 57.9%) are the main compounds in this species. In a general way the phenolic profile revealed to be more constant than the organic acids one and could be more useful for the quality control of the species. Beefsteak fungus was also investigated for its capacity to act as a scavenger of DPPH() radical and reactive oxygen species (superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and hypochlorous acid). Good results were obtained against DPPH in a concentration-dependent manner. Beefsteak fungus also displayed good activity against superoxide radical, achieved by its capacity to act as both scavenger and xanthine oxidase inhibitor. A prooxidant effect was noticed for hydroxyl radical, which may be due to its capacity for iron ions reduction. Little ability for iron chelation was also observed. Beefsteak fungus showed a weak protective effect against hypochlorous acid. PMID:17493733

Ribeiro, Bárbara; Valentão, Patrícia; Baptista, Paula; Seabra, Rosa M; Andrade, Paula B

2007-10-01

247

Toxicity of lignans to symbiotic fungus of leaf-cutting ants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lignans fromVirola sebifera Aubl.,Virola sp., andOtoba parvifolia (Mkfg.) A. Gentry (Myristicaceae) inhibited the in vitro growth of the fungus cultivated by leaf-cutting ants of the speciesAtta sexdens rubropilosa Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). A comparison of activity among the lignans was obtained. PMID:24226088

Pagnocca, F C; Ribeiro, S B; Torkomian, V L; Hebling, M J; Bueno, O C; Da Silva, O A; Fernandes, J B; Vieira, P C; Da Silva, M F; Ferreira, A G

1996-07-01

248

BIODEGRADATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM  

Science.gov (United States)

The white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium secretes a unique hydrogen peroxide-dependent oxidase capable of degrading lignin, a highly complex, chemically resistant, non-repeating heteropolymer. ue to its ability to generate carbon-centered radicals, this enzyme is able to...

249

BIOLOGICAL OXIDATIONS OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BY ENZYMES FROM A WHITE ROT FUNGUS  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade a wide variety of structurally diverse organopollutants is dependent upon the lignin-degrading system of this microorganism. n part, the lignin-degrading system-consists of a family of peroxidases, which a...

250

Biodegradation of crystal violet by the white rot fungus phanerochaete chrysosporium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biodegradation of crystal violet (N,N,N',N',N',N''- hexamethylpararosaniline) in ligninolytic (nitrogen-limited) cultures of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance of crystal violet and by the identification of three metabolites (N,N,N',N',N'' -pentamethylpararosaniline, N,N,N',N'' -tetramethylpararosaniline, and N,N',N'' -trimethylpararosaniline) formed by sequential N-demethylation of the parent compound. Metabolite formation also occurred when crystal violet was incubated with the extracellular fluid obtained from ligninolytic cultures of this fungus, provided that an H2O2-generating system was supplied. This, as well as the fact that a purified ligninase catalyzed N-demethylation of crystal violet, demonstrated that biodegradation of crystal violet by this fungus is dependent, at least in part, upon its lignin-degrading system. In addition to crystal violet, six other triphenylmethane dyes (pararosaniline, cresol red, bromphenol blue, ethyl violet, malachite green, and brilliant green) were shown to be degraded by the lignin-degrading system of this fungus.

Bumpus, J.A.; Brock, B.J.

1988-01-01

251

BIOTRANSFORMATION OF 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE (TNT) BY A PLANT-ASSOCIATED FUNGUS FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM  

Science.gov (United States)

The capability of a plant-associated fungus, Fusarium oxyvorum, to transform TNT in liquid cultures was investigated. TNT was transformed into 2-amino-4, 6-dinitrotoluene (2-A-DNT), 4-amino-2, 6-dinitrotoluene (4-A- DNT), and 2, 4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2, 4-DAT) via 2- and 4-hy...

252

Toxicidade de filtrados fúngicos a meloidogyne incognita Fungus filtrates toxicity to Meloidogyne incognita  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Visando à obtenção de novas moléculas nematicidas, 18 filtrados de espécies fúngicas e extratos de sete micélios fúngicos foram estudados in vitro quanto aos efeitos sobre a eclosão, motilidade e mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de Meloidogyne incognita. Filtrados fúngicos foram obtidos de culturas em meio Czapek. Metanol foi usado como solvente para obter extratos dos micélios fúngicos. Filtrados de Paecilomyces lilacinus, Fusarium moniliforme e Fusarium oxysporum reduziram a motilidade e eclosão, e aumentaram a mortalidade (P In the search for new nematicidal molecules, 18 fungal species filtrates and seven fungus mycelium extracts were studied in vitro to see their influence on hatching, mobility and mortality of second stage juveniles (J2 of Meloidogyne incognita. Fungal filtrates were obtained from fifteen day Czapek cultures. Methanol was used as solvent to obtain fungus mycelium extracts. Paecilomyces lilacinus, Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium oxysporum filtrates reduced J2 motility and hatching, and increased J2 mortality (P < 0,05 similarly to Aldicarb. Some fungus filtrates reduced J2 mobility without leading to death. Aspergillus flavus, Cylindrocarpon magnusianum, Fusarium solani and Mortierella sp. filtrates reduced (P < 0,05 only J2 hatching. Production of toxic fungus metabolites was not dependent on the amount of mycelium produced. P. lilacinus produced toxic filtrates after one day culturing. Since then, toxicity increased steadily, reaching 100% J2 mortality on the thirteenth day.

MAURO J.N. COSTA

2001-12-01

253

Characterization of oxylipins and dioxygenase genes in the asexual fungus Aspergillus niger  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Aspergillus niger is an ascomycetous fungus that is known to reproduce through asexual spores, only. Interestingly, recent genome analysis of A. niger has revealed the presence of a full complement of functional genes related to sexual reproduction 1. An example of such genes are the dioxygenase genes which in Aspergillus nidulans, have been shown to be connected to oxylipin production and...

Wadman Mayken W; de Vries Ronald P; Ic, Kalkhove Stefanie; Veldink Gerrit A; Fg, Vliegenthart Johannes

2009-01-01

254

Degradation of organic sulfur compounds by a coal-solubilizing fungus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paecilomyces sp. TLi, a coal-solubilizing fungus, was shown to degrade organic sulfur-containing coal substructure compounds. Dibenzothiophene was degraded via a sulfur-oxidizing pathway to 2.2'-biphenol. No further metabolism of the biphenol was observed...

B. D. Faison T. M. Clark S. N. Lewis D. M. Sharkey C. A. Woodward

1990-01-01

255

BIODEGRADATION OF CRYSTAL VIOLET BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOPORIUM  

Science.gov (United States)

Biodegradation of crystal violet (N,N,N',N',N",N"-hexamethylpararosaniline) in ligninolytic (nitrogen-limited) cultures of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance of crystal violet and by the identification of three metabolites (N,N,...

256

Antibacterial activity of a substance produced by the fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus (Fr.) Murr.  

Science.gov (United States)

A fraction obtained from the culture fluids of Pycnoporus sanguineus fungus was shown to contain a compound with biological activity against strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and members of the genus Streptococcus. The fraction was clearly more active on Gram-positive cocci than on Gram-negative bacilli. PMID:7623481

Smânia, A; Monache, F D; Smânia, E F; Gil, M L; Benchetrit, L C; Cruz, F S

1995-03-01

257

A novel antibiotic CJ-17,572 from a fungus, Pezicula sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new antibiotic, CJ-17,572 (I) was isolated from the fermentation broth of a fungus Pezicula sp. CL11877. The structure of I was determined to be a new equisetin derivative by spectroscopic analyses. The compound inhibits the growth of multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcusfaecalis with IC50s of 10 and 20 microg/ml, respectively. PMID:11918060

Sugie, Yutaka; Dekker, Koen A; Inagaki, Taisuke; Kim, Yoon-Jeong; Sakakibara, Tatsuo; Sakemi, Shinichi; Sugiura, Akemi; Brennan, Lori; Duignan, Joan; Sutcliffe, Joyce A; Kojima, Yasuhiro

2002-01-01

258

CJ-21,058, a new SecA inhibitor isolated from a fungus.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new equisetin derivative, CJ-21,058 (I) was isolated from the fermentation broth of an unidentified fungus CL47745. It shows antibacterial activity against Gram-positive multi-drug resistant bacteria by inhibiting ATP-dependent translocation of precursor proteins across a bacterial cell membrane. PMID:11918061

Sugie, Yutaka; Inagaki, Sae; Kato, Yoshinao; Nishida, Hiroyuki; Pang, Chang-Hong; Saito, Toshiyuki; Sakemi, Shinichi; Dib-Hajj, Fadia; Mueller, John P; Sutcliffe, Joyce; Kojima, Yasuhiro

2002-01-01

259

Susceptibility of Seven Termite Species (Isoptera) to the Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium anisopliae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seven termite species (Isoptera) from five families were tested for disease susceptibility against the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae using a standard protocol: Mastotermes darwiniensis (Mastotermitidae), Hodotermopsis sjoestedti (Termopsidae), Hodotermes mossambicus (Hodotermitidae), Kalotermes flavicollis (Kalotermitidae), Reticulitermes flavipes and Prorhinotermes canalifrons (Rhinotermitidae), and Nasutitermes voeltzkowi (Termitidae). Our results showed a large diversity i...

Chouvenc, Thomas; Su, Nan-yao; Robert, Alain

2009-01-01

260

Draft Genome Sequence of Sclerotinia borealis, a Psychrophilic Plant Pathogenic Fungus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sclerotinia borealis is a necrotrophic phytopathogenic fungus notable for its wide host range and environmental persistence. It grows at low temperatures, causing snow mold disease of crop plants. To understand the molecular mechanisms of its pathogenesis and adaptation to the psychrophilic lifestyle, we determined the 39.3-Mb draft genome sequence of S. borealis F-4128. PMID:24459262

Mardanov, Andrey V; Beletsky, Alexey V; Kadnikov, Vitaly V; Ignatov, Alexander N; Ravin, Nikolai V

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Investigation of the Effect of Heating, Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza and Thermophilic Fungus on Cotton Wilt Disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, combinations of spores of a thermophilic fungus (Talaromyces flavus, Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM and microsclerotia of Verticillium dahliae under various temperature treatment (31-38°C in triplicate trial, were investigated and results were compared with those of non-treated controls. Five cotton seeds were planted in each pot containing 3 kg of pasteurized soil. In each pot, combinations of 4x103 VAM spores, 2.5x10 9 spores of thermophilic fungus (T. flavus and 5x105 microsclerotia of V. dahliae were added. Symptoms of Verticillium wilt were observed after 45 days. Index of disease severity was measured. Results indicated that pre-heating of microsclerotia at 31 and 35°C for 10 and 14 h, respectively, caused a 15% reduction in leaf infection index. Presence of VAM and thermophilic fungus (T. flavus spores caused 23 and 50% reductions in the disease development , respectively. Concurrent presence of mycorrhiza and thermophilic fungus spores caused a 10-20% reduction in disease development. These findings provide a promising approach to the control of Verticillium wilt of cotton. However, heat treatment of soil may prove difficult. Further studies in this regard are required and useful agricultural practices such as seasonal heating may be applied in the cotton fields.

L. Naraghi

2007-01-01

262

Convergent coevolution in the domestication of coral mushrooms by fungus-growing ants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Comparisons of phylogenetic patterns between coevolving symbionts can reveal rich details about the evolutionary history of symbioses. The ancient symbiosis between fungus-growing ants, their fungal cultivars, antibiotic-producing bacteria and cultivar-infecting parasites is dominated by a pattern of parallel coevolution, where the symbionts of each functional group are members of monophyletic groups. However, there is one outstanding exception in the fungus-growing ant system, the unidentified cultivar grown only by ants in the Apterostigma pilosum group. We classify this cultivar in the coral-mushroom family Pterulaceae using phylogenetic reconstructions based on broad taxon sampling, including the first mushroom collected from the garden of an ant species in the A. pilosum group. The domestication of the pterulaceous cultivar is independent from the domestication of the gilled mushrooms cultivated by all other fungus-growing ants. Yet it has the same overall assemblage of coevolved ant-cultivar-parasite-bacterium interactions as the other ant-grown fungal cultivars. This indicates a pattern of convergent coevolution in the fungus-growing ant system, where symbionts with both similar and very different evolutionary histories converge to functionally identical interactions.

Munkacsi, A B; Nees, Jan Pan

2004-01-01

263

Establishing Molecular Tools for Genetic Manipulation of the Pleuromutilin-Producing Fungus Clitopilus passeckerianus?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We describe efficient polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation systems for a pharmaceutically important basidiomycete fungus, Clitopilus passeckerianus, which produces pleuromutilin, a diterpene antibiotic. Three dominant selectable marker systems based on hygromycin, phleomycin, and carboxin selection were used to study the feasibility of PEG-mediated transformation of C. passeckerianus. The PEG-mediated transformation of C. passeckerianus protoplasts was ...

Kilaru, Sreedhar; Collins, Catherine M.; Hartley, Amanda J.; Bailey, Andy M.; Foster, Gary D.

2009-01-01

264

Investigation of the effect of heating, vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza and thermophilic fungus on cotton wilt disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, combinations of spores of a thermophilic fungus (Talaromyces flavus), Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM) and microsclerotia of Verticillium dahliae under various temperature treatment (31-38 degrees C) in triplicate trial, were investigated and results were compared with those of non-treated controls. Five cotton seeds were planted in each pot containing 3 kg of pasteurized soil. In each pot, combinations of 4x10(3) VAM spores, 2.5x10(9) spores of thermophilic fungus (T. flavus) and 5x10(5) microsclerotia of V. dahliae were added. Symptoms of Verticillium wilt were observed after 45 days. Index of disease severity was measured. Results indicated that pre-heating of microsclerotia at 31 and 35 degrees C for 10 and 14 h, respectively, caused a 15% reduction in leaf infection index. Presence of VAM and thermophilic fungus (T. flavus) spores caused 23 and 50% reductions in the disease development, respectively. Concurrent presence of mycorrhiza and thermophilic fungus spores caused a 10-20% reduction in disease development. These findings provide a promising approach to the control of Verticillium wilt of cotton. However, heat treatment of soil may prove difficult. Further studies in this regard are required and useful agricultural practices such as seasonal heating may be applied in the cotton fields. PMID:19086504

Naraghi, L; Zareh-Maivan, H; Heydari, A; Afshari-Azad, H

2007-05-15

265

Fungus ball pieloureteral en pacientes con litiasis urinaria: Tratamiento con ureterorrenoscopia / Pyelo-ureteral fungus ball in patients with urinary lithiasis: Ureterorrenoscopic management  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIÓN: C. albicans es el hongo que con mayor frecuencia produce infecciones oportunistas del tracto urinario. Cuando las hifas se aglutinan alrededor de un núcleo de tejido necrótico (necrosis papilar), hebras mucosas, restos de suturas quirúrgicas y/o material litiásico, se forma una pelota [...] fúngica que puede obstruir cualquier tramo del tracto urinario. CASOS CLÍNICOS: Presentamos dos pacientes formadores crónicos de cálculos que en ausencia de otros factores de riesgo para las infecciones fúngicas oportunistas, desarrollan fungus balls en el tracto urinario superior dilatado por una litiasis ureteral obstructiva. La paciente 1 tuvo afectación bilateral y en ningún momento hubo manifestaciones sistémicas. El tratamiento consistió en ureterorrenoscopia con extracción de las bolas fúngicas, derivación bilateral y anfotericina B sistémica y en irrigaciones tópicas. El paciente 2, en el contexto de una sepsis candidiásica, se trató con anfotericina B sistémica, desobstrucción mediante ureterorrenoscopia con extracción de un cálculo ureteral y de pelotas fúngicas, y colocación de catéter JJ y nefrostomía con irrigaciones de anfotericina B. DISCUSIÓN: La litiasis urinaria constituye por sí sola un factor de riesgo para la infección fúngica del tracto urinario superior, en ausencia de otros factores favorecedores de las infecciones fúngicas oportunistas. El mecanismo por el cual el cálculo favorece el crecimiento de los hongos es, por un lado, la obstrucción pieloureteral con éstasis retrógrado y, por otro lado, la nucleación alrededor de una matriz de material cálcico sobre la que crecen, se agregan y se ramifican los micelios. La vía de infección es probablemente ascendente y puede complicarse con funguemia y sepsis. Los antimicóticos sistémicos, la derivación con catéteres ureterales o de nefrostomía que permitan irrigación local con antifúngicos, y las técnicas endourológicas, constituyen los tres pilares básicos del tratamiento. La ureterorrenoscopia juega aquí un papel importante al ser una técnica diagnóstica y al mismo tiempo terapéutica al permitir la desobstrucción litiásica y la limpieza de las masas fúngicas. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: C. albicans is the most frequent fungus causing opportunist infections of the urinary tract. Agglutination of necrotic tissue nucleus (papilar necrosis), mucosus debri and chirurgic or lithiasic debri, originates a fungus ball, which can obstruct the urinary tract at any level. CLINICA [...] L DATA: We present 2 patients with obstructive urinary lithiasis developing fungus ball in the dilated upper urinary tract. Patient 1 was bilaterally affected and never had systemic symptoms. Treatment consisted of uretherorrenoscope for removal of fungus ball, bilateral urinary diversion and anphotericine B irrigations and systemic. Patient 2 developed a candidemia and was treated with systemic liposomal anphotericine B, uretherorrenoscopy with removal of ureteric calculus and fungus ball, and placement of a double J catheter and nephrostomy tube for anphotericine B irrigation. DISCUSSION: Urinary lithiasis is a risk factor for fungal infection of the upper urinary tract, provided there is no other predisponent factor for opportunistic fungal infections. Calculi facilitates fungal growth by means of obstruction and subsequent retrograde estasis and creating a nucleus for growth, aggregation and ramification of mycelium. The infection pathway is probably ascendent and may turn into fungemia and septicaemia. Systemic antimicotics, urinary diversion and local irrigations with antimicotics, and endourologic technics, are the three basic items in the treatment. Ureterorrenoscopy plays an important roll as a diagnostic and terapeutic tool as it may solve the obstruction and allows removal of fungus ball.

J.P., Burgués Gasión; J.M., Alapont Alacreu; F., Oliver Amorós; A., Benedicto Redón; F., Boronat Tormo; J.F., Jiménez Cruz.

266

Scanning electron microscopy of Ancylostoma spp. dog infective larvae captured and destroyed by the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interaction between the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans (isolate CG768) against Ancylostoma spp. dog infective larvae (L(3)) was evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy. Adhesive network trap formation was observed 6h after the beginning of the interaction, and the capture of Ancylostoma spp. L(3) was observed 8h after the inoculation these larvae on the cellulose membranes colonized by the fungus. Scanning electron micrographs were taken at 0, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h, where 0 is the time when Ancylostoma spp. L(3) was first captured by the fungus. Details of the capture structure formed by the fungus were described. Nematophagous Fungus Helper Bacteria (NHB) were found at interactions points between the D. flagrans and Ancylostoma spp. L(3). The cuticle penetration by the differentiated fungal hyphae with the exit of nematode internal contents was observed 36 h after the capture. Ancylostoma spp. L(3) were completely destroyed after 48 h of interaction with the fungus. The scanning electron microscopy technique was efficient on the study of this interaction, showing that the nematode-trapping fungus D. flagrans (isolate CG768) is a potential exterminator of Ancylostoma spp. L(3). PMID:19188073

Maciel, A S; Araújo, J V; Campos, A K; Benjamin, L A; Freitas, L G

2009-06-01

267

Forage collection, substrate preparation, and diet composition in fungus-growing ants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

2. The attine fungus-growing ants are a tribe of more than 230 described species (12 genera) that use a variety of different substrates to manure the symbiotic fungus they cultivate inside the nest. Common 'wisdom' is that the conspicuous leaf-cutting ants primarily use freshly cut plant material, whereas most of the other attine species use dry and partly degraded plant material such as leaf litter and caterpillar frass, but systematic comparative studies of actual resource acquisition across the attine ants have not been done. 3. Here we review 179 literature records of diet composition across the extant genera of fungus-growing ants. The records confirm the dependence of leaf-cutting ants on fresh vegetation but find that flowers, dry plant debris, seeds (husks), and insect frass are used by all genera, whereas other substrates such as nectar and insect carcasses are only used by some. 4. Diet composition was significantly correlated with ant substrate preparation behaviours before adding forage to the fungus garden, indicating that diet composition and farming practices have co-evolved. Neither diet nor preparation behaviours changed when a clade within the paleoattine genus Apterostigma shifted from rearing leucocoprinous fungi to cultivating pterulaceous fungi, but the evolutionary derived transition to yeast growing in the Cyphomyrmex rimosus group, which relies almost exclusively on nectar and insect frass, was associated with specific changes in diet composition. 5. The co-evolutionary transitions in diet composition across the genera of attine ants indicate that fungus-farming insect societies have the possibility to obtain more optimal fungal crops via artificial selection, analogous to documented practice in human subsistence farming

Licht, H.H.D.; Boomsma, J.J.

2010-01-01

268

The prediction of protein-protein interaction networks in rice blast fungus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein interaction (PPI maps are useful tools for investigating the cellular functions of genes. Thus far, large-scale PPI mapping projects have not been implemented for the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea, which is responsible for the most severe rice disease. Inspired by recent advances in PPI prediction, we constructed a PPI map of this important fungus. Results Using a well-recognized interolog approach, we have predicted 11,674 interactions among 3,017 M. grisea proteins. Although the scale of the constructed map covers approximately only one-fourth of the M. grisea's proteome, it is the first PPI map for this crucial organism and will therefore provide new insights into the functional genomics of the rice blast fungus. Focusing on the network topology of proteins encoded by known pathogenicity genes, we have found that pathogenicity proteins tend to interact with higher numbers of proteins. The pathogenicity proteins and their interacting partners in the entire network were then used to construct a subnet called a pathogenicity network. These data may provide further clues for the study of these pathogenicity proteins. Finally, it has been established that secreted proteins in M. grisea interact with fewer proteins. These secreted proteins and their interacting partners were also compiled into a network of secreted proteins, which may be helpful in constructing an interactome between the rice blast fungus and rice. Conclusion We predicted the PPIs of M. grisea and compiled them into a database server called MPID. It is hoped that MPID will provide new hints as to the functional genomics of this fungus. MPID is available at http://bioinformatics.cau.edu.cn/zzd_lab/MPID.html.

Zhang Ziding

2008-11-01

269

Acid phosphatase activity during the interaction of the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans with the nematode Panagrellus sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of Duddingtonia flagrans, a nematode-trapping fungus, has been investigated as a biological control method against free living larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes of livestock animals. This fungus captures and infects the nematode by cuticle penetration, immobilization and digestion of the internal contents. It has been suggested that this sequence of events occurs by a combination of physical and enzymatical activities. This report characterizes the acid phosphatase activity during the interaction of D. flagrans with the free-living nematode Panagrellus sp. The optimum pH for the hydrolysis of the acid phosphatase substrate p-nitrophenyl phosphate was 2.2, 2.8 and 5.4 from D. flagrans alone and 2.2 and 5.4 for Panagrellus sp alone, fungus-nematode interaction in liquid medium and fungus-nematode interaction in solid medium. Different acid phosphatase activity bands were detected by SDS-PAGE. Maximum acid phosphatase activity of the fungus or nematode alone and of the fungus-nematode interaction occurred within 70min of incubation in the presence of the substrate 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate. The activity of this enzyme was significantly higher for the fungus-nematode interaction when compared to the organisms alone, indicating a synergistic response. Furthermore, structures appeared in the hyphae after 30min, nematodes were observed adhered after 40min and many were captured by the typical fungus traps after 70min of interaction. The participation of acid phosphatase activity and its importance during the interaction of the fungus with the nematode were discussed. PMID:19679133

Cruz, D G; Silva, C P; Carneiro, C N B; Retamal, C A; Thiébaut, J T L; DaMatta, R A; Santos, C P

2009-11-01

270

Comparison of radial growth rate of the mutualistic fungus of Atta sexdens rubropilosa forel in two culture media.  

Science.gov (United States)

In vitro culture of the mutualistic fungus of leaf-cutting ants is troublesome due to its low growth rate, which leads to storage problems and contaminants accumulation. This paper aims at comparing the radial growth rate of the mutualistic fungus of Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel in two different culture media (Pagnocca B and MEA LP). Although total MEA LP radial growth was greater all along the bioassay, no significant difference was detected between growth efficiencies of the two media. Previous evidences of low growth rate for this fungus were confirmed. Since these data cannot point greater efficiency of one culture medium over the other, MEA LP medium is indicated for in vitro studies with this mutualistic fungus due its simpler composition and translucent color, making the analysis easier. PMID:24031524

Miyashira, C H; Tanigushi, D G; Gugliotta, A M; Santos, D Y A C

2010-04-01

271

Time-dose-mortality data and modeling for the entomopathogenic fungus Aschersonia placenta against the whitefly Bemisia tabaci.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fungus Aschersonia placenta FJSM was evaluated for control of the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. Bemisia tabaci nymphs (1st-4th instars) on tomato plants in the greenhouse (25-27 °C, 70%-85% relative humidity) were sprayed with suspensions containing 0, 10(4), 10(5), 10(6), 10(7), or 10(8) A. placenta FJSM conidia/mL. Mortality of fungus-treated 1st to 3rd instar nymphs ranged from 93% to 100% but was <25% for 4th instar nymphs; the fungus sporulated from 70% to 80% of the fungus-treated B. tabaci cadavers. LD50 and LD90 values decreased with time after treatment and increased with instar. LT50 values decreased with conidial concentration. The data were then described with time-dose-mortality models. The results indicate that A. placenta FJSM has potential as a mycoinsecticide for control of B. tabaci. PMID:23461516

Qiu, Junzhi; Song, Feifei; Mao, Lihui; Tu, Jie; Guan, Xiong

2013-02-01

272

Comparison of radial growth rate of the mutualistic fungus of Atta sexdens rubropilosa forel in two culture media  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In vitro culture of the mutualistic fungus of leaf-cutting ants is troublesome due to its low growth rate, which leads to storage problems and contaminants accumulation. This paper aims at comparing the radial growth rate of the mutualistic fungus of Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel in two different culture media (Pagnocca B and MEA LP. Although total MEA LP radial growth was greater all along the bioassay, no significant difference was detected between growth efficiencies of the two media. Previous evidences of low growth rate for this fungus were confirmed. Since these data cannot point greater efficiency of one culture medium over the other, MEA LP medium is indicated for in vitro studies with this mutualistic fungus due its simpler composition and translucent color, making the analysis easier.

C.H Miyashira

2010-06-01

273

An anamorph of the white-rot fungus Bjerkandera adusta capable of colonizing and degrading compact disc components.  

Science.gov (United States)

A Geotrichum-like fungus isolated from a biodeteriorated compact disc (CD) was able to degrade in vitro the components of different CD types. The fungal hyphae inside the CD fragments grew through the aluminium layer and produced the solubilization of this metal. Furthermore, examination of CDs by scanning electron microscopy showed that the fungus was able to destroy the pits and lands structures grooved in the polycarbonate layer, confirming degradation of this aromatic polymer. The fungus secretes aryl-alcohol oxidase and Mn2+-oxidizing peroxidase, two kinds of oxidoreductases characteristic of ligninolytic basidiomycetes. Analysis of the ITS region of ribosomal DNA, as well as the morphological characteristics, the lack of sexual forms and the profile of enzymes secreted in liquid medium identified the fungus as a Geotrichum-like anamorph of Bjerkandera adusta (Willd.) P. Karst. PMID:17854471

Romero, Elvira; Speranza, Mariela; García-Guinea, Javier; Martínez, Angel T; Martínez, María Jesús

2007-10-01

274

The development of a spatially-explicit, individual-based, disease model for frogs and the chytrid fungus  

Science.gov (United States)

Background / Question / Methods The fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (BD), has been associated with amphibian population declines and even extinctions worldwide. Transmission of the fungus between amphibian hosts occurs via motile zoospores, which are produced on...

275

Comparison of radial growth rate of the mutualistic fungus of Atta sexdens rubropilosa forel in two culture media  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In vitro culture of the mutualistic fungus of leaf-cutting ants is troublesome due to its low growth rate, which leads to storage problems and contaminants accumulation. This paper aims at comparing the radial growth rate of the mutualistic fungus of Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel in two different c [...] ulture media (Pagnocca B and MEA LP). Although total MEA LP radial growth was greater all along the bioassay, no significant difference was detected between growth efficiencies of the two media. Previous evidences of low growth rate for this fungus were confirmed. Since these data cannot point greater efficiency of one culture medium over the other, MEA LP medium is indicated for in vitro studies with this mutualistic fungus due its simpler composition and translucent color, making the analysis easier.

C.H, Miyashira; D.G, Tanigushi; A.M, Gugliotta; D.Y.A.C, Santos.

276

Genetic Analysis of the Role of Phytoalexin Detoxification in Virulence of the Fungus Nectria haematococca on Chickpea (Cicer arietinum)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chickpea (Cicer arietium L.) produces the antimicrobial compounds (phytoalexins) medicarpin and maackiain in response to infection by microorganisms. Nectria haematococca mating population (MP) VI, a fungus pathogenic on chickpea, can metabolize maackiain and medicarpin to less toxic products. These reactions are thought to be detoxification mechanisms in N. haematococca MP VI and required for pathogenesis by this fungus on chickpea. In the present study, these hypotheses were tested by exami...

Miao, V. P. W.; Vanetten, H. D.

1992-01-01

277

Comparison of radial growth rate of the mutualistic fungus of Atta sexdens rubropilosa forel in two culture media  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In vitro culture of the mutualistic fungus of leaf-cutting ants is troublesome due to its low growth rate, which leads to storage problems and contaminants accumulation. This paper aims at comparing the radial growth rate of the mutualistic fungus of Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel in two different culture media (Pagnocca B and MEA LP). Although total MEA LP radial growth was greater all along the bioassay, no significant difference was detected between growth efficiencies of the two media. Pr...

2010-01-01

278

UMH.48 (NCBI JN807465) the Fungus causing Rhinosporidiosis is sensitive to anti fungal polyene drug Amphotericin B  

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UMH.48, JN807465, a fungus causing Rhinosporidiosis was isolated in pureculture from biopsies from patients with nasal Rhinosporidiosis. It was identified as alower aquatic fungus by 18S rRNA gene sequencing which compared 100% similar to thesequences from fungal extract of the tissue, thus establishing the etiologic role of UMH.48in Rhinosporidiosis. UMH.48 18S rRNA sequence showed significant similarity withSynchytridium minutum and very low varying percentages of similarity withMycobacteri...

2012-01-01

279

Compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium longisporum (Petch) Zare & Gams with the predatory midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rondani (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The combined use of the predatory midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rondani (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) and the entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium longisporum (Petch) Zare & Gams., biocontrol agents of the green peach aphid Myzus persicae, was evaluated in a semi-greenhouse setting. Results from this experiment showed a statistically significant additive effect of these organisms in controlling aphid populations: a higher reduction of aphid populations in cages with fungus plus predator was ob...

Jaramillo Velez, Maria Patricia

2008-01-01

280

Rapid shifts in Atta cephalotes fungus-garden enzyme activity after a change in fungal substrate (Attini, Formicidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungus gardens of the basidiomycete Leucocoprinus gongylophorus sustain large colonies of leaf-cutting ants by degrading the plant material collected by the ants. Recent studies have shown that enzyme activity in these gardens is primarily targeted toward starch, proteins and the pectin matrix associated with cell walls, rather than toward structural cell wall components such as cellulose and hemicelluloses. Substrate constituents are also known to be sequentially degraded in different sections of the fungus garden. To test the plasticity in the extracellular expression of fungus-garden enzymes, we measured the changes in enzyme activity after a controlled shift in fungal substrate offered to six laboratory colonies of Atta cephalotes. An ant diet consisting exclusively of grains of parboiled rice rapidly increased the activity of endo-proteinases and some of the pectinases attacking the backbone structure of pectin molecules, relative to a pure diet of bramble leaves, and this happened predominantly in the most recently established top sections of fungus gardens. However, fungus-garden amylase activity did not significantly increase despite the substantial increase in starch availability from the rice diet, relative to the leaf diet controls. Enzyme activity in the older, bottom sections of fungus gardens decreased, indicating a faster processing of the rice substrate compared to the leaf diet. These results suggest that leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens can rapidly adjust enzyme activity to provide a better match with substrate availability and that excess starch that is not protected by cell walls may be digested by the ants rather than by the fungus-garden symbiont. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00040-010-0127-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:21475686

Kooij, P W; Schiøtt, M; Boomsma, J J; De Fine Licht, H H

2011-05-01

 
 
 
 
281

Cytotoxic and Antifungal Activities of 5-Hydroxyramulosin, a Compound Produced by an Endophytic Fungus Isolated from Cinnamomum mollisimum  

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An endophytic fungus isolated from the plant Cinnamomum mollissimum was investigated for the bioactivity of its metabolites. The fungus, similar to a Phoma sp., was cultured in potato dextrose broth for two weeks, followed by extraction with ethyl acetate. The crude extract obtained was fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Both crude extract and fractions were assayed for cytotoxicity against P388 murine leukemic cells and inhibition of bacterial and fungal pathogens. The b...

Carolina Santiago; Chris Fitchett; Munro, Murray H. G.; Juriyati Jalil; Jacinta Santhanam

2012-01-01

282

Pan-European Distribution of White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) Not Associated with Mass Mortality  

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Background: The dramatic mass mortalities amongst hibernating bats in Northeastern America caused by ‘‘white nosesyndrome’’ (WNS) continue to threaten populations of different bat species. The cold-loving fungus, Geomyces destructans, is the most likely causative agent leading to extensive destruction of the skin, particularly the wing membranes. Recent investigations in Europe confirmed the presence of the fungus G. destructans without associated mass mortality in hibernat...

Puechmaille, Se?bastien J.; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Korn, Vanessa; Fuller, Hubert; Forget, Fre?de?ric; Mu?hldorfer, Kristin; Kurth, Andreas; Teeling, Emma C.

2011-01-01

283

Biodegradation of ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (Lindane) by a non-white rot fungus conidiobolus 03-1-56 isolated from litter  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biodegradation of chlorinated pesticide ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane) by a nonwhite rot fungus Conidiobolus 03-1-56 is reported for the first time. Conidiobolus 03-1-56, a phycomyceteous fungus isolated from litter, completely degraded lindane on the 5th day of incubation in the culture medium, and GC-ECD studies confirmed that lindane removal did not occur via adsorption on the fungal biomass. Degradation studies using different medium compositions showed that nitrogen/carbon limiting c...

Nagpal, Varima; Srinivasan, M. C.; Paknikar, K. M.

2008-01-01

284

Cytological, microbiological and therapeutic aspects of systemic infection in a dog caused by the fungus Phialosimplex caninus  

Science.gov (United States)

A seven-year-old immunocompetent dog presenting with lymphadenopathy, mesenteric masses and splenic nodules was diagnosed with Phialosimplex caninus infection. Cytology of a mesenteric mass aspirate demonstrated few intact cells but numerous variably sized fungal cells and rare hyphal fragments. The identity of the cultured fungus was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Itraconazole therapy improved clinical signs, but the fungus was reisolated at follow-up. P. caninus systemic infection should be suspected in dogs presenting with lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly.

Sigler, Lynne; Hanselman, Beth; Ruotsalo, Kristiina; Kar Tsui, George; Richardson, Susan

2013-01-01

285

Cytological, microbiological and therapeutic aspects of systemic infection in a dog caused by the fungus Phialosimplex caninus.  

Science.gov (United States)

A seven-year-old immunocompetent dog presenting with lymphadenopathy, mesenteric masses and splenic nodules was diagnosed with Phialosimplex caninus infection. Cytology of a mesenteric mass aspirate demonstrated few intact cells but numerous variably sized fungal cells and rare hyphal fragments. The identity of the cultured fungus was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Itraconazole therapy improved clinical signs, but the fungus was reisolated at follow-up. P. caninus systemic infection should be suspected in dogs presenting with lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. PMID:24432211

Sigler, Lynne; Hanselman, Beth; Ruotsalo, Kristiina; Kar Tsui, George; Richardson, Susan

2013-01-11

286

Pseudoxylaria as stowaway of the fungus-growing termite nest: Interaction asymmetry between Pseudoxylaria, Termitomyces and free-living relatives.  

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Though inconspicuous in healthy nests, Pseudoxylaria species are almost always present and overgrow deteriorating fungus-growing termite gardens. Whether these fungi are detrimental to the fungus-garden, benign, or even beneficial is unclear. We hypothesize that Pseudoxylaria is a stowaway that practices a sit-and-wait strategy to survive in the termite nest. Using isolates from three different termite genera to test our hypothesis, we compared Pseudoxylaria’s growth on 40 carbon sources wi...

Visser, A. A.; Kooij, P. W.; Debets, A. J. M.; Kuyper, T. W.; Aanen, D. K.

2011-01-01

287

Dating the fungus-growing termites mutualism shows a mixture between ancient codiversification and recent symbiont dispersal across divergent hosts  

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The mutualistic symbiosis between fungus-growing termites and Termitomyces fungi originated in Africa and shows a moderate degree of interaction specificity. Here we estimate the age of the mutualism and test the hypothesis that the major splits have occurred simultaneously in the host and in the symbiont. We present a scenario where fungus-growing termites originated in the African rainforest just before the expansion of the savanna, about 31 Ma (19–49 Ma). Whereas rough age correspon...

Nobre, T.; Kone?, N. A.; Konate?, S.; Linsenmair, E. K.; Aanen, D. K.

2011-01-01

288

Biodegradation of chloronaphthalenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by the white-rot fungus Phlebia lindtneri  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The biodegradation of chloronaphthalene (CN) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by the white-rot fungus Phlebia lindtneri, which can degrade dichlorinated dioxins and non-chlorinated dioxin-like compounds, was investigated. Naphthalene, phenanthrene, 1-chloronaphthalene (1-CN) and 2-chloronaphthalene (2-CN) were metabolized by the fungus to form several oxidized products. Naphthalene and phenanthrene were metabolized to the corresponding hydroxylated and dihydrodihydroxylated metabolites. 2-CN was metabolized to 3-chloro-2-naphtol, 6-chloro-1-naphtol and two other chloronaphtols, CN-dihydrodiols and CN-diols. Significant inhibition of the degradation of these substrates was observed when they were incubated with the cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase inhibitors 1-aminobenzotriazole and piperonyl butoxide. These results suggest that P. lindtneri initially oxidizes these substrates by a cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase. (orig.)

Mori, T.; Kitano, S.; Kondo, R. [Lab. of Systematic Forest and Forest Products Sciences, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

2003-07-01

289

Towards a better understanding of the evolution of specialized parasites of fungus-growing ant crops  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fungus-growing ants have interacted and partly coevolved with specialised microfungal parasites of the genus Escovopsis since the origin of ant fungiculture about 50 million years ago. Here, we review the recent progress in understanding the patterns of specificity of this ant-parasite association, covering both the colony/population level and comparisons between phylogenetic clades. We use a modified version of Tinbergenâ??s four categories of evolutionary questions to structure our review in complementary approaches addressing both proximate questions of development and mechanism, and ultimate questions of (co)adaptation and evolutionary history. Using the same scheme, we identify future research questions that are likely to be particularly illuminating for understanding the ecology and evolution of Escovopsis parasitism of the cultivar maintained by fungus-growing ants

Yek, Sze Huei; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

2012-01-01

290

Structural and stereochemical studies of hydroxyanthraquinone derivatives from the endophytic fungus Coniothyrium sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four known hydroxyanthraquinones (1-4) together with four new derivatives having a tetralone moiety, namely coniothyrinones A-D (5-8), were isolated from the culture of Coniothyrium sp., an endophytic fungus isolated from Salsola oppostifolia from Gomera in the Canary Islands. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis and comparison with reported data. The absolute configurations of coniothyrinones A (5), B (6), and D (8) were determined by TDDFT calculations of CD spectra, allowing the determination of the absolute configuration of coniothyrinone C (7) as well. Coniothyrinones A (5), B (6), and D (8) could be used as ECD reference compounds in the determination of absolute configuration for related tetralone derivatives. This is the first report of anthraquinones and derivatives from an isolate of the genus Coniothyrium sp. These compounds showed inhibitory effects against the fungus Microbotryum violaceum, the alga Chlorella fusca, and the bacteria Escherichia coli and Bacillus megaterium. PMID:23255384

Sun, Peng; Huo, Juan; Kurtán, Tibor; Mándi, Attila; Antus, Sándor; Tang, Hua; Draeger, Siegfried; Schulz, Barbara; Hussain, Hidayat; Krohn, Karsten; Pan, Weihua; Yi, Yanghua; Zhang, Wen

2013-02-01

291

The use of the fungus Dichomitus squalens for degradation in rotating biological contactor conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biodegradation potential of Dichomitus squalens in biofilm cultures and rotating biological contactor (RBC) was investigated. The fungus formed thick biofilms on inert and lignocellulosic supports and exhibited stable activities of laccase and manganese peroxidase to reach 40-62 and 25-32% decolorization of anthraquinone Remazol Brilliant Blue R and heterocyclic phthalocyanine dyes, respectively. The decolorization ceased when glucose concentration dropped to 1 mmol l(-1). In RBC reactor, respective decolorizations of Remazol Brilliant Blue R and heterocyclic Methylene Blue and Azure B dyes (50 mg l(-1)) attained 99%, 93%, and 59% within 7, 40 and 200 h. The fungus exhibited tolerance to coliform and non-coliform bacteria on rich organic media, the inhibition occurred only on media containing tryptone and NaCl. The degradation efficiency in RBC reactor, capability to decolorize a wide range of dye structures and tolerance to bacterial stress make D. squalens an organism applicable to remediation of textile wastewaters. PMID:22513255

Novotný, Cen?k; Trošt, Nina; Šlušla, Martin; Svobodová, Kate?ina; Mikesková, Hana; Válková, Hana; Malachová, Kate?ina; Pavko, Aleksander

2012-06-01

292

Characterisation of ectomycorrhizal formation by the exotic fungus Amanita muscaria with Nothofagus cunninghamii in Victoria, Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence of the exotic ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria in a mixed Nothofagus-Eucalyptus native forest was investigated to determine if A. muscaria has switched hosts to form a successful association with a native tree species in a natural environment. A mycorrhizal morphotype consistently found beneath A. muscaria sporocarps was examined, and a range of morphological and anatomical characteristics in common with those described for ectomycorrhizae formed by A. muscaria on a broad range of hosts were observed. A full description is provided. The likely plant associate was determined to be Nothofagus cunninghamii based upon anatomy of the roots. Analysis of ITS-1 and ITS-2 regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences confirmed the identities of both fungal and plant associates. These findings represent conclusive evidence of the invasion of a non-indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungus into native forest and highlight the ecological implications of this discovery. PMID:21573836

Dunk, Christopher William; Lebel, Teresa; Keane, Philip J

2012-02-01

293

Two distinct secretion systems facilitate tissue invasion by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae  

Science.gov (United States)

To cause plant diseases, pathogenic micro-organisms secrete effector proteins into host tissue to suppress immunity and support pathogen growth. Bacterial pathogens have evolved several distinct secretion systems to target effector proteins, but whether fungi, which cause the major diseases of most crop species, also require different secretory mechanisms is not known. Here we report that the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae possesses two distinct secretion systems to target effectors during plant infection. Cytoplasmic effectors, which are delivered into host cells, preferentially accumulate in the biotrophic interfacial complex, a novel plant membrane-rich structure associated with invasive hyphae. We show that the biotrophic interfacial complex is associated with a novel form of secretion involving exocyst components and the Sso1 t-SNARE. By contrast, effectors that are secreted from invasive hyphae into the extracellular compartment follow the conventional secretory pathway. We conclude that the blast fungus has evolved distinct secretion systems to facilitate tissue invasion.

Giraldo, Martha C.; Dagdas, Yasin F.; Gupta, Yogesh K.; Mentlak, Thomas A.; Yi, Mihwa; Martinez-Rocha, Ana Lilia; Saitoh, Hiromasa; Terauchi, Ryohei; Talbot, Nicholas J.; Valent, Barbara

2013-01-01

294

Hydroxylation of a hederagenin derived saponin by a Xylareaceous fungus found in fruits of Sapindus saponaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During our screening of tropical plants for endophyte microorganisms, a Xylareaceous fungus was found living on the internal part of Sapindus saponaria fruits. The fruits of S. saponaria accumulate great amounts of triterpenoidal and sesquiterpenoidal saponins. The saponin 3-O-(?-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1?3)-?-L -rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-L-arabinopyranosyl-hederagenin was isolated using chromatographic methods, after alkaline hydrolysis of the crude extract obtained from S. saponaria fruits and added to the culture medium used to grows the fungus. A new saponin was isolated from this experiment by preparative scale HPLC and characterized as a 22?-hydroxy derivative. The structure of this hydroxylated saponin was elucidated based on interpretation of MS/MS data and NMR spectra. (author)

2008-01-01

295

Hydroxylation of a hederagenin derived saponin by a Xylareaceous fungus found in fruits of Sapindus saponaria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During our screening of tropical plants for endophyte microorganisms, a Xylareaceous fungus was found living on the internal part of Sapindus saponaria fruits. The fruits of S. saponaria accumulate great amounts of triterpenoidal and sesquiterpenoidal saponins. The saponin 3-O-({beta}-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1{yields}3)-{alpha}-L -rhamnopyranosyl-(1{yields}2)-{alpha}-L-arabinopyranosyl-hederagenin was isolated using chromatographic methods, after alkaline hydrolysis of the crude extract obtained from S. saponaria fruits and added to the culture medium used to grows the fungus. A new saponin was isolated from this experiment by preparative scale HPLC and characterized as a 22{alpha}-hydroxy derivative. The structure of this hydroxylated saponin was elucidated based on interpretation of MS/MS data and NMR spectra. (author)

Murgu, Michael; Santos, Luiz F. Arruda; Souza, Gezimar D. de; Daolio, Cristina; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Schneider, Bernd [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Beutenberg Campus, Jena (Germany)

2008-07-01

296

Effect of plant extracts and systemic fungicide on the pineapple fruit-rotting fungus, Ceratocystis paradoxa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antifungal activities of extracts of sixteen plants were tested against Ceratocystis paradoxa which causes soft rot of pineapples. Xanthium strumarium was the most effective followed by Allium sativum. The effectiveness of various extracts against C. paradoxa was in the decreasing order of Meriandra bengalensis, Mentha piperita, Curcuma longa, Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus, Toona ciliata, Vitex negundo, Azadirachta indica, Eupatorium birmanicum, Ocimum sanctum and Leucas aspera. Extracts of Cassia tora, Gynura cusimba, Calotropis gigantea and Ocimum canum showed poor fungitoxicity. Ethanol was suitable for extraction of the inhibitory substance from X. strumarium. Acetonitrile was highly toxic to this fungus. Millipore filter-sterilized extracts had a more inhibitory effect on the fungus than the autoclaved samples. Treatment of pineapple fruits infested with C. paradoxa by X. strumarium extract reduced the severity of the disease. PMID:9022263

Damayanti, M; Susheela, K; Sharma, G J

1996-01-01

297

Zoosporicidal metabolites from an endophytic fungus Cryptosporiopsis sp. of Zanthoxylum leprieurii.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two polyketides, cryptosporiopsin A (1) and hydroxypropan-2',3'-diol orsellinate (3), and a natural cyclic pentapeptide (4), together with two known compounds were isolated from the culture of Cryptosporiopsis sp., an endophytic fungus from leaves and branches of Zanthoxylum leprieurii (Rutaceae). The structures of these metabolites were elucidated on the basis of their spectroscopic and spectrometric data. Cryptosporiopsin A and the other metabolites exhibited motility inhibitory and lytic activities against zoospores of the grapevine downy mildew pathogen Plasmopara viticola at 10-25?g/mL. In addition, the isolated compounds displayed potent inhibitory activity against mycelial growth of two other peronosporomycete phytopathogens, Pythium ultimum, Aphanomyces cochlioides and a basidiomycetous fungus Rhizoctonia solani. Weak cytotoxic activity on brine shrimp larvae was observed. PMID:22883958

Talontsi, Ferdinand Mouafo; Facey, Petrea; Tatong, Michel D Kongue; Tofazzal Islam, M; Frauendorf, Holm; Draeger, Siegfried; Tiedemann, Andreas von; Laatsch, Hartmut

2012-11-01

298

Benzopyranones from the endophytic fungus Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12 and their bioactivities.  

Science.gov (United States)

The endophytic fungus Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12 was isolated from the hybrid 'Neva' of Populus deltoides Marsh × P. nigra L. In this study, four benzopyranones were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12, and identified as palmariol B (1), 4-hydroxymellein (2), alternariol 9-methyl ether (3), and botrallin (4) by means of physicochemical and spectroscopic analysis. All the compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial, antifungal, antinematodal and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. 4-Hydroxymellein (2) exhibited stronger antibacterial activity than the other compounds. Palmariol B (1) showed stronger antimicrobial, antinematodal and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities than alternariol 9-methyl ether (3) which indicated that the chlorine substitution at position 2 may contribute to its bioactivity. The results indicate the potential of this endophytic fungus as a source of bioactive benzopyranones. PMID:23011274

Meng, Xiangjie; Mao, Ziling; Lou, Jingfeng; Xu, Liang; Zhong, Lingyun; Peng, Youliang; Zhou, Ligang; Wang, Mingan

2012-01-01

299

Benzopyranones from the Endophytic Fungus Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12 and Their Bioactivities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The endophytic fungus Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12 was isolated from the hybrid ‘Neva’ of Populus deltoides Marsh × P. nigra L. In this study, four benzopyranones were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12, and identified as palmariol B (1, 4-hydroxymellein (2, alternariol 9-methyl ether (3, and botrallin (4 by means of physicochemical and spectroscopic analysis. All the compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial, antifungal, antinematodal and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. 4-Hydroxymellein (2 exhibited stronger antibacterial activity than the other compounds. Palmariol B (1 showed stronger antimicrobial, antinematodal and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities than alternariol 9-methyl ether (3 which indicated that the chlorine substitution at position 2 may contribute to its bioactivity. The results indicate the potential of this endophytic fungus as a source of bioactive benzopyranones.

Xiangjie Meng

2012-09-01

300

Antifungal Metabolites Produced by Chaetomium globosum No.04, an Endophytic Fungus Isolated from Ginkgo biloba.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fungal endophyte Chaetomium globosum No.04 was isolated from the medicinal plant Ginkgo biloba. The crude extract of the fungus fermentation were active in the agar-diffusion tests against the phytopathogenic fungi Rhizopus stolonifer and Coniothyrium diplodiella. Further bioassay-guided chemical investigation led to the isolation and purification of six alkaloids and three non-targeted compounds from 50 L fermentation of this endophytic fungus and their structures were elucidated as chaetoglobosin A, C, D, E, G, R (1-6), ergosterol, allantoin and uracil, by means of spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1-6 showed significant growth inhibitory activity against R. stolonifer and C. diplodiella at a concentration of 20 ?g/disc. We present here, for the first time, the potent antifungal activity of chaetoglobosins from endophytic fungi against two important phytopathogenic fungi R. stolonifer and C. diplodiella. PMID:24426105

Zhang, Guizhen; Zhang, Yanhua; Qin, Jianchun; Qu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jinliang; Li, Xiang; Pan, Hongyu

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
301

Leucoagaricus gongylophorus Produces Diverse Enzymes for the Degradation of Recalcitrant Plant Polymers in Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plants represent a large reservoir of organic carbon comprised largely of recalcitrant polymers that most metazoans are unable to deconstruct. Many herbivores gain access to nutrients in this material indirectly by associating with microbial symbionts, and leaf-cutter ants are a paradigmatic example. These ants use fresh foliar biomass as manure to cultivate fungus gardens composed primarily of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, a basidiomycetous symbiont that produces specialized hyphal swellings that serve as a food source for the host ant colony. Although leaf-cutter ants are conspicuous herbivores that contribute substantially to carbon turnover in Neotropical ecosystems, the process through which plant biomass is degraded in their fungus gardens is not well understood. Here we present the first draft genome of L. gongylophorus, and using genomic, metaproteomic, and phylogenetic tools we investigate its role in lignocellulose degradation in the fungus gardens of both Atta cephalotes and Acromyrmex echinatior leaf-cutter ants. We show that L. gongylophorus produces a diversity of lignocellulases in fungus gardens, and is likely the primary driver of plant biomass degradation in these ecosystems. We also show that this fungus produces distinct sets of lignocellulases throughout the different stages of biomass degradation, including numerous cellulases and laccases that may be playing an important but previously uncharacterized role in lignocellulose degradation. Our study provides a comprehensive analysis of plant biomass degradation in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens and provides insight into the molecular dynamics underlying the symbiosis between these dominant herbivores and their obligate fungal cultivar.

Aylward, Frank O.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Teiling, Clotilde; Tremmel, Daniel; Moeller, Joseph; Scott, Jarrod J.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Malfatti, Stephanie; Monroe, Matthew E.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Smith, Richard D.; Weinstock, George; Gerardo, Nicole; Suen, Garret; Lipton, Mary S.; Currie, Cameron R.

2013-06-12

302

BIOMIMETIC SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES FROM AN ENDOPHYTIC FUNGUS AND THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL EFFICACY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this work, an endophytic fungus, Penicillium sps. was isolated from the medicinal plant, Centella asiatica. The extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the filtrate of cell mass of an isolated Penicillium sps was monitored and the UV-Vis absorption spectrum recorded for the solution shows the characteristic surface plasmon resonance band for silver nanoparticles in the range of 390-440 nm. The SEM stud...

2012-01-01

303

UV-B-irradiation effect on growth reactions of phytopathogenic fungus fusarium solani  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The UV-B irradiation effect on spore germination and hyphae growth of phythopathogenic fungus Fusarium solani was studied. Spores irradiation by small doses of 0,1 - 1,0 kJ/m2 results in growth stimulation of primary hyphae. Adaptive effect of UV-B small doses for fungi was shown. Preliminary irradiation in doses of 0,1 - 0,5 kJ/m2 increased spore radioresistance and diminished the effect of the next damaging dose

2002-01-01

304

Growth of the fungus Cladosporium sphaerospermum with toluene as the sole carbon and energy source.  

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The fungus Cladosporium sphaerospermum was isolated from a biofilter used for the removal of toluene from waste gases. This is the first report describing growth of a eukaryotic organism with toluene as the sole source of carbon and energy. The oxygen consumption rates, as well as the measured enzyme activities, of toluene-grown C. sphaerospermum indicate that toluene is degraded by an initial attack on the methyl group.

Weber, F. J.; Hage, K. C.; Bont, J. A.

1995-01-01

305

Lignin degradation by a novel peptide, Gt factor, from brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gt factor, a pure component isolated from Gloeophyllum trabeum, was used to decompose lignin materials. The radical intermediates, degradation products and structural changes of treated materials were analyzed by infrared spectrum, NMR and electron paramagnetic resonance, etc. The results indicate that Gt factor makes an oxidative attack on lignin via HO., which might be the initial step in lignocellulose degradation by brown rot fungus. PMID:16892272

Wang, Wei; Huang, Feng; Mei Lu, Xue; Ji Gao, Pei

2006-04-01

306

Systems analysis of plant cell wall degradation by the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa  

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The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa is a model laboratory organism, but in nature is commonly found growing on dead plant material, particularly grasses. Using functional genomics resources available for N. crassa, which include a near-full genome deletion strain set and whole genome microarrays, we undertook a system-wide analysis of plant cell wall and cellulose degradation. We identified approximately 770 genes that showed expression differences when N. crassa was cultured on ground M...

Tian, Chaoguang; Beeson, William T.; Iavarone, Anthony T.; Sun, Jianping; Marletta, Michael A.; Cate, Jamie H. D.; Glass, N. Louise

2009-01-01

307

Purification and Characterization of Cellobiose Dehydrogenases from the White Rot Fungus Trametes versicolor  

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The white rot fungus Trametes versicolor degrades lignocellulosic material at least in part by oxidizing the lignin via a number of secreted oxidative and peroxidative enzymes. An extracellular reductive enzyme, cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH), oxidizes cellobiose and reduces insoluble Mn(IV)O(inf2), commonly found as dark deposits in decaying wood, to form Mn(III), a powerful lignin-oxidizing agent. CDH also reduces ortho-quinones and produces sugar acids which can promote manganese peroxidas...

Roy, B. P.; Dumonceaux, T.; Koukoulas, A. A.; Archibald, F. S.

1996-01-01

308

Impact of a Nematode-parasitic Fungus on the Effectiveness of Entomopathogenic Nematodes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The impact of the nematode-parasitic fungus Hirsutella rhossiliensis on the effectiveness of Steinernema carpocapsae, S. glaseri, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora against Galleria mellonella larvae was assessed in the laboratory. The presence of Hirsutella conidia on the third-stage (J3) cuticle of S. carpocapsae and H. bacteriophora interfered with infection of insect larvae. Conidia on the J3 cuticle of S. glaseri and on the ensheathing second-stage cuticle of H. bacteriophora did not redu...

Timper, Patricia; Kaya, Harry K.

1992-01-01

309

A cytotoxic xanthone dimer from the entomopathogenic fungus Aschersonia sp. BCC 8401.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ascherxanthone A (1), a novel symmetrical tetrahydroxanthone dimer, was isolated from the entomopathogenic fungus Aschersonia sp. BCC 8401. The structure of 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, especially 2D-NMR. Compound 1 exhibited activity against Plasmodium falciparum K1 with an IC(50) value of 0.20 microg/mL, but it also showed cytotoxic activities against Vero cells and three tumor cell lines. PMID:15974626

Isaka, Masahiko; Palasarn, Somporn; Kocharin, Kanokarn; Saenboonrueng, Janya

2005-06-01

310

Nematicidal activities of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and oidiolactone D produced by the fungus Oidiodendron sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two nematicides, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (4-HPA) (1) and oidiolactone D (2), were isolated from cultures of the fungus Oidiodendron sp., and their structures were identified by spectroscopic analyses. Compound 2 showed nematicidal activities against the root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans, and the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Compound 1 was also active against these two nematodes but to a lesser extent. PMID:21476434

Ohtani, Kouhei; Fujioka, Shozo; Kawano, Tsuyoshi; Shimada, Atsumi; Kimura, Yasuo

2011-01-01

311

Interactions of recombined mycelia of the fungus fomitopsis pinicola (Sow. Ex Fr) Karst. On PDA medium  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The interaction of cultures from the recombined mycelia of the fungus Fomitopsis pinicola (Sow. ex Fr) Karst. was studied on PDA medium. The cultures were isolated from different carpophores and from different segments of the same carpophore originating from a felled beech tree. The interactions show that recombined mycelia of this species can be divided into numerous incompatible physiological "races" or "pathotypes", distinguished also by morphological features of the mycelia.

Lazarev Vladimir S.

2002-01-01

312

Interactions of recombined mycelia of the fungus fomitopsis pinicola (Sow. Ex Fr Karst. On PDA medium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The interaction of cultures from the recombined mycelia of the fungus Fomitopsis pinicola (Sow. ex Fr Karst. was studied on PDA medium. The cultures were isolated from different carpophores and from different segments of the same carpophore originating from a felled beech tree. The interactions show that recombined mycelia of this species can be divided into numerous incompatible physiological "races" or "pathotypes", distinguished also by morphological features of the mycelia.

Lazarev Vladimir S.

2002-01-01

313

Pseudomonas cepacia suppression of sunflower wilt fungus and role of antifungal compounds in controlling the disease.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In a field experiment, Pseudomonas cepacia J82rif and J51rif increased sunflower emergence in the presence of the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Pyrrolnitrin, aminopyrrolnitrin, and monochloroaminopyrrolnitrin were isolated from J82 and identified by using thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and electron impact-mass, UV, and infrared spectroscopy. In growth chamber experiments, two antibiosis-negative mutants were not different from the parent strain in protec...

Mcloughlin, T. J.; Quinn, J. P.; Bettermann, A.; Bookland, R.

1992-01-01

314

DNA Mutations Mediate Microevolution between Host-Adapted Forms of the Pathogenic Fungus Cryptococcus neoformans  

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The disease cryptococcosis, caused by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, is acquired directly from environmental exposure rather than transmitted person-to-person. One explanation for the pathogenicity of this species is that interactions with environmental predators select for virulence. However, co-incubation of C. neoformans with amoeba can cause a “switch” from the normal yeast morphology to a pseudohyphal form, enabling fungi to survive exposure to amoeba, yet conversely reducing vi...

Magditch, Denise A.; Liu, Tong-bao; Xue, Chaoyang; Idnurm, Alexander

2012-01-01

315

Invasion of Spores of the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Gigaspora decipiens by Burkholderia spp.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Burkholderia species are bacterial soil inhabitants that are capable of interacting with a variety of eukaryotes, in some cases occupying intracellular habitats. Pathogenic and nonpathogenic Burkholderia spp., including B. vietnamiensis, B. cepacia, and B. pseudomallei, were grown on germinating spores of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Gigaspora decipiens. Spore lysis assays revealed that all Burkholderia spp. tested were able to colonize the interior of G. decipiens spores. Amplification ...

Levy, Avram; Chang, Barbara J.; Abbott, Lynette K.; Kuo, John; Harnett, Gerry; Inglis, Timothy J. J.

2003-01-01

316

HydHf, a hydrophobin gene from the saprophytic fungus Hypholoma fasciculare  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

European chestnut tree (Castanea sativa Mill.) is an economical important culture due to the production of high quality wood and fruit. Portugal is the second largest producer of chestnuts, for which the Northern region contributes for more than 85% of Portuguese production. A saprotrophic fungus was recently isolated from Trás-os-Montes chestnut orchards that interferes with chestnut root mycorrhization and displays strong antagonist activity against soil-borne fungi from orchard. To unders...

Batista, Daniela; Baptista, Paula; Tavares, R. M.; Neto, T. Lino

2011-01-01

317

The Production of Polysaccharide Degrading Enzymes By Phytopathogenic Fungus Verticillium tricorpus  

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The growth of phytopathogenic fungus Verticillium tricorpus on 15 carbohydrate substrates was monitored to analyse the range of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes and glucosidases production. The secretions of endo and exoenzymes, capable of degrading cellulosic, hemicellulosic and pectinolytic polysaccharide were observed during the course of the experiment. Pectinolytic activities were produced constitutively on all of the substrate tested, while cellulolytic enzymes were to induced in...

Bahkali, Ali H.

1999-01-01

318

Amino acids of the fungus Helminthosporium gramineum Rabenh. and of the infested barley grain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was carried out in order to determine by chromatographic analysis the amino acids contents of the fungus Helminthosporium gramineum Rabenh., which was found to be relatively high. Even the level of the free and proteic amino acids in the seeds infested by Helminthosporium was higher in comparison with the healthy seeds. In this case some qualitative changes was observed.

Ioan BOBES

1967-08-01

319

Evolutionary strata in a small mating-type-specific region of the smut fungus Microbotryum violaceum.  

Science.gov (United States)

DNA sequence analysis and genetic mapping of loci from mating-type-specific chromosomes of the smut fungus Microbotryum violaceum demonstrated that the nonrecombining mating-type-specific region in this species comprises approximately 25% ( approximately 1 Mb) of the chromosome length. Divergence between homologous mating-type-linked genes in this region varies between 0 and 8.6%, resembling the evolutionary strata of vertebrate and plant sex chromosomes. PMID:19448270

Votintseva, Antonina A; Filatov, Dmitry A

2009-08-01

320

Secondary Metabolites from Penicillium pinophilum SD-272, a Marine Sediment-Derived Fungus  

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Two new secondary metabolites, namely, pinodiketopiperazine A (1) and 6,7-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-3-methylphthalide (2), along with alternariol 2,4-dimethyl ether (3) and l-5-oxoproline methyl ester (4), which were isolated from a natural source for the first time but have been previously synthesized, were characterized from the marine sediment-derived fungus Penicillium pinophilum SD-272. In addition, six known metabolites (5–10) were also identified. Their structures were elucidated by analys...

Ming-Hui Wang; Xiao-Ming Li; Chun-Shun Li; Nai-Yun Ji; Bin-Gui Wang

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Functional genomics in the rice blast fungus to unravel the fungal pathogenicity* §  

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A rapidly growing number of successful genome sequencing projects in plant pathogenic fungi greatly increase the demands for tools and methodologies to study fungal pathogenicity at genomic scale. Magnaporthe oryzae is an economically important plant pathogenic fungus whose genome is fully sequenced. Recently we have reported the development and application of functional genomics platform technologies in M. oryzae. This model approach would have many practical ramifications in design and impl...

2008-01-01

322

Three new polyketides from marine-derived fungus Penicillium citrinum SCSGAF 0167.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three new polyketides penicitrinol G (1), penicitrinol H (2) and 2,11-dihydroxy-1-methoxycarbonyl-9-carboxylxanthone (3) together with one known cathepsin B inhibitor chrysophanol (4) were isolated from a culture broth of marine-derived fungus Penicillium citrinum SCSGAF 0167. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. Compound 4 exhibited inhibitory activity against cathepsin B with IC50 value of 1.7 ?M. PMID:24090119

Sun, Yu-Lin; Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Zheng, Zhi-Hui; Xu, Xin-Ya; Qi, Shu-Hua

2014-01-01

323

Herbarone, a Rearranged Heptaketide Derivative from the Sea Hare Associated Fungus Torula herbarum  

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Herbarone (1), a novel heptaketide with a tetrahydro-5,9-methanobenzo[8]annulen-10(5H)-one skeleton, together with the new ent-astropaquinones B (2) and C (3) and four known pyranonaphthoquinones (4-7), was isolated from the sea hare associated fungus Torula herbarum. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis, and the absolute configurations were determined by solution TDDFT/ECD calculations. Absolute configurations of the known compounds were stud...

2012-01-01

324

Meroterpenes from Endophytic Fungus A1 of Mangrove Plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea  

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Four new meroterpenes, guignardones F–I (14), together with two known compounds guignardones A (5) and B (6) were isolated from the endophytic fungus A1 of the mangrove plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea. Their structures and relative configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic data and single-crystal X-ray crystallography. A poss...

Wen-Li Mei; Bo Zheng; You-Xing Zhao; Hui-Ming Zhong; Xun-Li Wu Chen; Yan-Bo Zeng; Wen-Hua Dong; Jiu-Li Huang; Peter Proksch; Hao-Fu Dai

2012-01-01

325

Genes Expressed during the Biotrophic Phase of the Rust Fungus Uromyces fabae  

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The subject of this thesis is the study of genes expressed during the biotrophic phase of the rust fungus Uromyces fabae, an obligate biotrophic pathogen of Vicia faba (broad bean). As a first step, a previously initiated partial Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) sequencing project was completed and the results were analyzed. The aim of this project was to sequence at least 1 000 ESTs and to compare them to publicly available sequences. 58% of the 1 000 plus sequences analyzed using the BLAS...

Hempel, Uta

2005-01-01

326

Different Resistance Mechanisms of Medicago truncatula Ecotypes Against the Rust Fungus Uromyces striatus  

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A pathosystem consisting of the model plant Medicago truncatula and the rust fungus Uromyces striatus was characterized. From a collection of 113 mostly European accessions of M. truncatula, the vast majority were found to be susceptible to U. striatus, whereas 5 accessions showed strong resistance reactions. Stomatal surface characteristics, even if partly occluded, did not interfere with the ability of U. striatus germ tubes to infect. After penetration, the resistant ecotypes reacted with ...

Kemen, Eric; Hahn, Matthias; Mendgen, Kurt; Struck, Christine

2004-01-01

327

Lignin-degrading peroxidases from the genome of the selective ligninolytic fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora  

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The white-rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora delignifies lignocellulose with high selectivity, but until now it has appeared to lack the specialized peroxidases, termed lignin peroxidases (LiPs) and versatile peroxidases (VPs), that are generally thought important for ligninolysis. We screened the recently sequenced C. subvermispora genome for genes that encode peroxidases with a potential ligninolytic role. A total of 26 peroxidase genes was apparent after a structural-functional classif...

Fernandez-fueyo, Elena; Rui?z-duen?as, Francisco J.; Miki, Yuta; Marti?nez, Mari?a Jesu?s; Hammel, Kenneth E.; Marti?nez, A?ngel T.

2012-01-01

328

Ustilago trichophora (H.F. Link F. Körnicke, a fungus newly found in Poland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ustilago trichophora, a smut fungus found for the first time in Poland, is characterized and illustrated. Ustilago trichophora affected Echinochloa crus-galli growing in the Lower Silesia voivodeship. In laboratory investigations, the germinability of teliospores, the morphological properties of promycelium, sporidia and colonies produced on potato dextrose agar, Sabouraud-glucose agar, and in water were determined. Attempts to infect seeds and seedling of E. crus-galli in a greenhouse pot experiment failed.

Tadeusz Madej

2001-03-01

329

Macroautophagy-Mediated Degradation of Whole Nuclei in the Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus oryzae  

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Filamentous fungi consist of continuum of multinucleate cells called hyphae, and proliferate by means of hyphal tip growth. Accordingly, research interest has been focusing on hyphal tip cells, but little is known about basal cells in colony interior that do not directly contribute to proliferation. Here, we show that autophagy mediates degradation of basal cell components in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae. In basal cells, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-labeled peroxisom...

Shoji, Jun-ya; Kikuma, Takashi; Arioka, Manabu; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

2010-01-01

330

A geminivirus-related DNA mycovirus that confers hypovirulence to a plant pathogenic fungus  

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Mycoviruses are viruses that infect fungi and have the potential to control fungal diseases of crops when associated with hypovirulence. Typically, mycoviruses have double-stranded (ds) or single-stranded (ss) RNA genomes. No mycoviruses with DNA genomes have previously been reported. Here, we describe a hypovirulence-associated circular ssDNA mycovirus from the plant pathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The genome of this ssDNA virus, named Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirulence-assoc...

Yu, Xiao; Li, Bo; Fu, Yanping; Jiang, Daohong; Ghabrial, Said A.; Li, Guoqing; Peng, Youliang; Xie, Jiatao; Cheng, Jiasen; Huang, Junbin; Yi, Xianhong

2010-01-01

331

Pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycetes) to Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)  

Science.gov (United States)

The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is highly pathogenic to the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis. Spore concentrations of 108/ml for engorged larvae and 107/ml for engorged females resulted in 100% tick mortality, 2 wk post-infection. The LC50 value for engorged larvae (concentration to kill 50% of ticks) was 107 spores/ml. Metarhizium anisopliae shows considerable potential as a microbial control agent for the management of Ixodes scapularis.

Zhioua, E.; Browning, M.; Johnson, P.W.; Ginsberg, H.S.; LeBrun, R.A.

1997-01-01

332

Extensive Divergence Between Mating-Type Chromosomes of the Anther-Smut Fungus  

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Genomic regions that determine mating compatibility are subject to distinct evolutionary forces that can lead to a cessation of meiotic recombination and the accumulation of structural changes between members of the homologous chromosome pair. The relatively recent discovery of dimorphic mating-type chromosomes in fungi can aid the understanding of sex chromosome evolution that is common to dioecious plants and animals. For the anther-smut fungus, Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae (= M. violaceu...

Hood, Michael E.; Petit, Elsa; Giraud, Tatiana

2013-01-01

333

Evolutionary Strata in a Small Mating-Type-Specific Region of the Smut Fungus Microbotryum violaceum  

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DNA sequence analysis and genetic mapping of loci from mating-type-specific chromosomes of the smut fungus Microbotryum violaceum demonstrated that the nonrecombining mating-type-specific region in this species comprises ?25% (?1 Mb) of the chromosome length. Divergence between homologous mating-type-linked genes in this region varies between 0 and 8.6%, resembling the evolutionary strata of vertebrate and plant sex chromosomes.

Votintseva, Antonina A.; Filatov, Dmitry A.

2009-01-01

334

Structural and Stereochemical Studies of Hydroxyanthraquinone Derivatives from the Endophytic Fungus Coniothyrium sp  

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Four known hydroxyanthraquinones (1?4) together with four new derivatives having a tetralone moiety, namely coniothyrinones A?D (5?8), were isolated from the culture of Coniothyrium sp., an endophytic fungus isolated from Salsola oppostifolia from Gomera in the Canary Islands. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis and comparison with reported data. The absolute configurations of coniothyrinones A (5), B (6), and D (8) were determined by TDDFT c...

Sun, Peng; Huo, Juan; Kurta?n, Tibor; Ma?ndi, Attila; Antus, Sa?ndor; Tang, Hua; Draeger, Siegfried; Schulz, Barbara; Hussain, Hidayat; Krohn, Karsten; Pan, Weihua; Yi, Yanghua; Zhang, Wen; Kurtán Tibor (1973-) (vegyész, angol szakfordító); Mándi Attila (1981-) (vegyész, német szakfordító)

2013-01-01

335

repa, a repetitive and dispersed DNA sequence of the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina.  

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The sequences of homologous DNA regions of two wild-type strains of the fungus Podospora anserina, revealed in one strain the presence of a 349bp insertion leading to a RFLP. This DNA sequence is repeated in the genome and some of its locations are different in various wild-type strains. This DNA element exhibits structural similarities with the yeast solo delta, sigma or tau elements. Images

Deleu, C; Turcq, B; Begueret, J

1990-01-01

336

Simultaneous RNA-Seq Analysis of a Mixed Transcriptome of Rice and Blast Fungus Interaction  

Science.gov (United States)

A filamentous fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, is a causal agent of rice blast disease, which is one of the most serious diseases affecting cultivated rice, Oryza sativa. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying both rice defense and fungal attack are not yet fully understood. Extensive past studies have characterized many infection-responsive genes in the pathogen and host plant, separately. To understand the plant-pathogen interaction comprehensively, it is valuable to monitor the gene expression profiles of both interacting organisms simultaneously in the same infected plant tissue. Although the host-pathogen interaction during the initial infection stage is important for the establishment of infection, the detection of fungal gene expression in infected leaves at the stage has been difficult because very few numbers of fungal cells are present. Using the emerging RNA-Seq technique, which has a wide dynamic range for expression analyses, we analyzed the mixed transcriptome of rice and blast fungus in infected leaves at 24 hours post-inoculation, which is the point when the primary infection hyphae penetrate leaf epidermal cells. We demonstrated that our method detected the gene expression of both the host plant and pathogen simultaneously in the same infected leaf blades in natural infection conditions without any artificial treatments. The upregulation of 240 fungal transcripts encoding putative secreted proteins was observed, suggesting that these candidates of fungal effector genes may play important roles in initial infection processes. The upregulation of transcripts encoding glycosyl hydrolases, cutinases and LysM domain-containing proteins were observed in the blast fungus, whereas pathogenesis-related and phytoalexin biosynthetic genes were upregulated in rice. Furthermore, more drastic changes in expression were observed in the incompatible interactions compared with the compatible ones in both rice and blast fungus at this stage. Our mixed transcriptome analysis is useful for the simultaneous elucidation of the tactics of host plant defense and pathogen attack.

Kawahara, Yoshihiro; Oono, Youko; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Takashi; Itoh, Takeshi; Minami, Eiichi

2012-01-01

337

Cellular Development Associated with Induced Mycotoxin Synthesis in the Filamentous Fungus Fusarium graminearum  

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Several species of the filamentous fungus Fusarium colonize plants and produce toxic small molecules that contaminate agricultural products, rendering them unsuitable for consumption. Among the most destructive of these species is F. graminearum, which causes disease in wheat and barley and often infests the grain with harmful trichothecene mycotoxins. Synthesis of these secondary metabolites is induced during plant infection or in culture in response to chemical signals. Our results show tha...

Menke, Jon; Weber, Jakob; Broz, Karen; Kistler, H. Corby

2013-01-01

338

Genetic and Molecular Analysis of Phytochromes from the Filamentous Fungus Neurospora crassa  

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Phytochromes (Phys) comprise a superfamily of red-/far-red-light-sensing proteins. Whereas higher-plant Phys that control numerous growth and developmental processes have been well described, the biochemical characteristics and functions of the microbial forms are largely unknown. Here, we describe analyses of the expression, regulation, and activities of two Phys in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. In addition to containing the signature N-terminal domain predicted to covalently ass...

Froehlich, Allan C.; Noh, Bosl; Vierstra, Richard D.; Loros, Jennifer; Dunlap, Jay C.

2005-01-01

339

Structural properties of double-stranded RNAs associated with biological control of chestnut blight fungus  

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Double-stranded RNAs (ds RNAs) are thought to be the cytoplasmic determinants responsible for the phenomenon of transmissible hypovirulence in the chestnut blight fungus Endothia parasitica [Murr.] Anderson. The three major ds RNA components associated with the North American hypovirulent strain, Grand Haven 2, were characterized with respect to molecular-hybridization specificity and RNase T1-digestion patterns. The large (L-RNA; ?9 kilobase pairs) and middle-sized (M-RNA; ?3.5 kilobase ...

Tartaglia, James; Paul, Cynthia P.; Fulbright, Dennis W.; Nuss, Donald L.

1986-01-01

340

Biocontrol of pigeon tick Argas reflexus (Acari: Argasidae) by entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium Anisopliae (Ascomycota: Hypocreales)  

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The pigeon tick Argas reflexus is a pathogen-transmitting soft tick that typically feeds on pigeons, but can also attack humans causing local and systemic reactions. Chemical control is made difficult due to environmental contamination and resistance development. As a result, there is much interest in increasing the role of other strategies like biological control. In this study, the efficacy of three strains (V245, 685 and 715C) of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for biologica...

Mosa Tavassoli; Seyed Hassan Pourseyed; Abdulghaffar Ownagh; Iraj Bernousi; Karim Mardani

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Cytotoxic pheofungins from an engineered fungus impaired in posttranslational protein modification.  

Science.gov (United States)

What makes a fungus blush? The deletion of a gene that is required for global protein N-acetylation triggers the production of unprecedented metabolites in Aspergillus nidulans. The pronounced red pigmentation of the engineered mutant is caused by pheofungins (benzothiazinone chromophores), the biogenesis of which is strikingly similar to those of pheomelanins found in red bird feathers and hair of Celtic origin. PMID:21913294

Scherlach, Kirstin; Nützmann, Hans-Wilhelm; Schroeckh, Volker; Dahse, Hans-Martin; Brakhage, Axel A; Hertweck, Christian

2011-10-10

342

Identification and Isolation of Two Ascomycete Fungi from Spores of the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Scutellospora castanea  

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Two filamentous fungi with different phenotypes were isolated from crushed healthy spores or perforated dead spores of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Scutellospora castanea. Based on comparative sequence analysis of 5.8S ribosomal DNA and internal transcribed spacer fragments, one isolate, obtained from perforated dead spores only, was assigned to the genus Nectria, and the second, obtained from both healthy and dead spores, was assigned to Leptosphaeria, a genus that also contains p...

Hijri, Mohamed; Redecker, Dirk; Petetot, Jean A. Macdonald-comber; Voigt, Kerstin; Wo?stemeyer, Johannes; Sanders, Ian R.

2002-01-01

343

Secondary metabolite chemistry of the marine-derived fungus Massarina sp., strain CNT-016.  

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Chemical investigation of the culture broth extracts of the marine-derived fungus Massarina sp. (strain CNT-019) has yielded two new secondary metabolites, spiromassaritone (1) and massariphenone (2), as well as the previously reported fungal metabolites 6-epi-5?-hydroxy-mycosporulone (3) and enalin A (4). The structures of these compounds were established by a variety of one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments, while the relative configuration of spiromassaritone (1) was determined by X-r...

Abdel-wahab, Mohamed A.; Asolkar, Ratnakar N.; Inderbitzin, Patrik; Fenical, William

2007-01-01

344

Utilizing DART Mass Spectrometry to Pinpoint Halogenated Metabolites from a Marine Invertebrate-Derived Fungus  

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Prenylated indole alkaloids are a diverse group of fungal secondary metabolites and represent an important biosynthetic class. In this study we have identified new halogenated prenyl-indole alkaloids from an invertebrate-derived Malbranchea graminicola strain. Using Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) Mass Spectrometry, these compounds were initially detected from spores of the fungus grown on agar plates, without the need for any organic extraction. Subsequently, the metabolites were isolate...

Watts, Katharine R.; Loveridge, Steven T.; Tenney, Karen; Media, Joseph; Valeriote, Frederick A.; Crews, Phillip

2011-01-01

345

Toxic-Metabolite-Producing Bacteria and Fungus in an Indoor Environment  

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Toxic-metabolite-emitting microbes were isolated from the indoor environment of a building where the occupant was suffering serious building-related ill-health symptoms. Toxic substances soluble in methanol and inhibitory to spermatozoa at <10 ?g (dry weight) ml?1 were found from six bacterial isolates and one fungus. The substances from isolates of Bacillus simplex and from isolates belonging to the actinobacterial genera Streptomyces and Nocardiopsis were mitochondriotoxic. These substan...

2001-01-01

346

Tetrahydrobostrycin and 1-deoxytetrahydrobostrycin, two new hexahydroanthrone derivatives, from a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new hexahydroanthrones, tetrahydrobostrycin (1) and 1-deoxytetrahydrobostrycin (2), were isolated from a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. strain 05F16 collected at the coral reef of Manado, Indonesia, together with bostrycin and abscisic acid. The structures of new compounds were determined on the basis of their spectral data. Compound 1 showed weak antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and 2 against S. aureus. PMID:18776653

Xu, Jinzhong; Nakazawa, Takahiro; Ukai, Kazuyo; Kobayashi, Hisayoshi; Mangindaan, Remy E P; Wewengkang, Defny S; Rotinsulu, Henki; Namikoshi, Michio

2008-07-01

347

Biodegradation of crystal violet by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  

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Biodegradation of crystal violet (N,N,N',N',N'',N''-hexamethylpararosaniline) in ligninolytic (nitrogen-limited) cultures of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance of crystal violet and by the identification of three metabolites (N,N,N',N',N''-pentamethylpararosaniline, N,N,N',N''-tetramethylpararosaniline, and N,N',N''-trimethylpararosaniline) formed by sequential N-demethylation of the parent compound. Metabolite formation also occurred when c...

1988-01-01

348

A threat to biodiesel production from Palm oil by disease caused by the fungus Ganoderma  

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Oil palm (OP) is a major crop for the production of vegetable oil used in foods, cosmetics and increasingly biodiesel. There is an increasing awareness that crops are vulnerable to nefarious introduction of pathogenic microorganisms. Oil palms are prone to a rot by the fungus Ganoderma. White rot fungi are capable of degrading lignin. It is necessary to consider this mode of attack for effective control. Nevertheless, the existing literature is concerned with the (a) mode of...

Paterson, R. R. M.; Santos, C.; Lima, Nelson

2008-01-01

349

Telomere-Targeted Retrotransposons in the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae: Agents of Telomere Instability  

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The fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is a serious pathogen of rice and other grasses. Telomeric restriction fragments in Magnaporthe isolates that infect perennial ryegrass (prg) are hotspots for genomic rearrangement and undergo frequent, spontaneous alterations during fungal culture. The telomeres of rice-infecting isolates are very stable by comparison. Sequencing of chromosome ends from a number of prg-infecting isolates revealed two related non-LTR retrotransposons (M. oryzae Telomeric Retro...

Starnes, John H.; Thornbury, David W.; Novikova, Olga S.; Rehmeyer, Cathryn J.; Farman, Mark L.

2012-01-01

350

Simultaneous RNA-Seq Analysis of a Mixed Transcriptome of Rice and Blast Fungus Interaction  

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A filamentous fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, is a causal agent of rice blast disease, which is one of the most serious diseases affecting cultivated rice, Oryza sativa. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying both rice defense and fungal attack are not yet fully understood. Extensive past studies have characterized many infection-responsive genes in the pathogen and host plant, separately. To understand the plant-pathogen interaction comprehensively, it is valuable to monitor the gene expre...

Kawahara, Yoshihiro; Oono, Youko; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Takashi; Itoh, Takeshi; Minami, Eiichi

2012-01-01

351

Short-Read Sequencing for Genomic Analysis of the Brown Rot Fungus Fibroporia radiculosa  

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The feasibility of short-read sequencing for genomic analysis was demonstrated for Fibroporia radiculosa, a copper-tolerant fungus that causes brown rot decay of wood. The effect of read quality on genomic assembly was assessed by filtering Illumina GAIIx reads from a single run of a paired-end library (75-nucleotide read length and 300-bp fragment size) at three different stringency levels and then assembling each data set with Velvet. A simple approach was devised to determine which filter ...

Tang, Juliet D.; Perkins, Andy D.; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Schroeder, Steven G.; Burgess, Shane C.; Diehl, Susan V.

2012-01-01

352

DNA Fingerprinting and Analysis of Population Structure in the Chestnut Blight Fungus, Cryphonectria Parasitica  

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We analyzed DNA fingerprints in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, for stability, inheritance, linkage and variability in a natural population. DNA fingerprints resulting from hybridization with a dispersed moderately repetitive DNA sequence of C. parasitica in plasmid pMS5.1 hybridized to 6-17 restriction fragments per individual isolate. In a laboratory cross and from progeny from a single perithecium collected from a field population, the presence/absence of 11 fragments...

Milgroom, M. G.; Lipari, S. E.; Powell, W. A.

1992-01-01

353

First Report of Human Infection Due to the Fungus Triadelphia pulvinata  

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Triadelphia pulvinata, a soil hyphomycete, was found to be the cause of eczematoid, scaly, grey lesions on the skin of both eyelids of a 30-year-old Indian male living in Saudi Arabia. Repeated KOH preparations of the skin scrapings showed presence of sclerotic, branched, septate hyphae. When cultured, skin scrapings from the lesion grew the dematiaceous fungus T. pulvinata. Treatment with topical clotrimazole cured the infection, and no recurrence of the infection was noted in a 5-year follo...

Al-hedaithy, Saleh S. A.

2001-01-01

354

Metacridamides A and B, macrocycles from conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum  

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Metarhizium acridum, an entomopathogenic fungus, has been commercialized and used successfully for biocontrol of grasshopper pests in Africa and Australia. Its conidia produce two novel 17-membered macrocycles, metacridamides A (1) and B (2), which consist of a Phe unit condensed with a nonaketide. Planar structures were elucidated by a combination of mass spectrometric and NMR techniques. Following hydrolysis of 1, chiral amino acid analysis assigned the L-configuration to the Phe unit. A cr...

Krasnoff, Stuart B.; Englich, Ulrich; Miller, Paula G.; Shuler, Michael L.; Glahn, Raymond P.; Donzelli, Bruno G. G.; Gibson, Donna M.

2012-01-01

355

The Bacterially Produced Metabolite Violacein Is Associated with Survival of Amphibians Infected with a Lethal Fungus ?  

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The disease chytridiomycosis, which is caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, is associated with recent declines in amphibian populations. Susceptibility to this disease varies among amphibian populations and species, and resistance appears to be attributable in part to the presence of antifungal microbial species associated with the skin of amphibians. The betaproteobacterium Janthinobacterium lividum has been isolated from the skins of several amphibian species and pro...

Becker, Matthew H.; Brucker, Robert M.; Schwantes, Christian R.; Harris, Reid N.; Minbiole, Kevin P. C.

2009-01-01

356

Stachylines A – D from the Sponge-derived Fungus Stachylidium sp  

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The marine-derived fungus Stachylidium sp. was isolated from the sponge Callyspongia cf. C. flammea. Four new, putatively tyrosine-derived and O-prenylated natural products, stachylines A – D (1 – 4), were obtained from the fungal extract. The structures of 1 – 4 were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analyses. The absolute configuration of compound 2 was established by Mosher’s method. Stachyline A (1) possesses a rare terminal oxime group and occurs as an interchangeable m...

Almeida, Celso; Part, Natalja; Bouhired, Sarah; Kehraus, Stefan; Ko?nig, Gabriele M.

2011-01-01

357

Bioactive Phenylalanine Derivatives and Cytochalasins from the Soft Coral-Derived Fungus, Aspergillus elegans  

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One new phenylalanine derivative 4?-OMe-asperphenamate (1), along with one known phenylalanine derivative (2) and two new cytochalasins, aspochalasin A1 (3) and cytochalasin Z24 (4), as well as eight known cytochalasin analogues (5–12) were isolated from the fermentation broth of Aspergillus elegans ZJ-2008010, a fungus obtained from a soft coral Sarcophyton sp. collected from the South China Sea. Their structures and the relative configurations were elucidated using comprehensive spectro...

Cai-Juan Zheng; Chang-Lun Shao; Lu-Yong Wu; Min Chen; Kai-Ling Wang; Dong-Lin Zhao; Xue-Ping Sun; Guang-Ying Chen; Chang-Yun Wang

2013-01-01

358

Isolation and characterization of a fungus for extracellular synthesis of small selenium nanoparticles  

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Abstract The use of biogenic selenium nanoparticles for various purposes is going to be an issue of considerable importance; thus, appropriate simple methods should be developed and tested for the synthesis and recovery of these nanoparticles. In this study, a fungus was isolated from a soil sample, identified as Aspergillus terreus and used for extracellular synthesis of selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs). UV–Vis spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrum studies were carried out to co...

2013-01-01

359

A new isoflavone from the mangrove endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. (ZZF60).  

Science.gov (United States)

A new isoflavone, 5-hydroxy-7-methoxy-4'-O-(3-methylbut-2-enyl) isoflavone (1), together with five known compounds, eriodictyol (2), vittarin-B (3), 3,6,7-trihydroxy-1-methoxyxanthone (4), 1,3,6-Trihydroxy-8-methylxanthone (5) and cyclo (Phe-Tyr) (6), was isolated from the mangrove endophytic fungus, Fusarium sp. ZZF60 obtained from the South China Sea. Their structures were determined by the analysis of spectroscopic data. PMID:21714733

Huang, Zhongjing; Yang, Jianxiang; She, Zhigang; Lin, Yongcheng

2012-01-01

360

Cryptosporioptide: a bioactive polyketide produced by an endophytic fungus Cryptosporiopsis sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

An antibiotic polyketide, Cryptosporioptide (1) was isolated from the culture extract of the endophytic fungus Cryptosporiopsis sp. The structure of Cryptosporioptide has been established with the help of 1D ((1)H, (13)C), 2D NMR (HSQC, HMBC, COSY, NOESY) techniques and mass spectrometry (FABMS, HRFABMS). The absolute configuration was established by means of electronic circular dichroism (ECD). Cryptosporioptide exhibited both lipoxygenase inhibitory and anti-Bacillus megaterium activities. PMID:23642454

Saleem, Muhammad; Tousif, Muhammad Imran; Riaz, Naheed; Ahmed, Ishtiaq; Schulz, Barbara; Ashraf, Muhammad; Nasar, Rumana; Pescitelli, Gennaro; Hussain, Hidayat; Jabbar, Abdul; Shafiq, Nusrat; Krohn, Karsten

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
361

Intraspecific variation of the aquatic fungus articulospora tetracladia : an ubiquitous perspective  

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The worldwide-distributed aquatic fungus Articulospora tetracladia Ingold is a dominant sporulating species in streams of the Northwest Iberian Peninsula. To elucidate the genetic diversity of A. tetracladia, we analyzed isolates collected from various types of plant litter or foam in streams from North and Central Portugal and North Spain, between 2000 and 2010. Genetic diversity of these fungal populations was assessed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprints and by us...

2012-01-01

362

Intraspecific Variation of the Aquatic Fungus Articulospora tetracladia: An Ubiquitous Perspective  

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The worldwide-distributed aquatic fungus Articulospora tetracladia Ingold is a dominant sporulating species in streams of the Northwest Iberian Peninsula. To elucidate the genetic diversity of A. tetracladia, we analyzed isolates collected from various types of plant litter or foam in streams from North and Central Portugal and North Spain, between 2000 and 2010. Genetic diversity of these fungal populations was assessed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprints and by us...

2012-01-01

363

Mutually facilitated dispersal between the nonmotile fungus Aspergillus fumigatus and the swarming bacterium Paenibacillus vortex  

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In the heterogeneous environment surrounding plant roots (the rhizosphere), microorganisms both compete and cooperate. Here, we show that two very different inhabitants of the rhizosphere, the nonmotile fungus Aspergillus fumigatus and the swarming bacterium Paenibacillus vortex, can facilitate each other's dispersal. A. fumigatus conidia (nonmotile asexual fungal spores) can be transported by P. vortex swarms over distances of at least 30 cm and at rates of up to 10.8 mm h?1. Moreover, con...

Ingham, Colin J.; Kalisman, Oren; Finkelshtein, Alin; Ben-jacob, Eshel

2011-01-01

364

The Amphibian Chytrid Fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, in Fully Aquatic Salamanders from Southeastern North America  

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Little is known about the impact that the pathogenic amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has on fully aquatic salamander species of the eastern United States. As a first step in determining the impacts of Bd on these species, we aimed to determine the prevalence of Bd in wild populations of fully aquatic salamanders in the genera Amphiuma, Necturus, Pseudobranchus, and Siren. We sampled a total of 98 salamanders, representing nine species from sites in Florida, Miss...

Chatfield, Matthew W. H.; Moler, Paul; Richards-zawacki, Corinne L.

2012-01-01

365

Unlikely Remedy: Fungicide Clears Infection from Pathogenic Fungus in Larval Southern Leopard Frogs (Lithobates sphenocephalus)  

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Amphibians are often exposed to a wide variety of perturbations. Two of these, pesticides and pathogens, are linked to declines in both amphibian health and population viability. Many studies have examined the separate effects of such perturbations; however, few have examined the effects of simultaneous exposure of both to amphibians. In this study, we exposed larval southern leopard frog tadpoles (Lithobates sphenocephalus) to the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and the fungici...

Hanlon, Shane M.; Kerby, Jacob L.; Parris, Matthew J.

2012-01-01

366

Genome-Wide Transcriptional Response of Silurana (Xenopus) tropicalis to Infection with the Deadly Chytrid Fungus  

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Emerging infectious diseases are of great concern for both wildlife and humans. Several highly virulent fungal pathogens have recently been discovered in natural populations, highlighting the need for a better understanding of fungal-vertebrate host-pathogen interactions. Because most fungal pathogens are not fatal in the absence of other predisposing conditions, host-pathogen dynamics for deadly fungal pathogens are of particular interest. The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (h...

Rosenblum, Erica Bree; Poorten, Thomas J.; Settles, Matthew; Murdoch, Gordon K.; Robert, Jacques; Maddox, Nicole; Eisen, Michael B.

2009-01-01

367

Chemical constituents of the endophytic fungus Lecythophora sp. isolated from Alyxia reinwardtii.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seven compounds, (2R)-3-(2-hydroxypropyl)-benzene-1,2-diol (1), kojic acid (2), 7-O-acetyl-kojic acid (3), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (4), emodine (5), 7-chloroemodine (6), and ergosterol-5,8-peroxide (7) were isolated from the endophytic fungus Lecythophora sp. (specimen codes 30.1 and 30.5), which were isolated from Alyxia reinwardtii (Apocynaceae). PMID:19967979

Sugijanto, Noor Erma; Diesel, Arnulf; Ebel, Rainer; Indrayanto, Gunawan; Zaini, Noor Cholies

2009-11-01

368

Lecythomycin, a new macrolactone glycoside from the endophytic fungus Lecythophora sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new macrolactone glycoside, lecythomycin (1), 23-methyl-3-(1-O-mannosyl)-oxacyclotetracosan-1-one, was isolated from the endophytic fungus Lecythophora sp. (code 30.1), an endopyte of the Indonesian plant Alyxia reinwardtii. The structure of 1 was elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data. The isolated compound displayed antifungal activity against strains of Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida kruzei at minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 62.5-125 microg/mL. PMID:21615031

Sugijanto, Noor Erma; Diesel, Arnulf; Rateb, Mostafa; Pretsch, Alexander; Gogalic, Selma; Zaini, Noor Cholies; Ebel, Rainer; Indrayanto, Gunawan

2011-05-01

369

Degradative Activity of Enzyme from Synnematous sp. Endophytic Fungus on Raw Starches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The degradative activity on various raw starches by enzyme from Synnematous sp., an endophytic fungus was studied. The enzyme hydrolyzed raw starches to produce maltose and glucose. Maximum maltose and glucose were produced from raw rice and tapioca starch were 18.8 and 3.6 %, respectively. The yields were dependent on accessibility of granules surface to be attacked by the enzyme. The results of this study suggest that enzyme from Synnematous sp. has potential for the productio...

Yetti Marlida; Nazamid Saari; Son Radu; Fatimah Abu Bakar

2000-01-01

370

Cryptic sex and many-to-one coevolution in the fungus-growing ant symbiosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The fungus-growing ants have long provided a spectacular example of coevolutionary integration. Their ecological success is thought to depend largely on the evolutionary alignment of reproductive interests between ants and fungi after vertical transmission and the ancient suppression of fungal sexuality. In the present study we test these assumptions and provide the first evidence of recombination in attine cultivars, contradicting widely held perceptions of obligate clonality. In addition, w...

Mikheyev, Alexander S.; Mueller, Ulrich G.; Abbot, Patrick

2006-01-01

371

Benzopyranones from the Endophytic Fungus Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12 and Their Bioactivities  

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The endophytic fungus Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12 was isolated from the hybrid ‘Neva’ of Populus deltoides Marsh × P. nigra L. In this study, four benzopyranones were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12, and identified as palmariol B (1), 4-hydroxymellein (2), alternariol 9-methyl ether (3), and botrallin (4) by means of physicochemical and spectroscopic analysis. All the compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial, antifungal, antinematoda...

Xiangjie Meng; Ziling Mao; Jingfeng Lou; Liang Xu; Lingyun Zhong; Youliang Peng; Ligang Zhou; Mingan Wang

2012-01-01

372

Novel Scheme for Biosynthesis of Aryl Metabolites from l-Phenylalanine in the Fungus Bjerkandera adusta  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aryl metabolite biosynthesis was studied in the white rot fungus Bjerkandera adusta cultivated in a liquid medium supplemented with l-phenylalanine. Aromatic compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry following addition of labelled precursors (14C- and 13C-labelled l-phenylalanine), which did not interfere with fungal metabolism. The major aromatic compounds identified were benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde (bitter almond aroma), and benzoic acid. Hydroxy- and methoxybenzylic ...

Lapadatescu, Carmen; Ginie?s, Christian; Le Que?re?, Jean-luc; Bonnarme, Pascal

2000-01-01

373

Isocitrate Lyase Is Essential for Pathogenicity of the Fungus Leptosphaeria maculans to Canola (Brassica napus)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A pathogenicity gene has been identified in Leptosphaeria maculans, the ascomycetous fungus that causes blackleg disease of canola (Brassica napus). This gene encodes isocitrate lyase, a component of the glyoxylate cycle, and is essential for the successful colonization of B. napus. It was identified by a reverse genetics approach whereby a plasmid conferring hygromycin resistance was inserted randomly into the L. maculans genome. Twelve of 516 transformants tested had reduced pathogenicity o...

Idnurm, Alexander; Howlett, Barbara J.

2002-01-01

374

Identification of a novel metabolite in phenanthrene metabolism by the fungus Cunninghamella elegans.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The metabolism of phenanthrene by the fungus Cunninghamella elegans was investigated. Kinetic experiments using [9-14C]phenanthrene showed that after 72 h, 53% of the total radioactivity was associated with a glucoside conjugate of 1-hydroxyphenanthrene (phenanthrene 1-O-beta-glucose). This metabolite was isolated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and characterized by the application of UV absorption, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectral techniques. The resu...

Cerniglia, C. E.; Campbell, W. L.; Freeman, J. P.; Evans, F. E.

1989-01-01

375

Stereoselective metabolism of anthracene and phenanthrene by the fungus Cunninghamella elegans.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The fungus Cunninghamella elegans oxidized anthracene and phenanthrene to form predominately trans-dihydrodiols. The metabolites were isolated by reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography for structural and conformational analyses. Comparison of the circular dichroism spectrum of the fungal trans-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydroanthracene to that formed by rat liver microsomes indicated that the major enantiomer of the trans-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydroanthracene formed by C. elegans had an S,...

Cerniglia, C. E.; Yang, S. K.

1984-01-01

376

The role of phytopathogenicity in bark beetle-fungus symbioses : a challenge to the classic paradigm  

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The idea that phytopathogenic fungi associated with tree-killing bark beetles are critical for overwhelming tree defenses and incurring host tree mortality, herein called the classic paradigm (CP), has driven research on bark beetle–fungus symbiosis for decades. It has also strongly influenced our views of bark beetle ecology. We discuss fundamental flaws in the CP, including the lack of consistency of virulent fungal associates with tree-killing bark beetles, the lack of correspondence bet...

2011-01-01

377

Antifungal compounds of Xylaria sp., an endophytic fungus isolated from Palicourea marcgravii (Rubiaceae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five compounds, 2-hexyl-3-methyl-butanodioic acid (1), cytochalasin D (2), 7-dechlorogriseofulvin (3), cytochalasin B (4) and griseofulvin (5), have been isolated from the endophytic fungus Xylaria sp., and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. In the bioautography assay against Cladosporium cladosporioides and Cladosporium sphaerospermum, compounds 1 and 2 were found to be active while compounds 3, 4 and 5 did not show antifungal activity. (author)

2005-01-01

378

Phenolic compounds, organic acids profiles and antioxidative properties of beefsteak fungus (Fistulina hepatica)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The phenolic compounds and the organic acids composition of the edible beefsteak fungus Fistulina hepatica was determined by HPLC/DAD and HPLC/UV, respectively. The results showed a profile composed by five phenolic compounds (caffeic, p-coumaric and ellagic acids, hyperoside and quercetin) and six organic acids (oxalic, aconitic, citric, malic, ascorbic and fumaric acids). The quantification of the identified compounds revealed that ellagic acid (ca. 49.7%) and malic acid (ca. 57.9%) are the...

Ribeiro, Ba?rbara; Valenta?o, P.; Baptista, Paula; Seabra, R. M.; Andrade, P. B.

2007-01-01

379

Steroids produced by Penicillium herquei, an endophytic fungus isolated from the fruits of Melia azedarach (Meliaceae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Six compounds comprising the groups of steroids, the ergosterol, the ergosterol peroxide, the cerevisterol, the neociclocitrinols, the ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one, the 25-hydroxy-ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one, were isolated from Penicillium herquei fungus obtained from Melia azedarach. The structures were identified by spectral methods of RMN 1D and 2D and MS. (author)

2009-01-01

380

Physical Map and Organization of Chromosome 7 in the Rice Blast Fungus, Magnaporthe grisea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea is a highly destructive plant pathogen and one of the most important for studying various aspects of host-plant interactions. It has been widely adopted as a model organism because it is ideally suited for genetic and biological studies. To facilitate map-based cloning, chromosome walking, and genome organization studies of M. grisea, a complete physical map of chromosome 7 was constructed using a large-insert (130 kb) bacterial artificial chromosome (...

Zhu, Heng; Blackmon, Barbara P.; Sasinowski, Maciek; Dean, Ralph A.

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Plasticizers Increase Adhesion of the Deteriogenic Fungus Aureobasidium pullulans to Polyvinyl Chloride  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Initial adhesion of fungi to plasticized polyvinyl chloride (pPVC) may determine subsequent colonization and biodeterioration processes. The deteriogenic fungus Aureobasidium pullulans was used to investigate the physicochemical nature of adhesion to both unplasticized PVC (uPVC) and pPVC containing the plasticizers dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and dioctyl adipate (DOA). A quantitative adhesion assay using image analysis identified fundamental differences in the mechanism of adhesion of A. pullula...

1999-01-01

382

Maximizing Chemical Diversity of Fungal Metabolites: Biogenetically Related Heptaketides of the Endolichenic Fungus Corynespora sp.1  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In an attempt to explore the biosynthetic potential of the endolichenic fungus, Corynespora sp. BA-10763, its metabolite profiles under several culture conditions were investigated. When cultured in potato dextrose agar, it produced three new heptaketides, 9-O-methylscytalol A (1), 7-desmethylherbarin (2), and 8-hydroxyherbarin (3) together with biogenetically related metabolites, scytalol A (4), 8-O-methylfusarubin (5), scorpinone (6), and 8-O-methylbostrycoidin (7) that are new to this orga...

Wijeratne, E. M. Kithsiri; Bashyal, Bharat P.; Gunatilaka, Malkanthi K.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Gunatilaka, A. A. Leslie

2010-01-01

383

Temperature-Dependent Growth of Geomyces destructans, the Fungus That Causes Bat White-Nose Syndrome  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emergent disease estimated to have killed over five million North American bats. Caused by the psychrophilic fungus Geomyces destructans, WNS specifically affects bats during hibernation. We describe temperature-dependent growth performance and morphology for six independent isolates of G. destructans from North America and Europe. Thermal performance curves for all isolates displayed an intermediate peak with rapid decline in performance above the peak. Optima...

2012-01-01

384

13C NMR studies of carbon metabolism in the hyphal fungus Aspergillus nidulans  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Natural-abundance high-resolution 13C NMR spectra (linewidth, 10 Hz) of the hyphal fungus Aspergillus nidulans have been obtained after growth on glycolytic or gluconeogenic carbon sources. Various polyols, some tricarboxylic acid-cycle intermediates and amino acids, and some phospholipids and fatty acyl compounds are present. The polyols found are mannitol, arabitol, erythritol, and glycerol. The nature of the carbon source has a pronounced effect on the pool sizes of the various polyols. Al...

Dijkema, C.; Kester, H. C. M.; Visser, J.

1985-01-01

385

Suppression of Cyst Nematode by Natural Infestation of a Nematophagous Fungus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Penetration of cabbage roots by Heterodera schachtii was suppressed 50-77% in loamy sand naturally infested with the nematophagous fungus Hirsutella rhossiliensis. When Heterodera schachtii was incubated in the suppressive soil without plants for 2 days, 40-63% of the juveniles had Hirsutella rhossiliensis spores adhering to their cuticles. Of those with spores, 82-92% were infected. Infected nematodes were killed and filled with hyphae within 2-3 days. Addition of KCl to soil did not increas...

Jaffee, B. A.; Muldoon, A. E.

1989-01-01

386

Stemphol galactoside, a new stemphol derivative isolated from the tropical endophytic fungus Gaeumannomyces amomi.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new stemphol derivative, stemphol 1-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside (1b), together with three known metabolites, stemphol (1a), indole-3-carboxylic acid, and kojic acid, has been isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of cultures of Gaeumannomyces amomi BCC4066, an endophytic fungus found on healthy parts of ginger (Alpinia malaccensis; Thai name Kha-pa). The structure of 1b was established via spectroscopic methods, including 2D NMR measurements and GC/MS experiments. PMID:20433074

Jumpathong, Juangjun; Abdalla, Muna Ali; Lumyong, Saisamorn; Laatsch, Hartmut

2010-04-01

387

Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags from the Fungus Aspergillus oryzae Cultured Under Different Conditions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We performed random sequencing of cDNAs from nine biologically or industrially important cultures of the industrially valuable fungus Aspergillus oryzae to obtain expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Consequently, 21 446 raw ESTs were accumulated and subsequently assembled to 7589 non-redundant consensus sequences (contigs). Among all contigs, 5491 (72.4%) were derived from only a particular culture. These included 4735 (62.4%) singletons, i.e. lone ESTs overlapping with no others. These data sho...

Akao, Takeshi; Sano, Motoaki; Yamada, Osamu; Akeno, Terumi; Fujii, Kaoru; Goto, Kuniyasu; Ohashi-kunihiro, Sumiko; Takase, Kumiko; Yasukawa-watanabe, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Kanako; Kurihara, Yoko; Maruyama, Jun-ichi; Juvvadi, Praveen Rao; Tanaka, Akimitsu; Hata, Yoji

2007-01-01

388

Comparison of Gamma Irradiated and Raw Lignite in Bioliquefaction Process by Fungus T5  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The bioliquefaction of coal is a processing technology for converting solid coal to liquid oil at ambient temperature by helping microorganism. The pretreated of lignite is important to decrease the hydrofobic of lignite surface. One of pretreated method was irradiation by gamma rays. Aim of this research was to compare the gamma irradiated lignite and raw lignite in bioliquefaction process by selected fungus T5. The fungus was identified by molecular method using 18S rDNA. Treatments were A (MSS + gamma irradiated lignite 5% + T5) and B (MSS + raw lignite 5% + T5) and culture type was sub-merged. The parameters observed were colonization, bacterial and fungal enumeration, identify of dominant bacteria using 16S rDNA and characterization of bioliquefaction product by UV-Vis spectroscopy dan gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GCMS). The results showed that fungus T5 belongs to Ascomycota, Trichoderma asperellum. Fungus has the ability to growth and liquefy gamma irradiated and raw lignite. Bacteria were detected in raw lignite treatment and dominant bacteria were identified as Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus thuringensis. UV-Vis analysis showed that boliquefaction product mainly contained naphtacene, naphthalene, and anthracene for gamma irradiated lignite, but anthracene and benzene for raw lignite. For GCMS analysis, 22 and 38 compounds were identified for gamma irradiated and raw lignite. Both treatment had different number of hydrocarbon, i.e. C6 - C35 (A) and C10 - C35 (B) and dominated by aromatic acids, aliphatic and phenylethers. Percent area of gasoline (C7 - C11) and diesel (C10 - C24) fractions on the treatment B was 7.23% and 62.35%, while in treatment A was 7.22% and 44.27%. Based on the results, pretreated of lignite by gamma irradiation could be increased the bioliquefaction product. (author)

2012-08-01

389

The ligninolytic system of the white rot fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus: purification and characterization of the laccase.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The white rot fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus was characterized with respect to its set of extracellular phenoloxidases. Laccase was produced as the predominant extracellular phenoloxidase in conjunction with low amounts of an unusual peroxidase. Neither lignin peroxidase nor manganese peroxidase was detected. Laccase was produced constitutively during primary metabolism. Addition of the most effective inducer, 2,5-xylidine, enhanced laccase production ninefold without altering the isoenzyme p...

Eggert, C.; Temp, U.; Eriksson, K. E.

1996-01-01

390

Enzymatic Mechanisms Involved in Phenanthrene Degradation by the White Rot Fungus Pleurotus ostreatus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The enzymatic mechanisms involved in the degradation of phenanthrene by the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus were examined. Phase I metabolism (cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase and epoxide hydrolase) and phase II conjugation (glutathione S-transferase, aryl sulfotransferase, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, and UDP-glucosyltransferase) enzyme activities were determined for mycelial extracts of P. ostreatus. Cytochrome P-450 was detected in both cytosolic and microsomal fractions at 0.16 and 0.3...

Bezalel, L.; Hadar, Y.; Cerniglia, C. E.

1997-01-01

391

Pheromone-Induced G2 Arrest in the Phytopathogenic Fungus Ustilago maydis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis, pathogenic development is initiated when two compatible haploid cells fuse and form the infectious dikaryon. Mating is dependent on pheromone recognition by compatible cells. In this report, we set out to evaluate the relationship between the cell cycle and the pheromone response in U. maydis. To achieve this, we designed a haploid pheromone-responsive strain that is able to faithfully reproduce the native mating response in nutrient-rich medium. Addit...

Garci?a-muse, Tatiana; Steinberg, Gero; Pe?rez-marti?n, Jose?

2003-01-01

392

Multiple Sex Pheromones and Receptors of a Mushroom-producing Fungus Elicit Mating in Yeast  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The mushroom-producing fungus Schizophyllum commune has thousands of mating types defined, in part, by numerous lipopeptide pheromones and their G protein-linked receptors. Compatible combinations of pheromones and receptors encoded by different mating types regulate a pathway of sexual development leading to mushroom formation and meiosis. A complex set of pheromone–receptor interactions maximizes the likelihood of outbreeding; for example, a single pheromone can activate more than one rec...

Fowler, Thomas J.; Desimone, Susan M.; Mitton, Michael F.; Kurjan, Janet; Raper, Carlene A.

1999-01-01

393

Intraspecific variation of the aquatic fungus Articulospora tetracladia : an ubiquitous perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The worldwide-distributed aquatic fungus Articulospora tetracladia Ingold is a dominant sporulating species in streams of the Northwest Iberian Peninsula. To elucidate the genetic diversity of A. tetracladia, we analyzed isolates collected from various types of plant litter or foam in streams from North and Central Portugal and North Spain, between 2000 and 2010. Genetic diversity of these fungal populations was assessed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprints and by us...

Seena, Sahadevan; Duarte, Sofia; Pascoal, Cla?udia; Ca?ssio, Fernanda

2012-01-01

394

Growth of the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Pisolithus Microcarpus in different nutritional conditions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The most important plant species employed in reforestation programs depend on ectomycorrhizal fungi for their establishment and growth. The exploitation of this symbiosis to improve forest productivity requires fungal inoculants in a large scale level. To develop such a technology it is necessary to define the optimal composition of the culture medium for each fungus. With these objectives in mind, the effect of the composition of the culture medium on biomass production of the ectomycorrhiza...

Márcio José Rossi; Oliveira, Vetu?ria L.

2011-01-01

395

Adhesion of conidia and germlings of the plant pathogenic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana to solid surfaces  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Soon after coming in contact with its host, the plant pathogenic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana produces an extracellular material that appears to be important for adhering conidia and germlings to the host surface. To further understand this step of the infection, the adhesion of B. sorokiniana to artificial solid surfaces was examined. On a hydrophobic (polystyrene) surface adhesion occurred in two stages, the first by conidia and the second by germlings. Conidial adhesion occurred shortly (0...

Apoga, D.; Jansson, Hans-bo?rje; Tunlid, Anders

2001-01-01

396

Patterns of interaction specificity of fungus-growing termites and Termitomyces symbionts in South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background Termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae live in a mutualistic symbiosis with basidiomycete fungi of the genus Termitomyces. Here, we explored interaction specificity in fungus-growing termites using samples from 101 colonies in South-Africa and Senegal, belonging to eight species divided over three genera. Knowledge of interaction specificity is important to test the hypothesis that inhabitants (symbionts) are taxonomically less diverse than 'exhabitants' (hosts) and to test the ...

Aanen, D. K.; Ros, V. I. D.; Fine Licht, H. H.; Mitchell, J.; Beer, Z. W.; Slippers, B.; Rouland-lefevre, C.; Boomsma, J. J.

2007-01-01

397

Patterns of interaction specificity of fungus-growing termites and Termitomyces symbionts in South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae live in a mutualistic symbiosis with basidiomycete fungi of the genus Termitomyces. Here, we explored interaction specificity in fungus-growing termites using samples from 101 colonies in South-Africa and Senegal, belonging to eight species divided over three genera. Knowledge of interaction specificity is important to test the hypothesis that inhabitants (symbionts) are taxonomically less diverse than 'exhabitants' (hosts) and to test the...

Aanen, Duur K.; Ros, Vera I. D.; Fine Licht, Henrik H.; Mitchell, Jannette; Beer, Z. Wilhelm; Slippers, Bernard; Rouland-lefevre, Corinne; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

2007-01-01

398

Dispersion and colonisation by fungus-growing termites: Vertical transmission of the symbiont helps, but then…?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The fungus-growing termites (Macrotermitinae) have developed an obligate mutualistic symbiosis with fungi (Termitomyces) and, in most cases, the symbiotic partner is collected from the environment upon establishment of a new colony (horizontal transmission). The requirement that partners are able to find and recognize each other after independent reproduction is likely to severely constrain long distance dispersal. In support of this hypothesis, we have recently shown that a single colonisati...

Nobre, Tania; Aanen, Durr K.

2010-01-01

399

The evolution of fungus-growing termites and their mutualistic fungal symbionts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have estimated phylogenies of fungus-growing termites and their associated mutualistic fungi of the genus Termitomyces using Bayesian analyses of DNA sequences. Our study shows that the symbiosis has a single African origin and that secondary domestication of other fungi or reversal of mutualistic fungi to a free-living state has not occurred. Host switching has been frequent, especially at the lower taxonomic levels, and nests of single termite species can have different symbionts. Data a...

Aanen, Duur K.; Eggleton, Paul; Rouland-lefe?vre, Corinne; Guldberg-frøslev, Tobias; Rosendahl, Søren; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

2002-01-01

400

High Symbiont Relatedness Stabilizes Mutualistic Cooperation in Fungus-Growing Termites  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is unclear how mutualistic relationships can be stable when partners disperse freely and have the possibility of forming associations with many alternative genotypes. Theory predicts that high symbiont relatedness should resolve this problem, but the mechanisms to enforce this have rarely been studied. We show that African fungus-growing termites propagate single variants of their Termitomyces symbiont, despite initiating cultures from genetically variable spores from the habitat. High ino...

Aanen, D. K.; Fine Licht, H. H.; Debets, A. J. M.; Kerstes, N. A. G.; Hoekstra, R. F.; Boomsma, J. J.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Presumptive horizontal symbiont transmission in the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

All colonies of the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis studied so far are associated with a single genetically variable lineage of Termitomyces symbionts. Such limited genetic variation of symbionts and the absence of sexual fruiting bodies (mushrooms) on M. natalensis mounds would be compatible with clonal vertical transmission, as is known to occur in Macrotermes bellicosus. We investigated this hypothesis by analysing DNA sequence polymorphisms as codominant SNP markers of four ...

Fine Licht, H. H.; Boomsma, J. J.; Aanen, D. K.

2006-01-01

402

Global Gene Expression Analysis during Sporulation of the Aquatic Fungus Blastocladiella emersonii ? †  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Blastocladiella emersonii life cycle presents a number of drastic biochemical and morphological changes, mainly during two cell differentiation stages: germination and sporulation. To investigate the transcriptional changes taking place during the sporulation phase, which culminates with the production of the zoospores, motile cells responsible for the dispersal of the fungus, microarray experiments were performed. Among the 3,773 distinct genes investigated, a total of 1,207 were classif...

2010-01-01

403

The prominent role of fungi and fungal enzymes in the ant-fungus biomass conversion symbiosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Molecular studies have added significantly to understanding of the role of fungi and fungal enzymes in the efficient biomass conversion, which takes place in the fungus garden of leaf-cutting ants. It is now clear that the fungal symbiont expresses the full spectrum of genes for degrading cellulose and other plant cell wall polysaccharides. Since the start of the genomics era, numerous interesting studies have especially focused on evolutionary, molecular, and organismal aspects of the biological and biochemical functions of the symbiosis between leaf-cutting ants (Atta spp. and Acromyrmex spp.) and their fungal symbiont Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. Macroscopic observations of the fungus-farming ant colony inherently depict the ants as the leading part of the symbiosis (the myrmicocentric approach, overshadowing the mycocentric aspects). However, at the molecular level, it is fungal enzymes that enable the ants to access the nutrition embedded in recalcitrant plant biomass. Our hypothesis is that the evolutionary events that established fungus-farming practice were predisposed by a fascinating fungal evolution toward increasing attractiveness to ants. This resulted in the ants allowing the fungus to grow in the nests and began to supply plant materials for more fungal growth. Molecular studies also confirm that specialized fungal structures, the gongylidia, with high levels of proteins and rich blend of enzymes, are essential for symbiosis. Harvested and used as ant feed, the gongylidia are the key factor for sustaining the highly complex leaf-cutting ant colony. This microbial upgrade of fresh leaves to protein-enriched animal feed can serve as inspiration for modern biorefinery technology. PMID:24728757

Lange, L; Grell, M N

2014-06-01

404

Biotransformation of the Herbicide Atrazine by the White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biotransformation of atrazine by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by a 48% decrease of the initial herbicide concentration in the growth medium within the first 4 days of incubation, which corresponded to the mycelium-growing phase. Results clearly established the mineralization of the ethyl group of the herbicide. Analysis of the growth medium showed the formation of hydroxylated and/or N-dealkylated metabolites of atrazine during fungal degradation.

Mougin, Christian; Laugero, Chantal; Asther, Michele; Dubroca, Jacqueline; Frasse, Pierre; Asther, Marcel

1994-01-01

405

Investigation of the Effect of Heating, Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza and Thermophilic Fungus on Cotton Wilt Disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, combinations of spores of a thermophilic fungus (Talaromyces flavus), Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM) and microsclerotia of Verticillium dahliae under various temperature treatment (31-38°C) in triplicate trial, were investigated and results were compared with those of non-treated controls. Five cotton seeds were planted in each pot containing 3 kg of pasteurized soil. In each pot, combinations of 4x103 VAM spores, 2.5x10 9 spores of t...

Naraghi, L.; Zareh-maivan, H.; Heydari, A.; Afshari-azad, H.

2007-01-01

406

Metabolites from the fungus Phoma sp. 7210, associated with Aizoon canariense  

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A new metabolite, 3,16-diketoaphidicolan (1), was isolated together with four known compounds: aphidicolin (2), 17-acetylaphidicolin (3), (+)-eupenoxide (4), and phomoxanthone A (5) from the endophytic fungus Phoma sp. The structure of the new compound 1 was determined by spectroscopic methods (mainly extensive 1D and 2D NMR experiments and by mass spectral measurements) and confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Its absolute configuration was assigned by means of the solid-state CD/TDDFT approa...

Jingqiu Dai; Hidayat Hussain; Siegfried Dräger; Barbara Schulz; Tibor Kurtán; Gennaro Pescitelli; Ulrich Flörke; Karsten Krohn; Dr. Kurtán Tibor (1973-) (vegyész, angol szakfordító)

2010-01-01

407

Neuraminidase inhibitory polyketides from the marine-derived fungus Phoma herbarum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new polyketides, arthropsadiol C (1) and massarilactone H (2), together with six known derivatives (3-8) were isolated from the culture broth of the marine-derived fungus Phoma herbarum. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods, including 2D?NMR techniques. Compounds 2, 4, 5, and 8 showed moderate neuraminidase inhibitory activity with IC(50) values ranging from 4.15 to 9.16?µM. PMID:21969116

Zhang, Gao Fei; Han, Wen Bo; Cui, Jiang Tao; Ng, Seik Weng; Guo, Zhi Kai; Tan, Ren Xiang; Ge, Hui Ming

2012-01-01

408

A new cyclic tetrapeptide from the jellyfish-derived fungus Phoma sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new cyclic tetrapeptide (1), along with known congeners (2, 3), was isolated from the fungus Phoma sp. derived from the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined using the modified Mosher's method and Marfey's method. Compound 1 displayed a weak suppressive effect on the production of nitric oxide (NO) in murine macrophage cells (RAW264.7) without notable cytotoxicity. PMID:23037010

Kim, Eun La; Li, Jian Lin; Xiao, Bin; Hong, Jongki; Yoo, Eun Sook; Yoon, Won Duk; Jung, Jee H

2012-01-01

409

Prehaustorial resistance to the wheat leaf rust fungus, Puccinia triticina, in Triticum monococcum (s.s.)  

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Diploid wheat, Triticum monococcum s.l., is a host for the wheat leaf rust fungus, Puccinia triticina. Some accessions have been reported to show a high degree of prehaustorial resistance. This is non-hypersensitivity resistance, which acts before the formation of haustoria by the pathogen. To assess the frequency of prehaustorial resistance 598 accessions of diploid wheat were inoculated with the wheat leaf rust isolate Felix. Most T. monococcum s.s. accessions (84%) were resistant whereas a...

Anker, C. C.; Niks, R. E.

2001-01-01

410

Chaetomium globosum, a non-toxic fungus: a potential source of protein (SCP)  

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Wheat straw cellulose was used as substrate for single cell protein (SCP) production using C. globosum, a non-toxic fungus. Both untreated and delignified powdered (60 mesh) substrate were used in submerged fermentation. The optimum cultural conditions for maximum conversion of wheat straw into SCP were 5 days, 37C, pH 5.0 and 400 mg/litre nitrogen in the form of sodium nitrate. 18 references.

Kahlon, S.S.; Kalra, K.L.

1986-01-01

411

Sensitivity of the Entomogenous Fungus Beauveria bassiana to Selected Plant Growth Regulators and Spray Additives  

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Mefluidide was the only one of four plant growth regulators that caused little to no significant inhibition of in vitro germination and growth of the entomogenous fungus Beauveria bassiana. Silaid, paclobutrazol, and flurprimidol significantly inhibited germination and growth. Mortality of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, resulting from B. bassiana was significantly reduced when larvae were exposed to conidia plus soil treated with paclobutrazol. Larval mortality resulting from conidia p...

1986-01-01

412

Fruity aromas production in solid state fermentation by the fungus Ceratocystis fimbriata  

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Solid state fermentation (SSF) has been studied for enzymes, antibiotics, alcohol production or for protein enrichment, but few papers report the production of aromas by such a process. In this work, the study of the production of fruity aromas in SSF by the fungus #Ceratocystis fimbriata$ is presented, with special interest in the nature of the support/substrate, the importance of added precursors in the medium and the aeration. The aromas were characterised by "sniffing" technique an GC hea...

Christen, Pierre; Revah, S.

1998-01-01

413

The effect of nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans on the gastrointestinal parasites in sheep  

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Full Text Available Sheep production has serious problems due to the spread of intestinal parasites. These parasites cause loss of appetite, maldigestion, slow growth in body weight and wool, all of which results in economic losses as well. The control measures of infestation with strongyloid parasites in ruminants have until now been based mainly on the organization of grazing and the use of antihelmintics. However, due to the occurrence of resistance, alternative methods of control have been introduced. The use of nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans, which is capable of decreasing the number of infectious larvae and eggs in feces, has been successful. The aim of this study was to determine whether Duddingtonia flagrans decreases the number of eggs of Trichostrongylus spp in sheep feces. Fecal samples of thirty-four sheep were examined and the parasites were found in twelve sheep, six of which were fed with the fungus, and six of which were used as the control. According to ?2 test, at the level of certainty of p<0,005, a statistically important difference in the number of eggs was observed between the sheep which were given the fungus and those which were not.

Laloševi? Vesna G.

2011-01-01

414

Predatory activity of the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans on horse cyathostomin infective larvae.  

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This work was performed to determine the predatory capacity in vitro of the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans (isolate AC001) on cyathostomin infective larvae of horse (L(3)). The experimental assay was carried out on plates with 2% water-agar (2% WA). In the treated group, each plate contained 1.000 L(3) and 1.000 conidia of the fungus. The control group without fungus only contained 1.000 L(3) in the plates. Ten random fields (4 mm diameter) were examined per plate of treated and control groups, every 24 h for seven days under an optical microscope (10x and 40x objective lens) for non-predated L(3) counts. After 7 days, the non-predated L(3) were recovered from the Petri dishes using the Baermann method. The interaction there was a significant reduction (p < 0.01) of 93.64% in the cyathostomin L(3) recovered. The results showed that the D. flagrans is a potential candidate to the biological control of horse cyathostomin L(3). PMID:20213221

Braga, Fabio R; Araújo, Jackson V; Silva, André R; Carvalho, Rogério O; Araujo, Juliana M; Ferreira, Sebastião R; Benjamin, Laércio A

2010-08-01

415

Testing fungus impregnated cloths for the control of adult Aedes aegypti under natural conditions  

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Background Entomopathogenic fungi could be useful tools for reducing populations of the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti. Here the efficiency of fungus (Metarhizium anisopliae) impregnated cloths (with and without imidacloprid [IMI]) was evaluated against adult A. aegypti in simulated human dwellings. Behaviour of mosquitoes in the presence of black cloths was also investigated. Findings When mosquitoes were released into the test rooms, the lowest survival rates (38%) were seen when five black cloths impregnated with conidia of ESALQ 818?+?10 ppm IMI were fixed under tables and chairs. This result was significantly lower than the survival rate recorded when cloths were impregnated with ESALQ 818 alone (44%) or ESALQ 818?+?0.1 ppm IMI (43%). Blood fed A. aegypti had lower landing frequencies on black cloths than sucrose fed insects during the first 24 h following feeding, which may have been due to reduced flight activity. Few mosquitoes (4-5%) were observed to land on the cloths during the hours of darkness. The landing pattern of sucrose-fed mosquitoes on non-treated and fungus-treated cloths was similar. Conclusion The synergism between M. anisopliae and IMI significantly reduced Aedes survival in simulated field conditions. The use of fungus impregnated cloths is a promising point source application method for the control of adult A. aegypti.

2013-01-01

416

Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus and Different Phosphorus Doses Against Cotton Wilt Caused Verticillium dahliae Kleb.  

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Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus (AMF and different phosphorus dosages on the development of Verticillium dahliae Kleb. induced wilt in cotton. Sayar-314 cotton variety which is sensitive to Verticillium wilt, AMF G. intraradices and phosphorus dosages of 0, 40 and 80 kg ha-1 were used in the experiments implemented under naturally V. dahliae-contaminated field conditions during the years of 2007 and 2008. According to the obtained results, it was found that there occurred a reduction in the disease chart. Also, it was observed that the application reduced the severity of the disease by 22-29.22% in green portions of cotton plants and their stem sections in field divisions particularly to which G. intraradices and phosphorus of 40 kg ha-1 had been applied together in both years. On the other hand, phosphorus dosage of 80 kg ha-1 had a negative effect in suppressing the infection. Phosphorus (P content of cotton plants leaves increased in mycorrhizal fungus treated divisions compared with those untreated. Besides, due to the infection, cotton yield decreased by 14-21% in the divisions without AMF application. It was also concluded that if AM fungus was applied along with lower dosages of phosphorus, it would mitigate the severity of V. dahliae-induced infection in cotton, increase the yield despite the infection and induce phosphorus uptake in the plant.

Aysel Bars Orak

2011-01-01

417

Phenanthrene uptake by Medicago sativa L. under the influence of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus  

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Phenanthrene uptake by Medicago sativa L. was investigated under the influence of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. Inoculation of lucerne with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus etunicatum L. resulted in higher phenanthrene accumulation in the roots and lower accumulation in the shoots compared to non-mycorrhizal controls. Studies on sorption and desorption of phenanthrene by roots and characterization of heterogeneity of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal roots using solid-state {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 13}C NMR) demonstrated that increased aromatic components due to mycorrhizal inoculation resulted in enhanced phenanthrene uptake by the roots but lower translocation to the shoots. Direct visualization using two-photon excitation microscopy (TPEM) revealed higher phenanthrene accumulation in epidermal cells of roots and lower transport into the root interior and stem in mycorrhizal plants than in non-mycorrhizal controls. These results provide some insight into the mechanisms by which arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation may influence the uptake of organic contaminants by plants. - Colonization by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus promoted root uptake and decreased shoot uptake of phenanthrene by Medicago sativa L.

Wu Naiying [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Department of Chemistry, Shangqiu Normal College, Shangqiu 476000 (China); Huang Honglin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhang Shuzhen, E-mail: szzhang@rcees.ac.c [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhu Yongguan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Christie, Peter [Agri-Environment Branch, Agriculture Food and Environmental Science Division, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom); Zhang Yong [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Environmental Science Research Centre, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

2009-05-15

418

Biosynthesis of jasmonic acid in a plant pathogenic fungus, Lasiodiplodia theobromae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant hormone that plays an important role in a wide variety of plant physiological processes. The plant pathogenic fungus, Lasiodiplodia theobromae also produces JA; however, its biosynthesis in this fungus has yet to be explored. Administration of [1-(13)C] and [2-(13)C] NaOAc into L. theobromae established that JA in this fungus originates from a fatty acid synthetic pathway. The methyl ester of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) was detected in the culture extracts of L. theobromae by GC-MS analysis. This finding indicates the presence of OPDA (a known intermediate of JA biosynthesis in plants) in L. theobromae. (2)H NMR spectroscopic data of JA produced by L. theobromae with the incorporation of [9,10,12,13,15,16-(2)H(6)] linolenic acid showed that five deuterium atoms remained intact. In plants, this is speculated to arise from JA being produced by the octadecanoid pathway. However, the observed stereoselectivity of the cyclopentenone olefin reduction in L. theobromae was opposite to that observed in plants. These data suggest that JA biosynthesis in L. theobromae is similar to that in plants, but differing in the facial selectivity of the enone reduction. PMID:20952041

Tsukada, Kohei; Takahashi, Kosaku; Nabeta, Kensuke

2010-12-01

419

Mathematical modeling on obligate mutualism: Interactions between leaf-cutter ants and their fungus garden.  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose a simple mathematical model by applying Michaelis-Menton equations of enzyme kinetics to study the mutualistic interaction between the leaf cutter ant and its fungus garden at the early stage of colony expansion. We derive sufficient conditions on the extinction and coexistence of these two species. In addition, we give a region of initial condition that leads to the extinction of two species when the model has an interior attractor. Our global analysis indicates that the division of labor by worker ants and initial conditions are two important factors that determine whether leaf cutter ants' colonies and their fungus garden can survive and grow or not. We validate the model by comparing model simulations and data on fungal and ant colony growth rates under laboratory conditions. We perform sensitive analysis of the model based on the experimental data to gain more biological insights on ecological interactions between leaf-cutter ants and their fungus garden. Finally, we give conclusions and discuss potential future work. PMID:21903102

Kang, Yun; Clark, Rebecca; Makiyama, Michael; Fewell, Jennifer

2011-11-21

420

Phenanthrene uptake by Medicago sativa L. under the influence of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phenanthrene uptake by Medicago sativa L. was investigated under the influence of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. Inoculation of lucerne with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus etunicatum L. resulted in higher phenanthrene accumulation in the roots and lower accumulation in the shoots compared to non-mycorrhizal controls. Studies on sorption and desorption of phenanthrene by roots and characterization of heterogeneity of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal roots using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C NMR) demonstrated that increased aromatic components due to mycorrhizal inoculation resulted in enhanced phenanthrene uptake by the roots but lower translocation to the shoots. Direct visualization using two-photon excitation microscopy (TPEM) revealed higher phenanthrene accumulation in epidermal cells of roots and lower transport into the root interior and stem in mycorrhizal plants than in non-mycorrhizal controls. These results provide some insight into the mechanisms by which arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation may influence the uptake of organic contaminants by plants. - Colonization by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus promoted root uptake and decreased shoot uptake of phenanthrene by Medicago sativa L.

2009-05-01

 
 
 
 
421

Antimicrobial Metabolites from the Endophytic Fungus Pichia guilliermondii Isolated from Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis  

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Full Text Available Three steroids and one nordammarane triterpenoid were isolated for the first time from the endophytic fungus Pichia guilliermondii Ppf9 derived from the medicinal plant Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis. By means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis, they were identified as ergosta-5,7,22-trienol (1, 5?,8?-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3?-ol (2, ergosta-7,22-dien-3?,5?,6?-triol (3, and helvolic acid (4. Both micro-dilution-colorimetric and spore germination assays were employed to evaluate their antimicrobial activity. Among them, helvolic acid (4 exhibited the strongest antibacterial activity against all test bacteria, with MIC values ranging from 1.56 µg/mL to 50 µg/mL, and IC50 values from 0.98 µg/mL to 33.19 µg/mL. It also showed strong inhibitory activity on the spore germination of Magnaporthe oryzae with an IC50 value of 7.20 µg/mL. Among the three steroids, 5?,8?-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3?-ol (2 exhibited relatively strong antimicrobial activity. The results suggest that the endophytic fungus Pichia guillermondii Ppf9 could be a candidate for producing helvolic acid, and the metabolites from this fungus could be potentially developed as antimicrobial agents in the future.

Yan Mou

2010-11-01

422

Occurrence of R-growth type of Tapesia yallundae fungus and its sensitivity to some fungicides  

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Full Text Available From winter wheat and winter triticale stems with distinct disease lesions 123 isolates of eyespot agent - Tapesia yallundae fungus were obtained. Stems were collected in 1999-2001, from no-treatment and protected with fungicides fields, which were situated in three provinces of Poland (ma?opolskie, mazowieckie, ?l?skie. Obtained isolates were classified on the basis of morphology on PDA, sporulation on water agar and sensitivity to carbendazim and prochloraz 51 isolates (i.e. 41,5% of all represent R- growth type of fungus. To this type belong 28% and 71% strains obtained from wheat and triticale stems, respectively. Only seven isolates ofR-type fungus (i.e. 13,7% were resistant to carbendazim. These strains originated from two protected with carbendazim winter wheat fields and two no-protected winter triticale crops. All isolates of R-type were sensitive to prochloraz. This compounds appears in vitro more effective than flusilazole, propiconazole and azoxystrobin.

Zbigniew T. Mali?ski

2002-06-01

423

A fibronectin receptor on Candida albicans mediates adherence of the fungus to extracellular matrix  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Binding of fibronectin, an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein, to Candida albicans was measured, and adherence of the fungus to immobilized ECM proteins, fibronectin, laminin, types I and IV collagen, and subendothelial ECM was studied. 125I-labeled fibronectin was inhibited from binding to the fungus by unlabeled human plasma fibronectin and by Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), Gly-Arg-Gly-Glu-Ser-Pro (GRGESP), and Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr-Pro (GRGDTP), but binding was not inhibited by Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-Pro. Soluble fibronectin, RGD, GRGESP, and GRGDTP also inhibited fungal adherence to the individual immobilized ECM proteins in a complex pattern, but only soluble fibronectin (10(-7) M) inhibited fungal adherence to subendothelial ECM. Thus, C. albicans possesses at least one type of cell surface receptor for binding soluble fibronectin that can be inhibited with peptides. This receptor apparently is used to bind the fungus to immobilized ECM proteins and to subendothelial ECM and may play a role in the initiation of disseminated disease by bloodborne fungi by providing for adherence of the microorganisms to ECM proteins

1991-01-01

424

A fibronectin receptor on Candida albicans mediates adherence of the fungus to extracellular matrix  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Binding of fibronectin, an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein, to Candida albicans was measured, and adherence of the fungus to immobilized ECM proteins, fibronectin, laminin, types I and IV collagen, and subendothelial ECM was studied. 125I-labeled fibronectin was inhibited from binding to the fungus by unlabeled human plasma fibronectin and by Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), Gly-Arg-Gly-Glu-Ser-Pro (GRGESP), and Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr-Pro (GRGDTP), but binding was not inhibited by Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-Pro. Soluble fibronectin, RGD, GRGESP, and GRGDTP also inhibited fungal adherence to the individual immobilized ECM proteins in a complex pattern, but only soluble fibronectin (10(-7) M) inhibited fungal adherence to subendothelial ECM. Thus, C. albicans possesses at least one type of cell surface receptor for binding soluble fibronectin that can be inhibited with peptides. This receptor apparently is used to bind the fungus to immobilized ECM proteins and to subendothelial ECM and may play a role in the initiation of disseminated disease by bloodborne fungi by providing for adherence of the microorganisms to ECM proteins.

Klotz, S.A.; Smith, R.L. (Overton Brooks VA Medical Center, Shreveport, LA (USA))

1991-03-01

425

The fungus Cunninghamella elegans can produce human and equine metabolites of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs).  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are a group of substances that have potential to be used as doping agents in sports. Being a relatively new group not available on the open market means that no reference materials are commercially available for the main metabolites. In the presented study, the in vitro metabolism of SARMs by the fungus Cunninghamella elegans has been investigated with the purpose of finding out if it can produce relevant human and equine metabolites. 2. Three different SARMs, S1, S4 and S24, were incubated for 5 days with C. elegans. The samples were analysed both with and without sample pretreatment using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. 3. All the important phase I and some phase II metabolites from human and horse were formed by the fungus. They were formed through reactions such as hydroxylation, deacetylation, O-dephenylation, nitro-reduction, acetylation and sulfonation. 4. The study showed that the fungus produced relevant metabolites of the SARMs and thus can be used to mimic mammalian metabolism. Furthermore, it has the potential to be used for future production of reference material. PMID:23153056

Rydevik, Axel; Thevis, Mario; Krug, Oliver; Bondesson, Ulf; Hedeland, Mikael

2013-05-01

426

Inhibition of the alveolar macrophage oxidative burst by a diffusible component from the surface of the spores of the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus.  

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BACKGROUND: Aspergillus fumigatus is a fungus that grows on dead and decaying organic matter in the environment and whose spores are present ubiquitously in the air. The fungus causes a range of diseases in the human lung. A study was undertaken to demonstrate and partially characterise an inhibitor of the macrophage respiratory burst from the surface of A fumigatus spores that could be an important factor in allowing the fungus to colonise the lung. METHODS: The spore-derived inhibitor of th...

Slight, J.; Nicholson, W. J.; Mitchell, C. G.; Pouilly, N.; Beswick, P. H.; Seaton, A.; Donaldson, K.

1996-01-01

427

Pan-European Distribution of White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) Not Associated with Mass Mortality  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The dramatic mass mortalities amongst hibernating bats in Northeastern America caused by “white nose-syndrome” (WNS) continue to threaten populations of different bat species. The cold-loving fungus, Geomyces destructans, is the most likely causative agent leading to extensive destruction of the skin, particularly the wing membranes. Recent investigations in Europe confirmed the presence of the fungus G. destructans without associated mass mortality in hibernating bats in six countries but its distribution remains poorly known. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected data on the presence of bats with white fungal growth in 12 countries in Europe between 2003 and 2010 and conducted morphological and genetic analysis to confirm the identity of the fungus as Geomyces destructans. Our results demonstrate the presence of the fungus in eight countries spanning over 2000 km from West to East and provide compelling photographic evidence for its presence in another four countries including Romania, and Turkey. Furthermore, matching prevalence data of a hibernaculum monitored over two consecutive years with data from across Europe show that the temporal occurrence of the fungus, which first becomes visible around February, peaks in March but can still be seen in some torpid bats in May or June, is strikingly similar throughout Europe. Finally, we isolated and cultured G. destructans from a cave wall adjacent to a bat with fungal growth. Conclusions/Significance G. destructans is widely found over large areas of the European continent without associated mass mortalities in bats, suggesting that the fungus is native to Europe. The characterisation of the temporal variation in G. destructans growth on bats provides reference data for studying the spatio-temporal dynamic of the fungus. Finally, the presence of G. destructans spores on cave walls suggests that hibernacula could act as passive vectors and/or reservoirs for G. destructans and therefore, might play an important role in the transmission process.

Korn, Vanessa; Fuller, Hubert; Forget, Frederic; Muhldorfer, Kristin; Kurth, Andreas; Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw; Borel, Christophe; Bosch, Thijs; Cherezy, Thomas; Drebet, Mikhail; Gorfol, Tamas; Haarsma, Anne-Jifke; Herhaus, Frank; Hallart, Guenael; Hammer, Matthias; Jungmann, Christian; Le Bris, Yann; Lutsar, Lauri; Masing, Matti; Mulkens, Bart; Passior, Karsten; Starrach, Martin; Wojtaszewski, Andrzej; Zophel, Ulrich; Teeling, Emma C.

2011-01-01

428

Digestive responses of two omnivorous rodents (Peromyscus maniculatus and P. alstoni) feeding on epigeous fungus (Russula occidentalis).  

Science.gov (United States)

The sporocarps of hypogeous and epigeous fungi are important dietary items for forest dwelling rodents in temperate and tropical forests throughout the world. However, results of some pioneering works have demonstrated that fungi cannot be considered as nutritionally high-quality food items for some mycophagous small rodents. According to these studies, when mycophagous rodents feed on fungus, they showed a minimal digestibility, but whether this applies to most rodent species that include fungi in their diets is unknown. In this study, we experimentally evaluated body mass changes and feed preferences in captive deer (Peromyscus maniculatus) and volcano (P. alstoni) mice when fed on epigeous fungus (Russula occidentalis). In experiment 1, the animals were fed with fungus as the only feedstuff in comparison to regular rodent chow and oat. In experiment 2, the animals were fed with fungus in a free-choice arrangement together with equal amounts of rodent chow and oat. Both species lost approximately 15% of their body mass within 4 days when fed on fungus alone, but gained 5-10% body mass during the same time period when ingesting oat and rodent chow, respectively, as the only feedstuff. However, in contrast, in the free-choice arrangement with all three feedstuffs, both species gained 20-30% body mass, and showed the highest feed preference for fungus followed by oat and rodent chow. In addition, apparent digestibility of energy and nitrogen were analyzed in both rodent species, which were 50-60% for fungus, whereas approximately 90-94% for rodent chow and oat. According to our results, animals need to supplement their diets with alternative high-quality food items in order to maintain and increase their body mass, suggesting that epigeous fungi are only of moderate nutritional value for small rodents. Futures studies should focus on exploring the importance of a mixture of fungal species in the diet of small mycophagous rodents. PMID:17653726

D'Alva, T; Lara, C; Estrada-Torres, A; Castillo-Guevara, C

2007-10-01

429

Tree planters` notes, Volume 46, Number 2, Spring 1995. Quarterly report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

;Contents: Certified Seed and Artificial Forest Regeneration; Missoula Technology and Development Center`s 1995 Nursery and Reforestation Programs; Trees Grow Better With Water; Botrytis cinerea Carried by Adult Fungus Gnats (Diptera: Sciaridae) in Container Nurseries; Oak Seedling Root and Shoot Growth on Restored Topsoil; Improved Vegetative Propagation of Scouler Willow; Estimating Poller Yield From Western White Pine: Preliminary Studies.

Nisley, R.

1995-12-31

430

Identification of Delta12-fatty acid desaturase from arachidonic acid-producing mortierella fungus by heterologous expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the fungus Aspergillus oryzae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the sequence information for the omega3-desaturase genes (from Brassica napus and Caenorhabditis elegans), which are involved in the desaturation of linoleic acid (Delta9, Delta12-18 : 2) to alpha-linolenic acid (Delta9, Delta12, Delta15-18 : 3), a cDNA was cloned from the filamentous fungal strain, Mortierella alpina 1S-4, which is used industrially to produce arachidonic acid. Homology analysis with protein databases revealed that the amino acid sequence showed 43.7% identity as the highest match with the microsomal omega6-desaturase (from Glycine max, soybean), whereas it exhibited 38.9% identity with the microsomal omega3-desaturase (from soybean). The evolutionary implications of these enzymes will be discussed. The cloned cDNA was confirmed to encode a Delta12-desaturase, which was involved in the desaturation of oleic acid (Delta9-18 : 1) to linoleic acid, by its expression in both the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the fungus Aspergillus oryzae. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of yeast and fungus transformants demonstrated that linoleic acid (which was not contained in the control strain of S. cerevisiae) was accumulated in the yeast transformant and that the fungal transformant contained a large amount of linoleic acid (71.9%). Genomic Southern blot analysis of the transformants with the Mortierella Delta12-desaturase gene as a probe confirmed integration of this gene into the genome of A. oryzae. The M. alpina 1S-4 Delta12-desaturase is the first example of a cloned nonplant Delta12-desaturase. PMID:10215899

Sakuradani, E; Kobayashi, M; Ashikari, T; Shimizu, S

1999-05-01

431

Biological control of trichostrongyles in beef cattle by the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans in tropical southeastern Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficacy of a fungal formulation based on the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans was assessed in the control of cattle trichostrongyles. Twenty male Nellore calves, six-month-old, divided in two groups (fungus-treated and control without fungus) were fed on a pasture of Brachiaria decumbens naturally infected with larvae of bovine trichostrongyles. Animals of the treated group received doses of sodium alginate mycelial pellets orally (1 g/10 kg live weight, twice a week), for 12 months. Feces samples were collected for egg count (eggs per gram of feces-EPG) and coprocultures during 12 months. There was a significant reduction in EPG (56.7%) and infective larvae (L3) in coprocultures (60.5%) for animals of the treated group in relation to the control group at the end of the study. There was a significant reduction of L3 (64.5%) in herbage samples collected up to 0-20 cm from fecal pats and 73.2% in distant samples (20-40 cm) between the fungus-treated group and the control group. The treatment with sodium alginate pellets containing the nematode trapping fungus D. flagrans reduced trichostrongylid in tropical southeastern Brazil and could be an effective tool for biological control of this parasitic nematode in beef cattle. PMID:22975475

Assis, R C L; Luns, F D; Araújo, J V; Braga, F R

2012-11-01

432

Volatile emissions from an epiphytic fungus are semiochemicals for eusocial wasps.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbes are ubiquitous on plant surfaces. However, interactions between epiphytic microbes and arthropods are rarely considered as a factor that affects arthropod behaviors. Here, volatile emissions from an epiphytic fungus were investigated as semiochemical attractants for two eusocial wasps. The fungus Aureobasidium pullulans was isolated from apples, and the volatile compounds emitted by fungal colonies were quantified. The attractiveness of fungal colonies and fungal volatiles to social wasps (Vespula spp.) were experimentally tested in the field. Three important findings emerged: (1) traps baited with A. pullulans caught 2750 % more wasps on average than unbaited control traps; (2) the major headspace volatiles emitted by A. pullulans were 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 2-phenylethyl alcohol; and (3) a synthetic blend of fungal volatiles attracted 4,933 % more wasps on average than unbaited controls. Wasps were most attracted to 2-methyl-1-butanol. The primary wasp species attracted to fungal volatiles were the western yellowjacket (Vespula pensylvanica) and the German yellowjacket (V. germanica), and both species externally vectored A. pullulans. This is the first study to link microbial volatile emissions with eusocial wasp behaviors, and these experiments indicate that volatile compounds emitted by an epiphytic fungus can be responsible for wasp attraction. This work implicates epiphytic microbes as important components in the community ecology of some eusocial hymenopterans, and fungal emissions may signal suitable nutrient sources to foraging wasps. Our experiments are suggestive of a potential symbiosis, but additional studies are needed to determine if eusocial wasp-fungal associations are widespread, and whether these associations are incidental, facultative, or obligate. PMID:22644482

Davis, Thomas Seth; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Landolt, Peter J

2012-11-01

433

Identifying the transition between single and multiple mating of queens in fungus-growing ants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Obligate mating of females (queens) with multiple males has evolved only rarely in social Hymenoptera (ants, social bees, social wasps) and for reasons that are fundamentally different from those underlying multiple mating in other animals. The monophyletic tribe of ('attine') fungus-growing ants is known to include evolutionarily derived genera with obligate multiple mating (the Acromyrmex and Atta leafcutter ants) as well as phylogenetically basal genera with exclusively single mating (e.g. Apterostigma, Cyphomyrmex, Myrmicocrypta). All attine genera share the unique characteristic of obligate dependence on symbiotic fungus gardens for food, but the sophistication of this symbiosis differs considerably across genera. The lower attine genera generally have small, short-lived colonies and relatively non-specialized fungal symbionts (capable of living independently of their ant hosts), whereas the four evolutionarily derived higher attine genera have highly specialized, long-term clonal symbionts. In this paper, we investigate whether the transition from single to multiple mating occurred relatively recently in the evolution of the attine ants, in conjunction with the novel herbivorous 'leafcutter' niche acquired by the common ancestor of Acromyrmex and Atta, or earlier, at the transition to rearing specialized long-term clonal fungi in the common ancestor of the larger group of higher attines that also includes the genera Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex. We use DNA microsatellite analysis to provide unambiguous evidence for a single, late and abrupt evolutionary transition from exclusively single to obligatory multiple mating. This transition is historically correlated with other evolutionary innovations, including the extensive use of fresh vegetation as substrate for the fungus garden, a massive increase in mature colony size and morphological differentiation of the worker caste.

Villesen, Palle; Murakami, Takahiro

2002-01-01

434

Evolution of ant-cultivar specialization and cultivar switching in Apterostigma fungus-growing ants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Almost all of the more than 200 species of fungus-growing ants (Formicidae: Attini) cultivate litter-decomposing fungi in the family Lepiotaceae (Basidiomycota: Agaricales). The single exception to this rule is a subgroup of ant species within the lower attine genus Apterostigma, which cultivate pterulaceous fungi dist