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Sample records for fungus gnats bradysia

  1. Lack of Pythium aphanidermatum transmission by adult fungus gnats (Bradysia impatiens) and investigation of larval vectoring capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have provided evidence for transmission of plant pathogens by greenhouse-inhabiting fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.). The goal of this study was to determine if fungus gnats are vectors of Pythium aphanidermatum. In the first of a series of laboratory experiment, 10 adult gnats were released i...

  2. Effect of fungus gnat Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae) feeding on subsequent Pythium aphanidermatum infection of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dark-winged fungus gnats in the genus Bradysia (Diptera: Sciaridae) and root rot pathogens in the genus Pythium (Oomycetes) are important pests of greenhouse floriculture. Observations have pointed to a possible correlation between Pythium root rot disease and fungus gnat infestations; however, inte...

  3. Ecology of Fungus Gnats (Bradysia spp. in Greenhouse Production Systems Associated with Disease-Interactions and Alternative Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond A. Cloyd

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fungus gnats (Bradysia spp. are major insect pests of greenhouse-grown horticultural crops mainly due to the direct feeding damage caused by the larvae, and the ability of larvae to transmit certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Currently, insecticides and biological control agents are being used successively to deal with fungus gnat populations in greenhouse production systems. However, these strategies may only be effective as long as greenhouse producers also implement alternative management strategies such as cultural, physical, and sanitation. This includes elimination of algae, and plant and growing medium debris; placing physical barriers onto the growing medium surface; and using materials that repel fungus gnat adults. This article describes the disease-interactions associated with fungus gnats and foliar and soil-borne diseases, and the alternative management strategies that should be considered by greenhouse producers in order to alleviate problems with fungus gnats in greenhouse production systems.

  4. Fungus gnat (Bradysia impatiens) feeding and mechanical wounding inhibit Pythium aphanidermatum infection of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of laboratory tests were conducted to investigate potential effects of fungus gnat (Bradysia impatiens) feeding damage on susceptibility of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum) to infection by the root rot pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum. Effects were compared to those from similar t...

  5. Attraction and oviposition responses of the fungus gnat Bradysia impatiens to microbes and microbe-inoculated seedlings in laboratory bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory tests were conducted to examine preferences of Bradysia impatiens Johannsen (Diptera: Sciaridae) larvae and adults for various microbes associated with greenhouse crops. Fungus gnat larvae and adults exhibited a preference for cultures of Pythium spp. over the medium used to grow the path...

  6. Biology and feeding requirements larval hunter flies Coenosia attenuata (Diptera:Muscidae) reared in larvae of the fungus gnat Bradysia impatiens (Diptera:Sciaridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The larval feeding requirements and biology of the generalist predatory muscid fly Coenosia attenuata were investigated at 25 deg C. Larval C. attenuata were fed 2nd-, 3rd-, and 4th-instar (L2, L3, and L4) larvae of the fungus gnat Bradysia impatiens at variable rates to determine minimum and optimu...

  7. Effect of diatomaceous earth and Trichoderma harzianum T-22 (Rifai strain KRL-AG2) on the fungus gnat Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila (Diptera: Sciaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Dickinson, Amy; Kemp, Kenneth E

    2007-08-01

    This study, consisting of three experiments, was designed to assess whether diatomaceous earth, when applied to the surface of growing media, reduces adult fungus gnat Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila (Diptera: Sciaridae) emergence or inhibits the females from laying eggs; and whether fungus gnat adults are attracted to the fungus Trichoderma harzianum T-22 (Rifai strain KRL-AG2) under laboratory conditions. In the first two experiments, diatomaceous earth was applied at two different thicknesses (3.1 and 6.3 mm) and conditions (dry and moist) to the surface of a growing medium (Universal SB 300 Mix) after the growing medium had been artificially inoculated with second or third instars of fungus gnats, or before female fungus gnat adults were released into each deli squat container. In the third experiment, preparations of the fungus T. harzianum at the highest recommended label rate (0.889 kg/m3) were amended into the growing medium and processed 24, 48, or 72 h before use in a series of three two-choice trials with a two-armed experimental arena. In the first two experiments, the dry or moist layers of diatomaceous earth, in general, did not affect fungus gnats in terms of preventing adult emergence or egg laying by the females. During the course of these experiments, we observed that the diatomaceous earth dry treatments expanded as a result of absorbing moisture from the growing medium, creating fissures that allowed the fungus gnat larvae to pupate and females to lay eggs. In the third experiment, fungus gnat adults were not attracted to the T. harzianum treatments in any of the trials. PMID:17849889

  8. Control del mosco fungoso negro, Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour, 1839) y Bradysia impatiens (Johannsen, 1912) (Dipteria: Sciaridae) en Pinus montezumae Lamb / Black fungus gnats Lycoriella ingenua (Dufor, 1989) and Bradysia impatiens (Johannsen, 1912) (Diptera: Sciaridae) in Pinus montezumae Lamb

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Víctor Hugo, Marín-Cruz; David, Cibrián-Tovar; José Tulio, Méndez-Montiel; Omar Alejandro, Pérez-Vera; José Artemio, Cadena-Meneses.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Los moscos fungosos negros, Lycoriella ingenua y Bradysia impatiens son insectos que afectan significativamente la producción de plántulas de Pinus montezumae en algunos viveros e invernaderos forestales que se ubican en el centro de México. En los meses desde la primavera hasta el otoño, las condic [...] iones ambientales de alta humedad y temperatura son adecuadas para que la población aumente rápidamente y sea abundante en pocas semanas. Para ofrecer una alternativa de control de ellos, en el vivero forestal de Temamatla se probaron cinco insecticidas químicos: oxamil, espirotetramat, imidacloprid, carbofuran, clorpirifos, y el bioplaguicida Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (BTI). Estos productos se aplicaron en tres dosis, durante cuatro meses. La eficacia de los tratamientos se evaluó en porcentaje de plantas sin daño. De los tratamientos, el imidacloprid en dosis alta y media generó una protección de 100 %. Después, oxamil y espirotetramat en dosis alta, a 96.17 % y 95.75 % de la planta tratada. En cambio, la dosis media de clorpirifos lo hizo a 95.74 %, mientras que la dosis baja de imidacloprid, a 95.29 %. Ocho tratamientos protegieron de 91.5 % a 79.43 %, pero cuatro tratamientos no fueron diferentes al control. Los resultados sugieren que no todos los productos evaluados, en sus diferentes dosis, son efectivos para el control del mosco fungoso negro. Sin embargo, algunos pueden serlo para controlarlo en plántulas de P. montezumae. Abstract in english The black fungus gnats Lycoriella ingenua and Bradysia impatiens are insects that affect meaningfully the seedling production of Pinus montezumae in some forest nurseries and greenhouses located at Central Mexico. During the months from springtime to autumn, the environmental conditions of high mois [...] ture and temperature are right for a fast growth of the population and it becomes abundant in a few weeks. To offer an alternative to control these insects, in a forest nursery located in Temamatla, Mexico, five chemical insecticides were tested: oxamil, spirotetramat, imidacloprid, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos and the biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (BTI). These products were applied in three doses for a four month period. The efficiency of the treatments was evaluated on the percentage of unharmed plants. Of the treatments, the imidaclopridin a high and medium doses generated a protection of 100 %. Then, the spirotetramat and oxamil protected 96.17 % and 95.75 % of the treated plant respectively; the medium dose of chlorpyrifosprotected 95.74 %, and the low dose of imidacloprid 95.29 %. Eight treatments protected from 91.5 % to 79.43 %. Four were no different to control. The results suggest that not all the evaluated products, in different doses, are effective to control the black fungus gnats. Nevertheless, some doses and products can be effective to control the pest in P. montezumae seedlings.

  9. Transstadial transmission of Pythium in Bradysia impatiens and lack of adult vectoring capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungus gnats have been shown to transmit a variety of plant pathogenic fungi that produce aerial dispersal stages. However, few studies have examined potential interactions between fungus gnats and oomycetes, including Pythium spp. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to determine if ...

  10. Bradysia sp. em morangueiro Bradysia sp. in strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadete Radin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available No trabalho, relatam-se os primeiros registros de Bradysia sp. (Insecta: Diptera: Sciaridae em morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa Duch., cultivado no Município de Eldorado do Sul, RS. O cultivo foi realizado em sacolas com três metros de comprimento, preenchidas com substrato composto de casca de arroz e turfa, dispostas horizontalmente sobre bancadas de madeira, em ambiente protegido. A presença de Bradysia sp. foi observada na segunda quinzena de agosto de 2005. Neste trabalho, estão descritos os sintomas apresentados no morangueiro pela praga, prováveis conseqüências sobre o aparecimento de doenças e uma breve descrição morfológica da Bradysia sp., adulto e fase larval.This paper describes the first record of Bradysia sp. (Insecta; Diptera; Sciaridae in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa, cultivated in the city of Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil. Strawberry was planted in plastic bags filled with a mixture of burnt rice hulls and peat and cultivated in a greenhouse. The presence of Bradysia sp was noticed in the second fortnight of August, 2005. The symptoms in strawberry and the probable consequences in terms of disease arising were described in the present study, as well as the morphological characterization of Bradysia sp. and its illustrations.

  11. Hey! A Gnat Bit Me!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Hey! A Gnat Bit Me! KidsHealth > For Kids > Hey! A Gnat Bit Me! Print A A A ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Hey! A Fire Ant Stung Me! Hey! A Flea ...

  12. Statistics analysis of distribution of Bradysia Ocellaris insect on Oyster mushroom cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Kurnia Novita; Amelia, Ririn

    2015-12-01

    Bradysia Ocellaris insect is a pest on Oyster mushroom cultivation. The disitribution of Bradysia Ocellaris have a special pattern that can observed every week with several asumption such as independent, normality and homogenity. We can analyze the number of Bradysia Ocellaris for each week through descriptive analysis. Next, the distribution pattern of Bradysia Ocellaris is described through by semivariogram that is diagram of variance from difference value between pair of observation that separeted by d. Semivariogram model that suitable for Bradysia Ocellaris data is spherical isotropic model.

  13. Female resistance behaviour and progeny sex ratio in two Bradysia species (Diptera: Sciaridae) with paternal genome elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featherston, R; Jones, T M; Elgar, M A

    2013-05-01

    The relationship between female mating preferences and sex allocation has received considerable theoretical and empirical support. Typically, choosier females adjust their progeny sex ratio towards sons, who inherit the attractive traits of their father. However, in species with paternal genome elimination, where male sperm do not contain the paternal genome, predictions for the direction of progeny sex ratio biases and their relationship with female choosiness are atypical. Paternal genome elimination also creates a potential for male-female conflict over sex allocation, and any influence of female mate choice on sex ratio outcomes have interesting implications for sexually antagonistic coevolution. Within the Sciaridae (Diptera) are species that produce single-sex progeny (monogenic species) and others in which progeny comprise both sexes (digenic species). Paternal genome elimination occurs in both species. We explore female mate resistance behaviour in a monogenic and digenic species of mushroom gnat from the genus Bradysia. Our experiments confirmed our theoretical predictions, revealing that in the monogenic and digenic species, females producing female-biased progeny were more likely to have resisted at least one mating attempt. PMID:23621366

  14. Larval Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae) potential for vectoring Pythium root rot pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the capacity of Bradysia impatiens (Johannsen) larvae to ingest propagules from two strains each of Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp. and P. ultimum Trow and transmit the pathogens to healthy geranium seedlings on a filter-paper su...

  15. GNATS, Nonlinear Stress Analysis of 2-D and Axisymmetric Static Structure by Finite Elements Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of problem or function: GNATS is a finite element computer program designed for nonlinear analysis of axisymmetric and two-dimensional static structures. 2 - Method of solution: The GNATS program is based on a total Lagrangian description of the displaced equilibrium configuration. The complete strain-displacement equations are used to include the effects of large displacements and large strains. Elastic-plastic material behavior, with either isotropic or kinematic hardening, may be selected. All solution options included in GNATS contain an equilibrium check which assures that the structure satisfies equilibrium to a specified tolerance at each stage of loading. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: All large arrays in GNATS, MESH2, and GPRINT are dynamically dimensioned to minimize storage requirements

  16. Nuclear halo from Bradysia hygida (Diptera:Sciaridae) salivary gland polytene cells

    OpenAIRE

    Celso Aparecido Polinarski; José Luis da Conceição Silva; Liya Regina Mikami; Maria Aparecida Fernandez

    2005-01-01

    A protocol for recovered nuclear halos from insect polytene nuclei after the extraction of the nuclear proteins using LIS detergent is reported in this work. Analysis was carried out using fluorescence and confocal laser scan microscopy. The extraction of nuclear halos was possible only with nuclei-fraction isolation in hypotonic buffer without spermine and spermidine. The recovered nuclear halos from Bradysia hygida salivary gland polytene nuclei, contributed greatly to the study of the stru...

  17. Nuclear halo from Bradysia hygida (Diptera:Sciaridae) salivary gland polytene cells

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Celso Aparecido, Polinarski; José Luis da Conceição, Silva; Liya Regina, Mikami; Maria Aparecida, Fernandez.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Observações à microscopia eletrônica e estudos bioquímicos de cromossomos e núcleos sem histonas tem suportado a hipótese que o DNA de eucariotos é organizado em alças associadas com o esqueleto cromossômico ou à matriz nuclear. A observação da matriz nuclear sem a remoção do DNA, através da digestã [...] o com enzimas de restrição, apresenta uma figura em halo que representa a liberação das alças de DNA. Um protocolo para a obtenção de halos nucleares de núcleos politênicos de insetos, através da extração de proteínas usando o detergente LIS, é reportado nesse trabalho. Foram realizadas análises utilizando-se microscopia de fluorescência e microscopia de varredura confocal a laser. A extração de halos nucleares foi possível somente com o isolamento da fração nuclear em tampão sem espermina e espermidina. A obtenção de halos nucleares de núcleos politênicos de glândula salivar de Bradysia hygida contribui significativamente para o estudo da estrutura e função dessas organelas tão especiais. Abstract in english A protocol for recovered nuclear halos from insect polytene nuclei after the extraction of the nuclear proteins using LIS detergent is reported in this work. Analysis was carried out using fluorescence and confocal laser scan microscopy. The extraction of nuclear halos was possible only with nuclei- [...] fraction isolation in hypotonic buffer without spermine and spermidine. The recovered nuclear halos from Bradysia hygida salivary gland polytene nuclei, contributed greatly to the study of the structure and function of these special organelles.

  18. Aspectos alimentares e de criação de Bradysia hygida Sauaia & Alves (Diptera, Sciaridae em laboratório Aspects on alimentation and rearing of Bradysia hygida Sauaia & Alves (Diptera, Sciaridae in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara S. Joachim Bravo

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available In nature, the Sciaridae live in moist and shady places, where exists vegetable material in decomposition. It is very dificult to determine the proper Sciaridae's alimentary habit and then, it is dificult, also, to rear Sciaridae species in laboratory. To improvement the Bradysia hygida rearing, the objectives of this research were to analyse the nutritive value of mucuna bean foliage for the larves, to verify the role of the ground (as larvae substrate and in diet composition and also to verify the possibility of ground substituition by another kind of substrate. Two kinds of sand were employed in the place of the ground and three diets, free of ground, were prepared. The parameters analysed were: duration of the life cicle, porcentage of emergence, egg production by female and adult size. The results showed that the mucuna bean foliage have a good nutritive value for B. hygida rearing; the ground, as substrate, can be substituted by any of the sands and the ground, in the diet, is also dispensable. The alimentary habits of Sciaridae is discussed.

  19. Application of PINS and GNAT to the assay of 55-gal containers of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Portable Isotropic Neutron Spectroscopy (PINS) and Gamma Neutron Assay Technique (GNAT) assay systems that were developed with funding from the office of Research and Development (NN20), were taken to the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) facility at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) and applied to the assay of surrogate and Rocky Flats Plant waste contained in 55-gal drums. PINS, a portable prompt ? neutron activation analysis technique, was able to identify key elements in both the surrogate and real waste so that three-main waste categories: metal, combustible material, and cemented chlorinated sludge wastes could be identified. GNAT, a ?, neutron assay technique for the identification and quantification of fissioning isotopes, was able to identify 240Pu in surrogate waste in which nine 1-g nuclear accident dosimeters were inserted. GNAT was also able to identify 24OPu in real 55-gal waste drums containing 15- and 40-g of plutonium even in the presence of high activity concentrations of 241Am

  20. Nuclear halo from Bradysia hygida (Diptera:Sciaridae salivary gland polytene cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Aparecido Polinarski

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available A protocol for recovered nuclear halos from insect polytene nuclei after the extraction of the nuclear proteins using LIS detergent is reported in this work. Analysis was carried out using fluorescence and confocal laser scan microscopy. The extraction of nuclear halos was possible only with nuclei-fraction isolation in hypotonic buffer without spermine and spermidine. The recovered nuclear halos from Bradysia hygida salivary gland polytene nuclei, contributed greatly to the study of the structure and function of these special organelles.Observações à microscopia eletrônica e estudos bioquímicos de cromossomos e núcleos sem histonas tem suportado a hipótese que o DNA de eucariotos é organizado em alças associadas com o esqueleto cromossômico ou à matriz nuclear. A observação da matriz nuclear sem a remoção do DNA, através da digestão com enzimas de restrição, apresenta uma figura em halo que representa a liberação das alças de DNA. Um protocolo para a obtenção de halos nucleares de núcleos politênicos de insetos, através da extração de proteínas usando o detergente LIS, é reportado nesse trabalho. Foram realizadas análises utilizando-se microscopia de fluorescência e microscopia de varredura confocal a laser. A extração de halos nucleares foi possível somente com o isolamento da fração nuclear em tampão sem espermina e espermidina. A obtenção de halos nucleares de núcleos politênicos de glândula salivar de Bradysia hygida contribui significativamente para o estudo da estrutura e função dessas organelas tão especiais.

  1. De novo sequencing and characterization of the Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae) larval transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haoliang; Lin, Lulu; Xie, Minghui; Zhang, Guangling; Su, Weihua

    2015-12-01

    The most serious pestilent threat to the Chinese chive, Allium tuberosum Rottle ex Spreng (Liliaceae) is the Bradysia odoriphaga Yang and Zhang. There is limited genetic research focused on B. odoriphaga, partially due to the lack of genomic resources. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies has enabled generation of genomic resources in a short time frame and at minimal costs. In this study, we performed, for the first time, de novo transcriptome sequencing of the B. odoriphaga. Here, 16,829 unigenes were assembled from the total reads, 12,024 of these unigenes were annotated in the NCBI NR protein database, and 9784 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. Of these annotated unigenes, 7903 and 5060 unigenes have been assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups, respectively. Furthermore, 8647 unigenes were mapped to 257 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database. We found that 408 unigenes were related to insecticide resistance and metabolism. In addition, 23,122 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified in 11,009 unigenes, and 100 PCR primers of SSR loci were used to validate the assembly quality and polymorphisms. These results provide a good platform for further investigations into the insecticide resistance of B. odoriphaga. Finally, the SSRs identified in B. odoriphaga may be a useful genomic resource. PMID:26219018

  2. Fungus Amongus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeley, Deidra

    2005-01-01

    This role-playing simulation is designed to help teach middle level students about the typical lifecycle of a fungus. In this interactive simulation, students assume the roles of fungi, spores, living and dead organisms, bacteria, and rain. As they move around a playing field collecting food and water chips, they discover how the organisms…

  3. New gnat-midge species chironomus degelenus i sp. n. (diptera chironomidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time the morphology of larvae, pupae, imago and karyotype of Chironomus degelenus I Sp. n. collected from Water-Body D-3-3 of the Degelen Mountain Massif has been described. The larvae have a species-specific structure and color of the head capsule, ventral-mental blades, and mandibula hamuli. The male gnat is characterized for grid structure in IX tergite. The karyotype of C. degelenus I Sp. n. has the following combination of chromosome arms: AB, CD, EF, and G (thummi complex), which is typical for Chironomus species. It was concluded that the origin of the new species of Chironomus degelenus I Sp. N. is related to the long-term genetic processes of Chironomini adaptation to the elevated radiation background level. (author)

  4. Toenail Fungus (Onychomycosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fungus What Is Toenail Fungus? Toenail fungus, or onychomycosis, is an infection underneath the surface of the ... trim and make walking painful when wearing shoes. Onychomycosis can also be accompanied by a secondary bacterial ...

  5. Fungus Infections: Preventing Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fungus Infections: Preventing Recurrence Share | Doctors have excellent treatments for skin fungus infections that occur on the feet, nails, groin, ...

  6. Fungus Infections: Tinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fungus Infections Share | Tinea is the name given to ... Most people will develop some resistance to skin fungus after being infected. Others appear to have a ...

  7. An aeroponic culture system for the study of root herbivory on Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan Martha M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant defense against herbivory has been studied primarily in aerial tissues. However, complex defense mechanisms have evolved in all parts of the plant to combat herbivore attack and these mechanisms are likely to differ in the aerial and subterranean environment. Research investigating defense responses belowground has been hindered by experimental difficulties associated with the accessibility and quality of root tissue and the lack of bioassays using model plants with altered defense profiles. Results We have developed an aeroponic culture system based on a calcined clay substrate that allows insect herbivores to feed on plant roots while providing easy recovery of the root tissue. The culture method was validated by a root-herbivore system developed for Arabidopsis thaliana and the herbivore Bradysia spp. (fungus gnat. Arabidopsis root mass obtained from aeroponically grown plants was comparable to that from other culture systems, and the plants were morphologically normal. Bradysia larvae caused considerable root damage resulting in reduced root biomass and water absorption. After feeding on the aeroponically grown root tissue, the larvae pupated and emerged as adults. Root damage of mature plants cultivated in aeroponic substrate was compared to that of Arabidopsis seedlings grown in potting mix. Seedlings were notably more susceptible to Bradysia feeding than mature plants and showed decreased overall growth and survival rates. Conclusions A root-herbivore system consisting of Arabidopsis thaliana and larvae of the opportunistic herbivore Bradysia spp. has been established that mimics herbivory in the rhizosphere. Bradysia infestation of Arabidopsis grown in this culture system significantly affects plant performance. The culture method will allow simple profiling and in vivo functional analysis of root defenses such as chemical defense metabolites that are released in response to belowground insect attack.

  8. A 28-fold increase in secretory protein synthesis is associated with DNA puff activity in the salivary gland of Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de-Almeida J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available When the first group of DNA puffs is active in the salivary gland regions S1 and S3 of Bradysia hygida larvae, there is a large increase in the production and secretion of new salivary proteins demonstrable by [3H]-Leu incorporation. The present study shows that protein separation by SDS-PAGE and detection by fluorography demonstrated that these polypeptides range in molecular mass from about 23 to 100 kDa. Furthermore, these proteins were synthesized mainly in the S1 and S3 salivary gland regions where the DNA puffs C7, C5, C4 and B10 are conspicuous, while in the S2 region protein synthesis was very low. Others have shown that the extent of amplification for DNA sequences that code for mRNA in the DNA puffs C4 and B10 was about 22 and 10 times, respectively. The present data for this group of DNA puffs are consistent with the proposition that gene amplification is necessary to provide some cells with additional gene copies for the production of massive amounts of proteins within a short period of time (Spradling AC and Mahowald AP (1980 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 77: 1096-1100.

  9. Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae presents two eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A gene homologues: partial characterization of the eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A-F1 gene

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    J.A. Candido-Silva

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Elongation factor 1A is a highly conserved protein that participates in translation. We report the occurrence of two genes homologous to the eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A in Bradysia hygida and describe the partial cloning and characterization of the B. hygida eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A-F1 (BheEF1A-F1 gene. The pattern of BheEF1A-F1 expression in the salivary gland at the end of the fourth larval instar was investigated using real-time PCR. The results showed that BheEF1A-F1 expression levels are relatively constant at the time when rapid changes in protein synthesis occur in this tissue. In situ hybridization experiments coupled to Southern blot analyses showed that the BheEF1A-F1 gene is located at position 3d of the A chromosome and a second gene homologous to eEF1A is located at position 6a of the X chromosome. Southern blot analyses showed that both the BheEF1A-F1 gene and the second gene homologous to eEF1A constitute non-amplified genes. The present results contribute to the molecular characterization of a sciarid eEF1A gene.

  10. 5-Bromo-2’-deoxyuridine induces visible morphological alteration in the DNA puffs of the anterior salivary gland region of Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. de Almeida

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available 5-Bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdUrd has long been known to interfere with cell differentiation. We found that treatment ofBradysia hygida larvae with BrdUrd during DNA puff anlage formation in the polytene chromosomes of the salivary gland S1 region noticeably affects anlage morphology. However, it does not affect subsequent metamorphosis to the adult stage. The chromatin of the chromosomal sites that would normally form DNA puffs remains very compact and DNA puff expansion does not occur with administration of 4 to 8 mM BrdUrd. Injection of BrdUrd at different ages provoked a gradient of compaction of the DNA puff chromatin, leading to the formation of very small to almost normal puffs. By immunodetection, we show that the analogue is preferentially incorporated into the DNA puff anlages. When BrdUrd is injected in a mixture with thymidine, it is not incorporated into the DNA, and normal DNA puffs form. Therefore, incorporation of this analogue into the amplified DNA seems to be the cause of this extreme compaction. Autoradiographic experiments and silver grains counting showed that this treatment decreases the efficiency of RNA synthesis at DNA puff anlages.

  11. Smaller than a gnat

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "CERN in Geneva is the largest research center for particle physics in the world; the Institute is a Mecca for scientists. Particle are projected into each other in gigantic ring accelerators to gain information from their reactions about the force and relations inside the elements. These experiments require high vacuum - Oerlikon Leybold Vacuum recently competed in a Eyropean call for bids for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and won the contract." (1,5 page)

  12. Three-dimensional structure of a Streptomyces sviceus GNAT acetyltransferase with similarity to the C-terminal domain of the human GH84 O-GlcNAcase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yuan [Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); The University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Roth, Christian; Turkenburg, Johan P.; Davies, Gideon J., E-mail: gideon.davies@york.ac.uk [The University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China)

    2014-01-01

    The crystal structure of a bacterial acetyltransferase with 27% sequence identity to the C-terminal domain of human O-GlcNAcase has been solved at 1.5 Å resolution. This S. sviceus protein is compared with known GCN5-related acetyltransferases, adding to the diversity observed in this superfamily. The mammalian O-GlcNAc hydrolysing enzyme O-GlcNAcase (OGA) is a multi-domain protein with glycoside hydrolase activity in the N-terminus and with a C-terminal domain that has low sequence similarity to known acetyltransferases, prompting speculation, albeit controversial, that the C-terminal domain may function as a histone acetyltransferase (HAT). There are currently scarce data available regarding the structure and function of this C-terminal region. Here, a bacterial homologue of the human OGA C-terminal domain, an acetyltransferase protein (accession No. ZP-05014886) from Streptomyces sviceus (SsAT), was cloned and its crystal structure was solved to high resolution. The structure reveals a conserved protein core that has considerable structural homology to the acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) binding site of GCN5-related acetyltransferases (GNATs). Calorimetric data further confirm that SsAT is indeed able to bind AcCoA in solution with micromolar affinity. Detailed structural analysis provided insight into the binding of AcCoA. An acceptor-binding cavity was identified, indicating that the physiological substrate of SsAT may be a small molecule. Consistent with recently published work, the SsAT structure further questions a HAT function for the human OGA domain.

  13. Social-insect fungus farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur Kornelis; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2006-01-01

    basidiomycete genus Termitomyces - whereas the ants are associated with a larger diversity of fungal lineages (all basidiomycetes). The ants and termites forage for plant material to provision their fungus gardens. Their crops convert this carbon-rich plant material into nitrogen-rich fungal biomass to provide...

  14. Identificación y caracterización de la mosca negra Bradysia difformis (Diptera: Sciaridae en el cultivo de nochebuena (Euphorbia pulcherrima en el centro de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evert VILLANUEVA-SÁNCHEZ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar y caracterizar los estados de desarrollo de la especie de mosca negra más abundante asociada al cultivo de nochebuena Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, ex Klotzsch en la zona productora del centro del país. La recolección de material entomológico se realizó en invernaderos de las localidades de Atlacomulco (México, Tenango de las Flores (Puebla, Xochimilco (Distrito Federal y Zacatepec y Tetela del Monte (Morelos. Se obtuvieron 2,141 especímenes adultos de Diptera, siendo la especie más abundante (99.5% Bradysia difformis Frey (Diptera: Sciaridae. El ciclo de vida de esta especie se completó entre 26-28 días bajo condiciones controladas de temperatura y humedad (25°C y 70% HR. La diferenciación de los estadíos larvales fue realizada mediante la morfometría de la cápsula cefálica para los estadíos I vs II, cuyas probabilidades de error fueron muy bajas (1:10,000; en cambio, la diferenciación entre los estadíos II vs III, y III vs IV resultó con una probabilidad de error alta, entre 17:100 y 36:100 individuos, respectivamente. Por esta razón se recomienda explorar otras características que en adición a la medida de anchura de sus cápsulas cefálicas permitan discriminar los diferentes estadíos de desarrollo. Este es el primer registro de B. difformis en México, aun cuando ya se había reportado este género afectando las plantas de nochebuena.

  15. IDENTIFICACIÓN Y CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LA MOSCA NEGRA, BRADYSIA DIFFORMIS (DIPTERA: SCIARIDAE EN EL CULTIVO DE NOCHEBUENA (EUPHORBIA PULCHERRIMA EN EL CENTRO DE MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evert VILLANUEVA-S\\u00C1NCHEZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar y caracterizar los estados de desarrollo de la especie de mosca negra más abundante asociada al cultivo de nochebuena Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, ex Klotzsch en la zona productora del centro del país. La recolección de material entomológico se realizó en invernaderos de las localidades de Atlacomulco (México, Tenango de las Flores (Puebla, Xochimilco (Distrito Federal y Zacatepec y Tetela del Monte (Morelos. Se obtuvieron 2,141 especímenes adultos de Diptera, siendo la especie más abundante (99.5% Bradysia difformis Frey (Diptera: Sciaridae. El ciclo de vida de esta especie se completó entre 26-28 días bajo condiciones controladas de temperatura y humedad (25°C y 70% HR. La diferenciación de los estadíos larvales fue realizada mediante la morfometría de la cápsula cefálica para los estadíos I vs II, cuyas probabilidades de error fueron muy bajas (1:10,000; en cambio, la diferenciación entre los estadíos II vs III, y III vs IV resultó con una probabilidad de error alta, entre 17:100 y 36:100 individuos, respectivamente. Por esta razón se recomienda explorar otras características que en adición a la medida de anchura de sus cápsulas cefálicas permitan discriminar los diferentes estadíos de desarrollo. Este es el primer registro de B. difformis en México, aun cuando ya se había reportado este género afectando las plantas de nochebuena. Palabras clave: taxonomía, estados inmaduros, plaga de nochebuena, México.

  16. Microsatellite primers for fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Gertsch, P J; Boomsma, JJ

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  17. Microsatellite Primers for Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen Fredsted, Palle; Gertsch, Pia J.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan (Koos)

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  18. Metabolites from marine fungus Aspergillus sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Rajmanickam, R.; DeSouza, L.

    Chemical examination of a methanolic extract of the marine fungus, Aspergillus sp., isolated from marine grass environment, yielded a steroid, ergosterol peroxide (1), and a mixture of known glyceride esters (2,3) of unsaturated fatty acids...

  19. Fungus-insect gall of Phlebopus portentosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Xia; He, Ming-Xia; Cao, Yang; Liu, Jing; Gao, Feng; Wang, Wen-Bing; Ji, Kai-Ping; Shao, Shi-Cheng; Wang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Phlebopus portentosus is a popular edible wild mushroom found in the tropical Yunnan, China, and northern Thailand. In its natural habitats, a gall often has been found on some plant roots, around which fungal fruiting bodies are produced. The galls are different from common insect galls in that their cavity walls are not made from plant tissue but rather from the hyphae of P. portentosus. Therefore we have termed this phenomenon "fungus-insect gall". Thus far six root mealy bug species in the family Pseudococcidae that form fungus-insect galls with P. portentosus have been identified: Formicococcus polysperes, Geococcus satellitum, Planococcus minor, Pseudococcus cryptus, Paraputo banzigeri and Rastrococcus invadens. Fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of more than 21 plant species, including Delonix regia, Citrus maxima, Coffea arabica and Artocarpus heterophyllus. Greenhouse inoculation trials showed that fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of A. heterophyllus 1 mo after inoculation. The galls were subglobose to globose, fulvous when young and became dark brown at maturation. Each gall harbored one or more mealy bugs and had a chimney-like vent for ventilation and access to the gall. The cavity wall had three layers. Various shaped mealy bug wax deposits were found inside the wall. Fungal hyphae invaded the epidermis of plant roots and sometimes even the cortical cells during the late stage of gall development. The identity of the fungus inside the cavity was confirmed by molecular methods. PMID:25344264

  20. Nuclear flow in a filamentous fungus

    CERN Document Server

    Hickey, Patrick C; Read, Nick; Glass, N Louise; Roper, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The syncytial cells of a filamentous fungus consist of a mass of growing, tube-like hyphae. Each extending tip is fed by a continuous flow of nuclei from the colony interior, pushed by a gradient in turgor pressure. The myco-fluidic flows of nuclei are complex and multidirectional, like traffic in a city. We map out the flows in a strain of the model filamentous fungus {\\it N. crassa} that has been transformed so that nuclei express either hH1-dsRed (a red fluorescent nuclear protein) or hH1-GFP (a green-fluorescent protein) and report our results in a fluid dynamics video.

  1. Dentigerumycin: a bacterial mediator of an ant-fungus symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oh, Dong-Chan; Poulsen, Michael; Currie, Cameron R; Clardy, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Fungus-growing ants engage in mutualistic associations with both the fungus they cultivate for food and actinobacteria (Pseudonocardia spp.) that produce selective antibiotics to defend that fungus from specialized fungal parasites. We have analyzed one such system at the molecular level and found...... that the bacterium associated with the ant Apterostigma dentigerum produces dentigerumycin, a cyclic depsipeptide with highly modified amino acids, to selectively inhibit the associated parasitic fungus (Escovopsis sp.)....

  2. Open-Ended Experimentation with the Fungus Pilobolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Charles R.; Bland, Charles E.

    This paper describes open-ended experimentation with the fungus Pilobolus for laboratory work by high school students. The fungus structure and reproduction is described and sources of the fungus are suggested. Four areas for investigation are suggested: the effect of a diffuse light source, the effect of a point light source, the effect of light…

  3. Spread of Rare Fungus from Vancouver Island

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-12-20

    Cryptococcus gattii, a rare fungus normally found in the tropics, has infected people and animals on Vancouver Island, Canada. Dr. David Warnock, Director, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases, CDC, discusses public health concerns about further spread of this organism.  Created: 12/20/2006 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 12/29/2006.

  4. STEROIDS FROM THE MARINE FUNGUS GEOTRICHUM SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AURELIO SAN-MARTÍN

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Ergosterol 1, peroxyergosterol 2, ergosta-4,6,8(14, 22-tetraen-3-one 3 and 24-ethyl-cholesta-4-ene-3-one 4 were isolated from the cultures of a fungus Geotrichum sp. obtained from a marine sediment. It was established that no other sterols were present in the extract. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods

  5. Entomology: A Bee Farming a Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, Benjamin P; Aanen, Duur K

    2015-11-16

    Farming is done not only by humans, but also by some ant, beetle and termite species. With the discovery of a stingless bee farming a fungus that provides benefits to its larvae, bees can be added to this list. PMID:26583895

  6. Death from Fungus in the Soil

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-12-17

    Dr. Shira Shafir, Assistant Professor of Epidemiology at the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, discusses her study about fungus found in soil.  Created: 12/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/18/2012.

  7. Renal fungus ball in a preterm infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Çivilibal

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Candidiasis is an increasingly common problem which can cause severe morbidity in neonatal intensive care units. A premature neonate with renal fungus ball is presented. The patient was hospitalized for 45 days in the neonatal intensive care unit and 15 days in the department of neurosurgery. Later, a hyperechogenic focus located within the left renal pelvis was revealed on ultrasonograhy and Candida albicans was identified in the urine culture. He was (discharged ofter success fully treated with fluconasole. In this case report, it is emphasized that renal fungus ball can also develop without candidemia in preterm infants and ultrasonography is a significantly important method for early diagnosis and follow-up. (Turk Arch Ped 2008; 43: 29-31

  8. Metacridamides A and B from the biocontrol fungus metarhizium acridum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metarhizium acridum, an entomopathogenic fungus, has been commercialized and used successfully for biocontrol of grasshopper pests in Africa and Australia. As part of an effort to catalog the secondary metabolites of this fungus we discovered that its conidia produce two novel 17-membered macrocycl...

  9. Phomalactone from a phytopathogenic fungus infecting Zinnia elegans (Asteraceae) leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinnia elegans plants are infected by a fungus that causes necrosis with dark red spots particularly in late spring to the middle of summer in the Mid-South part of the United States. This fungal disease when untreated causes the leaves to wilt and eventually kills the plant. The fungus was isolated...

  10. SYSTEMIC INFECTION AND RELATED FUNGUS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saha Rajsekhar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A fungus is a member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds (British English: moulds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which are separate from plants, animals, and bacteria. One major difference is that fungal cells have cell walls that contain chitin, unlike the cell walls of plants, which contain cellulose. Many fungi play a crucial role in decomposition (breaking things down and returning nutrients to the soil. They are also used in medicine, an example is the antibiotic penicillin, as well as in industry and food preparation. In the present time the microbes are to be seen as disease causing organisms harming the mankind. The harm done by this community cannot be taken lightly as they are also useful in many ways. The above article is an effort to bring out the various fungal issued related to human.

  11. Bioactive Triterpenes from the Fungus Piptoporus betulinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyad Alresly

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the fruiting bodies from the basidiomycete Piptoporus betulinus led to the isolation of a new bioactive lanostane triterpene identified as 3 b -acetoxy-16-hydroxy-24-oxo-5α-lanosta-8- ene-21-oic acid (1. In addition, ten known triterpenes, polyporenic acid A (5, polyporenic acid C (4, three derivatives of polyporenic acid A (8, 10, 11, betulinic acid (3, betulin (2, ergosterol peroxide (6, 9,11-dehydroergosterol peroxide (7, and fomefficinic acid (9, were also isolated from the fungus. All isolated compounds were tested for antimicrobial activity against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as against a fungal strain. The new triterpene and some of the other compounds showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria.

  12. Comparative studies of the secretome of fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Tore; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Schiøtt, Morten; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Lange, Lene

    Leafcutter ants of the species Acromyrmex echinatior live in symbiosis with the fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. The ants harvest fragments of leaves and carry them to the nest where they place the material on the fungal colony. The fungus secretes a wide array of proteins to degrade the leaves...... into nutrients that the ants can feed on. The focus of this study is to discover, characterize and compare the secreted proteins. In order to do so cDNA libraries are constructed from mRNA extracted from the fungus material. The most efficient technology to screen cDNA libraries selectively for...

  13. Morphophysiological Differences between the Metapleural Glands of Fungus-Growing and Non–Fungus-Growing Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Alexsandro Santana; Bueno, Odair Correa; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2012-01-01

    The metapleural gland is an organ exclusive to ants. Its main role is to produce secretions that inhibit the proliferation of different types of pathogens. The aim of the present study was to examine the morphophysiological differences between the metapleural gland of 3 non–fungus-growing ants of the tribes Ectatommini, Myrmicini, and Blepharidattini and that of 5 fungus-growing ants from 2 basal and 3 derived attine genera. The metapleural gland of the non–fungus-growing ants and the basal a...

  14. Fungal Garden Making inside Bamboos by a Non-Social Fungus-Growing Beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Toki, Wataru; Takahashi, Yukiko; Togashi, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    In fungus-growing mutualism, it is indispensable for host animals to establish gardens of the symbiotic fungus as rapidly as possible. How to establish fungal gardens has been well-documented in social fungus-farming insects, whereas poorly documented in non-social fungus-farming insects. Here we report that the non-social, fungus-growing lizard beetle Doubledaya bucculenta (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Languriinae) transmits the symbiotic yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus from the ovipositor-associa...

  15. Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenova, Tatyana; Hughes, David Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Schiøtt, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Background: Attine ants live in symbiosis with a basidiomycetous fungus that they rear on a substrate of plant material. This indirect herbivory implies that the symbiosis is likely to be nitrogen deprived, so that specific mechanisms may have evolved to enhance protein availability. We therefore...... hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results: We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing...... activities than the lower attine symbionts. Their total in vitro proteinase activity peaked at pH values around 5, which is close to the pH that the ants maintain in their fungus gardens, suggesting that the pH optimum of fungal proteinases may have changed after the irreversible domestication of...

  16. Biodegradation of pentachlorophenol by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    OpenAIRE

    Mileski, G J; Bumpus, J A; Jurek, M A; Aust, S D

    1988-01-01

    Extensive biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance and mineralization of [14C]PCP in nutrient nitrogen-limited culture. Mass balance analyses demonstrated the formation of water-soluble metabolites of [14C]PCP during degradation. Involvement of the lignin-degrading system of this fungus was suggested by the fact the time of onset, time course, and eventual decline in the rate of PCP mineralization were ...

  17. ADR: An atypical presentation of rare dematiaceous fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Karthika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of fungus in allergic fungal rhino sinusitis has been around 200 times in the world literature. As per the available literature, the most common agent identified so far appears to be ASPERGILLUS, though the condition is increasingly associated with Dematiaceous fungi. Here we report for the first time the presence of unusual fungus in allergic rhino sinusitis, which has not been reported so far.

  18. Mutualistic fungi control crop diversity in fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Michael; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2005-01-01

    transmission, the domesticated fungi actively reject mycelial fragments from neighboring colonies, and that the strength of these reactions are in proportion to the overall genetic difference between these symbionts. Fungal incompatibility compounds remain intact during ant digestion, so that fecal droplets......, which are used for manuring newly grown fungus, elicit similar hostile reactions when applied to symbionts from other colonies. Symbiont control over new mycelial growth by manurial imprinting prevents the rearing of multiple crops in fungus gardens belonging to the same colony....

  19. Contributions to the study of Pseudopeziza trifolii (Bernh. Fuck. fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga PALL

    1966-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper communicates the results of the laboratory experiments concerning the behaviour of the Pseudopeziza trifolii (Bernh. Fuck. fungus that produces the clover brown leaf spot, in different culture mediums. The mycelium of the fungus develops at its best on the peptone-glucose-agar medium. The appearance of pycnides of Sporonema phacidioides Desm. type in vitro, has been reported for the fourth time in Romania especially developing on the potatoe-dextrosis-agar and plum-agar mediums.

  20. Fungus Ball in Concha Bullosa: A Rare Case with Anosmia

    OpenAIRE

    Levent Saydam; Mahmut Özkırıs; Selda Seçkın; Zeliha Kapusuz

    2013-01-01

    Concha bullosa is the pneumatization of the concha and is one of the most common variations of the sinonasal anatomy. The histopathological changes caused by the infections which arise from the impaired aeration of conchal cavity are frequently found. Fungus ball of the nasal cavity is an extremely rare, fungal infection with only three cases reported previously. In this paper, we present the fourth fungus ball case which developed within a concha bullosa and presented with anosmia.

  1. Anthraquinones from the Fungus Dermocybe sanguinea as Textile Dyes

    OpenAIRE

    RÀisÀnen, Riikka

    2009-01-01

    This study is based on the multidiciplinary approach of using natural colorants as textile dyes. The author was interested in both the historical and traditional aspects of natural dyeing as well as the modern industrial applications of the pure natural compounds. In the study, the anthraquinone compounds were isolated as aglycones from the ectomycorrhizal fungus Dermocybe sanguinea. The endogenous beta-glucosidase of the fungus was used to catalyse the hydrolysis of the O-glycosyl linka...

  2. Efficiency of Actinomycetes Against Phytopathogenic Fungus of Chilli Anthracnose

    OpenAIRE

    K. Sinma; K. Khucharoenphaisan; C. Lorrungruang

    2013-01-01

    Phytopathogenic fungus as Colletotricum gloeosporioides is a cause of disease on chilli and wide varieties of agricultural crops resulting in yield loss. The aim of this study was to screened actinomycetes according to its ability to produce various secondary metabolites with inhibition activity against chilli anthracnose. Firstly, actinomycetes from previously study were tested for antagonistic activity toward the fungus by the dual culture technique. Finally, extracellular antifungal metabo...

  3. New aquatic sites of the fungus Sommerstorffia spinosa

    OpenAIRE

    Bazyli Czeczuga; Bożena Mazalska; Mirosława Orłowska

    2014-01-01

    When studying zoosporic fungi in the waters of northeastern Poland tbe authors found new sites of a rare fungus - Sommerstorffia spinosa Arnaudow. Its growth was observed in water samples collected from limnologically different reservoirs, from the spring Jaroszówka, the oligotrophic type (Lake Białe), through mesotrophic (Lake Wigry) to the polytrophic type (pond Fosa with high content of hydrogen sulphide under ice cover). This fungus was also found in the river Biała, which flowing through...

  4. Solubilization of diabase and phonolite dust by filamentous fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Andréia Vrba Brandão

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the fungus Aspergillus niger strain CCT4355 in the release of nutrients contained in two types of rock powder (diabase and phonolite by means of in vitro solubilization trials. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 5 x 4 factorial design with three replications. It was evaluated five treatments (phonolite dust + culture medium; phonolite dust + fungus + culture medium; diabase powder + culture medium; diabase powder + fungus + culture medium and fungus + culture medium and four sampling dates (0, 10, 20 and 30 days. Rock dust (0.4% w/v was added to 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50 mL of liquid culture medium adapted to A. niger. The flasks were incubated at 30°C for 30 days, and analysis of pH (in water, titratable acidity, and concentrations of soluble potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron and manganese were made. The fungus A. niger was able to produce organic acids that solubilized ions. This result indicates its potential to alter minerals contained in rock dust, with the ability to interact in different ways with the nutrients. A significant increase in the amount of K was found in the treatment with phonolite dust in the presence of the fungus. The strain CCT4355 of A. niger can solubilize minerals contained in these rocks dust.

  5. Specificity in the interaction between an epibiotic clavicipitalean fungus and its convolvulaceous host in a fungus/plant symbiotum

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, Ulrike; Hellwig, Sabine; Leistner, Eckhard

    2008-01-01

    Ipomoea asarifolia and Turbina corymbosa (Convolvulaceae) are associated with epibiotic clavicipitalean fungi responsible for the presence of ergoline alkaloids in these plants. Experimentally generated plants devoid of these fungi were inoculated with different epibiotic and endophytic fungi resulting in a necrotic or commensal situation. A symbiotum of host plant and its respective fungus was best established by integration of the fungus into the morphological differentiation of the host pl...

  6. Iron competition in fungus-plant interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Berges, Manuel S.; Turrà, David; Capilla, Javier; Schafferer, Lukas; Matthijs, Sandra; Jöchl, Christoph; Cornelis, Pierre; Guarro, Josep; Haas, Hubertus; Di Pietro, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Soilborne fungal pathogens are highly persistent and provoke important crop losses. During saprophytic and infectious stages in the soil, these organisms face situations of nutrient limitation and lack of essential elements, such as iron. We investigated the role of the bZIP transcription factor HapX as a central regulator of iron homeostasis and virulence in the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum. This root-infecting plant pathogen attacks more than hundred different crops and is an emerging human opportunistic invader. Although iron uptake remains unaffected in a strain lacking HapX, de-repression of genes implicated in iron-consuming processes such as respiration, amino acid metabolism, TCA cycle and heme biosynthesis lead to severely impaired growth under iron-limiting conditions. HapX is required for full virulence of F. oxysporum in tomato plants and essential for infection in immunodepressed mice. Virulence attenuation of the ?hapX strain on tomato plants is more pronounced by co-inoculation of roots with the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas putida KT2440, but not with a mutant deficient in siderophores production. These results demonstrate that HapX is required for iron competition of F. oxysporum in the tomato rhizosphere and establish a conserved role for HapX-mediated iron homeostasis in fungal infection of plants and mammals. PMID:23299422

  7. Malaria Mosquitoes Attracted by Fatal Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Justin; Jenkins, Nina E.; Blanford, Simon; Thomas, Matthew B.; Baker, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Insect-killing fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are being evaluated as possible active ingredients for use in novel biopesticides against mosquito vectors that transmit malaria. Fungal pathogens infect through contact and so applications of spores to surfaces such as walls, nets, or other resting sites provide possible routes to infect mosquitoes in and around domestic dwellings. However, some insects can detect and actively avoid fungal spores to reduce infection risk. If true for mosquitoes, such behavior could render the biopesticide approach ineffective. Here we find that the spores of B. bassiana are highly attractive to females of Anopheles stephensi, a major anopheline mosquito vector of human malaria in Asia. We further find that An. stephensi females are preferentially attracted to dead and dying caterpillars infected with B. bassiana, landing on them and subsequently becoming infected with the fungus. Females are also preferentially attracted to cloth sprayed with oil-formulated B. bassiana spores, with 95% of the attracted females becoming infected after a one-minute visit on the cloth. This is the first report of an insect being attracted to a lethal fungal pathogen. The exact mechanisms involved in this behavior remain unclear. Nonetheless, our results indicate that biopesticidal formulations comprising B. bassiana spores will be conducive to attraction and on-source visitation by malaria vectors. PMID:23658757

  8. Isolated Polynucleotides and Methods of Promoting a Morphology in a Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasure, Linda L. [Fall City, WA; Dai, Ziyu [Richland, WA

    2008-10-21

    The invention includes isolated polynucleotide molecules that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention includes a method of enhancing a bioprocess utilizing a fungus. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to a promoter. The polynucleotide sequence is expressed to promote a first morphology. The first morphology of the transformed fungus enhances a bioprocess relative to the bioprocess utilizing a second morphology.

  9. Allergens of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyhani Nemat O

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beauveria bassiana is an important entomopathogenic fungus currently under development as a bio-control agent for a variety of insect pests. Although reported to be non-toxic to vertebrates, the potential allergenicity of Beauveria species has not been widely studied. Methods IgE-reactivity studies were performed using sera from patients displaying mould hypersensitivity by immunoblot and immunoblot inhibition. Skin reactivity to B. bassiana extracts was measured using intradermal skin testing. Results Immunoblots of fungal extracts with pooled as well as individual sera showed a distribution of IgE reactive proteins present in B. bassiana crude extracts. Proteinase K digestion of extracts resulted in loss of IgE reactive epitopes, whereas EndoH and PNGaseF (glycosidase treatments resulted in minor changes in IgE reactive banding patterns as determined by Western blots. Immunoblot inhibitions experiments showed complete loss of IgE-binding using self protein, and partial inhibition using extracts from common allergenic fungi including; Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium herbarum, Candida albicans, Epicoccum purpurascens, and Penicillium notatum. Several proteins including a strongly reactive band with an approximate molecular mass of 35 kDa was uninhibited by any of the tested extracts, and may represent B. bassiana specific allergens. Intradermal skin testing confirmed the in vitro results, demonstrating allergenic reactions in a number of individuals, including those who have had occupational exposure to B. bassiana. Conclusions Beauveria bassiana possesses numerous IgE reactive proteins, some of which are cross-reactive among allergens from other fungi. A strongly reactive potential B. bassiana specific allergen (35 kDa was identified. Intradermal skin testing confirmed the allergenic potential of B. bassiana.

  10. Termite-egg mimicry by a sclerotium-forming fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Kenji

    2006-05-22

    Mimicry has evolved in a wide range of organisms and encompasses diverse tactics for defence, foraging, pollination and social parasitism. Here, I report an extraordinary case of egg mimicry by a fungus, whereby the fungus gains competitor-free habitat in termite nests. Brown fungal balls, called 'termite balls', are frequently found in egg piles of Reticulitermes termites. Phylogenetic analysis illustrated that termite-ball fungi isolated from different hosts (Reticulitermes speratus, Reticulitermes flavipes and Reticulitermes virginicus) were all very similar, with no significant molecular differences among host species or geographical locations. I found no significant effect of termite balls on egg survivorship. The termite-ball fungus rarely kills termite eggs in natural colonies. Even a termite species (Reticulitermes okinawanus) with no natural association with the fungus tended termite balls along with its eggs when it was experimentally provided with termite balls. Dummy-egg bioassays using glass beads showed that both morphological and chemical camouflage were necessary to induce tending by termites. Termites almost exclusively tended termite balls with diameters that exactly matched their egg size. Moreover, scanning electron microscopic observations revealed sophisticated mimicry of the smooth surface texture of eggs. These results provide clear evidence that this interaction is beneficial only for the fungus, i.e. termite balls parasitically mimic termite eggs. PMID:16720392

  11. Termite-egg mimicry by a sclerotium-forming fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    Mimicry has evolved in a wide range of organisms and encompasses diverse tactics for defence, foraging, pollination and social parasitism. Here, I report an extraordinary case of egg mimicry by a fungus, whereby the fungus gains competitor-free habitat in termite nests. Brown fungal balls, called ‘termite balls’, are frequently found in egg piles of Reticulitermes termites. Phylogenetic analysis illustrated that termite-ball fungi isolated from different hosts (Reticulitermes speratus, Reticulitermes flavipes and Reticulitermes virginicus) were all very similar, with no significant molecular differences among host species or geographical locations. I found no significant effect of termite balls on egg survivorship. The termite-ball fungus rarely kills termite eggs in natural colonies. Even a termite species (Reticulitermes okinawanus) with no natural association with the fungus tended termite balls along with its eggs when it was experimentally provided with termite balls. Dummy-egg bioassays using glass beads showed that both morphological and chemical camouflage were necessary to induce tending by termites. Termites almost exclusively tended termite balls with diameters that exactly matched their egg size. Moreover, scanning electron microscopic observations revealed sophisticated mimicry of the smooth surface texture of eggs. These results provide clear evidence that this interaction is beneficial only for the fungus, i.e. termite balls parasitically mimic termite eggs. PMID:16720392

  12. EVOLUTIONARY TRANSITIONS IN ENZYME ACTIVITY OF ANT FUNGUS GARDENS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Schiøtt, Morten; Mueller, Ulrich G; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2010-01-01

    Fungus-growing (attine) ants and their fungal symbionts passed through several evolutionary transitions during their 50 million year old evolutionary history. The basal attine lineages often shifted between two main cultivar clades, whereas the derived higher-attine lineages maintained an...... association with a monophyletic clade of specialized symbionts. In conjunction with the transition to specialized symbionts, the ants advanced in colony size and social complexity. Here we provide a comparative study of the functional specialization in extracellular enzyme activities in fungus gardens across...... the attine phylogeny. We show that, relative to sister clades, gardens of higher-attine ants have enhanced activity of protein-digesting enzymes, whereas gardens of leaf-cutting ants also have increased activity of starch-digesting enzymes. However, the enzyme activities of lower-attine fungus gardens...

  13. Fungus-Growing Termites Originated in African Rain Forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur Kornelis; Eggleton, Paul

    2005-01-01

    consumed (cf. [ [1] and [2] ]). Fungus-growing termites are found throughout the Old World tropics, in rain forests and savannas, but are ecologically dominant in savannas [ 3 ]. Here, we reconstruct the ancestral habitat and geographical origin of fungus-growing termites. We used a statistical model of...... habitat switching [ 4 ] repeated over all phylogenetic trees sampled in a Bayesian analysis of molecular data [ 5 ]. Our reconstructions provide strong evidence that termite agriculture originated in African rain forest and that the main radiation leading to the extant genera occurred there. Because...... fungus growing by termites is ecologically most successful under the variable, unfavorable conditions of the savanna, it seems to have evolved under the more constant and favorable conditions of the rain forest....

  14. Isolation and identification of iron ore-solubilising fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damase Khasa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Potential mineral-solubilising fungi were successfully isolated from the surfaces of iron ore minerals. Four isolates were obtained and identified by molecular and phylogenetic methods as close relatives of three different genera, namely Penicillium (for isolate FO, Alternaria (for isolates SFC2 and KFC1 and Epicoccum (for isolate SFC2B. The use of tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO42in phosphate-solubilising experiments confirmed isolate FO as the only phosphate solubiliser among the isolated fungi. The bioleaching capabilities of both the fungus and its spent liquid medium were tested and compared using two types of iron ore materials, conglomerate and shale, from the Sishen Iron Ore Mine as sources of potassium (K and phosphorus (P. The spent liquid medium removed more K (a maximum of 32.94% removal, from conglomerate, than the fungus (a maximum of 21.36% removal, from shale. However, the fungus removed more P (a maximum of 58.33% removal, from conglomerate than the spent liquid medium (a maximum of 29.25% removal, from conglomerate. The results also indicated a potential relationship between the removal of K or P and the production of organic acids by the fungus. A high production of gluconic acid could be related to the ability of the fungus to reduce K and P. Acetic, citric and maleic acids were also produced by the fungus, but in lower quantities. In addition, particle size and iron ore type were also shown to have significant effects on the removal of potassium and phosphorus from the iron ore minerals. We therefore conclude that the spent liquid medium from the fungal isolate FO can potentially be used for biobeneficiation of iron ore minerals.

  15. Phomalactone from a Phytopathogenic Fungus Infecting ZINNIA elegans (ASTERACEAE) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meepagala, Kumudini M; Johnson, Robert D; Techen, Natascha; Wedge, David E; Duke, Stephen O

    2015-07-01

    Zinnia elegans Jacq. plants are infected by a fungus that causes dark red spots with necrosis on leaves, particularly in late spring to the middle of summer in the Mid-South of the United States. This fungal disease causes the leaves to wilt and eventually kills the plant. The fungus was isolated, cultured in potato dextrose broth, and identified as Nigrospora sphaerica by molecular techniques. Two major lactone metabolites (phomalactone and catenioblin A) were isolated from liquid culture of N. sphaerica isolated from Z. elegans. When injected into leaves of Z. elegans, phomalactone caused lesions similar to those of the fungus. The lesion sizes were proportional to the concentration of the phomalactone. Phomalactone, but not catenioblin A, was phytotoxic to Z. elegans and other plant species by inhibition of seedling growth and by causing electrolyte leakage from photosynthetic tissues of both Z. elegans leaves and cucumber cotyledons. This latter effect may be related to the wilting caused by the fungus in mature Z. elegans plants. Phomalactone was moderately fungicidal to Coletotrichum fragariae and two Phomopsis species, indicating that the compound may keep certain other fungi from encroaching into plant tissue that N. sphaerica has infected. Production of large amounts of phomalactone by N. sphaerica contributes to the pathogenic behavior of this fungus, and may have other ecological functions in the interaction of N. sphaerica with other fungi. This is the first report of isolation of catenioblin A from a plant pathogenic fungus. The function of catenioblin A is unclear, as it was neither significantly phyto- nor fungitoxic. PMID:26133676

  16. Chemically armed mercenary ants protect fungus-farming societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adams, Rachelle Martha Marie; Liberti, Joanito; Illum, Anders A.; Jones, Tappey H.; Nash, David Richard; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2013-01-01

    The ants are extraordinary in having evolved many lineages that exploit closely related ant societies as social parasites, but social parasitism by distantly related ants is rare. Here we document the interaction dynamics among a Sericomyrmex fungus-growing ant host, a permanently associated...... guest ants are sufficient to kill raiders that invariably exterminate host nests without a cohabiting guest ant colony. We also show that the odor of guest ants discourages raider scouts from recruiting nestmates to host colonies. Our results imply that Sericomyrmex fungus-growers obtain a net benefit...

  17. The role of enzymes in fungus-growing ant evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard

    The shift to freshly cut leaves rather than scavenged dead vegetation as fungus-garden substrate was a major evolutionary transition in the attine ants that apparently allowed the Atta and Acromyrmex leafcutter ants to also evolve increased worker size dimorphism, multiple queen- mating, specific...... behaviour. Here we report the first large-scale comparative study on fungus garden enzyme profiles and show that various interesting changes can be documented. A more detailed analysis of laccase expression, an enzyme that is believed to oxidize phenols in defensive secondary plant compounds such as tannins...

  18. Sperm length evolution in the fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, B.; Dijkstra, M. B.; Mueller, U. G.; Nash, David Richard; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2009-01-01

    Eusocial insects offer special opportunities for the comparative study of sperm traits because sperm competition is absent (in species with obligatory monandry) or constrained (in lineages where queens mate multiply but never remate later in life). We measured sperm length in 19 species of fungus...... significant predictor in this analysis, we conclude that sperm production trade-offs in males have been the major selective force affecting sperm length across the fungus-growing ants, rather than storage constraints in females. The relationship between sperm length and sexual dimorphism remained robust in...

  19. Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Fine Licht Henrik H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae, wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. Results We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-β-1,3(4-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Conclusion Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily accessible hemicellulose components of the ray-parenchyma cells in the wood xylem. Furthermore, the detection of xylanolytic enzymes exclusively in larvae (which feed on fungus colonized wood and not in adults (which feed only on fungi indicates that only larvae (pre- digest plant cell wall structures. This implies that in X. saxesenii and likely also in many other ambrosia beetles, adults and larvae do not compete for the same food within their nests - in contrast, larvae increase colony fitness by facilitating enzymatic wood degradation and fungus cultivation.

  20. Experimental study of Aspergillus flavus fungus from uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cultivation is discussed of fungus strain Aspergillus flavus obtained from materials from uranium mines. It was found that an addition of 0.6 g of uranium in form of uranyl acetate or of 0.6 g of thorium in form on thorium nitrate in 1000 ml of the standard medium had stimulating effects on the growth and sporulation of Aspergillus flavus. Irradiating the cultivated fungus through a polyethylene foil did not show a stimulating effect. It is stated that uranium and its daughters must be directly present in the culture medium for their stimulating effect on growth and sporulation to manifest itself. (H.S.)

  1. New aquatic sites of the fungus Sommerstorffia spinosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available When studying zoosporic fungi in the waters of northeastern Poland tbe authors found new sites of a rare fungus - Sommerstorffia spinosa Arnaudow. Its growth was observed in water samples collected from limnologically different reservoirs, from the spring Jaroszówka, the oligotrophic type (Lake Białe, through mesotrophic (Lake Wigry to the polytrophic type (pond Fosa with high content of hydrogen sulphide under ice cover. This fungus was also found in the river Biała, which flowing through Białystok gets polluted by municipal wastes. Moreover, the successive stages of S. spinosa development in the aquatic environment are described.

  2. Transformation of Metalaxyl by the Fungus Syncephalastrum racemosum†

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Zhong; Liu, Shu-Yen; Freyer, Alan J.; Bollag, Jean-Marc

    1989-01-01

    The fungus Syncephalastrum racemosum (Cohn) Schroeter was found to transform the fungicide metalaxyl [N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-N-(methoxyacetyl)-alanine methyl ester] in pure culture. After 21 days of incubation in a basal medium amended with 5 μg of metalaxyl per ml, more than 80% of the compound was transformed by the fungus. The transformation rates decreased as the concentrations of metalaxyl increased from 5 to 100 μg/ml. No transformation was observed when the concentration of metalaxyl w...

  3. Towards an integrated understanding of the consequences of fungus domestication on the fungus-growing termite gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas-Poulsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 30 million years ago (MYA), the subfamily of higher termites Macrotermitinae domesticated a fungus, Termitomyces, as the main plant decomposer and food source for the termite host. The origin of fungiculture shifted the composition of the termite gut microbiota, and some of the...... powerful, particularly if executed in comparative analyses across the well-established congruent termite-fungus phylogenies. This will allow for testing if gut communities have evolved in parallel with their hosts, with implications for our general understanding of the evolution of gut symbiont communities...

  4. p-Terphenyls from fungus Paxillus curtisii chelate irons: a proposed role of p-terphenyls in fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In-Kyoung; Ki, Dae-Won; Kim, Seong-Eun; Lee, Myeong-Seok; Song, Ja-Gyeong; Yun, Bong-Sik

    2013-05-01

    Diverse p-terphenyl compounds, named curtisians, have been isolated from the fungus Paxillus curtisii, and degradation of wood by this fungus is thought to be progressed by iron chelation of p-terphenyl curtisians. In this study, the iron chelation ability of p-terphenyls has been proved by chrome azurol S (CAS) assay, reducing power, and UV-visible spectroscopic analyses. The catechol moiety of p-terphenyl is an essential factor for the potent iron chelation ability, and thus deacylated curtisian with a tetrahydroxyl moiety in the central ring of p-terphenyl is more effective than acylated curtisians. PMID:23648854

  5. OXIDATION OF PERSISTANT ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY A WHITE ROT FUNGUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium degraded DDT [1,1,-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane], 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,4,5,2',-4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, lindane (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocylohexane), and benzo[a]pyrene t...

  6. Biomedical exploitation of the fungus-growing ant symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Michael

    2010-01-01

    system involving such interactions, the multipartite fungus-growing ant symbiosis. This includes a review of the ancient symbiosis involving intricate interactions between at least six symbionts, a review of the efforts that have been made in examining host-symbiont and symbiont-symbiont interactions, as...

  7. Fun Microbiology: How To Measure Growth of a Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James K.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experiment to demonstrate a simple method for measuring fungus growth by monitoring the effect of temperature on the growth of Trichoderma viride. Among the advantages that this experimental model provides is introducing students to the importance of using the computer as a scientific tool for analyzing and presenting data. (AIM)

  8. Genetic variability in the pistachio late blight fungus, Alternaria alternata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic variation in the pistachio late blight fungus, Alternaria alternata, was investigated by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in the rDNA region. Southern hybridization of EcoRI, HindIII, and Xbal digested fungal DNA with a RNA probe derived from Alt1, an rDNA clone isolated from ...

  9. Biodegradation of pentachlorophenol by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance and mineralization of [14C]PCP in nutrient nitrogen-limited culture. Mass balance analyses demonstrated the formation of water-soluble metabolites of [14C]PCP during degradation. Involvement of the lignin-degrading system of this fungus was suggested by the fact that the time of onset, time course, and eventual decline in the rate of PCP mineralization were similar to those observed for [14C]lignin degradation. Also, a purified ligninase was shown to be able to catalyze the initial oxidation of PCP. Although biodegradation of PCP was decreased in nutrient nitrogen-sufficient (i.e., nonligninolytic) cultures of P. chrysosporium, substantial biodegradation of PCP did occur, suggesting that in addition to the lignin-degrading system, another degradation system may also be responsible for some of the PCP degradation observed. Toxicity studies showed that PCP concentrations above 4 mg/liter (15 μM) prevented growth when fungal cultures were identified by inoculation with spores. The lethal effects of PCP could, however, be the circumvented by allowing the fungus to establish a mycelial mat before adding PCP. With this procedure, the fungus was able to grow and mineralize [14C]PCP at concentrations as high as 500 mg/liter (1.9 mM)

  10. Notes on a plant parasite fungus in Portugal: Gymnosporangium cornutum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Maria C; Martins, Victor C

    2006-09-01

    A rust fungus identified as Gymnosporangium cornutum was found on Sorbus aucuparia in Serra da Estrela (Manteigas), and the disease was severe at that location. Despite the abundance and worldwide occurrence of the genus Gymnosporangium, studies in Portugal are still limited. PMID:17196029

  11. Antimetastasis effect of anthraquinones from marine fungus, Microsporum sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses about obtaining natural products which have anticancer metastasis activities from selected marine-derived fungus (Microsporum sp.) and investigates their biological activities such as cytotoxicity on viability cell lines, anticancer cell migration and invasion, protease inhibition, and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and -9). Moreover, the correlative mechanisms behind these activities were studied. PMID:22361203

  12. A Brazilian social bee must cultivate fungus to survive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Cristiano; Vollet-Neto, Ayrton; Marsaioli, Anita Jocelyne; Zampieri, Davila; Fontoura, Isabela Cardoso; Luchessi, Augusto Ducati; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia

    2015-11-01

    The nests of social insects provide suitable microenvironments for many microorganisms as they offer stable environmental conditions and a rich source of food [1-4]. Microorganisms in turn may provide several benefits to their hosts, such as nutrients and protection against pathogens [1, 4-6]. Several examples of symbiosis between social insects and microorganisms have been found in ants and termites. These symbioses have driven the evolution of complex behaviors and nest structures associated with the culturing of the symbiotic microorganisms [5, 7, 8]. However, while much is known about these relationships in many species of ants and termites, symbiotic relationships between microorganisms and social bees have been poorly explored [3, 4, 9, 10]. Here, we report the first case of an obligatory relationship between the Brazilian stingless bee Scaptotrigona depilis and a fungus of the genus Monascus (Ascomycotina). Fungal mycelia growing on the provisioned food inside the brood cell are eaten by the larva. Larvae reared in vitro on sterilized larval food supplemented with fungal mycelia had a much higher survival rate (76%) compared to larvae reared under identical conditions but without fungal mycelia (8% survival). The fungus was found to originate from the material from which the brood cells are made. Since the bees recycle and transport this material between nests, fungus would be transferred to newly built cells and also to newly founded nests. This is the first report of a fungus cultivation mutualism in a social bee. PMID:26592344

  13. PESTALOTIOPSIS MACULANS IS A PARASYMBIONTIC FUNGUS IN NORTH AMERICAN LICHENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    By culturing small thallus portions in nutrient medium, it could be shown that Pestalotiopisis maculans (Corda) Nag Raj is a dominant parasymbiontic fungus in North American lichens. P. maculans was present in all twelve lichen specimens (10 Cladina, 1 Usnea, and 1 Parmetroma) collected in the east...

  14. The development and endophytic nature of the fungus Heteroconium chaetospira.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiba, Teruyoshi; Narisawa, Kazuhiko

    2005-11-15

    The root endophytic fungus Heteroconium chaetospira was isolated from roots of Chinese cabbage grown in field soil in Japan. This fungus penetrates through the outer epidermal cells of its host, passes into the inner cortex, and grows throughout the cortical cells, including those of the root tip region, without causing apparent pathogenic symptoms. There are no ultrastructural signs of host resistance responses. H. chaetospira has been recovered from 19 plant species in which there was no disruption of host growth. H. chaetospira has a symbiotic association with Chinese cabbage. The fungus provides nitrogen in exchange for carbon. These associations are beneficial for the inoculated plants, as demonstrated by increased growth rate. When used as a preinoculum, H. chaetospira suppresses the incidence of clubroot and Verticillium yellows when the test plant is post-inoculated with the causal agents of these diseases. H. chaetospira is an effective biocontrol agent against clubroot in Chinese cabbage at a low to moderate soil moisture range and a pathogen resting spore density of 10(5) resting spores per gram of soil in situ. Disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. macricola and Alternaria brassicae on leaves can be suppressed by treatment with H. chaetospira. The fungus persists in the roots and induces systemic resistance to the foliar disease. PMID:16168582

  15. Phenolic Compound Utilization by the Soft Rot Fungus Lecythophora hoffmannii

    OpenAIRE

    Bugos, Robert C.; Sutherland, John B.; Adler, John H.

    1988-01-01

    Nine phenolic compounds were metabolized by the soft rot fungus Lecythophora hoffmannii via protocatechuic acid and subsequently cleaved by protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase as determined by oxygen uptake, substrate depletion, and ring cleavage analysis. Catechol was metabolized by catechol 1,2-dioxygenase. Fungal utilization of these aromatic compounds may be important in the metabolism of wood decay products.

  16. Efficiency of Actinomycetes Against Phytopathogenic Fungus of Chilli Anthracnose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sinma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytopathogenic fungus as Colletotricum gloeosporioides is a cause of disease on chilli and wide varieties of agricultural crops resulting in yield loss. The aim of this study was to screened actinomycetes according to its ability to produce various secondary metabolites with inhibition activity against chilli anthracnose. Firstly, actinomycetes from previously study were tested for antagonistic activity toward the fungus by the dual culture technique. Finally, extracellular antifungal metabolites produced by selected isolates were evaluated for antifungal potential toward the fungus with agar core technique. Eighty three strains of actinomycetes were screened for their antifungal as well as phytopathogenic activity. Among these, 26 isolates were shown the inhibition activities against Colletotricum gloeosporioides chi in which was isolated from infected chilli. The culture supernatants obtained from 21 actinomycetes strains were affective against the fungus. More interestingly, 7 isolates produced affective thermostable compound that having activity after treated with temperature of 121°C for 20 min. In total, the isolate R58 was most promising on the basis of its interesting antimicrobial activity and it could reduce anthracnose disease of chilli comparing to the absence of biocontrol agent. Based on morphological character, its 16S rDNA sequence and phylogenetic tree analysis, isolate R58 belong to the Streptomyces malaysiensis. These findings have increased the scope of agriculturally important actinomycetes.

  17. Massive infections with fungus of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis

    OpenAIRE

    Comps, Michel; Menu, Bruno; Moreau, V.

    1993-01-01

    Massive infections of a fungus exhibiting sorne characteristics of the Lagenidiaceae are described for the flfst time from rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis ) reared in a hatchery as food for fish larvae. This fungal agent was associated with mass mortalities in thc populations of cultivaled rolifers.

  18. Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes David P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attine ants live in symbiosis with a basidiomycetous fungus that they rear on a substrate of plant material. This indirect herbivory implies that the symbiosis is likely to be nitrogen deprived, so that specific mechanisms may have evolved to enhance protein availability. We therefore hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing eight genera. We mapped these activity profiles on an independently obtained molecular phylogeny of the symbionts and show that total proteinase activity in lower attine symbionts peaks at ca. pH 6. The higher attine symbionts that have no known free-living relatives had much higher proteinase activities than the lower attine symbionts. Their total in vitro proteinase activity peaked at pH values around 5, which is close to the pH that the ants maintain in their fungus gardens, suggesting that the pH optimum of fungal proteinases may have changed after the irreversible domestication of evolutionary more derived fungal symbionts. This notion is also supported by buffering capacities of fungus gardens at pH 5.2 being remarkably high, and suggests that the fungal symbiont actively helps to maintain garden acidity at this specific level. Metalloproteinases dominated the activity profiles of lower attine gardens and may thus represent the ancestral type of proteinase production, whereas serine proteinase activity dominated the activity profiles of the higher attine gardens reared by Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex, suggesting that there may be trade-offs in the production of these enzyme classes. Remarkably, the single symbiont that is shared by species of the crown group of Atta and Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants mostly showed metalloproteinase activity, suggesting that recurrent changes in enzyme production may have occurred throughout the domestication history of fungus-garden symbionts. Conclusions Proteinase pH optima and buffering capacities of fungal symbionts appear to have evolved remarkable adaptations to living in obligate symbiosis with farming ants. Although the functional roles of serine and metalloproteinases in fungus gardens are unknown, the differential production of these classes of proteolytic enzymes suggest that substrate specificity may be important and that trade-offs may prevent the simultaneous upregulation of both classes of enzymes.

  19. Enraizamento de estacas de três espécies silvestres de Passiflora Cutting rooting of three wild Passiflora species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fideles Braga

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Em ambiente com nebulização controlada, estacas herbáceas com um par de folhas, contendo 2 ou 3 nós, foram testadas quanto ao enraizamento, utilizando-se de bandeja de poliestireno com célula de 95cm³ e saco plástico de 15x25x0,02cm com 1.730 cm³. Foram testadas estacas de Passiflora actinia, P. serrato-digitata e P. setacea. Observou-se que P. serrato-digitata apresentou 94,3% de estacas enraizadas com brotos e 2,4% de mortalidade; enquanto P. actinia e P. setacea apresentaram, respetivamente, 30,5% e 28,6% de estacas enraizadas com brotos e 56,8% e 60,7% de mortalidade. A alta mortalidade das estacas foi atribuída ao estado fenológico das matrizes de P. actinia e P. setacea e ao ataque de larvas de bradisia (Bradysia spp. Estacas com dois e três nós não apresentaram diferenças significativas, e o recipiente saco plástico de 1.730 cm³ proporcionou melhor desenvolvimento das mudas.Steam cuttings of three wild Passiflora species where tested for rooting in a mist regulated greenhouse. Cuttings with two or three buds were used with two kinds of containers: polystyrene trays with 95 cm³ cells and perforated plastic bags of 15x25x0.02cm, with 1,730 cm³. Passiflora serrato-digitata was the best, with 94.3% of rooted cuttings with shoots e only 2.4% of death cuttings. P. actinia and P. setacea showed , respectivelly, 30.5% and 28.6% of rooted cuttings and 56.8% and 60.7%, of death cuttings. The high death were attribute to phenological phases of P. actinia and P. setacea or injury caused by fungus-gnat larvae (Bradysia spp.. Cuttings with two or three buds didn't show differences among them. Plastic bags proporcioned the best results, increasing rooted cuttings and plant development.

  20. Morphophysiological Differences between the Metapleural Glands of Fungus-Growing and Non–Fungus-Growing Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexsandro Santana; Bueno, Odair Correa; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2012-01-01

    The metapleural gland is an organ exclusive to ants. Its main role is to produce secretions that inhibit the proliferation of different types of pathogens. The aim of the present study was to examine the morphophysiological differences between the metapleural gland of 3 non–fungus-growing ants of the tribes Ectatommini, Myrmicini, and Blepharidattini and that of 5 fungus-growing ants from 2 basal and 3 derived attine genera. The metapleural gland of the non–fungus-growing ants and the basal attine ants has fewer secretory cells than that of the derived attine ants (leaf-cutting ants). In addition, the metapleural gland of the latter had more clusters of secretory cells and sieve plates, indicating a greater storage capacity and demand for secretion in these more advanced farming ants. The glands of the derived attine ants also produced higher levels of polysaccharides and acidic lipids than those of Myrmicini, Blepharidattini, and basal attines. Our results confirm morphophysiological differences between the metapleural glands of the derived attines and those of the basal attines and non–fungus-growing ants, suggesting that the metapleural glands of the derived attines (leaf-cutting ants) are more developed in morphology and physiology, with enhanced secretion production (acidic lipids and protein) to protect against the proliferation of unwanted fungi and bacteria in the fungal garden, it is possible that leaf-cutting ants may have evolved more developed metapleural glands in response to stronger pressure from parasites. PMID:22927993

  1. White-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans) in bats, Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibbelt, G.; Kurth, A.; Hellmann, D.; Weishaar, M.; Barlow, A.; Veith, M.; Pruger, J.; Gorfol, T.; Grosche, T.; Bontadina, F.; Zophel, U.; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Cryan, P.M.; Blehert, D.S.

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus.

  2. Identification and characterization of glucoamylase from the fungus, Thermomyces lanuginosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Thor Seneca; Johnsen, Anders; Josefsen, K.; Jensen, Bo

    2006-01-01

    The glucoamylase from the thermophilic fungus Thermomyces lanuginosus has a molecular weight of 66 kDa and was characterized with isoelectric point, pH and temperature optimum of 3.8-4.0, 5.0 and 70 °C, respectively. In addition, the activation energy is 60.4 kJ/mol, Km is 3.5 mM and kcat is 25.3 s...... thermophilic fungus Talaromyces emersonii. cDNA encoding Thermomyces lanuginosus glucoamylase was expression cloned into Pichia pastoris, producing approximately 7.4 U/ml. It was concluded that alternative mRNA splicing as it might occur in Aspergillus niger glucoamylase is not responsible for the occurrence...

  3. Biodegradation of Phenols by Ligninolytic Fungus Trametes versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Udayasoorian

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The white rot fungus isolated from paper mill effluent enriched soil samples and identified as Trametes versicolor was capable of degrading phenol (Mono, di hydroxy and methoxy compounds.14C synthetic lignin mineralization assays showed that Trametes versicolor assimilated 24.3% of the total label. During five days of incubation period, 71% of para-hydroxy benzoic acid was utilized by Trametes versicolor when glucose used as a co-substrate and 56% degradation of protocatechuic acid was achieved using fructose. The presence of laccase (EC.1.10.3.2 and polyphenol oxidase (EC.1.10.3.0 extracellular activity suggested that the fungus secrete these enzymes into the extracellular medium and the extracellular laccase activity was assayed on agarose plates containing ABTS.

  4. Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Fusarium semitectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of environmental friendly procedures for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles through biological processes is evolving into an important branch of nanobiotechnology. In this paper, we report on the use of fungus 'Fusarium semitectum' for the extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate solution (i.e. through the reduction of Ag+ to Ag0). Highly stable and crystalline silver nanoparticles are produced in solution by treating the filtrate of the fungus F. semitectum with the aqueous silver nitrate solution. The formations of nanoparticles are understood from the UV-vis and X-ray diffraction studies. Transmission electron microscopy of the silver particles indicated that they ranged in size from 10 to 60 nm and are mostly spherical in shape. Interestingly the colloidal suspensions of silver nanoparticles are stable for many weeks. Possible medicinal applications of these silver nanoparticles are envisaged

  5. Engineering a filamentous fungus for L-rhamnose extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuivanen, Joosu; Richard, Peter

    2016-12-01

    L-Rhamnose is a high value rare sugar that is used as such or after chemical conversions. It is enriched in several biomass fractions such as the pectic polysaccharides rhamnogalacturonan I and II and in naringin, hesperidin, rutin, quercitrin and ulvan. We engineered the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger to not consume L-rhamnose, while it is still able to produce the enzymes for the hydrolysis of L-rhamnose rich biomass. As a result we present a strain that can be used for the extraction of L-rhamnose in a consolidated process. In the process the biomass is hydrolysed to the monomeric sugars which are consumed by the fungus leaving the L-rhamnose. PMID:27033543

  6. The Identity of a Pea Blight Fungus in South Africa *

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. T. van Warmelo

    1966-12-01

    Full Text Available The perfect stage of Ascochyta pinodes (Berk. & Blox. Jones, a cause of pea blight in Natal, was compared with type material of  Sphaeria pinodes Berk, and Blox.,  Mycosphaerella pinodes (Berk. & Blox. Stone, and  Didymella pinodes (Berk. & Blox. Petrak and the development o f its ascocarps studied. Two types of ascocarp were found on the material of  Didymella pinodes, one perithecial and the other ascolocular in structure. The ascocarp of the South African fungus was typically ascolocular in development and construction and similar to that of other species of Mycosphaerella. These ascocarps were identical to those of  Sphaeria pinodes and Mycosphaerella pinodes and the ascolocular ascocarps of the  DidymeUa pinodes material. In development and morphology this fungus agrees more closely with the original generic concepts of the genus Mycosphaerella Joh. than with  Didymella Sacc. and should thus be named Mycosphaerella pinodes (Berk. & Blox. Stone.

  7. Biodegradation of Phenols by Ligninolytic Fungus Trametes versicolor

    OpenAIRE

    C. Udayasoorian; P.C. Prabu

    2005-01-01

    The white rot fungus isolated from paper mill effluent enriched soil samples and identified as Trametes versicolor was capable of degrading phenol (Mono, di hydroxy and methoxy) compounds.14C synthetic lignin mineralization assays showed that Trametes versicolor assimilated 24.3% of the total label. During five days of incubation period, 71% of para-hydroxy benzoic acid was utilized by Trametes versicolor when glucose used as a co-substrate and 56% degradation of protocatechuic acid was achie...

  8. The berkeleyamides, amides from the acid lake fungus Penicillum rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stierle, Andrea A; Stierle, Donald B; Patacini, Brianna

    2008-05-01

    We previously reported several novel bioactive hybrid polyketide-terpenoid metabolites from a deep water Penicillium rubrum isolated from Berkeley Pit Lake, Butte, Montana. In this paper we report the structures of four new amides, berkeleyamides A-D (1, 4, 5, 7), isolated from extracts of this fungus. The structures of these compounds were deduced by analysis of NMR data, chemical derivatization, and comparison of their spectroscopic data to those of known compounds. PMID:18330993

  9. A New α -Pyrone Derivative from Endophytic Fungus Pestalotiopsis microspora

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaocong Li; Zhiyong Guo; Zhangshuang Deng; Jin Yang; Kun Zou

    2015-01-01

    A new α-pyrone derivative1, along with four known congeners 2, 3, 4 and 5, were isolated from the solid-substrate fermentation medium of the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis microspore isolated from the branch of Taxus chinensis. Their structures and relative configurations were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. The cytotoxic activities of the isolated α-pyrone derivatives against two tumor cell lines as well as compound 1 ’ s antimicrobial activity against three bacteria and th...

  10. Methylation of elongation factor 1 alpha from the fungus Mucor.

    OpenAIRE

    Hiatt, W.R.; Garcia, R.; Merrick, W C; Sypherd, P S

    1982-01-01

    A basic protein from the dimorphic fungus Mucor racemosus, found to be highly methylated, is shown to be protein synthesis elongation factor 1 alpha. This protein is the most abundant protein in hyphal cells but is less abundant in yeast cells. It is post-translationally methylated with the formation of mono-, di-, and trimethyllysine at as many as 16 sites. Nearly 20% of the 44 lysine residues of elongation factor 1 alpha from mycelia are modified while those from sporangiospores are virtual...

  11. Inducible phenotypic multidrug resistance in the fungus Mucor racemosus.

    OpenAIRE

    Leathers, T. D.; Sypherd, P S

    1985-01-01

    The dimorphic fungus Mucor racemosus exhibited a single-step, inducible resistance to cycloheximide, trichodermin, and amphotericin B. Cells adapted to inhibitory levels of the antibiotics after 12 to 40 h. The adaptation involved all the cells in the population and was not the result of the selection of resistant mutants. Adaptation to one drug provided cross resistance to other, dissimilar drugs. Resistance was lost within several generations of growth in the absence of the inhibitors.

  12. Fungus mediated synthesis of biomedically important cerium oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • First time biological synthesis of cerium oxide oxide nanoparticles using fungus Humicola sp. • Complete characterization of cerium oxide nanoparticles. • Biosynthesis of naturally protein capped, luminescent and water dispersible CeO2 nanoparticles. • Biosynthesized CeO2 nanoparticles can be used for many biomedical applications. - Abstract: Nanomaterials can be synthesized by chemical, physical and the more recently discovered biological routes. The biological routes are advantageous over the chemical and physical ones as unlike these, the biological synthesis protocols occur at ambient conditions, are cheap, non-toxic and eco-friendly. Although purely biological and bioinspired methods for the synthesis of nanomaterials are environmentally benign and energy conserving processes, their true potential has not been explored yet and attempts are being made to extend the formation of technologically important nanoparticles using microorganisms like fungi. Though there have been reports on the biosynthesis of oxide nanoparticles by our group in the past, no attempts have been made to employ fungi for the synthesis of nanoparticles of rare earth metals or lanthanides. Here we report for the first time, the bio-inspired synthesis of biomedically important cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles using the thermophilic fungus Humicola sp. The fungus Humicola sp. when exposed to aqueous solutions of oxide precursor cerium (III) nitrate hexahydrate (CeN3O9·6H2O) results in the extracellular formation of CeO2 nanoparticles containing Ce (III) and Ce (IV) mixed oxidation states, confirmed by X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS). The formed nanoparticles are naturally capped by proteins secreted by the fungus and thus do not agglomerate, are highly stable, water dispersible and are highly fluorescent as well. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS)

  13. Plant–plant interactions vary with different mycorrhizal fungus species

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeksema, Jason D

    2005-01-01

    Because different species of mycorrhizal fungi have different effects on the growth of particular plant species, variation in mycorrhizal fungus species composition could cause changes in the strength of plant–plant interactions. Results are presented from a growth chamber experiment that compared the strength of interactions among seedlings of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) when the pines were colonized by two different groups of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the genus Rhizopogon. Plant density...

  14. Plant-plant interactions vary with different mycorrhizal fungus species

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeksema, Jason D

    2005-01-01

    Because different species of mycorrhizal fungi have different effects on the growth of particular plant species, variation in mycorrhizal fungus species composition could cause changes in the strength of plant-plant interactions. Results are presented from a growth chamber experiment that compared the strength of interactions among seedlings of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) when the pines were colonized by two different groups of ectomycorrhizal. fungi in the genus Rhizopogon. Plant densit...

  15. Biosorption of cadmium using the fungus Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Barros Júnior L.M.; Macedo G.R.; Duarte M.M.L.; Silva E.P.; Lobato A.K.C.L.

    2003-01-01

    Sorption experiments using the Aspergillus niger fungus for cadmium removal were carried out to study the factors influencing and optimizing the biosorption of this metal. The effects of pH, time, biomass concentration, and initial concentration of the heavy metal on the rate of metallic biosorption were examined. An experimental design was also used to determine the values of the under study variables that provided the greatest biosorption efficiency. A technique for biomass recovery was als...

  16. Carbon starvation in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Nitsche, Benjamin Manuel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated carbon starvation in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger during submerged cultivation in bioreactor batch cultures. The work described in this thesis can be discussed as follows: (I) Establishment of computational resources for omics data analysis and interpretation in chapters 2 and 3; (II) Cultivation of A. niger, data generation, analysis and interpretation in chapter 4; (III) Investigation of a candidate pathway with strong transcriptional induction during car...

  17. Genome sequencing and analysis of the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum

    OpenAIRE

    van den Berg, Marco A.; Albang, Richard; Albermann, Kaj; Badger, Jonathan H.; Daran, Jean-Marc; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; Garcia-Estrada, Carlos; Fedorova, Natalie D.; Harris, Diana M.; Heijne, Wilbert H. M.; Joardar, Vinita; Kiel, Jan A. K. W.; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Martin, Juan F.; Nierman, William C.

    2008-01-01

    Industrial penicillin production with the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum is based on an unprecedented effort in microbial strain improvement. To gain more insight into penicillin synthesis, we sequenced the 32.19 Mb genome of P. chrysogenum Wisconsin54-1255 and identified numerous genes responsible for key steps in penicillin production. DNA microarrays were used to compare the transcriptomes of the sequenced strain and a penicillinG high-producing strain, grown in the presence an...

  18. Biotransformation of Malachite Green by the Fungus Cunninghamella elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Chang-Jun; Doerge, Daniel R.; Carl E. Cerniglia

    2001-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Cunninghamella elegans ATCC 36112 metabolized the triphenylmethane dye malachite green with a first-order rate constant of 0.029 μmol h−1 (mg of cells)−1. Malachite green was enzymatically reduced to leucomalachite green and also converted to N-demethylated and N-oxidized metabolites, including primary and secondary arylamines. Inhibition studies suggested that the cytochrome P450 system mediated both the reduction and the N-demethylation reactions.

  19. Statistical Optimization of Keratinase Production from Marine Fungus

    OpenAIRE

    S.Satya lakshmi; G.Girija Shankar

    2015-01-01

    To improve the yield of keratinase from marine fungus Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, different medium constituents were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD). The strain produced 24.8U/mL and 36.4U/mL of keratinase activity in conventional method of optimization with glucose and soya bean meal as carbon and nitrogen sources. Response surface methodology which was applied to optimize concentrations of glucose, soya bean meal, feathe...

  20. Genomic sequence of the aflatoxigenic filamentous fungus Aspergillus nomius

    OpenAIRE

    Geromy G. Moore; Mack, Brian M.; Beltz, Shannon B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Aspergillus nomius is an opportunistic pathogen and one of the three most important producers of aflatoxins in section Flavi. This fungus has been reported to contaminate agricultural commodities, but it has also been sampled in non-agricultural areas so the host range is not well known. Having a similar mycotoxin profile as A. parasiticus, isolates of A. nomius are capable of secreting B- and G- aflatoxins. Results In this study we discovered that the A. nomius type strain (NRRL 1...

  1. Methods for Mutation and Selection of the Ergot Fungus

    OpenAIRE

    Srikrai, Suthinee; Robbers, James E.

    1983-01-01

    A new method is described in which the Salkowski reaction is used for the rapid selection of alkaloid-producing mutants of the ergot fungus. This method was used to investigate the influence of a second mutation with N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG) on various mutants selected by a preliminary NTG mutation of Claviceps sp. strain SD 58. Three groups of mutants were used: high alkaloid producers, low alkaloid producers, and auxotrophs. Results indicated that a second mutation of all ...

  2. Chemically armed mercenary ants protect fungus-farming societies

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, R. M. M.; Liberti, J.; Illum, A. A.; Jones, T H; Nash, D R; Boomsma, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    We document the behavioral interactions among three ant species: a fungus-growing host ant, a permanently associated parasitic guest ant, and a raiding agro-predator ant. We show that the presence of guest ants becomes advantageous when host ants are attacked by raider ants, because guest ants use alkaloid venom to defend their host ant colony. Furthermore, detection of the guest ant odors is sufficient to discourage raider scouts from recruiting nestmates to host colonies. Guest ants likely ...

  3. Transcriptional responses in Honey Bee larvae infected with chalkbrood fungus

    OpenAIRE

    Murray Keith D; Aronstein Katherine A; Saldivar Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Diseases and other stress factors working synergistically weaken honey bee health and may play a major role in the losses of bee populations in recent years. Among a large number of bee diseases, chalkbrood has been on the rise. We present here the experimental identification of honey bee genes that are differentially expressed in response to infection of honey bee larvae with the chalkbrood fungus, Ascosphaera apis. Results We used cDNA-AFLP ®Technology to profile transcr...

  4. Bioluminescence characteristics of a tropical terrestrial fungus (Basidiomycetes)

    OpenAIRE

    Deheyn, D. D.; Latz, M.I.

    2007-01-01

    Freshly collected samples of luminous mycelium of a terrestrial fungus from Panama were investigated for their bioluminescence characteristics. Taxonomic identification of fungal species could not be determined because of the lack of fruiting bodies. Fluorescence excited by 380 nm illumination had an emission spectrum with a main peak at 480 nm and additional chlorophyll peaks related to the wood substrate. Bioluminescence appeared as a continuous glow that did not show any diel variation. Th...

  5. Lasiodiplodins from mangrove endophytic fungus Lasiodiplodia sp. 318.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Xue, Yanyu; Yuan, Jie; Lu, Yongjun; Zhu, Xun; Lin, Yongcheng; Liu, Lan

    2016-04-01

    Four new lasiodiplodins (1-4), together with three known analogues, have been isolated from a mangrove endophytic fungus, Lasiodiplodia sp. 318#. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques. Cytotoxic activities of compounds 1-7 were evaluated in vitro against human cancer lines THP1, MDA-MB-435, A549, HepG2 and HCT-116. Compound 4 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activities. PMID:26222141

  6. Heterologous expression of the CYP51 gene of the obligate fungus Blumeria graminis in the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lei-Yan; Chen, Yan-Feng; Yang, Qian-Qian; Ma, Zhong-Hua

    2012-01-01

    As it is extremely difficult to make DNA transformation for the obligate fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), we developed a heterologous expression system for characterization of a Bgt gene, CYP51, which encodes 14α-demethylase. The CYP51 gene from Bgt was transformed into the necrotrophic fungus, Botrytis cinerea. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that the Bgt CYP51 was transcribed in B. cinerea. Green fluorescence was observed in the transformants of B. cinerea carrying the Bgt CYP51-GFP fusion cassette, suggesting that its translation was successful. Fungicide sensitivity tests revealed that B. cinerea transformed with Bgt CYP51 showed reduced sensitivity to a sterol demethylation inhibitor triadimefon, but not to a benzimidazole fungicide carbendazim. These results indicated that this heterologous expression system can be used for functional analysis of other Bgt genes. PMID:21895843

  7. Insect symbioses: a case study of past, present, and future fungus-growing ant research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caldera, Eric J; Poulsen, Michael; Suen, Garret; Currie, Cameron R

    2009-01-01

    Fungus-growing ants (Attini: Formicidae) engage in an obligate mutualism with fungi they cultivate for food. Although biologists have been fascinated with fungus-growing ants since the resurgence of natural history in the modern era, the early stages of research focused mainly on the foraging...... behavior of the leaf-cutters (the most derived attine lineage). Indeed, the discovery that the ants actually use leaf fragments to manure a fungus did not come until the 1800s. More recently, three additional microbial symbionts have been described, including specialized microfungal parasites of the ant......'s fungus garden, antibiotic-producing actinobacteria that help protect the fungus garden from the parasite, and a black yeast that parasitizes the ant-actinobacteria mutualism. The fungus-growing ant symbiosis serves as a particularly useful model system for studying insect-microbe symbioses, because, to...

  8. A case of fungus ball type pansinusitis caused by Schizophillum commune

    OpenAIRE

    NAZERI, Mehdi; Mohammadi Ardehali, Mojtaba; Moazeni, Maryam; Jamal Hashemi, Seyed; Fallahi, Ali akbar; Ehteram, Hassan; Rezaie, Sassan

    2012-01-01

    Schizophillum commune has been increasingly reported from allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) as well as fungus ball, brain abscess and several cases of maxillary or allergic fungal sinusitis. In the present study, we reported a case of fungus ball type pansinusitis from a 32-year-old woman in Iran. According to computed tomography (CT) scan, fungus ball type pan-sinusitis was likely to be the first diagnosis. Mycological examination revealed hyaline hyphae with small projection and also...

  9. Maxillary fungus ball: zinc-oxide endodontic materials as a risk factor

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolai, P; MENSI, M.; Marsili, F.; PICCIONI, M.; SALGARELLO, S.; GILBERTI, E.; Apostoli, P

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The objective of this study was to demonstrate the correlation between endodontic treatment on maxillary teeth and fungus ball with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry measurement of zinc and other metals (barium, lead and copper) in fungus ball samples. Samples of normal maxillary mucosa were used as comparison. Metal concentration was also measured in several endodontic materials. A significant difference was found between the concentration of zinc and copper in fungus ball...

  10. Degradation of Phenanthrene by a chilean white rot fungus Anthracophyllum discolor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acevedo, F.; Cuevas, R.; Rubilar, O.; Tortella, G.; Diez, M. C.

    2009-07-01

    Anthracophyllum discolor, a white rot fungus of southern Chile, has been an efficient degrader of clorophenols and azo dyes. This fungus produces ligninolytic enzymes being manganese peroxidase (Mn) the major one produced. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of phenanthrene concentration of ligninolytic activity of A. Discolor measured by poly R-478 decolorazation, and to evaluate the potential of this fungus for degrading phenanthrene in liquid media. (Author)

  11. Isolated fungal promoters and gene transcription terminators and methods of protein and chemical production in a fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ziyu; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnuson, Jon K.

    2008-11-11

    The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

  12. Isolated fungal promoters and gene transcription terminators and methods of protein and chemical production in a fungus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Ziyu; Lasure, Linda L; Magnuson, Jon K

    2014-05-27

    The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

  13. Efficient gene targeting in the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiotani, H; Tsuge, T

    1995-07-28

    To characterize homologous recombination of transforming DNA in the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata, we have compared the frequencies of gene targeting by circular and linear DNA fragments in the fungus. The A. alternata BRM1 gene, which is an essential gene for melanin biosynthesis, was selected as a target locus. BRM1 targeting events are easily identified because loss of function leads to a change in mycelial color from black to light brown. We constructed targeting vectors by inserting 0.6 to 3.1 kb internal BRM1 segments into a plasmid containing the hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene. When circular plasmids were used, melanin-deficient (Mel-) transformants accounted for 30 to 80% of hygromycin B-resistant (HyR) transformants, correlating closely with the size of the BRM1 segment in the transforming DNA. Restriction enzyme digestion within the BRM1 region greatly enhanced the frequency of gene targeting: integration of the linear plasmids was almost completely attributable to homologous recombination, regardless of the size of the BRM1 segments. Plasmids carrying both BRM1 segments and rDNA segments were transformed into the fungus to examine the effect of the number of target copies on homologous recombination. Using the circular plasmids, Mel- transformants accounted for only 5% of HyR transformants. In contrast, when the linear plasmid produced by restriction enzyme digestion within the BRM1 segment was used, almost all transformants were Mel-. These results indicate that homologous integration of circular molecules in A. alternata is sensitive to the length of homology and the number of targets, and that double-strand breaks in transforming DNA greatly enhance homologous recombination. PMID:7651337

  14. Directed evolution of a filamentous fungus for thermotolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyons Thomas J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Filamentous fungi are the most widely used eukaryotic biocatalysts in industrial and chemical applications. Consequently, there is tremendous interest in methodology that can use the power of genetics to develop strains with improved performance. For example, Metarhizium anisopliae is a broad host range entomopathogenic fungus currently under intensive investigation as a biologically based alternative to chemical pesticides. However, it use is limited by the relatively low tolerance of this species to abiotic stresses such as heat, with most strains displaying little to no growth between 35–37°C. In this study, we used a newly developed automated continuous culture method called the Evolugator™, which takes advantage of a natural selection-adaptation strategy, to select for thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae strain 2575 displaying robust growth at 37°C. Results Over a 4 month time course, 22 cycles of growth and dilution were used to select 2 thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae. Both variants displayed robust growth at 36.5°C, whereas only one was able to grow at 37°C. Insect bioassays using Melanoplus sanguinipes (grasshoppers were also performed to determine if thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae retained entomopathogenicity. Assays confirmed that thermotolerant variants were, indeed, entomopathogenic, albeit with complex alterations in virulence parameters such as lethal dose responses (LD50 and median survival times (ST50. Conclusion We report the experimental evolution of a filamentous fungus via the novel application of a powerful new continuous culture device. This is the first example of using continuous culture to select for complex phenotypes such as thermotolerance. Temperature adapted variants of the insect-pathogenic, filamentous fungus M. anisopliae were isolated and demonstrated to show vigorous growth at a temperature that is inhibitory for the parent strain. Insect virulence assays confirmed that pathogenicity can be retained during the selection process. In principle, this technology can be used to adapt filamentous fungi to virtually any environmental condition including abiotic stress and growth substrate utilization.

  15. Carbohydrate Storage in the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidochka, M J; Low, N H; Khachatourians, G G

    1990-10-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana was grown in 1% (wt/vol) gelatin-liquid media singly supplemented with a monosaccharide (glucose or fructose), a disaccharide (maltose or trehalose), a polyol (glycerol, mannitol, or sorbitol), or the amino sugar N-acetyl-d-glucosamine. The relative contributions of the carbohydrate, protein, and water contents in the fungal biomass were determined. Carbohydrates composed 18 to 42% of the mycelial dry weight, and this value was lowest in unsupplemented medium and highest in medium supplemented with glucose, glycerol, or trehalose. Biomass production was highest in liquid cultures supplemented with trehalose. When liquid cultures were grown in medium supplemented with 0 to 1% (wt/vol) glucose, trehalose, or N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, there was an increase in the biomass production and the contribution of carbohydrate to mycelial dry weight. Regardless of the glucose concentration in the culture, water content of the mycelia remained about 77.5% (wt/wt). Mycelial storage carbohydrates were determined by capillary gas chromatography. In gelatin-liquid medium supplemented with 1% (wt/vol) glucose, B. bassiana stored glycogen (12.0%, wt/dry wt) and the polyols mannitol (2.2%), erythritol (1.6%), glycerol (0.4%), and arabitol (0.1%). Without glucose, B. bassiana stored glycogen (5.4%), mannitol (0.8%), glycerol (0.6%), and erythritol (0.6%) but not arabitol. To our knowledge, this is the first report of carbohydrate storage in an entomopathogenic fungus, and the results are discussed in relation to other fungi and the potential implications to commercial formulation and insect-fungus interactions. PMID:16348325

  16. Elemental variations in the germinating fungus Phytophthora palmivora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzolini, A.P.; Sealock, R.M.; Legge, G.J.F. (Micro Analytical Research Centre, Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville (Australia)); Grant, B.R. (Biochemistry Dept., Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville (Australia))

    1991-03-01

    We have measured the elemental variations between zoospores and germinating cystospores of the fungus Phytophthora palmivora, using a scanning proton microprobe. Averaged over a number of individual cells, our results indicate that the level of Ca is much lower in germinating cystospores than in zoospores. The levels of S, Cl, and Zn also appear to be lower, and the level of K appears to be higher. The spatial distribution of elements within the germinating cystospore is very similar for P, S, Cl, K, Mn, Fe, and Cu, but significantly different for Ca and Zn. (orig.).

  17. Elemental variations in the germinating fungus Phytophthora palmivora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzolini, A. P.; Grant, B. R.; Sealock, R. M.; Legge, G. J. F.

    1991-03-01

    We have measured the elemental variations between zoospores and germinating cystospores of the fungus Phytophthora palmivora, using a scanning proton microprobe. Averaged over a number of individual cells, our results indicate that the level of Ca is much lower in germinating cystospores than in zoospores. The levels of S, Cl, and Zn also appear to be lower, and the level of K appears to be higher. The spatial distribution of elements within the germinating cystospore is very similar for P, S, Cl, K, Mn, Fe, and Cu, but significantly different for Ca and Zn.

  18. Elemental variations in the germinating fungus Phytophthora palmivora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have measured the elemental variations between zoospores and germinating cystospores of the fungus Phytophthora palmivora, using a scanning proton microprobe. Averaged over a number of individual cells, our results indicate that the level of Ca is much lower in germinating cystospores than in zoospores. The levels of S, Cl, and Zn also appear to be lower, and the level of K appears to be higher. The spatial distribution of elements within the germinating cystospore is very similar for P, S, Cl, K, Mn, Fe, and Cu, but significantly different for Ca and Zn. (orig.)

  19. New α-pyrone and phthalide from the Xylariaceae fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jian; Li, Jun; Wu, Zu-Yan; Zhao, Qin; Wang, Gao-Qian; Zhao, Huan; Chen, Guo-Dong; Sun, Xiang; Guo, Liang-Dong; Gao, Hao

    2015-01-01

    A new α-pyrone xylaripyrone A (1) and a new phthalide xylariphthalide A (2) were isolated from the Xylariaceae fungus (no. 63-19-7-3), along with four related known phthalides (3-6): 4-[(acetyloxy)methyl]-7-methoxy-6-methyl-1(3H)-isobenzofuranone (3), convolvulol (4), 7-methoxy-4,6-dimethyl-3H-isobenzofuran-1-one (5), and convolvulanic acid B (6). Their structures were determined on the basis of IR, MS, and NMR spectroscopic analyses. PMID:26123347

  20. Lumazine Peptides from the Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus terreus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjung You

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Terrelumamides A (1 and B (2, two new lumazine-containing peptides, were isolated from the culture broth of the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus terreus. From the results of combined spectroscopic and chemical analyses, the structures of these compounds were determined to be linear assemblies of 1-methyllumazine-6-carboxylic acid, an amino acid residue and anthranilic acid methyl ester connected by peptide bonds. These new compounds exhibited pharmacological activity by improving insulin sensitivity, which was evaluated in an adipogenesis model using human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In addition, the compounds exhibited fluorescence changes upon binding to DNA, demonstrating their potential applications to DNA sequence recognition.

  1. Two new terpenoids from endophytic fungus Periconia sp. F-31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Han-Lin; Zhang, De-Wu; Li, Li; Xie, Dan; Zou, Jian-Hua; Si, Yi-Kang; Dai, Jungui

    2011-01-01

    Two new terpenoids, (+)-(3S,6S,7R,8S)-periconone A (1) and (-)-(1R,4R,6S,7S)-2-caren-4,8-olide (2), have been isolated from an endophytic fungus Periconia sp., which was collected from the plant Annona muricata. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. In the in vitro assays, the two compounds showed low cytotoxic activities against six human tumor cell lines (HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A549, A2780 and MCF-7) with IC(50)>10(-5) M. PMID:22130377

  2. Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of fungus Phomopsis stipata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Andrade de Prince

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose was to determine the anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of the metabolites produced by the endophitic fungus Phomopsis stipata (Lib. B. Sutton, (Diaporthaceae, cultivated in different media. The antimycobacterial activity was assessed through the Resazurin Microtiter Assay (REMA and the cytotoxicity test performed on macrophage cell line. The extracts derived from fungi grown on Corn Medium and Potato Dextrose Broth presented the smallest values of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and low cytotoxicity, which implies a high selectivity index. This is the first report on the chemical composition and antitubercular activity of metabolites of P. stipata, as well as the influence of culture medium on these properties.

  3. Cultivation of tea fungus on malt extract medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Dragoljub D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of application of malt extract as a source of carbohydrate in a medium for tea fungus was investigated. The beverage obtained on such medium was compared with that prepared in a traditional way with sucrose medium. The presence of easily adoptable sugars, glucose and fructose, as dominant in malt medium results in a very effective fermentation, which gives much more sour beverage for the same time and makes it possible to reduce the fermentation period. The obtained beverage has satisfactory sensorial characteristics.

  4. Metabolism of p-Cresol by the Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Kerina H.; Trudgill, Peter W.; Hopper, David J.

    1993-01-01

    The fungus Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 28282 was shown to grow on p-cresol as its sole source of carbon and energy. A pathway for metabolism of this compound was proposed. This has protocatechuate as the ring-fission substrate with cleavage and metabolism by an ortho-fission pathway. The protocatechuate was formed by two alternative routes, either by initial attack on the methyl group, which is oxidized to carboxyl, followed by ring-hydroxylation, or by ring-hydroxylation as the first step wit...

  5. Bioactive compounds from the endophytic fungus Fusarium proliferatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dame, Zerihun T; Silima, Beauty; Gryzenhout, Marieka; van Ree, Teunis

    2016-06-01

    The crude extract of an endophytic fungus isolated from Syzygium cordatum and identified as Fusarium proliferatum showed 100% cytotoxicity against the brine shrimp Artemia salina at 100 μg/mL. Seven coloured, biologically active metabolites - including ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-ol, nectriafurone-8-methyl ether, 9-O-methyl fusarubin, bostrycoidin, bostrycoidin-9-methyl ether and 8-hydroxy-5,6-dimethoxy-2-methyl-3-(2-oxo-propyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone- were isolated from the extract. PMID:26158312

  6. BIODEGRADATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOPORIUM: INVOLVEMENT OF THE LIGNIN DEGRADING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The white-rot fungus Phanrochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade a wide variety of structurally diverse organic compounds, including a number of environmentally persistent organopollutants. The unique biodegradative abilities of this fungus appears to be depend...

  7. BIODEGRADATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHATETE CHRYSOSPORIUM: INVOLVEMENT OF THE LIGNIN DEGRADING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade's wide variety of structurally diverse organic compounds, including a number of environmentall3 persistent organopollutants. he unique biodegradative abilities of this fungus appears to be dependent upon ...

  8. Population evidence of cryptic species and geographical structure in the cosmopolitan ectomycorrhizal fungus, Tricholoma scalpturatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carriconde, Fabian; Gardes, Monique; Jargeat, Patricia; Heilmann-Clausen, Jacob; Mouhamadou, Bello; Gryta, Hervé

    2008-01-01

    Tricholoma scalpturatum is an ectomycorrhizal fungus that forms symbioses with roots of diverse trees and shrubs. It is commonly encountered in a wide range of habitats, across temperate ecosystems. A previous study has revealed a high genetic diversity at a local scale, and ruderal abilities. To...... cosmopolitan wind-dispersed fungus....

  9. Pseudoxylaria as stowaway of the fungus-growing termite nest:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Anna A.; Kooij, Pepijn Wilhelmus; Debets, Alfons J. M.; Kuyper, Thomas W.; Aanen, Duur K.

    2011-01-01

    Though inconspicuous in healthy nests, Pseudoxylaria species are almost always present and overgrow deteriorating fungus-growing termite gardens. Whether these fungi are detrimental to the fungus-garden, benign, or even beneficial is unclear. We hypothesize that Pseudoxylaria is a stowaway that...

  10. First localities in Poland of the recently described fungus Cordyceps bifusispora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bujakiewicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Two localities of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bifusispora, hitherto not reported from Poland, are characterised by their site conditions and co-occurring macrofungi during the period of the appearance of its stromata. Description of this fungus culture is given and some remarks on the resemblance of its teleomorphs and anamorphs from different collections are discussed.

  11. First localities in Poland of the recently described fungus Cordyceps bifusispora

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Bujakiewicz; Joanna Nita; Stanis?aw Ba?azy

    2014-01-01

    Two localities of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bifusispora, hitherto not reported from Poland, are characterised by their site conditions and co-occurring macrofungi during the period of the appearance of its stromata. Description of this fungus culture is given and some remarks on the resemblance of its teleomorphs and anamorphs from different collections are discussed.

  12. A thermostable metal-tolerant laccase with bioremediation potential from a marine-derived fungus

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza-Ticlo, D.; Sharma, D.; Raghukumar, C.

    number MTCC 5159 under the Budapest treaty for patent culture deposition. As telomorphic stage of this fungus was not obtained in culture, it was identified by molecular methods. The fungus was identified using the D1/D2 region of 25-28S rDNA (MIDI...

  13. Cuckoo fungus mimics termite eggs by producing the cellulose-digesting enzyme beta-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Kenji; Yashiro, Toshihisa; Shimizu, Ken; Tatsumi, Shingo; Tamura, Takashi

    2009-01-13

    Insects and fungi share a long history of association in various habitats, including the wood-decomposition niche. Fungal mimicry of termite eggs is one of the most striking evolutionary consequences of insect-fungus association. Termites of the genus Reticulitermes often harbor fungal sclerotia, called "termite balls," along with eggs in nursery chambers, whereby the fungus gains a competitor-free habitat in termite nests. Sophisticated morphological and chemical camouflage are needed for the fungus to mimic termite eggs. However, the mechanism of chemical egg mimicry by the fungus is unknown. Here, we show that the fungus mimics termite eggs chemically by producing the cellulose-digesting enzyme beta-glucosidase. We found that the termite egg-recognition pheromone consists of beta-glucosidase and lysozyme. Both enzymes are major salivary compounds in termites and are also produced in termite eggs. Termite balls were tended by termites only when the fungus produced beta-glucosidase. Our results demonstrated that the overlap of the cellulose digestion niche between termites and the fungus sharing the same chemicals provided the opportunity for the origin of termite egg mimicry by the fungus. This suggests that pheromone compounds might have originally evolved within other life history contexts, only later gaining function in chemical communication. PMID:19110429

  14. First unusual case of keratitis in Europe due to the rare fungus Metarhizium anisopliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorin, Josephine; Debourgogne, Anne; Zaïdi, Mohamed; Bazard, Marie-Christine; Machouart, Marie

    2015-05-01

    Metarhizium anisopliae is a fungus utilized worldwide for insect-pest biocontrol. Few M. anisopliae infections have been reported previously. Here, M. anisopliae was isolated from a corneal ulcer in a healthy man. It is the first ocular case in France and Europe of this extremely rare fungus in humans. PMID:25813244

  15. The carbon starvation response of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellström, Magnus; Shah, Firoz; Johansson, Tomas; Ahrén, Dag; Persson, Per; Tunlid, Anders

    2015-04-01

    The amounts of carbon allocated to the fungal partner in ectomycorrhizal associations can vary substantially depending on the plant growth and the soil nutrient conditions, and the fungus may frequently be confronted with limitations in carbon. We used chemical analysis and transcriptome profiling to examine the physiological response of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus to carbon starvation during axenic cultivation. Carbon starvation induced a decrease in the biomass. Concomitantly, ammonium, cell wall material (chitin) and proteolytic enzymes were released into the medium, which suggest autolysis. Compared with the transcriptome of actively growing hyphae, about 45% of the transcripts analyzed were differentially regulated during C-starvation. Induced during starvation were transcripts encoding extracellular enzymes such as peptidases, chitinases and laccases. In parallel, transcripts of N-transporters were upregulated, which suggest that some of the released nitrogen compounds were re-assimilated by the mycelium. The observed changes suggest that the carbon starvation response in P. involutus is associated with complex cellular changes that involves autolysis, recycling of intracellular compounds by autophagy and reabsorption of the extracellular released material. The study provides molecular markers that can be used to examine the role of autolysis for the turnover and survival of the ectomycorrhizal mycelium in soils. PMID:25778509

  16. Isolation and Identification of Glucoamylase Producer Fungus from Sago Hampas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfi Asben

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste of sago processing, notably hampas (ela still contains sago starch is waste that has not been utilized optimally yet  and causing pollution. Isolation and identification of glucoamylase producer fungus of sago hampas waste  were aims to obtain isolates that have gluco-amylolytic properties, and to know glucoamylase activity of selected fungus isolates after grown on artificial medium.  Indegeneous isolates that can produced glucoamylase will be use to get sugar hidrolysate from starch of sago hampas waste for bioetanol production. The study was conducted with the following stages: 1Take the sample from the tennis, 2 Isolation and Identification, 3 Characterization (clear zone, and 4 The production of glucoamylase from selected isolates, The results obtained are: 1 Isolation of fungi gluco-amylolytic from 2 sources sago hampas were produced 10 isolates. Ten isolates were divided into 4 genuses: Gliocladium (as dominant isolate, Aspergilus, Rizhopus and Geotrichum. Isolates of Gliocladium KE gaves the largest degradation of starch on PDA-Starch medium (clear zone, and followed by isolates of Aspergillus GA; 2 Production of glucoamylase on sago hampas with modificated Danial medium (1992 gave the highest activity of Gliocladium KE   on the fifth day of incubation, namely: 10.72 U / mL of crude enzyme   from the supernatant of fermentation substrate (S, and 17.16 U / mL for crude enzyme from the extract of isopropanol isolation (E.

  17. Cytotoxic acyl amides from the soil fungus Gymnascella dankaliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschmidt, Lena; Aly, Amal H; Abdel-Aziz, Mohammed; Müller, Werner E G; Lin, Wenhan; Daletos, Georgios; Proksch, Peter

    2015-02-15

    The soil fungus Gymnascella dankaliensis was collected in the vicinity of the Giza pyramids, Egypt. When grown on solid rice medium the fungus yielded four new compounds including 11'-carboxygymnastatin N (1), gymnastatin S (2), dankamide (3), and aranorosin-2-methylether (4), the latter having been reported previously only as a semisynthetic compound. In addition, six known metabolites (5-10) were isolated. Addition of NaCl or KBr to the rice medium resulted in the accumulation of chlorinated or brominated compounds as indicated by LC-MS analysis due to the characteristic isotope patterns observed. From the rice medium spiked with 3.5% NaCl the known chlorinated compounds gymnastatin A (11) and gymnastatin B (12) were obtained. All isolated compounds were unambiguously structurally elucidated on the basis of comprehensive spectral analysis (1D and 2D NMR, and mass spectrometry), as well as by comparison with the literature. Compounds 4, 7 and 11 showed potent cytotoxicity against the murine lymphoma cell line L5178Y (IC50 values 0.44, 0.58 and 0.64μM, respectively), whereas 12 exhibited moderate activity with an IC50 value of 5.80μM. PMID:25600409

  18. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND MASS PRODUCTION OF NEMATOPHAGOUS FUNGUS NEMATOCTONUS ROBUSTUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh babu S,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The plant parasitic nematodes infect the root tissues of the plant causing root galls that lead to reduced water and mineral uptake in the plant root system. Nematophagous fungus are used as biocontrol for the nematodes. Among those Nematoctonus are one of the species used as bioagent. Nematoctonus species produces an extensive mycelium and capture many nematodes with hour glass shaped adhesive knobs on the hyphae. Nematodes become attached to these adhesive knobs and the cuticle of nematode is penetrated by the infective hyphae. This isolate of Nematoctonus robustus is characterized by hyaline mycelium, dikaryotic in nature containing genetically two different nuclei in each cell, having distinct clamp connection. The fungus has better colonizing ability on natural solid substrates like wheat straw and rice straw. It also show good ability to colonize on different cereal grains and various other waste products like coconut coir and FYM etc. This species is one of the best used for mass production and effective for control of plant parasitic nematodes.

  19. Exploring the potential for actinobacteria as defensive symbionts in fungus-growing termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Anna A.; Nobre, Tânia; Currie, Cameron R.; Aanen, Duur K.; Poulsen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play...... a role as defensive symbionts against Pseudoxylaria in fungus-growing termites. We sampled for Actinobacteria from 30 fungus-growing termite colonies, spanning the three main termite genera and two geographically distant sites. Our isolations yielded 360 Actinobacteria, from which we selected...... specificity of antibiotics, showed that many Actinobacteria inhibit both Pseudoxylaria and Termitomyces, and that the cultivar fungus generally is more susceptible to inhibition than the competitor. This suggests that either defensive symbionts are not present in the system or that they, if present, represent...

  20. Accumulation and chemical states of radiocesium by fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Yamasaki, Shinya; Yu, Qianqian

    2014-05-01

    After accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the fall-out radiocesium was deposited on the ground. Filamentous fungus is known to accumulate radiocesium in environment, even though many minerals are involved in soil. These facts suggest that fungus affect the migration behavior of radiocesium in the environment. However, accumulation mechanism of radiocesium by fungus is not understood. In the present study, accumulation and chemical states change of Cs by unicellular fungus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been studied to elucidate the role of microorganisms in the migration of radiocesium in the environment. Two different experimental conditions were employed; one is the accumulation experiments of radiocesium by S. cerevisiae from the agar medium containing 137Cs and a mineral of zeolite, vermiculite, smectite, mica, or illite. The other is the experiments using stable cesium to examine the chemical states change of Cs. In the former experiment, the cells were grown on membrane filter of 0.45 μm installed on the agar medium. After the grown cells were weighed, radioactivity in the cells was measured by an autoradiography technique. The mineral weight contents were changed from 0.1% to 1% of the medium. In the latter experiment, the cells were grown in the medium containing stable Cs between 1 mM and 10mM. The Cs accumulated cells were analyzed by SEM-EDS and EXAFS. The adsorption experiments of cesium by the cells under resting condition were also conducted to test the effect of cells metabolic activity. Without mineral in the medium, cells of S. cerevisiae accumulated 1.5x103 Bq/g from the medium containing 137Cs of 2.6x102 Bq/g. When mineral was added in the medium, concentration of 137Cs in the cells decreased. The concentration of 137Cs in the cells from the medium containing different minerals were in the following order; smectite, illite, mica > vermiculite > zeolite. This order was nearly the same as the inverse of distribution coefficient of mineral for 137Cs in the medium solution. The concentration of 137Cs in the cells lowered in the medium containing higher mineral content. These results indicate that radiocesium was competively accumulated in the cells with minerals in the soil. Higher concentration of stable Cs was accumulated in the cells in the metabolically active condition than in the resting cells condition. XAFS analyses showed that the k3-weighted extended-XAFS functions and the radial structural function of Cs accumulated by the cells in the metabolically active condition were similar to those in the resting condition, indicating that chemical states of the accumulated Cs were nearly the same between both conditions. These results indicate that the fungus accumulates radiocesium by competitively with minerals in the soils, and performs higher retardation of the migration of Cs in the metabolically active condition than the resting one. A part of this study is the results of "Multidisciplinary investigation on radiocesium fate and transport for safety assessment for interim storage and disposal of heterogeneous waste" carried out under the Initiatives for Atomic Energy Basic and Generic Strategic Research by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.

  1. Evidence refuting the contribution of the fungus Aspergillus penicillioides to the allergenicity of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, D B; Hart, B J; Douglas, A E

    1992-01-01

    This communication demonstrates unequivocally that the fungi associated with house dust mites do not contribute to mite allergenicity. The evidence is twofold: first, larval mites which lack fungi have allergen profiles indistinguishable from fungus-bearing adult mites. Second, the allergen profile of experimentally-derived fungus-free adult mites and mites re-fed the fungus Aspergillus penicillioides are identical. PMID:1582703

  2. Utilization of inoculum produced on-farm for production of AM fungus colonized pepper and tomato seedlings under conventional management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal [AM] fungus inoculum may be used to produce colonized vegetable seedlings for outplanting. Success depends, in part, upon a nutrient regime in the greenhouse that is conducive to AM fungus hyphal growth and signaling/recognition events between host and fungus. Experiments we...

  3. Protein profiling of the dimorphic, pathogenic fungus, Penicillium marneffei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rundle William T

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Penicillium marneffei is a pathogenic fungus that afflicts immunocompromised individuals having lived or traveled in Southeast Asia. This species is unique in that it is the only dimorphic member of the genus. Dimorphism results from a process, termed phase transition, which is regulated by temperature of incubation. At room temperature, the fungus grows filamentously (mould phase, but at body temperature (37°C, a uninucleate yeast form develops that reproduces by fission. Formation of the yeast phase appears to be a requisite for pathogenicity. To date, no genes have been identified in P. marneffei that strictly induce mould-to-yeast phase conversion. In an effort to help identify potential gene products associated with morphogenesis, protein profiles were generated from the yeast and mould phases of P. marneffei. Results Whole cell proteins from the early stages of mould and yeast development in P. marneffei were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Selected proteins were recovered and sequenced by capillary-liquid chromatography-nanospray tandem mass spectrometry. Putative identifications were derived by searching available databases for homologous fungal sequences. Proteins found common to both mould and yeast phases included the signal transduction proteins cyclophilin and a RACK1-like ortholog, as well as those related to general metabolism, energy production, and protection from oxygen radicals. Many of the mould-specific proteins identified possessed similar functions. By comparison, proteins exhibiting increased expression during development of the parasitic yeast phase comprised those involved in heat-shock responses, general metabolism, and cell-wall biosynthesis, as well as a small GTPase that regulates nuclear membrane transport and mitotic processes in fungi. The cognate gene encoding the latter protein, designated RanA, was subsequently cloned and characterized. The P. marneffei RanA protein sequence, which contained the signature motif of Ran-GTPases, exhibited 90% homology to homologous Aspergillus proteins. Conclusion This study clearly demonstrates the utility of proteomic approaches to studying dimorphism in P. marneffei. Moreover, this strategy complements and extends current genetic methodologies directed towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of phase transition. Finally, the documented increased levels of RanA expression suggest that cellular development in this fungus involves additional signaling mechanisms than have been previously described in P. marneffei.

  4. Efficacy of Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria Bassiana and Gamma Irradiation Against the Greater Date Moth, Arenipses Sabella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) was isolated locally from dead larvae of the greater date moth, Arenipses sabella (Hampson) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The effect of three exposure methods and two environmental factors (temperature and relative humidity) on pathogenicity of the fungus with different concentrations to A. sabella second instar larvae were examined. The study demonstrated that the entomopathogenic fungus was most efficient in the control of second instar larvae at 25 degree C and 100% humidity and the percent of mortality was increased when increasing the concentration of fungus. The mode of exposure of fungus to larvae directly sprayed, larvae exposed to the treated dates or larvae both sprayed and exposed to the treated dates showed 56.66, 26.66 and 75% mortality, respectively, at concentration 1x1010 spores/ml and three days post-treatment. The F1 larvae resulting from irradiated male pupae with 150 Gy were more susceptible to pathogenic fungus at low concentration ((1x108 spores/ml) than non-irradiated ones. The scanning electron microscope was used to delineate the morphological stages of fungus to the germinated conidia and the hyphae penetrating the larva cuticle.

  5. Asteltoxins from the Entomopathogenic Fungus Pochonia bulbillosa 8-H-28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Hayamitsu; Doi, Hiroyasu; Kasahara, Yuichi; Sawa, Ryuichi; Nakajima, Kaori; Kubota, Yumiko; Hosokawa, Nobuo; Tateishi, Ken; Nomoto, Akio

    2015-07-24

    New asteltoxins C (3) and D (4) were found in the extract of the entomopathogenic fungus Pochonia bulbillosa 8-H-28. Compound 2, which was spectroscopically identical with the known asteltoxin B, was isolated, and structural analysis led to a revision of the structure of asteltoxin B. Compounds 2 and 4 have a novel tricyclic ring system connected to a dienyl α-pyrone structure. Compound 3 has a 2,8-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane ring similar to that of asteltoxin (1). Compound 3 showed potent antiproliferative activity against NIAS-SL64 cells derived from the fat body of Spodoptera litura larvae, while 2 and 4 were inactive. PMID:26120875

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of the nematophagous fungus Acremonium implicatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yurong; Lin, Runmao; Tian, Xueliang; Shen, Baoming; Mao, Zhenchuan; Xie, Bingyan

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the nematophagous fungus Acremonium implicatum is reported for the first time. The genome is concatenated with 22,367 bp in length, encoding 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and a set of 17 transfer RNA genes. The synteny analysis reveals that 50.35% of A. implicatum mitochondrial sequences matched to 48.21% of Acremonium chrysogenum mitochondrial sequences with 85.68% identity. Two proteins of cox3 and nad6, as well as seven tRNAs are lost in A. implicatum mitogenome compared to A. chrysogenum mitogenome. The gene orders in A. implicatum and A. chrysogenum mitogenome is different, which is mainly due to the location of nad4 and cox2. In addition, one transposition event related to tRNAs is identified in these two mitogenomes. This study may provide valuable mitochondrial information for research on A. implicatum and facilitate the study of mitochondrial evolution. PMID:25630733

  7. Vincamine-producing endophytic fungus isolated from Vinca minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hong; Sun, Yu-Hong

    2011-06-15

    Vinca minor is a plant containing the alkaloid vincamine, which is used in the pharmaceutical industry as a cerebral stimulant and vasodilator. The objective of this study was to determine whether endophytic fungi isolated from V. minor produce vincamine. Primary screening was carried out using Dragendorff's and Mayer's reactions, and strain re-selection was made by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to identify the fermentation products of the selected strain. We isolated 10 endophytic fungal strains from V. minor. An extract from one (Vm-J2), showed positive reactions with both Dragendorff's and Mayer's reagents. The strain had a component with the same TLC R(f) value and HPLC retention time as authentic vincamine. Therefore, the fungus appeared to produce the same bioactive ingredient, vincamine, as the host plant. The prospect of using endophytic fungi to produce the phytoactive compound by fungal fermentation is discussed. PMID:21315568

  8. A New α -Pyrone Derivative from Endophytic Fungus Pestalotiopsis microspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaocong Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new α-pyrone derivative1, along with four known congeners 2, 3, 4 and 5, were isolated from the solid-substrate fermentation medium of the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis microspore isolated from the branch of Taxus chinensis. Their structures and relative configurations were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. The cytotoxic activities of the isolated α-pyrone derivatives against two tumor cell lines as well as compound 1 ’ s antimicrobial activity against three bacteria and three plant-pathogenic strains were evaluated. No antimicrobial activity was observed for compound 1. The cytotoxicity against Caski and He L a tumor cell lines w as insignificant. To our surprise, the known compound 4 showed significant gibberellin synergistic activity towards Distylium chinense seeds.

  9. Enzymes and bioproducts produced by the ascomycete fungus Paecilomyces variotii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Bravo de Laguna, I; Toledo Marante, F J; Mioso, R

    2015-12-01

    Due its innate ability to produce extracellular enzymes which can provide eco-friendly solutions for a variety of biotechnological applications, Paecilomyces variotii is a potential source of industrial bioproducts. In this review, we report biotechnological records on the biochemistry of different enzymes produced by the fermentation of the P. variotii fungus, including tannases, phytases, cellulases, xylanases, chitinases, amylases and pectinases. Additionally, the main physicochemical properties which can affect the enzymatic reactions of the enzymes involved in the conversion of a huge number of substrates to high-value bioproducts are described. Despite all the background information compiled in this review, more research is required to consolidate the catalytic efficiency of P. variotii, which must be optimized so that it is more accurate and reproducible on a large scale. PMID:26274842

  10. Statistical Optimization of Keratinase Production from Marine Fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Satya lakshmi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To improve the yield of keratinase from marine fungus Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, different medium constituents were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM based on central composite design (CCD. The strain produced 24.8U/mL and 36.4U/mL of keratinase activity in conventional method of optimization with glucose and soya bean meal as carbon and nitrogen sources. Response surface methodology which was applied to optimize concentrations of glucose, soya bean meal, feather powder and inoculum level, improved the productivity to 225.0U/mL. This value represents 6.18 fold increases in productivity as compared to conventional methods. Optimal parameters of the cultivation process were determined as glucose 1.52g/L, soya bean meal-1.08g/L, feather powder-1.04g/L and inoculum level-10.6%.

  11. Polyketides from the Halotolerant Fungus Myrothecium sp. GS-17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new polyketides, myrothecol (1 and 5-hydroxy-3-methyl-4-(1- hydroxylethyl-furan-2(5H-one (2, were isolated from the fermentation broth of the halotolerant fungus Myrothecium sp. GS-17 along with three known compounds, 5-hydroxyl-3-[(1S-1-hydroxyethyl]-4-methylfuran-2(5H-one (3, 3,5-dimethyl-4- hydroxylmethyl-5-methoxyfuran-2(5H-one (4, and 3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxymethyl-5- hydroxyfuran-2(5H-one (5. Compound 1 is the first natural occurring polyketide with a unique furylisobenzofuran skeleton. The structures of these compounds were established via extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D-, 2D-NMR, HRESI-MS, and crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.

  12. Two new triterpenoids from fruiting bodies of fungus Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhen-Zhu; Yin, Rong-Hua; Chen, He-Ping; Feng, Tao; Li, Zheng-Hui; Dong, Ze-Jun; Cui, Bao-Kai; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2015-01-01

    Two new triterpenoids, (24E)-9α,11α-epoxy-3β-hydroxylanosta-7,24-dien-26-al (1) and (22Z,24Z)-13-hydroxy-3-oxo-14(13 → 12)abeo-lanosta-8,22,24-trien-26,23-olide (2) were isolated from dried fruiting bodies of fungus Ganoderma lucidum. The structures of these two new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. Compound 1 possessed a lanostane skeleton, while compound 2 was based on a rare 14 (13 → 12)abeo-lanostane skeleton with a 26,23-olide moiety. Both of them were evaluated for their antifungal and cytotoxic activities. Neither of them displayed obvious inhibition on Candida albicans and five human cancer cell lines. PMID:25631072

  13. Identification of Oxaphenalenone Ketals from the Ascomycete Fungus Neonectria sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jinwei; Niu, Shubing; Li, Li; Geng, Zhufeng; Liu, Xingzhong; Che, Yongsheng

    2015-06-26

    Neonectrolides B-E (4-7), four new oxaphenalenone ketals incorporating the new furo[2,3-b]isochromeno[3,4,5-def]chromen-11(6aH)-one skeleton, were isolated from the fermentation extract of the ascomycete fungus Neonectria sp. in an in-depth investigation guided by HPLC fingerprint and a cytotoxicity assay. The previously identified oxaphenalenone spiroketal neonectrolide A (1) and its putative biosynthetic precursors (2 and 3) were also reisolated in the current work. The structures of 4-7 were primarily elucidated by interpretation of NMR spectroscopic data, and the absolute configurations were deduced by electronic circular dichroism calculations. Compound 6 showed cytotoxic effects against four of the six human tumor cell lines tested. Biosynthetically, compounds 4-7 could be derived via the Diels-Alder reaction cascades starting from derivatives of the co-isolated metabolites 2 and 3. PMID:25978132

  14. Thermomyces lanuginosus is the dominant fungus in maize straw composts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Ma, Haixia; Zhang, Huaiqiang; Xun, Luying; Chen, Guanjun; Wang, Lushan

    2015-12-01

    The microbial community composition and function of three self-heating maize straw composts were compared by integrated meta-omics. The results revealed that the fungal communities were primarily dominated by the phylum Ascomycota (>90%) regardless of different nitrogen sources, which were exclusively composed of the Thermomyces, a genus of hemicellulose degraders. The bacterial community composition was affected by the addition of nitrogen sources, as the abundance of the Actinobacteria increased, while the Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes decreased. Various hemicellulases and cellulases were detected in the composts, and the major xylanase secreted by Thermomyces lanuginosus was always present, revealing that it was the dominant fungus in hemicellulose hydrolysis and that bacteria and fungi might synergistically degrade lignocellulose. Thus, microbial communities in composts may develop a simple and stable structure of a dominant fungal species and limited numbers of bacterial species under the selective pressure of high temperature and maize straw as starting materials. PMID:26342338

  15. A new sesquiterpene from the entomogenous fungus Phomopsis amygdali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoli; Wang, Wenshu; Li, Erwei; Gao, Fenghua; Guo, Liangdong; Pei, Yunfei

    2016-02-01

    A new sesquiterpene, (+)-S-1-methyl-abscisic-6-acid (1), together with five known compounds, (+)-S-abscisic acid (2), fusicoccin J (3), 3?-hydroxyfusicoccin J (4), (R)-5-hydroxymethylmellein (5) and 4-hydroxyphenethyl acetate (6) was isolated from the fermentation extract of Phomopsis amygdali, an entomogenous fungus isolated from Call midge. Their structures were determined mainly by analysis of MS and NMR spectroscopic data. Compounds 1-6 were tested for antimicrobial activity against three plant pathogenic fungi: Gibberella zeae, Verticillium albo-atrum, and Fusarium nivale, and two bacteria: Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 2033E. As a result, compounds 1-4 displayed antibacterial activity against Gram-negative P. aeruginosa 2033E, and the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC value) of 1-4 is 30 ?g/mL, 58 ?g/mL, 26 ?g/mL, and 26 ?g/mL, respectively. PMID:26181224

  16. Radiologic characteristics of sinonasal fungus ball: an analysis of 119 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. It is important to differentiate sinonasal fungus ball from non-fungal sinusitis and other forms of fungal sinusitis in order to determine the optimal treatment. In particular, a sinonasal fungus ball, a non-invasive fungal sinusitis, can be characterized by radiologic findings before surgery. Purpose. To differentiate a sinonasal fungus ball from other types of sinusitis and determine optimal treatment on the basis of radiologic findings before surgery. Material and Methods. We studied 119 patients with clinically and pathologically proven sinonasal fungus balls. Their condition was evaluated radiologically with contrast-enhanced CT (99 patients), non-contrast CT (18 patients) and/or MRI (17 patients) prior to sinonasal surgery. Results. Calcifications were found in 78 of 116 (67.2%) patients who underwent CT scans for fungus ball. As opposed to non-contrast CT scans, contrast CT scans revealed hyper attenuating fungal ball in 82.8% and enhanced inflamed mucosa in 65.5% of the patients, respectively. On MRI, most sinonasal fungal balls showed iso- or hypointensity on T1-weighted images and marked hypointensity on T2-weighted images. Inflamed mucosal membranes were noted and appeared as hypointense on T1-weighted images (64.7%) and hyperintense on T2-weighted images (88.2%). Conclusion. When there are no calcifications visible on the CT scan, a hyper attenuating fungal ball located in the central area of the sinus with mucosal thickening on enhanced CT scans is an important feature of a non-invasive sinonasal fungus ball. On MRI, a sinonasal fungus ball has typical features of a marked hypointense fungus ball with a hyperintense mucosal membrane in T2-weighted images. A contrast-enhanced CT scan or MRI provides sufficient information for the preoperative differentiation of a sinonasal fungus ball from other forms of sinusitis

  17. Radiologic characteristics of sinonasal fungus ball: an analysis of 119 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Young-Joon; Kim, Kyubo (Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Kim, Jinna (Dept. of Radiology, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Lee, Jeung-Gweon; Kim, Chang-Hoon (Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); The Airway Mucus Institute, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)), email: entman@yuhs.ac; Yoon, Joo-Heon (Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); The Airway Mucus Institute, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Research Center for Human Natural Defense System, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); BK21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of))

    2011-09-15

    Background. It is important to differentiate sinonasal fungus ball from non-fungal sinusitis and other forms of fungal sinusitis in order to determine the optimal treatment. In particular, a sinonasal fungus ball, a non-invasive fungal sinusitis, can be characterized by radiologic findings before surgery. Purpose. To differentiate a sinonasal fungus ball from other types of sinusitis and determine optimal treatment on the basis of radiologic findings before surgery. Material and Methods. We studied 119 patients with clinically and pathologically proven sinonasal fungus balls. Their condition was evaluated radiologically with contrast-enhanced CT (99 patients), non-contrast CT (18 patients) and/or MRI (17 patients) prior to sinonasal surgery. Results. Calcifications were found in 78 of 116 (67.2%) patients who underwent CT scans for fungus ball. As opposed to non-contrast CT scans, contrast CT scans revealed hyper attenuating fungal ball in 82.8% and enhanced inflamed mucosa in 65.5% of the patients, respectively. On MRI, most sinonasal fungal balls showed iso- or hypointensity on T1-weighted images and marked hypointensity on T2-weighted images. Inflamed mucosal membranes were noted and appeared as hypointense on T1-weighted images (64.7%) and hyperintense on T2-weighted images (88.2%). Conclusion. When there are no calcifications visible on the CT scan, a hyper attenuating fungal ball located in the central area of the sinus with mucosal thickening on enhanced CT scans is an important feature of a non-invasive sinonasal fungus ball. On MRI, a sinonasal fungus ball has typical features of a marked hypointense fungus ball with a hyperintense mucosal membrane in T2-weighted images. A contrast-enhanced CT scan or MRI provides sufficient information for the preoperative differentiation of a sinonasal fungus ball from other forms of sinusitis

  18. Disposable diapers biodegradation by the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Valdemar, Rosa María; Turpin-Marion, Sylvie; Delfín-Alcalá, Irma; Vázquez-Morillas, Alethia

    2011-08-01

    This research assesses the feasibility of degrading used disposable diapers, an important component (5-15% in weight) of urban solid waste in Mexico, by the activity of the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus, also known as oyster mushroom. Disposable diapers contain polyethylene, polypropylene and a super absorbent polymer. Nevertheless, its main component is cellulose, which degrades slowly. P. ostreatus has been utilized extensively to degrade cellulosic materials of agroindustrial sources, using in situ techniques. The practice has been extended to the commercial farming of the mushroom. This degradation capacity was assayed to reduce mass and volume of used disposable diapers. Pilot laboratory assays were performed to estimate the usefulness of the following variables on conditioning of used diapers before they act as substrate for P. ostreatus: (1) permanence vs removal of plastic cover; (2) shredding vs grinding; (3) addition of grape wastes to improve structure, nitrogen and trace elements content. Wheat straw was used as a positive control. After 68 days, decrease of the mass of diapers and productivity of fungus was measured. Weight and volume of degradable materials was reduced up to 90%. Cellulose content was diminished in 50% and lignine content in 47%. The highest efficiency for degradation of cellulosic materials corresponded to the substrates that showed highest biological efficiency, which varied from 0% to 34%. Harvested mushrooms had good appearance and protein content and were free of human disease pathogens. This research indicates that growing P. ostreatus on disposable diapers could be a good alternative for two current problems: reduction of urban solid waste and availability of high protein food sources. PMID:21474296

  19. An extracellular glucoamylase produced by endophytic fungus EF6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangngamsakul, P; Karnchanatat, A; Sihanonth, P; Sangvanich, P

    2011-01-01

    A strain of endophytic fungus EF6 isolated from Thai medicinal plants was found to produce higher levels of extracellular glucoamylase. This strain produced glucoamylase of culture filtrate when grown on 1% soluble starch. The enzyme was purified and characterized. Purification steps involved (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, anion exchange, and gel filtration chromatography. Final purification fold was 14.49 and the yield obtained was 9.15%. The enzyme is monomeric with a molecular mass of 62.2 kDa as estimated by SDS-PAGE, and with a molecular mass of 62.031 kDa estimated by MALDI-TOF spectrometry. The temperature for maximum activity was 60 degrees C. After 30 min for incubation, glucoamylase was found to be stable lower than 50 degrees C. The activity decrease rapidly when residual activity was retained about 45% at 55 degrees C. The pH optimum of the enzyme activity was 6.0, and it was stable over a pH range of 4.0-7.0 at 50 degrees C. The activity of glucoamylase was stimulated by Ca2+, Co2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, glycerol, DMSO, DTT and EDTA, and strongly inhibited by Hg2+. Various types of starch were test, soluble starch proved to be the best substrate for digestion process. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of soluble starch and maltose as the substrate, the enzyme had Km values of 2.63, and 1.88 mg/ml and Vmax, values of 1.25, and 2.54 U/min/mg protein, and Vmax/Km values of 0.48 and 1.35, respectively. The internal amino acid sequences of endophytic fungus EF6 glucoamylase; RALAN HKQVV DSFRS have similarity to the sequence of the glucoamylase purified form Thermomyces lanuginosus. From all results indicated that this enzyme is a glucoamylase (1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucanohydrolase). PMID:21950121

  20. Chemically armed mercenary ants protect fungus-farming societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rachelle M M; Liberti, Joanito; Illum, Anders A; Jones, Tappey H; Nash, David R; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2013-09-24

    The ants are extraordinary in having evolved many lineages that exploit closely related ant societies as social parasites, but social parasitism by distantly related ants is rare. Here we document the interaction dynamics among a Sericomyrmex fungus-growing ant host, a permanently associated parasitic guest ant of the genus Megalomyrmex, and a raiding agro-predator of the genus Gnamptogenys. We show experimentally that the guest ants protect their host colonies against agro-predator raids using alkaloid venom that is much more potent than the biting defenses of the host ants. Relatively few guest ants are sufficient to kill raiders that invariably exterminate host nests without a cohabiting guest ant colony. We also show that the odor of guest ants discourages raider scouts from recruiting nestmates to host colonies. Our results imply that Sericomyrmex fungus-growers obtain a net benefit from their costly guest ants behaving as a functional soldier caste to meet lethal threats from agro-predator raiders. The fundamentally different life histories of the agro-predators and guest ants appear to facilitate their coexistence in a negative frequency-dependent manner. Because a guest ant colony is committed for life to a single host colony, the guests would harm their own interests by not defending the host that they continue to exploit. This conditional mutualism is analogous to chronic sickle cell anemia enhancing the resistance to malaria and to episodes in human history when mercenary city defenders offered either net benefits or imposed net costs, depending on the level of threat from invading armies. PMID:24019482

  1. Unraveling the Secondary Metabolism of the Biotechnological Important Filamentous Fungus Trichoderma reesei ( Teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mikael Skaanning

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina) is one of the most important industrial production organisms, owing to its highly efficient (hemi-)cellulase synthesis and secretion machineries. These enzymes, which in nature allow the fungus to utilize energy bound in...... fungi, also T. reesei synthesizes a range of small bioactive metabolites which are not required for growth, but can broaden the ecological niche of the fungus. Since these bioactive metabolites are not involved in the primary metabolism, they are often referred to as secondary metabolites. These...

  2. Biological Control of Yellow Nutsedge with the Indigenous Rust Fungus Puccinia canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatak, S C; Sumner, D R; Wells, H D; Bell, D K; Glaze, N C

    1983-03-25

    Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.) is a serious weed problem in the United States and other countries. An indigenous rust fungus [Puccinia canaliculata (Schw.) Lagerh.], pathogenic on yellow nutsedge, was released in early spring as a potential biological control agent. The fungus inhibited nutsedge flowering and new tuber formation. The fungus also dehydrated and killed nutsedge plants. The successful control of yellow nutsedge by a rust epiphytotic under experimental conditions demonstrates the potential use of the rust in an integrated weed management system. PMID:17735196

  3. A Collagenolytic Fungus, Cunninghamella elegans, for Biological Control of Plant-parasitic Nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Galper, S.; Cohn, E; Spiegel, Y.; Chet, I

    1991-01-01

    The root-galling index of tomatoes inoculated with Meloidogyne javanica was decreased 70% when collagen was used as a soil amendment (0.1% w/w) and 90% when the amendment was supplemented with the collagenolytic fungus Cunninghamella elegans. The root-galling index was reduced 80% when the fungus was homogenized in collagen culture medium and added to soil without collagen supplement. Culture filtrates of the fungus C. elegans, grown on collagen as a single source of carbon and nitrogen, immo...

  4. Biodegradation of hazardous waste using white rot fungus: Project planning and concept development document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luey, J.; Brouns, T.M.; Elliott, M.L.

    1990-11-01

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been shown to effectively degrade pollutants such as trichlorophenol, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and other halogenated aromatic compounds. These refractory organic compounds and many others have been identified in the tank waste, groundwater and soil of various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The treatment of these refractory organic compounds has been identified as a high priority for DOE's Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT E) waste treatment programs. Unlike many bacteria, the white rot fungus P. chrysosporium is capable of degrading these types of refractory organics and may be valuable for the treatment of wastes containing multiple pollutants. The objectives of this project are to identify DOE waste problems amenable to white rot fungus treatment and to develop and demonstrate white rot fungus treatment process for these hazardous organic compounds. 32 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Modelling the Hyphal Growth of the Wood-decay Fungus Physisporinus vitreus

    CERN Document Server

    Fuhr, M J; Schwarze, F W M R; Herrmann, H J

    2011-01-01

    The white-rot fungus, Physisporinus vitreus, degrades the membranes of bordered pits in tracheids and consequently increases the permeability of wood, which is a process that can be used by the wood industry to improve the uptake of wood preservatives and environmentally benign wood modification substances to enhance the use and sustainability of native conifer wood species. To understand and apply this process requires an understanding of how a complex system (fungus-wood) interacts under defined conditions. We present a three-dimensional fungal growth model (FGM) of the hyphal growth of P. vitreus in the heartwood of Norway spruce. The model considers hyphae and nutrients as discrete structures and links the microscopic interactions between fungus and wood (e.g. degradation rate and degree of opening of pits) with macroscopic system properties, such penetration depth of the fungus, biomass and distribution of destroyed pits in early- and latewood. Simulations were compared with experimental data. The growth...

  6. Convergent coevolution in the domestication of coral mushrooms by fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkacsi, A B; Nees, Jan Pan; Villesen, Palle; Mueller, U G; Blackwell, M; McLaughlin, D J

    2004-01-01

    Comparisons of phylogenetic patterns between coevolving symbionts can reveal rich details about the evolutionary history of symbioses. The ancient symbiosis between fungus-growing ants, their fungal cultivars, antibiotic-producing bacteria and cultivar-infecting parasites is dominated by a pattern...... of parallel coevolution, where the symbionts of each functional group are members of monophyletic groups. However, there is one outstanding exception in the fungus-growing ant system, the unidentified cultivar grown only by ants in the Apterostigma pilosum group. We classify this cultivar in the...... mushrooms cultivated by all other fungus-growing ants. Yet it has the same overall assemblage of coevolved ant-cultivar-parasite-bacterium interactions as the other ant-grown fungal cultivars. This indicates a pattern of convergent coevolution in the fungus-growing ant system, where symbionts with both...

  7. Biodegradation of hazardous waste using white rot fungus: Project planning and concept development document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been shown to effectively degrade pollutants such as trichlorophenol, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and other halogenated aromatic compounds. These refractory organic compounds and many others have been identified in the tank waste, groundwater and soil of various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The treatment of these refractory organic compounds has been identified as a high priority for DOE's Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) waste treatment programs. Unlike many bacteria, the white rot fungus P. chrysosporium is capable of degrading these types of refractory organics and may be valuable for the treatment of wastes containing multiple pollutants. The objectives of this project are to identify DOE waste problems amenable to white rot fungus treatment and to develop and demonstrate white rot fungus treatment process for these hazardous organic compounds. 32 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  8. Reduced biological control and enhanced chemical pest management in the evolution of fungus farming in ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Zimmerman, Jess K; Nash, David R; Boomsma, Jacobus J; Wcislo, William T

    2009-01-01

    To combat disease, most fungus-growing ants (Attini) use antibiotics from mutualistic bacteria (Pseudonocardia) that are cultured on the ants' exoskeletons and chemical cocktails from exocrine glands, especially the metapleural glands (MG). Previous work has hypothesized that (i) Pseudonocardia...

  9. Investigating the biology of plant infection by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Urdiroz, Magdalena; Oses-Ruiz, Miriam; Ryder, Lauren S; Talbot, Nicholas J

    2016-05-01

    The rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, is responsible for the most serious disease of rice and is a continuing threat to ensuring global food security. The fungus has also, however, emerged as a model experimental organism for understanding plant infection processes by pathogenic fungi. This is largely due to its amenability to both classical and molecular genetics, coupled with the efforts of a very large international research community. This review, which is based on a plenary presentation at the 28th Fungal Genetics Conference in Asilomar, California in March 2015, describes recent progress in understanding how M. oryzae uses specialised cell called appressoria to bring about plant infection and the underlying biology of this developmental process. We also review how the fungus is then able to proliferate within rice tissue, deploying effector proteins to facilitate its spread by suppressing plant immunity and promoting growth and development of the fungus. PMID:26703899

  10. Levels of specificity of Xylaria species associated with fungus-growing termites: a phylogenetic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Andre; Ros, V I D; De Beer, Z. W.; Debets, A J M; Hartog, E; Kuyper, T W; Laessøe, T; Slippers, B; Aanen, D K

    2009-01-01

    ) termite genera, (3) termite species, and (4) colonies. In South Africa, 108 colonies of eight termite species from three termite genera were sampled for Xylaria. Xylaria was isolated from 69% of the sampled nests and from 57% of the incubated fungus comb samples, confirming high prevalence. Phylogenetic......Fungus-growing termites live in obligate mutualistic symbiosis with species of the basidiomycete genus Termitomyces, which are cultivated on a substrate of dead plant material. When the termite colony dies, or when nest material is incubated without termites in the laboratory, fruiting bodies of...... the ascomycete genus Xylaria appear and rapidly cover the fungus garden. This raises the question whether certain Xylaria species are specialised in occupying termite nests or whether they are just occasional visitors. We tested Xylaria specificity at four levels: (1) fungus-growing termites, (2...

  11. Fungal metabolites: Tetrahydroauroglaucin and isodihydroauroglaucin from the marine fungus,iEurotium sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gawas, D.; PrabhaDevi; Tilvi, S.; Naik, C.G.; Parameswaran, P.S.

    Two poly substituted aromatic compounds: tetrahydroauroglaucin 1 and isodihydroauroglaucin 2 were identified from a marine fungus, Eurotium sp. isolated from leaves of the mangrove, Porteresia coarctata (Roxb). These compounds were reported earlier...

  12. Study of cobalt distribution in fungus Trichoderma viride using 60Co as radioindicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake and distribution of cobalt by filamentous fungus Trichoderma viride has been studied. By means of 60Co the cobalt concentrations in conidia and mycelium were determined. (author) 5 refs.; 1 fig

  13. Biosorption of copper(II and chromium(VI by modified tea fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šćiban Marina B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The tea fungus was found to have good adsorption capacities for heavy metal ions. In this work it was treated with HCl or NaOH at 20°C or 100°C, with the aim to improve its adsorption ability. The sorption of Cu(II and Cr(VI ions from aqueous solutions by raw and treated tea fungus was investigated in the batch mode. The largest quantity of adsorbed Cu(II, of about 55 mg/g, was achieved by tea fungus modified with NaOH at 100°C. For Cr(VI, the largest quantity of adsorbed anions, of about 58 mg/g, was achieved by the adsorbent modified with NaOH at 20°C. It was shown that acid modification of tea fungus biomass was not effective. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43005 i br. TR 31002

  14. Extra- and Intracellular Laccases of the Chestnut Blight Fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica

    OpenAIRE

    Rigling, Daniel; Van Alfen, Neal K.

    1993-01-01

    A double-stranded RNA virus of the chestnut blight pathogen, Cryphonectria parasitica, has been shown previously to reduce accumulation of mRNAs of extracellular laccase (laccase A) produced by this fungus. Both extra- and intracellular laccases have been detected after growth of the fungus in liquid culture. In addition to cellular localization, the two laccases are distinguishable by time of appearance during growth and electrophoretic mobility. Laccase A was purified from the culture filtr...

  15. Tea fungus fermentation on a substrate with iron(ii)-ions

    OpenAIRE

    Malbaša Radomir V.; Lončar Eva S.; Kolarov Ljiljana A.

    2002-01-01

    Iron is essential element for human metabolism and it is a constituent of both heme- containing and nonheme proteins. Its deficiency can cause serious diseases, i.e. iron-deficiency anemia, with some fatal consequences. Tea fungus beverage has high nutritional value and some pharmaceutical effects. It is widely consumed allover the world and its benefits were proved a number of times. The aim of this paper was to investigate tea fungus fermentation on a substrate containing iron(II)-ions and ...

  16. The hidden habit of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana: First demonstration of vertical plant transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Quesada-Moraga, E.; López-Díaz, C.; Landa, Blanca B.

    2014-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip, obtained from a larva of the opium poppy stem gall wasp Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae), endophytically colonizes opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants and protects them against this pest. The goal of this study was to monitor the dynamics of endophytic colonization of opium poppy by B. bassiana after the fungus was applied to the seed and to ascertain whether the fungus is transmitted vertically via seeds. Using a species-specific nested PC...

  17. Treatment of a Textile Effluent from Dyeing with Cochineal Extracts Using Trametes versicolor Fungus

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Arroyo-Figueroa; Ruiz-Aguilar, Graciela M. L.; Leticia López-Martínez; Guillermo González-Sánchez; Germán Cuevas-Rodríguez; Refugio Rodríguez-Vázquez

    2011-01-01

    Trametes versicolor (Tv) fungus can degrade synthetic dyes that contain azo groups, anthraquinone, triphenylmethane polymers, and heterocyclic groups. However, no references have been found related to the degradation of natural dyes, such as the carminic acid that is contained in the cochineal extract. Experiments to determine the decolorization of the effluent used in the cotton dyeing process with cochineal extract by means of Tv fungus were done. Treatments to determine decolorization in t...

  18. Comparison of gene expression in trap cells and vegetative hyphae of the nematophagous fungus Monacrosporium haptotylum

    OpenAIRE

    Ahrén, Dag; Tholander, Margareta; Fekete, Csaba; Rajashekar, Balaji; Friman, Eva; Johansson, Tomas; Tunlid, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Nematode-trapping fungi enter the parasitic stage by developing specific morphological structures called traps. The global patterns of gene expression in traps and mycelium of the fungus Monacrosporium haptotylum were compared. The trap of this fungus is a unicellular spherical structure called the knob, which develops on the apex of a hyphal branch. RNA was isolated from knobs and mycelium and hybridized to a cDNA array containing probes of 2822 EST clones of M. haptotylum. Despite the fact ...

  19. Isolated fungus ball mimicking mucocele or frontal sinus tumour: a diagnostic pitfall

    OpenAIRE

    Popko, M; Broglie, M A; Holzmann, D

    2010-01-01

    Frontal sinus fungus ball should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic, nonspecific forehead symptoms. To evaluate the underlying disease, computed tomography scans should first be performed, followed by magnetic resonance imaging if malignancy is suspected. It is essential to be aware of the possibility of an atypical fungus ball appearance on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans. If bony destruction and calcification coexist on radiological images, then ...

  20. Exploring the potential for actinobacteria as defensive symbionts in fungus-growing termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Anna A; Nobre, Tânia; Currie, Cameron R; Aanen, Duur K; Poulsen, Michael

    2012-05-01

    In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play a role as defensive symbionts against Pseudoxylaria in fungus-growing termites. We sampled for Actinobacteria from 30 fungus-growing termite colonies, spanning the three main termite genera and two geographically distant sites. Our isolations yielded 360 Actinobacteria, from which we selected subsets for morphological (288 isolates, grouped in 44 morphotypes) and for 16S rRNA (35 isolates, spanning the majority of morphotypes) characterisation. Actinobacteria were found throughout all sampled nests and colony parts and, phylogenetically, they are interspersed with Actinobacteria from origins other than fungus-growing termites, indicating lack of specificity. Antibiotic-activity screening of 288 isolates against the fungal cultivar and competitor revealed that most of the Actinobacteria-produced molecules with antifungal activity. A more detailed bioassay on 53 isolates, to test the specificity of antibiotics, showed that many Actinobacteria inhibit both Pseudoxylaria and Termitomyces, and that the cultivar fungus generally is more susceptible to inhibition than the competitor. This suggests that either defensive symbionts are not present in the system or that they, if present, represent a subset of the community isolated. If so, the antibiotics must be used in a targeted fashion, being applied to specific areas by the termites. We describe the first discovery of an assembly of antibiotic-producing Actinobacteria occurring in fungus-growing termite nests. However, due to the diversity found, and the lack of both phylogenetic and bioactivity specificity, further work is necessary for a better understanding of the putative role of antibiotic-producing bacteria in the fungus-growing termite mutualistic system. PMID:22173371

  1. Phenolic profile and antioxidative properties of the beefsteak fungus Fistulina hepatica

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, B.M.; Ribeiro, Bárbara; Rangel, Joana; Baptista, Paula; Seabra, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    The phenolic composition of the edible beefsteak fungus Fistulina hepatica was determined by HPLC/DAD. The results showed a profile composed by caffeic, p-coumaric and ellagic acids, hyperoside and quercetin. Ellagic acid was the main compound in this species. Beefsteak fungus was also investigated for its capacity to act as a scavenger of DPPH radical and reactive oxygen species (superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and hypochlorous acid). Good results were obtained against DPPH and superoxi...

  2. Comparison of Gamma Irradiated and Raw Lignite in Bioliquefaction Process by Fungus T5

    OpenAIRE

    I. Sugoro; D.I. Astuti; D. Sasongko; P. Aditiawati

    2012-01-01

    The bioliquefaction of coal is a processing technology for converting solid coal to liquid oil at ambient temperature by helping microorganism. The pretreated of lignite is important to decrease the hydrofobic of lignite surface. One of pretreated method was irradiation by gamma rays. Aim of this research was to compare the gamma irradiated lignite and raw lignite in bioliquefaction process by selected fungus T5. The fungus was identified by molecular method using 18S rDNA. Treatments were A ...

  3. Microbial Community Structure of Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens and Refuse Dumps

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Jarrod J.; Budsberg, Kevin J.; Suen, Garret; Wixon, Devin L.; Balser, Teri C.; Cameron R. Currie

    2010-01-01

    Background Leaf-cutter ants use fresh plant material to grow a mutualistic fungus that serves as the ants' primary food source. Within fungus gardens, various plant compounds are metabolized and transformed into nutrients suitable for ant consumption. This symbiotic association produces a large amount of refuse consisting primarily of partly degraded plant material. A leaf-cutter ant colony is thus divided into two spatially and chemically distinct environments that together represent a plant...

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55.

    OpenAIRE

    Kotterman, M.J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Outline of this thesisIn this thesis the conditions for optimal PAH oxidation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 were evaluated. In Chapter 2, culture conditions like aeration and cosubstrate concentrations, which influenced the oxidation of the PAH compound anthracene and the ligninolytic indicator dye Poly R-478 by the white rot fungus, were studied. Two parameters were identified as the most important PAH oxidation rate-limiting factors: the hydrogen peroxide production r...

  5. Accumulation in Infected Rice Leaves, Antifungal Activity and Detoxification by Fungus

    OpenAIRE

    Morifumi Hasegawa; Ichiro Mitsuhara; Shigemi Seo; Kazunori Okada; Hisakazu Yamane; Takayoshi Iwai; Yuko Ohashi

    2014-01-01

    To understand the role of the rice flavonoid phytoalexin (PA) sakuranetin for blast resistance, the fungus-responsive characteristics were studied. Young rice leaves in a resistant line exhibited hypersensitive reaction (HR) within 3 days post inoculation (dpi) of a spore suspension, and an increase in sakuranetin was detected at 3 dpi, increasing to 4-fold at 4 dpi. In the susceptible line, increased sakuranetin was detected at 4 dpi, but not at 3 dpi, by which a large fungus mass has accum...

  6. Specific, non-nutritional association between an ascomycete fungus and Allomerus plant-ants

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-González, Mario X.; Male, Pierre-Jean G.; Leroy, Céline; Dejean, Alain (collab.); Gryta, Hervé; Jargeat, Patricia; Quilichini, Angélique; Orivel, Jérôme

    2010-01-01

    Ant–fungus associations are well known from attine ants, whose nutrition is based on a symbiosis with basidiomycete fungi. Otherwise, only a few non-nutritional ant–fungus associations have been recorded to date. Here we focus on one of these associations involving Allomerus plant-ants that build galleried structures on their myrmecophytic hosts in order to ambush prey. We show that this association is not opportunistic because the ants select from a monophyletic group of closely related fung...

  7. Inbreeding depression in urban environments of the bird's nest fungus Cyathus stercoreus (Nidulariaceae: Basidiomycota)

    OpenAIRE

    Malloure, B D; James, T. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Many organisms display codispersal of offspring, but fewer display codispersal of compatible gametes. This mechanism enhances the ability of a species to colonize after long distance dispersal as a mechanism of reproductive assurance, but it also fosters inbreeding and potential reduction in fitness. Here we investigated both long distance dispersal and inbreeding in the bird's nest fungus Cyathus stercoreus, a dung and mulch-associated fungus with a splash cup fruiting body appearing like a ...

  8. The fungus gardens of leaf-cutter ants undergo a distinct physiological transition during biomass degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Eric L.; Aylward, Frank O.; Kim, Young-Mo; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Hu, Zeping; Metz, Thomas O.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.; Currie, Cameron R.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.

    2014-08-01

    Leaf-cutter ants are dominant herbivores in ecosystems throughout the Neotropics. Rather than directly consuming the fresh foliar biomass they harvest, these ants use it to cultivate specialized fungus gardens. Although recent investigations have shed light on how plant biomass is degraded in fungus gardens, the cycling of nutrients that takes place in these specialized microbial ecosystems is still not well understood. Here, using metametabolomics and metaproteomics techniques, we examine the dynamics of nutrient turnover and biosynthesis in these gardens. Our results reveal that numerous free amino acids and sugars are depleted throughout the process of biomass degradation, indicating that easily accessible nutrients from plant material are readily consumed by microbes in these ecosystems. Accumulation of cellobiose and lignin derivatives near the end of the degradation process is consistent with previous findings of cellulases and laccases produced by Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the fungus cultivated by leaf-cutter ants. Our results also suggest that ureides may be an important source of nitrogen in fungus gardens, especially during nitrogen-limiting conditions. No free arginine was detected in our metametabolomics experiments despite evidence that the host ants cannot produce this amino acid, suggesting that biosynthesis of this metabolite may be tightly regulated in the fungus garden. These results provide new insights into the dynamics of nutrient cycling that underlie this important ant-fungus symbiosis.

  9. Optimization of exopectinase activity of the fungus Monilia isolated from tangerine in submerged fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Sadat Naghavi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diverse groups of microscopic fungi are able to degrade polymeric plant tissues such as pectin. Biodegradation of these materials are mostly applicable in food industries.Materials and Methods: In the present study, the exopectinase producing fungus was isolated from decaying tangerine and its exopectinase activity was studied in submerged fermenting condition. Also, the enzyme production of the isolated fungus was compared to the industrial fungus, Aspergillus niger PTCC 5013. The exopectinase production and activity of the extracted enzyme solution with respect to pH, temperature, activity timing and substrate concentration were scrutinized.Results: According to the morphological macroscopic and microscopic features, the isolated fungus was identified as the genus Monilia in the Moniliaceae family. The best exopectinase production was in pH 7 and the best enzyme activity achieved at 50°C, in 30 to 40 minute, 1.5% substrate and the 1:1 of the enzyme solution to the substrate solution ratio. The isolated fungus, Monilia, was fast growing and produced highly active exopectinase enzyme. In optimum condition, its exopectinase activity was 20 units higher than the fungus Aspergillus niger PTCC 5013. Discussion and Conclusion: The exopectinase enzyme was active in a wide ranges of pH and temperatures. As Monilia does not produce toxic compounds, it is proposed for pectinase production, especially in the food industries.

  10. Microalgae harvesting via co-culture with filamentous fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultom, Sarman Oktovianus

    Microalgae harvesting is a labor- and energy-intensive process. For instance, classical harvesting technologies such as chemical addition and mechanical separation are economically prohibiting for biofuel production. Newer approaches to harvest microalgae have been developed in order to decrease costs. Among these new methods, fungal co-pelletization seems to be a promising technology. By co-culturing filamentous fungi with microalgae, it is possible to form pellets, which can easily be separated. In this study, different parameters for the cultivation of filamentous fungus (Aspergillus niger) and microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) to efficiently form cell pellets were evaluated under heterotrophic and phototrophic conditions, including organic carbon source (glucose, glycerol and sodium acetate) concentration, pH, initial concentration of fungal spores, initial concentration of microalgal cells, concentration of ionic strength (Calcium and Magnesium) and concentration of salinity (NaCl). In addition, zeta-potential measurements were carried out in order to get a better understanding of the mechanism of attraction. It was found that 2 g/L of glucose, a fungus to microalgae ratio of 1:300, and uncontrolled pH (around 7) are the best culturing conditions for co-pelletization. Under these conditions, it was possible to achieve a high harvesting performance (>90%). In addition, it was observed that most pellets formed in the co-culture were spherical with an average diameter of 3.5 mm and in concentrations of about 5 pellets per mL of culture media. Under phototrophic conditions, co-pelletization required the addition of glucose as organic carbon source to sustain the growth of fungi and to allow the harvesting of microalgae. Zeta-potential measurements indicated that (i) both microalgae and fungi have low zeta-potential values regardless of the pH on the bulk (i.e. <-10 mV) (ii) fungi can have a positive electric charge at low pH (ie. pH=3). These values suggest that it might be possible that the degree of repulsion and dispersion between these organisms is low which facilitates the attraction between them.

  11. Clinical Evaluation and Management of Patients with Suspected Fungus Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larenas-Linnemann, Desiree; Baxi, Sachin; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Portnoy, Jay M

    2016-01-01

    Fungus-sensitized patients usually present with symptoms that are similar to symptoms presented by those who are sensitized to other aeroallergens. Therefore, diagnosis and management should follow the same pathways used for patients with allergic conditions in general. The physician should consider that a relationship between fungal exposure and symptoms is not necessarily caused by an IgE-mediated mechanism, even when specific fungal IgE is detected. Until recently, IgE-mediated allergy has been documented only for a limited number of fungi. We propose a series of questions to be used to identify symptoms that occur in situations with high fungal exposure and a limited skin-prick-test panel (Alternaria, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Candida) that can be amplified only in cases of high suspicion of other fungal exposure (eg, postfloods). We also review in vitro testing for fungi-specific IgE. Treatment includes environmental control, medical management, and, when appropriate, specific immunotherapy. Low-quality evidence exists supporting the use of subcutaneous immunotherapy for Alternaria to treat allergic rhinitis and asthma, and very low quality evidence supports the use of subcutaneous immunotherapy for Cladosporium and sublingual immunotherapy for Alternaria. As is the case for many allergens, evidence for immunotherapy with other fungal extracts is lacking. The so-called toxic mold syndrome is also briefly discussed. PMID:26755100

  12. Eosinophils in fungus-associated allergic pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SumitGhosh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is frequently caused and/or exacerbated by sensitization to fungal allergens, which are ubiquitous in many indoor and outdoor environments. Severe asthma with fungal sensitization is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and bronchial constriction in response to an inhaled allergen that is worsened by environmental exposure to airborne fungi and which leads to a disease course that is often very difficult to treat with standard asthma therapies. As a result of complex interactions among inflammatory cells, structural cells, and the intercellular matrix of the allergic lung, patients with sensitization to fungal allergens may experience a greater degree of airway wall remodeling and progressive, accumulated pulmonary dysfunction as part of the disease sequela. From their development in the bone marrow to their recruitment to the lung via chemokine and cytokine networks, eosinophils form an important component of the inflammatory milieu that is associated with this syndrome. Eosinophils are recognized as complex multi-factorial leukocytes with diverse functions in the context of allergic fungal asthma. In this review, we will consider recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that are associated with eosinophil development and migration to the allergic lung in response to fungal inhalation, along with the eosinophil’s function in the immune response to and the immunopathology attributed to fungus-associated allergic pulmonary disease.

  13. Ethanol Production from Lignocellulose by the Dimorphic Fungus Mucor Indicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennartsson, P.R.; Taherzadeh, M.J. (School of Engineering, Univ. of Boraas, SE-50190, Boraas (Sweden)). e-mail: Patrik.Lennartsson@hb.se; Karimi, K. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan Univ. of Technology, 84156-83111, Isfahan (IR)); Edebo, L. (Dept. of Clinical Bacteriology, Univ. of Goeteborg, SE-41346, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2008-10-15

    Ethanol production from dilute-acid lignocellulosic hydrolyzate by the dimorphic fungus Mucor indicus was investigated. A mixture of different forest wood chips dominated by spruce was hydrolyzed with 0.5 g/L sulfuric acid at 15 bar for 10 min, yielding different sugars including galactose, glucose, mannose, and xylose, but also different fermentation inhibitors such as acetic acid, furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), and phenolic compounds. We induced different morphological growth of M. indicus from purely filamentous, mostly filamentous, mostly yeast-like to purely yeast-like. The different forms were then used to ferment the hydrolyzate. They tolerated the presence of the inhibitors under anaerobic batch cultivation well and the ethanol yield was 430-440 g/kg consumed sugars. The ethanol productivity depended on the morphology. Judging from these results, we conclude that M. indicus, is useful for ethanol production from toxic substrates independent of its morphology. Keywords: bio-ethanol, lignocellulosic materials, dilute acid hydrolysis, Mucor indicus, dimorphic fungi

  14. Studies on biosorption of nickel using immobilized fungus, Rhizomucor tauricus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kishore Kumar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Rhizomucor tauricus, an industrial fungus, was immobilized in sodium alginate and used as adsorbent for the removal of nickel from aqueous solutions. The biosorption capacity of Ni(II was found to be 394 mg/g of immobilized biomass. It was observed that an increase in pH from 3 to 6 increased the percent adsorption, and an increase in liquid-to-solid ratio from 2 to 10 increased the metal uptake. The percent adsorption was increased when increasing the initial metal concentration from 25 to 100 mg/L. The equilibrium biosorption data was evaluated by Langmuir, Freundlich, and Langmuir-Freundlich (L-R isotherm models, and was best described by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. FTIR analysis revealed that –NH (bending, C–H (stretching, C=O (stretching, and –OH functional groups were mainly responsible for Ni(II biosorption. Thus, this study demonstrated that the immobilized Rhizomucor tauricus biomass could be used as an adsorbent for the treatment of Ni(II from aqueous solution.

  15. Effects of ozone on the germination of fungus spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibben, C.R.; Stotzky, G.

    1969-01-01

    Detached spores of 14 fungi varied in germination after exposure on agar to 10 to 100 parts per hundred million (p.p.hm.) ozone for 1 to 6 h. Large pigmented spores of Chaetomium sp., Stemphylium sarcinaeforme, S. loti, and Alternaria sp. were insensitive to 100 p.p.hm. Spores of Trichoderma viride, Aspergillus terreus, A. niger, Penicillium egyptiacum, Botrytis allii, and Rhizopus stolonifer were reduced in germination primarily by 100 and 50 p.p.hm. for the longer exposures. Small hyaline spores of Fusarium oxysporum, Colletotrichum lagenarium, Verticillium albo-atrum, and V. dahliae were the most sensitive, as their germination was prevented or reduced by most exposures to 100 and 50 pphm and occasionally reduced by doses as low as 25 pphm for 4 and 6 h. Ten parts per hundred million for 6 h had little inhibitory effect, but extended exposures up to 28 h reduced germination of A. terreus, A. niger, and P. egyptiacum spores to below 50% of the controls. The lower doses of ozone sometimes stimulated spore germination. Fungus colonies maintained in an ozone atmosphere had abnormal growth characteristics. Ozone had little inhibitory effect on air-dried spores in a liquid medium. 37 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  16. Devonian landscape heterogeneity recorded by a giant fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, C. Kevin; Hotton, Carol L.; Fogel, Marilyn L.; Cody, George D.; Hazen, Robert M.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Hueber, Francis M.

    2007-05-01

    The enigmatic Paleozoic fossil Prototaxites Dawson 1859 consists of tree-like trunks as long as 8 m constructed of interwoven tubes specimens from five localities differ from contemporaneous vascular plants by exhibiting a carbon isotopic range, within and between localities, of as much as 13‰ δ13C. Pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry highlights compositional differences between Prototaxites and co-occurring plant fossils and supports interpretation of isotopic distinctions as biological rather than diagenetic in origin. Such a large isotopic range is difficult to reconcile with an autotrophic metabolism, suggesting instead that, consistent with anatomy-based interpretation as a fungus, Prototaxites was a heterotroph that lived on isotopically heterogeneous substrates. Light isotopic values of Prototaxites approximate those of vascular plants from the same localities; in contrast, heavy extremes seen in the Lower Devonian appear to reflect consumption of primary producers with carbon-concentrating mechanisms, such as cryptobiotic soil crusts, or possibly bryophytes. Prototaxites biogeochemistry thus suggests that a biologically heterogeneous mosaic of primary producers characterized land surfaces well into the vascular plant era.

  17. Five New Cytotoxic Metabolites from the Marine Fungus Neosartorya pseudofischeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jian Lan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The marine fungus Neosartorya pseudofischeri was isolated from Acanthaster planci from the South China Sea. In a preliminary bioactivity screening, the crude methanol extract of the fungal mycelia showed significant inhibitory activity against the Sf9 cell line from the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda. Five novel compounds, including 5-olefin phenylpyropene A (1, 13-dehydroxylpyripyropene A (4, deacetylsesquiterpene (7, 5-formyl-6-hydroxy-8-isopropyl-2- naphthoic acid (9 and 6,8-dihydroxy-3-((1E,3E-penta-1,3-dien-1-ylisochroman-1-one (10, together with eleven known compounds, phenylpyropene A (2 and C (3, pyripyropene A (5, 7-deacetylpyripyropene A (6, (1S,2R,4aR,5R,8R,8aR-1,8a-dihydroxy-2-acetoxy-3,8-dimethyl-5- (prop-1-en-2-yl-1,2,4a, 5,6,7,8,8a-octahydronaphthalene (8, isochaetominine C (11, trichodermamide A (12, indolyl-3-acetic acid methyl ester (13, 1-acetyl-β-carboline (14, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-hydroxyl-2-methyl-l,3,4-trioxopyrazino[l,2-a]-indole (15 and fumiquinazoline F (16, were obtained. The structures of these compounds were determined mainly by MS and NMR data. The absolute configuration of 9 was assigned by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Compounds 1–11 and 15 showed significant cytotoxicity against the Sf9 cells from S. frugiperda.

  18. Biosynthesis of vanillin by the fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus MIP 95001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Moro Villela Pacheco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vanillin (a substance popularly known as vanilla flavor is one of the most widely used compounds, mainly by food and pharmaceutical industries. This substance can be obtained from the orchid Vanilla planifolia, but this is costly and time consuming. Thus, other methods for obtaining vanillin have been studied. Within this context, the aim of this work was to study the biosynthesis of vanillin by three strains of Pycnoporus sanguineus through the use of vanillic acid as a precursor. The strains were cultured in Petri dishes with a potato dextrose agar medium. Fragments of the media with the fungus were then inoculated in Erlenmeyer flasks with a liquid medium of potato broth and 0.3 g.L-1 of vanillic acid. The flasks remained in a shaker for eight days at 28°C and 120 rpm. Samples were withdrawn once a day (0.8 mL.day-1 for analysis of vanillin, glucose, total phenols, total proteins, and laccase. The results showed that only the MIP 95001 strain promoted the biosynthesis of vanillin. The highest concentration of vanillin was detected on the fourth day of cultivation (8.75 mg.dL-1. The results illustrate the ability to biosynthesize vanillin using Pycnoporus sanguineus (MIP 95001, which suggests a possible route for the biotechnological production of this flavor.

  19. Chemical changes of kraft lignin and some enzymes produced by the white-rot fungus Coriolopsis Gallica

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Alarcón, Gonzalo; Sáiz-Jiménez, Cesáreo; Lahoz, Rafael; O'Connor, A

    1987-01-01

    The excretion of extracellular enzymes and the degradation of indulin (pine kraft lignin) by the fungus Coriolopsis gallica were studied. By using a lignin-impregnated glass fibre disc which simulated natural conditions, the fungus excreted phenol oxidases during the log phase of growth and reached two activity maxima in the autolytic phase. However, in absence of indulin the fungus had a different behaviour with respect to phenol oxidases. It was concluded that in the ex...

  20. Fungi of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.)-Their Deteriorative Ability, Quality Stability and the Role of the Fungus-Eating Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuku, E. C.; Ogbalu, O. K.; Osakwe, J. A.

    Studies on the deteriorative ability and quality stability of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) and the effect of the fungus-eating insects (Necrobia rufipes, Alphitobius diaperinus, Crematogaster sp. and Tenebrio molitor) were carried out in the Post Graduate Entomology and Plant Pathology Laboratories of the Department of Applied and Environmental Biology and also in Food Science Laboratory of the Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt. Results showed Aspergillus niger van Tieghem, Rhizopus stolonifer Lind and Penicillium italiucum Wehmer as the seed-borne fungi of coconut. Frequency of occurrence was 80% for Aspergillus niger and 100% for both Rhizopus stolonifer and Penicillium italicum. On storage stability, heat drying offered significantly higher protection to coconut copra. Percentage consumption of fungal hyphae by the fungus-eating insects varied with Tenebrio molitor consuming 100% of the three aforementioned fungi. A. diaperinius contributed up to 84.1% reduction of A. niger as against 80.3% reduction by Necrobia rufipes of A. niger, Crematogaster sp. offered the least reduction (64.2%).

  1. Fungi of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.-Their Deteriorative Ability, Quality Stability and the Role of the Fungus-Eating Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Chuku

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the deteriorative ability and quality stability of coconut (Cocos nucifera L. and the effect of the fungus-eating insects (Necrobia rufipes, Alphitobius diaperinus, Crematogaster sp. and Tenebrio molitor were carried out in the Post Graduate Entomology and Plant Pathology Laboratories of the Department of Applied and Environmental Biology and also in Food Science Laboratory of the Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt. Results showed Aspergillus niger van Tieghem, Rhizopus stolonifer Lind and Penicillium italiucum Wehmer as the seed-borne fungi of coconut. Frequency of occurrence was 80% for Aspergillus niger and 100% for both Rhizopus stolonifer and Penicillium italicum. On storage stability, heat drying offered significantly higher protection to coconut copra. Percentage consumption of fungal hyphae by the fungus-eating insects varied with Tenebrio molitor consuming 100% of the three aforementioned fungi. A. diaperinius contributed up to 84.1% reduction of A. niger as against 80.3% reduction by Necrobia rufipes of A. niger, Crematogaster sp. offered the least reduction (64.2%.

  2. Monitoring of white-rot fungus during bioremediation of polychlorinated dioxin-contaminated fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhara, H.; Daikoku, C.; Kondo, R. [Lab. of Systematic Forest and Forest Products Sciences, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Takata, H. [Dept. of Geriatric Research, National Inst. for Longevity Sciences, Aichi (Japan); Suzuki, S.; Matsufuji, Y. [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Fukuoka Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Sakai, K. [Lab. of Forest Chemistry and Biochemistry, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Bioremediation is a low-cost treatment alternative for the cleanup of polychlorinated-dioxin-contaminated soils and fly ash when pollution spread is wide-ranging. An interesting fungus, Ceriporia sp. MZ-340, with a high ability to degrade dioxin, was isolated from white rotten wood of a broadleaf tree from Kyushu Island in Japan. We have attempted to use the fungus for bioremediation of polychlorinated-dioxin-contaminated soil on site. However, we have to consider that this trial has the potential problem of introducing a biohazard to a natural ecosystem if this organism is naturalized. We have therefore developed a monitoring system for the introduced fungus as a part of the examination and evaluation of bioremediation in our laboratory. We have also developed a PCR-based assay to reliably detect the fungus at the bioremediation site. DNA isolated from the site was amplified by PCR using a specific primer derived from internal transcribed spacer region (ITS: ITS1, 5.8S rDNA and ITS2) sequences of ceriporia sp. MZ-340. We successfully monitored Ceriporia sp. MZ-340 down to 100 fg/{mu}l DNA and down to 2 mg/g mycelium. We also successfully monitored the fungus specifically at the bioremediation site. The polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran content was observed to decrease in response to treatment with the fungus. The species-specific PCR technique developed in the present work is useful in evaluating the possibility of on-site bioremediation using the fungus Ceriporia sp. MZ-340. (orig.)

  3. Factors affecting fungus-induced larval mortality in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takken Willem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi have shown great potential for the control of adult malaria vectors. However, their ability to control aquatic stages of anopheline vectors remains largely unexplored. Therefore, how larval characteristics (Anopheles species, age and larval density, fungus (species and concentration and environmental effects (exposure duration and food availability influence larval mortality caused by fungus, was studied. Methods Laboratory bioassays were performed on the larval stages of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi with spores of two fungus species, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. For various larval and fungal characteristics and environmental effects the time to death was determined and survival curves established. These curves were compared by Kaplan Meier and Cox regression analyses. Results Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae caused high mortality of An. gambiae and An. stephensi larvae. However, Beauveria bassiana was less effective (Hazard ratio (HR Metarhizium anisopliae. Anopheles stephensi and An. gambiae were equally susceptible to each fungus. Older larvae were less likely to die than young larvae (HR Conclusions This study shows that both fungus species have potential to kill mosquitoes in the larval stage, and that mortality rate depends on fungus species itself, larval stage targeted, larval density and amount of nutrients available to the larvae. Increasing the concentration of fungal spores or reducing the exposure time to spores did not show a proportional increase and decrease in mortality rate, respectively, because the spores clumped together. As a result spores did not provide uniform coverage over space and time. It is, therefore, necessary to develop a formulation that allows the spores to spread over the water surface. Apart from formulation appropriate delivery methods are also necessary to avoid exposing non-target organisms to fungus.

  4. Toxicity of graphene oxide to white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jingru; Ming, Zhu; Li, Hongliang; Yang, Hua; Yu, Baowei; Wu, Ruihan; Liu, Xiaoyang; Bai, Yitong; Yang, Sheng-Tao

    2016-05-01

    With the wide production and applications of graphene and its derivatives, their toxicity to the environment has received much attention nowadays. In this study, we investigated the toxicity of graphene oxide (GO) to white rot fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium). GO was prepared by modified Hummers method and well characterized before use. P. chrysosporium was exposed to GO at the concentrations of 0-4 mg/mL for 7 d. The fresh and dry weights, pH values of culture media, structures, ultrastructures, IR spectra and activities of the decomposition of pollutants were measured to reveal the hazards of GO to P. chrysosporium. Our results indicated that low concentrations of GO stimulated the growth of P. chrysosporium. The exposure to GO induced more acidic pH values of the culture media after 7 d. GO induced the disruption of the fiber structure of P. chrysosporium, while at 4 mg/mL some very long and thick fibers were formed. Such changes were reflected in the scanning electron microscopy investigations, where the disruption of fibers was observed. In the ultrastructural investigations, the shape of P. chrysosporium cells changed and more vesicles were found upon the exposure to GO. The infrared spectroscopy analyses suggested that the chemical compositions of mycelia were not changed qualitatively. Beyond the toxicity, GO did not alter the activities of P. chrysosporium at low concentrations, but led to the complete loss of activity at high concentrations. The implication to the ecological safety of graphene is discussed. PMID:26950023

  5. Distribution pattern and maintenance of ectomycorrhizal fungus diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Gao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ectomycorrhiza (ECM are symbionts formed between soil fungi and plant root systems, in which the fungus exchanges soil-derived nutrients for carbohydrates obtained from the host plant. As an important component of terrestrial ecosystems, ECM fungi can play an essential role in biodiversity maintenance and plant community succession. Understanding the distribution pattern and maintenance of ECM fungal diversity is therefore critical to the study of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. An analysis of results of recent research indicates that ECM fungal diversity increases with increasing latitude, i.e. from tropical to subtropical and temperate regions. The role of dispersal in ECM fungal distribution is dependent on spatial scale. Thus, it has been found to be weak across global and local scales, but strong at regional and small scales. At the local scale, its influence has also been shown to be host-dominant dependent; thus, it is important in host non-dominant ecosystems, but not in host dominant ecosystems. Selection by plant, animal, microbe and abiotic factors can also affect the distribution pattern of ECM fungi, according to studies of temperate ecosystems. In contrast, studies of tropical ecosystems indicate that selection on ECM fungal distribution can be either strong or weak. ECM fungal diversity is also influenced by plant diversity and productivity. The plant diversity hypothesis at host genus-level fits well with ECM fungal diversity in temperate, subtropical and tropical forest ecosystems; in contrast, the productivity diversity hypothesis is only supported by some studies in temperate forest ecosystems. We propose that future studies should focus on the distribution pattern, maintenance mechanism and ecosystem function of ECM fungal diversity at a global scale, taking account ofscenarios of global climate change.

  6. Genes involved in virulence of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Jiménez, Claudio A; Wiegers, Harm; Zwaan, Bas J; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M; van Kan, Jan A L

    2016-01-01

    Pest insects cause severe damage to global crop production and pose a threat to human health by transmitting diseases. Traditionally, chemical pesticides (insecticides) have been used to control such pests and have proven to be effective only for a limited amount of time because of the rapid spread of genetic insecticide resistance. The basis of this resistance is mostly caused by (co)dominant mutations in single genes, which explains why insecticide use alone is an unsustainable solution. Therefore, robust solutions for insect pest control need to be sought in alternative methods such as biological control agents for which single-gene resistance is less likely to evolve. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has shown potential as a biological control agent of insects, and insight into the mechanisms of virulence is essential to show the robustness of its use. With the recent availability of the whole genome sequence of B. bassiana, progress in understanding the genetics that constitute virulence toward insects can be made more quickly. In this review we divide the infection process into distinct steps and provide an overview of what is currently known about genes and mechanisms influencing virulence in B. bassiana. We also discuss the need for novel strategies and experimental methods to better understand the infection mechanisms deployed by entomopathogenic fungi. Such knowledge can help improve biocontrol agents, not only by selecting the most virulent genotypes, but also by selecting the genotypes that use combinations of virulence mechanisms for which resistance in the insect host is least likely to develop. PMID:26628209

  7. Five New Cytotoxic Metabolites from the Marine Fungus Neosartorya pseudofischeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Wen-Jian; Fu, Sheng-Jiao; Xu, Meng-Yang; Liang, Wan-Ling; Lam, Chi-Keung; Zhong, Guo-Hua; Xu, Jun; Yang, De-Po; Li, Hou-Jin

    2016-01-01

    The marine fungus Neosartorya pseudofischeri was isolated from Acanthaster planci from the South China Sea. In a preliminary bioactivity screening, the crude methanol extract of the fungal mycelia showed significant inhibitory activity against the Sf9 cell line from the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda. Five novel compounds, including 5-olefin phenylpyropene A (1), 13-dehydroxylpyripyropene A (4), deacetylsesquiterpene (7), 5-formyl-6-hydroxy-8-isopropyl-2- naphthoic acid (9) and 6,8-dihydroxy-3-((1E,3E)-penta-1,3-dien-1-yl)isochroman-1-one (10), together with eleven known compounds, phenylpyropene A (2) and C (3), pyripyropene A (5), 7-deacetylpyripyropene A (6), (1S,2R,4aR,5R,8R,8aR)-1,8a-dihydroxy-2-acetoxy-3,8-dimethyl-5- (prop-1-en-2-yl)-1,2,4a, 5,6,7,8,8a-octahydronaphthalene (8), isochaetominine C (11), trichodermamide A (12), indolyl-3-acetic acid methyl ester (13), 1-acetyl-β-carboline (14), 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-hydroxyl-2-methyl-l,3,4-trioxopyrazino[l,2-a]-indole (15) and fumiquinazoline F (16), were obtained. The structures of these compounds were determined mainly by MS and NMR data. The absolute configuration of 9 was assigned by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Compounds 1-11 and 15 showed significant cytotoxicity against the Sf9 cells from S. frugiperda. PMID:26771621

  8. The hidden habit of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana: first demonstration of vertical plant transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Moraga, Enrique; López-Díaz, Cristina; Landa, Blanca Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip, obtained from a larva of the opium poppy stem gall wasp Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae), endophytically colonizes opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants and protects them against this pest. The goal of this study was to monitor the dynamics of endophytic colonization of opium poppy by B. bassiana after the fungus was applied to the seed and to ascertain whether the fungus is transmitted vertically via seeds. Using a species-specific nested PCR protocol and DNA extracted from surface-sterilised leaf pieces or seeds of B. bassiana-inoculated opium poppy plants, the fungus was detected within the plant beginning at the growth stage of rosette building and them throughout the entire plant growth cycle (about 120-140 days after sowing). The fungus was also detected in seeds from 50% of the capsules sampled. Seeds that showed positive amplification for B. bassiana were planted in sterile soil and the endophyte was again detected in more than 42% of the plants sampled during all plant growth stages. Beauveria bassiana was transmitted to seeds in 25% of the plants from the second generation that formed a mature capsule. These results demonstrate for the first time the vertical transmission of an entomopathogenic fungus from endophytically colonised maternal plants. This information is crucial to better understand the ecological role of entomopathogenic fungi as plant endophytes and may allow development of a sustainable and cost effective strategy for I. luteipes management in P. somniferum. PMID:24551242

  9. Metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into bacterial communities in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aylward, Frank O.; Burnum, Kristin E.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Suen, Garret; Tringe, Susannah G.; Adams, Sandra M.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Starrett, Gabriel J.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2012-09-01

    Herbivores gain access to nutrients stored in plant biomass largely by harnessing the metabolic activities of microbes. Leaf-cutter ants of the genus Atta are a hallmark example; these dominant Neotropical herbivores cultivate symbiotic fungus gardens on massive quantities of fresh plant forage. As the external digestive system of the ants, fungus gardens facilitate the production and sustenance of millions of workers in mature Atta colonies. Here we use metagenomic, and metaproteomic techniques to characterize the bacterial diversity and overall physiological potential of fungus gardens from two species of Atta. Our analysis of over 1.2 Gbp of community metagenomic sequence and three 16S pyrotag libraries reveals that, in addition to harboring the dominant fungal crop, these ecosystems contain abundant populations of Enterobacteriaceae, including the genera Enterobacter, Pantoea, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, and Escherichia. We show that these bacterial communities possess genes commonly associated with lignocellulose degradation, and likely participate in the processing of plant biomass. Additionally, we demonstrate that bacteria in these environments encode a diverse suite of biosynthetic pathways, and that they may enrich the nitrogen-poor forage of the ants with B-vitamins, amino acids, and proteins. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fungus gardens are highly-specialized fungus-bacteria communities that efficiently convert plant material into usable energy for their ant hosts. Together with recent investigations into the microbial symbionts of vertebrates, our work underscores the importance of microbial communities to the ecology and evolution of herbivorous metazoans.

  10. Caste-specific symbiont policing by workers of Acromyrmex fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivens, Aniek B.F.; Nash, David R.; Poulsen, Michael; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between leaf-cutting ants and their fungus garden mutualists is ideal for studying the evolutionary stability of interspecific cooperation. Although the mutualism has a long history of diffuse coevolution, there is ample potential for conflicts between the partners over the mixing...... and transmission of symbionts. Symbiont transmission is vertical by default, and both the ants and resident fungus actively protect the fungal monoculture growing in their nest against secondary introductions of genetically dissimilar symbionts from other colonies. An earlier study showed that...... mixtures of major and minor Acromyrmex workers eliminate alien fungus fragments even in subcolonies where their resident symbiont is not present. We hypothesize that the different tasks and behaviors performed by majors and minors are likely to select for differential responses to alien fungi. Major...

  11. Identifying the core microbial community in the gut of fungus-growing termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otan, Saria; Mikaelyan, Aram; Nobre, Tânia; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Koné, N'Golo A.; Sørensen, Søren J.; Aanen, Duur K.; Boomsma, Jacobus J; Brune, Andreas; Poulsen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Synergistetes. A set of 42 genus-level taxa was present in all termite species and accounted for 56-68% of the species-specific reads. Gut communities of termites from the same genus were more similar than distantly related species, suggesting that phylogenetic ancestry matters, possibly in connection with...... specific termite genus-level ecological niches. Finally, we show that gut communities of fungus-growing termites are similar to cockroaches, both at the bacterial phylum level and in a comparison of the core Macrotermitinae taxa abundances with representative cockroach, lower termite, and higher non......-fungus-growing termites. These results suggest that the obligate association with Termitomyces has forced the bacterial gut communities of the fungus-growing termites towards a relatively uniform composition with higher similarity to their omnivorous relatives than to more closely related termites. This article is...

  12. Exploring the potential for actinobacteria as defensive symbionts in fungus-growing termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Anna A.; Nobre, Tânia; Currie, Cameron R.; Aanen, Duur K.; Poulsen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    a subset of the community isolated. If so, the antibiotics must be used in a targeted fashion, being applied to specific areas by the termites. We describe the first discovery of an assembly of antibiotic-producing Actinobacteria occurring in fungus-growing termite nests. However, due to the...... other than fungus-growing termites, indicating lack of specificity. Antibiotic-activity screening of 288 isolates against the fungal cultivar and competitor revealed that most of the Actinobacteria-produced molecules with antifungal activity. A more detailed bioassay on 53 isolates, to test the...... specificity of antibiotics, showed that many Actinobacteria inhibit both Pseudoxylaria and Termitomyces, and that the cultivar fungus generally is more susceptible to inhibition than the competitor. This suggests that either defensive symbionts are not present in the system or that they, if present, represent...

  13. Fungus Ball Diagnosed on Computed Tomography (CT Guided Needle Aspiration and Biopsy of Thoracic Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Bakhshayeshkaram

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: CT-guided biopsy provides results in a short period and can be applied on outpatient and even high-risk patients; however, some studies do not recommend it in lesions with benign histology probability. The purpose was to report our experience regarding fungus ball diagnosis on CT-guided biopsy and to identify the complication rate of the procedure. "nPatients and Methods: We evaluated 99 CT-guided biopsies of infected thoracic lesions performed from March 2004 to December 2008 retrospectively. All biopsies were performed by one radiologist with Westcott needle number 20 and 18. The CTs were assessed by a trained general practitioner for the size and location of lesions and diagnosis of pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum, then all CTs were double checked by the same radiologist. Diagnosis of fungus lesions and their differentiations were based on pathology reports. "nResults: During this four-year study, 20 fungus lesions (15 men and five women were found. The mean age of the patients were 54.75 years (ranging: 19-77. In these series, there were 16 (80% aspergillosis, two (10% mucor mycosis and two undifferentiated fungus balls. The mean diameter of the lesions was 5.650 cm (range: 1-11.5 cm and the distance of the lesions to the chest wall was 0.75 cm (range: 0-3 cm. Nine (45% fungus lesions were located in the left upper, four (20% in the right lower, four (20% in the right upper and the rest (15% in the left lower and right middle lobes. Pneumothorax occurred in two cases (one aspergillosis and one mucor mycosis, while the chest tube was placed only for the patient with mucor mycosis in order to manage the compli-cation. "nConclusion: CT-guided needle biopsy seems to be a safe and feasible diagnostic modality with a low-risk probability of complications for fungus balls.

  14. COMPARISON THE DYE REMOVAL ACTIVITY OF SYSTEMS CONTAINED SURFACTANTS AND FUNGUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÜLKÜYE DUDU GÜL

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye decolorization ability of the systems contained only R. arrhizus, only cationic surfactants and both of them were studied. The optimal pH (3-7, initial dye (50-800 mg/L and surfactant concentration (0.5 and 1 mM for Alkythrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB was determined in three days incubation period and the difference of Remazol Blue dye removal activity between Dodecylthrimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB, Hegzadecylthrimethyl ammonium bromide (HTAB and CTAB was identified. In the surfactant effect experiments it was observed that maximum dye removal activity occured in the system contained both fungus and 0.5 mM CTAB as, 77.52%, while the dye removal activity of only fungus and only CTAB were 21.2% and 71.2% in 100 mg/L dye concentration. The optimal conditions for dye removal were pH 5, low initial dye concentratios such as 100 mg/L and 1 mM CTAB concentration at the end of three days incubation period and the 95.4% dye removed by the sytem contained both fungus and CTAB. The dye removal activiy of the system contained fungus and cationic surfactants (DTAB, CTAB and HTAB was compaired in the same optimal conditions and observed that maximum dye removal occured in the system that contained fungus and 1 mM HTAB, as 98.4%. The systems that contained surfactant and fungus are new approcahes for effective dye removal from textile effluents. According to this study, the CMC of surfactant is an important issue to increase dye removal efficiency.

  15. Extraction of DNA from plant and fungus tissues in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Almakarem Amal S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When samples are collected in the field and transported to the lab, degradation of the nucleic acids contained in the samples is frequently observed. Immediate extraction and precipitation of the nucleic acids reduces degradation to a minimum, thus preserving accurate sequence information. An extraction method to obtain high quality DNA in field studies is described. Findings DNA extracted immediately after sampling was compared to DNA extracted after allowing the sampled tissues to air dry at 21°C for 48 or 72 hours. While DNA extracted from fresh tissues exhibited little degradation, DNA extracted from all tissues exposed to 21°C air for 48 or 72 hours exhibited varying degrees of degradation. Yield was higher for extractions from fresh tissues in most cases. Four microcentrifuges were compared for DNA yield: one standard electric laboratory microcentrifuge (max rcf = 16,000×g, two battery-operated microcentrifuges (max rcf = 5,000 and 3,000 ×g, and one manually-operated microcentrifuge (max rcf = 120×g. Yields for all centrifuges were similar. DNA extracted under simulated field conditions was similar in yield and quality to DNA extracted in the laboratory using the same equipment. Conclusions This CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide DNA extraction method employs battery-operated and manually-operated equipment to isolate high quality DNA in the field. The method was tested on plant and fungus tissues, and may be adapted for other types of organisms. The method produced high quality DNA in laboratory tests and under simulated field conditions. The field extraction method should prove useful for working in remote sites, where ice, dry ice, and liquid nitrogen are unavailable; where degradation is likely to occur due to the long distances between the sample site and the laboratory; and in instances where other DNA preservation and transportation methods have been unsuccessful. It may be possible to adapt this method for genomic, metagenomic, transcriptomic and metabolomic projects using samples collected in situ.

  16. Transcriptional responses in Honey Bee larvae infected with chalkbrood fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Keith D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diseases and other stress factors working synergistically weaken honey bee health and may play a major role in the losses of bee populations in recent years. Among a large number of bee diseases, chalkbrood has been on the rise. We present here the experimental identification of honey bee genes that are differentially expressed in response to infection of honey bee larvae with the chalkbrood fungus, Ascosphaera apis. Results We used cDNA-AFLP ®Technology to profile transcripts in infected and uninfected bee larvae. From 64 primer combinations, over 7,400 transcriptionally-derived fragments were obtained A total of 98 reproducible polymorphic cDNA-AFLP fragments were excised and sequenced, followed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR analysis of these and additional samples. We have identified a number of differentially-regulated transcripts that are implicated in general mechanisms of stress adaptation, including energy metabolism and protein transport. One of the most interesting differentially-regulated transcripts is for a chitinase-like enzyme that may be linked to anti-fungal activities in the honey bee larvae, similarly to gut and fat-body specific chitinases found in mosquitoes and the red flour beetle. Surprisingly, we did not find many components of the well-characterized NF-κB intracellular signaling pathways to be differentially-regulated using the cDNA-AFLP approach. Therefore, utilizing qRT-PCR, we probed some of the immune related genes to determine whether the lack of up-regulation of their transcripts in our analysis can be attributed to lack of immune activation or to limitations of the cDNA-AFLP approach. Conclusions Using a combination of cDNA-AFLP and qRT-PCR analyses, we were able to determine several key transcriptional events that constitute the overall effort in the honey bee larvae to fight natural fungal infection. Honey bee transcripts identified in this study are involved in critical functions related to transcriptional regulation, apoptotic degradation of ubiquitinated proteins, nutritional regulation, and RNA processing. We found that immune regulation of the anti-fungal responses in honey bee involves highly coordinated activation of both NF-κB signaling pathways, leading to production of anti-microbial peptides. Significantly, activation of immune responses in the infected bee larvae was associated with down-regulation of major storage proteins, leading to depletion of nutritional resources.

  17. Transcriptome of an entomophthoralean fungus (Pandora formicae) shows molecular machinery adjusted for successful host exploitation and transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Małagocka, Joanna; Grell, Morten N.; Lange, Lene; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Jensen, Annette B.

    2015-01-01

    Pandora formicae is an obligate entomopathogenic fungus from the phylum Entomophthoromycota, known to infect only ants from the genus Formica. In the final stages of infection, the fungus induces the so-called summit disease syndrome, manipulating the host to climb up vegetation prior to death and...

  18. Gamma radiation effects on the frequency of toxigenic fungus on sene (Cassia angustifolia) and green tea (Camelia sinensis) samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The levels of contamination and gamma radiation effects were analyzed in the reduction of toxigenic filamentous fungus in two types of medicinal plants. Aspergillus and Penicillium were the predominant genders and 73,80% of the samples showed high levels of fungus contamination

  19. A rapid two-step bioremediation of the anthraquinone dye, Reactive Blue 4 by a marine-derived fungus

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verma, A.K; Raghukumar, C.; Parvatkar, R.R.; Naik, C.G.

    A rapid two-step technique for bioremediation of the anthraquinone dye, the Reactive Blue 4 (RB4) by a marine-derived fungus is reported here. In the first step, 1,000 mg l sup(−1) of this dye treated with partially purified laccase of this fungus...

  20. High Symbiont Relatedness Stabilizes Mutualistic Cooperation in Fungus-Growing Termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur K; de Fine Licht, Henrik H; Debets, Alfons J M; Kerstes, Niels A G; Hoekstra, Rolf F; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2009-01-01

    studied. We show that African fungus-growing termites propagate single variants of their Termitomyces symbiont, despite initiating cultures from genetically variable spores from the habitat. High inoculation density in the substrate followed by fusion among clonally related mycelia enhances the efficiency...... of spore production in proportion to strain frequency. This positive reinforcement results in an exclusive lifetime association of each host colony with a single fungal symbiont and hinders the evolution of cheating. Our findings explain why vertical symbiont transmission in fungus-growing termites...

  1. Towards a better understanding of the evolution of specialized parasites of fungus-growing ant crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yek, Sze Huei; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Poulsen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Fungus-growing ants have interacted and partly coevolved with specialised microfungal parasites of the genus Escovopsis since the origin of ant fungiculture about 50 million years ago. Here, we review the recent progress in understanding the patterns of specificity of this ant-parasite association...... questions of (co)adaptation and evolutionary history. Using the same scheme, we identify future research questions that are likely to be particularly illuminating for understanding the ecology and evolution of Escovopsis parasitism of the cultivar maintained by fungus-growing ants...

  2. A virus in a fungus in a plant: Three-way symbiosis required for thermal tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, L.M.; Redman, R.S.; Rodriguez, R.J.; Roossinck, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    A mutualistic association between a fungal endophyte and a tropical panic grass allows both organisms to grow at high soil temperatures. We characterized a virus from this fungus that is involved in the mutualistic interaction. Fungal isolates cured of the virus are unable to confer heat tolerance, but heat tolerance is restored after the virus is reintroduced. The virus-infected fungus confers heat tolerance not only to its native monocot host but also to a eudicot host, which suggests that the underlying mechanism involves pathways conserved between these two groups of plants.

  3. A new eremophilane-type sesquiterpene from the phytopatogen fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Sphaeropsidaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Fatima M.; Oliveira, Maria da Conceicao F. de; Arriaga, Angela M.C.; Lemos, Telma L.G.; Andrade-Neto, Manoel; Mattos, Marcos C. de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: mcfo@ufc.br; Mafezoli, Jair [Universidade de Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Curso de Farmacia; Viana, Francisco M.P.; Ferreira, Viviane M. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Lab. de Fitopatologia; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Ferreira, Antonio G. [Universidade Federal de Sa Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    The phytopatogenic fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae, isolated from guava, was cultivated in rice for 32 days at room temperature. Extraction with CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}:MeOH (3:7), followed by chromatography fractionation of the extract provided ergosterol. From the fungus culture in Czapeck medium for 40 days at room temperature, were isolated isocoumarin cis-4-hydroxymeleine and an eremophilane-type sesquiterpene. The latter compound is being reported for the first time in the literature. Also, this is the first time that an eremophilane sesquiterpene is described for Lasiodiplodia genus. (author)

  4. A new eremophilane-type sesquiterpene from the phytopatogen fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Sphaeropsidaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phytopatogenic fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae, isolated from guava, was cultivated in rice for 32 days at room temperature. Extraction with CH2Cl2:MeOH (3:7), followed by chromatography fractionation of the extract provided ergosterol. From the fungus culture in Czapeck medium for 40 days at room temperature, were isolated isocoumarin cis-4-hydroxymeleine and an eremophilane-type sesquiterpene. The latter compound is being reported for the first time in the literature. Also, this is the first time that an eremophilane sesquiterpene is described for Lasiodiplodia genus. (author)

  5. Laccase activity from the fungus trametes hirsuta using an air-lift bioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Couto, S.; Rodríguez, A.; Paterson, R. R. M.; Lima, Nelson; Teixeira, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To produce high laccase activities from the white-rot fungus Trametes hirsuta in an in-house air-lift bioreactor (ALB). Methods and Results: Trametes hirsuta was grown in a 6-l ALB. A fed-batch strategy with glycerol as an addition resulted in maximum laccase activity of 19 400 U l)1, which was the highest reported from the fungus. Conclusion: The ALB configuration with additional glycerol resulted in high laccase activities. Significance and Impact of the Study: This study p...

  6. Buwchfawromyces eastonii gen. nov., sp. nov.: a new anaerobic fungus (Neocallimastigomycota isolated from buffalo faeces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Martin Callaghan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The novel anaerobic fungus Buwchfawromyces eastonii gen. nov., sp. nov., belonging to order Neocallimastigales (phylum Neocallimastigomycota is described. Morphologically similar to Piromyces but genetically quite distinct, this fungus (isolate GE09 was first isolated from buffalo faeces in west Wales and then subsequently isolated from sheep, cattle and horse in the same area. Phylogenetic analysis of LSU and ITS sequence confirmed that B. eastonii isolates formed a distinct clade close to the polycentric Anaeromyces spp. The morphology of GE09 is monocentric with monoflagellate zoospores. However, the sporangial stalk (sporangiophore is often distinctly swollen and the proximal regions of the rhizoidal system twisted in appearance.

  7. A role for antioxidants in acclimation of marine derived pathogenic fungus (NIOCC 1) to salt stress

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravindran, C.; Varatharajan, G.R.; Rajasabapathy, R.; Vijayakanth, S.; HarishKumar, A.; Meena, R.M.

    to oxidative stress [3,15]. Thus, the present study was conducted using marine derived fungus, as the candidate species with the objective to assess the acclimation of fungus to salt stress using antioxidant properties, and to understand how the pathogenic... of incubation (2, 8, 16 and 32 weeks) and isolated using a sterile needle and transferred to Malt extract agar (MEA) medium 4    containing 10,000 units of sodium benzyl penicillin and 0.05 g of streptomycin sulfate per 100 ml of medium to inhibit bacterial...

  8. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intra-radices on accumulation of radiocaesium by plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intra-radices in 134Cs isotope uptake by different plant species is studied. The impact of radiocaesium on mycorrhizal development and functioning of plant photosynthetic apparatus is considered. The possibility of mycorrhizal symbiosis application in phytoremediation of radioactively contaminated areas is analyzed.It is found that colonization of plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus resulted in significant decrease of radiocaesium concentration in their aboveground parts, while it did not have considerable impact on the radionuclide uptake by plant root system

  9. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices on accumulation of radiocaesium by plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices in 134Cs isotope by different plant species is studied. The impact of radiocaesium on mycorrhizal development and functioning of plant photosynthetic apparatus is considered. The possibility of mycorrhizal symbiosis application in phyto remediation of radioactively contaminated areas is analyzed. It is found that colonization pf plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus resulted in significant decrease of radiocesium concentration in their aboveground parts, while it did not have considerable impact on the radionuclide uptake by plant root system

  10. The research of using Co-60 γ ray to sterilize different mediums for edible fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guozhu, Li; Zhenqian, Guan; Hengshou, Zhao

    1993-10-01

    The present experiment has been carried out by using different dosage of Co—60 γ ray for radiation sterilization of five kinds of cultural materials of edible fungus, The results indicated that sterilization dosage of sawdust is 22 kGy. that of cotton—seed shell and the rest are 26 kGy. We conclude that using Co-60 γ ray to sterilize the cultura 1 materials of edible fungus is a secure and saving labor and energy new method which could sterilize thoroughly.

  11. Metabolism of carbohydrates in the fungus Aspergillus niger under the action of light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of visible light with 410, 520 and 610 nm wave lengths on carbonhydrate transformation and absorption by Aspergillus niger fungus is studied. It is shown that the light stimulates the absorption by the fungus of the medium carbohydrates and their biochemical modifications. This leads to amplification of biomass accumulation and citric acid liberation to the medium. An increase of citric acid content in the cultural liquid is counected either with producer biomass growth or with amplification of biomass unit ability to citrate biosynthesis or with simultaneous realization of the both ways indicated

  12. A new guaiane mannoside from a Eutypa-like fungus isolated from Murraya paniculata in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Eutypa-like fungus was isolated from the stems of Murraya paniculata. The fungus was cultivated in liquid medium and produced the new guaiane-type sesquiterpenoid (1R,4S,5S,7R,10R)- 10-hydroxyguaianol 10-O-beta-mannopyranoside and the 3-hydroxy-5-phenylmethyl-(3S,5R)- tetrahydrofuran-2-one, a diastereomer of harzialactone A, obtained for the first time from a natural source. The structures of these metabolites were elucidated based on analysis of their spectroscopic data. (author)

  13. A new guaiane mannoside from a Eutypa-like fungus isolated from Murraya paniculata in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Afonso D.L.; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Souza, Antonia Q.L.; Henrique-Silva, Flavio [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica e Evolucao; Pereira, Jose O. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias

    2008-07-01

    A Eutypa-like fungus was isolated from the stems of Murraya paniculata. The fungus was cultivated in liquid medium and produced the new guaiane-type sesquiterpenoid (1R,4S,5S,7R,10R)- 10-hydroxyguaianol 10-O-beta-mannopyranoside and the 3-hydroxy-5-phenylmethyl-(3S,5R)- tetrahydrofuran-2-one, a diastereomer of harzialactone A, obtained for the first time from a natural source. The structures of these metabolites were elucidated based on analysis of their spectroscopic data. (author)

  14. Rapid evolution of avirulence genes in rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Ju; Si, Weina; Deng, Qiming; Li, Ping; Yang, Sihai

    2014-01-01

    Background Rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most devastating pathogens in rice. Avirulence genes in this fungus share a gene-for-gene relationship with the resistance genes in its host rice. Although numerous studies have shown that rice blast R-genes are extremely diverse and evolve rapidly in their host populations, little is known about the evolutionary patterns of the Avr-genes in the pathogens. Results Here, six well-characterized Avr-genes and seven randomly selected n...

  15. Motility Of Pulmonary Fungus Ball Shown With Thoracic Computed Tomography On Prone Position

    OpenAIRE

    ATICI, A.G.; FINDIK, S.; BAŞOĞLU, A.; ERKAN, L.

    2010-01-01

    A chest X-ray taken of a 42-year old male, who was admitted for hemoptysis, revealed a solid round mass partially surrounded by a radiolucent crescent within a cavity at right apex consistent with fungus ball. In order to reveal whether the opacity was mobile, the paüıognomonic feature of, fungus ball, or not, we performed thoracic computed tomography (CTJ on supine and prone positions successively and demonstrated its motility. Pron Pozisyonunda Çekilen Toraks Bilgisayarlı Tomografisi i...

  16. Serpula lacrymans, The Dry Rot Fungus and Tolerance Towards Copper-Based Wood Preservatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Jensen, Bo; Clausen, Carol; Green III, Frederik

    Serpula lacrymans (Wulfen : Fries) Schröter, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most (Wulfen : Fries) Schröterthe dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in temperate regions of the world i.e. northern Europe, Japan and Australia. Previously copper based...... the dry rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans compared to an alternative non-copper containing wood preservative. The extensive use of copper-based wood preservatives has hastened the need for understanding why some fungi are able to attack copper-treated wood. The copper tolerance of S. lacrymans and other...... brown-rot fungi is thought to be due in part to oxalic acid production and accumulation. Oxalic acid has been implicated in copper tolerance by the formation of copper oxalate crystals. Twelve isolates of the dry rot fungus, S. lacrymans and four other brown rot species were evaluated for weight loss on...

  17. Changes in selected enzyme activities during growth of pure and mixed cultures of the white-rot decay fungus Trametes versicolor and the potential biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, M; Morrell, J J

    1992-04-01

    Two filamentous fungi, the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor and the soil fungus and potential biocontrol organism Trichoderma harzianum, have been grown in pure and mixed cultures on low-N (0.4 mM) and high-N (4 mM) defined synthetic media to determine the activities of selected wood-degrading enzymes such as cellobiase, cellulase, laccase, and peroxidases. Growth characteristics and enzyme activities were examined for potential correlations. Such correlations would allow the use of simple enzyme assays for measuring biomass development and would facilitate predictions about competitiveness of species in mixed fungal cultures. Our results show that while laccase and Poly Red-478 peroxidase activities indicate survival of the decay fungus, none of the monitored extracellular enzymes can serve as a quantitative indicator for biomass accumulation. As expected, the level of available nitrogen affected the production of the enzymes monitored: in low-N media, specific cellobiase, specific cellulase, and peroxidase activities were enhanced, while laccase activities were reduced. Most importantly, laccase activities of Trametes versicolor, and to a smaller extent, cellobiase activities of both fungi, were significantly induced in mixed cultures of Trametes versicolor and Trichoderma harzianum. PMID:1611557

  18. Novel fungus-Fe3O4 bio-nanocomposites as high performance adsorbents for the removal of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Fungus was used as a template for the assembly of nano-Fe3O4. • Fungal template directed the nano-Fe3O4 structure from the micro-scale level. • Fungal template enhanced the dispersity and stability of nano-Fe3O4. • Fungus-Fe3O4 exhibited high sorption capacity for Sr(II), Th(IV) and U(VI). • Fungus-Fe3O4 possessed satisfactory regeneration performance and reusability. - Abstract: The bio-nanocomposites of fungus-Fe3O4 were successfully synthesized using a low-cost self-assembly technique. SEM images showed uniform decoration of nano-Fe3O4 particles on fungus surface. The FTIR analysis indicated that nano-Fe3O4 was combined to the fungus surface by chemical bonds. The sorption ability of fungus-Fe3O4 toward Sr(II), Th(IV) and U(VI) was evaluated by batch techniques. Radionuclide sorption on fungus-Fe3O4 was independent of ionic strength, indicating that inner-sphere surface complexion dominated their sorption. XPS analysis indicated that the inner-sphere radionuclide complexes were formed by mainly bonding with oxygen-containing functional groups (i.e., alcohol, acetal and carboxyl) of fungus-Fe3O4. The maximum sorption capacities of fungus-Fe3O4 calculated from Langmuir isotherm model were 100.9, 223.9 and 280.8 mg/g for Sr(II) and U(VI) at pH 5.0, and Th(IV) at pH 3.0, respectively, at 303 K. Fungus-Fe3O4 also exhibited excellent regeneration performance for the preconcentration of radionuclides. The calculated thermodynamic parameters showed that the sorption of radionuclides on fungus-Fe3O4 was a spontaneous and endothermic process. The findings herein highlight the novel synthesis method of fungus-Fe3O4 and its high sorption ability for radionuclides

  19. Biodegradation of pentachlorophenol by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (1988)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance and mineralization of [14C]PCP in nutrient nitrogen-limited culture. Mass balance analyses demonstrated the formation of water-soluble met...

  20. A highly diverse spectrum of naphthoquinone derivatives produced by the endophytic fungus Biatriospora sp CCF 4378

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stodůlková, Eva; Man, Petr; Kuzma, Marek; Černý, J.; Císařová, I.; Kubátová, A.; Chudíčková, Milada; Kolařík, Miroslav; Flieger, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2015), s. 259-267. ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13039; GA ČR GA13-16565S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : NECTRIA-HAEMATOCOCCA * ASCOMYCETOUS FUNGUS * BIOLOGICAL-ACTIVITY Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2014

  1. Single-cell transcript profiling of barley attacked by the powdery mildew fungus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjetting, Torben; Hagedorn, Peter; Schweizer, Patrick; Thordal-Christensen, Hans; Carver, Timothy L. W.; Lyngkjær, Michael Foged

    2007-01-01

    In many plant-pathogen interactions, there are several possible outcomes for simultaneous attacks on the same leaf. For instance, an attack by the powdery mildew fungus on one barley leaf epidermal cell may succeed in infection and formation of a functional haustorium, whereas a neighboring cell...

  2. Antimicrobial defense shows an abrupt evolutionary transition in the fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, William O H; Pagliarini, Roberta; Madsen, Henning Bang; Dijkstra, Michiel B; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2008-01-01

    exception to this rule because they are a key first-line defense that are fixed in size in adults. Here we conduct a comparative analysis of the size of the gland reservoir across the fungus-growing ants (tribe Attini). Most attines have singly mated queens, but in two derived genera, the leaf-cutting ants...

  3. Naphthoquinone spiroketal with allelochemical activity from the new endophytic fungus Edenia gomezpompae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioassay-guided isolation from the culture of Edenia gomezpompae, a new endophytic fungus isolated from the leaves of Callicarpa acuminata (Verbenaceae) from the ecological reserve El Eden, Quintana Roo, Mexico, led to the isolation of four naphthoquinone spiroketals, including three new compounds. ...

  4. Dissolved oxygen levels affect dimorphic growth by the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea

    Science.gov (United States)

    The entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea is capable of dimorphic growth (hyphal or yeast-like) in submerged culture. In shake flask studies, we evaluated the impact of aeration on the mode of growth of I. fumosorosea. Using 250 mL baffled Erlenmeyer flasks, culture volumes of 50, 100, 150, a...

  5. Two New Alkaloids from a Marine-derived Fungus Neosartorya fischeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of EtOAc extract from the fermentation broth of the fungus Neosartorya fischeri led to the isolation of two novel alkaloids and one known compound with antitumor activity against HL-60 cell lines. Their structures were elucidated mainly by NMR and HR-TOF-MS, as well as on comparison with the reported data.

  6. Selection of reference genes for expression analysis in the entomophthoralean fungus Pandora neoaphidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Jørgen; Jensen, Annette Bruun; Chen, Chun

    2016-01-01

    The selection of suitable reference genes is crucial for accurate quantification of gene expres-sion and can add to our understanding of host–pathogen interactions. To identify suitablereference genes in Pandora neoaphidis, an obligate aphid pathogenic fungus, the expressionof three traditional...

  7. Antileukemic alpha-pyrone derivatives from the endophytic fungus Alternaria phragmospora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four new (1–4) and two known (5 and 6)a-pyrone derivatives have been isolated from Alternaria phragmospora, an endophytic fungus from Vinca rosea, leaves. The isolated compounds were chemically identi'ed to be 5-butyl-4-methoxy-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one (2) 5-butyl-6-(hydroxymethyl)-4-methoxy-2H-py...

  8. Glycosidases of the rumen anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix frontalis grown on cellulosic substrates.

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, P.D.; Bauchop, T

    1985-01-01

    The rumen anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix frontalis was grown on cellulosic substrates, and the cellular distribution and types of glycosidases produced by the organism were studied. Fungal cultures were fractionated into extracellular, insoluble (membrane), and intracellular fractions and assayed for glycosidase activity by using Avicel, carboxymethylcellulose, xylan, starch, polygalacturonic acid, and the p-nitrophenyl derivatives of galactose, glucose, and xylose as substrates. Enzymic act...

  9. The dynamics of plant cell-wall polysaccharide decomposition in leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, Isabel Eva; de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Harholt, Jesper; Willats, William George Tycho; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2011-01-01

    map the occurrence of cell wall polymers in consecutive sections of the fungus garden of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior. We show that pectin, xyloglucan and some xylan epitopes are degraded, whereas more highly substituted xylan and cellulose epitopes remain as residuals in the waste...

  10. Evolution of ant-cultivar specialization and cultivar switching in Apterostigma fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Mueller, Ulrich G; Schultz, Ted R; Adams, Rachelle Martha Marie; Bouck, Amy C

    2004-01-01

    Almost all of the more than 200 species of fungus-growing ants (Formicidae: Attini) cultivate litter-decomposing fungi in the family Lepiotaceae (Basidiomycota: Agaricales). The single exception to this rule is a subgroup of ant species within the lower attine genus Apterostigma, which cultivate ...

  11. Bromomyrothenone B and botrytinone, cyclopentenone derivatives from a marine isolate of the fungus botrytis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xifeng; Zhang, Dahai; Lee, Uk; Li, Xianguo; Cheng, Jiagao; Zhu, Weiliang; Jung, Jee H; Choi, Hong Dae; Son, Byeng Wha

    2007-02-01

    New cyclopentenones, bromomyrothenone B (1) and botrytinone (2), and the known cyclonerodiol (3) were isolated from the marine algicolous fungus of the genus Botrytis. The absolute stereostructures of compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence including quantum chemistry calculation, X-ray analysis, and CD exciton chirality method. PMID:17315966

  12. Presumptive horizontal symbiont transmission in the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Aanen, Duur Kornelis

    2006-01-01

    All colonies of the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis studied so far are associated with a single genetically variable lineage of Termitomyces symbionts. Such limited genetic variation of symbionts and the absence of sexual fruiting bodies (mushrooms) on M. natalensis mounds would be ...

  13. Influence of aeration degree of cultural liquid on biosintetical activity of fungus culture Blakeslea trispora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Anatsky

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Β-carotene biosynthetic processes of the fungus Blakeslea trispora are studied for different technological modes of cultural liquid aeration under industrial conditions. It is shown, that the increase of aeration degree stimulates the accumulation of biomass and carotene’s formation. The operating practices of the maximal aeration since the 10th hour of cultivation are recommended to the use.

  14. Amphibians acquire resistance to live and dead fungus overcoming fungal immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Taegan A; Sears, Brittany F; Venesky, Matthew D; Bessler, Scott M; Brown, Jenise M; Deutsch, Kaitlin; Halstead, Neal T; Lentz, Garrett; Tenouri, Nadia; Young, Suzanne; Civitello, David J; Ortega, Nicole; Fites, J Scott; Reinert, Laura K; Rollins-Smith, Louise A; Raffel, Thomas R; Rohr, Jason R

    2014-07-10

    Emerging fungal pathogens pose a greater threat to biodiversity than any other parasitic group, causing declines of many taxa, including bats, corals, bees, snakes and amphibians. Currently, there is little evidence that wild animals can acquire resistance to these pathogens. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a pathogenic fungus implicated in the recent global decline of amphibians. Here we demonstrate that three species of amphibians can acquire behavioural or immunological resistance to B. dendrobatidis. Frogs learned to avoid the fungus after just one B. dendrobatidis exposure and temperature-induced clearance. In subsequent experiments in which B. dendrobatidis avoidance was prevented, the number of previous exposures was a negative predictor of B. dendrobatidis burden on frogs and B. dendrobatidis-induced mortality, and was a positive predictor of lymphocyte abundance and proliferation. These results suggest that amphibians can acquire immunity to B. dendrobatidis that overcomes pathogen-induced immunosuppression and increases their survival. Importantly, exposure to dead fungus induced a similar magnitude of acquired resistance as exposure to live fungus. Exposure of frogs to B. dendrobatidis antigens might offer a practical way to protect pathogen-naive amphibians and facilitate the reintroduction of amphibians to locations in the wild where B. dendrobatidis persists. Moreover, given the conserved nature of vertebrate immune responses to fungi and the fact that many animals are capable of learning to avoid natural enemies, these results offer hope that other wild animal taxa threatened by invasive fungi might be rescued by management approaches based on herd immunity. PMID:25008531

  15. The ability of fungus Mucor racemosus Fresenius to degrade high concentration of detergent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Violeta D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of fungus Mucor racemosus Fresenius to decompose high concentration of commercial detergent (MERIX, Henkel, Serbia was investigated in this study. Fungus was cultivated in liquid growth medium by Czapek with addition of detergent at concentration 0.5% during 16 days. The biochemical changes of pH, redox potential, amount of free and total organic acids, and activity of alkaline phosphatase were evaluated by analysis of fermentation broth. Simultaneously, biodegradation percentage of anionic surfactant of tested detergent was confirmed by MBAS assay. At the same time, the influence of detergent on fungal growth and total dry weight biomass was determined. Detergent at concentration 0.5% influenced on decreasing of pH value and increasing of redox potential as well as increasing of free and total organic acids. Enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase was reduced by detergent at concentration 0.5%. The fungus was decomposed about 62% of anionic surfactant during 16 day. Due to fungus was produced higher dry weight biomass (53% in relation to control. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43004

  16. Aspiperidine oxide, a piperidine N-oxide from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus indologenus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lene Maj; Kildgaard, Sara; Jaspars, Marcel; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2015-01-01

    A novel secondary metabolite, aspiperidine oxide, was isolated from the filamentous fungus, Aspergillus indologenus. The structure of aspiperidine oxide was determined from extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis supported by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The structure revealed a rare...

  17. Clove oil and fungus compounds: Can nematode suppression be achieved without phytotoxicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural products from a plant (Syzygium aromaticum) and a fungus (Aspergillus sp.) were examined for the presence of compounds with potential for application as novel nematicides. The plant-derived material, clove oil, was tested in the greenhouse against the nematode Meloidogyne incognita on cucum...

  18. Ethanol Production from Various Sugars and Cellulosic Biomass by White Rot Fungus Lenzites betulinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Kyung Hoan; Nguyen, Trung Kien; Choi, Jaehyuk; Lee, Tae Soo

    2016-03-01

    Lenzites betulinus, known as gilled polypore belongs to Basidiomycota was isolated from fruiting body on broadleaf dead trees. It was found that the mycelia of white rot fungus Lenzites betulinus IUM 5468 produced ethanol from various sugars, including glucose, mannose, galactose, and cellobiose with a yield of 0.38, 0.26, 0.07, and 0.26 g of ethanol per gram of sugar consumed, respectively. This fungus relatively exhibited a good ethanol production from xylose at 0.26 g of ethanol per gram of sugar consumed. However, the ethanol conversion rate of arabinose was relatively low (at 0.07 g of ethanol per gram sugar). L. betulinus was capable of producing ethanol directly from rice straw and corn stalks at 0.22 g and 0.16 g of ethanol per gram of substrates, respectively, when this fungus was cultured in a basal medium containing 20 g/L rice straw or corn stalks. These results indicate that L. betulinus can produce ethanol efficiently from glucose, mannose, and cellobiose and produce ethanol very poorly from galactose and arabinose. Therefore, it is suggested that this fungus can ferment ethanol from various sugars and hydrolyze cellulosic materials to sugars and convert them to ethanol simultaneously. PMID:27103854

  19. Anti-fungus agent born from scent of Japanese horseradish; `Wasabi no kaori` kara umareta kokinzai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiyama, Y.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes anti-fungus performance of essential oil extracted from mustard (containing allyl isofulfocyanate oil at 90% or more). The extracted material has high volatility and strong stimulation. Therefore, in order to use it for anti-fungal purpose, the material should be discharged slowly into an enclosed space to produce an atmosphere with its concentration higher than a certain level. The anti-fungus effect of allyl isofulfocyanate oil is reportedly capable of suppressing growth of fungus, ferments, and gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria at concentration level in gas phase from 4 to 27 ppm. Minimum growth detention concentration has also been investigated. Equivalent result has been acquired also from essential oil extracted from mustard oil. Water soluble preparation or water-system preparation that can be sprayed directly from it have been developed to rinse foodstuffs and treat fungus in foodstuffs containing water in package such as pickles. Divided powders of sustained release type carried on cellulose beads or micro-capsule preparations are available recently. Its application area is expanding remarkably. This paper also describes a result of evaluating the colon bacillus proliferation suppressing effect as an example of the effect tests. Effects to original flavors of foodstuffs are also important. (NEDO)

  20. A New Eudesmane Sesquiterpene from Nigrospora oryzae, an Endophytic Fungus of Aquilaria sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongli Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new eudesmane-type sesquiterpene, 11 -hydroxy capitulatin B (1 , along with a known related sesquiterpene, capitulatin B (2, was isolated from the endophytic fungus Nigrospora oryzae A8 from Aquilaria sinensis, the only plant resource for agarwood production in China. This research demonstrates that the endophytic fungi from A. sinensis might play a role in the formation of agarwood.

  1. COLONY FOUNDATION, NEST ARCHITECTURE, AND DEMOGRAPHY OF THE FUNGUS-GROWING ANT, MYCOCEPURUS SMITHI (HYMENOPTERA, FORMICIDAE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Mycocepurus is a phylogenetically basal attine ant whose biology may provide insight into the evolutionary origin and ancestral behaviours associated with fungus-growing that uniquely characterizes this tribe. Mycocepurus smithi from Puerto Rico produces sexual females from July to Septem...

  2. A new polyketide, penicillolide from the marine-derived fungus Penicillium sacculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Zhang, Songya; Li, Zhanlin; Wang, Yu; Chen, Zaixing; Bai, Jiao; Tian, Li; Pei, Yuehu; Hua, Huiming

    2016-05-01

    A new polyketide, penicillolide (1) was isolated from the fermentation broth of the marine-derived fungus Penicillium sacculum GT-308. Compound 1 is a polyketide with a unique carbon skeleton. The structure of this compound was established via extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D-, 2D-NMR, and HRESI-MS. PMID:26499896

  3. Investigation of the Effect of Heating, Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza and Thermophilic Fungus on Cotton Wilt Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Naraghi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, combinations of spores of a thermophilic fungus (Talaromyces flavus, Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM and microsclerotia of Verticillium dahliae under various temperature treatment (31-38°C in triplicate trial, were investigated and results were compared with those of non-treated controls. Five cotton seeds were planted in each pot containing 3 kg of pasteurized soil. In each pot, combinations of 4x103 VAM spores, 2.5x10 9 spores of thermophilic fungus (T. flavus and 5x105 microsclerotia of V. dahliae were added. Symptoms of Verticillium wilt were observed after 45 days. Index of disease severity was measured. Results indicated that pre-heating of microsclerotia at 31 and 35°C for 10 and 14 h, respectively, caused a 15% reduction in leaf infection index. Presence of VAM and thermophilic fungus (T. flavus spores caused 23 and 50% reductions in the disease development , respectively. Concurrent presence of mycorrhiza and thermophilic fungus spores caused a 10-20% reduction in disease development. These findings provide a promising approach to the control of Verticillium wilt of cotton. However, heat treatment of soil may prove difficult. Further studies in this regard are required and useful agricultural practices such as seasonal heating may be applied in the cotton fields.

  4. Carbon availability for the fungus triggers nitrogen uptake and transport in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is characterized by a transfer of nutrients in exchange for carbon. We tested the effect of the carbon availability for the AM fungus Glomus intraradices on nitrogen (N) uptake and transport in the symbiosis. We followed the uptake and transport of 15N and ...

  5. THE FUNGUS DOES NOT TRANSFER CARBON TO OR BETWEEN ROOTS IN AN ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL SYMBIOSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Very large amounts of photosynthetically fixed carbon move from plants to their fungal partners in the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis. There is also evidence for transfer of carbon in the reverse direction. However, the significance and even existence of fungus-to-plant carbon transfer has b...

  6. Genome Sequence of Ustilaginoidea virens IPU010, a Rice Pathogenic Fungus Causing False Smut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Toshitaka; Ishii, Tomoko; Terai, Goro; Machida, Masayuki; Asai, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Ustilaginoidea virens is a rice pathogenic fungus that causes false smut disease, a disease that seriously damages the yield and quality of the grain. Analysis of the U. virens IPU010 33.6-Mb genome sequence will aid in the understanding of the pathogenicity of the strain, particularly in regard to effector proteins and secondary metabolic genes. PMID:27151791

  7. Anacardic acid induces apoptosis-like cell death in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Suhail; Bose, Chinchu; Banerji, Ashok; Nair, Bipin G; Chattoo, Bharat B

    2016-01-01

    Anacardic acid (6-pentadecylsalicylic acid), extracted from cashew nut shell liquid, is a natural phenolic lipid well known for its strong antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. Its effect has been well studied in bacterial and mammalian systems but remains largely unexplored in fungi. The present study identifies antifungal, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities of anacardic acid in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. It was found that anacardic acid causes inhibition of conidial germination and mycelial growth in this ascomycetous fungus. Phosphatidylserine externalization, chromatin condensation, DNA degradation, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential suggest that growth inhibition of fungus is mainly caused by apoptosis-like cell death. Broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK treatment indicated that anacardic acid induces caspase-independent apoptosis in M. oryzae. Expression of a predicted ortholog of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) was upregulated during the process of apoptosis, suggesting the possibility of mitochondria dependent apoptosis via activation of apoptosis-inducing factor. Anacardic acid treatment leads to decrease in reactive oxygen species rather than increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation normally observed during apoptosis, confirming the antioxidant properties of anacardic acid as suggested by earlier reports. Our study also shows that anacardic acid renders the fungus highly sensitive to DNA damaging agents like ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). Treatment of rice leaves with anacardic acid prevents M. oryzae from infecting the plant without affecting the leaf, suggesting that anacardic acid can be an effective antifungal agent. PMID:26381667

  8. Koninginins N-Q, Polyketides from the Endophytic Fungus Trichoderma koningiopsis Harbored in Panax notoginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Yang, Ya-Bin; Chen, Jin-Lian; Miao, Cui-Ping; Wang, Qiang; Zhou, Hao; Chen, You-Wei; Li, Yi-Qing; Ding, Zhong-Tao; Zhao, Li-Xing

    2016-02-01

    Four new fungal polyketides named koninginins N-Q (1-4), together with four known analogues (5-8), were isolated from the endophytic fungus Trichoderma koningiopsis YIM PH30002 harbored in Panax notoginseng. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectral data interpretation. These compounds were evaluated for their antifungal activity, nitric oxide inhibition, and anticoagulant activity. PMID:26753920

  9. The potential application of fungus Trichoderma harzianum Rifai in biodegradation of detergent and industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Violeta D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential application of fungus Trichoderma harzianum Rifai in biodegradation of commercial detergent (MERIX, Henkel, Serbia was in the focus of this study. The fungus was isolated from wastewater samples of the Rasina River, downstream where the industrial wastewaters of factory Henkel (Krusevac, Serbia discharge into river. The fungus was cultivated in liquid growth medium by Czapek with addition of detergent at a concentration of 0.3% during 16 days. Analysis of fermentation broth evaluated the chemical and biochemical changes of pH, redox potential, activity of alkaline and acid invertase as well as activity of alkaline protease. In addition, the influence of detergent on fungal growth and total dry weight biomass was determined. At the same time, detergent disappearance in terms of methylene blue active substances in the medium was measured. The detergent at a concentration of 0.3% influenced significant decrease of pH value and increase of redox potential. The detergent showed inhibitory effect on acid invertase activity and stimulatory effect on alkaline invertase and protease activity. The fungus decomposed about 74.24% of tested detergent during 16 days, but total dry weight biomass reduced about 20% in relation to control. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43004

  10. Improvement of barnyardgrass potential biocontrol fungus by NTG inducing and 60Co ?-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helminthosporium gramineum Rabenh f.sp. echinochloae (HGE), the Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa spp.) potential biocontrol fungus was induced by nitrosoguanidine (NTG, C2H5N5O3). The high yield of conidia production of inducing strain I262 was obtained. Conidia production of I262 increased 52.6% compared with its original fungus HGE. The experiments of nuclear irradiation were conducted by using I262 as starting strain. I262 was irradiated for 57 minutes by 60Co ?-rays at the dose of 650 Gy. Among selecting mutants, there are 7.75% strains' conidia production higher than that of I262. Among them, conidia production of mutants F II121, F II116 and F II140 increased 54.4%, 51.5% and 41.7% compared with that of I262, respectively. Conidia yield of mutants F II121 and F II116 were doubled compared with their original fungus HGE when using chemical in combine with physical technologies to treat the barnyardgrass' pathogen. The pathogenicity and control efficacy to barnyardgrass of high yield conidia production mutants were as the same as their original fungus HGE. (authors)

  11. Convergent coevolution in the domestication of coral mushrooms by fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkacsi, A.B.; Pan, J.J.; Villesen, P.; Mueller, U.G.; Blackwell, M; McLaughlin, DJ

    Comparisons of phylogenetic patterns between coevolving symbionts can reveal rich details about the evolutionary history of symbioses. The ancient symbiosis between fungus-growing ants, their fungal cultivars, antibiotic-producing bacteria and cultivar-infecting parasites is dominated by a pattern...

  12. Convergent coevolution in the domestication of coral mushrooms by fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkacsi, A B; Pan, J J; Villesen, Palle; Mueller, U G; Blackwell, M; McLaughlin, D J

    2004-01-01

    Comparisons of phylogenetic patterns between coevolving symbionts can reveal rich details about the evolutionary history of symbioses. The ancient symbiosis between fungus-growing ants, their fungal cultivars, antibiotic-producing bacteria and cultivar-infecting parasites is dominated by a pattern...

  13. Production of microsclerotia of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae in liquid culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was the development of a liquid culture method for producing stable, infective propagules of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for control of soil-dwelling insect pests. Three strains of M. anisopliae, F52, TM109, and MA1200, were evaluated using aerated, liq...

  14. Treatment of a textile effluent from dyeing with cochineal extracts using Trametes versicolor fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Figueroa, Gabriela; Ruiz-Aguilar, Graciela M L; López-Martínez, Leticia; González-Sánchez, Guillermo; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Germán; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio

    2011-01-01

    Trametes versicolor (Tv) fungus can degrade synthetic dyes that contain azo groups, anthraquinone, triphenylmethane polymers, and heterocyclic groups. However, no references have been found related to the degradation of natural dyes, such as the carminic acid that is contained in the cochineal extract. Experiments to determine the decolorization of the effluent used in the cotton dyeing process with cochineal extract by means of Tv fungus were done. Treatments to determine decolorization in the presence or absence of Kirk's medium, glucose, and fungus, with an addition of 50% (v v-1) of nonsterilized effluent were performed. Physicochemical characterization was performed at the start and end of the treatment. Degradation kinetics were determined. A direct relationship was found between the dry weight of fungi, pH, and the decolorization system, with higher decolorization at lower pH levels (pH ~4.3). High decolorization (81% ± 0.09; 88% ± 0.17; and 99% ± 0.04) for three of the eight treatments (Kirk's medium without glucose, Kirk's medium with glucose, and without medium with glucose, respectively) was found. Toxicity tests determined an increase in the initial effluent toxicity (7.33 TU) compared with the final treatment (47.73 TU) in a period of 11 days. For this system, a degradation sequence of the carminic acid structure present in the effluent by the Tv fungus is suggested, in which it is seen that metabolites still containing aromatic structures are generated. PMID:21552764

  15. Allelochemical effects of volatile compounds from Muscodor yucatanensis, an endophytic fungus from Bursera simaruba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscodor yucatanensis, a recently described endophytic fungus, was isolated from the leaves of Bursera simaruba. In the present study we tested in vitro the mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by M. yucatanensis for the allelochemical effects against phytopathogenic fungi and fungo...

  16. Functional analysis of the kinome of the wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum

    Science.gov (United States)

    As in many other eukaryotes, protein kinases play major regulatory roles in filamentous fungi. Although the genomes of numerous plant pathogenic fungi have been sequenced, systematic characterization of their kinomes has not been reported. The wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum has 116 putative ...

  17. Identifying the transition between single and multiple mating of queens in fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Murakami, Takahiro; Schultz, Ted R; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2002-01-01

    Obligate mating of females (queens) with multiple males has evolved only rarely in social Hymenoptera (ants, social bees, social wasps) and for reasons that are fundamentally different from those underlying multiple mating in other animals. The monophyletic tribe of ('attine') fungus-growing ants...

  18. Npc1 is involved in sterol trafficking in the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ortholog of the human gene NPC1 was identified in the plant pathogenic, filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum by shared amino acid sequence, protein domain structure and cellular localization of the mature fungal protein. The Fusarium Npc1 gene shares 34% amino acid sequence identity and 51% s...

  19. Genome Sequence of Ustilaginoidea virens IPU010, a Rice Pathogenic Fungus Causing False Smut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Toshitaka; Ishii, Tomoko; Terai, Goro; Umemura, Myco; Machida, Masayuki; Asai, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Ustilaginoidea virens is a rice pathogenic fungus that causes false smut disease, a disease that seriously damages the yield and quality of the grain. Analysis of the U. virens IPU010 33.6-Mb genome sequence will aid in the understanding of the pathogenicity of the strain, particularly in regard to effector proteins and secondary metabolic genes. PMID:27151791

  20. TESTING OF THE INSECT PEST CONTROL FUNGUS BEAUVERIA BASSIANA IN GRASS SHRIMP PALAEMONETES PUGIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embryos, larvae and adult grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio were exposed to spores of the insect-control fungus Beauveria bassiana. onidiospores attached to embryos held by gravid females and remained with the egg mass for at least 6 d. In the first experiment where individual deve...

  1. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MICROSATELLITE LOCI FOR THE ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS BEAUVERIA BASSIANA (ASCOMYCOTA: HYPOCREALES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauveria bassiana is a cosmopolitan, soil-borne entomopathogenic fungus used for the biological control of insects. Recent molecular phylogenetic data indicate that B. bassiana is a complex of morphologically cryptic species. In order to study the population genetics of B. bassiana , detail speci...

  2. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE (TNT) BY A PLANT-ASSOCIATED FUNGUS FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The capability of a plant-associated fungus, Fusarium oxyvorum, to transform TNT in liquid cultures was investigated. TNT was transformed into 2-amino-4, 6-dinitrotoluene (2-A-DNT), 4-amino-2, 6-dinitrotoluene (4-A- DNT), and 2, 4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2, 4-DAT) via 2- and 4-hy...

  3. SnoRNAs from the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa: structural, functional and evolutionary insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chun-Long

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SnoRNAs represent an excellent model for studying the structural and functional evolution of small non-coding RNAs involved in the post-transcriptional modification machinery for rRNAs and snRNAs in eukaryotic cells. Identification of snoRNAs from Neurospora crassa, an important model organism playing key roles in the development of modern genetics, biochemistry and molecular biology will provide insights into the evolution of snoRNA genes in the fungus kingdom. Results Fifty five box C/D snoRNAs were identified and predicted to guide 71 2'-O-methylated sites including four sites on snRNAs and three sites on tRNAs. Additionally, twenty box H/ACA snoRNAs, which potentially guide 17 pseudouridylations on rRNAs, were also identified. Although not exhaustive, the study provides the first comprehensive list of two major families of snoRNAs from the filamentous fungus N. crassa. The independently transcribed strategy dominates in the expression of box H/ACA snoRNA genes, whereas most of the box C/D snoRNA genes are intron-encoded. This shows that different genomic organizations and expression modes have been adopted by the two major classes of snoRNA genes in N. crassa . Remarkably, five gene clusters represent an outstanding organization of box C/D snoRNA genes, which are well conserved among yeasts and multicellular fungi, implying their functional importance for the fungus cells. Interestingly, alternative splicing events were found in the expression of two polycistronic snoRNA gene hosts that resemble the UHG-like genes in mammals. Phylogenetic analysis further revealed that the extensive separation and recombination of two functional elements of snoRNA genes has occurred during fungus evolution. Conclusion This is the first genome-wide analysis of the filamentous fungus N. crassa snoRNAs that aids in understanding the differences between unicellular fungi and multicellular fungi. As compared with two yeasts, a more complex pattern of methylation guided by box C/D snoRNAs in multicellular fungus than in unicellular yeasts was revealed, indicating the high diversity of post-transcriptional modification guided by snoRNAs in the fungus kingdom.

  4. Molecular phylogeny of bark and ambrosia beetles reveals multiple origins of fungus farming during periods of global warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordal Bjarte H

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fungus farming is an unusual life style in insects that has evolved many times in the wood boring weevils named ‘ambrosia beetles’. Multiple occurrences of this behaviour allow for a detailed comparison of the different origins of fungus farming through time, its directionality, and possible ancestral states. We tested these hypotheses with a phylogeny representing the largest data set to date, nearly 4 kb of nucleotides from COI, EF-1?, CAD, ArgK, 28S, and 200 scolytine taxa. Results Phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian or parsimony approaches placed the root of Scolytinae close to the tribe Scolytini and Microborus, but otherwise indicated low resolution at older nodes. More recent clades were well resolved, including ten origins of fungus farming. There were no subsequent reversals to bark or phloem feeding in the fungus farming clades. The oldest origin of fungus farming was estimated near 50 Ma, long after the origin of Scolytinae (100-120 Ma. Younger origins included the species rich Xyleborini, dated to 21 Ma. Sister group comparisons and test of independence between traits indicated that neither gregarious larval feeding nor regular inbreeding by sibling mating was strongly correlated with the origin of fungus farming. Conclusion Origins of fungus farming corresponded mainly with two periods of global warming in the Cenozoic era, which were characterised by broadly distributed tropical forests. Hence, it seems likely that warm climates and expanding tropical angiosperm forests played critical roles in the successful radiation of diverse fungus farming groups. However, further investigation will likely reveal additional biological factors that promote fungus farming.

  5. Synthesis of fungus-like MoS2 nanosheets with ultrafast adsorption capacities toward organic dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, HaoJie; You, Shengsheng; Jia, XiaoHua

    2015-11-01

    Fungus-like molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets with a thickness of a few nanometers have been successfully synthesized via one-pot hydrothermal method. The as-prepared MoS2 nanosheets with a high surface area of 106.989 m2 g-1 exhibited excellent wastewater treatment performance with high removal capacities toward organic dyes. In addition, the fungus-like MoS2 nanosheets can absorb Congo red completely within 2 min. Successful access to high quality fungus-like MoS2 nanosheets will make it possible for their potential application in catalysis and other fields.

  6. Synthesis of fungus-like MoS2 nanosheets with ultrafast adsorption capacities toward organic dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fungus-like molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets with a thickness of a few nanometers have been successfully synthesized via one-pot hydrothermal method. The as-prepared MoS2 nanosheets with a high surface area of 106.989 m2 g-1 exhibited excellent wastewater treatment performance with high removal capacities toward organic dyes. In addition, the fungus-like MoS2 nanosheets can absorb Congo red completely within 2 min. Successful access to high quality fungus-like MoS2 nanosheets will make it possible for their potential application in catalysis and other fields. (orig.)

  7. Virus infection decreases the attractiveness of white clover plants for a non-vectoring herbivore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Mölken, Tamara; Caluwe, Hannie de; Hordijk, Cornelis A.; Leon-Reyes, Antonio; Snoeren, Tjeerd A.L.; Dam, Nicole M. van; Stuefer, Josef F.

    2012-01-01

    Plant pathogens and insect herbivores are prone to share hosts under natural conditions. Consequently, pathogen-induced changes in the host plant can affect herbivory, and vice versa. Even though plant viruses are ubiquitous in the field, little is known about plant-mediated interactions between...... feeding on plant growth, (2) the attractiveness of white clover for adult fungus gnat females, and (3) the volatile emission of white clover plants. We observed only marginal effects of WClMV infection on the interaction between fungus gnat larvae and white clover. However, adult fungus gnat females...... suggests that virus infections may contribute to protecting their hosts by decreasing herbivore infestation rates. Consequently, it is conceivable that viruses play a more beneficial role in plant-herbivore interactions than generally thought....

  8. The development of a spatially-explicit, individual-based, disease model for frogs and the chytrid fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background / Question / Methods The fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (BD), has been associated with amphibian population declines and even extinctions worldwide. Transmission of the fungus between amphibian hosts occurs via motile zoospores, which are produced on...

  9. Effect of carbon and nitrogen source amendment on synthetic dyes decolourizing efficiency of white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Deepak; Singh, Anoop; Satyawali, Yamini; Gupta, R K

    2008-01-01

    Decolourization activity of Phanerochaete chrysosporium for three synthetic dyes viz., congo red, malachite green and crystal violet and impact of additional carbon and nitrogen supply on decolourization capacity of fungus were investigated. Maximum decolourizing capacity was observed up to 15 ppm. Addition of urea as nitrogen source and glucose as carbon source significantly enhanced decolourizing capacity (up to 87%) of fungus. In all the cases, both colour and COD were reduced more in non-sterilized treatments as compared to sterilized ones. Significant reductions in COD content of dye solutions (79-84%) were recorded by fungus supplied with additional carbon and nitrogen. A highly significant correlation (r = 0.78, p dye solutions was recorded. Thus, a readily available carbon and nitrogen source is imperative to enhance the bioremediation activity of this fungus which has been the most suitable for synthetic dyes and textile industry wastewater treatment. PMID:18831336

  10. Benzyl Derivatives with in Vitro Binding Affinity for Human Opioid Receptors and Cannabinoid Receptors from the Fungus Eurotium repens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the fungus Eurotium repens resulted in the isolation of two benzyl derivatives, repenol A (1) and repenol B (2). Seven known secondary metabolites were also isolated including five benzaldehyde compounds, flavoglaucin (3), tetrahydroauroglaucin (4), dihydroauroglauci...

  11. Effects of the fungus Aspergillus penicillioides on the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus: an experimental re-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, D B; Hart, B J; Douglas, A E

    1993-07-01

    In this report the widely-held view that house dust mites benefit from fungal contamination of the dietary substratum is re-examined. The performance of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) is documented over two successive generations in the presence or absence of the xerophilic fungus Aspergillus penicillioides (Hyphomycetales: Moniliaceae). This fungus reduced survival, development rate, adult length and fecundity of D. pteronyssinus. Detrimental effects of A. penicillioides were proportional to the fungal density. Despite the antagonistic effects of A. penicillioides, a requirement for the fungus was indicated by the poor performance of fungus-free mites in the second generation; sustained culture of D. pteronyssinus in the absence of fungi is probably not possible. It is suggested that fungi may alter the particulate nature of the substratum to the detriment of house dust mites, but also provide micronutrients deficient in the diet. PMID:8369562

  12. A white-rot fungus is used as a biocathode to improve electricity production of a microbial fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White-rot fungus is able to secrete laccase, which can reduce O2 to H2O and has been widely used in enzymatic fuel cells. In this work, a strain of white-rot fungus, Coriolus versicolor, is inoculated in the cathodic chamber of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) to improve cathode reduction efficiency for better electricity generation. 2,2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothazoline-6-sulfonate), as a redox mediator, is added to the catholyte to facilitate the electron transfer between the electrode and the laccase. The results show that the fungus-based biocathode has better performance than the conventional abiotic cathode, with approximately seven-orders higher power density achieved. This is the first report that white-rot fungus is used to constitute the biocathode of an MFC for improved electricity generation.

  13. INFLUENCE OF HOST GENDER ON INFECTION RATE, DENSITY AND DISTRIBUTION OF PARASITIC FUNGUS ON MULTICOLORED ASIAN LADY BEETLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infection rate, density and distribution of a parasitic fungus, Hesperomyces virescens Thaxter (Laboulbeniales: Laboulbeniaceae), on the multicolored Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were determined in this study. Adult H. axyridis were sampled from pecan, Ca...

  14. Relationship Between a-amylase Activity and Pullulan Profiles, and a-amylase Gene Analyses of the Fungus Aureobasidium Pullulans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropical isolates of Aureobasidium pullulans isolated from various habitats in Thailand were classified based on multilocus phylogenetic analyses using concordance analysis of DNA sequences. This fungus is the major source of commercially produced pullulan, a high molecular weight polysaccharide th...

  15. Compatibility of the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana with neem against sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, on eggplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study on the compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) with neem was conducted against sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), on eggplant. Initially, three concentrations of B. bassiana (106, 1...

  16. Pathogenicity of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium anisopliae Var. Major on Different Stages of the Sunn Pest Eurygaster integriceps

    OpenAIRE

    Sedighi, Neda; ABBASIPOUR, Habib; Askary, Hassan; Gorjan, Aziz Sheikhi; Karimi, Jaber

    2013-01-01

    The sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae), is the most important insect pest of wheat and barley. The population management of this pest is of major concern to wheat producers. One of the potential control strategies is to use entomopathogenic fungi. This study evaluates the pathogenicity of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. major (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) on the sunn pest, E. integriceps. Five concentrations of the fungus were util...

  17. [Bioremediation of oil-polluted soil with an association including the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus and soil microflora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdniakova, N N; Nikitina, V E; Turkovskaia, O V

    2008-01-01

    The possibility of application of the Pleurotus ostreatus D1-soil microflora to bioremediation of oil-polluted soils was studied. The fungus degraded mainly the aromatic fraction, whereas soil microflora intensely degraded paraffin and naphthene oil fractions. Introduction of the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus D to soil induces degradation of a wider range of oil hydrocarbons. It is reasonable to further investigate the discovered phenomenon in order to improve procedures of remediation of oil-polluted soils. PMID:18491600

  18. Detection of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Colonization of Roots by Using a Dot-Immunoblot Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Sara F.; Morton, Joseph B.

    1989-01-01

    An immunoblotting procedure was developed to overcome the difficulty in identifying root colonization by a vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. The procedure utilized a murine monoclonal antibody that reacts with a protein in spores and hyphae of Glomus occultum, a fungus characterized by abundant production of hyaline spores and nonstaining intraradical infection. Minimally disturbed whole roots were squashed on nitrocellulose membranes. After inactivation of endogenous peroxidase, an in...

  19. Cytological, microbiological and therapeutic aspects of systemic infection in a dog caused by the fungus Phialosimplex caninus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigler, Lynne; Hanselman, Beth; Ruotsalo, Kristiina; Kar Tsui, George; Richardson, Susan

    2013-01-11

    A seven-year-old immunocompetent dog presenting with lymphadenopathy, mesenteric masses and splenic nodules was diagnosed with Phialosimplex caninus infection. Cytology of a mesenteric mass aspirate demonstrated few intact cells but numerous variably sized fungal cells and rare hyphal fragments. The identity of the cultured fungus was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Itraconazole therapy improved clinical signs, but the fungus was reisolated at follow-up. P. caninus systemic infection should be suspected in dogs presenting with lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. PMID:24432211

  20. Mathematical Modeling on Obligate Mutualism: Interactions between leaf-cutter ants and their fungus garden

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Yun; Clark, Rebecca; Fewell, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple mathematical model by applying Michaelis-Menton equations of enzyme kinetics to study the mutualistic interaction between the leaf cutter ant and its fungus garden at the early stage of colony expansion. We derive the sufficient conditions on the extinction and coexistence of these two species. In addition, we give a region of initial condition that leads to the extinction of two species when the model has an interior attractor. Our global analysis indicates that the division of labor by workers ants and initial conditions are two important {factors} that determine whether leaf cutter ants colonies and their fungus garden survive and grow can exist or not. We validate the model by doing the comparing between model simulations and data on fungal and ant colony growth rates under laboratory conditions. We perform sensitive analysis and parameter estimation of the model based on the experimental data to gain more biological insights on the ecological interactions between leaf cutter ants and ...

  1. Nickel oxide nanoparticles film produced by dead biomass of filamentous fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadori, Marcia Regina; Nascimento, Cláudio Augusto Oller; Corrêa, Benedito

    2014-09-01

    The synthesis of nickel oxide nanoparticles in film form using dead biomass of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus aculeatus as reducing agent represents an environmentally friendly nanotechnological innovation. The optimal conditions and the capacity of dead biomass to uptake and produce nanoparticles were evaluated by analyzing the biosorption of nickel by the fungus. The structural characteristics of the film-forming nickel oxide nanoparticles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). These techniques showed that the nickel oxide nanoparticles had a size of about 5.89 nm and were involved in a protein matrix which probably permitted their organization in film form. The production and uptake of nickel oxide nanoparticles organized in film form by dead fungal biomass bring us closer to sustainable strategies for the biosynthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles.

  2. Hydroxylation of a hederagenin derived saponin by a Xylareaceous fungus found in fruits of Sapindus saponaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During our screening of tropical plants for endophyte microorganisms, a Xylareaceous fungus was found living on the internal part of Sapindus saponaria fruits. The fruits of S. saponaria accumulate great amounts of triterpenoidal and sesquiterpenoidal saponins. The saponin 3-O-(β-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1→3)-α-L -rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-hederagenin was isolated using chromatographic methods, after alkaline hydrolysis of the crude extract obtained from S. saponaria fruits and added to the culture medium used to grows the fungus. A new saponin was isolated from this experiment by preparative scale HPLC and characterized as a 22α-hydroxy derivative. The structure of this hydroxylated saponin was elucidated based on interpretation of MS/MS data and NMR spectra. (author)

  3. Co-evolution of enzyme function in the attine ant-fungus symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Schiøtt, Morten; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    fresh leaf feeding species had a higher activity of amylase. The group of higher attines had a higher activity of proteinase and pectinase. In contrast the lower genera had a non-significant trend towards a higher activity of xylanase compared to the higher attine genera. Cellulase activity was uniform...... feces and insect carcasses. This diverse array of fungal substrates across the attine lineage implies that the symbiotic fungus needs different enzymes to break down the plant material that the ants provide or different efficiencies of enzyme function. Methods: (1.) We made a literature survey of...... between ant groups. (3.) Phylogenetic comparison and divergence estimates of nuclear ribosomal sequences and sequences coding for candidate enzyme genes (work in progress). Results: Enzyme activity assays showed significant differences in enzyme activity across major fungus-growing ant groups. Notably the...

  4. Coqui frogs persist with the deadly chytrid fungus despite a lack of defensive antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins-Smith, Louise A; Reinert, Laura K; Burrowes, Patricia A

    2015-02-10

    The amphibian skin fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) occurs widely in Puerto Rico and is thought to be responsible for the apparent extinction of 3 species of endemic frogs in the genus Eleutherodactylus, known as coquis. To examine immune defenses which may protect surviving species, we induced secretion of skin peptides from adult common coqui frogs E. coqui collected from upland forests at El Yunque. By matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, we were unable to detect peptide signals suggestive of antimicrobial peptides, and enriched peptides showed no capacity to inhibit growth of Bd. Thus, it appears that E. coqui depend on other skin defenses to survive in the presence of this deadly fungus. PMID:25667340

  5. Penicillosides A and B: new cerebrosides from the marine-derived fungus Penicillium species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar S.A. Murshid

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the course of our ongoing effort to identify bioactive compounds from marine-derived fungi, the marine fungus, Penicillium species was isolated from the Red Sea tunicate, Didemnum species. Two new cerebrosides, penicillosides A and B were isolated from the marine-derived fungus, Penicillium species using different chromatographic methods. Their structures were established by different spectroscopic data including 1D (1H NMR and 13C NMR and 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC studies as well as high-resolution mass spectral data. Penicilloside A displayed antifungal activity against Candida albicans while penicilloside B illustrated antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in the agar diffusion assay. Additionally, both compounds showed weak activity against HeLa cells.

  6. Bioactive anthraquinones from endophytic fungus Aspergillus versicolor isolated from red sea algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawas, Usama W; El-Beih, Ahmed Atef; El-Halawany, Ali M

    2012-10-01

    The marine fungus Aspergillus versicolor was isolated from the inner tissue of the Red Sea green alga Halimeda opuntia. The fungus was identified by its morphology and 18s rDNA. Cultivation of this fungal strain led to a new metabolite named isorhodoptilometrin-1-methyl ether (1) along with the known compounds emodin (2), 1-methyl emodin (3), evariquinone (4), 7-hydroxyemodin 6,8-methyl ether (5), siderin (6), arugosin C (7), and variculanol (8). The structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry. The biological properties of ethyl acetate extract and compounds 1-3 and 6-8 were explored for antimicrobial activity, anti-cancer activity and inhibition of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease. PMID:23139125

  7. Halogenated anthraquinones from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. SCSIO F063.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongbo; Wang, Fazuo; Luo, Minghe; Chen, Yuchan; Song, Yongxiang; Zhang, Weimin; Zhang, Si; Ju, Jianhua

    2012-07-27

    Metabolomic investigations focusing on the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. SCSIO F063 have unveiled seven new chlorinated anthraquinones (1-7) related to averantin, together with five known analogues (11-15) when the fungus was fermented using sea salt-containing potato dextrose broth. Through the addition of sodium bromide to the broth, two new brominated anthraquinones (8, 9) and one new nonhalogenated anthraquinone (10) were obtained from the fungal mycelia. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses including MS and 1D and 2D NMR data. One metabolite, 6-O-methyl-7-chloroaveratin (2), displayed inhibition activity against three human tumor cell lines, SF-268, MCF-7, and NCI-H460, with IC(50) values of 7.11, 6.64, and 7.42 ?M, respectively. PMID:22703109

  8. Hydroxylation of a hederagenin derived saponin by a Xylareaceous fungus found in fruits of Sapindus saponaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murgu, Michael; Santos, Luiz F. Arruda; Souza, Gezimar D. de; Daolio, Cristina; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Schneider, Bernd [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Beutenberg Campus, Jena (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    During our screening of tropical plants for endophyte microorganisms, a Xylareaceous fungus was found living on the internal part of Sapindus saponaria fruits. The fruits of S. saponaria accumulate great amounts of triterpenoidal and sesquiterpenoidal saponins. The saponin 3-O-({beta}-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1{yields}3)-{alpha}-L -rhamnopyranosyl-(1{yields}2)-{alpha}-L-arabinopyranosyl-hederagenin was isolated using chromatographic methods, after alkaline hydrolysis of the crude extract obtained from S. saponaria fruits and added to the culture medium used to grows the fungus. A new saponin was isolated from this experiment by preparative scale HPLC and characterized as a 22{alpha}-hydroxy derivative. The structure of this hydroxylated saponin was elucidated based on interpretation of MS/MS data and NMR spectra. (author)

  9. Bioactive secondary metabolites from the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebel R.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the chemical investigation and cytotoxic activity of the secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco. This plant was collected from the Beni-Mellal Mountain in Morocco and belongs to the Lamiaceae family and is named in Morocco “Salmia”. The endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. was isolated from the tissues of the stem of this plant. The fungal strain was identified by PCR. The crude organic extract of the fungal strain was proven to be active when tested for cytotoxicity against L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. Chemical investigation of the secondary metabolites showed that cochliodinol is the main component beside isocochliodinol. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined on the basis of NMR analysis (1H, 13C, COSY and HMBC as well as by mass spectrometry using ESI (Electron Spray Ionisation as source.

  10. Parasitic fungus Claviceps as a source for biotechnological production of ergot alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulvová, Helena; Galuszka, Petr; Frébortová, Jitka; Frébort, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    Ergot alkaloids produced by the fungus Claviceps parasitizing on cereals, include three major groups: clavine alkaloids, d-lysergic acid and its derivatives and ergopeptines. These alkaloids are important substances for the pharmatech industry, where they are used for production of anti-migraine drugs, uterotonics, prolactin inhibitors, anti-Parkinson agents, etc. Production of ergot alkaloids is based either on traditional field cultivation of ergot-infected rye or on submerged cultures of the fungus in industrial fermentation plants. In 2010, the total production of these alkaloids in the world was about 20,000 kg, of which field cultivation contributed about 50%. This review covers the recent advances in understanding of the genetics and regulation of biosynthesis of ergot alkaloids, focusing on possible applications of the new knowledge to improve the production yield. PMID:22261014

  11. Edible fungus degrade bisphenol A with no harmful effect on its fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengdong; Li, Mingzhu; Chen, Xiaoyan; Li, Mingchun

    2015-08-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical that is ubiquitous in the environment because of its broad industrial use. The authors report that the most widely cultivated mushroom in the world (i.e., white-rot fungus, Pleurotus ostreatus) efficiently degraded 10mg/L of BPA in 7 days. Extracellular laccase was identified as the enzyme responsible for this activity. LC-MS analysis of the metabolites revealed the presence of both low- and high-molecular-weight products obtained via oxidative cleavage and coupling reactions, respectively. In particular, an analysis of the fatty acid composition and chemical structure of the fungal mycelium demonstrated that exposure to BPA resulted in no harmful effects on this edible fungus. The results provide a better understanding of the environmental fate of BPA and its potential impact on food crops. PMID:25933259

  12. Isolation and fusion of protoplasts from the phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotium rolfsii (Sacc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikandar Hayat

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sclerotium rolfsii (Sacc. is a serious plant pathogenic fungus and lacks perfect (basidial stage in production. Protoplast fusion technology was employed to reconstruct fusants from this fungus. Two strains designated as A and R were used. Maximum protoplast yields of 3.8x10(5 /g mycelia and 2.8x10(5 /g mycelia were formed in strains A and R respectively. Osmotic stabilizer sucrose 1M gave maximum yield. Lysing enzyme at the rate of 15mg/ml was found best for yield. Fusion of protoplasts from strains A and R was carried out in fusion media containing PEG 4000 30% (w/v with 0.2mM CaCl2. Four fusants F1, F2, F3 and F4 were recovered. Morphological, physiological and pathogenic characters of fusants were compared with parent strains on carrots, beans and tomato.

  13. Divergence and dispersal of the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Yu, Ze-Fen; Xu, Jianping; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2011-12-01

    Nematode-trapping fungi are of significant agricultural, forestry and ecological importance. However, relatively little is known about the patterns of genetic variation for any nematode-trapping fungus through its broad geographic and ecological contexts. Here, we analysed DNA sequence variation among strains of the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora from China. Our analyses revealed that the Chinese A.?oligospora is a species complex with at least three divergent lineages (cryptic species). In addition, there was significant geographic structuring with unambiguous evidence for localized recombination within two of the three lineages in nature. However, evidence for clonal reproduction was also found. We discuss the implications of our results to the conservation and biocontrol application of A.?oligospora in agriculture and forestry. PMID:23761368

  14. Real-Time PCR Detection of Dogwood Anthracnose Fungus in Historical Herbarium Specimens from Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stephen; Masuya, Hayato; Zhang, Jian; Walsh, Emily; Zhang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Cornus species (dogwoods) are popular ornamental trees and important understory plants in natural forests of northern hemisphere. Dogwood anthracnose, one of the major diseases affecting the native North American Cornus species, such as C. florida, is caused by the fungal pathogen Discula destructiva. The origin of this fungus is not known, but it is hypothesized that it was imported to North America with its host plants from Asia. In this study, a TaqMan real-time PCR assay was used to detect D. destructiva in dried herbarium and fresh Cornus samples. Several herbarium specimens from Japan and China were detected positive for D. destructiva, some of which were collected before the first report of the dogwood anthracnose in North America. Our findings further support that D. destructiva was introduced to North America from Asia where the fungus likely does not cause severe disease. PMID:27096929

  15. Zoosporicidal metabolites from an endophytic fungus Cryptosporiopsis sp. of Zanthoxylum leprieurii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talontsi, Ferdinand Mouafo; Facey, Petrea; Tatong, Michel D Kongue; Tofazzal Islam, M; Frauendorf, Holm; Draeger, Siegfried; Tiedemann, Andreas von; Laatsch, Hartmut

    2012-11-01

    Two polyketides, cryptosporiopsin A (1) and hydroxypropan-2',3'-diol orsellinate (3), and a natural cyclic pentapeptide (4), together with two known compounds were isolated from the culture of Cryptosporiopsis sp., an endophytic fungus from leaves and branches of Zanthoxylum leprieurii (Rutaceae). The structures of these metabolites were elucidated on the basis of their spectroscopic and spectrometric data. Cryptosporiopsin A and the other metabolites exhibited motility inhibitory and lytic activities against zoospores of the grapevine downy mildew pathogen Plasmopara viticola at 10-25μg/mL. In addition, the isolated compounds displayed potent inhibitory activity against mycelial growth of two other peronosporomycete phytopathogens, Pythium ultimum, Aphanomyces cochlioides and a basidiomycetous fungus Rhizoctonia solani. Weak cytotoxic activity on brine shrimp larvae was observed. PMID:22883958

  16. Benzopyranones from the Endophytic Fungus Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12 and Their Bioactivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligang Zhou

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The endophytic fungus Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12 was isolated from the hybrid ‘Neva’ of Populus deltoides Marsh × P. nigra L. In this study, four benzopyranones were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12, and identified as palmariol B (1, 4-hydroxymellein (2, alternariol 9-methyl ether (3, and botrallin (4 by means of physicochemical and spectroscopic analysis. All the compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial, antifungal, antinematodal and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. 4-Hydroxymellein (2 exhibited stronger antibacterial activity than the other compounds. Palmariol B (1 showed stronger antimicrobial, antinematodal and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities than alternariol 9-methyl ether (3 which indicated that the chlorine substitution at position 2 may contribute to its bioactivity. The results indicate the potential of this endophytic fungus as a source of bioactive benzopyranones.

  17. Induced production of mycotoxins in an endophytic fungus from the medicinal plant Datura stramonium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jieyin; Awakawa, Takayoshi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Abe, Ikuro

    2012-10-15

    Epigenetic modifiers, including DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) or histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, are useful to induce the expression of otherwise dormant biosynthetic genes under standard laboratory conditions. We isolated several endophytic fungi from the medicinal plant Datura stramonium L., which produces pharmaceutically important tropane alkaloids, including scopolamine and hyoscyamine. Although none of the endophytic fungi produced the tropane alkaloids, supplementation of a DNMT inhibitor, 5-azacytidine, and/or a HDAC inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, to the culture medium induced the production of mycotoxins, including alternariol, alternariol-5-O-methyl ether, 3'-hydroxyalternariol-5-O-methyl ether, altenusin, tenuazonic acid, and altertoxin II, by the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. This is the first report of a mycotoxin-producing endophytic fungus from the medicinal plant D. stramonium L. This work demonstrates that treatments with epigenetic modifiers induce the production of mycotoxins, thus providing a useful tool to explore the biosynthetic potential of the microorganisms. PMID:22967766

  18. Transcriptome of an entomophthoralean fungus (Pandora formicae) shows molecular machinery adjusted for successful host exploitation and transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małagocka, Joanna; Grell, Morten N; Lange, Lene; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Jensen, Annette B

    2015-06-01

    Pandora formicae is an obligate entomopathogenic fungus from the phylum Entomophthoromycota, known to infect only ants from the genus Formica. In the final stages of infection, the fungus induces the so-called summit disease syndrome, manipulating the host to climb up vegetation prior to death and fixing the dead cadaver to the surface, all to increase efficient spore dispersal. To investigate this fascinating pathogen-host interaction, we constructed interaction transcriptome libraries from two final infection stages from the material sampled in the field: (1) when the cadavers were fixed, but the fungus had not grown out through the cuticle and (2) when the fungus was growing out from host cadaver and producing spores. These phases mark the switch from within-host growth to reproduction on the host surface, after fungus outgrowth through host integument. In this first de novo transcriptome of an entomophthoralean fungus, we detected expression of many pathogenicity-related genes, including secreted hydrolytic enzymes and genes related to morphological reorganization and nutrition uptake. Differences in expression of genes in these two infection phases were compared and showed a switch in enzyme expression related to either cuticle breakdown or cell proliferation and cell wall remodeling, particularly in subtilisin-like serine protease and trypsin-like protease transcripts. PMID:25968105

  19. Leucoagaricus gongylophorus Produces Diverse Enzymes for the Degradation of Recalcitrant Plant Polymers in Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aylward, Frank O. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tringe, Susannah G. [Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Teiling, Clotilde [Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Tremmel, Daniel [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Moeller, Joseph [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Scott, Jarrod J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Barry, Kerrie W. [Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Piehowski, Paul D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nicora, Carrie D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Malfatti, Stephanie [Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Monroe, Matthew E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Purvine, Samuel O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Smith, Richard D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weinstock, George [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MS (United States); Gerardo, Nicole [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States); Suen, Garret [Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Lipton, Mary S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Currie, Cameron R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smothsonian Tropical Research Inst., Balboa (Panama)

    2013-06-12

    Plants represent a large reservoir of organic carbon comprised largely of recalcitrant polymers that most metazoans are unable to deconstruct. Many herbivores gain access to nutrients in this material indirectly by associating with microbial symbionts, and leaf-cutter ants are a paradigmatic example. These ants use fresh foliar biomass as manure to cultivate fungus gardens composed primarily of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, a basidiomycetous symbiont that produces specialized hyphal swellings that serve as a food source for the host ant colony. Although leaf-cutter ants are conspicuous herbivores that contribute substantially to carbon turnover in Neotropical ecosystems, the process through which plant biomass is degraded in their fungus gardens is not well understood. Here we present the first draft genome of L. gongylophorus, and using genomic, metaproteomic, and phylogenetic tools we investigate its role in lignocellulose degradation in the fungus gardens of both Atta cephalotes and Acromyrmex echinatior leaf-cutter ants. We show that L. gongylophorus produces a diversity of lignocellulases in fungus gardens, and is likely the primary driver of plant biomass degradation in these ecosystems. We also show that this fungus produces distinct sets of lignocellulases throughout the different stages of biomass degradation, including numerous cellulases and laccases that may be playing an important but previously uncharacterized role in lignocellulose degradation. Our study provides a comprehensive analysis of plant biomass degradation in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens and provides insight into the molecular dynamics underlying the symbiosis between these dominant herbivores and their obligate fungal cultivar.

  20. A Hair & a Fungus: Showing Kids the Size of a Microbe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Dana L.

    2013-01-01

    A simple method is presented to show kids the size of a microbe--a fungus hypha--compared to a human hair. Common household items are used to make sterile medium on a stove or hotplate, which is dispensed in the cells of a weekly plastic pill box. Mold fungi can be easily and safely grown on the medium from the classroom environment. A microscope…

  1. Amphibians acquire resistance to live and dead fungus overcoming fungal immunosuppression

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Taegan A.; Sears, Brittany F.; Venesky, Matthew D.; Bessler, Scott M.; Brown, Jenise M.; Deutsch, Kaitlin; Halstead, Neal T.; Lentz, Garrett; Tenouri, Nadia; Young, Suzanne; Civitello, David J.; Ortega, Nicole; Fites, J. Scott; Reinert, Laura K.; Rollins-Smith, Louise A.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging fungal pathogens pose a greater threat to biodiversity than any other parasitic group1, causing declines of many taxa, including bats, corals, bees, snakes and amphibians1–4. Currently, there is little evidence that wild animals can acquire resistance to these pathogens5. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a pathogenic fungus implicated in the recent global decline of amphibians6. Here we demonstrate that three species of amphibians can acquire behavioural or immunological resistance ...

  2. X-ray structure of a vanadium-containing enzyme: chloroperoxidase from the fungus Curvularia inaequalis.

    OpenAIRE

    Messerschmidt, A.; Wever, R.

    1996-01-01

    The chloroperoxidase (EC 1.11.1.-) from the fungus Curvularia inaequalis belongs to a class of vanadium enzymes that oxidize halides in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to the corresponding hypohalous acids. The 2.1 A crystal structure (R = 20%) of an azide chloroperoxidase complex reveals the geometry of the catalytic vanadium center. Azide coordinates directly to the metal center, resulting in a structure with azide, three nonprotein oxygens, and a histidine as ligands. In the native state...

  3. Is the Pathogenic Ergot Fungus a Conditional Defensive Mutualist for Its Host Grass?

    OpenAIRE

    Wäli, Pauliina P.; Wäli, Piippa R.; Saikkonen, Kari; Tuomi, Juha

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized, that outcomes of mutualistic plant-microorganism interactions are often context dependent and can range from mutualistic to antagonistic depending on conditions. Instead, seemingly pathogenic associations are generally considered only harmful to plants. The ergot fungus (Claviceps purpurea) is a common seed pathogen of grasses and cereals. Ergot sclerotia contain alkaloids which can cause severe toxicity in mammals when ingested, and thus the fungal infection might prov...

  4. Abundant Respirable Ergot Alkaloids from the Common Airborne Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus†

    OpenAIRE

    Panaccione, Daniel G.; Coyle, Christine M.

    2005-01-01

    Ergot alkaloids are mycotoxins that interact with several monoamine receptors, negatively affecting cardiovascular, nervous, reproductive, and immune systems of exposed humans and animals. Aspergillus fumigatus, a common airborne fungus and opportunistic human pathogen, can produce ergot alkaloids in broth culture. The objectives of this study were to determine if A. fumigatus accumulates ergot alkaloids in a respirable form in or on its conidia, to quantify ergot alkaloids associated with co...

  5. EFFECT OF POTENTIAL INDUCTORS ON LACCASE PRODUCTION BY WHITE-ROT FUNGUS CERIPORIOPSIS SUBVERMISPORA

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Chmelová; Miroslav Ondrejovič

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the influence of selected inorganic ions (Cu2+ and Mn2+) and aromatic amino acids (tryptophan and tyrosine) on laccase production by white-rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora was investigated. This aim was realized by monitoring laccase production during cultivation of C. subvermispora. Secondary, we been evaluated glucose concentration in medium and biomass growth after cultivation. Extracellular laccase formation can stimulated by the addition of Cu2+ (3.0 mmol/L). The high...

  6. Biodecolorization of Phenolic Paper Mill Effluent by Ligninolytic Fungus Trametes versicolor

    OpenAIRE

    P.C. Prabu; C. Udayasoorian

    2005-01-01

    A white rot fungus isolated from soil samples enriched by continuous pulp and paper mill effluent irrigation and identified as Trametes versicolor was capable of decolorization and degradation of phenol from paper mill effluent. 14C synthetic lignin mineralization assays showed that Trametes versicolor assimilated 24.3% of the total label. There was 76% effluent decolourization along with 78% COD reduction. The effluent chlorinated phenol degradation was 85% by Trametes versicolor, when added...

  7. CJ-15,183, a new inhibitor of squalene synthase produced by a fungus, Aspergillus aculeatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, S; Hirai, H; Ishiguro, M; Kambara, T; Kojima, Y; Matsunaga, T; Nishida, H; Suzuki, Y; Sugiura, A; Harwood, H J; Huang, L H; Kojima, N

    2001-11-01

    A new squalene synthase (SSase) inhibitor, CJ-15,183 (I) was isolated from the fermentation broth of a fungus, Aspergillus aculeatus CL38916. The compound potently inhibited rat liver and Candida albicans microsomal SSases and also inhibited the human enzyme. It also showed antifungal activities against filamentous fungi and a yeast. The structure was determined to be an aliphatic tetracarboxylic acid compound consisting of an alkyl gamma-lactone, malic acid and isocitric acid moieties by spectroscopic studies. PMID:11827032

  8. The evolution of fungus-growing termites and their mutualistic fungal symbionts

    OpenAIRE

    Aanen, Duur K; Eggleton, Paul; Rouland-LeFèvre, Corinne; Guldberg-Frøslev, Tobias; ROSENDAHL, Søren; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2002-01-01

    We have estimated phylogenies of fungus-growing termites and their associated mutualistic fungi of the genus Termitomyces using Bayesian analyses of DNA sequences. Our study shows that the symbiosis has a single African origin and that secondary domestication of other fungi or reversal of mutualistic fungi to a free-living state has not occurred. Host switching has been frequent, especially at the lower taxonomic levels, and nests of single termite species can have different symbionts. Data a...

  9. Antifungal compounds of Xylaria sp., an endophytic fungus isolated from Palicourea marcgravii (Rubiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five compounds, 2-hexyl-3-methyl-butanodioic acid (1), cytochalasin D (2), 7-dechlorogriseofulvin (3), cytochalasin B (4) and griseofulvin (5), have been isolated from the endophytic fungus Xylaria sp., and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. In the bioautography assay against Cladosporium cladosporioides and Cladosporium sphaerospermum, compounds 1 and 2 were found to be active while compounds 3, 4 and 5 did not show antifungal activity. (author)

  10. Biodegradation of colorants in refinery effluents : potential use of the fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Carla; Bento, Luis San Miguel; Mota, M.

    1999-01-01

    The degradative ability of Phanerochaete chrysosporium towards each of the four;main types of colorants present in regeneration effluents from ion exchange resins was investigated. The fungus was able to decolorise melanoidin, caramel and HADP (hexose alkaline degradation product) solutions by 74%, 87% and 80%,. respectively, and to reduce levels of phenolic compounds by 72%. Gel permeation chromatography studies showed that decolorisation was accompanied by effective degradation of the color...

  11. [Incorporation of caffeine into the macromicete fungus Pleurotus sajor-caju growing on coffee pulp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto Ramírez, Ivonne Jeannette; Chegwin Angarita, Carolina; Osorio Zuloaga, Hector Jairo

    2007-03-01

    TWhen the chemical composition of secondary metabolites from the Pleurotus sajor-caju growing on coffee pulp were study, it was found that the fungus has the faculty of incorporating caffeine inside its fructiferous body. Component of the substrate (around 1.3% on dry basis) did not show a structural change over the alkaloid; this constitutes an unexpected outcome for a species belonging to realm of the fungi. PMID:17592899

  12. Efficiency of the fungus Aspergillus niger biomass in Pentachlorophenol (PCP) absorption from aqueous solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Shokoohi; Salah Azizi; Said Amir Ghiasian; Javad Fredmal

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is an organic compound and phenolic derivatives categorized as priority pollutants that have harmful effects on humans, animals, and plants in low concentrations. Therefore, PCP removal from water and wastewater is very important. The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency of A. niger fungus biomass in PCP absorption. Materials and Methods: This was an experimental study in which different steps of the experiments were performed. A...

  13. Neuronal migration: unraveling the molecular pathway with humans, mice, and a fungus

    OpenAIRE

    Keays, David A

    2007-01-01

    This review highlights the utility of comparative genetics in understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie neuronal migration. It is apparent from studies in humans, mice, and a fungus that nuclear migration is a key component of neuronal migration and that both are dependent on a dynamic microtubule network. In vertebrates regulation of this network involves a complex pathway that is dependent on extracellular guidance cues, membrane-bound receptors, intracellular signaling molecules...

  14. Utilizing DART Mass Spectrometry to Pinpoint Halogenated Metabolites from a Marine Invertebrate-Derived Fungus

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Katharine R.; Loveridge, Steven T.; Tenney, Karen; Media, Joseph; Frederick A. Valeriote; Crews, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Prenylated indole alkaloids are a diverse group of fungal secondary metabolites and represent an important biosynthetic class. In this study we have identified new halogenated prenyl-indole alkaloids from an invertebrate-derived Malbranchea graminicola strain. Using Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) Mass Spectrometry, these compounds were initially detected from spores of the fungus grown on agar plates, without the need for any organic extraction. Subsequently, the metabolites were isolate...

  15. Salamander chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans) in the United States—Developing research, monitoring, and management strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Evan H Campbell; Muths, Erin L; Katz, Rachel A; Canessa, Stefano; Adams, Michael J.; Ballard, Jennifer R.; Berger, Lee; Briggs, Cheryl J; Coleman, Jeremy; Gray, Matthew J.; Harris, M. Camille; Harris, Reid N; Hossack, Blake R; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Kolby, Jonathan E.

    2015-01-01

    The recently (2013) identified pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal), poses a severe threat to the distribution and abundance of salamanders within the United States and Europe. Development of a response strategy for the potential, and likely, invasion of Bsal into the United States is crucial to protect global salamander biodiversity. A formal working group, led by Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI) scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (US...

  16. Cytokinin production by the rice blast fungus is a pivotal requirement for full virulence

    OpenAIRE

    Chanclud, Emilie; KISIALA, Anna; Emery, Neil R. J.; Chalvon, Veronique; Ducasse, Aurélie; Romiti-Michel, Corinne; Gravot, Antoine; Kroj, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce cytokinin (CK) hormones for controlling key developmental processes like source/sink distribution, cell division or programmed cell-death. Some plant pathogens have been shown to produce CKs but the function of this mimicry production by non-tumor inducing pathogens, has yet to be established. Here we identify a gene required for CK biosynthesis, CKS1, in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. The fungal-secreted CKs are likely perceived by the plant during infection since ...

  17. Effector-Mining in the Poplar Rust Fungus Melampsora larici-populina Secretome

    OpenAIRE

    Lorrain, Cécile; Hecker, Arnaud; Duplessis, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    The poplar leaf rust fungus, Melampsora larici-populina has been established as a tree-microbe interaction model. Understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling infection by pathogens appears essential for durable management of tree plantations. In biotrophic plant-parasites, effectors are known to condition host cell colonization. Thus, investigation of candidate secreted effector proteins (CSEPs) is a major goal in the poplar–poplar rust interaction. Unlike oomycetes, fungal effectors d...

  18. The Predicted Secretome of the Plant Pathogenic Fungus Fusarium graminearum: A Refined Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Neil A.; Antoniw, John; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E.

    2012-01-01

    The fungus Fusarium graminearum forms an intimate association with the host species wheat whilst infecting the floral tissues at anthesis. During the prolonged latent period of infection, extracellular communication between live pathogen and host cells must occur, implying a role for secreted fungal proteins. The wheat cells in contact with fungal hyphae subsequently die and intracellular hyphal colonisation results in the development of visible disease symptoms. Since the original genome ann...

  19. Two new pyrone derivatives from the plant endophytic fungus Exserohilum sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruxin; Niu, Shubin; Guo, Liangdong; Zhang, Yang

    2014-10-01

    Two new a-pyrones, Exserolide G-H (1-2), together with one known metabolite, stemphypyrone (3), were isolated from the solid-substrate fermentation cultures of the plant endophytic fungus Exserohilum sp. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated primarily by analysis of NMR data. Compounds 1-3 were tested for cytotoxicity against a small panel of human carcinoma cell lines. Compound 1 showed cytotoxicity against HeLa, A549 and HCT116 cells. PMID:25522545

  20. The dynamics of plant cell-wall polysaccharide decomposition in leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens

    OpenAIRE

    Moller, Isabel Eva; de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Harholt, Jesper; Willats, William George Tycho; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2011-01-01

    The degradation of live plant biomass in fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants is poorly characterised but fundamental for understanding the mutual advantages and efficiency of this obligate nutritional symbiosis. Controversies about the extent to which the garden-symbiont Leucocoprinus gongylophorus degrades cellulose have hampered our understanding of the selection forces that induced large scale herbivory and of the ensuing ecological footprint of these ants. Here we use a recently establish...

  1. Systems analysis of plant cell wall degradation by the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Chaoguang; Beeson, William T.; Iavarone, Anthony T.; Sun, Jianping; Marletta, Michael A; CATE, JAMIE H.D.; Glass, N Louise

    2009-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa is a model laboratory organism, but in nature is commonly found growing on dead plant material, particularly grasses. Using functional genomics resources available for N. crassa, which include a near-full genome deletion strain set and whole genome microarrays, we undertook a system-wide analysis of plant cell wall and cellulose degradation. We identified approximately 770 genes that showed expression differences when N. crassa was cultured on ground M...

  2. Presence of the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Native Amphibians Exported from Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Kolby, Jonathan E.

    2014-01-01

    The emerging infectious disease chytridiomycosis is driven by the spread of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd), a highly virulent pathogen threatening global amphibian biodiversity. Although pandemic in distribution, previous intensive field surveys have failed to detect Bd in Madagascar, a biodiversity hotspot home to hundreds of endemic amphibian species. Due to the presence of Bd in nearby continental Africa and the ecological crisis that can be expected followin...

  3. Amphibian Chytrid Fungus in Madagascar neither Shows Widespread Presence nor Signs of Certain Establishment

    OpenAIRE

    Kolby, Jonathan E.; Skerratt, Lee F

    2015-01-01

    The global spread of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) is associated with amphibian mass mortality, population decline, and extinction. Over the past decade, concern has been expressed for the potential introduction of Bd to Madagascar, a global hotspot of amphibian biodiversity. Following years without detection, widespread Bd presence in Madagascar has now been reported (Bletz et al. 2015a), raising international conservation concern. Before reacting to this find...

  4. Endemic Infection of the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus in a Frog Community Post-Decline

    OpenAIRE

    Retallick Richard W. R; McCallum Hamish; Speare Rick

    2004-01-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in the decline and extinction of numerous frog species worldwide. In Queensland, Australia, it has been proposed as the cause of the decline or apparent extinction of at least 14 high-elevation rainforest frog species. One of these, Taudactylus eungellensis, disappeared from rainforest streams in Eungella National Park in 1985-1986, but a few remnant populations were subsequently discovered. Here, we report the analysis of ...

  5. T-DNA transfer from Agrobacterium tumefaciens to the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus microcarpus

    OpenAIRE

    Pardo, A.G.; Kemppainen, M. (Mira); Valdemoros, D.; Duplessis, Sébastien; Martin, Francis; Tagu, Denis

    2005-01-01

    The model ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus microcarpus isolate 441 was transformed by using Agrobacterium. tumefaciens LBA1100 and AGL-1. The selection marker was the Shble gene of Streptoallotecius hidustanus, conferring resistance to phleomycin, under the control of the gpd gene promoter and terminator of Schizophyllum commune. Transformation resulted in phleomycin resistant clones which were confirmed by PCR to contain the resistance cassette. A. tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer would a...

  6. Ras GTPases Modulate Morphogenesis, Sporulation and Cellulase Gene Expression in the Cellulolytic Fungus Trichoderma reesei

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, JiWei; Zhang, Yanmei; Zhong, Yaohua; Qu, Yinbo; Wang, Tianhong

    2012-01-01

    Background The model cellulolytic fungus Trichoderma reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina) is capable of responding to environmental cues to compete for nutrients in its natural saprophytic habitat despite its genome encodes fewer degradative enzymes. Efficient signalling pathways in perception and interpretation of environmental signals are indispensable in this process. Ras GTPases represent a kind of critical signal proteins involved in signal transduction and regulation of gene expression...

  7. Isolation and Structural Elucidation of Chondrosterins F–H from the Marine Fungus Chondrostereum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jian Lan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The marine fungus Chondrostereum sp. was collected from a soft coral of the species Sarcophyton tortuosum from the South China Sea. Three new compounds, chondrosterins F–H (1, 4 and 5, together with three known compounds, incarnal (2, arthrosporone (3, and (2E-decene-4,6,8-triyn-1-ol (6, were isolated. Their structures were elucidated primarily based on NMR and MS data. Incarnal (2 exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against various cancer cell lines.

  8. BIOMIMETIC SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES FROM AN ENDOPHYTIC FUNGUS AND THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL EFFICACY

    OpenAIRE

    Nirjanta Devi Nameirakpam; Dheeban, Shankar. P; Sutha S.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, an endophytic fungus, Penicillium sps. was isolated from the medicinal plant, Centella asiatica. The extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the filtrate of cell mass of an isolated Penicillium sps was monitored and the UV-Vis absorption spectrum recorded for the solution shows the characteristic surface plasmon resonance band for silver nanoparticles in the range of 390-440 nm. The SEM studies confirmed the formation of silver particles in the size of 100 nm, a...

  9. A Laboratory Maintenance Regime for a Fungus-Growing Termite Macrotermes gilvus (Blattodea: Termitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Chen; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2015-06-01

    The optimum maintenance conditions of the fungus-growing termite, Macrotermes gilvus (Hagen) (Blattodea: Termitidae), in the laboratory were studied. Termites were kept on a matrix of moist sand and with fungus comb as food. The survival of groups of termites was measured when maintained at different population densities by changing group size and container volume. Larger groups (?0.6?g) were more vigorous and had significant higher survival rates than smaller groups (?0.3?g). The population density for optimal survival of M. gilvus is 0.0025?g per container volume (ml) or 0.0169?g per matrix volume (cm(3)), i.e., 1.2?g of termites kept in a 480-ml container filled with 71?cm3 of sand. In termite groups of smaller size (i.e., 0.3?g) or groups maintained in smaller container (i.e., 100?ml) the fungus comb was overgrown with Xylaria spp., and subsequently all termites died within the study period. The insufficient number of workers for regulating the growth of unwanted fungi other than Termitomyces spp. in the fungus comb is the most likely reason. Unlike some other mound-building termite species, M. gilvus showed satisfactory survival when maintained in non-nutritious matrix (i.e., sand). There was no significant difference in the survival rate between different colonies of M. gilvus (n=5), with survival in the range of 78.5-84.4% after 4?wk. Advances in the maintenance of Macrotermes will enable researchers to study with more biological relevance many aspects of the biology, behavior, and management of this species. PMID:26470252

  10. Two Additional New Compounds from the Marine-Derived Fungus Pseudallescheria ellipsoidea F42-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun-Teng; Xu, Meng-Yang; Liu, Wei; Li, Hou-Jin; Xu, Jun; Yang, De-Po; Lan, Wen-Jian; Wang, Lai-You

    2016-01-01

    Two additional new compounds, pseudellone D (1) and (5S,6S)-dihydroxylasiodiplodin (3), along with the two known compounds lasiodipline F (2), (5S)-hydroxylasiodiplodin (4) were isolated from the marine-derived fungus Pseudallescheria ellipsoidea F42-3 associated with the soft coral Lobophytum crassum. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were elucidated on the basis of the corresponding spectroscopic data and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. PMID:27043524

  11. Two Additional New Compounds from the Marine-Derived Fungus Pseudallescheria ellipsoidea F42-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Teng Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Two additional new compounds, pseudellone D (1 and (5S,6S-dihydroxylasiodiplodin (3, along with the two known compounds lasiodipline F (2, (5S-hydroxylasiodiplodin (4 were isolated from the marine-derived fungus Pseudallescheria ellipsoidea F42-3 associated with the soft coral Lobophytum crassum. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were elucidated on the basis of the corresponding spectroscopic data and electronic circular dichroism (ECD spectra.

  12. Complementary symbiont contributions to plant decomposition in a fungus-farming termite

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Michael; Hu, Haofu; Li, Cai; Chen, Zhensheng; Xu, Luohao; Otani, Saria; Nygaard, Sanne; Nobre, Tania; Klaubauf, Sylvia; Schindler, Philipp M.; Hauser, Frank; Pan, Hailin; Yang, Zhikai; Sonnenberg, Anton S.M.; de Beer, Z. Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Old World (sub)tropical fungus-growing termites owe their massive ecological footprints to an advanced symbiosis with Termitomyces fungi. They also have abundant gut bacteria, but the complementarity roles of these symbionts have remained unclear. We analyzed the genomic potential for biomass decomposition in a farming termite, its fungal symbiont, and its bacterial gut communities. We found that plant biomass conversion is mostly a multistage complementary cooperation between Termitomyces an...

  13. Induced autolysis of fungus Aspergillus terreus AT-490 grown on agricultural and food industry wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autolysis of the biomass of fungus Aspergillus terreus AT-490 grown on citrus meal and tomato residues was studied. The optimal conditions of conducting it were determined: preliminary ultrasonic treatment for 5 min, temperature 55 degrees C, concentration of dry materials 50 g/liter, duration 23 hr, inducer 3% ethanol. The amino acid composition of the biomass of A. terreus AT-490 was determined

  14. Ethylene Supports Colonization of Plant Roots by the Mutualistic Fungus Piriformospora indica

    OpenAIRE

    Khatabi, Behnam; Molitor, Alexandra; Lindermayr, Christian; Pfiffi, Stefanie; Durner, Jörg; von Wettstein, Diter; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schäfer, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The mutualistic basidiomycete Piriformospora indica colonizes roots of mono- and dicotyledonous plants, and thereby improves plant health and yield. Given the capability of P. indica to colonize a broad range of hosts, it must be anticipated that the fungus has evolved efficient strategies to overcome plant immunity and to establish a proper environment for nutrient acquisition and reproduction. Global gene expression studies in barley identified various ethylene synthesis and signaling compo...

  15. Physical Map and Organization of Chromosome 7 in the Rice Blast Fungus, Magnaporthe grisea

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Heng; Blackmon, Barbara P; Sasinowski, Maciek; Dean, Ralph A

    1999-01-01

    The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea is a highly destructive plant pathogen and one of the most important for studying various aspects of host-plant interactions. It has been widely adopted as a model organism because it is ideally suited for genetic and biological studies. To facilitate map-based cloning, chromosome walking, and genome organization studies of M. grisea, a complete physical map of chromosome 7 was constructed using a large-insert (130 kb) bacterial artificial chromosome (...

  16. New bioactive metabolites produced by Phomopsis cassiae, an endophytic fungus in Cassia spectabilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new metabolites, ethyl 2,4-dihydroxy-5,6-dimethylbenzoate (1) and phomopsilactone (2) were isolated from Phomopsis cassiae, an endophytic fungus in Cassia spectabilis. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR, MS and IR spectral data. Compounds 1 and 2 displayed strong antifungal activity against the phytopatogenic fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, as well as cytotoxicity against human cervical tumor cell line (HeLa), in in vitro assays. (author)

  17. Pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycetes) to Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhioua, E.; Browning, M.; Johnson, P.W.; Ginsberg, H.S.; LeBrun, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is highly pathogenic to the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis. Spore concentrations of 108/ml for engorged larvae and 107/ml for engorged females resulted in 100% tick mortality, 2 wk post-infection. The LC50 value for engorged larvae (concentration to kill 50% of ticks) was 107 spores/ml. Metarhizium anisopliae shows considerable potential as a microbial control agent for the management of Ixodes scapularis.

  18. Gene cluster involved in melanin biosynthesis of the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata.

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, N.; Tsuge, T.

    1993-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata produces melanin, a black pigment, from acetate via 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene. To isolate a fungal gene required for melanin biosynthesis, we transformed an A. alternata Brm1- (light brown) mutant with the DNA of a wild-type strain genomic library constructed by use of a cosmid carrying the hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene. When hygromycin B-resistant transformants were screened for melanin production, 1 of 1,363 transformants appeared to regain ...

  19. Short-Read Sequencing for Genomic Analysis of the Brown Rot Fungus Fibroporia radiculosa

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Juliet D.; Perkins, Andy D; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Schroeder, Steven G.; Burgess, Shane C; Diehl, Susan V.

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of short-read sequencing for genomic analysis was demonstrated for Fibroporia radiculosa, a copper-tolerant fungus that causes brown rot decay of wood. The effect of read quality on genomic assembly was assessed by filtering Illumina GAIIx reads from a single run of a paired-end library (75-nucleotide read length and 300-bp fragment size) at three different stringency levels and then assembling each data set with Velvet. A simple approach was devised to determine which filter ...

  20. Epicoccolides: Antimicrobial and antifungal polyketides from an endophytic fungus Epicoccum sp associated with Theobroma cacao.

    OpenAIRE

    Talontsi, F.; Dittrich, B; Schüffler, A.; H. Sun; Laatsch, H.

    2013-01-01

    In the search for new compounds to protect plants from fungi, an endophytic fungus, Epicoccum sp. CAFTBO, obtained from Theobroma cacao was found to produce three polyoxygenated polyketides, namely epicolactone (1) and epicoccolides A (2) and B (3), together with seven known metabolites. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by a combination of detailed spectroscopic and spectrometric analyses as well as DFT calculations of the electronic circular dichroism spectra and the single-...

  1. Efficacy of Edible Film Incorporated with Essential Oils against White-rot Decay Fungus (Trametes versicolor)

    OpenAIRE

    Saifon Phothisuwan; Narumol Matan

    2013-01-01

    Antifungal activities of edible film incorporated with essential oils (cinnamon oil, clove oil, anise oil, citronella oil, orange oil, tangerine oil, turmeric oil, guava leave oil, nutmeg oil and lime oil) against a white-rot decay fungus (Trametes versicolor) identified from rubberwood were investigated. The disc dilution method was employed to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) by mixing edible film with essential oil at ratios 1:...

  2. The rhizosphere microbial community in a multiple parallel mineralization system suppresses the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum

    OpenAIRE

    Fujiwara, Kazuki; Iida, Yuichiro; Iwai, Takashi; Aoyama, Chihiro; Inukai, Ryuya; Ando, Akinori; Ogawa, Jun; Ohnishi, Jun; Terami, Fumihiro; Takano, Masao; Shinohara, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    The rhizosphere microbial community in a hydroponics system with multiple parallel mineralization (MPM) can potentially suppress root-borne diseases. This study focused on revealing the biological nature of the suppression against Fusarium wilt disease, which is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum, and describing the factors that may influence the fungal pathogen in the MPM system. We demonstrated that the rhizosphere microbiota that developed in the MPM system could suppress Fusarium wil...

  3. Structures of meroterpenes produced by Penicillium sp, an endophytic fungus found associated with Melia azedarach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Regina M. Geris dos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Penicillium sp was isolated from the root bark of Melia azedarach after surface sterilisation and cultivated for three weeks on sterilised rice. A new meroterpene, named austinoneol, and the known meroterpenes 7-b-acetoxy-dehydroaustin, neoaustin and dehydroaustin were isolated from the methanol extract of this rice culture. Their structures were identified after extensive spectroscopic studies, which also helped on the revision of ¹H and 13C chemical shift assignment for some of the known meroterpenes.

  4. Growth in rice cells requires de novo purine biosynthesis by the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    OpenAIRE

    Jessie Fernandez; Kuan Ting Yang; Kathryn M. Cornwell; Wright, Janet D.; Richard A. Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Increasing incidences of human disease, crop destruction and ecosystem perturbations are attributable to fungi and threaten socioeconomic progress and food security on a global scale. The blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is the most devastating pathogen of cultivated rice, but its metabolic requirements in the host are unclear. Here we report that a purine-requiring mutant of M. oryzae could develop functional appressoria, penetrate host cells and undergo the morphogenetic transition to elabor...

  5. Two distinct secretion systems facilitate tissue invasion by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldo, Martha C.; Dagdas, Yasin F.; Gupta, Yogesh K.; Mentlak, Thomas A.; Yi, Mihwa; Martinez-Rocha, Ana Lilia; Saitoh, Hiromasa; Terauchi, Ryohei; Talbot, Nicholas J.; Valent, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    To cause plant diseases, pathogenic micro-organisms secrete effector proteins into host tissue to suppress immunity and support pathogen growth. Bacterial pathogens have evolved several distinct secretion systems to target effector proteins, but whether fungi, which cause the major diseases of most crop species, also require different secretory mechanisms is not known. Here we report that the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae possesses two distinct secretion systems to target effectors dur...

  6. NADPH oxidases regulate septin-mediated cytoskeletal remodeling during plant infection by the rice blast fungus

    OpenAIRE

    Ryder, L. S.; Dagdas, Y.F; Mentlak, T. A.; Kershaw, M. J.; Thornton, C. R.; Schuster, M.; Chen, J; Wang, Z.; Talbot, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae infects plants with a specialized cell called an appressorium, which uses turgor to drive a rigid penetration peg through the rice leaf cuticle. Here, we show that NADPH oxidases (Nox) are necessary for septin-mediated reorientation of the F-actin cytoskeleton to facilitate cuticle rupture and plant cell invasion. We report that the Nox2–NoxR complex spatially organizes a heteroligomeric septin ring at the appressorium pore, required for assembly of a ...

  7. Germination and infectivity of microconidia in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Huili; Wu, Zhongshou; Wang, Chenfang; Li, Yang; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2014-01-01

    The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is a model for studying fungal–plant interactions. Although it produces two types of spores (microconidia and macroconidia), previous infection studies have exclusively dealt with macroconidia. Germination of microconidia has not been reported, and their role in plant infection is not defined. Here we show that approximately 10% of microconidia germinate on plant surfaces, and that colonies derived from germinated microconidia are normal in growth and ...

  8. Phylogeny of the Clinically Relevant Species of the Emerging Fungus Trichoderma and Their Antifungal Susceptibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Sandoval-Denis, Marcelo; Sutton, Deanna A.; José F. Cano-Lira; Gené, Josepa; Fothergill, Annette W.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Guarro, Josep

    2014-01-01

    A set of 73 isolates of the emerging fungus Trichoderma isolated from human and animal clinical specimens were characterized morphologically and molecularly using a multilocus sequence analysis that included the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA and fragments of the translation elongation factor 1 alpha (Tef1), endochitinase CHI18-5 (Chi18-5), and actin 1 (Act1) genes. The most frequent species was Trichoderma longibrachiatum (26%), followed by Trichod...

  9. Susceptibility of Tetranychus urticae Koch. (Acari: Tetranychidae) to Isolates of Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana

    OpenAIRE

    Slavimira A. Draganova; Spaska A. Simova

    2010-01-01

    Bioassays with five isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.- Criv.) Vuillemin were conducted under laboratory conditions with a goal to estimate their virulence to the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. (Acari: Tetranychidae). Common bean plants with mites were treated by spraying conidial suspensions of isolates at concentrations of 106, 107 and 108 conidia/ml. Lethal effects of the fungal isolates were evaluated as percentages of cumulative daily mor...

  10. A widely distributed ITS polymorphism within a biological species of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Hebeloma velutipes

    OpenAIRE

    Aanen, D.K.; T. W. Kuyper; Hoekstra, R. F.

    2001-01-01

    The ectomycorrhizal fungus Hebeloma velutipes consists of two biological species (BSP 16 and 17). Within BSP 17 a dikaryon was found with two divergent types of the ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS1 and 2). The two ITS types segregated in monokaryotic progeny of that dikaryon, showing that these different ITS types represent different alleles at homologous rDNA loci in the two nuclei. RFLP analysis of a number of strains of BSP 17 showed that the polymorphism is widespread in Europe...

  11. A threat to biodiesel production from Palm oil by disease caused by the fungus Ganoderma

    OpenAIRE

    Paterson, R. R. M.; C. Santos; Lima, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    Oil palm (OP) is a major crop for the production of vegetable oil used in foods, cosmetics and increasingly biodiesel. There is an increasing awareness that crops are vulnerable to nefarious introduction of pathogenic microorganisms. Oil palms are prone to a rot by the fungus Ganoderma. White rot fungi are capable of degrading lignin. It is necessary to consider this mode of attack for effective control. Nevertheless, the existing literature is concerned with the (a) mode of...

  12. Pathogenicity test of the fungus Aspergillus clavatus on aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Aphididae)

    OpenAIRE

    Seye, Fawrou; Bawin, Thomas; Delvigne, Frank; Francis, Frédéric(*)

    2012-01-01

    Pea aphid is a pest of many cultivated and wild plants, but also a vector of several viral diseases. To control this pest, the most widely used methods are physical, chemical and more recently an integrated approach that includes biological control. With the use of pathogenic agents against insects, the use of entomopathogenic fungi is one of the most promising. The present study demonstrated the possibility of using an entomopathogenic fungus Aspergillus clavatus against aphids. In laborator...

  13. High-temperature optima phosphatases from the cold-tolerant Arctic fungus Penicillium citrinum

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Shiv Mohan; Gawas-Sakhalkar, Puja; Simantini, Naik; Ravindra, Rasik

    2012-01-01

    Fifty-six fungal isolates from Arctic soils were subjected to primary screening for their ability to solubilize insoluble inorganic phosphate. Nine of the isolates were further analysed quantitatively for phosphatase production using para-nitrophenylphosphate as substrate. Amongst these, a cold-tolerant fungus, Penicillium citrinum strain PG162 was found to be the best producer of intracellular acid phosphatase. Further characterization of the enzyme showed that it is most active in the tempe...

  14. Human infection due to the hedgehog fungus, Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaife, R. A.

    1966-01-01

    Three human cases of skin infection caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei are recorded. A review of work on the incidence and ecology in hedgehogs and as a source of human infection is given. It is suggested that a true increase in human infections is occurring. A description of the colonial and microscopical appearance of the fungus and their variance with other T. mentagrophytes varieties is discussed. The name Trichophyton erinacei is proposed as being taxonomically more correct. PMID:5948666

  15. Growth Characteristics of the Thermophilic Fungus Scytalidium thermophilum in Relation to Production of Mushroom Compost

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegant, W. M.

    1992-01-01

    Scytalidium thermophilum is an important thermophilic fungus in the production of mushroom compost. I investigated the characteristics of this organism and present a simple model with which fungal growth in compost can be described. The model is used to predict better circumstances for rapid indoor production of mushroom compost. I conclude that inoculation of the starting material with prepared compost either before or after the pasteurization phase has only a minor effect on the shortening ...

  16. New bioactive metabolites produced by Phomopsis cassiae, an endophytic fungus in Cassia spectabilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Geraldo H.; Teles, Helder L.; Trevisan, Henrique C.; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Araujo, Angela R. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: araujoar@iq.unesp.br; Young, Maria C.M. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas; Pfenning, Ludwig H. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fitopatologia; Eberlin, Marcos N.; Haddad, Renato [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Costa-Neto, Claudio M. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia

    2005-11-15

    Two new metabolites, ethyl 2,4-dihydroxy-5,6-dimethylbenzoate (1) and phomopsilactone (2) were isolated from Phomopsis cassiae, an endophytic fungus in Cassia spectabilis. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR, MS and IR spectral data. Compounds 1 and 2 displayed strong antifungal activity against the phytopatogenic fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, as well as cytotoxicity against human cervical tumor cell line (HeLa), in in vitro assays. (author)

  17. A New Meroditerpene and a New Tryptoquivaline Analog from the Algicolous Fungus Neosartorya takakii KUFC 7898

    OpenAIRE

    War War May Zin; Suradet Buttachon; Jamrearn Buaruang; Luís Gales; José A. Pereira; Pinto, Madalena M. M.; Silva, Artur M.S.; Anake Kijjoa

    2015-01-01

    A new meroditerpene sartorenol (1), a new natural product takakiamide (2) and a new tryptoquivaline analog (3) were isolated, together with nine known compounds, including aszonapyrone A, chevalone B, aszonalenin, acetylaszonalenin, 3′-(4-oxoquinazolin-3-yl) spiro[1H-indole-3,5′-oxolane]-2,2′-dione, tryptoquivalines L, F and H, and the isocoumarin derivative, 6-hydroxymellein, from the ethyl acetate extract of the culture of the algicolous fungus Neosartorya takakii KUFC 7898. The structur...

  18. Plasticizers Increase Adhesion of the Deteriogenic Fungus Aureobasidium pullulans to Polyvinyl Chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Jeremy S.; Henny C. van der Mei; Nixon, Marianne; Eastwood, Ian M.; Greenhalgh, Malcolm; Read, Simon J.; Robson, Geoffrey D; Handley, Pauline S.

    1999-01-01

    Initial adhesion of fungi to plasticized polyvinyl chloride (pPVC) may determine subsequent colonization and biodeterioration processes. The deteriogenic fungus Aureobasidium pullulans was used to investigate the physicochemical nature of adhesion to both unplasticized PVC (uPVC) and pPVC containing the plasticizers dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and dioctyl adipate (DOA). A quantitative adhesion assay using image analysis identified fundamental differences in the mechanism of adhesion of A. pullula...

  19. Characterization of a Brown Rot Fungus Isolated from Dwarf Flowering Almond in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Myoung Yong; Jeon, Young Jae; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2007-01-01

    The fruits showing brown rot symptom on dwarf flowering almond were found in Gongju, Chungchungnam-Do in Korea in July 2005. Small water-soaked lesions on the fruits were initiated, and gradually developed to soft rot covered with gray conidia. Then the diseased fruits were shrunk and became grayish-black mummies. A fungus was isolated from the diseased fruit and its morphological, cultural and molecular genetic characteristics were investigated. Typical blastospores of Monilinia spp. were ob...

  20. Infection by the systemic fungus Epichloë glyceriae alters clonal growth of its grass host, Glyceria striata.

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Jean J; Clay, Keith

    2003-01-01

    Parasites and pathogens are hypothesized to change host growth, reproduction and/or behaviour to increase their own transmission. However, studies which clearly demonstrate that parasites or pathogens are directly responsible for changes in hosts are lacking. We previously found that infection by the systemic fungus Epichloë glyceriae was associated with greater clonal growth by its host, Glyceria striata. Whether greater clonal growth resulted directly from pathogen infection or indirectly f...

  1. Isolation and Characterization of Antibacterial Compound from a Mangrove-Endophytic Fungus, Penicillium chrysogenum MTCC 5108

    OpenAIRE

    Devi, Prabha; Rodrigues, Cheryl; Naik, C. G.; D’Souza, L

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms, especially endophytic fungi that reside in the tissue of living mangrove plants, seem to play a major role in meeting the general demand for new biologically active substances. During the course of screening for biologically active secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms, an antibiotic compound containing an indole and a diketopiperazine moiety was isolated from the culture medium of Penicilliumchrysogenum, (MTCC 5108), an endophytic fungus on the mangrove plant Porte...

  2. Two Additional New Compounds from the Marine-Derived Fungus Pseudallescheria ellipsoidea F42-3

    OpenAIRE

    Kun-Teng Wang; Meng-Yang Xu; Wei Liu; Hou-Jin Li; Jun Xu; De-Po Yang; Wen-Jian Lan; Lai-You Wang

    2016-01-01

    Two additional new compounds, pseudellone D (1) and (5S,6S)-dihydroxylasiodiplodin (3), along with the two known compounds lasiodipline F (2), (5S)-hydroxylasiodiplodin (4) were isolated from the marine-derived fungus Pseudallescheria ellipsoidea F42-3 associated with the soft coral Lobophytum crassum. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were elucidated on the basis of the corresponding spectroscopic data and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra.

  3. Comparison of Gamma Irradiated and Raw Lignite in Bioliquefaction Process by Fungus T5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bioliquefaction of coal is a processing technology for converting solid coal to liquid oil at ambient temperature by helping microorganism. The pretreated of lignite is important to decrease the hydrofobic of lignite surface. One of pretreated method was irradiation by gamma rays. Aim of this research was to compare the gamma irradiated lignite and raw lignite in bioliquefaction process by selected fungus T5. The fungus was identified by molecular method using 18S rDNA. Treatments were A (MSS + gamma irradiated lignite 5% + T5) and B (MSS + raw lignite 5% + T5) and culture type was sub-merged. The parameters observed were colonization, bacterial and fungal enumeration, identify of dominant bacteria using 16S rDNA and characterization of bioliquefaction product by UV-Vis spectroscopy dan gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GCMS). The results showed that fungus T5 belongs to Ascomycota, Trichoderma asperellum. Fungus has the ability to growth and liquefy gamma irradiated and raw lignite. Bacteria were detected in raw lignite treatment and dominant bacteria were identified as Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus thuringensis. UV-Vis analysis showed that boliquefaction product mainly contained naphtacene, naphthalene, and anthracene for gamma irradiated lignite, but anthracene and benzene for raw lignite. For GCMS analysis, 22 and 38 compounds were identified for gamma irradiated and raw lignite. Both treatment had different number of hydrocarbon, i.e. C6 - C35 (A) and C10 - C35 (B) and dominated by aromatic acids, aliphatic and phenylethers. Percent area of gasoline (C7 - C11) and diesel (C10 - C24) fractions on the treatment B was 7.23% and 62.35%, while in treatment A was 7.22% and 44.27%. Based on the results, pretreated of lignite by gamma irradiation could be increased the bioliquefaction product. (author)

  4. Conidia of the insect pathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, fail to adhere to mosquito larval cuticle

    OpenAIRE

    Greenfield, Bethany P. J.; Lord, Alex M.; Dudley, Ed; Butt, Tariq M.

    2014-01-01

    Adhesion of conidia of the insect pathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, to the arthropod host cuticle initially involves hydrophobic forces followed by consolidation facilitated by the action of extracellular enzymes and secretion of mucilage. Gene expression analysis and atomic force microscopy were used to directly quantify recognition and adhesion between single conidia of M. anisopliae and the cuticle of the aquatic larval stage of Aedes aegypti and a representative terrestrial host,...

  5. High expression level of antioxidants and pharmaceutical bioactivities of endophytic fungus Chaetomium globosum JN711454.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Khaled A; El-Beih, Ahmed A; Abdel-Rahman, Tahany M; El-Diwany, Ahmed I

    2016-02-17

    In order to maximize antioxidant activity of pharmaceutical bioactive endophytic fungus Chaetomium globosum JN711454 during fermentation process, designed fermentation experiments of culture media for three levels of eight culture factors were performed using a Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) design with layout L18 (2(1) × 3(7)). The agitation and the potato extract were the most significant affecting factors, and their interaction contributed significantly to fungus activity. The production of antioxidants was more favorable for static condition with 25 g potato extract/100 m. The remaining factors had no strong impact when considered individually. The validation of statistically optimized medium indicated the improvement of antioxidant activity to a level of twofold with approximately overall 40% enhancement in activity. The extract of optimized medium was investigated for various pharmaceutical bioactivities; it revealed a moderate antimicrobial activity, strong anticancer activity against HepG-2, UACC62 cell lines, an antiviral activity against HSV-2 virus, and strong inhibitory activity to butyrylcholinesterase enzyme, one of the neurohydrolase enzymes that play a major role in development of Alzheimer's disease. As a result of applying statistical fermentation designs, the optimized conditions of endophytic fungus C. globosum JN711454 developed a cost-effective production medium by using inexpensive commercial potato extracts statically, which can lower the energy requirement and could become an efficient, economic, and viable fermentation process for production of pharmaceutical secondary metabolites. PMID:25569373

  6. Larvicidal effects of endophytic and basidiomycete fungus extracts on Aedes and Anopheles larvae (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Bucker

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In vitro bioassays were performed to access the larvicidal activity of crude extracts from the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis virgulata (Melanconiales, Amphisphaeriaceae and the saprophytic fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus (Basidiomycetes, Polyporaceae against the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Anopheles nuneztovari. Methods The extracts were tested at concentrations of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500ppm. Ethyl acetate mycelia (EAM extracts and liquid culture media (LCM from Pe. virgulata and Py. sanguineus were tested against third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and An. nuneztovari. Results The larvicidal activity of the EAM extracts from Pe. virgulata against Ae. aegypti had an LC50=101.8ppm, and the extract from the basidiomycete fungus Py. sanguineus had an LC50=156.8ppm against the Ae. aegypti larvae. The Pe. virgulata extract had an LC50=16.3ppm against the An. nuneztovari larvae, and the Py. sanguineus extract had an LC50=87.2ppm against these larvae. Conclusions These results highlight the larvicidal effect of EAM extracts from the endophyte Pe. virgulata against the two larval mosquitoes tested. Thus, Pe. virgulata and Py. sanguineus have the potential for the production of bioactive substances against larvae of these two tropical disease vectors, with An. nuneztovari being more susceptible to these extracts.

  7. Mechanism of antibacterial activity of the white-rot fungus Hypholoma fasciculare colonizing wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Wietse; Folman, Larissa B; Gunnewiek, Paulien J A Klein; Svensson, Teresia; Bastviken, David; Oberg, Gunilla; del Rio, José C; Boddy, Lynne

    2010-05-01

    In a previous study it was shown that the number of wood-inhabiting bacteria was drastically reduced after colonization of beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood blocks by the white-rot fungus Hypholoma fasciculare, or sulfur tuft (Folman et al. 2008). Here we report on the mechanisms of this fungal-induced antibacterial activity. Hypholoma fasciculare was allowed to invade beech and pine (Pinus sylvestris) wood blocks that had been precolonized by microorganisms from forest soil. The changes in the number of bacteria, fungal biomass, and fungal-related wood properties were followed for 23 weeks. Colonization by the fungus resulted in a rapid and large reduction in the number of bacteria (colony-forming units), which was already apparent after 4 weeks of incubation. The reduction in the number of bacteria coincided with fungal-induced acidification in both beech and pine wood blocks. No evidence was found for the involvement of toxic secondary metabolites or reactive oxygen species in the reduction of the number of bacteria. Additional experiments showed that the dominant bacteria present in the wood blocks were not able to grow under the acidic conditions (pH 3.5) created by the fungus. Hence our research pointed at rapid acidification as the major factor causing reduction of wood-inhabiting bacteria upon colonization of wood by H. fasciculare. PMID:20555400

  8. Production of Obionin A and Derivatives by the Sooty Blotch Fungus Microcyclospora malicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surup, Frank; Medjedović, Ajda; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Stadler, Marc

    2015-10-01

    A multitude of sooty blotch and flyspeck fungi, mainly belonging to the Ascomycetes order Capnodiales, causes dark blemishes and flyspeck-like spots on apples worldwide. Different sooty blotch and flyspeck fungi can coexist in the same orchard and even on a single fruit. Our preceding experiments revealed an activity of Microcyclospora malicola strain 1930 against the anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum fioriniae in dual culture assays. Extracts of M. malicola strain 1930 showed a broad bioactivity against filamentous fungus Mucor hiemalis and gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. A bioactivity-guided isolation led to the identification of obionin A (1) as the main active principle. In addition to 1, which was previously isolated from the marine fungus Leptosphaeria obiones, we isolated three derivatives. Metabolite 2 bears a keto function at C-6, besides the replacement of oxygen by nitrogen at position 10. Two more derivatives are adducts (3, 4) of acetone as work-up artifacts. Because obionin A (1) and its derivative 2 showed cytotoxic effects and antifungal activities, we propose a role of these secondary metabolites in the antagonism between M. malicola and other apple colonizing sooty blotch and flyspeck fungi, other epiphytes, or apple pathogens competing for the same ecological niche. PMID:25856439

  9. Ambispora granatensis, a new arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, associated with Asparagus officinalis in Andalucia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palenzuela, Javier; Barea, José-Miguel; Ferrol, Nuria; Oehl, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    A new dimorphic fungal species in the arbuscular mycorrhiza-forming Glomeromycota, Ambispora granatensis, was isolated from an agricultural site in the province of Granada (Andalucía, Spain) growing in the rhizosphere of Asparagus officinalis. It was propagated in pot cultures with Trifolium pratense and Sorghum vulgare. The fungus also colonized Ri T-DNA transformed Daucus carota roots but did not form spores in these root organ cultures. The spores of the acaulosporoid morph are 90-150 ?m diam and hyaline to white to pale yellow. They have three walls and a papillae-like rough irregular surface on the outer surface of the outer wall. The irregular surface might become difficult to detect within a few hours in lactic acid-based mountings but are clearly visible in water. The structural central wall layer of the outer wall is only 0.8-1.5 ?m thick. The glomoid spores are formed singly or in small, loose spore clusters of 2-10 spores. They are hyaline to pale yellow, (25)40-70 ?m diam and have a bilayered spore wall without ornamentation. Nearly full length sequences of the 18S and the ITS regions of the ribosomal gene place the new fungus in a separate clade next to Ambispora fennica and Ambispora gerdemannii. The acaulosporoid spores of the new fungus can be distinguished easily from all other spores in genus Ambispora by the conspicuous thin outer wall. PMID:20952800

  10. Potential of endophytic fungus Phomopsis liquidambari for transformation and degradation of recalcitrant pollutant sinapic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xing-Guang; Huang, Chun-Yan; Fu, Wan-Qiu; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-03-01

    The biodegradation potential of sinapic acid, one of the most representative methoxy phenolic pollutants presented in industrial wastewater, was first studied using an endophytic fungus called Phomopsis liquidambari. This strain can effectively degrade sinapic acid in flasks and in soil and the possible biodegradation pathway was first systematically proposed on the basis of the metabolite production patterns and the identification of the metabolites by GC-MS and HPLC-MS. Sinapic acid was first transformed to 2,6-dimethoxy-4-vinylphenol that was further degraded via 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde, syringic acid, gallic acid, and citric acid which involved in the continuous catalysis by phenolic acid decarboxylase, laccase, and gallic acid dioxygenase. Moreover, their activities and gene expression levels exhibited a 'cascade induction' response with the changes in metabolic product concentrations and the generation of fungal laccase significantly improved the degradation process. This study is the first report of an endophytic fungus that has great potential to degrade xenobiotic sinapic acid, and also provide a basis for practical application of endophytic fungus in the bioremediation of sinapic acid-contaminated industrial wastewater and soils. PMID:26895869

  11. Phenanthrene uptake by Medicago sativa L. under the influence of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phenanthrene uptake by Medicago sativa L. was investigated under the influence of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. Inoculation of lucerne with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus etunicatum L. resulted in higher phenanthrene accumulation in the roots and lower accumulation in the shoots compared to non-mycorrhizal controls. Studies on sorption and desorption of phenanthrene by roots and characterization of heterogeneity of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal roots using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C NMR) demonstrated that increased aromatic components due to mycorrhizal inoculation resulted in enhanced phenanthrene uptake by the roots but lower translocation to the shoots. Direct visualization using two-photon excitation microscopy (TPEM) revealed higher phenanthrene accumulation in epidermal cells of roots and lower transport into the root interior and stem in mycorrhizal plants than in non-mycorrhizal controls. These results provide some insight into the mechanisms by which arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation may influence the uptake of organic contaminants by plants. - Colonization by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus promoted root uptake and decreased shoot uptake of phenanthrene by Medicago sativa L.

  12. Phenanthrene uptake by Medicago sativa L. under the influence of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Naiying [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Department of Chemistry, Shangqiu Normal College, Shangqiu 476000 (China); Huang Honglin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhang Shuzhen, E-mail: szzhang@rcees.ac.c [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhu Yongguan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Christie, Peter [Agri-Environment Branch, Agriculture Food and Environmental Science Division, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom); Zhang Yong [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Environmental Science Research Centre, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2009-05-15

    Phenanthrene uptake by Medicago sativa L. was investigated under the influence of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. Inoculation of lucerne with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus etunicatum L. resulted in higher phenanthrene accumulation in the roots and lower accumulation in the shoots compared to non-mycorrhizal controls. Studies on sorption and desorption of phenanthrene by roots and characterization of heterogeneity of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal roots using solid-state {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 13}C NMR) demonstrated that increased aromatic components due to mycorrhizal inoculation resulted in enhanced phenanthrene uptake by the roots but lower translocation to the shoots. Direct visualization using two-photon excitation microscopy (TPEM) revealed higher phenanthrene accumulation in epidermal cells of roots and lower transport into the root interior and stem in mycorrhizal plants than in non-mycorrhizal controls. These results provide some insight into the mechanisms by which arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation may influence the uptake of organic contaminants by plants. - Colonization by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus promoted root uptake and decreased shoot uptake of phenanthrene by Medicago sativa L.

  13. Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus and Different Phosphorus Doses Against Cotton Wilt Caused Verticillium dahliae Kleb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysel Bars Orak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus (AMF and different phosphorus dosages on the development of Verticillium dahliae Kleb. induced wilt in cotton. Sayar-314 cotton variety which is sensitive to Verticillium wilt, AMF G. intraradices and phosphorus dosages of 0, 40 and 80 kg ha-1 were used in the experiments implemented under naturally V. dahliae-contaminated field conditions during the years of 2007 and 2008. According to the obtained results, it was found that there occurred a reduction in the disease chart. Also, it was observed that the application reduced the severity of the disease by 22-29.22% in green portions of cotton plants and their stem sections in field divisions particularly to which G. intraradices and phosphorus of 40 kg ha-1 had been applied together in both years. On the other hand, phosphorus dosage of 80 kg ha-1 had a negative effect in suppressing the infection. Phosphorus (P content of cotton plants leaves increased in mycorrhizal fungus treated divisions compared with those untreated. Besides, due to the infection, cotton yield decreased by 14-21% in the divisions without AMF application. It was also concluded that if AM fungus was applied along with lower dosages of phosphorus, it would mitigate the severity of V. dahliae-induced infection in cotton, increase the yield despite the infection and induce phosphorus uptake in the plant.

  14. Chemical constituents of marine algal-derived endophytic fungus Exophiala oligosperma EN-21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Li, Ke; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Bingui

    2011-01-01

    Seven compounds (1-7) were identified from the cultivation of the endophytic fungus Exophiala oligosperma (EN-21) that was isolated from the inner tissue of the marine red alga Laurencia similis. Their structures were identified with spectroscopic and chemical methods as 2-phenoxynaphthalene ( 1), (2 S, 3 R, 4 E, 8 E)-1- O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-hydroxy-2-[( R)-2'-hydroxyoctadecanoyl] amino-9-methyl-4, 8-octadeca-diene ( 2), (22 E,24 R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-3β,5α,6β-triol ( 3), (22 E, 24 R)-3β, 5α, 9α-trihydroxy-ergosta-7, 22-dien-6-one ( 4), (22 E, 24 R)-5α, 6α-epoxy-ergosta-8, 22-dien-3β, 7α-diol ( 5), (22 E, 24 R)-ergosta-4, 6, 8(14), 22-tetraen-3-one ( 6), and euphorbol ( 7). This paper reports for the first time the chemical constituents of fungus Exophiala oligosperma and the discovery of compound 1 as a natural product from the fungus.

  15. A fibronectin receptor on Candida albicans mediates adherence of the fungus to extracellular matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binding of fibronectin, an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein, to Candida albicans was measured, and adherence of the fungus to immobilized ECM proteins, fibronectin, laminin, types I and IV collagen, and subendothelial ECM was studied. 125I-labeled fibronectin was inhibited from binding to the fungus by unlabeled human plasma fibronectin and by Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), Gly-Arg-Gly-Glu-Ser-Pro (GRGESP), and Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr-Pro (GRGDTP), but binding was not inhibited by Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-Pro. Soluble fibronectin, RGD, GRGESP, and GRGDTP also inhibited fungal adherence to the individual immobilized ECM proteins in a complex pattern, but only soluble fibronectin (10(-7) M) inhibited fungal adherence to subendothelial ECM. Thus, C. albicans possesses at least one type of cell surface receptor for binding soluble fibronectin that can be inhibited with peptides. This receptor apparently is used to bind the fungus to immobilized ECM proteins and to subendothelial ECM and may play a role in the initiation of disseminated disease by bloodborne fungi by providing for adherence of the microorganisms to ECM proteins

  16. A fibronectin receptor on Candida albicans mediates adherence of the fungus to extracellular matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klotz, S.A.; Smith, R.L. (Overton Brooks VA Medical Center, Shreveport, LA (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Binding of fibronectin, an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein, to Candida albicans was measured, and adherence of the fungus to immobilized ECM proteins, fibronectin, laminin, types I and IV collagen, and subendothelial ECM was studied. 125I-labeled fibronectin was inhibited from binding to the fungus by unlabeled human plasma fibronectin and by Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), Gly-Arg-Gly-Glu-Ser-Pro (GRGESP), and Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr-Pro (GRGDTP), but binding was not inhibited by Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-Pro. Soluble fibronectin, RGD, GRGESP, and GRGDTP also inhibited fungal adherence to the individual immobilized ECM proteins in a complex pattern, but only soluble fibronectin (10(-7) M) inhibited fungal adherence to subendothelial ECM. Thus, C. albicans possesses at least one type of cell surface receptor for binding soluble fibronectin that can be inhibited with peptides. This receptor apparently is used to bind the fungus to immobilized ECM proteins and to subendothelial ECM and may play a role in the initiation of disseminated disease by bloodborne fungi by providing for adherence of the microorganisms to ECM proteins.

  17. De novo biosynthesis of cytokinins in the biotrophic fungus Claviceps purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsch, Janine; Vrabka, Josef; Oeser, Birgitt; Novák, Ond?ej; Galuszka, Petr; Tudzynski, Paul

    2015-08-01

    Disease symptoms of some phytopathogenic fungi are associated with changes in cytokinin (CK) levels. Here, we show that the CK profile of ergot-infected rye plants is also altered, although no pronounced changes occur in the expression of the host plant's CK biosynthesis genes. Instead, we demonstrate a clearly different mechanism: we report on the first fungal de novo?CK biosynthesis genes, prove their functions and constitute a biosynthetic pathway. The ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea produces substantial quantities of CKs in culture and, like plants, expresses enzymes containing the isopentenyltransferase and lonely guy domains necessary for de novo isopentenyladenine production. Uniquely, two of these domains are combined in one bifunctional enzyme, CpIPT-LOG, depicting a novel and potent mechanism for CK production. The fungus also forms trans-zeatin, a reaction catalysed by a CK-specific cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, which is encoded by cpp450 forming a small cluster with cpipt-log. Deletion of cpipt-log and cpp450 did not affect virulence of the fungus, but ?cpp450 mutants exhibit a hyper-sporulating phenotype, implying that CKs are environmental factors influencing fungal development. PMID:25753486

  18. Isolation of Phosphate-solubilizing Fungus and Its Application in Solubilization of Rock Phosphates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Aiqun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms have been obtained to improve the agronomic value of Rock Phosphates (RPs, but the phosphorus solubilizing rate by these approaches is very slow. It is important to explore a high-efficient phosphate-solubilizing approach with a kind of microorganisms. This study aimed to isolate a high-efficient level of phosphate-solubilizing fungus from rhizosphere soil samples phosphate mines (Liuyang County, Hunan province, China and apply it in solubilization of RPs. The experiments were carried out by the conventional methodology for morphological and biochemical fungus characterization and the analysis of 18s rRNA sequence. Then the effects of time, temperature, initial pH, phosphorus (P sources, RPs concentration, shaking speed and silver ion on the content of soluble P released by this isolate were investigated. The results showed this isolate was identified as Galactomyces geotrichum P14 (P14 in GeneBank and the maximum amount of soluble P was 1252.13 mg L-1 within 40 h in a modified phosphate growth agar’s medium (without agar where contained tricalcium phosphate (TCP as sole phosphate source. At the same time, it could release phosphate and solubilize various rock phosphates. The isolated fungus can convert RPs from insoluble form into plant available form and therefore it hold great potential for biofertilizers to enhance soil fertility and promote plant growth.

  19. Characterization of Five Novel Mitoviruses in the White Pine Blister Rust Fungus Cronartium ribicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun-Jun; Chan, Danelle; Xiang, Yu; Williams, Holly; Li, Xiao-Rui; Sniezko, Richard A; Sturrock, Rona N

    2016-01-01

    The white pine blister rust (WPBR) fungus Cronartium ribicola (J.C. Fisch.) is an exotic invasive forest pathogen causing severe stem canker disease of native white pine trees (subgenus Strobus) in North America. The present study reports discovery of five novel mitoviruses in C. ribicola by deep RNA sequencing. The complete genome of each mitovirus was determined by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A single open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) was detected in each of the viral genomes using mitochondrial genetic codes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the C. ribicola mitoviruses (CrMV1 to CrMV5) are new putative species of the genus Mitovirus. qRT-PCR and RNA-Seq analyses revealed that viral RNAs were significantly increased in fungal mycelia in cankered pine stems compared to expression during two different stages of spore development, suggesting that viral genome replication and transcription benefit from active growth of the host fungus. CrMVs were widespread with relatively high levels of minor allele frequency (MAF) in western North America. As the first report of mitoviruses in the Class Pucciniomycetes, this work allows further investigation of the dynamics of a viral community in the WPBR pathosystem, including potential impacts that may affect pathogenicity and virulence of the host fungus. PMID:27196406

  20. Lipid and fatty acid profile of the edible fungus Laetiporus sulphurous. Antifungal and antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinanoglou, Vassilia J; Zoumpoulakis, Panagiotis; Heropoulos, George; Proestos, Charalampos; ?iri?, Ana; Petrovic, Jovana; Glamoclija, Jasmina; Sokovic, Marina

    2015-06-01

    Laetiporus sulphureus is a saprophyte belonging to a specific group of wood-decomposing Basidiomycetes growing on deciduous trees. This fungus has been characterized as a herbal medicine and is also known for its antimicrobial properties. In the present study, high energy extraction techniques using different solvents were compared to obtain maximum yield of the edible fungus Laetiporus sulphureus total lipids. The lipid classes and fatty acid composition of the fruiting bodies' total lipids has been studied using GC-FID and Iatroscan TLC-FID analysis. Among the lipids, the neutral lipids predominated followed by phospholipids and glycolipids. Triglycerides were the most abundant in the neutral lipid fraction, whereas phosphatidylcholine in phospholipids. The existence of relatively high amount of sterols may be correlated to fungus pharmaceutical properties. Total lipids were found to contain high unsaturated degree fatty acids (UFA/SFA>3.4) and dominated of C18:2?-6, C18:1?-9 and C16:0 fatty acids. Antibacterial and antifungal properties of mushrooms' lipid extracts from two different solvents were also examined. Results indicated that hexane extracts possessed better antifungal and slightly better antibacterial activity compared to chloroform extracts though both were less active than the commercial antimicrobial agents. PMID:26028707

  1. Which Fungus Originally was Trichophyton mentagrophytes? Historical Review and Illustration by a Clinical Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, Annemay; Cattin, Vincent; Fratti, Marina; Mignon, Bernard; Monod, Michel

    2015-08-01

    Several dermatophytes producing numerous pyriform or round microconidia were called Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Among these dermatophytes are the teleomorph species Arthroderma benhamiae, Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii and Arthroderma simii, and other species such as Trichophyton interdigitale, Trichophyton erinacei and Trichophyton quinckeanum for which only the anamorph is known. Confusion exists about which fungus should be really called T. mentagrophytes and about the rational use of this name in practice. We report a case of beard ringworm (tinea barbae) with A. vanbreuseghemii. According to both clinical signs and the type of hair parasitism, this case was exactly compatible to the first description of a non-favic dermatophytosis by Gruby under the name of "mentagrophyte" from which was derived the dermatophyte epithet mentagrophytes. In addition, the phenotypic characters of the isolated fungus in cultures perfectly matched with those of the first description of a dermatophyte under T. mentagrophytes by Blanchard (Parasites animaux et parasites végétaux à l'exclusion des Bactéries, Masson, Paris, 1896). In conclusion, T. mentagrophytes corresponds to the fungus later named A. vanbreuseghemii. However, because the neotype of T. mentagrophytes was not adequately designated in regard to the ancient literature, we would privilege the use of A. vanbreuseghemii and abandon the name of T. mentagrophytes. PMID:25912796

  2. Cellophane based mini-prep method for DNA extraction from the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique-Silva Flavio

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methods for the extraction of DNA from filamentous fungi are frequently laborious and time consuming because most of the available protocols include maceration in liquid nitrogen after the mycelium has been grown in a liquid culture. This paper describes a new method to replace those steps, which involves the growth of the mycelium on cellophane disks overlaid on solid medium and the use of glass beads for cell wall disruption. Results Extractions carried out by this method provided approximately 2 μg of total DNA per cellophane disk for the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. To assess the DNA's quality, we made a PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction amplification of a gene introduced by a transformation in this fungus's genome (hph gene, with successful results. We also confirmed the quality of the DNA by the use of Southern blotting to analyze the presence of the same gene, which was easily detected, resulting in a sharply defined and strong band. Conclusions The use of this method enabled us to obtain pure DNA from Trichoderma reesei, dispensing with the laborious and time-consuming steps involved in most protocols. The DNA obtained was found to be suitable for PCR and Southern blot analyses. Another advantage of this method is the fact that several samples can be processed simultaneously, growing the fungus on multiple well cell culture plates. In addition, the absence of maceration also reduces sample handling, minimizing the risks of contamination, a particularly important factor in work involving PCR.

  3. Research into the influence of the in vitro biological parameters on the development of Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary Fungus colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna NEMES

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the period 2002-2003 under laboratory conditions it was determined the influence of biological parameters (temperature, relative air humidity, energetically and plastically resources and the composition of the cultivation environment on the growth of the Phytophthora infestans fungus colonies.The biological parameters determined in vitro for the Ph. infestans fungus showed that the fungus needs mesophyll conditions. The energetically and plastically resources are important to its growth, being indispensable to the colonies’ evolution.

  4. Research into the influence of the in vitro biological parameters on the development of Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary Fungus colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Zsuzsanna NEMES; Popa, Daniela; Anca BACIU; Luiza MIKE

    2008-01-01

    In the period 2002-2003 under laboratory conditions it was determined the influence of biological parameters (temperature, relative air humidity, energetically and plastically resources and the composition of the cultivation environment) on the growth of the Phytophthora infestans fungus colonies.The biological parameters determined in vitro for the Ph. infestans fungus showed that the fungus needs mesophyll conditions. The energetically and plastically resources are important to its growth, ...

  5. Glycogen Metabolic Genes Are Involved in Trehalose-6-Phosphate Synthase-Mediated Regulation of Pathogenicity by the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    OpenAIRE

    Badaruddin, Muhammad; Holcombe, Lucy J.; Richard A. Wilson; Wang, Zheng-Yi; Kershaw, Michael J.; Talbot, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Author Summary The fungus Magnaporthe oryzae causes a devastating disease of rice called blast. Each year, rice blast disease destroys almost a quarter of the potential global rice harvest. The fungus infects rice plants by elaborating a special infection structure called an appressorium, which physically breaks the tough outer cuticle of a rice leaf. Magnaporthe can develop appressoria in the absence of a nutrient source. We are therefore studying how the fungus utilizes energy stores in its...

  6. Pan-European Distribution of White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) Not Associated with Mass Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Vanessa; Fuller, Hubert; Forget, Frédéric; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Kurth, Andreas; Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw; Borel, Christophe; Bosch, Thijs; Cherezy, Thomas; Drebet, Mikhail; Görföl, Tamás; Haarsma, Anne-Jifke; Herhaus, Frank; Hallart, Guénael; Hammer, Matthias; Jungmann, Christian; Le Bris, Yann; Lutsar, Lauri; Masing, Matti; Mulkens, Bart; Passior, Karsten; Starrach, Martin; Wojtaszewski, Andrzej; Zöphel, Ulrich; Teeling, Emma C.

    2011-01-01

    Background The dramatic mass mortalities amongst hibernating bats in Northeastern America caused by “white nose-syndrome” (WNS) continue to threaten populations of different bat species. The cold-loving fungus, Geomyces destructans, is the most likely causative agent leading to extensive destruction of the skin, particularly the wing membranes. Recent investigations in Europe confirmed the presence of the fungus G. destructans without associated mass mortality in hibernating bats in six countries but its distribution remains poorly known. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected data on the presence of bats with white fungal growth in 12 countries in Europe between 2003 and 2010 and conducted morphological and genetic analysis to confirm the identity of the fungus as Geomyces destructans. Our results demonstrate the presence of the fungus in eight countries spanning over 2000 km from West to East and provide compelling photographic evidence for its presence in another four countries including Romania, and Turkey. Furthermore, matching prevalence data of a hibernaculum monitored over two consecutive years with data from across Europe show that the temporal occurrence of the fungus, which first becomes visible around February, peaks in March but can still be seen in some torpid bats in May or June, is strikingly similar throughout Europe. Finally, we isolated and cultured G. destructans from a cave wall adjacent to a bat with fungal growth. Conclusions/Significance G. destructans is widely found over large areas of the European continent without associated mass mortalities in bats, suggesting that the fungus is native to Europe. The characterisation of the temporal variation in G. destructans growth on bats provides reference data for studying the spatio-temporal dynamic of the fungus. Finally, the presence of G. destructans spores on cave walls suggests that hibernacula could act as passive vectors and/or reservoirs for G. destructans and therefore, might play an important role in the transmission process. PMID:21556356

  7. Towards a molecular understanding of symbiont function: identification of a fungal gene for the degradation of xylan in the fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøtt, Morten; De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Lange, Lene; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Leaf-cutting ants live in symbiosis with a fungus that they rear for food by providing it with live plant material. Until recently the fungus' main inferred function was to make otherwise inaccessible cell wall degradation products available to the ants, but new studies have shed doubt...... in the fungus gardens in order to investigate the dynamics of degradation activities. RESULTS: We cloned a xylanase gene from the mutualistic fungus of Acromyrmex echinatior, determined its protein sequence, and inserted it in a yeast expression vector to confirm its substrate specificity. Our...

  8. Synergistic interaction between the fungus Beauveria bassiana and desiccant dusts applied against poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenberg, Tove; Kilpinen, Ole

    2014-04-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is a major pest in egg production, feeding on laying hens. Widely used non-chemical control methods include desiccant dusts, although their persistence under field conditions is often short. Entomopathogenic fungi may also hold potential for mite control, but these fungi often take several days to kill mites. Laboratory experiments were carried out to study the efficacy of 3 types of desiccant dusts, the fungus Beauveria bassiana and combinations of the two control agents against D. gallinae. There was significant synergistic interaction between each of the desiccant dusts and the fungus, with observed levels of mite mortality significantly higher than those expected for an additive effect (up to 38 % higher). Synergistic interaction between desiccant dust and fungus was found also when different application methods were used for the fungus and at different levels of relative humidity. Although increased levels of mortality were reached due to the synergistic interaction, the speed of lethal action was not influenced by combining the two components. The persistence of the control agents applied separately or in combination did not change over a period of 4 weeks. Overall, combinations of desiccant dusts and fungus conidia seem to hold considerable promise for future non-chemical control of poultry red mites. PMID:24253584

  9. Characterization of Perylene in Tropical Environment: Comparison of New and Old Fungus Comb for Identifying Perylene Precursor in Macrotermes gilvus Termite Nests of Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Riyahi Bakhtiari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first record on the distribution of perylene in new and old fungus combs of termite nest (Macrotermes gilvus in order to determine perylene source in tropical environment. Twenty four samples of new and old fungus combs, inner and outer nest walls, fresh and decomposed bark, decomposed stem, soil, and soil-wood interface were collected in order to test of two hypotheses; i Perylene is produced in the termite’s hindgut (M. gilvus and ii Perylene is present only in new fungus comb of M. gilvus termite nests. For one Station (Station A the profile of perylene concentration was the following order: fungus comb > outer nest wall ≥ Soil-Wood interface ≥ decomposed stem ≥ decomposed bark ≥ Inner nest wall > Soil. For the other Station (i.e. B the profile was new fungus comb > inner nest wall > old fungus comb ≥ outer nest wall ~ Soil. The perylene concentration was found up to 21-54 times higher in fungus comb as compare to the rest of the samples in Station A. whereas, the perylene concentration was 85-400 times higher in new fungus comb as compare to the remaining samples in Station B, this can be due to the production or accumulation of perylene in these nests. On the other hand, smaller termite nests (Stations C and E no perylene was detected, due to the fact that the new fungus comb was not found in those nests. The results confirmed the following hypotheses; perylene occurs only in new fungus comb and may be attributed to the high concentrations of aromatic rings of lignin in new fungus comb.

  10. Exploring the Chemodiversity and Biological Activities of the Secondary Metabolites from the Marine Fungus Neosartorya pseudofischeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Ling Liang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of fungal metabolites can be remarkably influenced by various cultivation parameters. To explore the biosynthetic potentials of the marine fungus, Neosartorya pseudofischeri, which was isolated from the inner tissue of starfish Acanthaster planci, glycerol-peptone-yeast extract (GlyPY and glucose-peptone-yeast extract (GluPY media were used to culture this fungus. When cultured in GlyPY medium, this fungus produced two novel diketopiperazines, neosartins A and B (1 and 2, together with six biogenetically-related known diketopiperazines,1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2, 3-dimethyl-1,4-dioxopyrazino[1,2-a]indole (3, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-methyl-3-methylen e-1,4-dioxopyrazino[1,2-a]indole (4, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-methyl-1,3,4-trioxopyrazino[1,2-a] indole (5, 6-acetylbis(methylthiogliotoxin (10, bisdethiobis(methylthiogliotoxin (11, didehydrobisdethiobis(methylthiogliotoxin (12 and N-methyl-1H-indole-2-carboxamide (6. However, a novel tetracyclic-fused alkaloid, neosartin C (14, a meroterpenoid, pyripyropene A (15, gliotoxin (7 and five known gliotoxin analogues, acetylgliotoxin (8, reduced gliotoxin (9, 6-acetylbis(methylthiogliotoxin (10, bisdethiobis(methylthio gliotoxin (11 and bis-N-norgliovictin (13, were obtained when grown in glucose-containing medium (GluPY medium. This is the first report of compounds 3, 4, 6, 9, 10 and 12 as naturally occurring. Their structures were determined mainly by MS, 1D and 2D NMR data. The possible biosynthetic pathways of gliotoxin-related analogues and neosartin C were proposed. The antibacterial activity of compounds 2–14 and the cytotoxic activity of compounds 4, 5 and 7–13 were evaluated. Their structure-activity relationships are also preliminarily discussed.

  11. A Cyclic GMP-Dependent K+ Channel in the Blastocladiomycete Fungus Blastocladiella emersonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelar, Gabriela Mól; Glaser, Talita; Leonard, Guy; Richards, Thomas A; Ulrich, Henning; Gomes, Suely L

    2015-09-01

    Phototaxis in flagellated zoospores of the aquatic fungus Blastocladiella emersonii depends on a novel photosensor, Blastocladiella emersonii GC1 (BeGC1), comprising a type I (microbial) rhodopsin fused to a guanylyl cyclase catalytic domain, that produces the conserved second messenger cyclic GMP (cGMP). The rapid and transient increase in cGMP levels during the exposure of zoospores to green light was shown to be necessary for phototaxis and dependent on both rhodopsin function and guanylyl cyclase activity. It is noteworthy that BeGC1 was localized to the zoospore eyespot apparatus, in agreement with its role in the phototactic response. A putative cyclic nucleotide-gated channel (BeCNG1) was also identified in the genome of the fungus and was implicated in flagellar beating via the action of a specific inhibitor (l-cis-diltiazem) that compromised zoospore motility. Here we show that B. emersonii expresses a K(+) channel that is activated by cGMP. The use of specific channel inhibitors confirmed the activation of the channel by cGMP and its K(+) selectivity. These characteristics are consistent with the function of an ion channel encoded by the BeCNG1 gene. Other blastocladiomycete fungi, such as Allomyces macrogynus and Catenaria anguillulae, possess genes encoding a similar K(+) channel and the rhodopsin-guanylyl cyclase fusion protein, while the genes encoding both these proteins are absent in nonflagellated fungi. The presence of these genes as a pair seems to be an exclusive feature of blastocladiomycete fungi. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the B. emersonii cGMP-activated K(+) channel is involved in the control of zoospore motility, most probably participating in the cGMP-signaling pathway for the phototactic response of the fungus. PMID:26150416

  12. Regulation of cellulase gene expression in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilmén, M; Saloheimo, A; Onnela, M L; Penttilä, M E

    1997-04-01

    Basic features of regulation of expression of the genes encoding the cellulases of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei QM9414, the genes cbh1 and cbh2 encoding cellobiohydrolases and the genes egl1, egl2 and egl5 encoding endoglucanases, were studied at the mRNA level. The cellulase genes were coordinately expressed under all conditions studied, with the steady-state mRNA levels of cbh1 being the highest. Solka floc cellulose and the disaccharide sophorose induced expression to almost the same level. Moderate expression was observed when cellobiose or lactose was used as the carbon source. It was found that glycerol and sorbitol do not promote expression but, unlike glucose, do not inhibit it either, because the addition of 1 to 2 mM sophorose to glycerol or sorbitol cultures provokes high cellulase expression levels. These carbon sources thus provide a useful means to study cellulase regulation without significantly affecting the growth of the fungus. RNA slot blot experiments showed that no expression could be observed on glucose-containing medium and that high glucose levels abolish the inducing effect of sophorose. The results clearly show that distinct and clear-cut mechanisms of induction and glucose repression regulate cellulase expression in an actively growing fungus. However, derepression of cellulase expression occurs without apparent addition of an inducer once glucose has been depleted from the medium. This expression seems not to arise simply from starvation, since the lack of carbon or nitrogen as such is not sufficient to trigger significant expression. PMID:9097427

  13. Viability of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia after passage through the gastrointestinal tract of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; Araújo, Jackson Victor; Silva, André Ricardo; Carvalho, Rogério Oliva; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Ferreira, Sebastião Rodrigo; Carvalho, Giovanni Ribeiro

    2010-03-25

    The predatory capacity of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia (isolate VC4) embedded in sodium alginate pellets after passage through the gastrointestinal tract of horses was assessed in vitro against Oxyuris equi eggs. Twelve previously dewormed crossbred mares, average weight of 362.5kg (+/-21) were used in the experiment. Each animal of the treated group received an oral dose (100g) of sodium alginate pellets containing P. chlamydosporia mycelial mass. The control group received pellets without fungus. Faecal samples from fungus-treated and control groups were collected at intervals of 8, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72h after pellet administration and placed in Petri dishes containing 2% water-agar. One thousand eggs of O. equi were plated in Petri dishes of both treated and control groups, with six replicates, and incubated in oven, 25 degrees C, in the dark, for 30 days. At the end of the experiment, one hundred eggs were removed from each Petri dish and classified according to the following parameters: type 1, physiological and biochemical effect without morphological damage to eggshell, with hyphae adhered to the shell; type 2, lytic effect with morphological change in the eggshell and embryo without hyphal penetration, and type 3, lytic effect with morphological change in the eggshell and embryo, with hyphal penetration and internal egg colonization. Chlamydospore production was observed in Petri dishes of the treated group. The isolate VC4 remained viable after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of horses and maintained the ovicidal activity against O. equi eggs when compared with the control group (pequi eggs in natural conditions. PMID:20036059

  14. Yellow Pigment Aurovertins Mediate Interactions between the Pathogenic Fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia and Its Nematode Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-li; Li, Lin-fang; Li, Dong-xian; Wang, Baile; Zhang, Keqin; Niu, Xuemei

    2015-07-29

    Nematophagous fungi are globally distributed soil fungi and well-known natural predators of soil-dwelling nematodes. Pochonia chlamydosporia can be found in diverse nematode-suppressive soils as a parasite of nematode eggs and is one of the most studied potential biological control agents of nematodes. However, little is known about the functions of small molecules in the process of infection of nematodes by this parasitic fungus or about small-molecule-mediated interactions between the pathogenic fungus and its host. Our recent study demonstrated that a P. chlamydosporia strain isolated from root knots of tobacco infected by the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita produced a class of yellow pigment metabolite aurovertins, which induced the death of the free-living nematode Panagrellus redivevus. Here we report that nematicidal P. chlamydosporia strains obtained from the nematode worms tended to yield a total yellow pigment aurovertin production exceeding the inhibitory concentration shown in nematicidal bioassays. Aurovertin D was abundant in the pigment metabolites of P. chlamydosporia strains. Aurovertin D showed strong toxicity toward the root-knot nematode M. incognita and exerted profound and detrimental effects on the viability of Caenorhabditis elegans even at a subinhibitory concentration. Evaluation of the nematode mutation in the ? subunit of F1-ATPase, together with the application of RNA interference in screening each subunit of F1FO-ATPase in the nematode worms, demonstrated that the ? subunit of F1-ATPase might not be the specific target for aurovertins in nematodes. The resistance of C. elegans daf-2(e1370) and the hypersensitivity of C. elegans daf-16(mu86) to aurovertin D indicated that DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor in nematodes was triggered in response to the aurovertin attack. These findings advance our understanding of the roles of aurovertin production in the interactions between nematodes and the pathogen fungus P. chlamydosporia. PMID:26151481

  15. Effect of the fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia on Echinostoma paraensei (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelis, Rosane Teixeira; Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; de Carvalho, Lorendane Millena; de Paula, Alessandra Teixeira; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Fausto, Mariana Costa; Junior, Arnaldo Maldonado; Rodrigues, João Victor Facchini; de Freitas Soares, Filippe Elias; Garcia, Juberlan Silva; de Araújo, Jackson Victor

    2014-11-01

    Echinostoma paraensei is a trematode of the genus Echinostoma that causes echinostomiasis in humans. The objectives of this study were to: evaluate the ovicidal activity of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia (VC1 and VC4) on a solid medium 2% water-agar (2% WA) against E. paraensei eggs (assay A); evaluate ovicidal effect (destruction of eggs) of the isolate VC4 in supplemented culture media (assay B); and evaluate the ovicidal ability of the crude extract (VC4) on E. paraensei eggs (assay C). Eggs of E. paraensei (assay A) were placed in Petri dishes containing 2% WA with an isolate of the fungus P. chlamydosporia (VC1 and VC4) grown for 10 days, and without fungus as a control and evaluated regarding their destruction. In assay B, eggs of E. paraensei were placed in Petri dishes with different supplemented culture media and with VC4 isolate and the destruction of eggs was examined at the end of 25 days of interaction. In assay C, effects of the crude extract of P. chlamydosporia (VC4) on eggs were evaluated at the end of 7 days. In assay A, there was no difference (p>0.05) in ovicidal activity among the tested isolates (VC1 and VC4); however, the highest percentage for ovicidal activity (type 3 effect) was demonstrated by the isolate VC4. In assay B, the culture medium starch-agar showed the best results for the destruction of the eggs, with a percentage of 46.6% at the end of the assay. In assay C, the crude extract of VC4 was effective in the destruction of E. paraensei eggs, with a percentage reduction of 53%. The results of this study demonstrate that a rich culture medium with a greater availability of carbon and nitrogen may interfere directly in the predatory characteristics of ovicidal fungi. PMID:25046695

  16. [Mechanism of overproduction of secreted enzymes in the mycelial fungus Penicillium canescens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavilova, E A; Antonova, S V; Barsukov, E D; VinetskiÄ­, Iu P

    2003-01-01

    The fungus Penicillium canescens strain F178 (VKPM) and its niaD- mutant exhibited an increased capability of synthesizing extracellular enzymes beta-galactosidase (70-80 U/ml) and xylanase (100 U/ml). The synthesis was induced by arabinose and its catabolite, arabitol. A deficiency in arabitol dehydrogenase, leading to arabitol accumulation in the cell, was detected in the chain of reactions of arabinose catabolism. The increased synthesis of beta-galactosidase and xylanase in P. canescens is accounted for by (1) cellular accumulation of the inducer (arabitol) at low concentrations of arabinose in the medium and (2) prevalence of induction over repression. PMID:12754825

  17. Biotransformation of a tetrahydrofuran lignan by the endophytic fungus Phomopsis Sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biotrasformation of the tetrahydrofuran lignan, (-)-grandisin, by the endophitic fungus Phomopsis sp, obtained from Viguiera arenaria, led to the formation of a new compound determined as 3,4-dimethyl-2- (4'-hydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyphenyl)-5-methoxy-tetrahydrofuran. The metabolite was evaluated against the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas's disease, and showed a trypanocidal activity (IC50 9.8 ?mol L-1) similar to the natural precursor (IC50 3.7 ?mol L-1). (author)

  18. Sulfation and Enhanced Antioxidant Capacity of an Exopolysaccharide Produced by the Medicinal Fungus Cordyceps sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Jing-Kun Yan; Wen-Qiang Wang; Hai-Le Ma; Jian-Yong Wu

    2012-01-01

    EPS-1 was an exopolysaccharide produced by the medicinal fungus Cordyceps sinensis (Cs-HK1). In the present study, EPS-1 was sulfated with chlorosulfonic acid (CSA)-pyridine (Pyr) at different volume ratios, yielding four sulfated derivatives, SEPS-1A, B, C and D, with different degrees of substitution (DS: 0.25–1.38) and molecular weights (17.1–4.1 kDa). The sulfation of EPS-1 occurred most frequently at the C-6 hydroxyl groups due to their higher reactivity. In aqueous s...

  19. PRODUCTION, PARTIAL PURIFICATION AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYPHENOL OXIDASE FROM TRICOTHECIUMSP (ENDOPHYTIC FUNGUS OF COCOA PODHUSK)

    OpenAIRE

    Sartini; Patong, Abd. Rauf; Harlim, Tjodi; Pirman

    2013-01-01

    Fungal strains are considered to be excellent sources for industrial polyphenol oxidase production. Polyphenol oxidase could be produced by endophytic fungus Trichotheciumsp from podhusk of Theobroma cacaoL. The aim of this research is to partial purify and characterize of the enzyme. The enzyme was produced by submerged fermentation using media with composition, i.e: 1 % yeast extract, 25 ppm CuSO 4.5H 2O, 0.034 % gallic acid, 0.1 % KH2PO 4, 0.05 % MgSO 4.7H 2 0. The steps of purification we...

  20. Microsporols A-C from the Plant Endophytic Fungus Pestalotiopsis microspore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianfu; Wang, Yadan; Liu, Shuchun; Liu, Xinzhong; Guo, Liangdong

    2015-10-01

    Three new ambuic acid derivatives, microsporols A-C (1-3) and the known compound ambuic acid (4), were isolated from the solid-substrate fermentation cultures of the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis microspora. Their structures were elucidated primarily by NMR experiments. The absolute configurations of the 6,7-diol moiety in 1 and 2 were assigned using the Snatzke's method, whereas that of 3 was deduced by circular dichroism (CD) exciton chirality method. Compounds 1, 3, and 4 showed moderate 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibitory effects. PMID:26669093

  1. Punctaporonins H–M: Caryophyllene-Type Sesquiterpenoids from the Sponge-Associated Fungus Hansfordia sinuosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehong Wu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Six new caryophyllene-based sesquiterpenoids named punctaporonins H–M (1–6, together with punctaporonin B (7 and humulane (8 were isolated from the fermentation broth of the sponge-derived fungus Hansfordia sinuosae. Their structures were determined by the extensive HRESIMS and NMR spectroscopic analysis, including the X-ray crystallographic data for the assignment of the absolute configurations of punctaporonins H–I (1–2. The isolated compounds were evaluated for antihyperlipidemic, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities, and punctaporonin K (4 exhibited potent effects to reduce the triglycerides and total cholesterol in the intracellular levels.

  2. Butyrolactones from the Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus versicolor and their Anti-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Activity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Min, Zhou; Jie, Lou; Yin-Ke, Li; Yue-De, Wang; Kun, Zhou; Bing-Kun, Ji; Wei, Dong; Xue-Mei, Gao; Gang, Du; Qiu-Fen, Hu.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available New butyrolactones aspernolides C and D, along with two known butyrolactones (A and B) were isolated from the culture of the endophytic fungus Aspergillus versicolor. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic ressonance te [...] chniques, and electronic circular dichroism. The butyrolactones aspernolides C and D were tested for their anti-tobacco mosaic virus activity. The results showed that butyrolactones aspernolides C and D exhibited moderate anti-tobacco mosaic virus activity with IC50 values of 64.2 and 88.6 ?M, respectively.

  3. Biodecolorization of Phenolic Paper Mill Effluent by Ligninolytic Fungus Trametes versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Prabu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A white rot fungus isolated from soil samples enriched by continuous pulp and paper mill effluent irrigation and identified as Trametes versicolor was capable of decolorization and degradation of phenol from paper mill effluent. 14C synthetic lignin mineralization assays showed that Trametes versicolor assimilated 24.3% of the total label. There was 76% effluent decolourization along with 78% COD reduction. The effluent chlorinated phenol degradation was 85% by Trametes versicolor, when added with 1% glucose as co-substrate.

  4. Chaetoconvosins A and B, alkaloids with new skeleton from fungus Chaetomium convolutum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guo-Bo; Li, Li-Mei; Yang, Tao; Zhang, Guo-Lin; Li, Guo-You

    2012-12-01

    Chaetoconvosins A and B (1 and 2), two novel cytochalasan alkaloids with a new 6/6/5/5/7 pentacyclic ring system, were isolated from the solid-state fermented medium of the wheat rhizospheric fungus Chaetomium convolutum cib-100. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. The structure of chaetoconvosin A (1) was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Chaetoconvosin B (2), the major metabolite, showed remarkable inhibitory ability on root elongation and moderate cytotoxicity against several cancer cell lines. PMID:23181909

  5. Three New Resveratrol Derivatives from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Alternaria sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Jinhua Wang; Daniel G. Cox; Weijia Ding; Guanghao Huang; Yongcheng Lin; Chunyuan Li

    2014-01-01

    Three new resveratrol derivatives, namely, resveratrodehydes A–C (1–3), were isolated from the mangrove endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. R6. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by analysis of their MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. All compounds showed broad-spectrum inhibitory activities against three human cancer cell lines including human breast MDA-MB-435, human liver HepG2, and human colon HCT-116 by MTT assay (IC50 < 50 μM). Among them, compounds 1 and 2 both exhibi...

  6. Some properties and possible biological role of peptidase inhibitors from the entomopathogenic fungus Tolypocladium cylindrosporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, V V; Dunaevsky, Y E; Domash, V I; Semenova, T A; Beliakova, G A; Belozersky, M A

    2015-10-01

    The activities of secreted and mycelial inhibitors of proteolytic enzymes from fungi of the order Hypocreales have been investigated. Inhibitors of bromelain, papain, and trypsin of low molecular mass (about 1 kDa) and a subtilisin proteinaceous inhibitor with molecular mass of 45 kDa were revealed in the culture liquid of the fungus Tolypocladium cylindrosporum. The subtilisin inhibitor from T. cylindrosporum has antibiotic properties, significantly decreased the activity of purified bacterial enzymes, and prevented the growth of the bacterium Pseudomonas sp. Data suggesting the existence in fungi of the Hypocreales order of two pools of peptidase inhibitors have been obtained. PMID:26210235

  7. Enhanced production of laccase by a marine fungus during treatment of colored effluents and synthetic dyes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza-Ticlo, D.; Tiwari, R.; Sah, A.K.; Raghukumar, C.

    5159 under the Budapest treaty for patent culture deposition [16]. Based on partial large subunit rRNA (D2) gene (~350 bp) alignment with GenBank database, it was shown to have 99% homology to an unidentified basidiomycete species AY187277 (MIDI LABS... 1988;61:264-70. [16] Raghukumar C, D?Souza D. A process for decolorization of colored effluents using a marine fungus, its enzyme and extracellular polymeric substance. 2004 Indian Patent Filing No. 0394NF2004. [17] Nyanhongo GS, Gomes J, G...

  8. Xanthepinone, an antimicrobial polyketide from a soil fungus closely related to Phoma medicaginis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liermann, Johannes C; Kolshorn, Heinz; Opatz, Till; Thines, Eckhard; Anke, Heidrun

    2009-10-01

    The isolation, biological characterization, and structure elucidation of xanthepinone, a novel antifungal metabolite isolated from the broth of submerged cultures of a soil fungus, are described. Xanthepinone inhibits the conidial germination of Magnaporthe grisea (2 microg/mL), Phytophthora infestans (5 microg/mL), and Botrytis cinerea (10 microg/mL) while showing only weak antibacterial activity; cytotoxicity was not observed up to 50 microg/mL. Molecular taxonomy revealed that the producing strain is close to species in the genus Phoma as well as to uncultured soil fungi and endophytes. PMID:19795903

  9. Pyrone derivatives from the endophytic fungus Alternaria tenuissima SP-07 of Chinese herbal medicine Salvia przewalskii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Zheng; Luo, Xiao-Hong; Xiao, Jie; Zhai, Ming-Ming; Yuan, Yun; Zhu, Ying; Crews, Phillip; Yuan, Cheng-Shan; Wu, Quan-Xiang

    2014-12-01

    Three new pyrones, solanapyrones P-R (1-3), were afforded by the extracts of the endophytic fungus Alternaria tenuissima SP-07 isolated from the fresh root of Chinese herbal medicine Salvia przewalskii, along with the known solanapyrones (4-6) and benzopyrones (7-9). Solanapyrones P (1) and Q (2) possess an unprecedented nor-solanapyrone skeleton as natural products. Their structures were determined on the basis of NMR and HR-ESI-MS analysis. The plausible biosynthetic pathways to those unknown compounds were discussed. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activities against six bacteria. PMID:25284429

  10. [Effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on laccase production by white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus D1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdniakova, N N; Nikiforova, S V; Makarov, O E; Turkovskaia, O V

    2011-01-01

    The effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the dynamics of laccase production by the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus D1 under conditions of submerged cultivation on Kirk's medium has been studied. It has been shown that phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and chrysene actively induce this enzyme, whereas fluorene and anthrecene had a smaller effect. Addition of Mn2+ ions to cultivation medium elevates the laccase activity twofold and more in the presence of all the studied PAHs. Electrophoresis under nondenaturing conditions demonstrates induction of additional laccase species by xenobiotics. Ligninolytic peroxidase activities are undetectable under the conditions used. PMID:22232903

  11. Cytotoxic Anthranilic Acid Derivatives from Deep Sea Sediment-Derived Fungus Penicillium paneum SD-44

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin-Gui Wang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Five new anthranilic acid derivatives, penipacids A–E (1–5, together with one known analogue (6, which was previously synthesized, were characterized from the ethyl acetate extract of the marine sediment-derived fungus Penicillium paneum SD-44. Their structures were elucidated mainly by extensive NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analysis. The cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of the isolated compounds were evaluated. Compounds 1, and 5 exhibited inhibitory activity against human colon cancer RKO cell line, while compound 6 displayed cytotoxic activity against Hela cell line.

  12. A Fatty Acid Glycoside from a Marine-Derived Fungus Isolated from Mangrove Plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Li Mei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available To study the antimicrobial components from the endophytic fungus A1 of mangrove plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea Gaertn. F., a new fatty acid glucoside was isolated by column chromatography from the broth of A1, and its structure was identified as R-3-hydroxyundecanoic acid methylester-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (1 by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR (HMQC, 1H-1H COSY and HMBC and chemical methods. Antimicrobial assay showed compound 1 possessed modest inhibitory effect on Saphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA using the filter paper disc agar diffusion method.

  13. Improving durability of Wood-polymer composite processed by gamma radiation against the Polyporus sanguineus fungus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of wood durability was done measuring the wood weight lost after 90 days and the change of surface morphology. This study was done with the fungus Polyporus sanguineus in three wood species: Catahua (Hura crepitans L.), Mohena (Aniba amazonica Meiz), and Capirona (Calycophy spruceanum Be) without treatment and wood-polymer composite obtained by gamma irradiation. The Capirona and Mohena composites improve its durability, while the Catahua composite maintains its level of durability. Regarding surface morphology, there is no a significant change between the untreated woods and Capirona and Mohena composites. While the untreated Catahua shows deterioration of its surface. (orig.)

  14. Unguisin F, a new cyclic peptide from the endophytic fungus Mucor irregularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akone, Sergi H; Daletos, Georgios; Lin, Wenhan; Proksch, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The new cyclic heptapeptide unguisin F (1) and the known congener unguisin E (2), were obtained from the endophytic fungus Mucor irregularis, isolated from the medicinal plant Moringa stenopetala, collected in Cameroon. The structure of the new compound was unambiguously determined on the basis of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy as well as by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of the amino acid residues of 1 and 2 was determined using Marfey's analysis. Compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal potential, but failed to display significant activities. PMID:26812868

  15. Genes Expressed during the Biotrophic Phase of the Rust Fungus Uromyces fabae

    OpenAIRE

    Hempel, Uta

    2005-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the study of genes expressed during the biotrophic phase of the rust fungus Uromyces fabae, an obligate biotrophic pathogen of Vicia faba (broad bean).As a first step, a previously initiated partial Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) sequencingproject was completed and the results were analyzed. The aim of this project was to sequence at least 1 000 ESTs and to compare them to publicly available sequences. 58% of the 1 000 plus sequences analyzed using the BLASTX algor...

  16. Biotransformation of chalcones by the endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus isolated from Paspalum maritimum trin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Marivaldo J.C.; Nunes, Fatima M.; Bitencourt, Heriberto R.; Borges, Fabio C.; Guilhon, Giselle M.S.P.; Arruda, Mara S.P.; Marinho, Andrey M. R.; Santos, Alberdan S.; Alves, Claudio N.; Santos, Lourivaldo S., E-mail: lss@ufpa.b [Universidade Federal do Para (IQ/FEQ/UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Tecnologia. Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica; Brasil, Davi S.B. [Universidade Federal do Para (PPGQ/IQ/UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Quimica

    2011-07-01

    The fungus Aspergillus flavus isolated as endophytic of the plant Paspalum maritimum Trin. was evaluated for its potential application in biotransformation reactions. The compounds chalcone (1), 3,4,5-trimethoxychalcone (2) and 2,3,4,4'-tetramethoxy chalcone (3) were biotransformed, respectively, in dihydrochalcone (4), 3,4,5-trimethoxydihydrochalcone (5) and 2,3,4,4'-tetramethoxydihydrochalcone (6). The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR techniques, and MS analysis. The dihydrochalcones 5 and 6 are new compounds. (author)

  17. Mineralization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by the White Rot Fungus Pleurotus ostreatus

    OpenAIRE

    Bezalel, L.; Hadar, Y.; Cerniglia, C. E.

    1996-01-01

    The white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus was able to mineralize to (sup14)CO(inf2) 7.0% of [(sup14)C]catechol, 3.0% of [(sup14)C]phenanthrene, 0.4% of [(sup14)C]pyrene, and 0.19% of [(sup14)C]benzo[a]pyrene by day 11 of incubation. It also mineralized [(sup14)C]anthracene (0.6%) much more slowly (35 days) and [(sup14)C]fluorene (0.19%) within 15 days. P. ostreatus did not mineralize fluoranthene. The activities of the enzymes considered to be part of the ligninolytic system, laccase and manga...

  18. Mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezalel, L.; Hadar, Y. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel); Cerniglia, C.E. [National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR (United States)

    1996-01-01

    White rot fungi, including Pleurotus ostreatus, have the ability to efficiently degrade lignin, a naturally occurring aromatic polymer. Previous work has found these organisms were able to degrade PAHs and in some cases to mineralize them; most of the work was done with Phanerochaete chrysosporium. P. ostreatus differs from P. chrysosporium in its lignin degradation mechanism. In this study, enzymatic activities were monitored during P. ostreatus growth in the presence of PAHs and the fungus`s ability to mineralize catechol and various PAHs was demonstrated. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. The methane fermentation of Citrus unshu peel pretreated with fungus enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akao, T.; Mizuki, E.; Saito, H.; Okumura, S. (Material Research Inst. (JP). Fukuoka Industrial Technology Center); Murao, S. (Kumamoto Inst. of Technology (JP). Dept. of Applied Microbial Technology)

    1992-01-01

    Of five fungi isolated from Citrus unshu peels, an Aspergillus sp. strain designated A-1 had the highest activity in macerating peels. When C. unshu peel slurry was treated with Aspergillus sp. A-1 crude enzymes for 48 h, the 200-mesh filter passing rate reached 89.8%. Most of the peel oil (95.8%) was removed by 48-h enzyme treatment with agitation. Pretreatment of peels with fungus enzymes resulted in 50% increase in the amount of limit load for anaerobic digestion. (author).

  20. Efficacy of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum in controlling the tick Rhipicephalus annulatus under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samish, M; Rot, A; Ment, D; Barel, S; Glazer, I; Gindin, G

    2014-12-15

    High infectivity of entomopathogenic fungi to ticks under laboratory conditions has been demonstrated in many studies. However, the few reports on their use under field conditions demonstrate large variations in their success, often with no clear explanation. The present study evaluated the factors affecting the efficacy of the fungus Metarhizium brunneum against the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus. It demonstrates how environmental conditions and ground cover affect the efficiency of the fungus under field conditions. During the summer, 93% of tick females exposed to fungus-contaminated ground died within 1 week, whereas during the winter, only 62.2% died within 6 weeks. Nevertheless, the hatchability of their eggs was only 6.1% during the summer and 0.0% during winter. Covering the ground with grass, leaves or gravel improved fungal performance. Aside from killing female ticks, the fungus had a substantial effect on tick fecundity. Fungal infection reduced the proportion of female ticks laying full-size egg masses by up to 91%, and reduced egg hatchability by up to 100%. To reduce the negative effect of outdoor factors on fungal activity, its conidia were mixed with different oils (olive, canola, mineral or paraffin at 10% v/v) and evaluated in both laboratory and field tests for efficacy. All tested oils without conidia sprayed on the sand did not influence tick survival or weight of the laid eggs but significantly reduced egghatchability. Conidia in water with canola or mineral oil spread on agarose and incubated for 18 h showed 57% and 0% germination, respectively. Comparing, under laboratory conditions, the effects of adding each of the four oils to conidia in water on ticks demonstrated no effect on female mortality or weight of the laid egg mass, but the percentage of hatched eggs was reduced. In outdoor trials, female ticks placed on the ground sprayed with conidia in water yielded an average of 175 larvae per female and there was no hatching of eggs laid by females placed on ground sprayed with conidia in water with canola or mineral oils. PMID:25468024

  1. A new minor diketopiperazine from the sponge-derived fungus Simplicillium sp. YZ-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bing-Fei; Fang, Sheng-Tao; Li, Wen-Zuo; Liu, Su-Jing; Wang, Jian-Hua; Xia, Chuan-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the cultures of a sponge-derived fungus Simplicillium sp. YZ-11 led to the isolation of a new minor diketopiperazine alkaloid cyclo-(2-hydroxy-Pro-Gly) (1) and a natural lactone (S)-dihydro-5-[(S)- hydroxyphenylmethyl]-2(3H)-furanone (2), together with five known ergostane-type sterols (3-7). Their structures were established based on extensive spectroscopic methods ((1)H and (13)C NMR, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC and HMBC) and optical rotation analysis. PMID:25835596

  2. Pestalafuranones F–J, Five New Furanone Analogues from the Endophytic Fungus Nigrospora sp. BM-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqi Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Five new 2(5H-furanone-type derivatives, pestalafuranones F–J (compounds 3–7, together with two known compounds, pestalafuranones A (1 and B (2, were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract from the fermentation broth of the endophytic fungus Nigrospora sp. BM-2 in a hypersaline medium. The structures of these metabolites were elucidated by EIMS, HREIMS and NMR spectroscopic data. Compounds 1–7 exhibited no cytotoxic activities against the MDA-MB-231 and Caski cancer cell lines.

  3. Pestalafuranones F–J, Five New Furanone Analogues from the Endophytic Fungus Nigrospora sp. BM-2

    OpenAIRE

    Hongqi Zhang; Zhangshuang Deng; Zhiyong Guo; Xuan Tu; Junzhi Wang; Kun Zou

    2014-01-01

    Five new 2(5H)-furanone-type derivatives, pestalafuranones F–J (compounds 3–7), together with two known compounds, pestalafuranones A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract from the fermentation broth of the endophytic fungus Nigrospora sp. BM-2 in a hypersaline medium. The structures of these metabolites were elucidated by EIMS, HREIMS and NMR spectroscopic data. Compounds 1–7 exhibited no cytotoxic activities against the MDA-MB-231 and Caski cancer cell lines.

  4. Four new tetramic acid and one new furanone derivatives from the plant endophytic fungus Neopestalotiopsis sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shasha; Chen, Shenxi; Wang, Bo; Niu, Shubin; Wu, Wenping; Guo, Liangdong; Che, Yongsheng

    2015-06-01

    Four new tetramic acid analogues neopestalotins A-D (1-4), one new furanone derivative neopestalotin E (6), and the known compound hymenosetin have been isolated from the solid cultures of the plant endophytic fungus Neopestalotiopsis sp. The structures of the new compounds were determined mainly by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were assigned by circular dichroism (CD) data, whereas those of 3 and 4 were deduced by a combination of CD and heteronuclear long range coupling (HETLOC) data. Compound 2 showed modest antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus col, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. PMID:25818228

  5. Mono- and bis-furanone derivatives from the endolichenic fungus Peziza sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Ren, Jinwei; Ge, Mei; Li, Li; Guo, Liangdong; Chen, Daijie; Che, Yongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Seven new mono- and bis-furanones, pezizolides A-G (1-7), have been isolated from the crude extract of the endolichenic fungus Peziza sp. inhabiting the lichen Xanthoparmelia sp. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated mainly by NMR and MS methods. The absolute configuration of 1-4 was assigned by the application of CD exciton chirality method, and 1 was further supported by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations, whereas that of 5 was deduced by Snatzke's method following the relative configuration analysis of its acetonide. The cytotoxity and antimicrobial activity of compounds 1-7 were tested. PMID:24185012

  6. Pestalafuranones F-J, five new furanone analogues from the endophytic fungus Nigrospora sp. BM-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongqi; Deng, Zhangshuang; Guo, Zhiyong; Tu, Xuan; Wang, Junzhi; Zou, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Five new 2(5H)-furanone-type derivatives, pestalafuranones F-J (compounds 3-7), together with two known compounds, pestalafuranones A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract from the fermentation broth of the endophytic fungus Nigrospora sp. BM-2 in a hypersaline medium. The structures of these metabolites were elucidated by EIMS, HREIMS and NMR spectroscopic data. Compounds 1-7 exhibited no cytotoxic activities against the MDA-MB-231 and Caski cancer cell lines. PMID:24434694

  7. Identification and characterization of genes required for hyphal morphogenesis in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans.

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, S. D.; A. F. Hofmann; Tedford, H W; Lee, M.P.

    1999-01-01

    In the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, germination of an asexual conidiospore results in the formation of a hyphal cell. A key feature of spore germination is the switch from isotropic spore expansion to polarized apical growth. Here, temperature-sensitive mutations are used to characterize the roles of five genes (sepA, hypA, podB-podD) in the establishment and maintenance of hyphal polarity. Evidence that suggests that the hypA, podB, and sepA genes are required for multiple aspect...

  8. Genome analysis of rice-blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae field isolates from southern India

    OpenAIRE

    Malali Gowda; Shirke, Meghana D.; Mahesh, H.B.; Pinal Chandarana; Anantharamanan Rajamani; Chattoo, Bharat B.

    2015-01-01

    The Indian subcontinent is the center of origin and diversity for rice (Oryza sativa L.). The O. sativa ssp. indica is a major food crop grown in India, which occupies the first and second position in area and production, respectively. Blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is a major constraint to rice production. Here, we report the analysis of genome architecture and sequence variation of two field isolates, B157 and MG01, of the blast fungus from southern India. The 40 Mb genome of B1...

  9. Terpenoids from the Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus YK-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Li, Da-Hong; Li, Zhan-Lin; Sun, Yan-Jun; Hua, Hui-Ming; Liu, Tao; Bai, Jiao

    2015-01-01

    Two new ?-bergamotane sesquiterpenoids, E-?-trans-5,8,11-trihydroxybergamot-9-ene (1) and ?-trans-2?,5,15-trihydroxybergamot-10-ene (2), were isolated from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus fumigatus YK-7, along with three known terpenoids 3-5. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods (1D and 2D NMR, HR-ESI-MS). Antiproliferative effects on human leukemic monocyte lymphoma U937 and human prostate cancer PC-3 cell lines were measured in vitro. Compound 4 exhibited potent activity against the U937 cell line with an IC50 value of 4.2 ?M. PMID:26729074

  10. Proteomic analysis of proteins differentially expressed in conidia and mycelium of the entomopathogenic fungus Aschersonia placenta

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Qiu, J.; Su, Y.; Gelbič, Ivan; Qiu, Y.; Xie, X.; Guan, X.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 12 (2012), s. 1327-1334. ISSN 0008-4166 Grant ostatní: National Natural Science Foundation of China(CN) 30500005; National Natural Science Foundation of China(CN) 31070026; National Natural Science Foundation of China(CN) 31170025; Fujian Province University(CN) JK2011013; Fujian Provincial Science Foundation(CN) 2010J06007; Chinese National Programs(CN) 2011AA10A203; Fujian Provincial Science Foundation(CN) 0b08b005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : entomopathogenic fungus * Aschersonia placenta * fungal developmental stages Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.199, year: 2012

  11. Biotransformation of a tetrahydrofuran lignan by the endophytic fungus Phomopsis Sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verza, Michelle; Arakawa, Nilton S.; Lopes, Norberto P.; Pupo, Monica T.; Said, Suraia; Carvalho, Ivone [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Kato, Massuo J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: carronal@usp.br

    2009-07-01

    The biotrasformation of the tetrahydrofuran lignan, (-)-grandisin, by the endophitic fungus Phomopsis sp, obtained from Viguiera arenaria, led to the formation of a new compound determined as 3,4-dimethyl-2- (4'-hydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyphenyl)-5-methoxy-tetrahydrofuran. The metabolite was evaluated against the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas's disease, and showed a trypanocidal activity (IC{sub 50} 9.8 {mu}mol L{sup -1}) similar to the natural precursor (IC{sub 50} 3.7 {mu}mol L{sup -1}). (author)

  12. Sesquiterpenes produced by endophytic fungus Phomopsis cassiae with antifungal and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new diastereoisomeric cadinanes sesquiterpenes 3,9-dihydroxycalamenene (1-2), along with the known 3-hydroxycalamen-8-one (3) and aristelegone-A (4), were isolated from ethyl acetate extract of Phomopsis cassiae, an endophytic fungus in Cassia spectabilis. Their structures, including relative stereochemistry, were determined on the basis of detailed interpretation of 2D NMR spectra and comparison with related known compounds. Compounds 1-4 displayed antifungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, as well as inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. (author)

  13. Sesquiterpenes from the saprotrophic fungus Granulobasidium vellereum (Ellis & Cragin) Jülich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Christina L; Menkis, Audrius; Lendel, Christofer; Vasaitis, Rimvydas; Broberg, Anders

    2014-06-01

    Twelve sesquiterpenes comprising either the protoilludane or the rare cerapicane carbon skeletons were obtained from the saprotrophic wood decomposing fungus Granulobasidium vellereum; 2a-hydroxycoprinolone (1), 3-hydroxycoprinolone (2), coprinolone diol B (3), granulodiene A (4), granulodiene B (5), granulone A (6), 8-deoxy-4a-hydroxytsugicoline B (7), granulone B (8), demethylgranulone (9), cerapicolene (10), as well as the known compounds radudiol and Δ(6)-coprinolone. The structures were determined using spectroscopic methods and biosynthetic considerations. Granulone A had growth stimulating effect on the total elongation of lettuce seedlings. None of the isolated compounds showed any antifungal effect. PMID:24703932

  14. Radioprotective properties of lipocarotinoid extract from mycelium of Basidiomycetes Fungus at the external irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioprotective properties of LPC extract from mycelium of Basidiomycetes Fungus at doses 12.0; 3.0 and 1.0 Gy of external irradiation were investigated. The extract of LPC at 2.5 mkg/ml concentration promoted the survival of animals (to 40 %) and increased the average life at the lethal dose. At 1.0 Gy dose the use of extract resulted in restoration of radiosensitive organs weight, the number of blood leucocytes and some indexes of lipid peroxidation in blood plasma. The extract has produced some effect on the amount of spermatogenic cells in the testis

  15. Variation in fungal enzyme spectra may affect mutualistic division of labour between ants and fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    partners vary in metabolic performance, division of labour may not always be optimized and co-evolutionary trajectories become less predictable. The higher fungus-growing (attine) ants consist of the leafcutter ants (Acromyrmex and Atta), which rear a single fungal species throughout their Latin American...... range, and a paraphyletic assembly of Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex species that cultivate more genetically diverse fungal symbionts. Leaf-decomposition productivity of colonies depends on the combined efforts of ant foragers collecting and macerating plant material and fungal enzymes excreted directly...

  16. Identification of microRNA-Like RNAs in the Filamentous Fungus Trichoderma reesei by Solexa Sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Kang; Zhong, Jiasheng; Jiang, Liang; Liu, Gang; Gou, Christine Yuan; Wu, Qiong; Wang, You; Luo, Jun; Gou, Deming

    2013-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) capable of negatively regulating gene expression. Recently, microRNA-like small RNAs (milRNAs) were discovered in several filamentous fungi but not yet in Trichoderma reesei, an industrial filamentous fungus that can secrete abundant hydrolases. To explore the presence of milRNA in T. reesei and evaluate their expression under induction of cellulose, two T. reesei sRNA libraries of cellulose induction (IN) and non-induction (CON) were gener...

  17. Aspterpenacids A and B, Two Sesterterpenoids from a Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus terreus H010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaoming; Chen, Yan; Chen, Senhua; Liu, Yayue; Lu, Yongjun; Chen, Dongni; Lin, Yongcheng; Huang, Xishan; She, Zhigang

    2016-03-18

    Two new sesterterpenoids, aspterpenacids A (1) and B (2), with an unusual carbon skeleton of a 5/3/7/6/5 ring system were isolated from the mangrove endophytic fungus Aspergillus terreus H010. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods, single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, and electronic circular dichroism calculations. A biogenetic pathway for 1 and 2 is proposed. Both 1 and 2 showed no significant antibacterial activity or cytotoxicity at 50 μM. PMID:26938636

  18. Synthesis of fungus-like MoS{sub 2} nanosheets with ultrafast adsorption capacities toward organic dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, HaoJie; You, Shengsheng [Jiangsu University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu (China); Jia, XiaoHua [Jiangsu University, School of Environment and Safety Engineering, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu (China)

    2015-11-15

    Fungus-like molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) nanosheets with a thickness of a few nanometers have been successfully synthesized via one-pot hydrothermal method. The as-prepared MoS{sub 2} nanosheets with a high surface area of 106.989 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} exhibited excellent wastewater treatment performance with high removal capacities toward organic dyes. In addition, the fungus-like MoS{sub 2} nanosheets can absorb Congo red completely within 2 min. Successful access to high quality fungus-like MoS{sub 2} nanosheets will make it possible for their potential application in catalysis and other fields. (orig.)

  19. [The role of laccase and peroxidase of Lentinus (Panus) tigrinus fungus in biodegradation of high phenol concentrations in liquid medium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadimaliev, D A; Revin, V V; Atykian, N A; Nadezhina, O S; Parshin, A A

    2011-01-01

    The possibility of the usage of Lentinus tigrinus fungus strain VKM F-3616D for biodegradation of high (up to 5%) phenol concentrations in liquid medium and the involvement of laccase and peroxidase in this process have been studied. L. tigrinus fungus was demonstrated to effectively digrade phenol with easy biomass separation from the liquid. Decrease in phenol concentration was accompanied by increased secretion level and laccase activity at the preliminary stages of biodegradation, while that of peroxidase was at the latest stages of biodegradation. These enzyme secretions in distinct ratios and consequences are necessary for effective phenol biodegradation. An effective approach for phenol concentration decrease in the waste water of smoking shops in meat-processing factories using L. tigrinus fungus was described. PMID:21442922

  20. Biosorption of uranium(VI) by a mangrove endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. ZZF51 from the South China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium(VI) accumulation was studied in detail by using the biomass of mangrove endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. ZZF51 from the South China Sea. The uranium(VI) biosorption process onto the tested fungus powders was optimized at pH 4.0, adsorption time 60 min, and uranium(VI) initial concentration 50 mg L-1 with 61.89% of removal efficiency. According to Fourier transform infrared spectra for the tested fungus before and after loaded with uranium(VI), the results showed that both of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups acted as the important roles in the adsorption process. In addition, the experimental data were analyzed by using parameter and kinetic models, and it was obtained that the Langmuir isotherm model and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided better correlation with the experimental data for adsorption of uranium(VI). (author)

  1. Bacterial communities in termite fungus combs are comprised of consistent gut deposits and contributions from the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Saria; Hansen, Lars H; Sørensen, Søren J; Poulsen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Fungus-growing termites (subfamily Macrotermitinae) mix plant forage with asexual spores of their plant-degrading fungal symbiont Termitomyces in their guts and deposit this blend in fungus comb structures, within which the plant matter is degraded. As Termitomyces grows, it produces nodules with asexual spores, which the termites feed on. Since all comb material passes through termite guts, it is inevitable that gut bacteria are also deposited in the comb, but it has remained unknown which bacteria are deposited and whether distinct comb bacterial communities are sustained. Using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we explored the bacterial community compositions of 33 fungus comb samples from four termite species (three genera) collected at four South African geographic locations in 2011 and 2013. We identified 33 bacterial phyla, with Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Candidate division TM7 jointly accounting for 92 % of the reads. Analyses of gut microbiotas from 25 of the 33 colonies showed that dominant fungus comb taxa originate from the termite gut. While gut communities were consistent between 2011 and 2013, comb community compositions shifted over time. These shifts did not appear to be due to changes in the taxa present, but rather due to differences in the relative abundances of primarily gut-derived bacteria within fungus combs. This indicates that fungus comb microbiotas are largely termite species-specific due to major contributions from gut deposits and also that environment affects which gut bacteria dominate comb communities at a given point in time. PMID:26518432

  2. Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Fungus Trichoderma Reesei (A Route for Large-Scale Production of AgNPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khabat Vahabi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the requirements for advancement of nanotechnology are the development of reliable experimental protocols for the synthesis of nanomaterials over a range of biological compositions, sizes and high monodispersity. An attractive possibility of green nanotechnology is to use micro-organisms in the synthesis of nanoparticles. Recently, the utilization of biological systems, especially fungi, has emerged as a novel method for the synthesis of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles are considered as fundamental molecular building blocks for nanotechnology. They are the starting points for preparing many nanostructured materials and devices. In this paper we report the extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs by using a fungus named Trichoderma Reesei (also known as Hypocrea jecorina. In the biosynthesis of AgNPs by this fungus, the fungus mycelium is exposed to the silver nitrate solution. That prompts the fungus to produce enzymes and metabolites for its own survival. In this process the toxic Ag+ ions are reduced to the nonetoxic metallic AgNPs through the catalytic effect of the extracellular enzyme and metabolites of the fungus. Absorption UV-Visible light spectroscopy is used to follow up with the reaction process. Fluorescence emission spectroscopy is used to produce detailed information on the progress of reduction of silver nitrate (formation of silver nanoparticles on the nanosecond timescale. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is used for quantitative analyses of the reaction products. Our measurements indicate that extracellular biosynthesis of AgNPs by Trichoderma reesei produces AgNPs with the diameters in the range of 5-50 nm. Trichoderma Reesei is an environmentally friendly fungus, and it is well known for its formation of extracellular enzyme and metabolites in very large amounts, much higher than other fungi. The present process is an excellent candidate for industrial scale production of silver nanoparticles.

  3. Dereplication-guided isolation of depsides thielavins S-T and lecanorins D-F from the endophytic fungus Setophoma sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Medeiros, Livia S.; Abreu, Lucas M.; Nielsen, Anita; Ingmer, Hanne; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson

    2015-01-01

    Dereplication methodology using UHPLC-DAD-QTOFMS was applied during the metabolic profiling investigation of the endophyte Setophoma sp., a fungus isolated from symptomless guava fruits. The approach performed allowed a fast analysis of the microbial secondary metabolites. From this fungus, seven...

  4. Rapid shifts in Atta cephalotes fungus-garden enzyme activity after a change in fungal substrate (Attini, Formicidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kooij, P W; Schiøtt, M; Boomsma, J J; De Fine Licht, H H

    2011-01-01

    backbone structure of pectin molecules, relative to a pure diet of bramble leaves, and this happened predominantly in the most recently established top sections of fungus gardens. However, fungus-garden amylase activity did not significantly increase despite the substantial increase in starch availability...

  5. [Use of Endoglucanase IV from Trichoderma reesei to Enhance the Hydrolytic Activity of a Cellulase Complex from the Fungus Penicillium verruculosum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskurina, O V; Korotkova, O G; Rozhkova, A M; Kondrat'eva, E G; Matys, V Yu; Zorov, I N; Koshelev, A V; Okunev, O N; Nemashkalov, V A; Bubnova, T V; Sinitsyn, A P

    2015-01-01

    The effect of polysaccharide monooxygenase (endoglucanase IV) from the fungus Trichoderma reesei on the hydrolysis of polysaccharide substrates by cellulases secreted by the fungus Penicillium verruculosum has been investigated. Supplementation of the enzyme complex from P. verruculosum by endoglucanase IV from T. reesei has been shown to elevate the efficiency of cellulose hydrolysis by 45%. PMID:26859961

  6. Physiological traits of Penicillium glabrum strain LCP 08.5568, a filamentous fungus isolated from bottled aromatised mineral water

    OpenAIRE

    Nevarez, Laurent; Vasseur, Valérie; Le Madec, A.; Le Bras, M. A.; COROLLER, Louis; Leguérinel, Ivan; Barbier, Georges

    2009-01-01

    Penicillium glabrum is an ubiquitous fungus distributed world wide. This fungus is a frequent contaminant in the food manufacturing industry. Environmental factors such as temperature, water activity and pH have a great influence on fungal development. In this study, a strain of P. glabrum referenced to as LCP 08.5568, has been isolated from a bottle of aromatised mineral water. The effects of temperature, aw and pH on radial growth rate were assessed on Czapeck Yeast Agar (CYA) medium. Model...

  7. Enhancement of Diosgenin Production in Dioscorea zingiberensis Cell Cultures by Oligosaccharides from Its Endophytic Fungus Fusarium oxysporum Dzf17

    OpenAIRE

    Ligang Zhou; Shiqiong Lu; Yan Mou; Yan Li; Jingfeng Lou; Ziling Mao; Peiqin Li; Youliang Peng

    2011-01-01

    The effects of the oligosaccharides from the endophytic fungus Fusarium oxysporum Dzf17 as elicitors on diosgenin production in cell suspension cultures of its host Dioscorea zingiberensis were investigated. Three oligosaccharides, DP4, DP7 and DP10, were purified from the oligosaccharide fractions DP2-5, DP5-8 and DP8-12, respectively, which were prepared from the water-extracted mycelial polysaccharide of the endophytic fungus F. oxysporum Dzf17. When the cell cultures were treated with fra...

  8. Decomposition of cellulose by the fungus curvularia lunata wakker-II: factors affecting the elaboration of cellulolytic enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Verma

    1962-10-01

    Full Text Available A study of the effect of nutritional factors on the elaboration of extracellular cellulolytic enzyme by the fungus Curvularia lunata has been carried out. A modified Omeliansky's medium has ben formulated substituting ammonium sulphate by ammonium chloride in the Omeliansky's medium and incorporating sodium carboxy methyl cellulose as cellulose is substrate. Use of indole-acetic acid in the growth medium has been found to increase the in vivo as well as in vitro cellulolytic activity. The fungus when grown in the presence of subthresh hold concentrations of sodium pentachlorophenate elaborate an extracellular cellulolytic enzyme of enhanced activity.

  9. Evaluation of SO2 Using Bioindicators: Fungus (Rhytisma acerinum and Lichen (Lichenes in Air of Vilnius City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicija Jank?nien?

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a negative impact of pollution on the environment considering the reaction of live organism bioindicators to the level of pollution., Due to the sensitiveness to gas waste, Lichen (Lichenes and fungus (Rhytisma acerinum are very important for estimating air pollution. Therefore, the paper analyzes air pollution on the basis of testing lichens and fungus and compares the situation of SO2 in the air in Vilnius districts Karolinišk?s, Šeškin? and Justinišk?s with the suburban area of Avižieniai.Article in Lithuanian

  10. Fungus-promoted transformation of lanthanides during the biooxidation of divalent manganese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qianqian; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Kazuya; Kozai, Naofumi; Yamasaki, Shinya; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Tani, Yukinori

    2016-02-01

    Although microorganisms possess high sorption capability for lanthanides, the effect of their biological response on lanthanides migration is unclear. Using active fungus Acremonium strictum KR21-2, supplied with nutrients, this study compared the transformation of lanthanides during the biooxidation of Mn(II) in the absence and presence of trisodium citrate. In the absence of trisodium citrate, lanthanides were rapidly sorbed on fungal cells within 24 h, followed by the preferential desorption of Ce over other lanthanides as Mn oxide formed. Most of the desorbed Ce was in the colloidal phase and associated with a biomolecule produced by the active fungus. In contrast, neither desorption of Ce nor release of this biomolecule occurred in the presence of trisodium citrate. Most importantly, the Ce-binding biomolecule was not found to associate with any other trivalent lanthanides tested or with Fe. The biomolecule was characterized as c.a. 4700 Da in size, and it contains saccharides that differed from those non-nuclide-specific organic substances released from resting cells, as reported previously. This study highlights the importance of biotic reactions between lanthanides and microbial cells, which may affect the migration of lanthanides at the water-Mn oxide interface.

  11. Temperature-dependent growth of Geomyces destructans, the fungus that causes bat white-nose syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verant, Michelle L.; Boyles, Justin G.; Waldrep, William, Jr.; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Blehert, David S.

    2012-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emergent disease estimated to have killed over five million North American bats. Caused by the psychrophilic fungus Geomyces destructans, WNS specifically affects bats during hibernation. We describe temperature-dependent growth performance and morphology for six independent isolates of G. destructans from North America and Europe. Thermal performance curves for all isolates displayed an intermediate peak with rapid decline in performance above the peak. Optimal temperatures for growth were between 12.5 and 15.8°C, and the upper critical temperature for growth was between 19.0 and 19.8°C. Growth rates varied across isolates, irrespective of geographic origin, and above 12°C all isolates displayed atypical morphology that may have implications for proliferation of the fungus. This study demonstrates that small variations in temperature, consistent with those inherent of bat hibernacula, affect growth performance and physiology of G. destructans, which may influence temperature-dependent progression and severity of WNS in wild bats.

  12. Fermentation optimization for the production of bioactive polysaccharides from Cordyceps sinensis fungus UM01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan-Ying; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wu, Ding-Tao; Meng, Lan-Zhen; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2015-08-01

    The optimal fermentation conditions and medium for the production of bioactive polysaccharides from the mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis fungus UM01 were investigated by using orthogonal design and high performance size exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angel laser light scattering and refractive index detector (HPSEC-MALLS-RID). Results showed that the optimal temperature, initial pH, rotation speed, medium capacity (ratio of medium volume to the volume of flask bottle) and inoculums volume for the mycelium growth were 15 °C, pH 6.0, 150 rpm, 2/5 (v/v), and 3% (v/v), respectively. Furthermore, bioactive polysaccharides from the mycelium of C. sinensis fungus UM01 were determined as polysaccharide fractions with the molecular weight above 10 kDa. The optimal fermentation medium was determined as a composition of glucose 30.0 g/L, sucrose 30.0 g/L, KH2PO4 1.0 g/L, CaCl2 0.5 g/L, yeast extract 3.0 g/L, and MgCl2 0.1g/L according to the maximum amount of the bioactive polysaccharides (486.16±19.60 mg/L) measured by HPSEC-MALLS/RID. Results are helpful to establish an efficient and controllable fermentation process for the industrial production of bioactive polysaccharides from C. sinensis UM01, and beneficial to develop a unique health and functional product in future. PMID:25936285

  13. Rhf1 gene is involved in the fruiting body production of Cordyceps militaris fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Keqing; Han, Richou

    2015-08-01

    Cordyceps militaris is an important medicinal fungus. Commercialization of this fungus needs to improve the fruiting body production by molecular engineering. An improved Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) method was used to select an insertional mutant (g38) which exhibited fast stromatal differentiation and increased yield. The Rhf1 gene encoding filamentation protein was destroyed by a single T-DNA and no Rhf1 transcription was detected in mutant g38. To verify the function of the Rhf1 gene, RNA interference plasmid and overexpression vector of the Rhf1 gene were constructed and transferred to the wild-type JM4 by ATMT. Fast stromatal differentiation and larger fruiting bodies were found in the RNAi-Rhf1 mutants (JM-iRhf1). In the overexpression mutants (JM-OERhf1), neither stromata nor fruiting bodies appeared. The rescued strain (38-OERhf1) showed similar growth characteristics as JM4. These results indicated that the Rhf1 gene was involved in the stromatal differentiation and the shape formation of fruiting bodies. PMID:26047996

  14. Cadmium induces cadmium-tolerant gene expression in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciola, Santa O; Puglisi, Ivana; Faedda, Roberto; Sanzaro, Vincenzo; Pane, Antonella; Lo Piero, Angela R; Evoli, Maria; Petrone, Goffredo

    2015-11-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum, strain IMI 393899, was able to grow in the presence of the heavy metals cadmium and mercury. The main objective of this research was to study the molecular mechanisms underlying the tolerance of the fungus T. harzianum to cadmium. The suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method was used for the characterization of the genes of T. harzianum implicated in cadmium tolerance compared with those expressed in the response to the stress induced by mercury. Finally, the effects of cadmium exposure were also validated by measuring the expression levels of the putative genes coding for a glucose transporter, a plasma membrane ATPase, a Cd(2+)/Zn(2+) transporter protein and a two-component system sensor histidine kinase YcbA, by real-time-PCR. By using the aforementioned SSH strategy, it was possible to identify 108 differentially expressed genes of the strain IMI 393899 of T. harzianum grown in a mineral substrate with the addition of cadmium. The expressed sequence tags identified by SSH technique were encoding different genes that may be involved in different biological processes, including those associated to primary and secondary metabolism, intracellular transport, transcription factors, cell defence, signal transduction, DNA metabolism, cell growth and protein synthesis. Finally, the results show that in the mechanism of tolerance to cadmium a possible signal transduction pathway could activate a Cd(2+)/Zn(2+) transporter protein and/or a plasma membrane ATPase that could be involved in the compartmentalization of cadmium inside the cell. PMID:26349455

  15. Chaetochromones A and B, two new polyketides from the fungus Chaetomium indicum (CBS.860.68).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Keyang; Zhang, Yisheng; Li, Li; Wang, Xuewei; Ding, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Chaetochromones A (1) and B (2), two novel polyketides, were isolated from the crude extract of fungus Chaetomium indicum (CBS.860.68) together with three known analogues PI-3(3), PI-4 (4) and SB236050 (5). The structures of these compounds were determined by HRESI-MS and NMR experiments. Chaetochromones A (1) and B (2) are a member of the polyketides family, which might originate from a similar biogenetic pathway as the known compounds PI-3 (3), PI-4 (4) and SB236050 (5). The biological activities of these secondary metabolites were evaluated against eight plant pathogens, including Alternaria alternata, Ilyonectria radicicola, Trichoderma viride pers, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium verticillioide, Irpex lacteus (Fr.), Poria placenta (Fr.) Cooke and Coriolus versicolor (L.) Quél. Compound 1 displayed moderate inhibitory rate (>60%) against the brown rot fungus Poria placenta (Fr.) Cooke, which causes significant wood decay. In addition, the cytotoxic activities against three cancer cell lines A549, MDA-MB-231, PANC-1 were also tested, without any inhibitory activities being detected. PMID:24013408

  16. Genome Sequencing and Analysis of the Biomass-Degrading Fungus Trichoderma reesei (syn. Hypocrea jecorina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Antonio D.; Berka, Randy; Henrissat, Bernard; Saloheimo, Markku; Arvas, Mikko; Baker, Scott E.; Chapman, Jaro d; Chertkov, Olga; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Cullen, Dan; Danchin, Etienne G.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Harris, Paul; Jackson, Melissa ?.; kubicek, Christian P.; Han, Cliff F.; Ho, Isaac; Larrando, Luis F.; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo; Magnuson, Jon K.; Merino, Sandy; Misra, Monica; Nelson, Beth; Putnam, Nicholas; Robbertse, Barbara; Salamov, Asaf; Schmoll, Monika; Terry, Astrid ?.; Thayer, Nina; Westerholm-Parvinen, Ann; Schoch, Conrad L.; Yao, Jian ?.; Barbote, Ravi; Nelson, Mary Anne; Detter, Chris J.; Bruce, David; Kuske, Cheryl; Xie, Gary; Richardson, P. M.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Lucas, Susan; Rubin, Eddie M.; Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Ward, Michael ?.; Brettin, T.

    2008-05-01

    A major thrust of the white biotechnology movement involves the development of enzyme systems which depolymerize biomass to simple sugars which are subsequently converted to sustainable biofuels (e.g., ethanol) and chemical intermediates. The fungus Trichoderma reesei (syn. Hypocrea jecorina) represents a paradigm for the industrial production of highly efficient cellulases and hemicellulases needed for hydrolysis of biomass polysaccharides. Herein we describe intriguing attributes of the T. reeseigenome in relation to the future of fuel biotechnology. The T. reesei genome sequence was derived using a whole genome shotgun approach combined with finishing work to generate an assembly comprising 89 scaffolds totaling 34 Mbp with few gaps. In total, 9,130 gene models were predicted using a combination of ab initio and sequence similarity-based methods and EST data. Considering the industrial utility and effectiveness of its enzymes, the T. reesei genome surprisingly encodes the fewest cellulases and hemicellulases of any fungus having the ability to hydrolyze plant cell wall polysaccharides and whose genome has been sequenced. Many genes encoding carbohydrate active enzymes are distributed non-randomly in groups or clusters that interestingly lie between regions of synteny with other Sordariomycetes. Additionally, the T. reesei genome contains a multitude of genes encoding biosynthetic pathways for secondary metabolites (possible antibacterial and antifungal compounds) which may promote successful competition and survival in the crowded and competitive soil habitat occupied by T. reesei. Our analysis coupled with the availability of genome sequence data provides a roadmap for construction of enhanced T. reesei strains for industrial applications.

  17. A rhodopsin-guanylyl cyclase gene fusion functions in visual perception in a fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelar, Gabriela M; Schumacher, Robert I; Zaini, Paulo A; Leonard, Guy; Richards, Thomas A; Gomes, Suely L

    2014-06-01

    Sensing light is the fundamental property of visual systems, with vision in animals being based almost exclusively on opsin photopigments [1]. Rhodopsin also acts as a photoreceptor linked to phototaxis in green algae [2, 3] and has been implicated by chemical means as a light sensor in the flagellated swimming zoospores of the fungus Allomyces reticulatus [4]; however, the signaling mechanism in these fungi remains unknown. Here we use a combination of genome sequencing and molecular inhibition experiments with light-sensing phenotype studies to examine the signaling pathway involved in visual perception in the closely related fungus Blastocladiella emersonii. Our data show that in these fungi, light perception is accomplished by the function of a novel gene fusion (BeGC1) of a type I (microbial) rhodopsin domain and guanylyl cyclase catalytic domain. Photobleaching of rhodopsin function prevents accumulation of cGMP levels and phototaxis of fungal zoospores exposed to green light, whereas inhibition of guanylyl cyclase activity negatively affects fungal phototaxis. Immunofluorescence microscopy localizes the BeGC1 protein to the external surface of the zoospore eyespot positioned close to the base of the swimming flagellum [4, 5], demonstrating this is a photoreceptive organelle composed of lipid droplets. Taken together, these data indicate that Blastocladiomycota fungi have a cGMP signaling pathway involved in phototaxis similar to the vertebrate vision-signaling cascade but composed of protein domain components arranged as a novel gene fusion architecture and of distant evolutionary ancestry to type II rhodopsins of animals. PMID:24835457

  18. Transcriptomic analysis of the white rot fungus Polyporus brumalis provides insight into sesquiterpene biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Yeon; Kim, Myungkil; Kim, Seon-Hong; Hong, Chang-Young; Ryu, Sun-Hwa; Choi, In-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Object of this study was to identify genes and enzymes that are involved in sesquiterpene biosynthesis in the wood rotting fungus, Polyporus brumalis. Sesquiterpenes, ?-eudesmane and ?-eudesmol, were produced by the mycelium of P. brumalis cultured in modified medium. However, theses final products were not observed when the fungus was grown in potato dextrose medium. We used next generation sequencing (NGS) to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to terpene metabolism. This approach generated 25,000 unigenes and 127 metabolic pathways that were assigned to Kyoto Encyclopedia Genes Groups (KEGG). Further analysis of samples from modified medium indicated significant upregulation of 8 unigenes involved in the mevalonate (MVA) and methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) biosynthetic pathways. These pathways generate isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), which are precursors for the synthesis of sesquiterpenes. Furthermore, genes encoding germacrene A synthase, which facilitate the cyclization of FPP, were only differentially expressed in mycelium from fungi grown in modified medium. Our data provide a resource for studying the molecular mechanisms underpinning sesquiterpene biosynthesis and terpene metabolism. PMID:26686622

  19. Characterization of ?-glucosidase produced by the white rot fungus Flammulina velutipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallerman, Julieta; Papinutti, Leandro; Levin, Laura

    2015-01-01

    ?-Glucosidase production by the white rot fungus Flammulina velutipes CFK 3111 was evaluated using different carbon and nitrogen sources under submerged fermentation. Maximal extracellular enzyme production was 1.6 U/ml, corresponding to a culture grown in sucrose 40 g/l and asparagine 10 g/l. High production yield was also obtained with glucose 10 g/l and asparagine 4 g/l medium (0.5 U/ml). Parameters affecting the enzyme activity were studied using p-nitrophenyl-?-D-glucopyranoside as the substrate. Optimal activity was found at 50°C and pHs 5.0 to 6.0. Under these conditions, ?-glucosidase retained 25% of its initial activity after 12 h of incubation and exhibited a half-life of 5 h. The addition of MgCl2, urea, and ethanol enhanced the ?-glucosidase activity up to 47%, whereas FeCl2, CuSO4, Cd(NO3)2, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide inflicted a strong inhibitory effect. Glucose and cellobiose also showed an inhibitory effect on the ?-glucosidase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. The enzyme had an estimated molecular mass of 75 kDa. To the best of our knowledge, F. velutipes CFK 3111 ?-glucosidase production is amongst the highest reported to date, in a basidiomycetous fungus. PMID:25189408

  20. Cellobiose dehydrogenase formation by filamentous fungus Chaetomium sp. INBI 2-26(-).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'chenko, L G; Khromonygina, V V; Karapetyan, K N; Vasilenko, O V; Rabinovich, M L

    2005-09-22

    Laccase-negative filamentous fungus INBI 2-26(-) isolated from non-sporulating laccase-forming fungal association INBI 2-26 by means of protoplast technique was identified as Chaetomium sp. based on partial sequence of its rRNA genes. In the presence of natural cellulose sources, the strain secreted neutral cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) activity both in pure culture and in co-culture with laccase-positive filamentous fungus INBI 2-26(+) isolated from the same association. INBI 2-26(-) also secreted CDH during submerged cultivation in minimal medium with glucose as the sole carbon source. Maximal CDH activity of 1IU/ml at pH 6 with 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPIP) as an acceptor was obtained on 12th day of submerged cultivation with filter paper as major cellulose source. Cellulase system of Chaetomium sp. INBI 2-26(-) capable of adsorption onto H(3)PO(4)-swollen filter paper consisted of four major proteins (Mr 200, 95, 65 and 55K) based on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and was capable of DCPIP reduction without exogenous cellobiose. PMID:15996782