WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and neonicotinoid insecticides on the fungus gnat Bradysia sp nr. coprophila (Lintner) (Diptera: Sciaridae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner subsp. israelensis (Bti), the neonicotinoid insecticides dinotefuran, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and clothianidin and the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen were evaluated to determine their efficacy against the larval stages of the fungus gnat Bradysia sp nr. coprophila (Lintner) in the laboratory. Treatments were applied as a drench to the growing medium in polypropylene deli containers. The Bti treatments had no effect on either instar tested, whereas all the other compounds negatively affected both the second and third instars. This study demonstrates that the soil bacterium B. thuringiensis var. israelensis may not be active on these larval stages, whereas the neonicotinoid insecticides and the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen are effective on these stages. The fact that Bti is not effective on the second and third instars of the fungus gnat means that greenhouse producers using this insecticide must make applications before fungus gnat populations build up and before overlapping generations develop. PMID:16408320

Cloyd, Raymond A; Dickinson, Amy

2006-02-01

2

A new pollinating seed-consuming mutualism between Rheum nobile and a fly fungus gnat, Bradysia sp., involving pollinator attraction by a specific floral compound.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pollinating seed-consuming mutualisms are regarded as exemplary models for studying coevolution, but they are extremely rare. In these systems, olfactory cues have been thought to play an important role in facilitating encounters between partners. We present a new pollinating seed-consuming mutualism from the high Himalayas between the endemic herb, Rheum nobile, and a fly fungus gnat, Bradysia sp. Seed production resulting from pollination by Bradysia flies and seed consumption by their larvae were measured to determine the outcome of this interaction. Floral scent analyses and behavioural tests were conducted to investigate the role of olfactory cues in pollinator attraction. Rheum nobile is self-compatible, but it depends mainly on Bradysia sp. females for pollination. Seed production resulting from pollination by adult flies is substantially higher than subsequent seed consumption by their larvae. Behavioural tests showed that an unusual floral compound, 2-methyl butyric acid methyl ester, emitted by plants only during anthesis, was attractive to female flies. Our results indicate that the R. nobile-Bradysia sp. interaction represents a new pollinating seed-consuming mutualism, and that a single unusual compound is the specific signal in the floral scent of R. nobile that plays a key role in attracting its pollinator. PMID:24861151

Song, Bo; Chen, Gao; Stöcklin, Jürg; Peng, De-Li; Niu, Yang; Li, Zhi-Min; Sun, Hang

2014-09-01

3

Quantitative sampling method for fungus gnat (Diptera: Sciaridae) eggs in soilless growing media.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple method is described for separating fungus gnat eggs from soilless growing media. The flotation/extraction method primarily involves the use of a MgSO4 solution (density 1.065 g cm(-3)) and a series of sieving procedures. Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila Lintner eggs were collected in an isolation chamber containing adult fungus gnats. Three soilless growing media were used: Metro-Mix 560 with Scott's Coir, Sunshine LC1 Mix, and Universal SB 300 Mix. Each growing medium was inoculated with 100 fungus gnat eggs. Growing medium samples were processed using separatory funnels and a MgSO4 solution. Eggs were washed through a 250-microm sieve and collected on a 53-microm sieve, and then the eggs were rinsed into glass petri dishes. The sieving process separated fungus gnat eggs from the larger growing medium particulates (perlite, bark, and peat), providing a sample consisting of water, eggs, and fine growing medium particulates (peat). Using a vortex for 60 s increased the number of fungus gnat eggs recovered (37.4 +/- 3.7-67.1 +/- 1.9 [mean +/- SEM]) for all three growing media. The mean number of fungus gnat eggs recovered from the three soilless growing media was significantly different, with the growing medium containing coir (Metro-Mix 560) having the highest recovery rate of 61.0 +/- 2.1. For all three growing media, there was > 50% recovery of fungus gnat eggs. In addition to fungus gnat eggs, this method also may prove useful for quantitative recovery of shore fly (Scatella sp.) eggs and the eggs of other arthropods from soilless growing media. PMID:16156596

Meers, Theresa L; Cloyd, Raymond A

2005-08-01

4

Development and reproduction of Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Acari: Laelapidae) with fungus gnat larvae (Diptera: Sciaridae), potworms (Oligochaeta: Enchytraeidae) or Sancassania aff. sphaerogaster (Acari: Acaridae) as the sole food source.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stratiolaelaps (=Hypoaspis) miles (Berlese) (Acari: Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) is a polyphagous soil-dwelling predatory mite that is widely marketed for use in greenhouse production systems to manage populations of dark-winged fungus gnats, Bradysia spp. (Diptera: Sciaridae) and for supplemental control of thrips. The suggestion by Walter and Campbell (2003, Biol. Control 26: 253-269) that North American commercial cultures of S. miles may actually be S. scimitus was confirmed. The development and reproduction at 21-23 degrees C of S. scimitus provided ad libidum with one of three different prey--the fungus gnat Bradysia aff. coprophila (Lintner), potworms (Enchytraeidae), or Sancassania aff. sphaerogaster (Zachvatkin, 1937) (Acari: Astigmata: Acaridae)--were compared. Developmental duration of the egg and non-feeding larval stages were 2.47 and 1.11 days, respectively; mortalities were 8.3 and 5.5%. Stratiolaelaps scimitus failed to develop beyond the protonymphal stage when provided with S. aff. sphaerogaster alone, although some feeding was observed. Development and reproduction of S. scimitus was successful on both fungus gnat larvae and enchytraeids, with no influence of prey on protonymphal duration (4.70 days) and mortality (8.3%), or on deutonymphal duration (4.61 days) and mortality (6.1%). Adult female S. scimitus feeding on potworms, compared to those feeding on fungus gnat larvae, had a significantly shorter pre-oviposition period (2.69 vs. 4.59 days). However, diet did not influence other adult female developmental or reproductive characteristics (oviposition period, 18.6 days; post-oviposition period, 6.2 days; total adult longevity, 27.3 days; total number of eggs, 26.5). S. scimitus reared on potworms tended (p = 0.06) to have a higher intrinsic rate of increase, a higher finite rate of increase and a shorter doubling time (rm = 0.142 day(-1), lambda = 1.153, Dt = 4.85 days) than those reared on fungus gnat larvae (rm = 0.105 day(-1), lambda = 1.110, Dt = 6.58 days), but differences in net reproductive rate (R0) and generation time (G) were not significant. PMID:16082925

Cabrera, Ana R; Cloyd, Raymond A; Zaborski, Edmond R

2005-01-01

5

Fungus gnats and other Diptera in South African forestry nurseries and their possible association with the pitch canker fungus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fusarium circinatum is the causal agent of a serious disease of seedlings in South African pine nurseries. Insects, especially fungus gnats (Diptera: Sciaridae, Mycetophlidae), are suspected of transmitting this fungus in nurseries. The aim of this study was to ascertain which species of gnats are present in South African pine nurseries, and to consider whether these and other Diptera carry F. circinatum. Dipteran fauna were surveyed in four major forestry nurseries between 2000 and 2001. Fun...

Hurley, Brett P.; Govender, Prem; Coutinho, Teresa A.; Wingfield, Brenda D.; Wingfield, Michael J.

2007-01-01

6

Evaluation of medium treatments for management of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thripidae: Thysanoptera) and Bradysia coprophila (Diptera: Sciaridae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Two greenhouse experiments, each comprising two trials, were conducted to evaluate medium drenches of insect growth regulators and conventional insecticides to reduce emergence of adult western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), and fungus gnats, Bradysia coprophila (Lintner) from the medium. In the insect growth regulator trials, diflubenzuron and pyriproxyfen provided the greatest reduction in thrips emergence, and fenoxycarb, pyriproxyfen and azadirachtin resulted in the most significant reduction of fungus gnat emergence. Treatments with the contact insecticides, methiocarb and chlorpyrifos, resulted in the greatest reduction of thrips and fungus gnat populations. These data suggest that fungus gnats are susceptible to many compounds used in commercial greenhouse production. Even though medium drenches are not currently used for thrips management, drenches with diflubenzuron, pyriproxyfen, methiocarb and chlorpyrifos could aid in reducing thrips populations in greenhouse management programs. PMID:11802598

Ludwig, S W; Oetting, R D

2001-12-01

7

Genetic diversity of Bradysia difformis (Sciaridae: Diptera) populations reflects movement of an invasive insect between forestry nurseries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The fungus gnat, Bradysia difformis (Sciaridae: Diptera) has recently been recorded for the first time from South Africa where it has been found in forestry nurseries. The presence of this insect in all the major forestry nurseries as the dominant and only sciarid species raises intriguing questions regarding its origin and population genetic structure. A 395 bp portion of the mitochondrial COI gene was analysed from B. difformis individuals collected from four nursery populations in South...

Hurley, Brett P.; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Brenda D.; Govender, Prem; Smith, J. E.; Wingfield, Michael J.

2010-01-01

8

Recent noteworthy findings of fungus gnats from Finland and northwestern Russia (Diptera: Ditomyiidae, Keroplatidae, Bolitophilidae and Mycetophilidae)  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract New faunistic data on fungus gnats (Diptera: Sciaroidea excluding Sciaridae) from Finland and NW Russia (Karelia and Murmansk Region) are presented. A total of 64 and 34 species are reported for the first time form Finland and Russian Karelia, respectively. Nine of the species are also new for the European fauna: Mycomya shewelli Väisänen, 1984, Mycomya thula Väisänen, 1984, Acnemia trifida Zaitzev, 1982, Coelosia gracilis Johannsen, 1912, Orfelia krivosheinae Zaitzev, 1994, Mycetophila biformis Maximova, 2002, Mycetophila monstera Maximova, 2002, Mycetophila uschaica Subbotina & Maximova, 2011 and Trichonta palustris Maximova, 2002. PMID:24891825

2014-01-01

9

Analysis of the sex ratio in Bradysia matogrossensis (Diptera, Sciaridae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In sciarid flies, the control of sex determination and of the progeny sex ratio is exercised by the parental females, and is based on differential X-chromosome elimination in the initial stages of embryogenesis. In some species, the females produce unisexual progenies (monogenic females while in others, the progenies consist of males and females (digenic females. The sex ratio of bisexual progenies is variable, and departs considerably from 1:1. Bradysia matogrossensis shows both monogenic and digenic reproduction. In a recently established laboratory strain of this species, 15% of the females were digenic, 10% produced only females, 13% produced only males, and 62% produced progenies with one predominant sex (33% predominantly of female and 29% predominantly male progenies. These progeny sex ratios were maintained in successive generations. Females from female-skewed progenies yielded female- and male-producing daughters in a 1:1 ratio. In contrast, daughters of females from male-skewed progenies produce bisexual or male-skewed progenies. The X-chromosome of B. matogrossensis shows no inversion or other gross aberration. These results suggest that the control of the progeny sex ratio (or differential X-chromosome elimination involves more than one locus or, at least, more than one pair of alleles. The data also suggest that, in sciarid flies, monogeny and digeny may share a common control mechanism.

Rocha Lincoln S.

2000-01-01

10

GNATS, Nonlinear Stress Analysis of 2-D and Axisymmetric Static Structure by Finite Elements Method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1 - Description of problem or function: GNATS is a finite element computer program designed for nonlinear analysis of axisymmetric and two-dimensional static structures. 2 - Method of solution: The GNATS program is based on a total Lagrangian description of the displaced equilibrium configuration. The complete strain-displacement equations are used to include the effects of large displacements and large strains. Elastic-plastic material behavior, with either isotropic or kinematic hardening, may be selected. All solution options included in GNATS contain an equilibrium check which assures that the structure satisfies equilibrium to a specified tolerance at each stage of loading. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: All large arrays in GNATS, MESH2, and GPRINT are dynamically dimensioned to minimize storage requirements

11

Nuclear halo from Bradysia hygida (Diptera:Sciaridae salivary gland polytene cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A protocol for recovered nuclear halos from insect polytene nuclei after the extraction of the nuclear proteins using LIS detergent is reported in this work. Analysis was carried out using fluorescence and confocal laser scan microscopy. The extraction of nuclear halos was possible only with nuclei-fraction isolation in hypotonic buffer without spermine and spermidine. The recovered nuclear halos from Bradysia hygida salivary gland polytene nuclei, contributed greatly to the study of the structure and function of these special organelles.Observações à microscopia eletrônica e estudos bioquímicos de cromossomos e núcleos sem histonas tem suportado a hipótese que o DNA de eucariotos é organizado em alças associadas com o esqueleto cromossômico ou à matriz nuclear. A observação da matriz nuclear sem a remoção do DNA, através da digestão com enzimas de restrição, apresenta uma figura em halo que representa a liberação das alças de DNA. Um protocolo para a obtenção de halos nucleares de núcleos politênicos de insetos, através da extração de proteínas usando o detergente LIS, é reportado nesse trabalho. Foram realizadas análises utilizando-se microscopia de fluorescência e microscopia de varredura confocal a laser. A extração de halos nucleares foi possível somente com o isolamento da fração nuclear em tampão sem espermina e espermidina. A obtenção de halos nucleares de núcleos politênicos de glândula salivar de Bradysia hygida contribui significativamente para o estudo da estrutura e função dessas organelas tão especiais.

Celso Aparecido Polinarski

2005-05-01

12

Nuclear halo from Bradysia hygida (Diptera:Sciaridae) salivary gland polytene cells  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Observações à microscopia eletrônica e estudos bioquímicos de cromossomos e núcleos sem histonas tem suportado a hipótese que o DNA de eucariotos é organizado em alças associadas com o esqueleto cromossômico ou à matriz nuclear. A observação da matriz nuclear sem a remoção do DNA, através da digestã [...] o com enzimas de restrição, apresenta uma figura em halo que representa a liberação das alças de DNA. Um protocolo para a obtenção de halos nucleares de núcleos politênicos de insetos, através da extração de proteínas usando o detergente LIS, é reportado nesse trabalho. Foram realizadas análises utilizando-se microscopia de fluorescência e microscopia de varredura confocal a laser. A extração de halos nucleares foi possível somente com o isolamento da fração nuclear em tampão sem espermina e espermidina. A obtenção de halos nucleares de núcleos politênicos de glândula salivar de Bradysia hygida contribui significativamente para o estudo da estrutura e função dessas organelas tão especiais. Abstract in english A protocol for recovered nuclear halos from insect polytene nuclei after the extraction of the nuclear proteins using LIS detergent is reported in this work. Analysis was carried out using fluorescence and confocal laser scan microscopy. The extraction of nuclear halos was possible only with nuclei- [...] fraction isolation in hypotonic buffer without spermine and spermidine. The recovered nuclear halos from Bradysia hygida salivary gland polytene nuclei, contributed greatly to the study of the structure and function of these special organelles.

Celso Aparecido, Polinarski; José Luis da Conceição, Silva; Liya Regina, Mikami; Maria Aparecida, Fernandez.

2005-05-01

13

Biological control of Bradysia matogrossensis (Diptera: Sciaridae) in mushroom cultivation with predatory mites.  

Science.gov (United States)

Larvae of Sciaridae flies (Diptera) cause considerable damage to the mushroom Agaricus blazei (Murrill) ss. Heinemann in Brazil. Brazilian growers have had considerable difficulties in controlling this pest. The objective of this work was to test the effect of the predatory Laelapidae mite Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Womersley) as a control agent of Bradysia matogrossensis (Lane) in cultures of A. blazei. The work corresponded to an evaluation of the efficiency of that predator when released in boxes containing each about 15 L of commercial mushroom compost naturally infested with the pest. The results showed a significant effect of that predator on the population of B. matogrossensis. The release of either 665 or 1330 S. scimitus per box significantly reduced the pest population to levels that, according to grower's experience, apparently could not cause considerable damage. The positive results obtained warrant the conduction of complementary studies to determine the lowest rates of the predator that could still produce acceptable levels of control. PMID:17564790

Freire, Renata Angelica Prado; de Moraes, Gilberto Jose; Silva, Edmilson Santos; Vaz, Alcione Cicera; de Campos Castilho, Raphael

2007-01-01

14

The GNAT method for nonlinear model reduction: effective implementation and application to computational fluid dynamics and turbulent flows  

CERN Document Server

The Gauss--Newton with approximated tensors (GNAT) method is a nonlinear model reduction method that operates on fully discretized computational models. It achieves dimension reduction by a Petrov--Galerkin projection associated with residual minimization; it delivers computational efficency by a hyper-reduction procedure based on the `gappy POD' technique. Originally presented in Ref. [1], where it was applied to implicit nonlinear structural-dynamics models, this method is further developed here and applied to the solution of a benchmark turbulent viscous flow problem. To begin, this paper develops global state-space error bounds that justify the method's design and highlight its advantages in terms of minimizing components of these error bounds. Next, the paper introduces a `sample mesh' concept that enables a distributed, computationally efficient implementation of the GNAT method in finite-volume-based computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) codes. The suitability of GNAT for parameterized problems is highlig...

Carlberg, Kevin; Cortial, Julien; Amsallem, David

2012-01-01

15

The GNAT method for nonlinear model reduction: Effective implementation and application to computational fluid dynamics and turbulent flows  

Science.gov (United States)

The Gauss-Newton with approximated tensors (GNAT) method is a nonlinear model-reduction method that operates on fully discretized computational models. It achieves dimension reduction by a Petrov-Galerkin projection associated with residual minimization; it delivers computational efficiency by a hyper-reduction procedure based on the 'gappy POD' technique. Originally presented in Ref. [1], where it was applied to implicit nonlinear structural-dynamics models, this method is further developed here and applied to the solution of a benchmark turbulent viscous flow problem. To begin, this paper develops global state-space error bounds that justify the method's design and highlight its advantages in terms of minimizing components of these error bounds. Next, the paper introduces a 'sample mesh' concept that enables a distributed, computationally efficient implementation of the GNAT method in finite-volume-based computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) codes. The suitability of GNAT for parameterized problems is highlighted with the solution of an academic problem featuring moving discontinuities. Finally, the capability of this method to reduce by orders of magnitude the core-hours required for large-scale CFD computations, while preserving accuracy, is demonstrated with the simulation of turbulent flow over the Ahmed body. For an instance of this benchmark problem with over 17 million degrees of freedom, GNAT outperforms several other nonlinear model-reduction methods, reduces the required computational resources by more than two orders of magnitude, and delivers a solution that differs by less than 1% from its high-dimensional counterpart.

Carlberg, Kevin; Farhat, Charbel; Cortial, Julien; Amsallem, David

2013-06-01

16

Grain fungus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION: General: • A phytopathogen of especially maize which infests the cobs during the silking stage. • If the weather is rainy and the ears of corn are maturing in late summer and early autumn, F. graminearum may infect only a few to a third of the kernels. • Whatever amount of the ear is infected, all the kernels in that portion becomes heavily infected and decayed by the fungus. It manifests as a pink cob rot progressing from th...

Botha, C. J.; Venter, Elna

2002-01-01

17

New gnat-midge species chironomus degelenus i sp. n. (diptera chironomidae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the first time the morphology of larvae, pupae, imago and karyotype of Chironomus degelenus I Sp. n. collected from Water-Body D-3-3 of the Degelen Mountain Massif has been described. The larvae have a species-specific structure and color of the head capsule, ventral-mental blades, and mandibula hamuli. The male gnat is characterized for grid structure in IX tergite. The karyotype of C. degelenus I Sp. n. has the following combination of chromosome arms: AB, CD, EF, and G (thummi complex), which is typical for Chironomus species. It was concluded that the origin of the new species of Chironomus degelenus I Sp. N. is related to the long-term genetic processes of Chironomini adaptation to the elevated radiation background level. (author)

18

Activity of an essential oil derived from Chenopodium ambrosioides on greenhouse insect pests.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study involved both greenhouse and laboratory experiments evaluating the effect of an essential oil product (QRD 400) derived from Chenopodium ambrosioides variety nr. Ambrosioides L. (Chenopodiaceae) on greenhouse insect pests that feed on different plant parts: citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso); longtailed mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti); western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), and fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.). Treatments were applied to coleus, Solenostemon scutellarioides plants; transvaal daisy, Gerbera jamesonii flowers; or growing medium, depending on the insect pest. The essential oil was most effective, based on adult emergence, on both the second and third instars of the fungus gnat Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila when applied as a drench to growing medium. In addition, there was a significant rate response for QRD 400 on fungus gnats. The QRD 400 treatment had the highest percentage of mortality on longtailed mealybug (55%) compared with the other treatments. However, the essential oil was less effective against citrus mealybug (3% mortality) and western flower thrips adults (18-34% mortality) compared with standard insecticides, such as acetamiprid (TriStar) and spinosad (Conserve), which are typically used by greenhouse producers. This lack of efficacy may be associated with volatility and short residual properties of the essential oil or with the essential oil taking longer to kill insect pests. Other insecticides and miticides evaluated, including sesame oil, garlic, paraffinic oil, and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, provided minimal control of the designated insect pests. In addition, adult rove beetle Atheta coriaria Kraatz adults were not effective in controlling the larval instars of fungus gnats when applied at a rate of five adults per container. PMID:17461071

Cloyd, Raymond A; Chiasson, Helene

2007-04-01

19

Fungus Infections: Tinea  

Science.gov (United States)

... contact with an infected animal, most often a cat, or from exposure to fungus in the soil. ... should discourage further growth of the fungus by keeping their feet as dry as possible. Wear open- ...

20

The development of integrated pest management for the control of mushroom sciarid flies, Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour) and Bradysia ocellaris (Comstock), in cultivated mushrooms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mushrooms are susceptible to a range of diseases and pests that can cause serious crop loss. Effective pest and pathogen control is a very important factor for the maintenance of efficient production of cultivated mushrooms. Integrated pest management in mushrooms is reliant upon four main principals/elements: sanitation, exclusion, monitoring and pest control. Bradysia ocellaris (Comstock) and Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour) (Diptera: Sciaridae) are major pests of cultivated mushrooms, Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach. These pests cause losses in yield through larval damage of the compost, mycelium and sporophores, and affect the structural features of the compost itself. Adult flies of these species also act as vectors for the introduction of mites and fungal diseases in cultivated mushrooms. PMID:20597099

Shamshad, Afsheen

2010-10-01

 
 
 
 
21

An aeroponic culture system for the study of root herbivory on Arabidopsis thaliana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant defense against herbivory has been studied primarily in aerial tissues. However, complex defense mechanisms have evolved in all parts of the plant to combat herbivore attack and these mechanisms are likely to differ in the aerial and subterranean environment. Research investigating defense responses belowground has been hindered by experimental difficulties associated with the accessibility and quality of root tissue and the lack of bioassays using model plants with altered defense profiles. Results We have developed an aeroponic culture system based on a calcined clay substrate that allows insect herbivores to feed on plant roots while providing easy recovery of the root tissue. The culture method was validated by a root-herbivore system developed for Arabidopsis thaliana and the herbivore Bradysia spp. (fungus gnat. Arabidopsis root mass obtained from aeroponically grown plants was comparable to that from other culture systems, and the plants were morphologically normal. Bradysia larvae caused considerable root damage resulting in reduced root biomass and water absorption. After feeding on the aeroponically grown root tissue, the larvae pupated and emerged as adults. Root damage of mature plants cultivated in aeroponic substrate was compared to that of Arabidopsis seedlings grown in potting mix. Seedlings were notably more susceptible to Bradysia feeding than mature plants and showed decreased overall growth and survival rates. Conclusions A root-herbivore system consisting of Arabidopsis thaliana and larvae of the opportunistic herbivore Bradysia spp. has been established that mimics herbivory in the rhizosphere. Bradysia infestation of Arabidopsis grown in this culture system significantly affects plant performance. The culture method will allow simple profiling and in vivo functional analysis of root defenses such as chemical defense metabolites that are released in response to belowground insect attack.

Vaughan Martha M

2011-03-01

22

Effect of pesticides on adult rove beetle Atheta coriaria (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) survival in growing medium.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rove beetle Atheta coriaria (Kraatz) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) is a natural enemy (biological control agent) commercially available for control of certain greenhouse insect pests, including fungus gnats, shore flies, and thrips. This study assessed the compatibility of pesticides (insecticides and fungicides) used in greenhouses with A. coriaria adults. Treatments were applied to 473-ml deli squat containers half-filled with a growing medium. We evaluated the effects of the pesticides when releases of A. coriaria adults were performed both before and after application of the designated pesticide solutions. All three of the neonicotinoid-based insecticides (clothianidin, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam) were directly harmful to A. coriaria adults with flonicamid, Metarhizium anisopliae strain52, and spinosad) and insect growth regulator azadirachtin were also not directly toxic to A. coriaria adults. Furthermore, many of these same treatments did not inhibit the ability of adult A. coriaria to consume fungus gnat (Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila) larvae in a feeding behavior experiment. Although the neonicotinoid-based insecticides were directly harmful to adult A. coriaria, when adults were released 48, 72, or 96 h after application, survival increased dramatically over time. This study has quantitatively demonstrated that certain pesticides (both insecticides and fungicides) are compatible with and can be used along with A. coriaria in systems that use this natural enemy to manage fungus gnat larvae. PMID:19886438

Cloyd, Raymond A; Timmons, Nicholas R; Goebel, Jessica M; Kemp, Kenneth E

2009-10-01

23

A Summary of Known Variable Stars in the MOTESS-GNAT MG1 Survey and the Status of Future Surveys  

Science.gov (United States)

The MG1 Survey is a two year unfiltered, scan-mode CCD imaging survey of a 48-arcmin wide band centered at declination +03° 18m 20s. The MG1 survey has yielded open channel photometry of about 2.1 million stars, of which some 35,000 were identified as likely variable star candidates. Of those 35,000 only about 200 are cataloged in the GCVS. In this poster we summarize the statistics of the detections of known variable stars which were made using the MG1 data. The results will be used to improve the methods and techniques that will be employed in future GNAT scan-mode surveys. We also indicate how these data can be used to develop useful student projects. Six new scan-mode telescopes are under construction for the Global Network of Astronomical Telescopes, Inc. (GNAT), effective October 2004. Three of these telescopes are expected to become operational during the winter of 2004-05 and will be sited in Southern Arizona as a coordinated triplet of photometric CCD imaging instruments. Another existing telescope will be operational before December 2004. All four of these telescopes will be used primarily to gather low amplitude variability data on Solar-type stars in the Pleiades and M67, respectively, in a study of parameters that control the ambient radiative and particle environments of the habitable zones around such stars. Because the telescopes will operate nightly for several years there will be a huge collateral accumulation of photometric data from 24-hour long strips of the sky approximately 48 arcmin wide. Nightly bandpass photometry will be obtained for an estimated 4-6 million stars, hence yielding a large archive of data for a wide variety of interesting research projects. We would like to attract collaborators comprised of students, professional and amateur astronomers. The next two surveys to be run are the G1 Survey, at a declination of approximately +24° (one telescope and a single filter), and the G2 survey, at a declination of approximately +12° (three telescopes and two filters). The exact declinations will be chosen to maximize the number of solar-type stars in the respective fields. We outline in this poster several of the possible research projects that offer opportunities for collaboration. This material is based upon work supported in part by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration through the NASA Astrobiology Institute under Cooperative Agreement No. CAN-02-OSS-02 issued through the Office of Space Science.

Craine, E. R.; Scharlach, W. G. G.; Kraus, A. L.; Giampapa, M. S.; Tucker, R. A.

2004-12-01

24

A 28-fold increase in secretory protein synthesis is associated with DNA puff activity in the salivary gland of Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english When the first group of DNA puffs is active in the salivary gland regions S1 and S3 of Bradysia hygida larvae, there is a large increase in the production and secretion of new salivary proteins demonstrable by [3H]-Leu incorporation. The present study shows that protein separation by SDS-PAGE and de [...] tection by fluorography demonstrated that these polypeptides range in molecular mass from about 23 to 100 kDa. Furthermore, these proteins were synthesized mainly in the S1 and S3 salivary gland regions where the DNA puffs C7, C5, C4 and B10 are conspicuous, while in the S2 region protein synthesis was very low. Others have shown that the extent of amplification for DNA sequences that code for mRNA in the DNA puffs C4 and B10 was about 22 and 10 times, respectively. The present data for this group of DNA puffs are consistent with the proposition that gene amplification is necessary to provide some cells with additional gene copies for the production of massive amounts of proteins within a short period of time (Spradling AC and Mahowald AP (1980) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 77: 1096-1100).

J.C., de-Almeida.

25

Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae) presents two eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A gene homologues: partial characterization of the eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A-F1 gene  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Elongation factor 1A is a highly conserved protein that participates in translation. We report the occurrence of two genes homologous to the eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A in Bradysia hygida and describe the partial cloning and characterization of the B. hygida eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A-F1 (B [...] heEF1A-F1) gene. The pattern of BheEF1A-F1 expression in the salivary gland at the end of the fourth larval instar was investigated using real-time PCR. The results showed that BheEF1A-F1 expression levels are relatively constant at the time when rapid changes in protein synthesis occur in this tissue. In situ hybridization experiments coupled to Southern blot analyses showed that the BheEF1A-F1 gene is located at position 3d of the A chromosome and a second gene homologous to eEF1A is located at position 6a of the X chromosome. Southern blot analyses showed that both the BheEF1A-F1 gene and the second gene homologous to eEF1A constitute non-amplified genes. The present results contribute to the molecular characterization of a sciarid eEF1A gene.

J.A., Candido-Silva; N., Monesi.

26

A 28-fold increase in secretory protein synthesis is associated with DNA puff activity in the salivary gland of Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available When the first group of DNA puffs is active in the salivary gland regions S1 and S3 of Bradysia hygida larvae, there is a large increase in the production and secretion of new salivary proteins demonstrable by [3H]-Leu incorporation. The present study shows that protein separation by SDS-PAGE and detection by fluorography demonstrated that these polypeptides range in molecular mass from about 23 to 100 kDa. Furthermore, these proteins were synthesized mainly in the S1 and S3 salivary gland regions where the DNA puffs C7, C5, C4 and B10 are conspicuous, while in the S2 region protein synthesis was very low. Others have shown that the extent of amplification for DNA sequences that code for mRNA in the DNA puffs C4 and B10 was about 22 and 10 times, respectively. The present data for this group of DNA puffs are consistent with the proposition that gene amplification is necessary to provide some cells with additional gene copies for the production of massive amounts of proteins within a short period of time (Spradling AC and Mahowald AP (1980 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 77: 1096-1100.

de-Almeida J.C.

1997-01-01

27

The DNA puff BhB10-1 gene is differentially expressed in various tissues of Bradysia hygida late larvae and constitutively transcribed in transgenic Drosophila  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We extended the characterization of the DNA puff BhB10-1 gene of Bradysia hygida by showing that, although its mRNA is detected only at the end of the fourth larval instar, BhB10-1 expression is not restricted to the salivary gland, the tissue in which this gene is amplified. Different amounts of BhB10-1 mRNA were detected in other larval tissues such as gut, Malpighian tubules, fat body, brain and cuticle, suggesting that this gene is expressed differentially in the various tissues analyzed. Analysis of transgenic Drosophila carrying the BhB10-1 transcription unit and flanking sequences revealed that the tested fragment promotes transcription in a constitutive manner. We suggest that either cis-regulatory elements are missing in the transgene or factors that temporally regulate the BhB10-1 gene in B. hygida are not conserved in Drosophila.

N. Monesi

2001-07-01

28

Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae presents two eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A gene homologues: partial characterization of the eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A-F1 gene  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Elongation factor 1A is a highly conserved protein that participates in translation. We report the occurrence of two genes homologous to the eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A in Bradysia hygida and describe the partial cloning and characterization of the B. hygida eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A-F1 (BheEF1A-F1 gene. The pattern of BheEF1A-F1 expression in the salivary gland at the end of the fourth larval instar was investigated using real-time PCR. The results showed that BheEF1A-F1 expression levels are relatively constant at the time when rapid changes in protein synthesis occur in this tissue. In situ hybridization experiments coupled to Southern blot analyses showed that the BheEF1A-F1 gene is located at position 3d of the A chromosome and a second gene homologous to eEF1A is located at position 6a of the X chromosome. Southern blot analyses showed that both the BheEF1A-F1 gene and the second gene homologous to eEF1A constitute non-amplified genes. The present results contribute to the molecular characterization of a sciarid eEF1A gene.

J.A. Candido-Silva

2010-05-01

29

Identificación y caracterización de la mosca negra Bradysia difformis (Diptera: Sciaridae) en el cultivo de nochebuena (Euphorbia pulcherrima) en el centro de México / Identification and characterization of the black fly, Bradysia difformis (Diptera: Sciaridae) on "poinsettia" crops (Euphorbia pulcherrima) of central Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar y caracterizar los estados de desarrollo de la especie de mosca negra más abundante asociada al cultivo de nochebuena Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, ex Klotzsch en la zona productora del centro del país. La recolección de material entomológico se realiz [...] ó en invernaderos de las localidades de Atlacomulco (México), Tenango de las Flores (Puebla), Xochimilco (Distrito Federal) y Zacatepec y Tetela del Monte (Morelos). Se obtuvieron 2,141 especímenes adultos de Diptera, siendo la especie más abundante (99.5%) Bradysia difformis Frey (Diptera: Sciaridae). El ciclo de vida de esta especie se completó entre 26-28 días bajo condiciones controladas de temperatura y humedad (25°C y 70% HR). La diferenciación de los estadíos larvales fue realizada mediante la morfometría de la cápsula cefálica para los estadíos I vs II, cuyas probabilidades de error fueron muy bajas (1:10,000); en cambio, la diferenciación entre los estadíos II vs III, y III vs IV resultó con una probabilidad de error alta, entre 17:100 y 36:100 individuos, respectivamente. Por esta razón se recomienda explorar otras características que en adición a la medida de anchura de sus cápsulas cefálicas permitan discriminar los diferentes estadíos de desarrollo. Este es el primer registro de B. difformis en México, aun cuando ya se había reportado este género afectando las plantas de nochebuena. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the developmental stages of the most abundant black fly species associated with poinsettia crops (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch) in the producing area of Central Mexico. Collecting samples were conducted in greenhouses of the location [...] s of Atlacomulco (Mexico), Tenango de las Flores (Puebla), Xochimilco (Mexico City), and Zacatepec and Tetela del Monte (Morelos). A total of 2,141 adult specimens of Diptera were obtained, being Bradysia difformis Frey (Diptera: Sciaridae) the most abundant species (99.5%). Life cycle of this species was completed between 26-28 days under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity (25°C and 70% RH). The differentiation of larval instars by morphometrics of the head capsule between instars I vs II, showed very low error probabilities (1:10,000); while differentiation between instars II vs III, and III vs IV resulted with higher error probabilities, between 17:100 and 36:100 individuals, respectively. For this reason it is recommended to explore other features in addition to measurements of width of the cephalic capsules for discriminating different larval stages. This is the first record of B. difformis for Mexico, although this genus was previously reported affecting poinsettia crops.

Evert, VILLANUEVA-SÁNCHEZ; Sergio, IBÁÑEZ-BERNAL; J. Refugio, LOMELÍ-FLORES; Jorge, VALDEZ-CARRASCO.

2013-08-01

30

Hey! A Gnat Bit Me!  

Science.gov (United States)

... Bit Me! Rashes: The Itchy Truth Hey! A Bee Stung Me! Hey! A Fire Ant Stung Me! ... The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

31

Pogostol biosynthesis by the endophytic fungus geniculosporium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six (13) C-labelled isotopomers of mevalonolactone were synthesised and used in feeding experiments with the endophytic fungus Geniculosporium. The high incorporation rates of (13) C-label into a sesquiterpene that was found in headspace extracts of the fungus enabled unambiguous identification of this volatile as pogostol without the need for compound purification, simply by collecting the volatile fraction with a closed-loop stripping apparatus followed by direct (13) C NMR analysis (CLSA-NMR). The feeding experiments also gave insights into the biosynthesis of pogostol, including stereochemical aspects of the terpene cyclisation reaction. The possible biological function of pogostol is discussed. PMID:25186118

Barra, Lena; Schulz, Barbara; Dickschat, Jeroen S

2014-11-01

32

Nuclear flow in a filamentous fungus  

CERN Document Server

The syncytial cells of a filamentous fungus consist of a mass of growing, tube-like hyphae. Each extending tip is fed by a continuous flow of nuclei from the colony interior, pushed by a gradient in turgor pressure. The myco-fluidic flows of nuclei are complex and multidirectional, like traffic in a city. We map out the flows in a strain of the model filamentous fungus {\\it N. crassa} that has been transformed so that nuclei express either hH1-dsRed (a red fluorescent nuclear protein) or hH1-GFP (a green-fluorescent protein) and report our results in a fluid dynamics video.

Hickey, Patrick C; Read, Nick; Glass, N Louise; Roper, Marcus

2012-01-01

33

Dentigerumycin: a bacterial mediator of an ant-fungus symbiosis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fungus-growing ants engage in mutualistic associations with both the fungus they cultivate for food and actinobacteria (Pseudonocardia spp.) that produce selective antibiotics to defend that fungus from specialized fungal parasites. We have analyzed one such system at the molecular level and found that the bacterium associated with the ant Apterostigma dentigerum produces dentigerumycin, a cyclic depsipeptide with highly modified amino acids, to selectively inhibit the associated parasitic fungus (Escovopsis sp.).

Oh, Dong-Chan; Poulsen, Michael

2009-01-01

34

Modified atmosphere treatments as a potential disinfestation technique for arthropod pests in greenhouses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Incidental transport of arthropods on plant material can be a significant mode of pest entry into greenhouses. We evaluated the use of controlled atmosphere treatments as a potential way to eliminate arthropod pests on plant propagules (i.e., cuttings or small rooted plants). Lethal exposures to CO2 or N2 were determined for common greenhouse pests including fungus gnat larvae, Bradysia sp.; green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer); sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia sp.; twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch; and western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande). We also studied the effect of pest species, life stage, and presence or absence of plants on efficacy of modified atmosphere treatments. Finally, effects of modified atmospheres on plant quality were evaluated for several bedding plant species including begonia, Begonia semperflorens-cultorum Hort. 'Cocktail Series', chrysanthemum, Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev., geranium, Pelargonium X hortorum L.H. Bailey, and impatiens, Impatiens wallerana Hook f., and among cultivars of geranium and chrysanthemum. Exposure for 12-18 h to >99% N2 or CO2 caused complete mortality of aphids, mites, thrips, and whiteflies. Fungus gnat larvae were more tolerant of hypoxic conditions. Adult mites and eggs were equally susceptible. For most pests, there was no difference in response to atmospheres modified by CO2 or N2. However, there was variation in response among plant species and cultivars, with effects ranging from delayed flowering to mortality. Despite the possibility of adverse effects on some plants, this work indicates that use of modified atmospheres has potential to eliminate arthropod pests on plant propagules before they are introduced into greenhouses. PMID:11332835

Held, D W; Potter, D A; Gates, R S; Anderson, R G

2001-04-01

35

STEROIDS FROM THE MARINE FUNGUS GEOTRICHUM SP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ergosterol 1, peroxyergosterol 2, ergosta-4,6,8(14, 22-tetraen-3-one 3 and 24-ethyl-cholesta-4-ene-3-one 4 were isolated from the cultures of a fungus Geotrichum sp. obtained from a marine sediment. It was established that no other sterols were present in the extract. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods

AURELIO SAN-MARTÍN

2008-03-01

36

Spread of Rare Fungus from Vancouver Island  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Cryptococcus gattii, a rare fungus normally found in the tropics, has infected people and animals on Vancouver Island, Canada. Dr. David Warnock, Director, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases, CDC, discusses public health concerns about further spread of this organism.  Created: 12/20/2006 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 12/29/2006.

2006-12-20

37

Death from Fungus in the Soil  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Dr. Shira Shafir, Assistant Professor of Epidemiology at the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, discusses her study about fungus found in soil.  Created: 12/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/18/2012.

2012-12-17

38

Depsidones from the endophytic fungus BCC 8616.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three new depsidones (1-3) have been isolated from the endophytic fungus BCC 8616 and their structures analyzed on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation. Compound 1 exhibited weak cytotoxic activity against breast and epidermoid carcinoma cell lines. PMID:16989536

Pittayakhajonwut, Pattama; Dramae, Aibrohim; Madla, Siribhorn; Lartpornmatulee, Nattapat; Boonyuen, Nattawut; Tanticharoen, Morakot

2006-09-01

39

Ant-fungus species combinations engineer physiological activity of fungus gardens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungus-gardening insects are among the most complex organisms because of their extensive co-evolutionary histories with obligate fungal symbionts and other microbes. Some fungus-gardening insect lineages share fungal symbionts with other members of their lineage and thus exhibit diffuse co-evolutionary relationships, while others exhibit little or no symbiont sharing, resulting in host-fungus fidelity. The mechanisms that maintain this symbiont fidelity are currently unknown. Prior work suggested that derived leaf-cutting ants in the genus Atta interact synergistically with leaf-cutter fungi (Attamyces) by exhibiting higher fungal growth rates and enzymatic activities than when growing a fungus from the sister-clade to Attamyces (so-called 'Trachymyces'), grown primarily by the non-leaf cutting Trachymyrmex ants that form, correspondingly, the sister-clade to leaf-cutting ants. To elucidate the enzymatic bases of host-fungus specialization in leaf-cutting ants, we conducted a reciprocal fungus-switch experiment between the ant Atta texana and the ant Trachymyrmex arizonensis and report measured enzymatic activities of switched and sham-switched fungus gardens to digest starch, pectin, xylan, cellulose and casein. Gardens exhibited higher amylase and pectinase activities when A. texana ants cultivated Attamyces compared with Trachymyces fungi, consistent with enzymatic specialization. In contrast, gardens showed comparable amylase and pectinase activities when T. arizonensis cultivated either fungal species. Although gardens of leaf-cutting ants are not known to be significant metabolizers of cellulose, T. arizonensis were able to maintain gardens with significant cellulase activity when growing either fungal species. In contrast to carbohydrate metabolism, protease activity was significantly higher in Attamyces than in Trachymyces, regardless of the ant host. Activity of some enzymes employed by this symbiosis therefore arises from complex interactions between the ant host and the fungal symbiont. PMID:24803469

Seal, J N; Schiøtt, M; Mueller, U G

2014-07-15

40

Assembly of complex plant-fungus networks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Species in ecological communities build complex webs of interaction. Although revealing the architecture of these networks is fundamental to understanding ecological and evolutionary dynamics in nature, it has been difficult to characterize the structure of most species-rich ecological systems. By overcoming this limitation through next-generation sequencing technology, we herein uncover the network architecture of below-ground plant-fungus symbioses, which are ubiquitous to terrestrial ecosystems. The examined symbiotic network of a temperate forest in Japan includes 33 plant species and 387 functionally and phylogenetically diverse fungal taxa, and the overall network architecture differs fundamentally from that of other ecological networks. In contrast to results for other ecological networks and theoretical predictions for symbiotic networks, the plant-fungus network shows moderate or relatively low levels of interaction specialization and modularity and an unusual pattern of 'nested' network architecture. These results suggest that species-rich ecological networks are more architecturally diverse than previously recognized. PMID:25327887

Toju, Hirokazu; Guimarães, Paulo R; Olesen, Jens M; Thompson, John N

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

[Report on a fungus parasitizing Entamoeba histolytica].  

Science.gov (United States)

Infection of Entamoeba histolytica with chytridiaceous fungus Sphaerita was observed in some specimens obtained from a farmer and stained with iron-haematoxylin. The fungi were found in 78% of the cysts, mostly immature ones. Within the amoebae this parasite occurred singly, in groups, or in the form of a sporangium. It was located in the cytoplasm, the glycogen mass or the chromatoidal bars. In the same specimen, the parasitic fungus was also found in 18% of E. coli cysts; in 11% of E. nana cysts; while only one of 16 E. hartmanni cysts was parasitized. It is an interesting case of superimposed parasitism so far reported in China as well as a rare case of several species of amoebae being heavily involved with the same in the scientific literature. PMID:2548767

Cao, C Q; Feng, Y S

1989-01-01

42

STEROIDS FROM THE MARINE FUNGUS GEOTRICHUM SP  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Ergosterol 1, peroxyergosterol 2, ergosta-4,6,8(14), 22-tetraen-3-one 3 and 24-ethyl-cholesta-4-ene-3-one 4 were isolated from the cultures of a fungus Geotrichum sp. obtained from a marine sediment. It was established that no other sterols were present in the extract. Their structures were elucidat [...] ed by spectroscopic methods

AURELIO, SAN-MARTÍN; SILVIA, OREJARENA; CLAUDIA, GALLARDO; MARIO, SILVA; JOSÉ, BECERRA; RODRIGO, REIN0S0; MARIA C, CHAMY; KAREN, VERGARA; JUANA, ROVIROSA.

1377-13-01

43

SYSTEMIC INFECTION AND RELATED FUNGUS: AN OVERVIEW  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A fungus is a member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds (British English: moulds), as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which are separate from plants, animals, and bacteria. One major difference is that fungal cells have cell walls that contain chitin, unlike the cell walls of plants, which contain cellulose. Many fungi play a crucial role in decomposition (breaking things down)...

Saha Rajsekhar; Mishra Aditya Kumar

2011-01-01

44

Metabolites From The Marine Fungus Cladosporium Cladosporioides  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish El ácido p-metilbenzoico y el peroxiergosterol fueron aislados e identificados por métodos espectroscópicos en el cultivo del hongo Cladosporium cladosporioides, obtenido de una esponja marina. En la medida de nuestro conocimiento este es el primer informe del aislamiento como producto natural del á [...] cido p-metilbenzoico. Abstract in english p-Methylbenzoic acid and peroxyergosterol were isolated and identified by spectroscopic methods from cultures of the fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides isolated from a marine sponge. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that p-methylbenzoic acid had been isolated as a natural produc [...] t.

A., San-Martín; K., Painemal; Y., Díaz; C., Martínez; J., Rovirosa.

2005-12-01

45

Ribonucleic acids in different tea fungus beverages  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In human nutrition, nucleic acids have to be balanced and limited up to 2 g/day because purines are degraded to urate, and excessive production of urate is a cause of gout which primarily affects adult males. Tea fungus beverage is a well known drink with high nutritional value and certain curative effects. Its benefits have been proved in a number of studies but it is still necessary to examine some potential harmful effects of this beverage. The aim of this paper was to investigate content ...

Malbaša Radomir V.; Lon?ar Eva S.; Kolarov Ljiljana A.

2003-01-01

46

Genome Sequence of the Pathogenic Fungus Sporothrix schenckii (ATCC 58251).  

Science.gov (United States)

Sporothrix schenckii is a pathogenic dimorphic fungus that grows as a yeast and as mycelia. This species is the causative agent of sporotrichosis, typically a skin infection. We report the genome sequence of S. schenckii, which will facilitate the study of this fungus and of the Sporothrix schenckii group. PMID:24855299

Cuomo, Christina A; Rodriguez-Del Valle, Nuri; Perez-Sanchez, Lizaida; Abouelleil, Amr; Goldberg, Jonathan; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Birren, Bruce W

2014-01-01

47

Bacterial farming by the fungus Morchella crassipes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interactions between bacteria and fungi, the main actors of the soil microbiome, remain poorly studied. Here, we show that the saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal soil fungus Morchella crassipes acts as a bacterial farmer of Pseudomonas putida, which serves as a model soil bacterium. Farming by M. crassipes consists of bacterial dispersal, bacterial rearing with fungal exudates, as well as harvesting and translocation of bacterial carbon. The different phases were confirmed experimentally using cell counting and (13)C probing. Common criteria met by other non-human farming systems are also valid for M. crassipes farming, including habitual planting, cultivation and harvesting. Specific traits include delocalization of food production and consumption and separation of roles in the colony (source versus sink areas), which are also found in human agriculture. Our study evidences a hitherto unknown mutualistic association in which bacteria gain through dispersal and rearing, while the fungus gains through the harvesting of an additional carbon source and increased stress resistance of the mycelium. This type of interaction between fungi and bacteria may play a key role in soils. PMID:24174111

Pion, Martin; Spangenberg, Jorge E; Simon, Anaele; Bindschedler, Saskia; Flury, Coralie; Chatelain, Auriel; Bshary, Redouan; Job, Daniel; Junier, Pilar

2013-12-22

48

Formation of the Unusual Semivolatile Diterpene Rhizathalene by the Arabidopsis Class I Terpene Synthase TPS08 in the Root Stele Is Involved in Defense against Belowground Herbivory[W  

Science.gov (United States)

Secondary metabolites are major constituents of plant defense against herbivore attack. Relatively little is known about the cell type–specific formation and antiherbivore activities of secondary compounds in roots despite the substantial impact of root herbivory on plant performance and fitness. Here, we describe the constitutive formation of semivolatile diterpenes called rhizathalenes by the class I terpene synthase (TPS) 08 in roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. The primary enzymatic product of TPS08, rhizathalene A, which is produced from the substrate all-trans geranylgeranyl diphosphate, represents a so far unidentified class of tricyclic diterpene carbon skeletons with an unusual tricyclic spiro-hydrindane structure. Protein targeting and administration of stable isotope precursors indicate that rhizathalenes are biosynthesized in root leucoplasts. TPS08 expression is largely localized to the root stele, suggesting a centric and gradual release of its diterpene products into the peripheral root cell layers. We demonstrate that roots of Arabidopsis tps08 mutant plants, grown aeroponically and in potting substrate, are more susceptible to herbivory by the opportunistic root herbivore fungus gnat (Bradysia spp) and suffer substantial removal of peripheral tissue at larval feeding sites. Our work provides evidence for the in vivo role of semivolatile diterpene metabolites as local antifeedants in belowground direct defense against root-feeding insects. PMID:23512856

Vaughan, Martha M.; Wang, Qiang; Webster, Francis X.; Kiemle, Dave; Hong, Young J.; Tantillo, Dean J.; Coates, Robert M.; Wray, Austin T.; Askew, Whitnee; O'Donnell, Christopher; Tokuhisa, James G.; Tholl, Dorothea

2013-01-01

49

[Chemical constituents from fungus Armillaria mellea].  

Science.gov (United States)

Ten compounds were isolated from cultures of the fungus Armillaria mellea by silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic data analysis and compared their spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature as 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-6-methylbenzoic acid (1), orsellinic acid (2), melleolide (3), ergosterol (4), genistein (5), daidzein (6), daucosterol (7), genistin (8), uracil (9) and D-mannitol (10). Compounds 1-10 were isolated from cultures of A. mellea for the first time. Among them, 14, 6 and 10 had been obtained from mycelia or rhizomorphs of A. mellea. The structure of compound 3 was determined by detailed analysis of its 1D and 2D NMR data in the solvent of DMSO for the first time. PMID:24228585

Yuan, Xing-Li; Yan, Li-Hua; Zhang, Qi-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Min

2013-08-01

50

SYSTEMIC INFECTION AND RELATED FUNGUS: AN OVERVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A fungus is a member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds (British English: moulds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which are separate from plants, animals, and bacteria. One major difference is that fungal cells have cell walls that contain chitin, unlike the cell walls of plants, which contain cellulose. Many fungi play a crucial role in decomposition (breaking things down and returning nutrients to the soil. They are also used in medicine, an example is the antibiotic penicillin, as well as in industry and food preparation. In the present time the microbes are to be seen as disease causing organisms harming the mankind. The harm done by this community cannot be taken lightly as they are also useful in many ways. The above article is an effort to bring out the various fungal issued related to human.

Saha Rajsekhar

2011-06-01

51

Chemical composition of metapleural gland secretions of fungus-growing and non-fungus-growing ants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The metapleural gland is exclusive to ants, and unusual among exocrine glands in having no mechanism for closure and retention of secretion. As yet, no clear conclusion has been reached as to the function of metapleural gland secretion. Metapleural gland secretions were investigated for fungus-growing ants representing the derived attines Trachymyrmex fuscus, Atta laevigata, and Acromyrmex coronatus, the basal attines Apterostigma pilosum and Mycetarotes parallelus, and non-fungus-growing ants of the tribes Ectatommini (Ectatomma brunneum) and Myrmicini (Pogonomyrmex naegeli). Our results showed that the secretions of leaf-cutting ants (A. laevigata and A. coronatus) and the derived attine, T. fuscus, contain a greater variety and larger quantities of volatile compounds than those of myrmicine and ectatommine ants. The most abundant compounds found in the metapleural glands of A. laevigata and A. coronatus were hydroxyacids, and phenylacetic acid (only in A. laevigata). Indole was present in all groups examined, while skatole was found in large quantities only in attines. Ketones and aldehydes are present in the secretion of some attines. Esters are present in the metapleural gland secretion of all species examined, although mainly in A. laevigata, A. coronatus, and T. fuscus. Compared with basal attines and non-fungus-growing ants, the metapleural glands of leaf-cutting ants produce more acidic compounds that may have an antibiotic or antifungal function. PMID:22983660

Vieira, Alexsandro S; Morgan, E David; Drijfhout, Falko P; Camargo-Mathias, Maria I

2012-10-01

52

An insect parasitoid carrying an ochratoxin producing fungus  

Science.gov (United States)

The insect parasitoid Prorops nasuta has been introduced from Africa to many coffee-producing countries in an attempt to control the coffee berry borer. In this paper, we report on the sequencing of the ITS LSU-rDNA and beta-tubulin loci used to identify a fungus isolated from the cuticle of a P. nasuta that emerged from coffee berries infected with the coffee berry borer. The sequences were compared with deposits in GenBank and the fungus was identified as Aspergillus westerdijkiae. The fungus tested positive for ochratoxin A production, with varying levels depending on the media in which it was grown. These results raise the possibility that an insect parasitoid might be disseminating an ochratoxin-producing fungus in coffee plantations.

Vega, Fernando E.; Posada, Francisco; Gianfagna, Thomas J.; Chaves, Fabio C.; Peterson, Stephen W.

2006-06-01

53

Solubilization of lignin by the ruminal anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ability of the ruminal anaerobic phycomycete Neocallimastix patriciarum to digest model lignin compounds and lignified structures in plant material was studied in batch culture. The fungus did not degrade or transform model lignin compounds that were representative of the predominant intermonomer linkages in lignin, nor did it solubilize acid detergent lignin that had been isolated from spear grass. In a stem fraction of sorghum, 33.6% of lignin was apparently solubilized by the fungus. S...

Mcsweeney, C. S.; Dulieu, A.; Katayama, Y.; Lowry, J. B.

1994-01-01

54

Malaria mosquitoes attracted by fatal fungus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Insect-killing fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are being evaluated as possible active ingredients for use in novel biopesticides against mosquito vectors that transmit malaria. Fungal pathogens infect through contact and so applications of spores to surfaces such as walls, nets, or other resting sites provide possible routes to infect mosquitoes in and around domestic dwellings. However, some insects can detect and actively avoid fungal spores to reduce infection risk. If true for mosquitoes, such behavior could render the biopesticide approach ineffective. Here we find that the spores of B. bassiana are highly attractive to females of Anopheles stephensi, a major anopheline mosquito vector of human malaria in Asia. We further find that An. stephensi females are preferentially attracted to dead and dying caterpillars infected with B. bassiana, landing on them and subsequently becoming infected with the fungus. Females are also preferentially attracted to cloth sprayed with oil-formulated B. bassiana spores, with 95% of the attracted females becoming infected after a one-minute visit on the cloth. This is the first report of an insect being attracted to a lethal fungal pathogen. The exact mechanisms involved in this behavior remain unclear. Nonetheless, our results indicate that biopesticidal formulations comprising B. bassiana spores will be conducive to attraction and on-source visitation by malaria vectors. PMID:23658757

George, Justin; Jenkins, Nina E; Blanford, Simon; Thomas, Matthew B; Baker, Thomas C

2013-01-01

55

Secondary metabolites from the fungus Emericella nidulans.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new polyketide derivative koninginin H (1), has been isolated from the fungus Emericella nidulans, together with koninginin E (2), koninginin A (3), trichodermatide B (4), citrantifidiol (5), (4S,5R)-4-hydroxy-5-methylfuran-2-one (6), the glycerol derivatives gingerglycolipid B (7), (2S)-bis[9Z,12Z]-1-O, 2-O-dilinoleoyl-3-O-[alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1" --> 6') beta-D-galactopyranosyl]glycerol (8), (2S)-bis[9Z,12Z]-1-O, 2-O-dilinoleoyl-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranosylglycerol (9), the cerebroside flavuside B (10), and the known sterols beta-sitosterol glucoside and ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3-ol. Their structures were established by extensive NMR studies (1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT, 1H-1H COSY, HSQC, HMBC) and mass spectrometry. The antibacterial, antimalarial, antifungal and antileishmanial activities of compounds 1-10 were examined and the results indicated that compound 4 showed good antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of 4.9 microg/mL. PMID:24273867

Tarawneh, Amer H; León, Francisco; Radwan, Mohamed M; Rosa, Luiz H; Cutler, Stephen J

2013-09-01

56

Candicidin-producing Streptomyces support leaf-cutting ants to protect their fungus garden against the pathogenic fungus Escovopsis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Leaf-cutting ants such as Acromyrmex octospinosus live in obligate symbiosis with fungi of the genus Leucoagaricus, which they grow with harvested leaf material. The symbiotic fungi, in turn, serve as a major food source for the ants. This mutualistic relation is disturbed by the specialized pathogenic fungus Escovopsis sp., which can overcome Leucoagaricus sp. and thus destroy the ant colony. Microbial symbionts of leaf-cutting ants have been suggested to protect the fungus garden against Es...

Haeder, Susanne; Wirth, Rainer; Herz, Hubert; Spiteller, Dieter

2009-01-01

57

Shrinking factors of hyperbranched polysaccharide from fungus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The branched structure properties of hyperbranched polysaccharides (TM3a and TM3b), extracted from sclerotia of Pleurotus tuber-regium, were studied by using laser light scattering and viscometry. The configurational shrinking factor (g) and viscometric shrinking factor (g') of TM3a and TM3b were discussed, where curdlan and pullulan were taken as the linear references for derivation of g and g'. The dependences of g factor, g' factor, and Flory factor (Phi(branched)) on weight average molecular weight (M(w)) were established to be g=1.07x10(2)M(w)(-0.48+/-0.09), g'=3.63x10(1)M(w)(-0.43+/-0.01), and Phi(branched)=7.08x10(20)M(w)(0.39+/-0.1) for TM3a in 0.25M LiCl/DMSO at 25 degrees C, when curdlan acted as the linear reference. A power law relationship g'=2.71x10(-1)g(-0.61+/-0.1) for TM3a was found, and the exponent was approximately same to 0.60 established by Kurata et al. for polystyrene star molecules. The dependence of g factor on M(w) for TM3b was found to be g=1.99x10(2)M(w)(-0.53+/-0.02), when pullulan was used as the linear reference. On the basis of Zimm-Stockmayer equation for tetrafunctional units, molecular weight of branching unit (M(0)) deduced from nonlinear curve fitting of g versus M(w) was 8739+/-564g/mol and 3961+/-1245g/mol for TM3a and TM3b, respectively. The effect of different linear reference curves and polydispersity was discussed. This work gave valuable information on branched structure characterization and insights into the biosynthetic pathways of the hyperbranched polysaccharide from fungus. PMID:19505679

Tao, Yongzhen; Yan, Yun; Xu, Weilin

2009-07-27

58

Isolation and identification of iron ore-solubilising fungus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Potential mineral-solubilising fungi were successfully isolated from the surfaces of iron ore minerals. Four isolates were obtained and identified by molecular and phylogenetic methods as close relatives of three different genera, namely Penicillium (for isolate FO), Alternaria (for isolates SFC2 an [...] d KFC1) and Epicoccum (for isolate SFC2B). The use of tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) in phosphate-solubilising experiments confirmed isolate FO as the only phosphate solubiliser among the isolated fungi. The bioleaching capabilities of both the fungus and its spent liquid medium were tested and compared using two types of iron ore materials, conglomerate and shale, from the Sishen Iron Ore Mine as sources of potassium (K) and phosphorus (P). The spent liquid medium removed more K (a maximum of 32.94% removal, from conglomerate), than the fungus (a maximum of 21.36% removal, from shale). However, the fungus removed more P (a maximum of 58.33% removal, from conglomerate) than the spent liquid medium (a maximum of 29.25% removal, from conglomerate). The results also indicated a potential relationship between the removal of K or P and the production of organic acids by the fungus. A high production of gluconic acid could be related to the ability of the fungus to reduce K and P. Acetic, citric and maleic acids were also produced by the fungus, but in lower quantities. In addition, particle size and iron ore type were also shown to have significant effects on the removal of potassium and phosphorus from the iron ore minerals. We therefore conclude that the spent liquid medium from the fungal isolate FO can potentially be used for biobeneficiation of iron ore minerals.

Rasheed, Adeleke; Eugene, Cloete; Damase, Khasa.

2010-10-01

59

Isolation and identification of iron ore-solubilising fungus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Potential mineral-solubilising fungi were successfully isolated from the surfaces of iron ore minerals. Four isolates were obtained and identified by molecular and phylogenetic methods as close relatives of three different genera, namely Penicillium (for isolate FO, Alternaria (for isolates SFC2 and KFC1 and Epicoccum (for isolate SFC2B. The use of tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO42in phosphate-solubilising experiments confirmed isolate FO as the only phosphate solubiliser among the isolated fungi. The bioleaching capabilities of both the fungus and its spent liquid medium were tested and compared using two types of iron ore materials, conglomerate and shale, from the Sishen Iron Ore Mine as sources of potassium (K and phosphorus (P. The spent liquid medium removed more K (a maximum of 32.94% removal, from conglomerate, than the fungus (a maximum of 21.36% removal, from shale. However, the fungus removed more P (a maximum of 58.33% removal, from conglomerate than the spent liquid medium (a maximum of 29.25% removal, from conglomerate. The results also indicated a potential relationship between the removal of K or P and the production of organic acids by the fungus. A high production of gluconic acid could be related to the ability of the fungus to reduce K and P. Acetic, citric and maleic acids were also produced by the fungus, but in lower quantities. In addition, particle size and iron ore type were also shown to have significant effects on the removal of potassium and phosphorus from the iron ore minerals. We therefore conclude that the spent liquid medium from the fungal isolate FO can potentially be used for biobeneficiation of iron ore minerals.

Damase Khasa

2010-09-01

60

Isolation and identification of iron ore-solubilising fungus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Potential mineral-solubilising fungi were successfully isolated from the surfaces of iron ore minerals. Four isolates were obtained and identified by molecular and phylogenetic methods as close relatives of three different genera, namely Penicillium (for isolate FO), Alternaria (for isolates SFC2 an [...] d KFC1) and Epicoccum (for isolate SFC2B). The use of tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) in phosphate-solubilising experiments confirmed isolate FO as the only phosphate solubiliser among the isolated fungi. The bioleaching capabilities of both the fungus and its spent liquid medium were tested and compared using two types of iron ore materials, conglomerate and shale, from the Sishen Iron Ore Mine as sources of potassium (K) and phosphorus (P). The spent liquid medium removed more K (a maximum of 32.94% removal, from conglomerate), than the fungus (a maximum of 21.36% removal, from shale). However, the fungus removed more P (a maximum of 58.33% removal, from conglomerate) than the spent liquid medium (a maximum of 29.25% removal, from conglomerate). The results also indicated a potential relationship between the removal of K or P and the production of organic acids by the fungus. A high production of gluconic acid could be related to the ability of the fungus to reduce K and P. Acetic, citric and maleic acids were also produced by the fungus, but in lower quantities. In addition, particle size and iron ore type were also shown to have significant effects on the removal of potassium and phosphorus from the iron ore minerals. We therefore conclude that the spent liquid medium from the fungal isolate FO can potentially be used for biobeneficiation of iron ore minerals.

Rasheed, Adeleke; Eugene, Cloete; Damase, Khasa.

 
 
 
 
61

Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae, wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. Results We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-?-1,3(4-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-?-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Conclusion Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily accessible hemicellulose components of the ray-parenchyma cells in the wood xylem. Furthermore, the detection of xylanolytic enzymes exclusively in larvae (which feed on fungus colonized wood and not in adults (which feed only on fungi indicates that only larvae (pre- digest plant cell wall structures. This implies that in X. saxesenii and likely also in many other ambrosia beetles, adults and larvae do not compete for the same food within their nests - in contrast, larvae increase colony fitness by facilitating enzymatic wood degradation and fungus cultivation.

De Fine Licht Henrik H

2012-06-01

62

Experimental study of Aspergillus flavus fungus from uranium mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cultivation is discussed of fungus strain Aspergillus flavus obtained from materials from uranium mines. It was found that an addition of 0.6 g of uranium in form of uranyl acetate or of 0.6 g of thorium in form on thorium nitrate in 1000 ml of the standard medium had stimulating effects on the growth and sporulation of Aspergillus flavus. Irradiating the cultivated fungus through a polyethylene foil did not show a stimulating effect. It is stated that uranium and its daughters must be directly present in the culture medium for their stimulating effect on growth and sporulation to manifest itself. (H.S.)

63

Butyrolactones from the fungus Aspergillus terreus BCC 4651.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new butenolides, butyrolactones VI (1) and VII (2), were isolated together with six known compounds, butyrolactones I (3), II (4), IV (5), and V (6), aspernolide B (7), and bisdethiodi(methylthio)acetylaranotin (8) from the fungus Aspergillus terreus BCC 4651. Compound 8, exhibiting a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 1.56 µg/ml against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra, proved to be the antimycobacterial principle from the culture of this fungus. On the other hand, butyrolactone V (6) showed antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum K1 with an IC?? of 7.9 µg/ml. PMID:21048353

Haritakun, Rachada; Rachtawee, Pranee; Chanthaket, Rungtiwa; Boonyuen, Nattawut; Isaka, Masahiko

2010-11-01

64

Será fungo? / Is it a fungus?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estima-se que as infecções fúngicas superficiais afectem 20 a 25% da população mundial e a sua incidência continua a aumentar. A maioria é causada por dermatófitos, que são fungos que necessitam de queratina para crescer. As alterações produzidas por estes fungos designam-se de dermatofitoses, epide [...] rmofitias ou tinhas. Em Medicina Geral e Familiar é habitual o clínico deparar-se com questões como: «Dr., apareceram-me umas manchas na pele, será um fungo?». Algumas vezes, particularmente em doentes com risco especial como os polimedicados, os diabéticos, os imunodeprimidos ou as crianças, torna-se difícil saber quando é adequado instituir terapêutica oral. O presente artigo tem como objectivo efectuar uma breve revisão das dermatofitoses, com especial enfoque na sua abordagem terapêutica. As tinhas classificam-se de acordo com a sua localização anatómica: tinea capitis no couro cabeludo, tinea pedis nos pés, tinea corporis no corpo, tinea cruris na região inguinal e tinea unguium nas unhas. Um exame clínico cuidado é o primeiro e mais importante passo no diagnóstico das epidermofitias. No entanto, este pode ser estabelecido através de um dos diversos exames: microscopia com hidróxido de potássio, cultura, lâmpada de Wood e biópsia. Na prática clínica, a recolha de amostras para microscopia e cultura é aconselhada quando há necessidade de terapêutica oral, a infecção parece refractária ao tratamento inicial ou o diagnóstico é incerto. Apesar do tratamento tópico ser suficiente, na maioria das dermatofitoses, a terapêutica oral é aconselhada nas tinhas do couro cabeludo, da barba e das unhas. Os antifúngicos tópicos do grupo das alilaminas possibilitam tratamentos mais curtos e taxas de cura maiores do que os antifúngicos do grupo dos azóis. A terbinafina, o itraconazol e o fluconazol são os fármacos mais utilizados para tratamento sistémico. Abstract in english Superficial mycoses are believed to affect 20% to 25% of the world’s population and its incidence continues to increase. They are mainly caused by dermatophytes, which are fungi that require keratin for their growth. Skin lesions produced by these fungi are named dermatomycosis, dermatophytosis, rin [...] gworm or tinea. In Family Medicine, the clinician often has to deal with questions such as: «Dr., some weird spots have appeared in my skin, is it a fungus?». Frequently it is difficult to decide whether it is appropriate to initiate systemic therapy, particularly in higher risk patients, such as the polimedicated, the immunodepressed, the diabetics and the children. This article intends to review dermatophyte infections, focusing especially on their therapeutic management. Tinea is generally classified according to its anatomic location: tinea capitis is located on the scalp, tinea pedis on the feet, tinea corporis on the body, tinea cruris on the groin, and tinea unguium on the nails. A thorough clinical examination is the primary and most important step to diagnose a dermatophyte infection. Yet, it can be established using potassium hydroxide microscopy, fungal culture, Wood’s lamp examination or histologic examination. Samples should be taken for microscopy and culture in severe or extensive skin fungal infections, when oral treatment is being considered, when skin infections are refractory to initial treatment, or when the diagnosis is uncertain. Although topical treatment is enough in the majority of dermatomycosis, oral antifungals are recommended when considering tinea capitis, tinea barbae and tinea unguium. Cure rates are higher and treatment courses are shorter with topical allylamines than with azoles. Terbinafine, itraconazole and fluconazole formulations are the most commonly used antifungals in systemic therapy.

Diana, Tomaz.

65

Será fungo? / Is it a fungus?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estima-se que as infecções fúngicas superficiais afectem 20 a 25% da população mundial e a sua incidência continua a aumentar. A maioria é causada por dermatófitos, que são fungos que necessitam de queratina para crescer. As alterações produzidas por estes fungos designam-se de dermatofitoses, epide [...] rmofitias ou tinhas. Em Medicina Geral e Familiar é habitual o clínico deparar-se com questões como: «Dr., apareceram-me umas manchas na pele, será um fungo?». Algumas vezes, particularmente em doentes com risco especial como os polimedicados, os diabéticos, os imunodeprimidos ou as crianças, torna-se difícil saber quando é adequado instituir terapêutica oral. O presente artigo tem como objectivo efectuar uma breve revisão das dermatofitoses, com especial enfoque na sua abordagem terapêutica. As tinhas classificam-se de acordo com a sua localização anatómica: tinea capitis no couro cabeludo, tinea pedis nos pés, tinea corporis no corpo, tinea cruris na região inguinal e tinea unguium nas unhas. Um exame clínico cuidado é o primeiro e mais importante passo no diagnóstico das epidermofitias. No entanto, este pode ser estabelecido através de um dos diversos exames: microscopia com hidróxido de potássio, cultura, lâmpada de Wood e biópsia. Na prática clínica, a recolha de amostras para microscopia e cultura é aconselhada quando há necessidade de terapêutica oral, a infecção parece refractária ao tratamento inicial ou o diagnóstico é incerto. Apesar do tratamento tópico ser suficiente, na maioria das dermatofitoses, a terapêutica oral é aconselhada nas tinhas do couro cabeludo, da barba e das unhas. Os antifúngicos tópicos do grupo das alilaminas possibilitam tratamentos mais curtos e taxas de cura maiores do que os antifúngicos do grupo dos azóis. A terbinafina, o itraconazol e o fluconazol são os fármacos mais utilizados para tratamento sistémico. Abstract in english Superficial mycoses are believed to affect 20% to 25% of the world’s population and its incidence continues to increase. They are mainly caused by dermatophytes, which are fungi that require keratin for their growth. Skin lesions produced by these fungi are named dermatomycosis, dermatophytosis, rin [...] gworm or tinea. In Family Medicine, the clinician often has to deal with questions such as: «Dr., some weird spots have appeared in my skin, is it a fungus?». Frequently it is difficult to decide whether it is appropriate to initiate systemic therapy, particularly in higher risk patients, such as the polimedicated, the immunodepressed, the diabetics and the children. This article intends to review dermatophyte infections, focusing especially on their therapeutic management. Tinea is generally classified according to its anatomic location: tinea capitis is located on the scalp, tinea pedis on the feet, tinea corporis on the body, tinea cruris on the groin, and tinea unguium on the nails. A thorough clinical examination is the primary and most important step to diagnose a dermatophyte infection. Yet, it can be established using potassium hydroxide microscopy, fungal culture, Wood’s lamp examination or histologic examination. Samples should be taken for microscopy and culture in severe or extensive skin fungal infections, when oral treatment is being considered, when skin infections are refractory to initial treatment, or when the diagnosis is uncertain. Although topical treatment is enough in the majority of dermatomycosis, oral antifungals are recommended when considering tinea capitis, tinea barbae and tinea unguium. Cure rates are higher and treatment courses are shorter with topical allylamines than with azoles. Terbinafine, itraconazole and fluconazole formulations are the most commonly used antifungals in systemic therapy.

Diana, Tomaz.

2011-01-01

66

PATHWAYS OF GLUCOSE CATABOLISM IN THE SMUT FUNGUS 'USTILAGO VIOLACEA'  

Science.gov (United States)

The pathways of glucose catabolism were examined in haploid and diploid strains of the smut fungus Ustilago violacea. Radiorespirometric studies indicated that both of the haploid mating types and diploid strains of the basidiomycete catabolized glucose through the Embden-Meyerho...

67

Volatile antimicrobials from Muscodor crispans, a novel endophytic fungus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Muscodor crispans is a recently described novel endophytic fungus of Ananas ananassoides (wild pineapple) growing in the Bolivian Amazon Basin. The fungus produces a mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs); some of the major components of this mixture, as determined by GC/MS, are propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-; 1-butanol, 3-methyl-;1-butanol, 3-methyl-, acetate; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-methylbutyl ester; and ethanol. The fungus does not, however, produce naphthalene or azulene derivatives as has been observed with many other members of the genus Muscodor. The mixture of VOCs produced by M. crispans cultures possesses antibiotic properties, as does an artificial mixture of a majority of the components. The VOCs of the fungus are effective against a wide range of plant pathogens, including the fungi Pythium ultimum, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Mycosphaerella fijiensis (the black sigatoka pathogen of bananas), and the serious bacterial pathogen of citrus, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. In addition, the VOCs of M. crispans killed several human pathogens, including Yersinia pestis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus. Artificial mixtures of the fungal VOCs were both inhibitory and lethal to a number of human and plant pathogens, including three drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The gaseous products of Muscodor crispans potentially could prove to be beneficial in the fields of medicine, agriculture, and industry. PMID:19797357

Mitchell, Angela M; Strobel, Gary A; Moore, Emily; Robison, Richard; Sears, Joe

2010-01-01

68

Efficiency of Actinomycetes Against Phytopathogenic Fungus of Chilli Anthracnose  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phytopathogenic fungus as Colletotricum gloeosporioides is a cause of disease on chilli and wide varieties of agricultural crops resulting in yield loss. The aim of this study was to screened actinomycetes according to its ability to produce various secondary metabolites with inhibition activity against chilli anthracnose. Firstly, actinomycetes from previously study were tested for antagonistic activity toward the fungus by the dual culture technique. Finally, extracellular antifungal metabolites produced by selected isolates were evaluated for antifungal potential toward the fungus with agar core technique. Eighty three strains of actinomycetes were screened for their antifungal as well as phytopathogenic activity. Among these, 26 isolates were shown the inhibition activities against Colletotricum gloeosporioides chi in which was isolated from infected chilli. The culture supernatants obtained from 21 actinomycetes strains were affective against the fungus. More interestingly, 7 isolates produced affective thermostable compound that having activity after treated with temperature of 121°C for 20 min. In total, the isolate R58 was most promising on the basis of its interesting antimicrobial activity and it could reduce anthracnose disease of chilli comparing to the absence of biocontrol agent. Based on morphological character, its 16S rDNA sequence and phylogenetic tree analysis, isolate R58 belong to the Streptomyces malaysiensis. These findings have increased the scope of agriculturally important actinomycetes.

K. Sinma

2013-01-01

69

OXIDATION OF PERSISTANT ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY A WHITE ROT FUNGUS  

Science.gov (United States)

The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium degraded DDT [1,1,-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane], 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,4,5,2',-4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, lindane (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocylohexane), and benzo[a]pyrene t...

70

Macrocyclic Trichothecene Production by the Fungus Epibiont of Baccharis Coridifolia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cultures of the fungus epibiont from the herbaceous shrub B. coridifolia yielded four macrocyclic trichothecenes. As these toxins are the same as those found in B. coridifolia, the relationship between the plant and the epibiont must be considered as mutualistic.

M. L. Rosso

2000-03-01

71

Enraizamento de estacas de três espécies silvestres de Passiflora / Cutting rooting of three wild Passiflora species  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Em ambiente com nebulização controlada, estacas herbáceas com um par de folhas, contendo 2 ou 3 nós, foram testadas quanto ao enraizamento, utilizando-se de bandeja de poliestireno com célula de 95cm³ e saco plástico de 15x25x0,02cm com 1.730 cm³. Foram testadas estacas de Passiflora actinia, P. ser [...] rato-digitata e P. setacea. Observou-se que P. serrato-digitata apresentou 94,3% de estacas enraizadas com brotos e 2,4% de mortalidade; enquanto P. actinia e P. setacea apresentaram, respetivamente, 30,5% e 28,6% de estacas enraizadas com brotos e 56,8% e 60,7% de mortalidade. A alta mortalidade das estacas foi atribuída ao estado fenológico das matrizes de P. actinia e P. setacea e ao ataque de larvas de bradisia (Bradysia spp.) Estacas com dois e três nós não apresentaram diferenças significativas, e o recipiente saco plástico de 1.730 cm³ proporcionou melhor desenvolvimento das mudas. Abstract in english Steam cuttings of three wild Passiflora species where tested for rooting in a mist regulated greenhouse. Cuttings with two or three buds were used with two kinds of containers: polystyrene trays with 95 cm³ cells and perforated plastic bags of 15x25x0.02cm, with 1,730 cm³. Passiflora serrato-digitat [...] a was the best, with 94.3% of rooted cuttings with shoots e only 2.4% of death cuttings. P. actinia and P. setacea showed , respectivelly, 30.5% and 28.6% of rooted cuttings and 56.8% and 60.7%, of death cuttings. The high death were attribute to phenological phases of P. actinia and P. setacea or injury caused by fungus-gnat larvae (Bradysia spp.). Cuttings with two or three buds didn't show differences among them. Plastic bags proporcioned the best results, increasing rooted cuttings and plant development.

Marcelo Fideles, Braga; Erivanda Carvalho dos, Santos; Nilton Tadeu Vilela, Junqueira; Alex Antonio Torres Cortes de, Sousa; Fábio Gelape, Faleiro; Leylanne Nogueira, Rezende; Keize Pereira, Junqueira.

2006-08-01

72

The yeast spectrum of the 'tea fungus Kombucha'.  

Science.gov (United States)

The tea fungus 'Kombucha' is a symbiosis of Acetobacter, including Acetobacter xylinum as a characteristic species, and various yeasts. A characteristic yeast species or genus has not yet been identified. Kombucha is mainly cultivated in sugared black tea to produce a slightly acidulous effervescent beverage that is said to have several curative effects. In addition to sugar, the beverage contains small amounts of alcohol and various acids, including acetic acid, gluconic acid and lactic acid, as well as some antibiotic substances. To characterize the yeast spectrum with special consideration given to facultatively pathogenic yeasts, two commercially available specimens of tea fungus and 32 from private households in Germany were analysed by micromorphological and biochemical methods. Yeasts of the genera Brettanomyces, Zygosaccharomyces and Saccharomyces were identified in 56%, 29% and 26% respectively. The species Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Candida kefyr were only demonstrated in isolated cases. Furthermore, the tests revealed pellicle-forming yeasts such as Candida krusei or Issatchenkia orientalis/occidentalis as well as species of the apiculatus yeasts (Kloeckera, Hanseniaspora). Thus, the genus Brettanomyces may be a typical group of yeasts that are especially adapted to the environment of the tea fungus. However, to investigate further the beneficial effects of tea fungus, a spectrum of the other typical genera must be defined. Only three specimens showed definite contaminations. In one case, no yeasts could be isolated because of massive contamination with Penicillium spp. In the remaining two samples (from one household), Candida albicans was demonstrated. The low rate of contamination might be explained by protective mechanisms, such as formation of organic acids and antibiotic substances. Thus, subjects with a healthy metabolism do not need to be advised against cultivating Kombucha. However, those suffering from immunosuppression should preferably consume controlled commercial Kombucha beverages. PMID:8559192

Mayser, P; Fromme, S; Leitzmann, C; Gründer, K

1995-01-01

73

Fungus mediated synthesis of biomedically important cerium oxide nanoparticles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • First time biological synthesis of cerium oxide oxide nanoparticles using fungus Humicola sp. • Complete characterization of cerium oxide nanoparticles. • Biosynthesis of naturally protein capped, luminescent and water dispersible CeO2 nanoparticles. • Biosynthesized CeO2 nanoparticles can be used for many biomedical applications. - Abstract: Nanomaterials can be synthesized by chemical, physical and the more recently discovered biological routes. The biological routes are advantageous over the chemical and physical ones as unlike these, the biological synthesis protocols occur at ambient conditions, are cheap, non-toxic and eco-friendly. Although purely biological and bioinspired methods for the synthesis of nanomaterials are environmentally benign and energy conserving processes, their true potential has not been explored yet and attempts are being made to extend the formation of technologically important nanoparticles using microorganisms like fungi. Though there have been reports on the biosynthesis of oxide nanoparticles by our group in the past, no attempts have been made to employ fungi for the synthesis of nanoparticles of rare earth metals or lanthanides. Here we report for the first time, the bio-inspired synthesis of biomedically important cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles using the thermophilic fungus Humicola sp. The fungus Humicola sp. when exposed to aqueous solutions of oxide precursor cerium (III) nitrate hexahydrate (CeN3O9·6H2O) results in the extracellular formation of CeO2 nanoparticles containing Ce (III) and Ce (IV) mixed oxidation states, confirmed by X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS). The formed nanoparticles are naturally capped by proteins secreted by the fungus and thus do not agglomerate, are highly stable, water dispersible and are highly fluorescent as well. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS)

74

Biotransformation of adrenosterone by filamentous fungus, Cunninghamella elegans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbial transformation of adrenosterone (1) by suspended-cell cultures of the filamentous fungus Cunninghamella elegans resulted in the production of five metabolites 2-6, which were identified as 9alpha-hydroxyadrenosterone (2), 11-ketotestosterone (3), 6beta-hydroxyadrenosterone (4), 9alpha-hydroxy-11-ketotestosterone (5), and 6beta-hydroxy-11-ketotestosterone (6). Structures of new metabolites 2, 5, and 6 were established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. PMID:17889091

Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Khan, Naik T; Musharraf, Syed G; Anjum, Shazia; Atta-Ur-Rahman

2007-12-01

75

Tulasnein and podospirone from the coprophilous xylariaceous fungus Podosordaria tulasnei.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tulasnein (1), a new metabolite with strong antimicrobial and weaker cytotoxic and phytotoxic activity, was isolated from culture filtrates of three strains of the xylariaceous coprophilous fungus Podosordaria tulasnei. The producing strains were identified by their rhizomorphs and by ITS rDNA sequence analysis. A second new metabolite, podospirone (2), was also produced by all three strains whereas the weakly cytotoxic (+)-3,4-anhydroshikimic acid methyl ester (3) was detected in only one strain. PMID:18998405

Ridderbusch, Daniela C; Weber, Roland W S; Anke, Timm; Sterner, Olov

2004-01-01

76

Transcriptional responses in Honey Bee larvae infected with chalkbrood fungus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Diseases and other stress factors working synergistically weaken honey bee health and may play a major role in the losses of bee populations in recent years. Among a large number of bee diseases, chalkbrood has been on the rise. We present here the experimental identification of honey bee genes that are differentially expressed in response to infection of honey bee larvae with the chalkbrood fungus, Ascosphaera apis. Results We used ...

Murray Keith D; Aronstein Katherine A; Saldivar Eduardo

2010-01-01

77

Lactic acid production from xylose by the fungus Rhizopus oryzae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lignocellulosic biomass is considered nowadays to be an economically attractive carbohydrate feedstock for large-scale fermentation of bulk chemicals such as lactic acid. The filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae is able to grow in mineral medium with glucose as sole carbon source and to produce optically pure l(+)-lactic acid. Less is known about the conversion by R. oryzae of pentose sugars such as xylose, which is abundantly present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. This paper describes the co...

Maas, R. H. W.; Bakker, R. R.; Eggink, G.; Weusthuis, R. A.

2006-01-01

78

An entomopathogenic fungus for control of adult African malaria mosquitoes.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biological control of malaria mosquitoes in Africa has rarely been used in vector control programs. Recent developments in this field show that certain fungi are virulent to adult Anopheles mosquitoes. Practical delivery of an entomopathogenic fungus that infected and killed adult Anopheles gambiae, Africa's main malaria vector, was achieved in rural African village houses. An entomological inoculation rate model suggests that implementation of this vector control method, even at the observed...

2005-01-01

79

Relationships between Swiss needle cast and ectomycorrhizal fungus diversity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Swiss needle cast (SNC) is a disease specific to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) caused by the ascomycete Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii. Here we examine characteristics of the EM fungus community that are potentially useful in predictive models that would monitor forest health. We found that mean EM density (number of colonized root tips/soil core) varied nearly 10-fold among sites of varying levels of SNC, while mean EM fungus species richness (number of species/soil core) varied by about 2.5 times. Strong relationships were found between EM and SNC parameters: EM species richness was positively correlated with both Douglas-fir needle retention (R(2) = 0.93) and EM density (R(2) = 0.65); EM density also was significantly correlated with Douglas-fir needle retention (R(2) = 0.70). These simple characteristics of the EM fungus community could be used to monitor forest health and generate predictive models of site suitability for Douglas-fir. Based on previous findings that normally common EM types were reduced in frequency on sites with severe SNC, we also hypothesized that some EM fungi would be stress tolerant-dominant species. Instead, we found that various fungi were able to form EM with the stressed trees, but none were consistently dominant across samples in the severely diseased areas. PMID:24895426

Luoma, Daniel L; Eberhart, Joyce L

2014-01-01

80

Comparative studies of the secretome of fungus-growing ants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Leafcutter ants of the species Acromyrmex echinatior live in symbiosis with the fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. The ants harvest fragments of leaves and carry them to the nest where they place the material on the fungal colony. The fungus secretes a wide array of proteins to degrade the leaves into nutrients that the ants can feed on. The focus of this study is to discover, characterize and compare the secreted proteins. In order to do so cDNA libraries are constructed from mRNA extracted from the fungus material. The most efficient technology to screen cDNA libraries selectively for secreted and membrane-bound proteins is the TAST (Transposon Assisted Signal Trapping) technology (Becker et al. 2004,Microbiol Methods 57, 123-133). The TAST screening will give a list of full length gene sequences encoding secreted proteins. The main part of the secretome will consist of biomass degrading enzymes, but also antimicrobial proteins will probably be in the secretome. To date only a few enzymes from the Leucoagaricus secretome have been identified. We expect to discover novel proteins and to gain a better understanding of the biodegrading pathways of Leucoagaricus. Ultimately, this work may identify enzymes that can be used in biomass conversion processes. (Poster # 426)

Linde, Tore; Grell, Morten Nedergaard

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

A novel endophytic Taxol-producing fungus Chaetomella raphigera isolated from a medicinal plant, Terminalia arjuna.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taxol is the most important member of the clinically useful natural anticancer drug. An endophytic fungus Chaetomella raphigera (strain TAC-15) was isolated from a medicinal plant Terminalia arjuna and screened for its potential in Taxol production. The fungus was identified based on the morphology of the fungal culture and the characteristics of the spores. This fungus was grown in MID liquid medium and analyzed by chromatographically and spectrometrically for the presence of Taxol. The amount of Taxol produced by this endophytic fungus was quantified by HPLC which showed that it produced 79.6 microg/L, and further confirmative analyses were done by using UV, IR, FAB mass spectroscopy, and NMR spectroscopy. Thus, the fungus can serve as a potential material for fungus engineering to improve the production of Taxol. PMID:19234679

Gangadevi, V; Muthumary, J

2009-09-01

82

Caste-specific symbiont policing by workers of Acromyrmex fungus-growing ants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The interaction between leaf-cutting ants and their fungus garden mutualists is ideal for studying the evolutionary stability of interspecific cooperation. Although the mutualism has a long history of diffuse coevolution, there is ample potential for conflicts between the partners over the mixing and transmission of symbionts. Symbiont transmission is vertical by default, and both the ants and resident fungus actively protect the fungal monoculture growing in their nest against secondary introductions of genetically dissimilar symbionts from other colonies. An earlier study showed that mixtures of major and minor Acromyrmex workers eliminate alien fungus fragments even in subcolonies where their resident symbiont is not present. We hypothesize that the different tasks and behaviors performed by majors and minors are likely to select for differential responses to alien fungi. Major workers forage and cut new leaves and masticate them after delivery in the upper parts of the fungus garden and so are likely to more frequently encounter alien fungus than minor workers maintaining the established fungus garden and caring for the brood. We show that major workers of Acromyrmex echinatior indeed express stronger incompatibility reactions toward alien fungus garden fragments than minor workers. This implies that only the major workers, through recognition and exclusion of foreign fungus clones at their point of entry to the nest, have a realistic possibility to eliminate alien fungal tissue before it gets incorporated in the fungus garden and starts competing with the resident fungal symbiont.

Ivens, Aniek B.F.; Nash, David R.

2009-01-01

83

Effects of greenhouse pesticides on the soil-dwelling predatory mite Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Acari: Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) under laboratory conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowledge of the effects of pesticides on biological control agents is required for the successful implementation of integrated pest management (IPM) programs in greenhouse production systems. Laboratory assays were conducted to assess the effects of an acaricide (dicofol), two insecticides (chlorpyrifos and pyriproxyfen), and two fungicides (fosetyl-Al and mefenoxam) on Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Womersley), a soil-dwelling predatory mite widely marketed in North America under the name Hypoaspis miles (Berlese) as a biological control agent of dark-winged fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.). Eggs, larvae, protonymphs, deutonymphs, and adult male and female mites were first assayed using dicofol, an acaricide used in the experiments as a positive control, applied to filter paper in an enclosed arena. Protonymphs were assayed for lethal and sublethal effects against the remaining pesticides at maximum label-recommended rates applied to filter paper, by using dicofol as a positive control and water as a negative control. The larva and protonymph were the life stages most susceptible to dicofol, with estimated 24-h LC50 values of 9 and 26 mg m(-2), respectively. Chlorpyrifos was highly toxic to the protonymphs of S. scimitus, causing >95% mortality after 24-h exposure and 100% mortality after 48 h. In contrast, the insect growth regulator (IGR) pyriproxyfen was much less toxic to protonymphs of S. scimitus; pyriproxyfen caused no significant mortality, compared with scimitus under field conditions, because these pesticides caused little mortality of protonymphs, and they did not negatively affect the development and reproduction of S. scimitus under extreme laboratory conditions. In contrast, the use of chlorpyrifos in conjunction with S. scimitus is not recommended unless more comprehensive testing under semifield or field conditions demonstrates compatibility. PMID:15279255

Cabrera, Ana R; Cloyd, Raymond A; Zaborski, Edmond R

2004-06-01

84

Effects of reduced-risk pesticides and plant growth regulators on rove beetle (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

In many regions, pest management of greenhouse crops relies on the use of biological control agents; however, pesticides are also widely used, especially when dealing with multiple arthropod pests and attempting to maintain high esthetic standards. As such, there is interest in using biological control agents in conjunction with chemical control. However, the prospects of combining natural enemies and pesticides are not well known in many systems. The rove beetle, Atheta coriaria (Kraatz), is a biological control agent mainly used against fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.). This study evaluated the effects of reduced-risk pesticides and plant growth regulators on A. coriaria adult survival, development, and prey consumption under laboratory conditions. Rove beetle survival was consistently higher when adults were released 24 h after rather than before applying pesticides. The pesticides acetamiprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, and cyfluthrin were harmful to rove beetle adults, whereas Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, azadirachtin, and organic oils (cinnamon oils, rosemary oil, thyme oil, and clove oil) were nontoxic to A. coriaria adults. Similarly, the plant growth regulators acymidol, paclobutrazol, and uniconazole were not harmful to rove beetle adults. In addition, B. bassiana, azadirachtin, kinoprene, organic oils, and the plant growth regulators did not negatively affect A. coriaria development. However, B. bassiana did negatively affect adult prey consumption. This study demonstrated that A. coriaria may not be used when applying the pesticides, acetamiprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, and cyfluthrin, whereas organic oils, B. bassiana, azadirachtin, and the plant growth regulators evaluated may be used in conjunction with A. coriaria adults. As such, these compounds may be used in combination with A. coriaria in greenhouse production systems. PMID:23356075

Echegaray, Erik R; Cloyd, Raymond A

2012-12-01

85

Isolated fungal promoters and gene transcription terminators and methods of protein and chemical production in a fungus  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

Dai, Ziyu (Richland, WA); Lasure, Linda L. (Fall City, WA); Magnuson, Jon K. (Pasco, WA)

2008-11-11

86

Directed evolution of a filamentous fungus for thermotolerance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Filamentous fungi are the most widely used eukaryotic biocatalysts in industrial and chemical applications. Consequently, there is tremendous interest in methodology that can use the power of genetics to develop strains with improved performance. For example, Metarhizium anisopliae is a broad host range entomopathogenic fungus currently under intensive investigation as a biologically based alternative to chemical pesticides. However, it use is limited by the relatively low tolerance of this species to abiotic stresses such as heat, with most strains displaying little to no growth between 35–37°C. In this study, we used a newly developed automated continuous culture method called the Evolugator™, which takes advantage of a natural selection-adaptation strategy, to select for thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae strain 2575 displaying robust growth at 37°C. Results Over a 4 month time course, 22 cycles of growth and dilution were used to select 2 thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae. Both variants displayed robust growth at 36.5°C, whereas only one was able to grow at 37°C. Insect bioassays using Melanoplus sanguinipes (grasshoppers were also performed to determine if thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae retained entomopathogenicity. Assays confirmed that thermotolerant variants were, indeed, entomopathogenic, albeit with complex alterations in virulence parameters such as lethal dose responses (LD50 and median survival times (ST50. Conclusion We report the experimental evolution of a filamentous fungus via the novel application of a powerful new continuous culture device. This is the first example of using continuous culture to select for complex phenotypes such as thermotolerance. Temperature adapted variants of the insect-pathogenic, filamentous fungus M. anisopliae were isolated and demonstrated to show vigorous growth at a temperature that is inhibitory for the parent strain. Insect virulence assays confirmed that pathogenicity can be retained during the selection process. In principle, this technology can be used to adapt filamentous fungi to virtually any environmental condition including abiotic stress and growth substrate utilization.

Lyons Thomas J

2009-08-01

87

Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of fungus Phomopsis stipata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our purpose was to determine the anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of the metabolites produced by the endophitic fungus Phomopsis stipata (Lib. B. Sutton, (Diaporthaceae, cultivated in different media. The antimycobacterial activity was assessed through the Resazurin Microtiter Assay (REMA and the cytotoxicity test performed on macrophage cell line. The extracts derived from fungi grown on Corn Medium and Potato Dextrose Broth presented the smallest values of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and low cytotoxicity, which implies a high selectivity index. This is the first report on the chemical composition and antitubercular activity of metabolites of P. stipata, as well as the influence of culture medium on these properties.

Karina Andrade de Prince

2012-03-01

88

Meroterpenes and azaphilones from marine mangrove endophytic fungus Penicillium 303#.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three new metabolites (compounds 1-2 and 6), one azaphilone, and two meroterpenes, together with eleven known compounds have been isolated from a mangrove endophytic fungus, Penicillium 303#. Structure elucidation was achieved by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were determined by electronic circular dichroism (ECD). Cytotoxic activities of new compounds 1-2 and 6 and compound 7were evaluated in vitro against human cancer lines MDA-MB-435, HepG2, HCT-116, and A549. Those compounds showed weak to moderate cytotoxic activities. PMID:24972351

Li, Jing; Yang, Xin; Lin, Yingying; Yuan, Jie; Lu, Yongjun; Zhu, Xun; Li, Jun; Li, Mengfeng; Lin, Yongcheng; He, Jianguo; Liu, Lan

2014-09-01

89

Two new terpenoids from endophytic fungus Periconia sp. F-31.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new terpenoids, (+)-(3S,6S,7R,8S)-periconone A (1) and (-)-(1R,4R,6S,7S)-2-caren-4,8-olide (2), have been isolated from an endophytic fungus Periconia sp., which was collected from the plant Annona muricata. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. In the in vitro assays, the two compounds showed low cytotoxic activities against six human tumor cell lines (HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A549, A2780 and MCF-7) with IC(50)>10(-5) M. PMID:22130377

Ge, Han-Lin; Zhang, De-Wu; Li, Li; Xie, Dan; Zou, Jian-Hua; Si, Yi-Kang; Dai, Jungui

2011-01-01

90

Sesquiterpenes from the saprotrophic fungus Granulobasidium vellereum (Ellis & Cragin) Jülich.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twelve sesquiterpenes comprising either the protoilludane or the rare cerapicane carbon skeletons were obtained from the saprotrophic wood decomposing fungus Granulobasidium vellereum; 2a-hydroxycoprinolone (1), 3-hydroxycoprinolone (2), coprinolone diol B (3), granulodiene A (4), granulodiene B (5), granulone A (6), 8-deoxy-4a-hydroxytsugicoline B (7), granulone B (8), demethylgranulone (9), cerapicolene (10), as well as the known compounds radudiol and ?(6)-coprinolone. The structures were determined using spectroscopic methods and biosynthetic considerations. Granulone A had growth stimulating effect on the total elongation of lettuce seedlings. None of the isolated compounds showed any antifungal effect. PMID:24703932

Nord, Christina L; Menkis, Audrius; Lendel, Christofer; Vasaitis, Rimvydas; Broberg, Anders

2014-06-01

91

Extracellular oxidases of the lignin-degrading fungus Panus tigrinus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two extracellular oxidases (laccases) were isolated from the extracellular fluid of the fungus Panus (Lentinus) tigrinus cultivated in low-nitrogen medium supplemented with birch sawdust. The enzymes were purified by successive chromatography on columns with TEAE-cellulose and DEAE-Toyopearl 650M. Both oxidases catalyze oxidation of pyrocatechol and ABTS. Moreover, oxidase 1 also catalyzes oxidation of guaiacol, o-phenylenediamine, and syringaldazine. The enzymes have identical pH (7.0) and temperature (60-65 degrees C) optimums. Absorption spectra of the oxidases differ from the spectra of typical "blue" laccases and are similar to the spectrum of yellow oxidase. PMID:16038613

Cadimaliev, D A; Revin, V V; Atykyan, N A; Samuilov, V D

2005-06-01

92

Cyclohexadepsipeptides from the insect pathogenic fungus Hirsutella nivea BCC 2594.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new cyclohexadepsipeptides, hirsutatins A (1) and B (2), were isolated from a culture filtrate of the insect pathogenic fungus Hirsutella nivea BCC 2594. Structures of these compounds were elucidated primarily by NMR and mass spectroscopic analyses. The alpha-carbon stereochemistry of 1 was established by HPLC analysis of its acid hydrolysate using a chiral column. Hirsutatin B (2) exhibited activity against the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum K1 with an IC50 value of 5.8 microg/mL, while hirsutatin A (1) was inactive at a concentration of 20 microg/mL. PMID:16309324

Isaka, Masahiko; Palasarn, Somporn; Sriklung, Kanlayanee; Kocharin, Kanokarn

2005-11-01

93

Pimarane diterpenes from the Arctic fungus Eutypella sp. D-1.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new diterpenes, libertellenone G(1) and libertellenone H(2) were isolated from the fungus Eutypella sp. D-1 isolated from the soil of high latitude of Arctic, together with two known pimarane diterpenes (3-4). The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated from spectroscopic data (nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry and infrared). These compounds were evaluated for cytotoxic activity against seven human tumor cell lines. Compound 2 showed a range of cytotoxicity between 3.31 and 44.1??M. Compound 1 exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:24169793

Lu, Xiao-Ling; Liu, Jing-Tang; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Gao, Yun; Zhang, Jianpeng; Jiao, Bing-Hua; Zheng, Heng

2014-02-01

94

Production of ?-Amylase by the Ruminal Anaerobic Fungus Neocallimastix frontalis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

?-Amylase production was examined in the ruminal anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix frontalis. The enzyme was released mainly into the culture fluid and had temperature and pH optima of 55°C and 5.5, respectively, and the apparent Km for starch was 0.8 mg ml?1. The products of ?-amylase action were mainly maltotriose, maltotetraose, and longer-chain oligosaccharides. No activity of the enzyme was observed towards these compounds or pullulan, but activity on amylose was similar to starch. Ev...

Mountfort, Douglas O.; Asher, Rodney A.

1988-01-01

95

Production of xylanase by the ruminal anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix frontalis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Xylanase (1,4-beta-D-xylan xylanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.8) production was investigated in the ruminal anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix frontalis. The enzyme was released principally into the culture fluid and had pH and temperature optima of 5.5 and 55 degrees C, respectively. In the presence of low concentrations of substrate, the enzyme was stabilized at 50 degrees C. Xylobiose was the principal product of xylanase action, with lesser amounts of longer-chained xylooligosaccharides. No xylose wa...

Mountfort, D. O.; Asher, R. A.

1989-01-01

96

Two new antimicrobial metabolites from the endophytic fungus, Seimatosporium sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new acaranoic acids, named seimatoporic acid A and B (1, and 2), together with six known compounds, R-(-)-mellein (3), cis-4-hydroxymellein (4), trans-4-hydroxymellein (5), 4R-hydroxy-5-methylmellein (6), (-)-5-hydroxymethylmellein (7), and ergosterol (8) were isolated from an endophytic fungus, Seimatosporium sp, by a bioassay-guided procedure. The structures of the new compounds have been assigned from analysis of the 1H and 13C NMR spectra, DEPT, and by 2D COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY experiments. A mixture of compounds 1 and 2 showed strong antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea, Septoria tritici, and Pyricularia oryzae. PMID:22545398

Hussain, Hidayat; Krohn, Karsten; Schulz, Barbara; Draeger, Siegfried; Nazir, Mamona; Saleem, Muhammad

2012-03-01

97

Pitch canker fungus, Fusarium circinatum : implications for South African forestry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fusarium circinatum, the causal agent of pitch canker of mature pines and root/collar rot of pine seedlings/cuttings, has resulted in large-scale losses to pine forestry in various parts of the world. The disease caused by this fungus is now regarded as one of the most important threats to pine plantations by a pathogen. Fusarium circinatum was first discovered in South Africa in 1990 where it infected Pinus patula seedlings in a nursery. Subsequently, the pathogen spread to pine nur...

Mitchell, R. G.; Steenkamp, Emma Theodora; Coutinho, Teresa A.; Wingfield, Michael J.

2011-01-01

98

Two novel eremophilane sesquiterpenes from an endophytic Xylariaceous fungus isolated from leaves of Cupressus lusitanica  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two new eremophilane sesquiterpenes, cupressolide A and cupressolide B, along with two known sesquiterpenes, has been characterized from the EtOAc extract of a liquid medium where a Xylariaceous fungus, isolated as an endophytic fungus from health tissues of Cupressus lusitanica leaves, was cultivated. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by analyses of their MS and NMR spectroscopic data. (author)

99

First localities in Poland of the recently described fungus Cordyceps bifusispora  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two localities of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bifusispora, hitherto not reported from Poland, are characterised by their site conditions and co-occurring macrofungi during the period of the appearance of its stromata. Description of this fungus culture is given and some remarks on the resemblance of its teleomorphs and anamorphs from different collections are discussed.

Anna Bujakiewicz

2005-12-01

100

Metabolism and the rise of fungus cultivation by ants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most ant colonies are comprised of workers that cooperate to harvest resources and feed developing larvae. Around 50 million years ago (MYA), ants of the attine lineage adopted an alternative strategy, harvesting resources used as compost to produce fungal gardens. While fungus cultivation is considered a major breakthrough in ant evolution, the associated ecological consequences remain poorly understood. Here, we compare the energetics of attine colony-farms and ancestral hunter-gatherer colonies using metabolic scaling principles within a phylogenetic context. We find two major energetic transitions. First, the earliest lower-attine farmers transitioned to lower mass-specific metabolic rates while shifting significant fractions of biomass from ant tissue to fungus gardens. Second, a transition 20 MYA to specialized cultivars in the higher-attine clade was associated with increased colony metabolism (without changes in garden fungal content) and with metabolic scaling nearly identical to hypometry observed in hunter-gatherer ants, although only the hunter-gatherer slope was distinguishable from isometry. Based on these evolutionary transitions, we propose that shifting living-tissue storage from ants to fungal mutualists provided energetic storage advantages contributing to attine diversification and outline critical assumptions that, when tested, will help link metabolism, farming efficiency, and colony fitness. PMID:25141145

Shik, Jonathan Z; Santos, Juan C; Seal, Jon N; Kay, Adam; Mueller, Ulrich G; Kaspari, Michael

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
101

The role of enzymes in fungus-growing ant evolution  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The shift to freshly cut leaves rather than scavenged dead vegetation as fungus-garden substrate was a major evolutionary transition in the attine ants that apparently allowed the Atta and Acromyrmex leafcutter ants to also evolve increased worker size dimorphism, multiple queen- mating, specific adaptations in the olfactory region of worker brains, and many other complex social traits. The transition also involved the specialization on a single species of fungal symbiont (Leucocoprinus gongylophorus), but comparative studies of the specific fungal adaptations that accompanied this transition have not been done. Such studies are important as the single specific fungal adaptation that can (almost) be seen with the bare eye (gongylidia; inflated hyphal tips that are preferentially eaten by the ants and their larvae) evolved earlier and therefore does not characterize the transition to leafcutting behaviour. Here we report the first large-scale comparative study on fungus garden enzyme profiles and show that various interesting changes can be documented. A more detailed analysis of laccase expression, an enzyme that is believed to oxidize phenols in defensive secondary plant compounds such as tannins, showed that this enzyme is exclusively found in the gardens of leaf-cutting ants, where it is significantly upregulated in the gongylidia. I’ll discuss the possible role of this enzyme and other fungal modifications in the evolution of the leafcutter ants and their non-leafcutting attine relatives.

de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard

102

Fungi of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.)-Their Deteriorative Ability, Quality Stability and the Role of the Fungus-Eating Insects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Studies on the deteriorative ability and quality stability of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) and the effect of the fungus-eating insects (Necrobia rufipes, Alphitobius diaperinus, Crematogaster sp. and Tenebrio molitor) were carried out in the Post Graduate Entomology and Plant Pathology Laboratories of the Department of Applied and Environmental Biology and also in Food Science Laboratory of the Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt....

Chuku, E. C.; Ogbalu, O. K.; Osakwe, J. A.

2007-01-01

103

Accumulation and chemical states of radiocesium by fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Science.gov (United States)

After accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the fall-out radiocesium was deposited on the ground. Filamentous fungus is known to accumulate radiocesium in environment, even though many minerals are involved in soil. These facts suggest that fungus affect the migration behavior of radiocesium in the environment. However, accumulation mechanism of radiocesium by fungus is not understood. In the present study, accumulation and chemical states change of Cs by unicellular fungus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been studied to elucidate the role of microorganisms in the migration of radiocesium in the environment. Two different experimental conditions were employed; one is the accumulation experiments of radiocesium by S. cerevisiae from the agar medium containing 137Cs and a mineral of zeolite, vermiculite, smectite, mica, or illite. The other is the experiments using stable cesium to examine the chemical states change of Cs. In the former experiment, the cells were grown on membrane filter of 0.45 ?m installed on the agar medium. After the grown cells were weighed, radioactivity in the cells was measured by an autoradiography technique. The mineral weight contents were changed from 0.1% to 1% of the medium. In the latter experiment, the cells were grown in the medium containing stable Cs between 1 mM and 10mM. The Cs accumulated cells were analyzed by SEM-EDS and EXAFS. The adsorption experiments of cesium by the cells under resting condition were also conducted to test the effect of cells metabolic activity. Without mineral in the medium, cells of S. cerevisiae accumulated 1.5x103 Bq/g from the medium containing 137Cs of 2.6x102 Bq/g. When mineral was added in the medium, concentration of 137Cs in the cells decreased. The concentration of 137Cs in the cells from the medium containing different minerals were in the following order; smectite, illite, mica > vermiculite > zeolite. This order was nearly the same as the inverse of distribution coefficient of mineral for 137Cs in the medium solution. The concentration of 137Cs in the cells lowered in the medium containing higher mineral content. These results indicate that radiocesium was competively accumulated in the cells with minerals in the soil. Higher concentration of stable Cs was accumulated in the cells in the metabolically active condition than in the resting cells condition. XAFS analyses showed that the k3-weighted extended-XAFS functions and the radial structural function of Cs accumulated by the cells in the metabolically active condition were similar to those in the resting condition, indicating that chemical states of the accumulated Cs were nearly the same between both conditions. These results indicate that the fungus accumulates radiocesium by competitively with minerals in the soils, and performs higher retardation of the migration of Cs in the metabolically active condition than the resting one. A part of this study is the results of "Multidisciplinary investigation on radiocesium fate and transport for safety assessment for interim storage and disposal of heterogeneous waste" carried out under the Initiatives for Atomic Energy Basic and Generic Strategic Research by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.

Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Yamasaki, Shinya; Yu, Qianqian

2014-05-01

104

Obtenção de uma dieta artificial para Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Some artificial diets were tested and their efficiency assessed from percentage of pupation and emergence, time to emergence, pupal weight, ovary development and maintenance of generation. The best results were obtained with a yeast and starch basal diet. The other products tested were: wheat germ, [...] soybean, fish flour, blood flour and meat flour.

Angelo de Lima, Francisco; Fernando Sérgio, Zucoloto.

105

Obtenção de uma dieta artificial para Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Some artificial diets were tested and their efficiency assessed from percentage of pupation and emergence, time to emergence, pupal weight, ovary development and maintenance of generation. The best results were obtained with a yeast and starch basal diet. The other products tested were: wheat germ, soybean, fish flour, blood flour and meat flour.

Angelo de Lima Francisco

1984-01-01

106

Polyketides from the Halotolerant Fungus Myrothecium sp. GS-17  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two new polyketides, myrothecol (1 and 5-hydroxy-3-methyl-4-(1- hydroxylethyl-furan-2(5H-one (2, were isolated from the fermentation broth of the halotolerant fungus Myrothecium sp. GS-17 along with three known compounds, 5-hydroxyl-3-[(1S-1-hydroxyethyl]-4-methylfuran-2(5H-one (3, 3,5-dimethyl-4- hydroxylmethyl-5-methoxyfuran-2(5H-one (4, and 3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxymethyl-5- hydroxyfuran-2(5H-one (5. Compound 1 is the first natural occurring polyketide with a unique furylisobenzofuran skeleton. The structures of these compounds were established via extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D-, 2D-NMR, HRESI-MS, and crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.

Tao Liu

2013-12-01

107

Polyketides from the halotolerant fungus Myrothecium sp. GS-17.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new polyketides, myrothecol (1) and 5-hydroxy-3-methyl-4-(1-hydroxylethyl)-furan-2(5H)-one (2), were isolated from the fermentation broth of the halotolerant fungus Myrothecium sp. GS-17 along with three known compounds, 5-hydroxyl-3-[(1S)-1-hydroxyethyl]-4-methylfuran-2(5H)-one (3), 3,5-dimethyl-4- hydroxylmethyl-5-methoxyfuran-2(5H)-one (4), and 3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxymethyl-5- hydroxyfuran-2(5H)-one (5). Compound 1 is the first natural occurring polyketide with a unique furylisobenzofuran skeleton. The structures of these compounds were established via extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D-, 2D-NMR, HRESI-MS, and crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. PMID:24322495

Liu, Tao; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Song-Ya; Li, Zhan-Lin; Guan, Li-Ping; Pan, Hua-Qi; Wu, Xin; Bai, Jiao; Hua, Hui-Ming

2013-01-01

108

Biosorption of cadmium using the fungus Aspergillus niger  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sorption experiments using the Aspergillus niger fungus for cadmium removal were carried out to study the factors influencing and optimizing the biosorption of this metal. The effects of pH, time, biomass concentration, and initial concentration of the heavy metal on the rate of metallic biosorption were examined. An experimental design was also used to determine the values of the under study variables that provided the greatest biosorption efficiency. A technique for biomass recovery was also developed with the objective of determining the capacity of the regenerated biomass to biosorb the metals in solution. This research proved that with a pH of 4.75, a biomass concentration of 0.7 g/L, and a heavy metal concentration varying between 5 and 10 mg/L a biosorption process of biosorption with Aspergillus niger could be successfully used for heavy metal removal from oil field water in the oil industry.

Barros Júnior L.M.

2003-01-01

109

Two new compounds from gorgonian-associated fungus Aspergillus sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

One new gamma-lactone derivative 5-hydroxy-3-isopropyl-4-methoxyfuranone (1) and one new lactam derivative dehydrated-marinamide (2), along with two known compounds marinamide (3) and marinamide methyl ester (4) were isolated from the fermentation broth of the marine gorgonian-associated fungus Aspergillus sp. SCSGAF0093. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and spectrometric analysis. Compound 1 showed significant toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina) with a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 1.25 microM, and 3 inhibited protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 23.3 microg/mL. PMID:24079168

Xu, Xin-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Yong; He, Fei; Peng, Jiang; Nong, Xu-Hua; Qi, Shu-Hua

2013-08-01

110

The origin of Ceratocystis fagacearum, the oak wilt fungus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The oak wilt pathogen, Ceratocystis fagacearum, may be another example of a damaging, exotic species in forest ecosystems in the United States. Though C. fagacearum has received much research attention, the origin of the fungus is unknown. The pathogen may have been endemic at a low incidence until increased disturbances, changes in land use, and forest management created conditions favorable for disease epidemics. The host genus Quercus contains some relatively resistant species native to the United States, further supporting the hypothesis that the pathogen is native in origin. However, there are also many common, highly susceptible Quercus species--a characteristic typical of introduced pathogens. Most convincingly, studies have shown that the known populations of C. fagacearum have experienced a severe genetic bottleneck that can only be explained by a single introduction. The weight of evidence indicates that C. fagacearum is an introduced pathogen, with possible origins in Central or South America, or Mexico. PMID:18680421

Juzwik, Jennifer; Harrington, Thomas C; MacDonald, William L; Appel, David N

2008-01-01

111

Antimalarial and cytotoxic depsidones from the fungus Chaetomium brasiliense.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four new depsidones, mollicellins K-N (1-4), and six known depsidones, mollicellins B (5), C (6), E (7), F (8), H (9), and J (10), along with two known sterols were isolated from the fungus Chaetomium brasiliense. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data and chemical transformation. Among these isolates, 1-3, 5-7, and 10 exhibited antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Only 1 exhibited antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and antifungal activity against Candida albicans using in vitro assays. In addition, 1-10 showed cytotoxicity against the KB, BC1, NCI-H187, and five cholangiocarcinoma cell lines. PMID:19663417

Khumkomkhet, Primmala; Kanokmedhakul, Somdej; Kanokmedhakul, Kwanjai; Hahnvajanawong, Chariya; Soytong, Kasem

2009-08-01

112

Chemically armed mercenary ants protect fungus-farming societies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The ants are extraordinary in having evolved many lineages that exploit closely related ant societies as social parasites, but social parasitism by distantly related ants is rare. Here we document the interaction dynamics among a Sericomyrmex fungus-growing ant host, a permanently associated parasitic guest ant of the genus Megalomyrmex, and a raiding agro-predator of the genus Gnamptogenys. We show experimentally that the guest ants protect their host colonies against agro-predator raids using alkaloid venom that is much more potent than the biting defenses of the host ants. Relatively few guest ants are sufficient to kill raiders that invariably exterminate host nests without a cohabiting guest ant colony. We also show that the odor of guest ants discourages raider scouts from recruiting nestmates to host colonies. Our results imply that Sericomyrmex fungus-growers obtain a net benefit from their costly guest ants behaving as a functional soldier caste to meet lethal threats from agro-predator raiders. The fundamentally different life histories of the agro-predators and guest ants appear to facilitate their coexistence in a negative frequency-dependent manner. Because a guest ant colony is committed for life to a single host colony, the guests would harm their own interests by not defending the host that they continue to exploit. This conditional mutualism is analogous to chronic sickle cell anemia enhancing the resistance to malaria and to episodes in human history when mercenary city defenders offered either net benefits or imposed net costs, depending on the level of threat from invading armies.

Adams, Rachelle Martha Marie; Liberti, Joanito

2013-01-01

113

Disposable diapers biodegradation by the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research assesses the feasibility of degrading used disposable diapers, an important component (5-15% in weight) of urban solid waste in Mexico, by the activity of the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus, also known as oyster mushroom. Disposable diapers contain polyethylene, polypropylene and a super absorbent polymer. Nevertheless, its main component is cellulose, which degrades slowly. P. ostreatus has been utilized extensively to degrade cellulosic materials of agroindustrial sources, using in situ techniques. The practice has been extended to the commercial farming of the mushroom. This degradation capacity was assayed to reduce mass and volume of used disposable diapers. Pilot laboratory assays were performed to estimate the usefulness of the following variables on conditioning of used diapers before they act as substrate for P. ostreatus: (1) permanence vs removal of plastic cover; (2) shredding vs grinding; (3) addition of grape wastes to improve structure, nitrogen and trace elements content. Wheat straw was used as a positive control. After 68 days, decrease of the mass of diapers and productivity of fungus was measured. Weight and volume of degradable materials was reduced up to 90%. Cellulose content was diminished in 50% and lignine content in 47%. The highest efficiency for degradation of cellulosic materials corresponded to the substrates that showed highest biological efficiency, which varied from 0% to 34%. Harvested mushrooms had good appearance and protein content and were free of human disease pathogens. This research indicates that growing P. ostreatus on disposable diapers could be a good alternative for two current problems: reduction of urban solid waste and availability of high protein food sources. PMID:21474296

Espinosa-Valdemar, Rosa María; Turpin-Marion, Sylvie; Delfín-Alcalá, Irma; Vázquez-Morillas, Alethia

2011-08-01

114

Sperm length evolution in the fungus-growing ants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Eusocial insects offer special opportunities for the comparative study of sperm traits because sperm competition is absent (in species with obligatory monandry) or constrained (in lineages where queens mate multiply but never remate later in life). We measured sperm length in 19 species of fungus-growing ants, representing 9 of the 12 recognized genera, and mapped these onto the ant phylogeny. We show that average sperm length across species is highly variable and decreases with mature colony size in basal genera with singly mated queens, suggesting that sperm production or storage constraints affect the evolution of sperm length. Sperm length does not decrease further in multiply mating leaf-cutting ants, despite substantial further increases in colony size. In a combined analysis, sexual dimorphism explained 63.1% of the variance in sperm length between species. As colony size was not a significant predictor in this analysis, we conclude that sperm production trade-offs in males have been the major selective force affecting sperm length across the fungus-growing ants, rather than storage constraints in females. The relationship between sperm length and sexual dimorphism remained robust in phylogenetically independent contrasts. Some of the remaining variation was explained by the relative size of the sperm-storage organ, but only in the multiply mating leaf-cutting ants, suggesting that sperm-storage constraints become important for the evolution of sperm length in this derived group. Mate number affected sperm length to a minor extent, and only in interaction with other predictor variables, suggesting that sperm competition has not been a major selective force for sperm length evolution in these ants.

Baer, B.; Dijkstra, M. B.

2009-01-01

115

Radiologic characteristics of sinonasal fungus ball: an analysis of 119 cases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background. It is important to differentiate sinonasal fungus ball from non-fungal sinusitis and other forms of fungal sinusitis in order to determine the optimal treatment. In particular, a sinonasal fungus ball, a non-invasive fungal sinusitis, can be characterized by radiologic findings before surgery. Purpose. To differentiate a sinonasal fungus ball from other types of sinusitis and determine optimal treatment on the basis of radiologic findings before surgery. Material and Methods. We studied 119 patients with clinically and pathologically proven sinonasal fungus balls. Their condition was evaluated radiologically with contrast-enhanced CT (99 patients), non-contrast CT (18 patients) and/or MRI (17 patients) prior to sinonasal surgery. Results. Calcifications were found in 78 of 116 (67.2%) patients who underwent CT scans for fungus ball. As opposed to non-contrast CT scans, contrast CT scans revealed hyper attenuating fungal ball in 82.8% and enhanced inflamed mucosa in 65.5% of the patients, respectively. On MRI, most sinonasal fungal balls showed iso- or hypointensity on T1-weighted images and marked hypointensity on T2-weighted images. Inflamed mucosal membranes were noted and appeared as hypointense on T1-weighted images (64.7%) and hyperintense on T2-weighted images (88.2%). Conclusion. When there are no calcifications visible on the CT scan, a hyper attenuating fungal ball located in the central area of the sinus with mucosal thickening on enhanced CT scawith mucosal thickening on enhanced CT scans is an important feature of a non-invasive sinonasal fungus ball. On MRI, a sinonasal fungus ball has typical features of a marked hypointense fungus ball with a hyperintense mucosal membrane in T2-weighted images. A contrast-enhanced CT scan or MRI provides sufficient information for the preoperative differentiation of a sinonasal fungus ball from other forms of sinusitis

116

Radiologic characteristics of sinonasal fungus ball: an analysis of 119 cases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background. It is important to differentiate sinonasal fungus ball from non-fungal sinusitis and other forms of fungal sinusitis in order to determine the optimal treatment. In particular, a sinonasal fungus ball, a non-invasive fungal sinusitis, can be characterized by radiologic findings before surgery. Purpose. To differentiate a sinonasal fungus ball from other types of sinusitis and determine optimal treatment on the basis of radiologic findings before surgery. Material and Methods. We studied 119 patients with clinically and pathologically proven sinonasal fungus balls. Their condition was evaluated radiologically with contrast-enhanced CT (99 patients), non-contrast CT (18 patients) and/or MRI (17 patients) prior to sinonasal surgery. Results. Calcifications were found in 78 of 116 (67.2%) patients who underwent CT scans for fungus ball. As opposed to non-contrast CT scans, contrast CT scans revealed hyper attenuating fungal ball in 82.8% and enhanced inflamed mucosa in 65.5% of the patients, respectively. On MRI, most sinonasal fungal balls showed iso- or hypointensity on T1-weighted images and marked hypointensity on T2-weighted images. Inflamed mucosal membranes were noted and appeared as hypointense on T1-weighted images (64.7%) and hyperintense on T2-weighted images (88.2%). Conclusion. When there are no calcifications visible on the CT scan, a hyper attenuating fungal ball located in the central area of the sinus with mucosal thickening on enhanced CT scans is an important feature of a non-invasive sinonasal fungus ball. On MRI, a sinonasal fungus ball has typical features of a marked hypointense fungus ball with a hyperintense mucosal membrane in T2-weighted images. A contrast-enhanced CT scan or MRI provides sufficient information for the preoperative differentiation of a sinonasal fungus ball from other forms of sinusitis

Seo, Young-Joon; Kim, Kyubo (Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Kim, Jinna (Dept. of Radiology, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Lee, Jeung-Gweon; Kim, Chang-Hoon (Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); The Airway Mucus Institute, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)), email: entman@yuhs.ac; Yoon, Joo-Heon (Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); The Airway Mucus Institute, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Research Center for Human Natural Defense System, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); BK21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of))

2011-09-15

117

Tolerance and removal of arsenic by a facultative marine fungus Aspergillus candidus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the work was to investigate tolerance to and removal of arsenic by a facultative marine fungus Aspergillus candidus. The fungus showed luxuriant growth in different concentrations (25 and 50mg/L) of trivalent and pentavalent forms of arsenic. Biomass accumulation data substantiate tolerance of A. candidus towards the test concentrations of trivalent and pentavalent forms of arsenic. Highest arsenic removal (mg/g) was recorded on day 3. As removal increased with an increase in concentration. Hence, the test fungus A. candidus is a promising candidate for arsenic remediation. PMID:20022490

Vala, Anjana K

2010-04-01

118

Reaction of some soybean mutant lines to natural rust fungus caused by (phakopsora pachyrhizi syd)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reaction of some soybean mutant lines to natural rust fungus caused by (phakopsora pachyhizi syd). Eleven soybean mutant lines of orba variety derived from gamma fungus disease in the wet season 1985/86 at the experimental station of Citayam, Bogor. Based on IWGSR rating system, soybean mutant lines No 18/PsJ was moderately resistant to rust fungus disease. The other mutant lines, 14/PsJ, 15/PsJ, 20/PsJ, 102/PsJ, 106/PsJ, 111/PsJ, 118/PsJ, 119/PsJ and 220/PsJ were susceptible. (author). 4 figs.; 8 refs

119

Novel Technique for Isolating Microstructures Present in Shake Cultures of the Fungus Ceratocystis ulmi.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microstructures found in shake cultures of Ceratocystis ulmi, the fungus causing Dutch elm disease, have been isolated by a novel technique using the effect of bubbling gas through the culture filtrate. PMID:16349968

Richards, W C; Takai, S

1973-09-01

120

Persistence of the entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium muscarium Zare & Gams under ambient conditions in the field.  

Science.gov (United States)

Positive results of laboratory trials, which proofed the effectiveness of the entomopathogenic fungus L. muscarium against endophytic larvae of the horse chestnut leafminer moth Cameraria ohridella DESCHKA et DIMIC, led to outdoor trials. One aspect of these trials was to determine the persistence of the fungus, which was used as commercial product Mycotal (Koppert, NL) and as strain V24 from the section Phytomedicine. In different variants several spore concentrations and the influence of an oil-containing adjuvant (Koppert, NL) were tested. The persistence of the fungus was determined through the number of colony forming units (cfu) after impressing the leaves on agar plates. The fungus could be detected until 14 days past application (dpa), with differences between the variants, despite most unfavourable weather conditions, like above-average of temperature and hours with sunshine as well as low humidity and heavy rainfall. In all variants were found dead and moulding larvae within the mines. PMID:20222590

Lerche, Sandra; Sermann, Helga; Büttner, Carmen

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Modelling the Hyphal Growth of the Wood-decay Fungus Physisporinus vitreus  

CERN Document Server

The white-rot fungus, Physisporinus vitreus, degrades the membranes of bordered pits in tracheids and consequently increases the permeability of wood, which is a process that can be used by the wood industry to improve the uptake of wood preservatives and environmentally benign wood modification substances to enhance the use and sustainability of native conifer wood species. To understand and apply this process requires an understanding of how a complex system (fungus-wood) interacts under defined conditions. We present a three-dimensional fungal growth model (FGM) of the hyphal growth of P. vitreus in the heartwood of Norway spruce. The model considers hyphae and nutrients as discrete structures and links the microscopic interactions between fungus and wood (e.g. degradation rate and degree of opening of pits) with macroscopic system properties, such penetration depth of the fungus, biomass and distribution of destroyed pits in early- and latewood. Simulations were compared with experimental data. The growth...

Fuhr, M J; Schwarze, F W M R; Herrmann, H J

2011-01-01

122

Biosynthesis of size-controlled gold nanoparticles using fungus, Penicillium sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

The unique optoelectronic and physicochemical properties of gold nanoparticles are significantly dependent on the particle size, shape and structure. In this paper, biosynthesis of size-controlled gold nanoparticles using fungus Penicillium sp. is reported. Fungus Penicillium sp. could successfully bioreduce and nucleate AuCl4(-) ions, and lead to the assembly and formation of intracellular Au nanoparticles with spherical morphology and good monodispersity after exposure to HAuCl4 solution. Reaction temperature, as an important physiological parameter for fungus Penicillium sp. growth, could significantly control the size of the biosynthesized Au nanoparticles. The biological compositions and FTIR spectra analysis of fungus Penicillium sp. exposed to HAuCl4 solution indicated the intracellular reducing sugar played an important role in the occurrence of intracellular reduction of AuCl4(-) ions and the growth of gold nanoparticles. Furthermore, the intracellular gold nanoparticles could be easily separated from the fungal cell lysate by ultrasonication and centrifugation. PMID:19908446

Zhang, Xiaorong; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin; Wang, Yonghong; Li, Huimin; Tan, Weihong

2009-10-01

123

MICROBIAL DYNAMICS IN COMMERCIAL VERMICOMPOSTS WITH AND WITHOUT TRICHODERMA SPP. FUNGUS INOCULATION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, presents the results are presented onof the growthefectiveness of the Trichoderma fungus in a inoculation in a commercial vermicompost, in comparison with the fungus from a vermicompostand without inoculation. In a three-phase laboratory process (cultivation, isolation and inoculation of fungal strains), three different commercial vermicompost, prepared from coffee pulp, have beenwere used, coming from three different commercial vermicomposts. The results of experiments carried...

VILMA AMPARO HOLGUIN CASTAÑO; JAIRO MORA-DELGADO

2009-01-01

124

Control of Root-Knot Nematodes on Tomato by the Endoparasitic Fungus Meria coniospora  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The endoparasitic nematophagous fungus Meria coniospora reduced root-knot nematode galling on tomatoes in greenhouse pot trials. The fungus was introduced to pots by addition of conidia at several inoculum levels directly to the soil or addition of nematodes infected with M. coniospora to the soil; both methods reduced root galling by root-knot nematodes. These studies represent a part of a recently initiated effort to evaluate the potential of endoparasitic nematophagous fungi for biocontrol...

Jansson, Hans-bo?rje; Jeyaprakash, A.; Zuckerman, Bert M.

1985-01-01

125

The Hidden Habit of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana: First Demonstration of Vertical Plant Transmission  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip, obtained from a larva of the opium poppy stem gall wasp Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae), endophytically colonizes opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants and protects them against this pest. The goal of this study was to monitor the dynamics of endophytic colonization of opium poppy by B. bassiana after the fungus was applied to the seed and to ascertain whether the fungus is transmitted vertically via seeds. Using a species-specific ...

Quesada-moraga, Enrique; Lo?pez-di?az, Cristina; Landa, Blanca B.

2014-01-01

126

What's in a name? Aschersonia insperata: a new pleoanamorphic fungus with characteristics of Aschersonia and Hirsutella.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new anamorphic species from a Philippine tropical forest occurs as reddish-orange to orange, tuberculate stromata on unidentified homopteran larvae, and produces both Aschersonia and Hirsutella-like synanamorphs. A molecular phylogenetic analysis was conducted to determine the most appropriate generic placement for this fungus. Based on its phylogenetic relationships, a comparison of the complexity and persistence of each anamorph, and the speculated relevance of each synanamorph to survival, we describe the new fungus as Aschersonia insperata sp. nov. PMID:16389976

Liu, Miao; Rombach, Michiel C; Humber, Richard A; Hodge, Kathie T

2005-01-01

127

Medium Optimization for Exopolysaccharide Production in Liquid Culture of Endophytic Fungus Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12, an endophytic fungus from Dioscorea zingiberensis, is a high producer of spirobisnaphthalenes with various bioactivities. The exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by this fungus also shows excellent antioxidant activity. In this study, the experimental designs based on statistics were employed to evaluate and optimize the medium for EPS production in liquid culture of Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12. For increasing EPS yield, the concentrations of glucose, peptone, KH2PO4, MgSO4·7...

Peiqin Li; Liang Xu; Yan Mou; Tijiang Shan; Ziling Mao; Shiqiong Lu; Youliang Peng; Ligang Zhou

2012-01-01

128

An NADPH-dependent genetic switch regulates plant infection by the rice blast fungus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To cause rice blast disease, the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae breaches the tough outer cuticle of the rice leaf by using specialized infection structures called appressoria. These cells allow the fungus to invade the host plant and proliferate rapidly within leaf tissue. Here, we show that a unique NADPH-dependent genetic switch regulates plant infection in response to the changing nutritional and redox conditions encountered by the pathogen. The biosynthetic enzyme trehalose-6-phosphate synthas...

Wilson, Richard A.; Gibson, Robert P.; Quispe, Cristian F.; Littlechild, Jennifer A.; Talbot, Nicholas J.

2010-01-01

129

Genome Sequence of the Mucoromycotina Fungus Umbelopsis isabellina, an Effective Producer of Lipids  

Science.gov (United States)

Umbelopsis isabellina is a fungus in the subdivision Mucoromycotina, many members of which have been shown to be oleaginous and have become important organisms for producing oil because of their high level of intracellular lipid accumulation from various feedstocks. The genome sequence of U. isabellina NBRC 7884 was determined and annotated, and this information might provide insights into the oleaginous properties of this fungus. PMID:24578268

Takeda, Itaru; Tamano, Koichi; Yamane, Noriko; Ishii, Tomoko; Miura, Ai; Umemura, Myco; Terai, Goro; Baker, Scott E.; Machida, Masayuki

2014-01-01

130

Periorbital pain induced by the concha bullosa fungus ball: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Concha bullosa is characterized by pneumatization of the middle turbinate and is one of the most common variations of the sinonasal anatomy. It is most often asymptomatic. A fungus ball in the concha bullosa is extremely rare, with only two reported cases in the English literature. This article describes a patient with such a fungus ball in the concha bullosa that caused right periorbital pain, specifically in the right medial canthal area, similar to mucosal contact point headache. PMID:25068222

Kim, Kyung Soo; Kim, Hyun Jik

2014-01-01

131

Bioecology of the fungus Sphaeropsis sapinea dyko and Sutton - agents of pinus species decline  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sphaeropsis sapinea is a cosmopolitan fungus, identified in more than 50 countries of the world, on all continents, but it is primarily the species of warm lands. It is also a polyphagous fungus recorded from 11 coniferous genera. The most endangered and the most frequent host plants are Pinus species - it occurs on 48 pine species, among which the most susceptible are Pinus Radiata, P. nigra, P. sylvestris, P. ponderosa, P. resinosa, P. mugo, P. pinaster and P. elliotti. The greatest damage ...

Milijaševi? Tanja

2002-01-01

132

Bioecology of the fungus Sphaeropsis sapinea dyko & Sutton - agents of pinus species decline  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sphaeropsis sapinea is a cosmopolitan fungus, identified in more than 50 countries of the world, on all continents, but it is primarily the species of warm lands. It is also a polyphagous fungus recorded from 11 coniferous genera. The most endangered and the most frequent host plants are Pinus species - it occurs on 48 pine species, among which the most susceptible are Pinus Radiata, P. nigra, P. sylvestris, P. ponderosa, P. resinosa, P. mugo, P. pinaster and P. elliotti. The greatest damage ...

Milijaševi? Tanja

2002-01-01

133

Antifungal Depsidone Metabolites from Cordyceps dipterigena, an Endophytic Fungus Antagonistic to the Phytopathogen Gibberella fujikuroi  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Among thirty four endophytic fungal strains screened for in vitro antagonism, the endophytic fungus Cordyceps dipterigena was found to strongly inhibit mycelial growth of the plant pathogenic fungus Gibberella fujikuroi. Two new depsidone metabolites, cordycepsidone A (1) and cordycepsidone B (2), were isolated from the PDA culture extract of C. dipterigena and identified as being responsible for the antifungal activity. Elucidation of their chemical structures was carried out using 1D and 2D...

Varughese, Titto; Riosa, Nivia; Higginbotham, Sarah; Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Coley, Phyllis D.; Kursar, Thomas A.; Gerwick, William H.; Cubilla Rios, L.

2012-01-01

134

Insect symbioses: a case study of past, present, and future fungus-growing ant research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fungus-growing ants (Attini: Formicidae) engage in an obligate mutualism with fungi they cultivate for food. Although biologists have been fascinated with fungus-growing ants since the resurgence of natural history in the modern era, the early stages of research focused mainly on the foraging behavior of the leaf-cutters (the most derived attine lineage). Indeed, the discovery that the ants actually use leaf fragments to manure a fungus did not come until the 1800s. More recently, three additional microbial symbionts have been described, including specialized microfungal parasites of the ant's fungus garden, antibiotic-producing actinobacteria that help protect the fungus garden from the parasite, and a black yeast that parasitizes the ant-actinobacteria mutualism. The fungus-growing ant symbiosis serves as a particularly useful model system for studying insect-microbe symbioses, because, to date, it contains four well-characterized microbial symbionts, including mutualists and parasites that encompass micro-fungi, macro-fungi, yeasts, and bacteria. Here, we discuss approaches for studying insect-microbe symbioses, using the attine ant-microbial symbiosis as our framework. We draw attention to particular challenges in the field of symbiosis, including the establishment of symbiotic associations and symbiont function. Finally, we discuss future directions in insect-microbe research, with particular focus on applying recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies.

Caldera, Eric J; Poulsen, Michael

2009-01-01

135

Identification and evaluation of SERI-NF1 fungus for ethanol production from xylose fermentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work aimed at identifying the SERI-NF1 fungus isolated by Solar Energy Research Institute investigators, as well as evaluating the fungus as an ethanol producer from xylose fermentations. Microscopic and physiological observations led to the conclusion that the fungus is Paecilomyces varioti Bainier 1907. The fungus grows relatively fast in PDA plates, and its cultures release a light sweet aromatic odor. In liquid cultures the fungus forms round mycelial balls (1--12 mm in diameter). It showed to be thermophilic (grown well at 26--36/degree/C) and thermotolerant (exposed for two hours to 60/degree/C resumed its growth), and to prefer pH levels close to neutrality. Cultures of the fungus were tested (in 125 ml flasks) for fermenting xylose to ethanol. Its growth in the liquid cultures was slow and formed mycelial balls. The yield of ethanol production was low. The amount of fungal mass has to be more than a few mycelial balls per flask to get a reasonable yield of ethanol. 17 refs., 1 fig.

Antonopoulos, A.A.

1989-01-01

136

Studies on biosorption of nickel using immobilized fungus, Rhizomucor tauricus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rhizomucor tauricus, an industrial fungus, was immobilized in sodium alginate and used as adsorbent for the removal of nickel from aqueous solutions. The biosorption capacity of Ni(II was found to be 394 mg/g of immobilized biomass. It was observed that an increase in pH from 3 to 6 increased the percent adsorption, and an increase in liquid-to-solid ratio from 2 to 10 increased the metal uptake. The percent adsorption was increased when increasing the initial metal concentration from 25 to 100 mg/L. The equilibrium biosorption data was evaluated by Langmuir, Freundlich, and Langmuir-Freundlich (L-R isotherm models, and was best described by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. FTIR analysis revealed that –NH (bending, C–H (stretching, C=O (stretching, and –OH functional groups were mainly responsible for Ni(II biosorption. Thus, this study demonstrated that the immobilized Rhizomucor tauricus biomass could be used as an adsorbent for the treatment of Ni(II from aqueous solution.

K. Kishore Kumar

2012-11-01

137

Ethanol Production from Lignocellulose by the Dimorphic Fungus Mucor Indicus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ethanol production from dilute-acid lignocellulosic hydrolyzate by the dimorphic fungus Mucor indicus was investigated. A mixture of different forest wood chips dominated by spruce was hydrolyzed with 0.5 g/L sulfuric acid at 15 bar for 10 min, yielding different sugars including galactose, glucose, mannose, and xylose, but also different fermentation inhibitors such as acetic acid, furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), and phenolic compounds. We induced different morphological growth of M. indicus from purely filamentous, mostly filamentous, mostly yeast-like to purely yeast-like. The different forms were then used to ferment the hydrolyzate. They tolerated the presence of the inhibitors under anaerobic batch cultivation well and the ethanol yield was 430-440 g/kg consumed sugars. The ethanol productivity depended on the morphology. Judging from these results, we conclude that M. indicus, is useful for ethanol production from toxic substrates independent of its morphology. Keywords: bio-ethanol, lignocellulosic materials, dilute acid hydrolysis, Mucor indicus, dimorphic fungi

Lennartsson, P.R.; Taherzadeh, M.J. (School of Engineering, Univ. of Boraas, SE-50190, Boraas (Sweden)). e-mail: Patrik.Lennartsson@hb.se; Karimi, K. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan Univ. of Technology, 84156-83111, Isfahan (IR)); Edebo, L. (Dept. of Clinical Bacteriology, Univ. of Goeteborg, SE-41346, Goeteborg (Sweden))

2008-10-15

138

Inferring dispersal patterns of the generalist root fungus Armillaria mellea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigating the dispersal of the root-pathogenic fungus Armillaria mellea is necessary to understand its population biology. Such an investigation is complicated by both its subterranean habit and the persistence of genotypes over successive host generations. As such, host colonization by resident mycelia is thought to outcompete spore infections. We evaluated the contributions of mycelium and spores to host colonization by examining a site in which hosts pre-date A. mellea. Golden Gate Park (San Francisco, CA, USA) was established in 1872 primarily on sand dunes that supported no resident mycelia. Genotypes were identified by microsatellite markers and somatic incompatibility pairings. Spatial autocorrelation analyses of kinship coefficients were used to infer spore dispersal distance. The largest genotypes measured 322 and 343 m in length, and 61 of the 90 total genotypes were recovered from only one tree. The absence of multilocus linkage disequilibrium and the high proportion of unique genotypes suggest that spore dispersal is an important part of the ecology and establishment of A. mellea in this ornamental landscape. Spatial autocorrelations indicated a significant spatial population structure consistent with limited spore dispersal. This isolation-by-distance pattern suggests that most spores disperse over a few meters, which is consistent with recent, direct estimates based on spore trapping data. PMID:22211298

Travadon, Renaud; Smith, Matthew E; Fujiyoshi, Phillip; Douhan, Greg W; Rizzo, David M; Baumgartner, Kendra

2012-03-01

139

Pulmonary echinococcal cyst with a filamentous fungus co-infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungal infections are known to colonize the pre-existing lung cavities formed as a result of diseases like tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, bronchiectasis and cavitatary neoplasia, mostly encountered in immunocompromised patients. Pulmonary echinococcal cysts have been reported coexistent with cryptococcosis and other saprophytic mycosis, but the coexistence of aspergillosis and echinococcal cyst is extremely rare and occasionally been reported in English literature. Active invasion and proliferation of the fungi in the laminated ectocyst of the echinococcal cyst is very unusual. We report a case of 60 years old immunocompetent female, presented with cough, chest pain and shortness of breath. The chest X-ray showed a large thick walled cavity in the lower and mid zone of right lung with positive water lily sign. Surgical enucleation of the echinococcal cyst revealed aspergilloma involving the cavity with massive invasion of laminated ectocyst by filamentous fungus, morphologically resembling an Aspergillus species and was further treated with Itraconazole for 3 months. This unique coexistence of active pulmonary echinococcosis and aspergillosis is being reported because of its rarity and clinical importance for its management. PMID:24391230

Pandey, P; Dixit, A K; Tanwar, A; Mahajan, N C

2013-09-01

140

Identification of naphthalene metabolism by white rot fungus Pleurotus eryngii.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of biomaterials or microorganisms in PAHs degradation had presented an eye-catching performance. Pleurotus eryngii is a white rot fungus, which is easily isolated from the decayed woods in the tropical rain forest, used to determine the capability to utilize naphthalene, a two-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as source of carbon and energy. In the meantime, biotransformation of naphthalene to intermediates and other by-products during degradation was investigated in this study. Pleurotus eryngii had been incubated in liquid medium formulated with naphthalene for 14 days. The presence of metabolites of naphthalene suggests that Pleurotus eryngii begin the ring cleavage by dioxygenation on C1 and C4 position to give 1,4-naphthaquinone. 1,4-Naphthaquinone was further degraded to benzoic acid, where the proposed terepthalic acid is absent in the cultured extract. Further degradation of benzoic acid by Pleurotus eryngii shows the existence of catechol as a result of the combination of decarboxylation and hydroxylation process. Unfortunately, phthalic acid was not detected in this study. Several enzymes, including manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, laccase, 1,2-dioxygenase and 2,3-dioxygenase are enzymes responsible for naphthalene degradation. Reduction of naphthalene and the presence of metabolites in liquid medium showed the ability of Pleurotus eryngii to utilize naphthalene as carbon source instead of a limited glucose amount. PMID:23334282

Hadibarata, Tony; Teh, Zee Chuang; Rubiyatno; Zubir, Meor Mohd Fikri Ahmad; Khudhair, Ameer Badr; Yusoff, Abdull Rahim Mohd; Salim, Mohd Razman; Hidayat, Topik

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
141

Bioactive Spirobisnaphthalenes from the Endophytic Fungus Berkleasmium sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nine new spirobisnaphthalenes, palmarumycins B1-B9 (1-9), along with 13 known compounds (10-22), were isolated from cultures of the fungus Berkleasmium sp., an endophyte isolated from the medicinal plant Dioscorea zingiberensis C. H. Wright. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by analysis of the 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS spectra and by comparison with known compounds. Compounds 7-9 contain an uncommon 2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one unit. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activities against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus hemolyticus, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Pseudomonas lachrymans, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Xanthomonas vesicatoria and for their antifungal effects against the spore germination of Magnaporthe oryzae. Palmarumycin C8 (22) exhibited the best antibacterial and antifungal effects. In addition, diepoxin ? (11) and palmarumycin C8 (22) showed pronounced cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines (HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A 549, A 2780) with IC50 values of 1.28-5.83 ?M. PMID:25237727

Shan, Tijiang; Tian, Jin; Wang, Xiaohan; Mou, Yan; Mao, Ziling; Lai, Daowan; Dai, Jungui; Peng, Youliang; Zhou, Ligang; Wang, Mingan

2014-10-24

142

Metabolites from Microsphaeropsis olivacea, an endophytic fungus of Pilgerodendron uviferum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seven compounds belonging to different structural skeletons were isolated from Microsphaeropsis olivacea grown in liquid and solid media. The enalin derivative 7-hydroxy-2,4-dimethyl-3(2H)-benzofuranone is reported for the first time, while additional spectroscopic information is provided for the acetates of botrallin and ulocladol. The activity of the isolated compounds was assessed towards the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and their cytotoxicity against human lung fibroblasts. Graphislactone A and botrallin presented a moderate activity towards AChE, with IC50 of 8.1 and 6.1 microg/ml (27 and 19 microM, respectively). Under the same experimental conditions, the IC50 of the standard inhibitor galanthamine was 3 microg/ml. The cytotoxicity of both compounds was > 1000 and 330 microM, respectively. None of the compounds was promising as antibacterial or antifungic against phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria. Botrallin and graphislactone A were detected in the liquid potato-dextrose and yeast extract/malt extract/dextrose as well as on a solid substrate (rice). Butyrolactone I was obtained from the fungus growing on solid medium. PMID:15787237

Hormazabal, Emilio; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Astudillo, Luis; Rodríguez, Jaime; Theoduloz, Cristina

2005-01-01

143

Biosorption of cadmium using the fungus Aspergillus niger  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Sorption experiments using the Aspergillus niger fungus for cadmium removal were carried out to study the factors influencing and optimizing the biosorption of this metal. The effects of pH, time, biomass concentration, and initial concentration of the heavy metal on the rate of metallic biosorption [...] were examined. An experimental design was also used to determine the values of the under study variables that provided the greatest biosorption efficiency. A technique for biomass recovery was also developed with the objective of determining the capacity of the regenerated biomass to biosorb the metals in solution. This research proved that with a pH of 4.75, a biomass concentration of 0.7 g/L, and a heavy metal concentration varying between 5 and 10 mg/L a biosorption process of biosorption with Aspergillus niger could be successfully used for heavy metal removal from oil field water in the oil industry.

L.M., Barros Júnior; G.R., Macedo; M.M.L., Duarte; E.P., Silva; A.K.C.L., Lobato.

144

Eosinophils in fungus-associated allergic pulmonary disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Asthma is frequently caused and/or exacerbated by sensitization to fungal allergens, which are ubiquitous in many indoor and outdoor environments. Severe asthma with fungal sensitization is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and bronchial constriction in response to an inhaled allergen that is worsened by environmental exposure to airborne fungi and which leads to a disease course that is often very difficult to treat with standard asthma therapies. As a result of complex interactions among inflammatory cells, structural cells, and the intercellular matrix of the allergic lung, patients with sensitization to fungal allergens may experience a greater degree of airway wall remodeling and progressive, accumulated pulmonary dysfunction as part of the disease sequela. From their development in the bone marrow to their recruitment to the lung via chemokine and cytokine networks, eosinophils form an important component of the inflammatory milieu that is associated with this syndrome. Eosinophils are recognized as complex multi-factorial leukocytes with diverse functions in the context of allergic fungal asthma. In this review, we will consider recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that are associated with eosinophil development and migration to the allergic lung in response to fungal inhalation, along with the eosinophil’s function in the immune response to and the immunopathology attributed to fungus-associated allergic pulmonary disease.

SumitGhosh

2013-02-01

145

Ecological and Evolutionary Determinants of Bark Beetle —Fungus Symbioses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ectosymbioses among bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae and fungi (primarily ophiostomatoid Ascomycetes are widespread and diverse. Associations range from mutualistic to commensal, and from facultative to obligate. Some fungi are highly specific and associated only with a single beetle species, while others can be associated with many. In addition, most of these symbioses are multipartite, with the host beetle associated with two or more consistent partners. Mycangia, structures of the beetle integument that function in fungal transport, have evolved numerous times in the Scolytinae. The evolution of such complex, specialized structures indicates a high degree of mutual dependence among the beetles and their fungal partners. Unfortunately, the processes that shaped current day beetle-fungus symbioses remain poorly understood. Phylogeny, the degree and type of dependence on partners, mode of transmission of symbionts (vertical vs. horizontal, effects of the abiotic environment, and interactions among symbionts themselves or with other members of the biotic community, all play important roles in determining the composition, fidelity, and longevity of associations between beetles and their fungal associates. In this review, I provide an overview of these associations and discuss how evolution and ecological processes acted in concert to shape these fascinating, complex symbioses.

Diana L. Six

2012-03-01

146

Effects of ozone on the germination of fungus spores  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Detached spores of 14 fungi varied in germination after exposure on agar to 10 to 100 parts per hundred million (p.p.hm.) ozone for 1 to 6 h. Large pigmented spores of Chaetomium sp., Stemphylium sarcinaeforme, S. loti, and Alternaria sp. were insensitive to 100 p.p.hm. Spores of Trichoderma viride, Aspergillus terreus, A. niger, Penicillium egyptiacum, Botrytis allii, and Rhizopus stolonifer were reduced in germination primarily by 100 and 50 p.p.hm. for the longer exposures. Small hyaline spores of Fusarium oxysporum, Colletotrichum lagenarium, Verticillium albo-atrum, and V. dahliae were the most sensitive, as their germination was prevented or reduced by most exposures to 100 and 50 pphm and occasionally reduced by doses as low as 25 pphm for 4 and 6 h. Ten parts per hundred million for 6 h had little inhibitory effect, but extended exposures up to 28 h reduced germination of A. terreus, A. niger, and P. egyptiacum spores to below 50% of the controls. The lower doses of ozone sometimes stimulated spore germination. Fungus colonies maintained in an ozone atmosphere had abnormal growth characteristics. Ozone had little inhibitory effect on air-dried spores in a liquid medium. 37 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

Hibben, C.R.; Stotzky, G.

1969-01-01

147

Alachlor oxidation by the filamentous fungus Paecilomyces marquandii.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alachlor, a popular chloroacetanilide herbicide, can be a potential health risk factor. Soil microorganisms are primarily responsible for conversion and migration of alachlor in natural environment, but knowledge concerning alachlor biodegradation is not complete. Therefore, we studied the ability of Paecilomyces marquandii, soil fungus tolerant to heavy metals, to eliminate alachlor and proposed a new pathway of its transformation. After 7 days of incubation only 3.3% of alachlor was detected from an initial concentration 50 mg L(-1) and 20.1% from a concentration 100 mg L(-1). The qualitative IDA LC-MS analysis showed the presence of ten metabolites. All of them were dechlorinated mainly through oxidation, but also reductive dechlorination was observed. The main route of alachlor conversion progressed via N-acetyl oxidation resulting in the formation of mono-, di- and trihydroxylated byproducts. N-acetyl oxidation as a dominant route of alachlor metabolism by fungi has not been described so far. The toxicity of alachlor tested with Artemia franciscana did not increase after treatment with P. marquandii cultures. Paecilomyces marquandii strain seems to be an interesting model for the research on alachlor conversion by soil microscopic fungi, due to its dechlorination and hydroxylation ability as well as high tolerance to heavy metals. PMID:23974531

S?aba, Miros?awa; Szewczyk, Rafa?; Pi?tek, Milena Adela; D?ugo?ski, Jerzy

2013-10-15

148

Biosynthesis of vanillin by the fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus MIP 95001  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vanillin (a substance popularly known as vanilla flavor is one of the most widely used compounds, mainly by food and pharmaceutical industries. This substance can be obtained from the orchid Vanilla planifolia, but this is costly and time consuming. Thus, other methods for obtaining vanillin have been studied. Within this context, the aim of this work was to study the biosynthesis of vanillin by three strains of Pycnoporus sanguineus through the use of vanillic acid as a precursor. The strains were cultured in Petri dishes with a potato dextrose agar medium. Fragments of the media with the fungus were then inoculated in Erlenmeyer flasks with a liquid medium of potato broth and 0.3 g.L-1 of vanillic acid. The flasks remained in a shaker for eight days at 28°C and 120 rpm. Samples were withdrawn once a day (0.8 mL.day-1 for analysis of vanillin, glucose, total phenols, total proteins, and laccase. The results showed that only the MIP 95001 strain promoted the biosynthesis of vanillin. The highest concentration of vanillin was detected on the fourth day of cultivation (8.75 mg.dL-1. The results illustrate the ability to biosynthesize vanillin using Pycnoporus sanguineus (MIP 95001, which suggests a possible route for the biotechnological production of this flavor.

Sabrina Moro Villela Pacheco

2013-09-01

149

Fungi of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.)-Their Deteriorative Ability, Quality Stability and the Role of the Fungus-Eating Insects  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies on the deteriorative ability and quality stability of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) and the effect of the fungus-eating insects (Necrobia rufipes, Alphitobius diaperinus, Crematogaster sp. and Tenebrio molitor) were carried out in the Post Graduate Entomology and Plant Pathology Laboratories of the Department of Applied and Environmental Biology and also in Food Science Laboratory of the Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt. Results showed Aspergillus niger van Tieghem, Rhizopus stolonifer Lind and Penicillium italiucum Wehmer as the seed-borne fungi of coconut. Frequency of occurrence was 80% for Aspergillus niger and 100% for both Rhizopus stolonifer and Penicillium italicum. On storage stability, heat drying offered significantly higher protection to coconut copra. Percentage consumption of fungal hyphae by the fungus-eating insects varied with Tenebrio molitor consuming 100% of the three aforementioned fungi. A. diaperinius contributed up to 84.1% reduction of A. niger as against 80.3% reduction by Necrobia rufipes of A. niger, Crematogaster sp. offered the least reduction (64.2%).

Chuku, E. C.; Ogbalu, O. K.; Osakwe, J. A.

150

Fungi of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.-Their Deteriorative Ability, Quality Stability and the Role of the Fungus-Eating Insects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies on the deteriorative ability and quality stability of coconut (Cocos nucifera L. and the effect of the fungus-eating insects (Necrobia rufipes, Alphitobius diaperinus, Crematogaster sp. and Tenebrio molitor were carried out in the Post Graduate Entomology and Plant Pathology Laboratories of the Department of Applied and Environmental Biology and also in Food Science Laboratory of the Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt. Results showed Aspergillus niger van Tieghem, Rhizopus stolonifer Lind and Penicillium italiucum Wehmer as the seed-borne fungi of coconut. Frequency of occurrence was 80% for Aspergillus niger and 100% for both Rhizopus stolonifer and Penicillium italicum. On storage stability, heat drying offered significantly higher protection to coconut copra. Percentage consumption of fungal hyphae by the fungus-eating insects varied with Tenebrio molitor consuming 100% of the three aforementioned fungi. A. diaperinius contributed up to 84.1% reduction of A. niger as against 80.3% reduction by Necrobia rufipes of A. niger, Crematogaster sp. offered the least reduction (64.2%.

E.C. Chuku

2007-01-01

151

Analysis on blast fungus-responsive characters of a flavonoid phytoalexin sakuranetin; accumulation in infected rice leaves, antifungal activity and detoxification by fungus.  

Science.gov (United States)

To understand the role of the rice flavonoid phytoalexin (PA) sakuranetin for blast resistance, the fungus-responsive characteristics were studied. Young rice leaves in a resistant line exhibited hypersensitive reaction (HR) within 3 days post inoculation (dpi) of a spore suspension, and an increase in sakuranetin was detected at 3 dpi, increasing to 4-fold at 4 dpi. In the susceptible line, increased sakuranetin was detected at 4 dpi, but not at 3 dpi, by which a large fungus mass has accumulated without HR. Induced expression of a PA biosynthesis gene OsNOMT for naringenin 7-O-methyltransferase was found before accumulation of sakuranetin in both cultivars. The antifungal activity of sakuranetin was considerably higher than that of the major rice diterpenoid PA momilactone A in vitro and in vivo under similar experimental conditions. The decrease and detoxification of sakuranetin were detected in both solid and liquid mycelium cultures, and they took place slower than those of momilactone A. Estimated local concentration of sakuranetin at HR lesions was thought to be effective for fungus restriction, while that at enlarged lesions in susceptible rice was insufficient. These results indicate possible involvement of sakuranetin in blast resistance and its specific relation to blast fungus. PMID:25093982

Hasegawa, Morifumi; Mitsuhara, Ichiro; Seo, Shigemi; Okada, Kazunori; Yamane, Hisakazu; Iwai, Takayoshi; Ohashi, Yuko

2014-01-01

152

Bioremediation of BTEX hydrocarbons: Effect of soil inoculation with the toluenegrowing fungus Cladophialophora sp strain T1  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The biodegradation of a mixture of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, (BTEX) and methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was studied in soil microcosms. Soil inoculation with the toluene-metabolising fungusCladophialophora sp. strain T1 was evaluated in sterile and non-sterile soil. Induction of biodegradation capacity following BTEX addition was faster in the soil native microflora than in axenic soil cultures of the fungus. Toluene, ethylbenzenes, and the xylenes were metabolized by the fungus ...

Prenafeta, F. X.; Ballerstedt, H.; Gerritse, J.; Grotenhuis, J. T. C.

2004-01-01

153

Antiviral activity of Inonotus obliquus fungus extract towards infection caused by hepatitis C virus in cell cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fractions of Inonotus obliquus fungus water extract exhibited a virucidal effect towards hepatitis C virus: it 100-fold reduced its infective properties within 10 min. The antiviral effects of fungus extracts manifested after preventive (24 h before infection) and therapeutic use (during infection of porcine embryo kidney cells). Moreover, the data indicate that the birch fungus extracts inhibit production of infective virus by porcine embryo kidney cells. PMID:22462058

Shibnev, V A; Mishin, D V; Garaev, T M; Finogenova, N P; Botikov, A G; Deryabin, P G

2011-09-01

154

Exploring the potential for actinobacteria as defensive symbionts in fungus-growing termites  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play a role as defensive symbionts against Pseudoxylaria in fungus-growing termites. We sampled for Actinobacteria from 30 fungus-growing termite colonies, spanning the three main termite genera and two geographically distant sites. Our isolations yielded 360 Actinobacteria, from which we selected subsets for morphological (288 isolates, grouped in 44 morphotypes) and for 16S rRNA (35 isolates, spanning the majority of morphotypes) characterisation. Actinobacteria were found throughout all sampled nests and colony parts and, phylogenetically, they are interspersed with Actinobacteria from origins other than fungus-growing termites, indicating lack of specificity. Antibiotic-activity screening of 288 isolates against thefungal cultivar and competitor revealed that most of the Actinobacteria-produced molecules with antifungal activity. A more detailed bioassay on 53 isolates, to test the specificity of antibiotics, showed that many Actinobacteria inhibit both Pseudoxylaria and Termitomyces, and that the cultivar fungus generally is more susceptible to inhibition than the competitor. This suggests that either defensive symbionts are not present in the system or that they, if present, represent a subset of the community isolated. If so, the antibiotics must be used in a targeted fashion, being applied to specific areas by the termites. We describe the first discovery of an assembly of antibiotic-producing Actinobacteria occurring in fungus-growing termite nests. However, due to the diversity found, and the lack of both phylogenetic and bioactivity Electronic supplementary material

Visser, Anna A.; Nobre, Tânia

2012-01-01

155

Extraction of DNA from plant and fungus tissues in situ  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background When samples are collected in the field and transported to the lab, degradation of the nucleic acids contained in the samples is frequently observed. Immediate extraction and precipitation of the nucleic acids reduces degradation to a minimum, thus preserving accurate sequence information. An extraction method to obtain high quality DNA in field studies is described. Findings DNA extracted immediately after sampling was compared to DNA extracted after allowing the sampled tissues to air dry at 21°C for 48 or 72 hours. While DNA extracted from fresh tissues exhibited little degradation, DNA extracted from all tissues exposed to 21°C air for 48 or 72 hours exhibited varying degrees of degradation. Yield was higher for extractions from fresh tissues in most cases. Four microcentrifuges were compared for DNA yield: one standard electric laboratory microcentrifuge (max rcf?=?16,000×g, two battery-operated microcentrifuges (max rcf?=?5,000 and 3,000 ×g, and one manually-operated microcentrifuge (max rcf?=?120×g. Yields for all centrifuges were similar. DNA extracted under simulated field conditions was similar in yield and quality to DNA extracted in the laboratory using the same equipment. Conclusions This CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide DNA extraction method employs battery-operated and manually-operated equipment to isolate high quality DNA in the field. The method was tested on plant and fungus tissues, and may be adapted for other types of organisms. The method produced high quality DNA in laboratory tests and under simulated field conditions. The field extraction method should prove useful for working in remote sites, where ice, dry ice, and liquid nitrogen are unavailable; where degradation is likely to occur due to the long distances between the sample site and the laboratory; and in instances where other DNA preservation and transportation methods have been unsuccessful. It may be possible to adapt this method for genomic, metagenomic, transcriptomic and metabolomic projects using samples collected in situ.

Abu Almakarem Amal S

2012-06-01

156

Pathogenic Fungus Microsporum canis Activates the NLRP3 Inflammasome  

Science.gov (United States)

Microsporum canis is a pathogenic fungus with worldwide distribution that causes tinea capitis in animals and humans. M. canis also causes invasive infection in immunocompromised patients. To defy pathogenic fungal infection, the host innate immune system is the first line of defense. As an important arm of innate immunity, the inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes that control the activation of caspase-1, which cleaves proinflammatory cytokine pro-interleukin-1? (IL-1?) into its mature form. To determine whether the inflammasome is involved in the host defense against M. canis infection, we challenged human monocytic THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells with a clinical strain of M. canis isolated from patients with tinea capitis. We found that M. canis infection triggered rapid secretion of IL-1? from both THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells. Moreover, by using gene-specific shRNA and competitive inhibitors, we determined that M. canis-induced IL-1? secretion was dependent on NLRP3. The pathways proposed for NLRP3 inflammasome activation, namely, cathepsin B activity, K+ efflux, and reactive oxygen species production, were all required for the inflammasome activation triggered by M. canis. Meanwhile, Syk, Dectin-1, and Card9 were found to be involved in M. canis-induced IL-1? secretion via regulation of pro-IL-1? transcription. More importantly, our data revealed that M. canis-induced production of IL-1? was dependent on the NLRP3 inflammasome in vivo. Together, this study unveils that the NLRP3 inflammasome exerts a critical role in host innate immune responses against M. canis infection, and our data suggest that diseases that result from M. canis infection might be controlled by regulating the activation of inflammasomes. PMID:24478101

Mao, Liming; Zhang, Liping; Li, Hua; Chen, Wei; Wang, Hongbin; Wu, Shuxian; Guo, Caiqin; Lu, Ailing; Yang, Guiwen; An, Liguo

2014-01-01

157

Pathogenic fungus Microsporum canis activates the NLRP3 inflammasome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microsporum canis is a pathogenic fungus with worldwide distribution that causes tinea capitis in animals and humans. M. canis also causes invasive infection in immunocompromised patients. To defy pathogenic fungal infection, the host innate immune system is the first line of defense. As an important arm of innate immunity, the inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes that control the activation of caspase-1, which cleaves proinflammatory cytokine pro-interleukin-1? (IL-1?) into its mature form. To determine whether the inflammasome is involved in the host defense against M. canis infection, we challenged human monocytic THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells with a clinical strain of M. canis isolated from patients with tinea capitis. We found that M. canis infection triggered rapid secretion of IL-1? from both THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells. Moreover, by using gene-specific shRNA and competitive inhibitors, we determined that M. canis-induced IL-1? secretion was dependent on NLRP3. The pathways proposed for NLRP3 inflammasome activation, namely, cathepsin B activity, K(+) efflux, and reactive oxygen species production, were all required for the inflammasome activation triggered by M. canis. Meanwhile, Syk, Dectin-1, and Card9 were found to be involved in M. canis-induced IL-1? secretion via regulation of pro-IL-1? transcription. More importantly, our data revealed that M. canis-induced production of IL-1? was dependent on the NLRP3 inflammasome in vivo. Together, this study unveils that the NLRP3 inflammasome exerts a critical role in host innate immune responses against M. canis infection, and our data suggest that diseases that result from M. canis infection might be controlled by regulating the activation of inflammasomes. PMID:24478101

Mao, Liming; Zhang, Liping; Li, Hua; Chen, Wei; Wang, Hongbin; Wu, Shuxian; Guo, Caiqin; Lu, Ailing; Yang, Guiwen; An, Liguo; Abliz, Paride; Meng, Guangxun

2014-02-01

158

Distribution pattern and maintenance of ectomycorrhizal fungus diversity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ectomycorrhiza (ECM are symbionts formed between soil fungi and plant root systems, in which the fungus exchanges soil-derived nutrients for carbohydrates obtained from the host plant. As an important component of terrestrial ecosystems, ECM fungi can play an essential role in biodiversity maintenance and plant community succession. Understanding the distribution pattern and maintenance of ECM fungal diversity is therefore critical to the study of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. An analysis of results of recent research indicates that ECM fungal diversity increases with increasing latitude, i.e. from tropical to subtropical and temperate regions. The role of dispersal in ECM fungal distribution is dependent on spatial scale. Thus, it has been found to be weak across global and local scales, but strong at regional and small scales. At the local scale, its influence has also been shown to be host-dominant dependent; thus, it is important in host non-dominant ecosystems, but not in host dominant ecosystems. Selection by plant, animal, microbe and abiotic factors can also affect the distribution pattern of ECM fungi, according to studies of temperate ecosystems. In contrast, studies of tropical ecosystems indicate that selection on ECM fungal distribution can be either strong or weak. ECM fungal diversity is also influenced by plant diversity and productivity. The plant diversity hypothesis at host genus-level fits well with ECM fungal diversity in temperate, subtropical and tropical forest ecosystems; in contrast, the productivity diversity hypothesis is only supported by some studies in temperate forest ecosystems. We propose that future studies should focus on the distribution pattern, maintenance mechanism and ecosystem function of ECM fungal diversity at a global scale, taking account ofscenarios of global climate change.

Cheng Gao

2013-07-01

159

Sialylglycoconjugates and sialyltransferase activity in the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungal pathogen associated with systemic mycoses in up to 10% of AIDS patients. C. neoformans yeasts express sialic acids on the cell wall, where they play an anti-phagocytic role, and may represent a virulence factor at the initial phase of infection. Since the nature of the sialic acid-carrying components is undefined in C. neoformans, our aim in the present work was to identify sialylated molecules in this fungus and study the sialylation process. C. neoformans yeast forms were cultivated in a chemically defined medium free of sialic acids, to search for autologous sialylglycoconjugates. Sialylated glycolipids were not detected. Two glycoproteins with molecular masses of 38 and 67 kDa were recognized by Sambucus nigra agglutinin, an alpha2,6-sialic acid-specific lectin. The 67 kDa glycoprotein also interacted with Influenza C virus, but not with Limax flavus agglutinin, suggesting the presence of the 9-O-acetylated sialic acid derivative as a constituent of the oligosaccharide chains. A partially purified protein fraction from cryptococcal yeast forms was able to transfer sialic acid from CMP-Neu5Ac to both N-(acetyl-1-(14)C)-lactosamine and asialofetuin. Additional evidence for a sialyltransferase in C. neoformans was obtained through the reactivity of fungal proteins with rabbit anti-rat alpha2,6 sialyltransferase polyclonal antibody. Our results indicate that sialic acids in C. neoformans are linked to glycoproteins, which are sialylated by the action of a fungal sialyltransferase. This is the first demonstration of this biosynthetic step in pathogenic fungi. PMID:12815227

Rodrigues, Marcio L; Dobroff, Andrey S S; Couceiro, José Nelson dos S S; Alviano, Celuta S; Schauer, Roland; Travassos, Luiz R

2002-03-01

160

Co-evolution of enzyme function in the attine ant-fungus symbiosis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Introduction: Fungus-growing ants cultivate specialized fungi in the tribe Leucocoprineae (Lepiotaceae: Basidiomycota) inside their nests. The conspicuous leaf-cutting ants in the genus Atta build huge nests displacing several cubic meters of soil, whereas lower attine genera such as Cyphomyrmex have small nests with a fungus garden the size of a table-tennis ball. Only the leaf-cutting ants are specialized on using fresh leaves as substrate for their fungus gardens, whereas the more basal attine genera use substrates such as dry plant material (leaf litter and small twigs) and also insect feces and insect carcasses. This diverse array of fungal substrates across the attine lineage implies that the symbiotic fungus needs different enzymes to break down the plant material that the ants provide or different efficiencies of enzyme function. Methods: (1.) We made a literature survey of substrate use in all extant fungus-growing ant genera to know the range of substrates used for any particular ant genus. (2.) Field assays of enzyme activity in fungus gardens of five candidate enzymes (Amylase, proteinase, pectinase, cellulose and xylanase) to indicate differences in enzyme activity between ant groups. (3.) Phylogenetic comparison and divergence estimates of nuclear ribosomal sequences and sequences coding for candidate enzyme genes (work in progress). Results: Enzyme activity assays showed significant differences in enzyme activity across major fungus-growing ant groups. Notably the fresh leaf feeding species had a higher activity of amylase. The group of higher attines had a higher activity of proteinase and pectinase. In contrast the lower genera had a non-significant trend towards a higher activity of xylanase compared to the higher attine genera. Cellulase activity was uniform across all tested genera. Discussion: In this study we document that there are differences in fungus garden enzyme activity between the different ant genera. These different enzyme activity profiles can be partially explained by the difference in substrates brought back by the ants to manure the fungus garden. This system can be viewed as ant induced crop optimization similar to human agricultural practices.

de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; SchiØtt, Morten

 
 
 
 
161

The hidden habit of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana: first demonstration of vertical plant transmission.  

Science.gov (United States)

Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip, obtained from a larva of the opium poppy stem gall wasp Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae), endophytically colonizes opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants and protects them against this pest. The goal of this study was to monitor the dynamics of endophytic colonization of opium poppy by B. bassiana after the fungus was applied to the seed and to ascertain whether the fungus is transmitted vertically via seeds. Using a species-specific nested PCR protocol and DNA extracted from surface-sterilised leaf pieces or seeds of B. bassiana-inoculated opium poppy plants, the fungus was detected within the plant beginning at the growth stage of rosette building and them throughout the entire plant growth cycle (about 120-140 days after sowing). The fungus was also detected in seeds from 50% of the capsules sampled. Seeds that showed positive amplification for B. bassiana were planted in sterile soil and the endophyte was again detected in more than 42% of the plants sampled during all plant growth stages. Beauveria bassiana was transmitted to seeds in 25% of the plants from the second generation that formed a mature capsule. These results demonstrate for the first time the vertical transmission of an entomopathogenic fungus from endophytically colonised maternal plants. This information is crucial to better understand the ecological role of entomopathogenic fungi as plant endophytes and may allow development of a sustainable and cost effective strategy for I. luteipes management in P. somniferum. PMID:24551242

Quesada-Moraga, Enrique; López-Díaz, Cristina; Landa, Blanca Beatriz

2014-01-01

162

Biodegradation of crystal violet by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biodegradation of crystal violet (N,N,N',N',N'',N''-hexamethylpararosaniline) in ligninolytic (nitrogen-limited) cultures of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance of crystal violet and by the identification of three metabolites (N,N,N',N',N''-pentamethylpararosaniline, N,N,N',N''-tetramethylpararosaniline, and N,N',N''-trimethylpararosaniline) formed by sequential N-demethylation of the parent compound. Metabolite formation also occurred when crystal violet was incubated with the extracellular fluid obtained from ligninolytic cultures of this fungus, provided that an H2O2-generating system was supplied. This, as well as the fact that a purified ligninase catalyzed N-demethylation of crystal violet, demonstrated that biodegradation of crystal violet by this fungus is dependent, at least in part, upon its lignin-degrading system. In addition to crystal violet, six other triphenylmethane dyes (pararosaniline, cresol red, bromphenol blue, ethyl violet, malachite green, and brilliant green) were shown to be degraded by the lignin-degrading system of this fungus. An unexpected result was the finding that substantial degradation of crystal violet also occurred in nonligninolytic (nitrogen-sufficient) cultures of P. chrysosporium, suggesting that in addition to the lignin-degrading system, another mechanism exists in this fungus which is also able to degrade crystal violet. PMID:3389809

Bumpus, J A; Brock, B J

1988-05-01

163

The fungus gardens of leaf-cutter ants undergo a distinct physiological transition during biomass degradation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leaf-cutter ants are dominant herbivores in ecosystems throughout the Neotropics that feed on fungus gardens cultivated on fresh foliar biomass. Although recent investigations have shed light on how plant biomass is degraded in fungus gardens, the cycling of nutrients that takes place in these specialized microbial ecosystems is still not well understood. Here, using metabolomic and metaproteomic techniques, we examine the dynamics of nutrient turnover in these gardens. Our results reveal that numerous free amino acids and sugars are depleted throughout the process of biomass degradation, indicating that easily accessible nutrients from plant material are readily consumed by microbes in these ecosystems. Accumulation of cellobiose and lignin derivatives near the end of the degradation process is consistent with previous characterization of lignocellulases produced by the fungal cultivar of the ants. Our results also suggest that ureides may be an important source of nitrogen in fungus gardens, especially during nitrogen-limiting conditions. No free arginine was detected in our metabolomic experiments despite evidence that the host ants cannot produce this amino acid, suggesting that biosynthesis of this metabolite may be tightly regulated in fungus gardens. These results provide new insights into microbial community-level processes that underlie this important ant-fungus symbiosis. PMID:24992538

Huang, Eric L; Aylward, Frank O; Kim, Young-Mo; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M; Nicora, Carrie D; Hu, Zeping; Metz, Thomas O; Lipton, Mary S; Smith, Richard D; Currie, Cameron R; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E

2014-08-01

164

Parasitic and Saprophytic Abilities of the Nematode-Attacking Fungus Hirsutella rhossiliensis  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of Hirsutella rhossiliensis to colonize various substrates in sterile and nonsterile soil was measured. Hirsutella rhossiliensis was recovered from 67% and 77% of living, inoculated Criconemella xenoplax incubated in sterile and nonsterile soil, respectively. In contrast, the fungus was recovered from 100% and 18% of heat-killed, inoculated nematodes incubated on sterile and nonsterile soil, respectively. Hirsutella rhossiliensis was readily recovered from inoculated, autoclaved wheat seeds incubated in sterile soil but not from seeds incubated in nonsterile soil. Autoclaved peach roots were a poor substrate for the fungus. Germination of H. rhossiliensis spores incubated on agar disks above soil was about 90% regardless of soil treatment. However, germ tube length was greatly suppressed by nonsterile soil. Our results suggest that H. rhossiliensis is a better parasite than saprophyte and that the fungus may be specialized for attacking nematodes. PMID:19294104

Jaffee, B. A.; Zehr, E. I.

1985-01-01

165

An investigation on tolerance and accumulation of a facultative marine fungus Aspergillus flavus to pentavalent arsenic  

Science.gov (United States)

Tolerance of a facultative marine fungus Aspergillus flavus towards As (V) was tested. Luxuriant growth of the test isolate was observed in culture media with As (V) concentrations of 25 mg L-1 and 50 mg L-1, indicating its tolerance to the metal. Accumulation rate of arsenic was always higher when exposed to As (V) at 50 mg L-1 than at 25 mg L-1. The study reveals Aspergillus flavus as a promising candidate for environmental bioremediation. Arsenic contents (mg g-1) in the fungus when exposed to 50 mg L-1 As (V) were measured as 11.1773, 4.0983, and 8.0000 mg g-1 on day 3, 6 and 9, respectively. The highest content was observed initially, i.e. on day 3, followed by a decline and a rise again. These results provide baseline information for further explorations regarding the exploitation of the fungus for arsenic removal.

Vala, Anjana K.; Davariya, Vipul; Upadhyay, R. V.

2010-03-01

166

Taxol production by Pestalotiopsis terminaliae, an endophytic fungus of Terminalia arjuna (arjun tree).  

Science.gov (United States)

Terminalia arjuna is a medicinal plant (the arjun tree) that possesses anticancer activity. An endophytic fungus, Pestalotiopsis terminaliae, was isolated from the fresh healthy leaves of this tree and was screened for the production of taxol, an anticancer drug, in artificial culture medium. The taxol produced was analysed chromatographically and spectrometrically. The amount of taxol produced by the fungus was found to be 211.1 microg/litre. This was sufficient for the fungus to be considered as a potential source material for improvement, by engineering, the production of taxol. The fungal taxol extracted from an organic extract of the fungal culture had strong cytotoxic activity towards BT220, H116, Int 407, HL 251 and HLK 210 human cancer cells in vitro when tested using an apoptosis assay. PMID:18254723

Gangadevi, Venkatraman; Muthumary, Johnpaul

2009-01-01

167

Transgenic assessment of CFP-mediated cercosporin export and resistance in a cercosporin-sensitive fungus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cercosporin is a toxic polyketide produced by many phytopathogenic members of the fungal genus Cercospora. Cercospora species, themselves, exhibit the highest level of self-resistance to this almost universally toxic photosensitizer. Although the mechanism of cercosporin self-resistance is multi-faceted, partial resistance does appear to be provided by the encoded product of CFP ( cercosporin facilitator protein), a gene recently isolated from the pathogen of soybean, C. kikuchii. CFP has significant similarity to the major facilitator superfamily of integral membrane transport proteins. We expressed CFP in the cercosporin non-producing, cercosporin-sensitive fungus, Cochliobolus heterostrophus, in order to assess the transport activity of CFP and the contribution of CFP to cercosporin resistance in a fungal species free of endogenous toxin production. Expression of the CFP transgene in this fungus results in increased resistance to cercosporin due, apparently, to its export out of the fungus. PMID:12073097

Upchurch, Robert G; Rose, Mark S; Eweida, Mohamed; Callahan, Terrence M

2002-04-01

168

Characterisation and bioactivity of oosporein produced by endophytic fungus Cochliobolus kusanoi isolated from Nerium oleander L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioactive compounds comprising secondary metabolites produced by endophytic fungi have wide applications in pharmacology and agriculture. Isolation, characterisation and evaluation of biological activities of secondary metabolites were carried out from Cochliobolus kusanoi an endophytic fungus of Nerium oleander L. The fungus was identified based on 18S rDNA sequence analysis. There are no reports available on the compounds of C.kusanoi hence, antimicrobial metabolite produced by this fungus was extracted and purified by fractionation using hexane, diethyl ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Out of all the solvent fractions, the methanol fraction exhibited better antimicrobial activity which was further purified and characterised as oosporein. Oosporein from C.kusanoi exhibited broad spectrum in vitro antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. The characterisation and antioxidant activity of oosporein from C. kusanoi are reported for the first time. PMID:24934634

Alurappa, Ramesha; Bojegowda, Madhusudhan Reddy Muthukurpalya; Kumar, Vijith; Mallesh, Naveen Kumar; Chowdappa, Srinivas

2014-12-01

169

Antifungal Depsidone Metabolites from Cordyceps dipterigena, an Endophytic Fungus Antagonistic to the Phytopathogen Gibberella fujikuroi.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among thirty four endophytic fungal strains screened for in vitro antagonism, the endophytic fungus Cordyceps dipterigena was found to strongly inhibit mycelial growth of the plant pathogenic fungus Gibberella fujikuroi. Two new depsidone metabolites, cordycepsidone A (1) and cordycepsidone B (2), were isolated from the PDA culture extract of C. dipterigena and identified as being responsible for the antifungal activity. Elucidation of their chemical structures was carried out using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy in combination with IR and MS spectroscopic data. Cordycepsidone A displayed strong and dose-dependent antifungal activity against the plant pathogenic fungus Gibberella fujikuroi. The isolates were inactive in bioassays for malaria (Plasmodium falciparum), leishmaniasis (Leishmania donovani), Chagas's disease (Trypanosoma cruzi), and cytotoxicity at 10 ?g/mL. The compounds were also found to be inactive against several bacterial strains at 50 ?g/mL. PMID:22707798

Varughese, Titto; Riosa, Nivia; Higginbotham, Sarah; Arnold, A Elizabeth; Coley, Phyllis D; Kursar, Thomas A; Gerwick, William H; Cubilla Rios, L

2012-03-28

170

Transcriptional responses in Honey Bee larvae infected with chalkbrood fungus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Diseases and other stress factors working synergistically weaken honey bee health and may play a major role in the losses of bee populations in recent years. Among a large number of bee diseases, chalkbrood has been on the rise. We present here the experimental identification of honey bee genes that are differentially expressed in response to infection of honey bee larvae with the chalkbrood fungus, Ascosphaera apis. Results We used cDNA-AFLP ®Technology to profile transcripts in infected and uninfected bee larvae. From 64 primer combinations, over 7,400 transcriptionally-derived fragments were obtained A total of 98 reproducible polymorphic cDNA-AFLP fragments were excised and sequenced, followed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR analysis of these and additional samples. We have identified a number of differentially-regulated transcripts that are implicated in general mechanisms of stress adaptation, including energy metabolism and protein transport. One of the most interesting differentially-regulated transcripts is for a chitinase-like enzyme that may be linked to anti-fungal activities in the honey bee larvae, similarly to gut and fat-body specific chitinases found in mosquitoes and the red flour beetle. Surprisingly, we did not find many components of the well-characterized NF-?B intracellular signaling pathways to be differentially-regulated using the cDNA-AFLP approach. Therefore, utilizing qRT-PCR, we probed some of the immune related genes to determine whether the lack of up-regulation of their transcripts in our analysis can be attributed to lack of immune activation or to limitations of the cDNA-AFLP approach. Conclusions Using a combination of cDNA-AFLP and qRT-PCR analyses, we were able to determine several key transcriptional events that constitute the overall effort in the honey bee larvae to fight natural fungal infection. Honey bee transcripts identified in this study are involved in critical functions related to transcriptional regulation, apoptotic degradation of ubiquitinated proteins, nutritional regulation, and RNA processing. We found that immune regulation of the anti-fungal responses in honey bee involves highly coordinated activation of both NF-?B signaling pathways, leading to production of anti-microbial peptides. Significantly, activation of immune responses in the infected bee larvae was associated with down-regulation of major storage proteins, leading to depletion of nutritional resources.

Murray Keith D

2010-06-01

171

Levels of specificity of Xylaria species associated with fungus-growing termites: a phylogenetic approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fungus-growing termites live in obligate mutualistic symbiosis with species of the basidiomycete genus Termitomyces, which are cultivated on a substrate of dead plant material. When the termite colony dies, or when nest material is incubated without termites in the laboratory, fruiting bodies of the ascomycete genus Xylaria appear and rapidly cover the fungus garden. This raises the question whether certain Xylaria species are specialised in occupying termite nests or whether they are just occasional visitors. We tested Xylaria specificity at four levels: (1) fungus-growing termites, (2) termite genera, (3) termite species, and (4) colonies. In South Africa, 108 colonies of eight termite species from three termite genera were sampled for Xylaria. Xylaria was isolated from 69% of the sampled nests and from 57% of the incubated fungus comb samples, confirming high prevalence. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS region revealed 16 operational taxonomic units of Xylaria, indicating high levels of Xylaria species richness. Not much of this variation was explained by termite genus, species, or colony; thus, at level 2-4 the specificity is low. Analysis of the large subunit rDNA region, showed that all termite-associated Xylaria belong to a single clade, together with only three of the 26 non-termite-associated strains. Termite-associated Xylaria thus show specificity for fungus-growing termites (level 1). We did not find evidence for geographic or temporal structuring in these Xylaria phylogenies. Based on our results, we conclude that termite-associated Xylaria are specific for fungus-growing termites, without having specificity for lower taxonomic levels.

Visser, Andre; Ros, V I D

2009-01-01

172

COMPARISON THE DYE REMOVAL ACTIVITY OF SYSTEMS CONTAINED SURFACTANTS AND FUNGUS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Dye decolorization ability of the systems contained only R. arrhizus, only cationic surfactants and both of them were studied. The optimal pH (3-7), initial dye (50-800 mg/L) and surfactant concentration (0.5 and 1 mM) for Alkythrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) was determined in three days incubatio [...] n period and the difference of Remazol Blue dye removal activity between Dodecylthrimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB), Hegzadecylthrimethyl ammonium bromide (HTAB) and CTAB was identified. In the surfactant effect experiments it was observed that maximum dye removal activity occured in the system contained both fungus and 0.5 mM CTAB as, 77.52%, while the dye removal activity of only fungus and only CTAB were 21.2% and 71.2% in 100 mg/L dye concentration. The optimal conditions for dye removal were pH 5, low initial dye concentratios such as 100 mg/L and 1 mM CTAB concentration at the end of three days incubation period and the 95.4% dye removed by the sytem contained both fungus and CTAB. The dye removal activiy of the system contained fungus and cationic surfactants (DTAB, CTAB and HTAB) was compaired in the same optimal conditions and observed that maximum dye removal occured in the system that contained fungus and 1 mM HTAB, as 98.4%. The systems that contained surfactant and fungus are new approcahes for effective dye removal from textile effluents. According to this study, the CMC of surfactant is an important issue to increase dye removal efficiency.

ÜLKÜYE, DUDU GÜL; GÖNÜL, DÖNMEZ.

1170-11-01

173

Identifying the core microbial community in the gut of fungus-growing termites  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Gut microbes play a crucial role in decomposing lignocellulose to fuel termite societies, with protists in the lower termites and prokaryotes in the higher termites providing these services. However, a single basal subfamily of the higher termites, the Macrotermitinae, also domesticated a plant biomass-degrading fungus (Termitomyces), and how this symbiont acquisition has affected the fungus-growing termite gut microbiota has remained unclear. The objective of our study was to compare the intestinal bacterial communities of five genera (nine species) of fungus-growing termites to establish whether or not an ancestral core microbiota has been maintained and characterizes extant lineages. Using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we show that gut communities have representatives of 26 bacterial phyla and are dominated by Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes, Proteobacteria, and Synergistetes. A set of 42 genus-level taxa was present in all termite species and accounted for 56-68% of the species-specificreads. Gut communities of termites from the same genus were more similar than distantly related species, suggesting that phylogenetic ancestry matters, possibly in connection with specific termite genus-level ecological niches. Finally, we show that gut communities of fungus-growing termites are similar to cockroaches, both at the bacterial phylum level and in a comparison of the core Macrotermitinae taxa abundances with representative cockroach, lower termite, and higher non-fungus-growing termites. These results suggest that the obligate association with Termitomyces has forced the bacterial gut communities of the fungus-growing termites towards a relatively uniform composition with higher similarity to their omnivorous relatives than to more closely related termites. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Otani, Saria; Mikaelyan, Aram

2014-01-01

174

Draft Genome Sequence of the Plant-Pathogenic Soil Fungus Rhizoctonia solani Anastomosis Group 3 Strain Rhs1AP.  

Science.gov (United States)

The soil fungus Rhizoctonia solani is a pathogen of agricultural crops. Here, we report on the 51,705,945 bp draft consensus genome sequence of R. solani strain Rhs1AP. A comprehensive understanding of the heterokaryotic genome complexity and organization of R. solani may provide insight into the plant disease ecology and adaptive behavior of the fungus. PMID:25359908

Cubeta, Marc A; Thomas, Elizabeth; Dean, Ralph A; Jabaji, Suha; Neate, Stephen M; Tavantzis, Stellos; Toda, Takeshi; Vilgalys, Rytas; Bharathan, Narayanaswamy; Fedorova-Abrams, Natalie; Pakala, Suman B; Pakala, Suchitra M; Zafar, Nikhat; Joardar, Vinita; Losada, Liliana; Nierman, William C

2014-01-01

175

Gamma radiation effects on the frequency of toxigenic fungus on sene (Cassia angustifolia) and green tea (Camelia sinensis) samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The levels of contamination and gamma radiation effects were analyzed in the reduction of toxigenic filamentous fungus in two types of medicinal plants. Aspergillus and Penicillium were the predominant genders and 73,80% of the samples showed high levels of fungus contamination

176

Intracellular pH homeostasis in the filamentous fungus Aspergillys niger  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Intracellular pH homeostasis in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger was measured in real time by 31P NMR during perfusion in the NMR tube of fungal biomass immobilized in Ca2 -alginate beads. The fungus maintained constant cytoplasmic pH (pHcyt) and vacuolar pH (pHvac) values of 7.6 and 6.2, respectively, when the extracellular pH (pHex) was varied between 1.5 and 7.0 in the presence of citrate. Intracellular metabolism did not collapse until a pH over the cytoplasmic membrane of 6.6-6.7...

Hesse, S. J. A.; Ruijter, G. J. G.; Dijkema, C.; Visser, J.

2002-01-01

177

The research of using Co-60 ? ray to sterilize different mediums for edible fungus  

Science.gov (United States)

The present experiment has been carried out by using different dosage of Co—60 ? ray for radiation sterilization of five kinds of cultural materials of edible fungus, The results indicated that sterilization dosage of sawdust is 22 kGy. that of cotton—seed shell and the rest are 26 kGy. We conclude that using Co-60 ? ray to sterilize the cultura 1 materials of edible fungus is a secure and saving labor and energy new method which could sterilize thoroughly.

Guozhu, Li; Zhenqian, Guan; Hengshou, Zhao

1993-10-01

178

A virus in a fungus in a plant: Three-way symbiosis required for thermal tolerance  

Science.gov (United States)

A mutualistic association between a fungal endophyte and a tropical panic grass allows both organisms to grow at high soil temperatures. We characterized a virus from this fungus that is involved in the mutualistic interaction. Fungal isolates cured of the virus are unable to confer heat tolerance, but heat tolerance is restored after the virus is reintroduced. The virus-infected fungus confers heat tolerance not only to its native monocot host but also to a eudicot host, which suggests that the underlying mechanism involves pathways conserved between these two groups of plants.

Marquez, L. M.; Redman, R. S.; Rodriguez, R. J.; Roossinck, M. J.

2007-01-01

179

Superoxide dismutase transgenes in sugarbeets confer resistance to oxidative agents and the fungus C. beticola.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugarbeets carrying superoxide dismutase transgenes were developed in order to investigate the possibility of enhancing their resistance to oxidative stress. Binary T-DNA vectors carrying the chloroplastic and cytosolic superoxide dismutase genes from tomato, were used for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sugarbeet petioles. The transgenic plants were subjected to treatments known to cause oxidative stress, such as the herbicide methyl viologen and a natural photosensitizer toxin produced by the fungus Cercospora beticola, namely cercosporin. The transgenic plants exhibited increased tolerance to methyl viologen, to pure cercosporin, as well as to leaf infection with the fungus C. beticola. PMID:15359600

Tertivanidis, Konstantinos; Goudoula, Catherine; Vasilikiotis, Christos; Hassiotou, Efthymia; Perl-Treves, Rafael; Tsaftaris, Athanasios

2004-06-01

180

Influence of the fungus Trichoderma harzianum on the enzyme and polysaccharide composition of Silene vulgaris Callus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Activities of polygalacturonase and 1,3-?-glucanase increased in campion (Silene vulgaris) callus cells during co-cultivation with the fungus Trichoderma harzianum. This was associated with a decrease in galacturonic acid residues in the pectic polysaccharide of campion silenan and also in the production of pectin by the callus. Co-cultivation of the callus and the fungus resulted in an increase in contents of arabinose residues in the intracellular arabinogalactan and in contents of galactose residues in the extracellular arabinogalactan. PMID:23586723

Günter, E A; Kapustina, O M; Ovodov, Yu S

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
181

Process for producing ethanol from plant biomass using the fungus Paecilomyces sp  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and xylose to ethanol is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this fungus, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. Finally, ethanol is recovered from the fermented substrate. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Wu, J.F.

1985-08-08

182

Process for producing ethanol from plant biomass using the fungus paecilomyces sp  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces, which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and xylose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this fungus, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. Finally, ethanol is recovered from the fermented substrate.

FuWu, J.

1989-06-20

183

Process for producing ethanol from plant biomass using the fungus paecilomyces sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process in cludes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces, which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and xylose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this fungus, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. Finally, ethanol is recovered from the fermented substrate.

Wu, Jung Fu (Lakewood, CO)

1989-01-01

184

A new eremophilane-type sesquiterpene from the phytopatogen fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Sphaeropsidaceae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The phytopatogenic fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae, isolated from guava, was cultivated in rice for 32 days at room temperature. Extraction with CH2Cl2:MeOH (3:7), followed by chromatography fractionation of the extract provided ergosterol. From the fungus culture in Czapeck medium for 40 days at room temperature, were isolated isocoumarin cis-4-hydroxymeleine and an eremophilane-type sesquiterpene. The latter compound is being reported for the first time in the literature. Also, this is the first time that an eremophilane sesquiterpene is described for Lasiodiplodia genus. (author)

185

A new eremophilane-type sesquiterpene from the phytopatogen fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Sphaeropsidaceae)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The phytopatogenic fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae, isolated from guava, was cultivated in rice for 32 days at room temperature. Extraction with CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}:MeOH (3:7), followed by chromatography fractionation of the extract provided ergosterol. From the fungus culture in Czapeck medium for 40 days at room temperature, were isolated isocoumarin cis-4-hydroxymeleine and an eremophilane-type sesquiterpene. The latter compound is being reported for the first time in the literature. Also, this is the first time that an eremophilane sesquiterpene is described for Lasiodiplodia genus. (author)

Nunes, Fatima M.; Oliveira, Maria da Conceicao F. de; Arriaga, Angela M.C.; Lemos, Telma L.G.; Andrade-Neto, Manoel; Mattos, Marcos C. de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: mcfo@ufc.br; Mafezoli, Jair [Universidade de Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Curso de Farmacia; Viana, Francisco M.P.; Ferreira, Viviane M. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Lab. de Fitopatologia; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Ferreira, Antonio G. [Universidade Federal de Sa Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

2008-07-01

186

Nothing Special in the Specialist? Draft Genome Sequence of Cryomyces antarcticus, the Most Extremophilic Fungus from Antarctica  

Science.gov (United States)

The draft genome of the Antarctic endemic fungus Cryomyces antarcticus is presented. This rock inhabiting, microcolonial fungus is extremely stress tolerant and it is a model organism for exobiology and studies on stress resistance in Eukaryots. Since this fungus is a specialist in the most extreme environment of the Earth, the analysis of its genome is of important value for the understanding of fungal genome evolution and stress adaptation. A comparison with Neurospora crassa as well as with other microcolonial fungi shows that the fungus has a genome size of 24 Mbp, which is the average in the fungal kingdom. Although sexual reproduction was never observed in this fungus, 34 mating genes are present with protein homologs in the classes Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes and Dothideomycetes. The first analysis of the draft genome did not reveal any significant deviations of this genome from comparative species and mesophilic hyphomycetes. PMID:25296285

Sterflinger, Katja; Lopandic, Ksenija; Pandey, Ram Vinay; Blasi, Barbara; Kriegner, Albert

2014-01-01

187

Toxicidade de filtrados fúngicos a meloidogyne incognita Fungus filtrates toxicity to Meloidogyne incognita  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Visando à obtenção de novas moléculas nematicidas, 18 filtrados de espécies fúngicas e extratos de sete micélios fúngicos foram estudados in vitro quanto aos efeitos sobre a eclosão, motilidade e mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de Meloidogyne incognita. Filtrados fúngicos foram obtidos de culturas em meio Czapek. Metanol foi usado como solvente para obter extratos dos micélios fúngicos. Filtrados de Paecilomyces lilacinus, Fusarium moniliforme e Fusarium oxysporum reduziram a motilidade e eclosão, e aumentaram a mortalidade (P In the search for new nematicidal molecules, 18 fungal species filtrates and seven fungus mycelium extracts were studied in vitro to see their influence on hatching, mobility and mortality of second stage juveniles (J2 of Meloidogyne incognita. Fungal filtrates were obtained from fifteen day Czapek cultures. Methanol was used as solvent to obtain fungus mycelium extracts. Paecilomyces lilacinus, Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium oxysporum filtrates reduced J2 motility and hatching, and increased J2 mortality (P < 0,05 similarly to Aldicarb. Some fungus filtrates reduced J2 mobility without leading to death. Aspergillus flavus, Cylindrocarpon magnusianum, Fusarium solani and Mortierella sp. filtrates reduced (P < 0,05 only J2 hatching. Production of toxic fungus metabolites was not dependent on the amount of mycelium produced. P. lilacinus produced toxic filtrates after one day culturing. Since then, toxicity increased steadily, reaching 100% J2 mortality on the thirteenth day.

MAURO J.N. COSTA

2001-12-01

188

TESTING OF THE INSECT PEST CONTROL FUNGUS BEAUVERIA BASSIANA IN GRASS SHRIMP PALAEMONETES PUGIO  

Science.gov (United States)

Embryos, larvae and adult grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio were exposed to spores of the insect-control fungus Beauveria bassiana. onidiospores attached to embryos held by gravid females and remained with the egg mass for at least 6 d. In the first experiment where individual deve...

189

Amphibians acquire resistance to live and dead fungus overcoming fungal immunosuppression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emerging fungal pathogens pose a greater threat to biodiversity than any other parasitic group, causing declines of many taxa, including bats, corals, bees, snakes and amphibians. Currently, there is little evidence that wild animals can acquire resistance to these pathogens. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a pathogenic fungus implicated in the recent global decline of amphibians. Here we demonstrate that three species of amphibians can acquire behavioural or immunological resistance to B. dendrobatidis. Frogs learned to avoid the fungus after just one B. dendrobatidis exposure and temperature-induced clearance. In subsequent experiments in which B. dendrobatidis avoidance was prevented, the number of previous exposures was a negative predictor of B. dendrobatidis burden on frogs and B. dendrobatidis-induced mortality, and was a positive predictor of lymphocyte abundance and proliferation. These results suggest that amphibians can acquire immunity to B. dendrobatidis that overcomes pathogen-induced immunosuppression and increases their survival. Importantly, exposure to dead fungus induced a similar magnitude of acquired resistance as exposure to live fungus. Exposure of frogs to B. dendrobatidis antigens might offer a practical way to protect pathogen-naive amphibians and facilitate the reintroduction of amphibians to locations in the wild where B. dendrobatidis persists. Moreover, given the conserved nature of vertebrate immune responses to fungi and the fact that many animals are capable of learning to avoid natural enemies, these results offer hope that other wild animal taxa threatened by invasive fungi might be rescued by management approaches based on herd immunity. PMID:25008531

McMahon, Taegan A; Sears, Brittany F; Venesky, Matthew D; Bessler, Scott M; Brown, Jenise M; Deutsch, Kaitlin; Halstead, Neal T; Lentz, Garrett; Tenouri, Nadia; Young, Suzanne; Civitello, David J; Ortega, Nicole; Fites, J Scott; Reinert, Laura K; Rollins-Smith, Louise A; Raffel, Thomas R; Rohr, Jason R

2014-07-10

190

Treatment of a textile effluent from dyeing with cochineal extracts using Trametes versicolor fungus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trametes versicolor (Tv) fungus can degrade synthetic dyes that contain azo groups, anthraquinone, triphenylmethane polymers, and heterocyclic groups. However, no references have been found related to the degradation of natural dyes, such as the carminic acid that is contained in the cochineal extract. Experiments to determine the decolorization of the effluent used in the cotton dyeing process with cochineal extract by means of Tv fungus were done. Treatments to determine decolorization in the presence or absence of Kirk's medium, glucose, and fungus, with an addition of 50% (v v-1) of nonsterilized effluent were performed. Physicochemical characterization was performed at the start and end of the treatment. Degradation kinetics were determined. A direct relationship was found between the dry weight of fungi, pH, and the decolorization system, with higher decolorization at lower pH levels (pH ~4.3). High decolorization (81% ± 0.09; 88% ± 0.17; and 99% ± 0.04) for three of the eight treatments (Kirk's medium without glucose, Kirk's medium with glucose, and without medium with glucose, respectively) was found. Toxicity tests determined an increase in the initial effluent toxicity (7.33 TU) compared with the final treatment (47.73 TU) in a period of 11 days. For this system, a degradation sequence of the carminic acid structure present in the effluent by the Tv fungus is suggested, in which it is seen that metabolites still containing aromatic structures are generated. PMID:21552764

Arroyo-Figueroa, Gabriela; Ruiz-Aguilar, Graciela M L; López-Martínez, Leticia; González-Sánchez, Guillermo; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Germán; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio

2011-01-01

191

Convergent coevolution in the domestication of coral mushrooms by fungus-growing ants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Comparisons of phylogenetic patterns between coevolving symbionts can reveal rich details about the evolutionary history of symbioses. The ancient symbiosis between fungus-growing ants, their fungal cultivars, antibiotic-producing bacteria and cultivar-infecting parasites is dominated by a pattern of parallel coevolution, where the symbionts of each functional group are members of monophyletic groups. However, there is one outstanding exception in the fungus-growing ant system, the unidentified cultivar grown only by ants in the Apterostigma pilosum group. We classify this cultivar in the coral-mushroom family Pterulaceae using phylogenetic reconstructions based on broad taxon sampling, including the first mushroom collected from the garden of an ant species in the A. pilosum group. The domestication of the pterulaceous cultivar is independent from the domestication of the gilled mushrooms cultivated by all other fungus-growing ants. Yet it has the same overall assemblage of coevolved ant-cultivar-parasite-bacterium interactions as the other ant-grown fungal cultivars. This indicates a pattern of convergent coevolution in the fungus-growing ant system, where symbionts with both similar and very different evolutionary histories converge to functionally identical interactions.

Munkacsi, A B; Nees, Jan Pan

2004-01-01

192

Oxazinin a, a pseudodimeric natural product of mixed biosynthetic origin from a filamentous fungus.  

Science.gov (United States)

A racemic, prenylated polyketide dimer, oxazinin A (1), was isolated from a novel filamentous fungus in the class Eurotiomycetes, and its structure was elucidated spectroscopically. The pentacyclic structure of oxazinin A (1) is a unique combination of benzoxazine, isoquinoline, and a pyran ring. Oxazinin A (1) exhibited antimycobacterial activity and modestly antagonized transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. PMID:25188821

Lin, Zhenjian; Koch, Michael; Abdel Aziz, May Hamdy; Galindo-Murillo, Rodrigo; Tianero, Ma Diarey; Cheatham, Thomas E; Barrows, Louis R; Reilly, Chris A; Schmidt, Eric W

2014-09-19

193

Bacterium induces cryptic meroterpenoid pathway in the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stimulating encounter: The intimate, physical interaction between the soil-derived bacterium Streptomyces rapamycinicus and the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus led to the activation of an otherwise silent polyketide synthase (PKS) gene cluster coding for an unusual prenylated polyphenol (fumicycline A). The meroterpenoid pathway is regulated by a pathway-specific activator gene as well as by epigenetic factors. PMID:23649940

König, Claudia C; Scherlach, Kirstin; Schroeckh, Volker; Horn, Fabian; Nietzsche, Sandor; Brakhage, Axel A; Hertweck, Christian

2013-05-27

194

Indolyl alkaloid derivatives, Nb-acetyltryptamine and oxaline from a marine-derived fungus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Indolyl alkaloids, Nb-acetyltryptamine (1) and the known oxaline (2) have been isolated from the organic extract of the broth of an unidentified fungus collected from the surface of the marine red alga Gracilaria verrucosa. The structure of Nb-acetyltryptamine (1) was assigned on the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic analyses. PMID:12568352

Li, Yong; Li, Xi Feng; Kim, Dong Soo; Choi, Hong Dae; Son, Byeng Wha

2003-01-01

195

Evidence for the anti-hyperlipidaemic activity of the edible fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects are described of adding either the dried fruiting bodies of the oyster fungus Pleurotus ostreatus, or an ethanolic extract of it, to the diet of normal Wistar male rats and a strain with hereditary hypercholesterolaemia. Addition of the dry oyster fungus to the diet significantly increased, by more than two-fold, the triacylglycerol (TAG) level in the plasma of both groups of rats compared with their respective controls. In contrast, the ethanolic extract did not significantly change TAG levels. Values for total cholesterol and its high- and low-density lipoprotein fractions in the plasma, as well as the calculated atherogenic index, did not show any significant change. Levels of liver cholesterol were significantly lowered by the dried oyster fungus in both hypercholesterolaemic and normal groups of rats, and by the ethanolic extract in normal rats. A significantly increased phospholipid-to-cholesterol ratio in the aortas of both groups of rats, after the administration of either dried oyster fungus or the ethanolic extract of it, suggests a favourable anti-atherogenic effect for both. PMID:9624732

Opletal, L; Jahodár, L; Chobot, V; Zdanský, P; Lukes, J; Brátová, M; Solichová, D; Blunden, G; Dacke, C G; Patel, A V

1997-12-01

196

De novo genome assembly of the soil-borne fungus and tomato pathogen Pyrenochaeta lycopersici  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Pyrenochaeta lycopersici is a soil-dwelling ascomycete pathogen that causes corky root rot disease in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and other Solanaceous crops, reducing fruit yields by up to 75%. Fungal pathogens that infect roots receive less attention than those infecting the aerial parts of crops despite their significant impact on plant growth and fruit production. Results We assembled a 54.9Mb P. lycopersici draft genome sequence based on Illumina short reads, and annotated approximately 17,000 genes. The P. lycopersici genome is closely related to hemibiotrophs and necrotrophs, in agreement with the phenotypic characteristics of the fungus and its lifestyle. Several gene families related to host–pathogen interactions are strongly represented, including those responsible for nutrient absorption, the detoxification of fungicides and plant cell wall degradation, the latter confirming that much of the genome is devoted to the pathogenic activity of the fungus. We did not find a MAT gene, which is consistent with the classification of P. lycopersici as an imperfect fungus, but we observed a significant expansion of the gene families associated with heterokaryon incompatibility (HI). Conclusions The P. lycopersici draft genome sequence provided insight into the molecular and genetic basis of the fungal lifestyle, characterizing previously unknown pathogenic behaviors and defining strategies that allow this asexual fungus to increase genetic diversity and to acquire new pathogenic traits. PMID:24767544

2014-01-01

197

Optimization of protease production by the fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium and its action against Angiostrongylus vasorum larvae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this study were to optimize protease production from the nematophagous fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34a) and evaluate its larvicidal activity and biological stability. An isolate of the nematophagous fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34a) was used to produce the enzyme. The Plackett-Burman design was used in order to scan which components of the culture medium could have a significant influence on protease production by the fungus NF34a. An in vitro assay was also performed to evaluate the larvicidal activity of NF34a. It was observed that only one component of the culture medium (yeast extract), at the levels studied, had any significant effect (p larvae recovered from the treated groups, compared with the control groups. The results confirm previous reports on the efficiency of nematophagous fungi for controlling nematode larvae that are potentially zoonotic. Thus, given the importance of biological control, we suggest that further studies should be conducted on the protease produced by the fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium. PMID:23856736

Soares, Filippe Elias de Freitas; Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; Araújo, Jackson Victor de; Lima, Walter dos Santos; Mozzer, Lanuze Rose; Queiroz, José Humberto de

2013-01-01

198

Characterization of a brown rot fungus isolated from dwarf flowering almond in Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fruits showing brown rot symptom on dwarf flowering almond were found in Gongju, Chungchungnam-Do in Korea in July 2005. Small water-soaked lesions on the fruits were initiated, and gradually developed to soft rot covered with gray conidia. Then the diseased fruits were shrunk and became grayish-black mummies. A fungus was isolated from the diseased fruit and its morphological, cultural and molecular genetic characteristics were investigated. Typical blastospores of Monilinia spp. were observed under a light microscope both from tissues of the diseased fruits and from PDA-grown cultures. The fungus grew well at 25? and on PDA. The ITS ribosomal DNA region (650 bp) of the fungus was amplified by PCR and analyzed. Comparative data on ITS sequence homology among Monilinia spp., ITS sequence-based phylogram and morphological characteristics showed that the fungus is Monilinia fructicola. This is the first report on Monilinia fructicola causing brown rot on fruits of dwarf flowering almond in Korea. PMID:24015065

Shim, Myoung Yong; Jeon, Young Jae; Kim, Seong Hwan

2007-03-01

199

Biodegradation of crystal violet by the white rot fungus phanerochaete chrysosporium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biodegradation of crystal violet (N,N,N',N',N',N''- hexamethylpararosaniline) in ligninolytic (nitrogen-limited) cultures of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance of crystal violet and by the identification of three metabolites (N,N,N',N',N'' -pentamethylpararosaniline, N,N,N',N'' -tetramethylpararosaniline, and N,N',N'' -trimethylpararosaniline) formed by sequential N-demethylation of the parent compound. Metabolite formation also occurred when crystal violet was incubated with the extracellular fluid obtained from ligninolytic cultures of this fungus, provided that an H2O2-generating system was supplied. This, as well as the fact that a purified ligninase catalyzed N-demethylation of crystal violet, demonstrated that biodegradation of crystal violet by this fungus is dependent, at least in part, upon its lignin-degrading system. In addition to crystal violet, six other triphenylmethane dyes (pararosaniline, cresol red, bromphenol blue, ethyl violet, malachite green, and brilliant green) were shown to be degraded by the lignin-degrading system of this fungus.

Bumpus, J.A.; Brock, B.J.

1988-01-01

200

Isariotins A-D, alkaloids from the insect pathogenic fungus Isaria tenuipes BCC 7831.  

Science.gov (United States)

Isariotins A-D (1- 4), alkaloids possessing a unique bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane ring, were isolated from the insect pathogenic fungus Isaria tenuipes BCC 7831. The structures of these compounds were elucidated primarily by NMR and mass spectroscopic analyses. PMID:17822299

Haritakun, Rachada; Srikitikulchai, Prasert; Khoyaiklang, Punsa; Isaka, Masahiko

2007-09-01

 
 
 
 
201

Bioactive compounds from the scale insect pathogenic fungus Conoideocrella tenuis BCC 18627.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new cyclohexadepsipeptide, conoideocrellide A (1), its linear derivatives, conoideocrellides B-D (2-4), three new hopane triterpenoids (5-7), two new bioxanthracenes (9 and 10), and a new isocoumarin glycoside (13) were isolated from the scale insect pathogenic fungus Conoideocrella tenuis BCC 18627. Biological activities of the new compounds were evaluated. PMID:21473608

Isaka, Masahiko; Palasarn, Somporn; Supothina, Sumalee; Komwijit, Somjit; Luangsa-ard, J Jennifer

2011-04-25

202

Light-mediated control of gene expression in filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei.  

Science.gov (United States)

We developed a light-mediated system based on synthetic light-switchable transactivators. The transactivators bind promoter upon blue-light exposure and rapidly initiate transcription of target transgenes in filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. Light is inexpensive to apply, easily delivered, and instantly removed, and thus has significant advantages over chemical inducers. PMID:24886835

Wang, Wei; Shi, Xiang-Yu; Wei, Dong-Zhi

2014-08-01

203

Fungus ball pieloureteral en pacientes con litiasis urinaria: Tratamiento con ureterorrenoscopia / Pyelo-ureteral fungus ball in patients with urinary lithiasis: Ureterorrenoscopic management  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIÓN: C. albicans es el hongo que con mayor frecuencia produce infecciones oportunistas del tracto urinario. Cuando las hifas se aglutinan alrededor de un núcleo de tejido necrótico (necrosis papilar), hebras mucosas, restos de suturas quirúrgicas y/o material litiásico, se forma una pelota [...] fúngica que puede obstruir cualquier tramo del tracto urinario. CASOS CLÍNICOS: Presentamos dos pacientes formadores crónicos de cálculos que en ausencia de otros factores de riesgo para las infecciones fúngicas oportunistas, desarrollan fungus balls en el tracto urinario superior dilatado por una litiasis ureteral obstructiva. La paciente 1 tuvo afectación bilateral y en ningún momento hubo manifestaciones sistémicas. El tratamiento consistió en ureterorrenoscopia con extracción de las bolas fúngicas, derivación bilateral y anfotericina B sistémica y en irrigaciones tópicas. El paciente 2, en el contexto de una sepsis candidiásica, se trató con anfotericina B sistémica, desobstrucción mediante ureterorrenoscopia con extracción de un cálculo ureteral y de pelotas fúngicas, y colocación de catéter JJ y nefrostomía con irrigaciones de anfotericina B. DISCUSIÓN: La litiasis urinaria constituye por sí sola un factor de riesgo para la infección fúngica del tracto urinario superior, en ausencia de otros factores favorecedores de las infecciones fúngicas oportunistas. El mecanismo por el cual el cálculo favorece el crecimiento de los hongos es, por un lado, la obstrucción pieloureteral con éstasis retrógrado y, por otro lado, la nucleación alrededor de una matriz de material cálcico sobre la que crecen, se agregan y se ramifican los micelios. La vía de infección es probablemente ascendente y puede complicarse con funguemia y sepsis. Los antimicóticos sistémicos, la derivación con catéteres ureterales o de nefrostomía que permitan irrigación local con antifúngicos, y las técnicas endourológicas, constituyen los tres pilares básicos del tratamiento. La ureterorrenoscopia juega aquí un papel importante al ser una técnica diagnóstica y al mismo tiempo terapéutica al permitir la desobstrucción litiásica y la limpieza de las masas fúngicas. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: C. albicans is the most frequent fungus causing opportunist infections of the urinary tract. Agglutination of necrotic tissue nucleus (papilar necrosis), mucosus debri and chirurgic or lithiasic debri, originates a fungus ball, which can obstruct the urinary tract at any level. CLINICA [...] L DATA: We present 2 patients with obstructive urinary lithiasis developing fungus ball in the dilated upper urinary tract. Patient 1 was bilaterally affected and never had systemic symptoms. Treatment consisted of uretherorrenoscope for removal of fungus ball, bilateral urinary diversion and anphotericine B irrigations and systemic. Patient 2 developed a candidemia and was treated with systemic liposomal anphotericine B, uretherorrenoscopy with removal of ureteric calculus and fungus ball, and placement of a double J catheter and nephrostomy tube for anphotericine B irrigation. DISCUSSION: Urinary lithiasis is a risk factor for fungal infection of the upper urinary tract, provided there is no other predisponent factor for opportunistic fungal infections. Calculi facilitates fungal growth by means of obstruction and subsequent retrograde estasis and creating a nucleus for growth, aggregation and ramification of mycelium. The infection pathway is probably ascendent and may turn into fungemia and septicaemia. Systemic antimicotics, urinary diversion and local irrigations with antimicotics, and endourologic technics, are the three basic items in the treatment. Ureterorrenoscopy plays an important roll as a diagnostic and terapeutic tool as it may solve the obstruction and allows removal of fungus ball.

J.P., Burgués Gasión; J.M., Alapont Alacreu; F., Oliver Amorós; A., Benedicto Redón; F., Boronat Tormo; J.F., Jiménez Cruz.

204

SnoRNAs from the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa: structural, functional and evolutionary insights  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background SnoRNAs represent an excellent model for studying the structural and functional evolution of small non-coding RNAs involved in the post-transcriptional modification machinery for rRNAs and snRNAs in eukaryotic cells. Identification of snoRNAs from Neurospora crassa, an important model organism playing key roles in the development of modern genetics, biochemistry and molecular biology will provide insights into the evolution of snoRNA genes in the fungus kingdom. Results Fifty five box C/D snoRNAs were identified and predicted to guide 71 2'-O-methylated sites including four sites on snRNAs and three sites on tRNAs. Additionally, twenty box H/ACA snoRNAs, which potentially guide 17 pseudouridylations on rRNAs, were also identified. Although not exhaustive, the study provides the first comprehensive list of two major families of snoRNAs from the filamentous fungus N. crassa. The independently transcribed strategy dominates in the expression of box H/ACA snoRNA genes, whereas most of the box C/D snoRNA genes are intron-encoded. This shows that different genomic organizations and expression modes have been adopted by the two major classes of snoRNA genes in N. crassa . Remarkably, five gene clusters represent an outstanding organization of box C/D snoRNA genes, which are well conserved among yeasts and multicellular fungi, implying their functional importance for the fungus cells. Interestingly, alternative splicing events were found in the expression of two polycistronic snoRNA gene hosts that resemble the UHG-like genes in mammals. Phylogenetic analysis further revealed that the extensive separation and recombination of two functional elements of snoRNA genes has occurred during fungus evolution. Conclusion This is the first genome-wide analysis of the filamentous fungus N. crassa snoRNAs that aids in understanding the differences between unicellular fungi and multicellular fungi. As compared with two yeasts, a more complex pattern of methylation guided by box C/D snoRNAs in multicellular fungus than in unicellular yeasts was revealed, indicating the high diversity of post-transcriptional modification guided by snoRNAs in the fungus kingdom.

Chen Chun-Long

2009-11-01

205

Increasing Incidence of Geomyces destructans Fungus in Bats from the Czech Republic and Slovakia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background White-nose syndrome is a disease of hibernating insectivorous bats associated with the fungus Geomyces destructans. It first appeared in North America in 2006, where over a million bats died since then. In Europe, G. destructans was first identified in France in 2009. Its distribution, infection dynamics, and effects on hibernating bats in Europe are largely unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We screened hibernacula in the Czech Republic and Slovakia for the presence of the fungus during the winter seasons of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. In winter 2009/2010, we found infected bats in 76 out of 98 surveyed sites, in which the majority had been previously negative. A photographic record of over 6000 hibernating bats, taken since 1994, revealed bats with fungal growths since 1995; however, the incidence of such bats increased in Myotis myotis from 2% in 2007 to 14% by 2010. Microscopic, cultivation and molecular genetic evaluations confirmed the identity of the recently sampled fungus as G. destructans, and demonstrated its continuous distribution in the studied area. At the end of the hibernation season we recorded pathologic changes in the skin of the affected bats, from which the fungus was isolated. We registered no mass mortality caused by the fungus, and the recorded population decline in the last two years of the most affected species, M. myotis, is within the population trend prediction interval. Conclusions/Significance G. destructans was found to be widespread in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, with an epizootic incidence in bats during the most recent years. Further development of the situation urgently requires a detailed pan-European monitoring scheme. PMID:21079781

Martinkova, Natalia; Backor, Peter; Bartonicka, Tomas; Blazkova, Pavla; Cerveny, Jaroslav; Falteisek, Lukas; Gaisler, Jiri; Hanzal, Vladimir; Horacek, Daniel; Hubalek, Zdenek; Jahelkova, Helena; Kolarik, Miroslav; Korytar, L'ubos; Kubatova, Alena; Lehotska, Blanka; Lehotsky, Roman; Lucan, Radek K.; Majek, Ondrej; Mateju, Jan; Rehak, Zdenek; Safar, Jiri; Tajek, Premysl; Tkadlec, Emil; Uhrin, Marcel; Wagner, Josef; Weinfurtova, Dita; Zima, Jan; Zukal, Jan; Horacek, Ivan

2010-01-01

206

Molecular phylogeny of bark and ambrosia beetles reveals multiple origins of fungus farming during periods of global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Fungus farming is an unusual life style in insects that has evolved many times in the wood boring weevils named ‘ambrosia beetles’. Multiple occurrences of this behaviour allow for a detailed comparison of the different origins of fungus farming through time, its directionality, and possible ancestral states. We tested these hypotheses with a phylogeny representing the largest data set to date, nearly 4 kb of nucleotides from COI, EF-1?, CAD, ArgK, 28S, and 200 scolytine taxa. Results Phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian or parsimony approaches placed the root of Scolytinae close to the tribe Scolytini and Microborus, but otherwise indicated low resolution at older nodes. More recent clades were well resolved, including ten origins of fungus farming. There were no subsequent reversals to bark or phloem feeding in the fungus farming clades. The oldest origin of fungus farming was estimated near 50 Ma, long after the origin of Scolytinae (100-120 Ma). Younger origins included the species rich Xyleborini, dated to 21 Ma. Sister group comparisons and test of independence between traits indicated that neither gregarious larval feeding nor regular inbreeding by sibling mating was strongly correlated with the origin of fungus farming. Conclusion Origins of fungus farming corresponded mainly with two periods of global warming in the Cenozoic era, which were characterised by broadly distributed tropical forests. Hence, it seems likely that warm climates and expanding tropical angiosperm forests played critical roles in the successful radiation of diverse fungus farming groups. However, further investigation will likely reveal additional biological factors that promote fungus farming. PMID:22852794

2012-01-01

207

[Effect of wood modification on lignin consumption and synthesis of lignolytic enzymes by the fungus Panus (Lentinus) tigrinus].  

Science.gov (United States)

Lignin consumption and synthesis of lignolytic enzymes by the fungus Panus (Lentinus) tigrinus cultivated on solid phase (modified and unmodified birch and pine sawdusts) were studied. The fungus grew better and consumed more readily the birch lignin than the pine wood. Peroxidase activity was higher in the case of pine sawdust; laccase and lignolytic activities, in the case of birth sawdust. Treatment with ammonia or sulfuric acid decreased lignin consumption by the fungus cultivated on either medium. Modification of sawdust by ultrasound increased lignin consumption and may be recommended for accelerating biodegradation of lignocellulose substrates. PMID:14593869

Kadimaliev, D A; Revin, V V; Atykian, N A; Samuilov, V D

2003-01-01

208

GC-MS, FT-IR analysis of black fungus polysaccharides and its inhibition against skin aging in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The monosaccharide compositions, molecular weights, structure were investigated for the black fungus polysaccharides. Analysis of sugar components by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) showed that component ratios of neutral sugars in the polysaccharides were Glc:Man=82.97:12.93. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis showed that the band at about 1649cm(-1) can indicate the presence of CO groups or CC groups vibration in structures. Pharmacological experiment showed that black fungus polysaccharides administration could significantly reduce malondialchehyche (MDA), lipofuscin (LF) contents and enhance superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in skin. This indicated that black fungus polysaccharides may slow down skin aging. PMID:20371369

Peng, Xue-Biao; Li, Qian; Ou, Li-Na; Jiang, Li-Fen; Zeng, Kang

2010-08-01

209

Biotite weathering and nutrient uptake by ectomycorrhizal fungus, Suillus tomentosus, in liquid-culture experiments  

Science.gov (United States)

Ectomycorrhiza-forming fungi (EMF) alter the nutrient-acquisition capabilities of vascular plants, and may play an important role in mineral weathering and the partitioning of products of weathering in soils under nutrient-limited conditions. In this study, we isolated the weathering function of Suillus tomentosus in liquid-cultures with biotite micas incubated at room temperature. We hypothesized that the fungus would accelerate weathering by hyphal attachment to biotite surfaces and transmission of nutrient cations via direct exchange into the fungal biomass. We combined a mass-balance approach with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to estimate weathering rates and study dissolution features on biotite surfaces. Weathering of biotite flakes was about 2-3 orders of magnitude faster in shaken liquid-cultures with fungus compared to shaken controls without fungus, but with added inorganic acids. Adding fungus in nonshaken cultures caused a higher dissolution rate than in inorganic pH controls without fungus, but it was not significantly faster than organic pH controls without fungus. The K +, Mg 2+ and Fe 2+ from biotite were preferentially partitioned into fungal biomass in the shaken cultures, while in the nonshaken cultures, K + and Mg 2+ was lost from biomass and Fe 2+ bioaccumulated much less. Fungal hyphae attached to biotite surfaces, but no significant surface changes were detected by SEM. When cultures were shaken, the AFM images of basal planes appeared to be rougher and had abundant dissolution channels, but such channel development was minor in nonshaken conditions. Even under shaken conditions the channels only accounted for only 1/100 of the total dissolution rate of 2.7 × 10 -10 mol of biotite m -2 s -1. The results suggest that fungal weathering predominantly occurred not by attachment and direct transfer of nutrients via hyphae, but because of the acidification of the bulk liquid by organic acids, fungal respiration (CO 2), and complexation of cations which accelerated dissolution of biotite. Results further suggest that both carbohydrate source (abundant here) and a host with which nutrients are exchanged (missing here) may be required for EMF to exert an important weathering effect in soils. Unsaturated conditions and physical dispersal of nutrient-rich minerals in soils may also confer a benefit for hyphal growth and attachment, and promote the attachment-mediated weathering which has been observed elsewhere on soil mineral surfaces.

Balogh-Brunstad, Zsuzsanna; Kent Keller, C.; Thomas Dickinson, J.; Stevens, Forrest; Li, C. Y.; Bormann, Bernard T.

2008-06-01

210

Biodegradation of Organopollutants by a White Rot Fungus in Bench Scale Reactors. Volume 1 and Volume 2.  

Science.gov (United States)

The wood rotting basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium is able to degrade a wide variety of environmentally persistent organic pollutants to carbon dioxide. Results demonstrated that this fungus can be used to degrade organic pollutants in fixed film ...

D. K. Stevens, J. A. Bumpus, R. C. Sims

1993-01-01

211

The development of a spatially-explicit, individual-based, disease model for frogs and the chytrid fungus  

Science.gov (United States)

Background / Question / Methods The fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (BD), has been associated with amphibian population declines and even extinctions worldwide. Transmission of the fungus between amphibian hosts occurs via motile zoospores, which are produced on...

212

Pathogenicity of the bioherbicide fungus chondrostereum purpureum to some trees and shrubs of southern Vancouver Island. FRDA report No. 246  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chondrostereum purpureum is a common stem-invading fungus of trees and shrubs. The fungus has attracted interest as a bioherbicide, but a better understanding of its biology is required. This study was undertaken to determine the range of virulence of isolates of C. purpureum from a given region on major hardwood species in British Columbia. The investigators inoculated wounds of stems of standing red alder (Alnus rubra) and bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum) saplings with 11 isolates of the fungus and measured the resulting stem cankers as an index of virulence. They also inoculated eight hardwood and shrub species with two isolates to demonstrate the range of susceptibility of species to the fungus, as well as the intraspecific variation.

Wall, R.E.

1996-11-01

213

A white-rot fungus is used as a biocathode to improve electricity production of a microbial fuel cell  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

White-rot fungus is able to secrete laccase, which can reduce O2 to H2O and has been widely used in enzymatic fuel cells. In this work, a strain of white-rot fungus, Coriolus versicolor, is inoculated in the cathodic chamber of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) to improve cathode reduction efficiency for better electricity generation. 2,2?-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothazoline-6-sulfonate), as a redox mediator, is added to the catholyte to facilitate the electron transfer between the electrode and the laccase. The results show that the fungus-based biocathode has better performance than the conventional abiotic cathode, with approximately seven-orders higher power density achieved. This is the first report that white-rot fungus is used to constitute the biocathode of an MFC for improved electricity generation.

214

Molecular phylogeny of bark and ambrosia beetles reveals multiple origins of fungus farming during periods of global warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Fungus farming is an unusual life style in insects that has evolved many times in the wood boring weevils named ‘ambrosia beetles’. Multiple occurrences of this behaviour allow for a detailed comparison of the different origins of fungus farming through time, its directionality, and possible ancestral states. We tested these hypotheses with a phylogeny representing the largest data set to date, nearly 4 kb of nucleotides from COI, EF-1?

Jordal Bjarte H; Cognato Anthony I

2012-01-01

215

Biochemical properties of xylanases from a thermophilic fungus, Melanocarpus albomyces, and their action on plant cell walls  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Melanocarpus albomyces, a thermophilic fungus isolated from compost by enrichment culture in a liquid medium containing sugarcane bagasse, produced cellulase-free xylanase in culture medium. The fungus was unusual in that xylanase activity was inducible not only by hemicellulosic material but also by the monomeric pentosan unit of xylan but not by glucose. Concentration of bagasse-grown culture filtrate protein followed by size-exclusion and anion-exchange chromatography separated four xylana...

Prabhu, Ashok K.; Maheshwari, Ramesh

1999-01-01

216

Evaluation of the use of Pycnoporus sanguineus fungus for phenolics and genotoxicity decay of a pharmaceutical effluent treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

If not properly and efficiently treated, wastes produced by the chemical industry can contaminate the environment. Using fungi able to degrade organic compounds (e.g. phenol) seems to be a prominent method to treat pharmaceutical wastewaters, in particular, the white-rot fungus. The aim of this work was to treat pharmaceutical effluent by the Pycnoporus sanguineus fungus. Three effluent samples were collected in a pharmaceutical industry. The production of enzymes such as laccase and manganes...

Mariângela Fontes Santiago; Fernando Schimidt; Telma Alves Garcia; Marize Campos Valadares; Luiza Cintra Campos; Paulo de Tarso Ferreira Sales; Renata Alberto de Morais Watanabe

2012-01-01

217

Nickel oxide nanoparticles film produced by dead biomass of filamentous fungus  

Science.gov (United States)

The synthesis of nickel oxide nanoparticles in film form using dead biomass of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus aculeatus as reducing agent represents an environmentally friendly nanotechnological innovation. The optimal conditions and the capacity of dead biomass to uptake and produce nanoparticles were evaluated by analyzing the biosorption of nickel by the fungus. The structural characteristics of the film-forming nickel oxide nanoparticles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). These techniques showed that the nickel oxide nanoparticles had a size of about 5.89?nm and were involved in a protein matrix which probably permitted their organization in film form. The production and uptake of nickel oxide nanoparticles organized in film form by dead fungal biomass bring us closer to sustainable strategies for the biosynthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles. PMID:25228324

Salvadori, Marcia Regina; Nascimento, Claudio Augusto Oller; Correa, Benedito

2014-01-01

218

MICROBIAL DYNAMICS IN COMMERCIAL VERMICOMPOSTS WITH AND WITHOUT TRICHODERMA SPP. FUNGUS INOCULATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, presents the results are presented onof the growthefectiveness of the Trichoderma fungus in a inoculation in a commercial vermicompost, in comparison with the fungus from a vermicompostand without inoculation. In a three-phase laboratory process (cultivation, isolation and inoculation of fungal strains, three different commercial vermicompost, prepared from coffee pulp, have beenwere used, coming from three different commercial vermicomposts. The results of experiments carried out in the Post-Harvest Laboratory of the Universidad de Costa Rica, don’t show any increase or decrease of the Trichoderma population after inoculation. The experiment was carried out in the Post -harvest Laboratory of University of Costa Rica. It was developed following three phases, using three commercial vermicompost prepared with broza of coffee. Results showed no differences in Trichoderma population as product of inoculation of it into the compost.

VILMA AMPARO HOLGUIN CASTAÑO

2009-12-01

219

Halogenated anthraquinones from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. SCSIO F063.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metabolomic investigations focusing on the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. SCSIO F063 have unveiled seven new chlorinated anthraquinones (1-7) related to averantin, together with five known analogues (11-15) when the fungus was fermented using sea salt-containing potato dextrose broth. Through the addition of sodium bromide to the broth, two new brominated anthraquinones (8, 9) and one new nonhalogenated anthraquinone (10) were obtained from the fungal mycelia. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses including MS and 1D and 2D NMR data. One metabolite, 6-O-methyl-7-chloroaveratin (2), displayed inhibition activity against three human tumor cell lines, SF-268, MCF-7, and NCI-H460, with IC(50) values of 7.11, 6.64, and 7.42 ?M, respectively. PMID:22703109

Huang, Hongbo; Wang, Fazuo; Luo, Minghe; Chen, Yuchan; Song, Yongxiang; Zhang, Weimin; Zhang, Si; Ju, Jianhua

2012-07-27

220

Efficient Transmission of an Introduced Pathogen Via an Ancient Insect-Fungus Association  

Science.gov (United States)

In Cupressus sempervirens the association between seed insects and tree pathogens has resulted in optimal exploitation of the cones. A fungus-infected cone can be inhabited by the nymphs of a true seed bug (Orsillus maculatus), the adults of which may carry a heavy spore load at emergence. Cones are infected when eggs are laid within the cone, most frequently via the emergence holes of a seed wasp (Megastigmus wachtli). This symbiotic association evolved with the nonaggressive fungus Pestalotiopsis funerea within the natural range of the cypress. When the aggressive cypress canker disease (Seiridium cardinale) was introduced into Europe, it was transmitted by O. maculatus to cones usually colonized by Pestalotiopsis funerea, with disastrous consequences for the regeneration and survival of C. sempervirens in the entire Mediterranean area.

Battisti, A.; Roques, A.; Colombari, F.; Frigimelica, G.; Guido, M.

 
 
 
 
221

Biological decolourisation of pulp mill effluent using white rot fungus Trametes versicolor.  

Science.gov (United States)

The conventional biological treatment methods employed in the pulp and paper industries are not effective in reducing the colour and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The white-rot fungi are reported to have the ability to biodegrade the lignin and its derivatives. This paper is focused on the biological treatment of pulp mill effluent from a bagasse-based pulp and paper industry using fungal treatment. Experiments were conducted using the white rot fungus, Trametes versicolor in shake flasks operated in batch mode with different carbon sources. The decolourisation efficiencies of 82.5% and 80.3% were obtained in the presence of 15 g/L and 5 g/L of glucose and sucrose concentrations respectively with a considerable COD reduction. The possibility of reusing the grown fungus was examined for repeated treatment studies. PMID:24749195

Srinivasan, S V; Murthy, D V S; Swaminathan, T

2012-07-01

222

[Identification and antibacterial activity of secondary metabolites from Taxus endophytic fungus].  

Science.gov (United States)

We isolated three secondary metabolites by silica gel column chromatography from endophytic fungus 12.3.2 that was isolated from Taxus yunnanensis and could produce taxanes. They were identified as cembrene (3,7,11-trimethyl-14-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,6,10-cyclotetradecatetraene), diisooctyl phthalate (1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid diisooctylester) and ethyl oleate (9-octadecenoic acid-ethyl ester) by infrared spectra (IR), mass spectra (MS) and 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Their antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans were examined. Results show that all of the three compounds could inhibit the growth of those pathogenic bacteria. Especially, cembrene showed stronger inhibition to S. aureus, B. subtilis and C. albicans. This is the first report on cembrene produced by plant endophytic fungus. PMID:19621576

Chen, Shujuan; Liu, Jiajia; Gong, Hanxiang; Yang, Dongliang

2009-03-01

223

Hydroxylation of a hederagenin derived saponin by a Xylareaceous fungus found in fruits of Sapindus saponaria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During our screening of tropical plants for endophyte microorganisms, a Xylareaceous fungus was found living on the internal part of Sapindus saponaria fruits. The fruits of S. saponaria accumulate great amounts of triterpenoidal and sesquiterpenoidal saponins. The saponin 3-O-({beta}-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1{yields}3)-{alpha}-L -rhamnopyranosyl-(1{yields}2)-{alpha}-L-arabinopyranosyl-hederagenin was isolated using chromatographic methods, after alkaline hydrolysis of the crude extract obtained from S. saponaria fruits and added to the culture medium used to grows the fungus. A new saponin was isolated from this experiment by preparative scale HPLC and characterized as a 22{alpha}-hydroxy derivative. The structure of this hydroxylated saponin was elucidated based on interpretation of MS/MS data and NMR spectra. (author)

Murgu, Michael; Santos, Luiz F. Arruda; Souza, Gezimar D. de; Daolio, Cristina; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Schneider, Bernd [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Beutenberg Campus, Jena (Germany)

2008-07-01

224

Induced production of mycotoxins in an endophytic fungus from the medicinal plant Datura stramonium L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epigenetic modifiers, including DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) or histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, are useful to induce the expression of otherwise dormant biosynthetic genes under standard laboratory conditions. We isolated several endophytic fungi from the medicinal plant Datura stramonium L., which produces pharmaceutically important tropane alkaloids, including scopolamine and hyoscyamine. Although none of the endophytic fungi produced the tropane alkaloids, supplementation of a DNMT inhibitor, 5-azacytidine, and/or a HDAC inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, to the culture medium induced the production of mycotoxins, including alternariol, alternariol-5-O-methyl ether, 3'-hydroxyalternariol-5-O-methyl ether, altenusin, tenuazonic acid, and altertoxin II, by the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. This is the first report of a mycotoxin-producing endophytic fungus from the medicinal plant D. stramonium L. This work demonstrates that treatments with epigenetic modifiers induce the production of mycotoxins, thus providing a useful tool to explore the biosynthetic potential of the microorganisms. PMID:22967766

Sun, Jieyin; Awakawa, Takayoshi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Abe, Ikuro

2012-10-15

225

The Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Subunit from the Dimorphic Fungus Ustilago maydis  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we investigated the reverse transcriptase subunit of telomerase in the dimorphic fungus Ustilago maydis. This protein (Trt1) contains 1371 amino acids and all of the characteristic TERT motifs. Mutants created by disrupting trt1 had senescent traits, such as delayed growth, low replicative potential, and reduced survival, that were reminiscent of the traits observed in est2 budding yeast mutants. Telomerase activity was observed in wild-type fungus sporidia but not those of the disruption mutant. The introduction of a self-replicating plasmid expressing Trt1 into the mutant strain restored growth proficiency and replicative potential. Analyses of trt1 crosses in planta suggested that Trt1 is necessary for teliospore formation in homozygous disrupted diploids and that telomerase is haploinsufficient in heterozygous diploids. Additionally, terminal restriction fragment analysis in the progeny hinted at alternative survival mechanisms similar to those of budding yeast. PMID:25299159

Horta-Valerdi, Guillermo; Celestino-Montes, Antonio; Kojic, Milorad; Negrete-Abascal, Erasmo; Reyes-Cervantes, Hortensia; Vazquez-Cruz, Candelario; Guzman, Plinio; Sanchez-Alonso, Patricia

2014-01-01

226

Zirconia enrichment in zircon sand by selective fungus-mediated bioleaching of silica.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the important routes for the production of zirconia is by chemical treatment and removal of silica from zircon sand (ZrSixOy). We present here a completely green chemistry approach toward enrichment of zirconia in zircon sand; this is based on the reaction of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum with zircon sand by a process of selective extracellular bioleaching of silica nanoparticles. Since this reaction does not result in zirconia being simultaneously leached out from the sand, there is a consequent enrichment of the zirconia component in zircon sand. We believe that fungal enzymes specifically hydrolyze the silicates present in the sand to form silicic acid, which on condensation by certain other fungal enzymes results in room-temperature synthesis of silica nanoparticles. This fungus-mediated twofold approach might have vast commercial implications in low-cost, ecofriendly, room-temperature syntheses of technologically important oxide nanomaterials from potentially cheap naturally available raw materials like zircon sand. PMID:17375939

Bansal, Vipul; Syed, Asad; Bhargava, Suresh K; Ahmad, Absar; Sastry, Murali

2007-04-24

227

Antifungal Metabolites Produced by Chaetomium globosum No.04, an Endophytic Fungus Isolated from Ginkgo biloba.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fungal endophyte Chaetomium globosum No.04 was isolated from the medicinal plant Ginkgo biloba. The crude extract of the fungus fermentation were active in the agar-diffusion tests against the phytopathogenic fungi Rhizopus stolonifer and Coniothyrium diplodiella. Further bioassay-guided chemical investigation led to the isolation and purification of six alkaloids and three non-targeted compounds from 50 L fermentation of this endophytic fungus and their structures were elucidated as chaetoglobosin A, C, D, E, G, R (1-6), ergosterol, allantoin and uracil, by means of spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1-6 showed significant growth inhibitory activity against R. stolonifer and C. diplodiella at a concentration of 20 ?g/disc. We present here, for the first time, the potent antifungal activity of chaetoglobosins from endophytic fungi against two important phytopathogenic fungi R. stolonifer and C. diplodiella. PMID:24426105

Zhang, Guizhen; Zhang, Yanhua; Qin, Jianchun; Qu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jinliang; Li, Xiang; Pan, Hongyu

2013-06-01

228

Two distinct secretion systems facilitate tissue invasion by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.  

Science.gov (United States)

To cause plant diseases, pathogenic micro-organisms secrete effector proteins into host tissue to suppress immunity and support pathogen growth. Bacterial pathogens have evolved several distinct secretion systems to target effector proteins, but whether fungi, which cause the major diseases of most crop species, also require different secretory mechanisms is not known. Here we report that the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae possesses two distinct secretion systems to target effectors during plant infection. Cytoplasmic effectors, which are delivered into host cells, preferentially accumulate in the biotrophic interfacial complex, a novel plant membrane-rich structure associated with invasive hyphae. We show that the biotrophic interfacial complex is associated with a novel form of secretion involving exocyst components and the Sso1 t-SNARE. By contrast, effectors that are secreted from invasive hyphae into the extracellular compartment follow the conventional secretory pathway. We conclude that the blast fungus has evolved distinct secretion systems to facilitate tissue invasion. PMID:23774898

Giraldo, Martha C; Dagdas, Yasin F; Gupta, Yogesh K; Mentlak, Thomas A; Yi, Mihwa; Martinez-Rocha, Ana Lilia; Saitoh, Hiromasa; Terauchi, Ryohei; Talbot, Nicholas J; Valent, Barbara

2013-01-01

229

Effect of plant extracts and systemic fungicide on the pineapple fruit-rotting fungus, Ceratocystis paradoxa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antifungal activities of extracts of sixteen plants were tested against Ceratocystis paradoxa which causes soft rot of pineapples. Xanthium strumarium was the most effective followed by Allium sativum. The effectiveness of various extracts against C. paradoxa was in the decreasing order of Meriandra bengalensis, Mentha piperita, Curcuma longa, Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus, Toona ciliata, Vitex negundo, Azadirachta indica, Eupatorium birmanicum, Ocimum sanctum and Leucas aspera. Extracts of Cassia tora, Gynura cusimba, Calotropis gigantea and Ocimum canum showed poor fungitoxicity. Ethanol was suitable for extraction of the inhibitory substance from X. strumarium. Acetonitrile was highly toxic to this fungus. Millipore filter-sterilized extracts had a more inhibitory effect on the fungus than the autoclaved samples. Treatment of pineapple fruits infested with C. paradoxa by X. strumarium extract reduced the severity of the disease. PMID:9022263

Damayanti, M; Susheela, K; Sharma, G J

1996-01-01

230

BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SLOVAK ISOLATES OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS PANDORA NEOAPHIDIS (REMAUDIÈRE ET HENNEBERT HUMBER (ZYGOMYCETES, ENTOMOPHTHORALES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intraspecific variability of biological characteristics within entomopathogenic fungus Pandora neoaphidis was evaluated. Fifteen isolates of the fungus were obtained from 5 aphid species in Slovakia. Size of conidia, conidial germination, virulence, radial growth, and biomass production were evaluated. Conidial size varied considerably with exception of isolates originating from the same host population. Conidial germination was observed on all the surfaces tested and it was greatest at saturated humidity. Virulence, daily rate of radial growth and biomass production varied depending on isolates. Isolates obtained from the same host colonies during fungal epizootics shoved also significant differences in the characteristics, what may suggest that epizootics in aphid populations are caused by associations of strains and not by prevalence of a single virulent strain.

Marek BARTA

2010-06-01

231

Efficient insertional mutagenesis system for the dimorphic pathogenic fungus Sporothrix schenckii using Agrobacterium tumefaciens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sporothrix schenckii is a dimorphic pathogenic fungus that causes human and animal sporotrichosis globally. Here we developed and optimized an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) system of S. schenckii for insertional mutagenesis. The transformation efficiency reached more than 600 transformants per 10(6) conidia. Using this protocol enabled us to obtain a large number of T-DNA insertional mutants within a short experimental period. Several mutants with altered phenotypes were obtained during the transformation experiments. The mutants displayed mitotic stability. Transferred DNA (T-DNA) flanking sequences were cloned by thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR (TAIL-PCR). Our results demonstrated that the ATMT system can be an effective tool for insertional mutagenesis in S. schenckii. This is the first report of a suitable mutagenesis system which may provide valuable mutants and information for both forward and reverse genetics research in the future for this medically important fungus. PMID:21256883

Zhang, Yanhua; Li, Guangquan; He, Dan; Yu, Baodong; Yokoyama, Koji; Wang, Li

2011-03-01

232

Bioactive anthraquinones from endophytic fungus Aspergillus versicolor isolated from red sea algae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The marine fungus Aspergillus versicolor was isolated from the inner tissue of the Red Sea green alga Halimeda opuntia. The fungus was identified by its morphology and 18s rDNA. Cultivation of this fungal strain led to a new metabolite named isorhodoptilometrin-1-methyl ether (1) along with the known compounds emodin (2), 1-methyl emodin (3), evariquinone (4), 7-hydroxyemodin 6,8-methyl ether (5), siderin (6), arugosin C (7), and variculanol (8). The structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry. The biological properties of ethyl acetate extract and compounds 1-3 and 6-8 were explored for antimicrobial activity, anti-cancer activity and inhibition of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease. PMID:23139125

Hawas, Usama W; El-Beih, Ahmed Atef; El-Halawany, Ali M

2012-10-01

233

Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of endophytic fungus Fennellia nivea NRRL 5504.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antioxidant is an interesting bioactivity since it has several correlations with disease such as Alzheimer, cancer, ageing and many others in which were promoted by free radicals. Investigation on our endophytic fungus collection namely Fennelia nivea NRRL 5504 revealed that the fermented mediumhas antioxidant property against DPPH through free radical scavenging effect. Fermentation in liquid medium i.e. Potatoes Dextrose Broth, resulted that the fermented medium reached about 86.51% (p < 0.05) of free radical inhibition on the eighth day. Results ofphytochemical screening from extracted fermentation medium showed the presence of terpenes, triterpenes, phenolic compound, tannin, flavonoid and also saponin. The highest antioxidant activity was showed by ethyl acetate extract. Calculation on total phenolic content of ethyl acetate crude extract was 0.544 mg g(-1) equivalent to pyrogallol. By exposure above, we have alternative source of antioxidant that came from our endophytic fungus collection which we isolated previously from Typhonium divaricatum Lodd. PMID:24511703

Saraswaty, Vienna; Srikandace, Yoice; Simbiyani, N A; Jasmansyah; Setiyanto, Henry; Udin, Zalinar

2013-11-15

234

Nickel oxide nanoparticles film produced by dead biomass of filamentous fungus  

Science.gov (United States)

The synthesis of nickel oxide nanoparticles in film form using dead biomass of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus aculeatus as reducing agent represents an environmentally friendly nanotechnological innovation. The optimal conditions and the capacity of dead biomass to uptake and produce nanoparticles were evaluated by analyzing the biosorption of nickel by the fungus. The structural characteristics of the film-forming nickel oxide nanoparticles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). These techniques showed that the nickel oxide nanoparticles had a size of about 5.89 nm and were involved in a protein matrix which probably permitted their organization in film form. The production and uptake of nickel oxide nanoparticles organized in film form by dead fungal biomass bring us closer to sustainable strategies for the biosynthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles.

Salvadori, Marcia Regina; Nascimento, Cláudio Augusto Oller; Corrêa, Benedito

2014-09-01

235

Bioactive Phenylalanine Derivatives and Cytochalasins from the Soft Coral-Derived Fungus, Aspergillus elegans  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One new phenylalanine derivative 4?-OMe-asperphenamate (1), along with one known phenylalanine derivative (2) and two new cytochalasins, aspochalasin A1 (3) and cytochalasin Z24 (4), as well as eight known cytochalasin analogues (5–12) were isolated from the fermentation broth of Aspergillus elegans ZJ-2008010, a fungus obtained from a soft coral Sarcophyton sp. collected from the South China Sea. Their structures and the relative configurations were elucidated using comprehensive spectro...

Xue-Ping Sun; Guang-Ying Chen; Dong-Lin Zhao; Kai-Ling Wang; Min Chen; Lu-Yong Wu; Chang-Lun Shao; Cai-Juan Zheng; Chang-Yun Wang

2013-01-01

236

Cytotoxic pheofungins from an engineered fungus impaired in posttranslational protein modification.  

Science.gov (United States)

What makes a fungus blush? The deletion of a gene that is required for global protein N-acetylation triggers the production of unprecedented metabolites in Aspergillus nidulans. The pronounced red pigmentation of the engineered mutant is caused by pheofungins (benzothiazinone chromophores), the biogenesis of which is strikingly similar to those of pheomelanins found in red bird feathers and hair of Celtic origin. PMID:21913294

Scherlach, Kirstin; Nützmann, Hans-Wilhelm; Schroeckh, Volker; Dahse, Hans-Martin; Brakhage, Axel A; Hertweck, Christian

2011-10-10

237

Quercinol, an anti-inflammatory chromene from the wood-rotting fungus Daedalea quercina (Oak Mazegill).  

Science.gov (United States)

The fungus Daedalea quercina (oak mazegill) was examined for its capability of producing antioxidative and anti-inflammatory compounds. Bioactivity guided fractionation of the extract from a mycelial culture led to the isolation of quercinol, which was identified as (-)-(2S)-2-hydroxymethyl-2-methyl-6-hydroxychromene 1 by NMR and X-ray analyses. The cryptic hydroquinone 1 shows a broad anti-inflammatory activity against cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), xanthine oxidase (XO), and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) at micromolar concentrations. PMID:17346963

Gebhardt, P; Dornberger, K; Gollmick, F A; Gräfe, U; Härtl, A; Görls, H; Schlegel, B; Hertweck, C

2007-05-01

238

Five New Guanacastane-Type Diterpenes from Cultures of the Fungus Psathyrella candolleana.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five new guanacastane-type diterpenes, named guanacastepenes P-T (1-5), were isolated from cultures of the fungus Psathyrella candolleana. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods. All of the compounds were tested for their 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11?-HSD1) inhibitory activity. Compound 3 exhibited inhibitory activity against both human and mouse isozymes of 11?-HSD1 with IC50 values of 6.2 and 13.9 ?M, respectively. PMID:24955296

Yin, Xia; Feng, Tao; Li, Zheng-Hui; Leng, Ying; Liu, Ji-Kai

2014-06-01

239

A new meroterpenoid tatenoic acid from the fungus Neosartorya tatenoi KKU-2NK23.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new meroterpenoid, named tatenoic acid (1), was isolated from the fungus Neosartorya tatenoi KKU-2NK23, together with five known compounds, aszonapyrones A and B (2 and 3), aszonalenin (4), ergosterol (5) and d-mannitol (6). Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods. Aszonapyrones A (2) exhibited antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum, and it also exhibited cytotoxicity against two cancer cell lines, NCI-H187 and KB. PMID:25142786

Yim, Tongkheang; Kanokmedhakul, Kwanjai; Kanokmedhakul, Somdej; Sanmanoch, Wareerat; Boonlue, Sophon

2014-11-01

240

Growth of the fungus Cladosporium sphaerospermum with toluene as the sole carbon and energy source.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The fungus Cladosporium sphaerospermum was isolated from a biofilter used for the removal of toluene from waste gases. This is the first report describing growth of a eukaryotic organism with toluene as the sole source of carbon and energy. The oxygen consumption rates, as well as the measured enzyme activities, of toluene-grown C. sphaerospermum indicate that toluene is degraded by an initial attack on the methyl group.

Weber, F. J.; Hage, K. C.; Bont, J. A. M.

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Effect of nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans and energy supplementation on the epidemiology of naturally infected kids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infection is a major constraint for grazing livestock production. The increasing prevalence and severity of anthelmintic-resistant nematodes in many parts of the world has led to a search for non-chemical control options. Under experimental conditions, the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans is emerging as an alternative to chemotherapy for the control of GI nematode infection in biological production systems. Also, recent information points to the role o...

Go?mez-rinco?n, Carlota; Uriarte, Joaqui?n; Valderra?bano, Jose?

2007-01-01

242

Hirsutellide A, a new antimycobacterial cyclohexadepsipeptide from the entomopathogenic fungus Hirsutella kobayasii.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new cyclohexadepsipeptide, named hirsutellide A (1), was isolated from a cell extract of the entomopathogenic fungus Hirsutella kobayasii BCC 1660. The structure of 1 was elucidated by analyses of spectroscopic data, and its absolute stereochemistry was addressed by the use of Marfey's method. Hirsutellide A (1) exhibited antimycobacterial and antimalarial activities, but was inactive toward the Vero cell line (at 50 microg/mL). PMID:12350163

Vongvanich, Namphung; Kittakoop, Prasat; Isaka, Masahiko; Trakulnaleamsai, Srisuda; Vimuttipong, Saovaluk; Tanticharoen, Morakot; Thebtaranonth, Yodhathai

2002-09-01

243

Hirsutide, a cyclic tetrapeptide from a spider-derived entomopathogenic fungus, Hirsutella sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

The entomopathogenic fungus Hirsutella sp., isolated from an infected spider, was found to produce the new cyclotetrapeptide hirsutide (1), cyclo-(L-NMe-Phe-L-Phe-L-NMe-Phe-L-Val), along with the known cytochalasin Q (2), using a cytotoxicity-guided isolation procedure. The structure of 1 was elucidated using one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments, mass spectrometry, and Marfey's method for analyzing the configuration of the amino acids. PMID:16124786

Lang, Gerhard; Blunt, John W; Cummings, Nicholas J; Cole, Anthony L J; Munro, Murray H G

2005-08-01

244

A Relationship between Carotenoid Accumulation and the Distribution of Species of the Fungus Neurospora in Spain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ascomycete fungus Neurospora is present in many parts of the world, in particular in tropical and subtropical areas, where it is found growing on recently burned vegetation. We have sampled the Neurospora population across Spain. The sampling sites were located in the region of Galicia (northwestern corner of the Iberian peninsula), the province of Cáceres, the city of Seville, and the two major islands of the Canary Islands archipelago (Tenerife and Gran Canaria, west coast of Africa). ...

Luque, Eva M.; Gutie?rrez, Gabriel; Navarro-sampedro, Laura; Olmedo, Mari?a; Rodri?guez-romero, Julio; Ruger-herreros, Carmen; Tagua, Vi?ctor G.

2012-01-01

245

Lekowra?liwo?? szczepów Candida oceniona mikrotestem ATB-Fungus firmy bioMérieux  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Celem pracy by?o badanie lekowra?liwo?ci grzybów na amfoterycyn? B, nystatyn?, 5-fluorocytozyn?, mikonazol, ekonazol i ketokonazol. Oceniono wra?liwo?? 418 szczepów Candida albicans i 65 szczepów grzybów innych ni? C. albicans,wyodr?bnionych z materia?ów klinicznych w latach 1995-1996. Szczepy zidentyfikowano za pomoc? testu ID-32C firmy bioMérieux. Zgodnie z instrukcj? producenta lekowra?liwo?? tych szczepów na antymikotyki oznaczono mikrotestem ATB-Fungus. Szczepy Ca...

Maria D?bkowska; Barbara Garczewska; Danuta Dzier?anowska

1998-01-01

246

Secondary metabolites from a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus carneus Blochwitz.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prenylated indole alkaloids, carneamides A-C (1-3), quinazolinone derivatives, carnequinazolines A-C (5-7), aryl C-glycosides, carnemycin A, B (8, 9) and a drimane sesquiterpenoid (10), together with known compounds (11-21) were isolated from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus carneus (Trichocomaceae) KMM 4638. The antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of the several alkaloids were examined. PMID:22658281

Zhuravleva, Olesya I; Afiyatullov, Shamil Sh; Denisenko, Vladimir A; Ermakova, Svetlana P; Slinkina, Natalya N; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Kim, Natalya Yu

2012-08-01

247

Structures of meroterpenes produced by Penicillium sp, an endophytic fungus found associated with Melia azedarach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The fungus Penicillium sp was isolated from the root bark of Melia azedarach after surface sterilisation and cultivated for three weeks on sterilised rice. A new meroterpene, named austinoneol, and the known meroterpenes 7-b-acetoxy-dehydroaustin, neoaustin and dehydroaustin were isolated from the methanol extract of this rice culture. Their structures were identified after extensive spectroscopic studies, which also helped on the revision of ¹H and 13C chemical shift assignment for some of the known meroterpenes.

Santos Regina M. Geris dos

2003-01-01

248

Identification and Isolation of Two Ascomycete Fungi from Spores of the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Scutellospora castanea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two filamentous fungi with different phenotypes were isolated from crushed healthy spores or perforated dead spores of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Scutellospora castanea. Based on comparative sequence analysis of 5.8S ribosomal DNA and internal transcribed spacer fragments, one isolate, obtained from perforated dead spores only, was assigned to the genus Nectria, and the second, obtained from both healthy and dead spores, was assigned to Leptosphaeria, a genus that also contains p...

Hijri, Mohamed; Redecker, Dirk; Voigt, Kerstin; Wo?stemeyer, Johannes; Sanders, Ian R.

2002-01-01

249

Induced autolysis of fungus Aspergillus terreus AT-490 grown on agricultural and food industry wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Autolysis of the biomass of fungus Aspergillus terreus AT-490 grown on citrus meal and tomato residues was studied. The optimal conditions of conducting it were determined: preliminary ultrasonic treatment for 5 min, temperature 55 degrees C, concentration of dry materials 50 g/liter, duration 23 hr, inducer 3% ethanol. The amino acid composition of the biomass of A. terreus AT-490 was determined

250

Ustilago trichophora (H.F. Link F. Körnicke, a fungus newly found in Poland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ustilago trichophora, a smut fungus found for the first time in Poland, is characterized and illustrated. Ustilago trichophora affected Echinochloa crus-galli growing in the Lower Silesia voivodeship. In laboratory investigations, the germinability of teliospores, the morphological properties of promycelium, sporidia and colonies produced on potato dextrose agar, Sabouraud-glucose agar, and in water were determined. Attempts to infect seeds and seedling of E. crus-galli in a greenhouse pot experiment failed.

Tadeusz Madej

2001-03-01

251

Secondary Metabolites from a Marine-Derived Endophytic Fungus Penicillium chrysogenum QEN-24S  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Penicillium chrysogenum QEN-24S, an endophytic fungus isolated from an unidentified marine red algal species of the genus Laurencia, displayed inhibitory activity against the growth of pathogen Alternaria brassicae in dual culture test. Chemical investigation of this fungal strain resulted in the isolation of four new (1–3 and 5) and one known (4) secondary metabolites. Their structures were identified as two polyketide derivatives penicitides A and B (1 and 2), two glycerol derivatives 2-(...

Bin-Gui Wang; Peter Proksch; Feng-Yu Du; Chun-Shun Li; Shu-Shan Gao; Xiao-Ming Li

2010-01-01

252

Secondary Metabolites from a Marine-Derived Endophytic Fungus Penicillium chrysogenum QEN-24S  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Penicillium chrysogenum QEN-24S, an endophytic fungus isolated from an unidentified marine red algal species of the genus Laurencia, displayed inhibitory activity against the growth of pathogen Alternaria brassicae in dual culture test. Chemical investigation of this fungal strain resulted in the isolation of four new (1–3 and 5) and one known (4) secondary metabolites. Their structures were identified as two polyketide derivatives penicitides A and B (1 and 2), two glycerol derivatives 2-(...

Gao, Shu-shan; Li, Xiao-ming; Du, Feng-yu; Li, Chun-shun; Proksch, Peter; Wang, Bin-gui

2011-01-01

253

Gene cluster involved in melanin biosynthesis of the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata produces melanin, a black pigment, from acetate via 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene. To isolate a fungal gene required for melanin biosynthesis, we transformed an A. alternata Brm1- (light brown) mutant with the DNA of a wild-type strain genomic library constructed by use of a cosmid carrying the hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene. When hygromycin B-resistant transformants were screened for melanin production, 1 of 1,363 transformants appeared to regain ...

Kimura, N.; Tsuge, T.

1993-01-01

254

Antifungal compounds of Xylaria sp., an endophytic fungus isolated from Palicourea marcgravii (Rubiaceae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five compounds, 2-hexyl-3-methyl-butanodioic acid (1), cytochalasin D (2), 7-dechlorogriseofulvin (3), cytochalasin B (4) and griseofulvin (5), have been isolated from the endophytic fungus Xylaria sp., and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. In the bioautography assay against Cladosporium cladosporioides and Cladosporium sphaerospermum, compounds 1 and 2 were found to be active while compounds 3, 4 and 5 did not show antifungal activity. (author)

255

Quorum Sensing in the Dimorphic Fungus Candida albicans Is Mediated by Farnesol  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The inoculum size effect in the dimorphic fungus Candida albicans results from production of an extracellular quorum-sensing molecule (QSM). This molecule prevents mycelial development in both a growth morphology assay and a differentiation assay using three chemically distinct triggers for germ tube formation (GTF): l-proline, N-acetylglucosamine, and serum (either pig or fetal bovine). In all cases, the presence of QSM prevents the yeast-to-mycelium conversion, resulting in actively budding...

Hornby, Jacob M.; Jensen, Ellen C.; Lisec, Amber D.; Tasto, Joseph J.; Jahnke, Brandon; Shoemaker, Richard; Dussault, Patrick; Nickerson, Kenneth W.

2001-01-01

256

Isolation, Characterization and Production of Phytase from Endophytic Fungus its Application for Feed  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thirty four isolates of endophytic fungus produce phytases were isolated from leaf, stem and root fragments of soybean. Two isolates were the best of phytases enzyme producer and identified as Rhizoctonia sp. and Fusarium verticillioides. The phytase production was induced by phytate in medium used. The crude preparations were used in subsequent characterization studies, pH and temperature optimum and compared to other phytases tested and is thus a promising candidate for animal...

Peri Adnadi; Rina Delfita; Yetti Marlida; Gita Ciptaan

2010-01-01

257

Detection and Identification of Fungi from Fungus Balls of the Maxillary Sinus by Molecular Techniques  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to find a reliable method for the detection and identification of fungi in fungus balls of the maxillary sinus and to evaluate the spectrum of fungi in these samples. One hundred twelve samples were obtained from patients with histologically proven fungal infections; 81 samples were paraffin-embedded tissue sections of the maxillary sinus. In 31 cases, sinus contents without paraffin embedding were sent for investigation. PCR amplification with universal fungal prime...

Willinger, Birgit; Obradovic, Alexandra; Selitsch, Brigitte; Beck-mannagetta, Johann; Buzina, Walter; Braun, Hannes; Apfalter, Petra; Hirschl, Alexander M.; Makristathis, Athanasios; Rotter, Manfred

2003-01-01

258

First Report of Human Infection Due to the Fungus Triadelphia pulvinata  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Triadelphia pulvinata, a soil hyphomycete, was found to be the cause of eczematoid, scaly, grey lesions on the skin of both eyelids of a 30-year-old Indian male living in Saudi Arabia. Repeated KOH preparations of the skin scrapings showed presence of sclerotic, branched, septate hyphae. When cultured, skin scrapings from the lesion grew the dematiaceous fungus T. pulvinata. Treatment with topical clotrimazole cured the infection, and no recurrence of the infection was noted in a 5-year follo...

Al-hedaithy, Saleh S. A.

2001-01-01

259

Genome Size, Complexity, and Ploidy of the Pathogenic Fungus Histoplasma capsulatum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The genome size, complexity, and ploidy of the dimorphic pathogenic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum was determined by using DNA renaturation kinetics, genomic reconstruction, and flow cytometry. Nuclear DNA was isolated from two strains, G186AS and Downs, and analyzed by renaturation kinetics and genomic reconstruction with three putative single-copy genes (calmodulin, ?-tubulin, and ?-tubulin). G186AS was found to have a genome of approximately 2.3 × 107 bp with less than 0.5% repetitive se...

Carr, Jeanne; Shearer, Glenmore

1998-01-01

260

repa, a repetitive and dispersed DNA sequence of the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The sequences of homologous DNA regions of two wild-type strains of the fungus Podospora anserina, revealed in one strain the presence of a 349bp insertion leading to a RFLP. This DNA sequence is repeated in the genome and some of its locations are different in various wild-type strains. This DNA element exhibits structural similarities with the yeast solo delta, sigma or tau elements.

Deleu, C.; Turcq, B.; Begueret, J.

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Susceptibility of Tetranychus urticae koch. (Acari: Tetranychidae) to isolates of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bioassays with five isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.- Criv.) Vuillemin were conducted under laboratory conditions with a goal to estimate their virulence to the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. (Acari: Tetranychidae). Common bean plants with mites were treated by spraying conidial suspensions of isolates at concentrations of 106, 107 and 108 conidia/ml. Lethal effects of the fungal isolates were evaluated as percentages of cumulative daily mor...

Draganova, Slavimira A.; Simova, Spaska A.

2010-01-01

262

Susceptibility of Tetranychus urticae Koch. (Acari: Tetranychidae) to Isolates of Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bioassays with five isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.- Criv.) Vuillemin were conducted under laboratory conditions with a goal to estimate their virulence to the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. (Acari: Tetranychidae). Common bean plants with mites were treated by spraying conidial suspensions of isolates at concentrations of 106, 107 and 108 conidia/ml. Lethal effects of the fungal isolates wereevaluated as percentages of cumulative daily mort...

2010-01-01

263

Two Novel Hexadepsipeptides with Several Modified Amino Acid Residues Isolated from the Fungus Isaria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two new cyclohexadepsipeptides have been isolated from the fungus Isaria. Fungal growth in solid media yielded hyphal strands from which peptide fractions were readily isolable by organic-solvent extraction. Two novel cyclodepsipeptides, isaridin A and isaridin B, have been isolated by reverse-phase HPLC, and characterized by ESI-MS and 1H-NMR. Single crystals of both peptides have been obtained, and their 3D structures were elucidated by X-ray diffraction. The isaridins contain several unusu...

Gudihal, Ravindra; Rappal, Ranganayaki S.; Raghothama, Srinivasa; Mandayam, Srinivasan C.; Gilardi, Richard D.; Karle, Isabella L.; Balaram, Padmanabhan

2004-01-01

264

Nematicidal activities of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and oidiolactone D produced by the fungus Oidiodendron sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two nematicides, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (4-HPA) (1) and oidiolactone D (2), were isolated from cultures of the fungus Oidiodendron sp., and their structures were identified by spectroscopic analyses. Compound 2 showed nematicidal activities against the root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans, and the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Compound 1 was also active against these two nematodes but to a lesser extent. PMID:21476434

Ohtani, Kouhei; Fujioka, Shozo; Kawano, Tsuyoshi; Shimada, Atsumi; Kimura, Yasuo

2011-01-01

265

The ligninolytic system of the white rot fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus: purification and characterization of the laccase.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The white rot fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus was characterized with respect to its set of extracellular phenoloxidases. Laccase was produced as the predominant extracellular phenoloxidase in conjunction with low amounts of an unusual peroxidase. Neither lignin peroxidase nor manganese peroxidase was detected. Laccase was produced constitutively during primary metabolism. Addition of the most effective inducer, 2,5-xylidine, enhanced laccase production ninefold without altering the isoenzyme p...

Eggert, C.; Temp, U.; Eriksson, K. E.

1996-01-01

266

Comparison of Gamma Irradiated and Raw Lignite in Bioliquefaction Process by Fungus T5  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The bioliquefaction of coal is a processing technology for converting solid coal to liquid oil at ambient temperature by helping microorganism. The pretreated of lignite is important to decrease the hydrofobic of lignite surface. One of pretreated method was irradiation by gamma rays. Aim of this research was to compare the gamma irradiated lignite and raw lignite in bioliquefaction process by selected fungus T5. The fungus was identified by molecular method using 18S rDNA. Treatments were A (MSS + gamma irradiated lignite 5% + T5) and B (MSS + raw lignite 5% + T5) and culture type was sub-merged. The parameters observed were colonization, bacterial and fungal enumeration, identify of dominant bacteria using 16S rDNA and characterization of bioliquefaction product by UV-Vis spectroscopy dan gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GCMS). The results showed that fungus T5 belongs to Ascomycota, Trichoderma asperellum. Fungus has the ability to growth and liquefy gamma irradiated and raw lignite. Bacteria were detected in raw lignite treatment and dominant bacteria were identified as Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus thuringensis. UV-Vis analysis showed that boliquefaction product mainly contained naphtacene, naphthalene, and anthracene for gamma irradiated lignite, but anthracene and benzene for raw lignite. For GCMS analysis, 22 and 38 compounds were identified for gamma irradiated and raw lignite. Both treatment had different number of hydrocarbon, i.e. C6 - C35 (A) and C10 - C35 (B) and dominated by aromatic acids, aliphatic and phenylethers. Percent area of gasoline (C7 - C11) and diesel (C10 - C24) fractions on the treatment B was 7.23% and 62.35%, while in treatment A was 7.22% and 44.27%. Based on the results, pretreated of lignite by gamma irradiation could be increased the bioliquefaction product. (author)

267

Cryptosporioptide: a bioactive polyketide produced by an endophytic fungus Cryptosporiopsis sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

An antibiotic polyketide, Cryptosporioptide (1) was isolated from the culture extract of the endophytic fungus Cryptosporiopsis sp. The structure of Cryptosporioptide has been established with the help of 1D ((1)H, (13)C), 2D NMR (HSQC, HMBC, COSY, NOESY) techniques and mass spectrometry (FABMS, HRFABMS). The absolute configuration was established by means of electronic circular dichroism (ECD). Cryptosporioptide exhibited both lipoxygenase inhibitory and anti-Bacillus megaterium activities. PMID:23642454

Saleem, Muhammad; Tousif, Muhammad Imran; Riaz, Naheed; Ahmed, Ishtiaq; Schulz, Barbara; Ashraf, Muhammad; Nasar, Rumana; Pescitelli, Gennaro; Hussain, Hidayat; Jabbar, Abdul; Shafiq, Nusrat; Krohn, Karsten

2013-09-01

268

Role of mannitol metabolism in the pathogenicity of the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, the physiological functions of fungal mannitol metabolism in the pathogenicity and protection against environmental stresses were investigated in the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola. Mannitol metabolism was examined during infection of Brassica oleracea leaves by sequential HPLC quantification of the major soluble carbohydrates and expression analysis of genes encoding two proteins of mannitol metabolism, i.e., a mannitol dehydrogenase (AbMdh), and a mannitol-1-phos...

Calmes, Benoit; Guillemette, Thomas; Teyssier, Le?ny; Pigne?, Sandrine; Landreau, Anne; Iacomi, Be?atrice; Lemoine, Re?mi; Richomme, Pascal

2013-01-01

269

Cytotoxic illudalane sesquiterpenes from the wood-decay fungus Granulobasidium vellereum (Ellis & Cragin) Jülich.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seven illudalane sesquiterpenes were obtained from the wood decomposing fungus Granulobasidium vellereum: granuloinden A, granuloinden B and dihydrogranuloinden, along with the previously known compounds radulactone, pterosin M, echinolactone A and D. Granuloinden B showed potent cytotoxic activity against the Huh7 and MT4 tumor cell lines (CC50 values of 6.7 and 0.15 µM, respectively), whereas granuloinden A and dihydrogranuloinden had no or moderate activity. PMID:25207719

Nord, Christina L; Menkis, Audrius; Broberg, Anders

2014-01-01

270

Phomopsidone A, a novel depsidone metabolite from the mangrove endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp. A123.  

Science.gov (United States)

One novel pentacyclic depsidone containing an oxetane unit, phomopsidone A (1), together with the reported excelsione (also named as phomopsidone) (2), and four known isobenzofuranones (3-6) were isolated from the mangrove endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp. A123. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and high resolution mass spectrometry. The bioactivity assays showed that these compounds possess cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antifungal activities. PMID:24821321

Zhang, Wei; Xu, Liyan; Yang, Lishan; Huang, Yaojian; Li, Shengying; Shen, Yuemao

2014-07-01

271

Cytotoxic Illudalane Sesquiterpenes from the Wood-Decay Fungus Granulobasidium vellereum (Ellis & Cragin Jülich  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seven illudalane sesquiterpenes were obtained from the wood decomposing fungus Granulobasidium vellereum: granuloinden A, granuloinden B and dihydrogranuloinden, along with the previously known compounds radulactone, pterosin M, echinolactone A and D. Granuloinden B showed potent cytotoxic activity against the Huh7 and MT4 tumor cell lines (CC50 values of 6.7 and 0.15 µM, respectively, whereas granuloinden A and dihydrogranuloinden had no or moderate activity.

Christina L. Nord

2014-09-01

272

Flavipucine and brunnescin, two antibiotics from cultures of the mycophilic fungus Cladobotryum rubrobrunnescens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two antimicrobial metabolites were isolated from submerged cultures of Cladobotryum rubrobrunnescens, a mycophilic fungus growing on a Inocybe species. One of the compounds proved to be identical to flavipucine (2), an antibiotic previously isolated from Aspergillus flavipes (Casinovi et al., 1968) and from a Macrophoma species (Sassa T. and Onuma Y. (1983), Agric. Biol. Chem. 47, 1155-1157). The other metabolite, brunnescin (1), is a new tetrasubstituted furan derivative which exhibits antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic effects. PMID:7546030

Wagner, C; Anke, H; Besl, H; Sterner, O

1995-01-01

273

Detection of wood discoloration in a canker fungus-inoculated Japanese cedar by neutron radiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron radiography (NRG) was applied to trace the development of discolored tissue in the wood of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) after being infected with a canker fungus. Japanese cedar seedlings were wound inoculated with a virulent and avirulent isolate of a canker fungus, Guignardia cryptomeriae. Three, 7, 13 and 22 days after the inoculation, the seedlings were irradiated with thermal neutrons. The image on the X-ray film showed that the whiteness in the image corresponded to the water content in the sample. Discolored tissue and surrounding dry zones induced by the fungal inoculation were detected as dark areas, indicating water deficiency with a high resolution. Through image analysis, the dry zones were detected as early as 3 days after inoculation. Neutron images also showed the difference in the size of water deficient parts due to the tissue damage among the treatments. The neutron beam dose used in this experiment had no effect on the growth rate of the fungus on a medium, showing that NRG is an effective method for pathological research of trees. (author)

274

Inducing defence enzymes in two rice (Oryza sativa varieties by G. mosseae arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Protecting plants against fundamentally radical pathogens is one of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi's benefits. This work was aimed at comparing the effect of one such fungus (Glomus mosseae on inducing a defensive response in two rice (Oryza sativa varieties (LP-7 and J-104. Peroxidise, polyphenoloxidase, chitinase, (3-1,3 glucanase and phenylalanine ammonium lyase enzymatic activity and peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase isoenzymatic expression were determined in both radical and foliar tissues. Mycorrhizal colonisation and visual density percentage were also evaluated. The results revealed that the G. mosseae fungus caused variations in enzymatic activity. Differences were observed in the two varieties behaviour patterns according to evaluation time and plant área studied. The differences detected in peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase electrophoretic patterns were due to the varieties and not to mycorrhisation effect. Rice variety LP-7 generally presented a successful response to inoculation with the G. mosseae arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, manifesting higher defence mechanism induction. The best results for protecting crops could thus be obtained by using this combination. Key words: peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase, chitinase, (3-1,3 glucanase and phenylalanine ammonium lyase.

Yakelín Rodríguez

2007-05-01

275

Chemical constituents of marine algal-derived endophytic fungus Exophiala oligosperma EN-21  

Science.gov (United States)

Seven compounds (1-7) were identified from the cultivation of the endophytic fungus Exophiala oligosperma (EN-21) that was isolated from the inner tissue of the marine red alga Laurencia similis. Their structures were identified with spectroscopic and chemical methods as 2-phenoxynaphthalene ( 1), (2 S, 3 R, 4 E, 8 E)-1- O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-3-hydroxy-2-[( R)-2'-hydroxyoctadecanoyl] amino-9-methyl-4, 8-octadeca-diene ( 2), (22 E,24 R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-3?,5?,6?-triol ( 3), (22 E, 24 R)-3?, 5?, 9?-trihydroxy-ergosta-7, 22-dien-6-one ( 4), (22 E, 24 R)-5?, 6?-epoxy-ergosta-8, 22-dien-3?, 7?-diol ( 5), (22 E, 24 R)-ergosta-4, 6, 8(14), 22-tetraen-3-one ( 6), and euphorbol ( 7). This paper reports for the first time the chemical constituents of fungus Exophiala oligosperma and the discovery of compound 1 as a natural product from the fungus.

Li, Fang; Li, Ke; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Bingui

2011-01-01

276

Soil pH and the Activity of a Pelletized Nematophagous Fungus.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT When formulated as assimilative hyphae in alginate pellets, the nematophagous fungus Hirsutella rhossiliensis was more active (i.e., parasitized more assay nematodes) in an acidic vineyard soil than in a neutral vineyard soil. To determine whether soil pH explained the difference, fungus activity was measured in soil from the neutral site that had been acidified (by adding sulfuric acid) and in soil from the acidic site that had been neutralized (by adding calcium hydroxide). As hypothesized, the activity of pelletized Hirsutella rhossiliensis was negatively correlated with soil pH. Maximum activity occurred at pH(calcium chloride) 4.5, and activity gradually declined to near zero as the pH increased to 6.5 and rapidly declined to near zero as the pH dropped below 4.0. Assays performed on leached soil samples indicated that the effects of sulfuric acid and calcium hydroxide were largely due to pH rather than to specific ions or osmotic potential. The effect of pH, however, was indirect. Heating the neutral soil to 60 degrees C for 2 h did not alter soil pH or electrical conductivity but increased fungus activity to levels equivalent to those in acidified soil. We conclude that, in these two soils, heat treatment or low soil pH suppresses soil organisms that otherwise interfere with growth of Hirsutella rhossiliensis from alginate pellets. PMID:18943353

Jaffee, B A; Zasoski, R J

2001-03-01

277

Resistance of some early mutant lines of soybean to rust fungus (Phakospora pachyrhizi Syd)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A trial for resistance to rust fungus (Phakospora pachyrhizi Syd.) was conducted on 11 early mutant lines of soybean M6 (derived from Orba variety with a dose of 0.4 kGy of Co-60) at Citayam Experimental Station, Bogor, in the wet season of 80/81. Based on IWGSR rating system, soybean mutant lines number M6/40/6 was moderately susceptible to rust fungus (Phakospora pachyrhizi Syd). While 10 other soybean mutant lines M6/40/1, M6/40/2, M6/40/3, M6/40/4, M6/40/5, M6/40/7, M6/40/8, M6/40/9, M6/40/10 and M6/40/11 were susceptible to rust fungus. Significant differences in yield were observed between the early mutant lines M6/40/6 (moderate susceptible), 10 other mutant lines (susceptible) and ringgit variety (susceptible). However, a significant lower yield was produced by those mutant lines compared with the yield of orba variety. (author)

278

Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus and Different Phosphorus Doses Against Cotton Wilt Caused Verticillium dahliae Kleb.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus (AMF and different phosphorus dosages on the development of Verticillium dahliae Kleb. induced wilt in cotton. Sayar-314 cotton variety which is sensitive to Verticillium wilt, AMF G. intraradices and phosphorus dosages of 0, 40 and 80 kg ha-1 were used in the experiments implemented under naturally V. dahliae-contaminated field conditions during the years of 2007 and 2008. According to the obtained results, it was found that there occurred a reduction in the disease chart. Also, it was observed that the application reduced the severity of the disease by 22-29.22% in green portions of cotton plants and their stem sections in field divisions particularly to which G. intraradices and phosphorus of 40 kg ha-1 had been applied together in both years. On the other hand, phosphorus dosage of 80 kg ha-1 had a negative effect in suppressing the infection. Phosphorus (P content of cotton plants leaves increased in mycorrhizal fungus treated divisions compared with those untreated. Besides, due to the infection, cotton yield decreased by 14-21% in the divisions without AMF application. It was also concluded that if AM fungus was applied along with lower dosages of phosphorus, it would mitigate the severity of V. dahliae-induced infection in cotton, increase the yield despite the infection and induce phosphorus uptake in the plant.

Aysel Bars Orak

2011-01-01

279

Evolutionary transition from single to multiple mating in fungus-growing ants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Queens of leafcutter ants exhibit the highest known levels of multiple mating (up to 10 mates per queen) among ants. Multiple mating may have been selected to increase genetic diversity among nestmate workers, which is hypothesized to be critical in social systems with large, long-lived colonies under severe pressure of pathogens. Advanced fungus-growing (leafcutter) ants have large numbers (104-106 workers) and long-lived colonies, whereas basal genera in the attine tribe have small (<200 workers) colonies with probably substantially shorter lifespans. Basal attines are therefore expected to have lower queen mating frequencies, similar to those found in most other ants. We tested this prediction by analysing queen mating frequency and colony kin structure in three basal attine species: Myrmicocrypta ednaella, Apterostigma collare and Cyphomyrmex longiscapus. Microsatellite marker analyses revealed that queens in all three species were single mated, and that worker-to-worker relatedness in these basal attine species is very close to 0.75, the value expected under exclusively single mating. Fungus growing per se has therefore not selected for multiple queen mating. Instead, the advanced and highly productive social structure of the higher attine ants, which is fully dependent on the rearing of an ancient clonal fungus, may have necessitated high genetic diversity among nestmate workers. This is not the case in the lower attines, which rear fungi that were more recently derived from free-living fungal populations.

Villesen, Poul; Gertsch, P J

1999-01-01

280

Intronless celB from the anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum encodes a modular family A endoglucanase.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cDNA designated celB from the anaerobic rumen fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum contained a single open reading frame of 1422 bp coding for a protein (CelB) of M(r) 53,070. CelB expressed by Escherichia coli harbouring the full-length gene hydrolysed carboxymethylcellulose in the manner of an endoglucanase, but was most active against barley beta-glucan. It also released reducing sugar from xylan and lichenan, but was inactive against crystalline cellulose, laminarin, mannan, galactan and arabinan. The rate of hydrolysis of cellulo-oligosaccharides by CelB increased with increasing chain length from cellotriose to cellopentaose. The predicted structure of CelB contained features indicative of modular structure. The first 360 residues of CelB constituted a fully functional catalytic domain that was homologous with bacterial endoglucanases belonging to cellulase family A, including five which originate from three different species of anaerobic rumen bacteria. Downstream from this domain, and linked to it by a serine/threonine-rich hinge, was a non-catalytic domain containing short tandem repeats, homologous to the C-terminal repeats contained in xylanase A from the same anaerobic fungus. Unlike previous fungal cellulases, genomic celB was devoid of introns. This lack of introns and the homology of its encoded product with rumen bacterial endoglucanases suggest that acquisition of celB by the fungus may at some stage have involved horizontal gene transfer from a prokaryote to N. particiarum. PMID:8297343

Zhou, L; Xue, G P; Orpin, C G; Black, G W; Gilbert, H J; Hazlewood, G P

1994-01-15

 
 
 
 
281

Ten rice peroxidases redundantly respond to multiple stresses including infection with rice blast fungus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Class III plant peroxidases are believed to function in diverse physiological processes including disease resistance and wound response, but predicted low substrate specificities and the presence of 70 or more isoforms have made it difficult to define a specific physiological function(s) for each gene. To select pathogen-responsive POX genes, we analyzed the expression profiles of 22 rice POX genes after infection with rice blast fungus. The expression of 10 POX genes among the 22 genes was induced after fungal inoculation in both compatible and incompatible hosts. Seven of the 10 POX genes were expressed at higher levels in the incompatible host than in the compatible host 6-24 h after inoculation by which time no fungus-induced lesions have appeared. Organ-specific expression and stress-induced expression by wounding and treatment with probenazole, an agrichemical against blast fungus, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate, a precursor of ethylene, indicated that rice POXs have individual characteristics and can be classified into several types. A comparison of the amino acid sequences of POXs showed that multiple isoforms with a high sequence similarity respond to stress in different or similar ways. Such redundant responses of POX genes may guarantee POX activities that are necessary for self-defense in plant tissues against environmental stresses including pathogen infection. PMID:15564528

Sasaki, Katsutomo; Iwai, Takayoshi; Hiraga, Susumu; Kuroda, Katsushi; Seo, Shigemi; Mitsuhara, Ichiro; Miyasaka, Atsushi; Iwano, Masataka; Ito, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Hirokazu; Ohashi, Yuko

2004-10-01

282

Occurrence of R-growth type of Tapesia yallundae fungus and its sensitivity to some fungicides  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From winter wheat and winter triticale stems with distinct disease lesions 123 isolates of eyespot agent - Tapesia yallundae fungus were obtained. Stems were collected in 1999-2001, from no-treatment and protected with fungicides fields, which were situated in three provinces of Poland (ma?opolskie, mazowieckie, ?l?skie. Obtained isolates were classified on the basis of morphology on PDA, sporulation on water agar and sensitivity to carbendazim and prochloraz 51 isolates (i.e. 41,5% of all represent R- growth type of fungus. To this type belong 28% and 71% strains obtained from wheat and triticale stems, respectively. Only seven isolates ofR-type fungus (i.e. 13,7% were resistant to carbendazim. These strains originated from two protected with carbendazim winter wheat fields and two no-protected winter triticale crops. All isolates of R-type were sensitive to prochloraz. This compounds appears in vitro more effective than flusilazole, propiconazole and azoxystrobin.

Zbigniew T. Mali?ski

2002-06-01

283

Larvicidal effects of endophytic and basidiomycete fungus extracts on Aedes and Anopheles larvae (Diptera, Culicidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction In vitro bioassays were performed to access the larvicidal activity of crude extracts from the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis virgulata (Melanconiales, Amphisphaeriaceae) and the saprophytic fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus (Basidiomycetes, Polyporaceae) against the mosquitoes Aedes aegy [...] pti and Anopheles nuneztovari. Methods The extracts were tested at concentrations of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500ppm. Ethyl acetate mycelia (EAM) extracts and liquid culture media (LCM) from Pe. virgulata and Py. sanguineus were tested against third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and An. nuneztovari. Results The larvicidal activity of the EAM extracts from Pe. virgulata against Ae. aegypti had an LC50=101.8ppm, and the extract from the basidiomycete fungus Py. sanguineus had an LC50=156.8ppm against the Ae. aegypti larvae. The Pe. virgulata extract had an LC50=16.3ppm against the An. nuneztovari larvae, and the Py. sanguineus extract had an LC50=87.2ppm against these larvae. Conclusions These results highlight the larvicidal effect of EAM extracts from the endophyte Pe. virgulata against the two larval mosquitoes tested. Thus, Pe. virgulata and Py. sanguineus have the potential for the production of bioactive substances against larvae of these two tropical disease vectors, with An. nuneztovari being more susceptible to these extracts.

Augusto, Bucker; Nadia Cristina Falcao, Bucker; Antonia Queiroz Lima de, Souza; Auricelia Matos da, Gama; Edson, Rodrigues-Filho; Fabio Medeiros da, Costa; Cecilia Veronica, Nunez; Ademir Castro e, Silva; Wanderli Pedro, Tadei.

2013-08-08

284

Biological Control of Meloidogyne hapla on Alfalfa and Tomato with the Fungus Meria coniospora.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was to determine whether Arthrobotrys flagrans, A. oligospora, and Meria coniospora would control the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla on alfalfa and tomato. Alfalfa seeds were coated with a fungus-rye powder in 2% cellulose and were planted in infested soil. Three-week-old seedlings from seed treated with M. coniospora had 60% and 58% fewer galls in two experiments than did seedlings from untreated seeds. Numbers of J2 in the soil were not reduced. Plant growth did not improve. When seed of tomato were coated with M. coniospora and planted in M. hapla-infested soil, roots had 34% fewer galls and 47% fewer J2 in the soil at 28 days. After 56 days there was no reduction in J2 numbers. Plant growth did not improve. When roots of tomato transplants were dusted with M. coniospora fungus-rye powder or sprayed with a spore suspension before planting in M. hapla-infested soil, 42% and 35%, respectively, fewer galls developed in 28 days on treated roots than on roots not treated with fungus. The numbers of J2 extracted from roots or recovered from soil were not reduced, however, and plant growth did not improve. PMID:19287596

Townshend, J L; Meskine, M; Barron, G L

1989-04-01

285

Biological control of trichostrongyles in beef cattle by the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans in tropical southeastern Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficacy of a fungal formulation based on the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans was assessed in the control of cattle trichostrongyles. Twenty male Nellore calves, six-month-old, divided in two groups (fungus-treated and control without fungus) were fed on a pasture of Brachiaria decumbens naturally infected with larvae of bovine trichostrongyles. Animals of the treated group received doses of sodium alginate mycelial pellets orally (1 g/10 kg live weight, twice a week), for 12 months. Feces samples were collected for egg count (eggs per gram of feces-EPG) and coprocultures during 12 months. There was a significant reduction in EPG (56.7%) and infective larvae (L3) in coprocultures (60.5%) for animals of the treated group in relation to the control group at the end of the study. There was a significant reduction of L3 (64.5%) in herbage samples collected up to 0-20 cm from fecal pats and 73.2% in distant samples (20-40 cm) between the fungus-treated group and the control group. The treatment with sodium alginate pellets containing the nematode trapping fungus D. flagrans reduced trichostrongylid in tropical southeastern Brazil and could be an effective tool for biological control of this parasitic nematode in beef cattle. PMID:22975475

Assis, R C L; Luns, F D; Araújo, J V; Braga, F R

2012-11-01

286

Comparative analysis of mixing distribution in aerobic stirred bioreactor for simulated yeasts and fungus broths.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study on mixing distribution for an aerobic stirred bioreactor and simulated (solutions of carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt), yeasts (S. cerevisiae) and fungus (P. chrysogenum pellets and free mycelia) broths indicated the significant variation of mixing time on the bioreactor height. The experiments suggested the possibility to reach a uniform mixing in whole bulk of the real broths for a certain value of rotation speed or biomass concentration domain. For S. cerevisiae broths the optimum rotation speed increased to 500 rpm with the biomass accumulation from 40 to 150 g/l d.w. Irrespective of their morphology, for fungus cultures the existence of optimum rotation speed (500 rpm) has been recorded only for biomass concentration below 24 g/l d.w. The influence of aeration rate depends on the apparent viscosity/biomass concentration and on the impellers and sparger positions. By increasing the apparent viscosity for simulated broths, or biomass amount for real broths, the shape of the curves describing the mixing time variation is significantly changed for all the considered positions. The intensification of the aeration induced the increase of mixing time, which reached a maximum value, decreasing then, due to the flooding phenomena. This variation became more pronounced at higher viscosities for simulated broths, at higher yeasts concentration, and at lower pellets or filamentous fungus concentration, respectively. By means of the experimental data and using MATLAB software, some mathematical correlations for mixing time have been proposed for each broth and considered position inside the bioreactor. These equations offer a good agreement with the experiment, the maximum deviation being +/-7.3% for S. cerevisiae broths. PMID:16909268

Cascaval, Dan; Galaction, Anca-Irina; Turnea, Marius

2007-01-01

287

Effect of the fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia on Echinostoma paraensei (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Echinostoma paraensei is a trematode of the genus Echinostoma that causes echinostomiasis in humans. The objectives of this study were to: evaluate the ovicidal activity of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia (VC1 and VC4) on a solid medium 2% water-agar (2% WA) against E. paraensei eggs (assay A); evaluate ovicidal effect (destruction of eggs) of the isolate VC4 in supplemented culture media (assay B); and evaluate the ovicidal ability of the crude extract (VC4) on E. paraensei eggs (assay C). Eggs of E. paraensei (assay A) were placed in Petri dishes containing 2% WA with an isolate of the fungus P. chlamydosporia (VC1 and VC4) grown for 10 days, and without fungus as a control and evaluated regarding their destruction. In assay B, eggs of E. paraensei were placed in Petri dishes with different supplemented culture media and with VC4 isolate and the destruction of eggs was examined at the end of 25 days of interaction. In assay C, effects of the crude extract of P. chlamydosporia (VC4) on eggs were evaluated at the end of 7 days. In assay A, there was no difference (p>0.05) in ovicidal activity among the tested isolates (VC1 and VC4); however, the highest percentage for ovicidal activity (type 3 effect) was demonstrated by the isolate VC4. In assay B, the culture medium starch-agar showed the best results for the destruction of the eggs, with a percentage of 46.6% at the end of the assay. In assay C, the crude extract of VC4 was effective in the destruction of E. paraensei eggs, with a percentage reduction of 53%. The results of this study demonstrate that a rich culture medium with a greater availability of carbon and nitrogen may interfere directly in the predatory characteristics of ovicidal fungi. PMID:25046695

Lelis, Rosane Teixeira; Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; de Carvalho, Lorendane Millena; de Paula, Alessandra Teixeira; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Fausto, Mariana Costa; Junior, Arnaldo Maldonado; Rodrigues, João Victor Facchini; de Freitas Soares, Filippe Elias; Garcia, Juberlan Silva; de Araújo, Jackson Victor

2014-11-01

288

Viability of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia after passage through the gastrointestinal tract of horses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The predatory capacity of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia (isolate VC4) embedded in sodium alginate pellets after passage through the gastrointestinal tract of horses was assessed in vitro against Oxyuris equi eggs. Twelve previously dewormed crossbred mares, average weight of 362.5kg (+/-21) were used in the experiment. Each animal of the treated group received an oral dose (100g) of sodium alginate pellets containing P. chlamydosporia mycelial mass. The control group received pellets without fungus. Faecal samples from fungus-treated and control groups were collected at intervals of 8, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72h after pellet administration and placed in Petri dishes containing 2% water-agar. One thousand eggs of O. equi were plated in Petri dishes of both treated and control groups, with six replicates, and incubated in oven, 25 degrees C, in the dark, for 30 days. At the end of the experiment, one hundred eggs were removed from each Petri dish and classified according to the following parameters: type 1, physiological and biochemical effect without morphological damage to eggshell, with hyphae adhered to the shell; type 2, lytic effect with morphological change in the eggshell and embryo without hyphal penetration, and type 3, lytic effect with morphological change in the eggshell and embryo, with hyphal penetration and internal egg colonization. Chlamydospore production was observed in Petri dishes of the treated group. The isolate VC4 remained viable after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of horses and maintained the ovicidal activity against O. equi eggs when compared with the control group (p<0.01) after each collection interval: 29.1% (8h), 28.2% (12h), 31.1% (24h), 27.4% (36h), 30.9% (48h) and 28.4% (72h). The results suggest that P. chlamydosporia could be used as an effective biological control agent of O. equi eggs in natural conditions. PMID:20036059

Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; Araújo, Jackson Victor; Silva, André Ricardo; Carvalho, Rogério Oliva; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Ferreira, Sebastião Rodrigo; Carvalho, Giovanni Ribeiro

2010-03-25

289

Exploring the Chemodiversity and Biological Activities of the Secondary Metabolites from the Marine Fungus Neosartorya pseudofischeri.  

Science.gov (United States)

The production of fungal metabolites can be remarkably influenced by various cultivation parameters. To explore the biosynthetic potentials of the marine fungus, Neosartorya pseudofischeri, which was isolated from the inner tissue of starfish Acanthaster planci, glycerol-peptone-yeast extract (GlyPY) and glucose-peptone-yeast extract (GluPY) media were used to culture this fungus. When cultured in GlyPY medium, this fungus produced two novel diketopiperazines, neosartins A and B (1 and 2), together with six biogenetically-related known diketopiperazines,1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2, 3-dimethyl-1,4-dioxopyrazino[1,2-a]indole (3), 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-methyl-3-methylen e-1,4-dioxopyrazino[1,2-a]indole (4), 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-methyl-1,3,4-trioxopyrazino[1,2-a] indole (5), 6-acetylbis(methylthio)gliotoxin (10), bisdethiobis(methylthio)gliotoxin (11), didehydrobisdethiobis(methylthio)gliotoxin (12) and N-methyl-1H-indole-2-carboxamide (6). However, a novel tetracyclic-fused alkaloid, neosartin C (14), a meroterpenoid, pyripyropene A (15), gliotoxin (7) and five known gliotoxin analogues, acetylgliotoxin (8), reduced gliotoxin (9), 6-acetylbis(methylthio)gliotoxin (10), bisdethiobis(methylthio) gliotoxin (11) and bis-N-norgliovictin (13), were obtained when grown in glucose-containing medium (GluPY medium). This is the first report of compounds 3, 4, 6, 9, 10 and 12 as naturally occurring. Their structures were determined mainly by MS, 1D and 2D NMR data. The possible biosynthetic pathways of gliotoxin-related analogues and neosartin C were proposed. The antibacterial activity of compounds 2-14 and the cytotoxic activity of compounds 4, 5 and 7-13 were evaluated. Their structure-activity relationships are also preliminarily discussed. PMID:25421322

Liang, Wan-Ling; Le, Xiu; Li, Hou-Jin; Yang, Xiang-Ling; Chen, Jun-Xiong; Xu, Jun; Liu, Huan-Liang; Wang, Lai-You; Wang, Kun-Teng; Hu, Kun-Chao; Yang, De-Po; Lan, Wen-Jian

2014-01-01

290

Exploring the Chemodiversity and Biological Activities of the Secondary Metabolites from the Marine Fungus Neosartorya pseudofischeri  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The production of fungal metabolites can be remarkably influenced by various cultivation parameters. To explore the biosynthetic potentials of the marine fungus, Neosartorya pseudofischeri, which was isolated from the inner tissue of starfish Acanthaster planci, glycerol-peptone-yeast extract (GlyPY and glucose-peptone-yeast extract (GluPY media were used to culture this fungus. When cultured in GlyPY medium, this fungus produced two novel diketopiperazines, neosartins A and B (1 and 2, together with six biogenetically-related known diketopiperazines,1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2, 3-dimethyl-1,4-dioxopyrazino[1,2-a]indole (3, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-methyl-3-methylen e-1,4-dioxopyrazino[1,2-a]indole (4, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-methyl-1,3,4-trioxopyrazino[1,2-a] indole (5, 6-acetylbis(methylthiogliotoxin (10, bisdethiobis(methylthiogliotoxin (11, didehydrobisdethiobis(methylthiogliotoxin (12 and N-methyl-1H-indole-2-carboxamide (6. However, a novel tetracyclic-fused alkaloid, neosartin C (14, a meroterpenoid, pyripyropene A (15, gliotoxin (7 and five known gliotoxin analogues, acetylgliotoxin (8, reduced gliotoxin (9, 6-acetylbis(methylthiogliotoxin (10, bisdethiobis(methylthio gliotoxin (11 and bis-N-norgliovictin (13, were obtained when grown in glucose-containing medium (GluPY medium. This is the first report of compounds 3, 4, 6, 9, 10 and 12 as naturally occurring. Their structures were determined mainly by MS, 1D and 2D NMR data. The possible biosynthetic pathways of gliotoxin-related analogues and neosartin C were proposed. The antibacterial activity of compounds 2–14 and the cytotoxic activity of compounds 4, 5 and 7–13 were evaluated. Their structure-activity relationships are also preliminarily discussed.

Wan-Ling Liang

2014-11-01

291

Identifying the transition between single and multiple mating of queens in fungus-growing ants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Obligate mating of females (queens) with multiple males has evolved only rarely in social Hymenoptera (ants, social bees, social wasps) and for reasons that are fundamentally different from those underlying multiple mating in other animals. The monophyletic tribe of ('attine') fungus-growing ants is known to include evolutionarily derived genera with obligate multiple mating (the Acromyrmex and Atta leafcutter ants) as well as phylogenetically basal genera with exclusively single mating (e.g. Apterostigma, Cyphomyrmex, Myrmicocrypta). All attine genera share the unique characteristic of obligate dependence on symbiotic fungus gardens for food, but the sophistication of this symbiosis differs considerably across genera. The lower attine genera generally have small, short-lived colonies and relatively non-specialized fungal symbionts (capable of living independently of their ant hosts), whereas the four evolutionarily derived higher attine genera have highly specialized, long-term clonal symbionts. In this paper, we investigate whether the transition from single to multiple mating occurred relatively recently in the evolution of the attine ants, in conjunction with the novel herbivorous 'leafcutter' niche acquired by the common ancestor of Acromyrmex and Atta, or earlier, at the transition to rearing specialized long-term clonal fungi in the common ancestor of the larger group of higher attines that also includes the genera Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex. We use DNA microsatellite analysis to provide unambiguous evidence for a single, late and abrupt evolutionary transition from exclusively single to obligatory multiple mating. This transition is historically correlated with other evolutionary innovations, including the extensive use of fresh vegetation as substrate for the fungus garden, a massive increase in mature colony size and morphological differentiation of the worker caste.

Villesen, Palle; Murakami, Takahiro

2002-01-01

292

Aureobasidin, new antifouling metabolite from marine-derived fungus Aureobasidium sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two antifouling compounds, aureobasidin (1), a new ester with an unusual 4,6-dihydroxydecanoic acid residue, and (3R,5S)-3,5-dihydroxydecanoic acid (2), were isolated from the marine-derived fungus Aureobasidium sp., in addition to (5R,3Z)-5-hydroxydec-3-enoic acid (3) and (R)-3-hydroxydecanoic acid (4). The structures were unambiguously established by IR, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic and mass spectral data. Compounds 1-3 were found to be active against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Staphyllococcus aureus. Compound 3 showed fungistatic activity against Candida albicans. PMID:19413119

Abdel-Lateff, Ahmed; Elkhayat, Ehab S; Fouad, Mostafa A; Okino, Tatsufumi

2009-03-01

293

Caripyrin, a new inhibitor of infection-related morphogenesis in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Caripyrin (trans-5-(3-methyloxiranyl)pyridincarboxylic acid methyl ester, 1), a new pyridyloxirane, was isolated from submerged cultures of the basidiomycete Caripia montagnei. The compound was found to inhibit conidial germination and appressorium formation in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, whereas the infection-related morphogenesis in several other phytopathogenic fungi was not affected. In plant assays on rice, 1 was found to protect plants more efficiently against fungal infection than the structurally related fungal secondary metabolite, fusaric acid. Contrary to the latter, 1 was neither cytotoxic, antibacterial, nor nematicidal. PMID:20379215

Rieger, Patrick H; Liermann, Johannes C; Opatz, Till; Anke, Heidrun; Thines, Eckhard

2010-06-01

294

Production and regeneration of protoplasts from the mycorrhizal fungus Suillus granulatus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiments were performed with the mycorrhizal fungus Suillus granulatus to define the parameters for production and regeneration of protoplasts. Protoplasts were released at frequencies between 1 and 3×10(7)/ml from mycelium 3 to 7 days old. The best osmotic stabilizer for protoplast release was MgSO4 (0.7 M). To optimize protoplast release and regeneration an enzyme (Novozym 234) concentration 1.7 mg/ml was chosen, with a digestion time of 1 to 2 h. Regenerated colonies formed mycorrhizae within 60 days after inoculation in Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis seedlings. PMID:24415426

Dias, E S; Araújo, E F; Guimarães, W V; Muchovej, R M

1996-11-01

295

Morphological, molecular and ecological aspects of the South American hypogeous fungus Alpova austroalnicola sp. nov.  

Science.gov (United States)

Field studies in Argentina's Yunga District revealed Alpova austroalnicola sp. nov., a hypogeous fungus associated with Alnus acuminata ssp. acuminata. Morphological and molecular studies based on amplification and sequencing of the nuclear LSU rDNA gene showed its unique identity within Alpova. Related genera included in the analyses were Boletus edulis, Rhizopogon spp., Suillus luteus and Truncocolumella citrina. Additional observations of animal diggings around the sites and microscopic examination of fecal pellets of the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus novemcinctus) indicate A. austroalnicola is consumed and its spores dispersed by animals. PMID:16392248

Nouhra, Eduardo R; Dominguez, Laura S; Becerra, Alejandra G; Trappe, James M

2005-01-01

296

Identification and quantification of carotenoid pigments in aeciospores of the daisy rust fungus, Puccinia distincta.  

Science.gov (United States)

The yellow-orange colour of aeciospores of the daisy rust fungus, Puccinia distincta, was found to be due to the carotenoid pigments beta,psi-carotene (gamma-carotene) and beta,beta-carotene (beta-carotene), which were identified by means of HPLC-APCI-MS. The combined concentration of beta- and gamma-carotene in the aeciospores was 3.3x10(-15) mol spore(-1) or 6 mol% mol(-1) total fatty acids. This concentration is sufficient for a postulated antioxidant role of carotenoids as free radical scavengers. PMID:12031451

Davoli, Paolo; Weber, Roland W S

2002-06-01

297

Aniquinazolines A–D, Four New Quinazolinone Alkaloids from Marine-Derived Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus nidulans  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Four new quinazolinone alkaloids, namely, aniquinazolines A–D (1–4, were isolated and identified from the culture of Aspergillus nidulans MA-143, an endophytic fungus obtained from the leaves of marine mangrove plant Rhizophora stylosa. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, and their absolute configurations were determined on the basis of chiral HPLC analysis of the acidic hydrolysates. The structure for 1 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All these compounds were examined for antibacterial and cytotoxic activity as well as brine shrimp (Artemia salina lethality.

Bin-Gui Wang

2013-07-01

298

Aspergillusol A, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus aculeatus.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new tyrosine-derived metabolite, aspergillusol A (4), was isolated on a gram scale, together with a methyl ester of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid oxime (5) and secalonic acid A, from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus aculeatus CRI323-04. The tetraol in 4 was identified as erythritol by comparison of the 1H NMR spectrum of its benzoylated derivative with those of benzoylated erythritol (7) and D-threitol (8), as well as by cellulose-based chiral HPLC analysis. Aspergillusol A (4) selectively inhibited alpha-glucosidase from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but it was inactive toward the alpha-glucosidase from the bacterium Bacillus stearothermophilus. PMID:19824618

Ingavat, Nattha; Dobereiner, Jeffrey; Wiyakrutta, Suthep; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Kittakoop, Prasat

2009-11-01

299

Optimization of manganese peroxidase production by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Manganese dependent peroxidase (MnP) is the most ubiquitous peroxidase produced by white rot fungi. MnP is known to be involved in lignin degradation, biobleaching and in the oxidation of hazardous organopollutants. Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 is a nitrogen-unregulated white rot fungus which produces high amounts of MnP in the excess of N-nutrients due to increased biomass yield. Therefore, the strain is a good candidate for use in large scale production of this enzyme. The objective of this...

Mester, T.; Field, J. A.

1997-01-01

300

Cytotoxic indole diketopiperazines from the deep sea-derived fungus Acrostalagmus luteoalbus SCSIO F457.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new indole diketopiperazines, namely luteoalbusins A-B (1-2), along with eight known ones (3-10), were isolated from the fungus Acrostalagmus luteoalbus SCSIO F457 originated from deep-sea sediment. Their structures were determined by 1D/2D NMR, MS, and CD data analyses. Each of these compounds was evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against SF-268, MCF-7, NCI-H460, and HepG-2 cell lines, and compounds 1-5 showed significant cytotoxicties against all four cancer cell lines. Moreover, new compounds 1 and 2 had more potent cytotoxicity than the other ones and cisplatin. PMID:23079524

Wang, Fa-Zuo; Huang, Zhi; Shi, Xue-Feng; Chen, Yu-Chan; Zhang, Wei-Min; Tian, Xin-Peng; Li, Jie; Zhang, Si

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

Total synthesis of an anticancer norsesquiterpene alkaloid isolated from the fungus Flammulina velutipes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The first total synthesis of a norsesquiterpene alkaloid (R)-8-hydroxy-4,7,7-trimethyl-7,8-dihydrocyclopenta[e]isoindole-1,3(2H,6H)-dione, isolated from the mushroom-forming fungus Flammulina velutipes, in both racemic and enantiomeric pure forms, is reported. The (-)-enantiomer of the natural product has been synthesized from the D-(-)-pantolactone chiral pool. The synthesis features a one-pot, three-step reaction sequence comprising an enyne RCM/Diels-Alder/aromatization to construct the desired indane skeleton present in the natural product. Our synthesis further confirms the assigned structure and absolute configuration of the natural product. PMID:24769797

Kashinath, K; Jadhav, Prakash D; Reddy, D Srinivasa

2014-06-28

302

Chemical constituents, and their cytotoxicity, of the rare wood decaying fungus Xylaria humosa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Samples of Xylaria humosa, a rare species of Xylariaceae, were collected during an investigation into the diversity of the fungus in the Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand. Nine compounds were isolated from the species and their structures elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The compounds were ergosterol (1), ergosterol peroxide (2), two meroterpenoids, chevalone B and C (3-4), together with five indole alkaloids, tryptoquivaline L (5), tryptoquivaline M (6), fiscalin A (7), epi-fiscalin A (8) and epi-fiscalin C (9). Compounds 2-9 exhibited variable cytotoxic activity against KB, NCI-H187 and MCF-7 cell lines. PMID:24689278

Sodngam, Sirirath; Sawadsitang, Sasiphimol; Suwannasai, Nuttika; Mongkolthanaruk, Wiyada

2014-02-01

303

Role of white rot fungus Funalia trogii in detoxification of textile dyes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Toxic and genotoxic effects of the textile dyes on organisms suggest the need for remediation of dyes before discharging them into the environment. For this reason, the ability of Funalia trogii pellets to detoxify textile dyes was investigated and evaluated. Although, textile dyes are toxic substances for many microorganisms, the pellets were able to decolorize and detoxify the azo dyes used. Astrazon Blue and Red dyes inhibit growth of F. trogii and S. aureus on solid medium in a concentration dependent manner. The toxicity of these dyes on a fungus, F. trogii and a bacterium, S. aureus was significantly decreased after pretreatment with fungal pellets. PMID:15812863

Apohan, Elif; Yesilada, Ozfer

2005-01-01

304

Metabolites from Aspergillus versicolor, an endolichenic fungus from the lichen Lobaria retigera.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three new anthraquinone derivatives (1-3) and one new artifact (4) were isolated, along with six known anthraquinone derivatives (5-10) and three xanthones (11-13), from a culture of an endolichenic fungus, Aspergillus versicolor, that was isolated from the lichen Lobaria retigera. The structures of these substances were determined on the basis of 1D and 2D (COSY, HMQC, and HMBC) NMR and MS analyses. The substances 1-4 were also tested for their cytotoxic activity. PMID:24815583

Dou, Yanli; Wang, Xiaoling; Jiang, Daifeng; Wang, Haiying; Jiao, Yang; Lou, Hongxiang; Wang, Xiaoning

2014-04-01

305

An antimalarial tetrapeptide from the entomopathogenic fungus Hirsutella sp. BCC 1528.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hirsutellic acid A (1), a new linear tetrapeptide possessing an anthranilic acid residue at the C-terminus, was isolated from a fermentation broth of the entomopathogenic fungus Hirsutella sp. BCC 1528. The structure of this compound was elucidated by NMR and MS analyses, and its absolute configuration was deduced by HPLC analysis of the acid hydrolysate using a chiral column. Hirsutellic acid A exhibits activity against the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum K1 with an IC(50) value of 8.0 microM, while it was noncytotoxic to Vero cells at a concentration of 95 microM. PMID:16643062

Thongtan, Jiraporn; Saenboonrueng, Janya; Rachtawee, Pranee; Isaka, Masahiko

2006-04-01

306

Punctaporonins H–M: Caryophyllene-Type Sesquiterpenoids from the Sponge-Associated Fungus Hansfordia sinuosae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Six new caryophyllene-based sesquiterpenoids named punctaporonins H–M (1–6, together with punctaporonin B (7 and humulane (8 were isolated from the fermentation broth of the sponge-derived fungus Hansfordia sinuosae. Their structures were determined by the extensive HRESIMS and NMR spectroscopic analysis, including the X-ray crystallographic data for the assignment of the absolute configurations of punctaporonins H–I (1–2. The isolated compounds were evaluated for antihyperlipidemic, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities, and punctaporonin K (4 exhibited potent effects to reduce the triglycerides and total cholesterol in the intracellular levels.

Zehong Wu

2014-06-01

307

Myrotheciumones: bicyclic cytotoxic lactones isolated from an endophytic fungus of Ajuga decumbens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new bicyclic lactones, myrotheciumones A (1) and B (2) which possessed a rare ring-fusion system were isolated from Myrothecium roridum (M. roridum), an endophytic fungus of the medicinal herb plant Ajuga decumbens (A. decumbens) via an in vitro cytotoxicity assay. Structures were deduced from 1D and 2D NMR (Nuclear magnetic resonance) data. Myrotheciumone A's in vitro cytotoxicity and apoptotic activity were evaluated and myrotheciumone A was shown to exert cytotoxicity via inducing apoptosis in cancer cell line. PMID:24775302

Lin, Ting; Wang, Guanghui; Shan, Wenjun; Zeng, Dequan; Ding, Rong; Jiang, Xin; Zhu, Dan; Liu, Xiaoxuan; Yang, Shuiyuan; Chen, Haifeng

2014-06-01

308

A new trichothecene from Myrothecium roridum QDFE005, a symbiotic fungus isolated from Mactra chinensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new trichothecene, 12'-episatratoxin H (1), together with three known analogs: roridin A (2), 16-hydroxyroridin E (3), and roridin E (4), was isolated from the culture broth of the symbiotic fungus Myrothecium roridum QDFE005, which was isolated from Mactra chinensis. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, HMQC, and HMBC) techniques. Compound 1 exhibited significant cytotoxicity against the human tumor cell lines KB and HepG2 with IC?? values of 1.42 and 2.27 ?M, respectively. PMID:24152038

Piao, Mei-Zi; Shen, Li; Wang, Feng-Wu

2013-01-01

309

Degradation of keratinous materials by the plant pathogenic fungus Myrothecium verrucaria.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper it is described for the first time the capability of Myrothecium verrucaria to grow in submerged and solid state cultures using poultry feathers as the only substrate. The fungus produced a protease with an unusual keratinolytic activity among plant pathogenic fungi. Its crude protease hydrolyzed keratinous substrates at pH 9.0 and 40 degrees C in the following order: poultry feather keratin > sheep wool keratin > human nail keratin > human hair keratin. Protease activity was highly sensitive to phenylmethyl sulphonyl fluoride (PMSF) indicating that the enzyme belonged to the serine protease family. PMID:17356791

Moreira, F G; de Souza, C G M; Costa, M A F; Reis, S; Peralta, R M

2007-03-01

310

Isolation of the Mating-Type Genes of the Phytopathogenic Fungus Magnaporthe Grisea Using Genomic Subtraction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using genomic subtraction, we isolated the mating-type genes (Mat1-1 and Mat1-2) of the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea. Transformation of M. grisea strains of one mating type with a linearized cosmid clone carrying the opposite mating-type gene resulted in many ``dual maters,'' strains that contain both mating-type genes and successfully mate with both Mat1-1 and Mat1-2 testers. Dual maters differed in the frequency of production of perithecia in pure culture. Ascospores isolated from ...

Kang, S.; Chumley, F. G.; Valent, B.

1994-01-01

311

Pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in marbled water frog Telmatobius marmoratus: first record from Lake Titicaca, Bolivia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been associated with amphibian declines worldwide but has not been well-studied among Critically Endangered amphibian species in Bolivia. We sampled free-living marbled water frogs Telmatobius marmoratus (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from Isla del Sol, Bolivia, for Bd using skin swabs and quantitative polymerase chain reactions. We detected Bd on 44% of T. marmoratus sampled. This is the first record of Bd in amphibians from waters associated with Lake Titicaca, Bolivia. These results further confirm the presence of Bd in Bolivia and substantiate the potential threat of this pathogen to the Critically Endangered, sympatric Titicaca water frog T. culeus and other Andean amphibians. PMID:25392045

Cossel, John; Lindquist, Erik; Craig, Heather; Luthman, Kyle

2014-11-14

312

Two new meroterpenoids produced by the endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. SXH-65.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new meroterpenoids, arisugacins I (1) and J (2), together with five known meroterpenoids including arisugacin B (3), arisugacin F (4), arisugacin G (5), territrem B (6) and territrem C (7) were isolated from an endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. SXH-65. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic experiments and comparison with literature data. Their cytotoxicities were evaluated against Hela, HL-60 and K562 cell lines, and only 3 and 4 exhibited weak cytotoxicities against Hela, HL-60 and K562 cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 24 to 60 ?M. PMID:24166709

Sun, Xinhua; Kong, Xianglan; Gao, Huquan; Zhu, Tianjiao; Wu, Guangwei; Gu, Qianqun; Li, Dehai

2014-08-01

313

Characterization of pathogenic races of the sugarcane smut fungus by neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Representative samples of five major races of Ustilago scitaminea, the causal organism of the smut disease of sugarcane, were obtained from infected sugarcane fields in the Western hemisphere. The variations in concentration of 10 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Co, and Zn) in the sporidial yeast-like cells of this fungal pathogen were analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Comparative analysis of the elemental compositions in the different races of the fungus showed that the five pathogenic races of Ustilago scitaminea may be distinguished from each other on the basis of elemental compositions. (author)

314

Chaetochromones A and B, Two New Polyketides from the Fungus Chaetomium indicum (CBS.860.68)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chaetochromones A (1) and B (2), two novel polyketides, were isolated from the crude extract of fungus Chaetomium indicum (CBS.860.68) together with three known analogues PI-3(3), PI-4 (4) and SB236050 (5). The structures of these compounds were determined by HRESI-MS and NMR experiments. Chaetochromones A (1) and B (2) are a member of the polyketides family, which might originate from a similar biogenetic pathway as the known compounds PI-3 (3), PI-4 (4) and SB236050 (5). The biological acti...

Xuewei Wang; Keyang Lu; Yisheng Zhang; Li Li*; Gang Ding

2013-01-01

315

Sesquiterpenes produced by endophytic fungus Phomopsis cassiae with antifungal and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two new diastereoisomeric cadinanes sesquiterpenes 3,9-dihydroxycalamenene (1-2), along with the known 3-hydroxycalamen-8-one (3) and aristelegone-A (4), were isolated from ethyl acetate extract of Phomopsis cassiae, an endophytic fungus in Cassia spectabilis. Their structures, including relative stereochemistry, were determined on the basis of detailed interpretation of 2D NMR spectra and comparison with related known compounds. Compounds 1-4 displayed antifungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, as well as inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. (author)

316

Westerdijkin A, a new hydroxyphenylacetic acid derivative from deep sea fungus Aspergillus westerdijkiae SCSIO 05233.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new methyl 2-(4-((2-hydroxy-3-methylbut-3-en-1-yl)oxy)phenyl) acetate 1, together with five known compounds 2-6, was isolated from the culture of the deep sea-derived fungus Aspergillus westerdijkiae SCSIO 05233. The new structure was determined by NMR ((1)H and (13)C NMR, HSQC, HMBC and MS) and optical rotation analysis. Compound 5 displayed weak inhibitory activities towards K562 and promyelocytic HL-60 with IC50 values of 25.8 and 44.9 ?M, and compound 6 showed strong antifouling activity with EC50 value 8.81 ?g/mL. PMID:25325177

Fredimoses, Mangaladoss; Zhou, Xuefeng; Ai, Wen; Tian, Xinpeng; Yang, Bin; Lin, Xiuping; Xian, Jia-Yun; Liu, Yonghong

2015-01-01

317

Biotransformation of a tetrahydrofuran lignan by the endophytic fungus Phomopsis Sp  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The biotrasformation of the tetrahydrofuran lignan, (-)-grandisin, by the endophitic fungus Phomopsis sp, obtained from Viguiera arenaria, led to the formation of a new compound determined as 3,4-dimethyl-2- (4'-hydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyphenyl)-5-methoxy-tetrahydrofuran. The metabolite was evaluated against the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas's disease, and showed a trypanocidal activity (IC{sub 50} 9.8 {mu}mol L{sup -1}) similar to the natural precursor (IC{sub 50} 3.7 {mu}mol L{sup -1}). (author)

Verza, Michelle; Arakawa, Nilton S.; Lopes, Norberto P.; Pupo, Monica T.; Said, Suraia; Carvalho, Ivone [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Kato, Massuo J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: carronal@usp.br

2009-07-01

318

Degradative Activity of Enzyme from Synnematous sp. Endophytic Fungus on Raw Starches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The degradative activity on various raw starches by enzyme from Synnematous sp., an endophytic fungus was studied. The enzyme hydrolyzed raw starches to produce maltose and glucose. Maximum maltose and glucose were produced from raw rice and tapioca starch were 18.8 and 3.6 %, respectively. The yields were dependent on accessibility of granules surface to be attacked by the enzyme. The results of this study suggest that enzyme from Synnematous sp. has potential for the production of glucose and maltose using raw starches as substrates.

Yetti Marlida

2000-01-01

319

Toxic polyketides produced by Fusarium sp., an endophytic fungus isolated from Melia azedarach.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new isocoumarin derivative named fusariumin (1), together with two known related resorcylic acid lactones aigialomycin D (2) and pochonin N (3), has been isolated from the cultures of Fusarium sp. LN-10, an endophytic fungus originated from the leaves of Melia azedarach. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyzes including 1D- and 2D- NMR ((1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY) experiments. Compounds 1-3 displayed significant growth inhibitory activity against the brine shrimp (Artemia salina). PMID:21353539

Yang, Sheng-Xiang; Gao, Jin-Ming; Zhang, Qiang; Laatsch, Hartmut

2011-03-15

320

Potent toxic macrocyclic trichothecenes from the marine-derived fungus Myrothecium verrucaria Hmp-F73.  

Science.gov (United States)

Activity-guided fractionation of a methanol extract from the culture broth of Myrothecium verrucaria Hmp-F73, a fungus associated with the sponge Hymeniacidon perleve, afforded six macrocyclic trichothecenes, verrucarin J (1), 8-hydroxyverrucarin J (2), verrucarin A (3), 8-acetoxyroridin H (4), isororidin E (5), and roridin E (6), along with trichoverrin B (7). All seven metabolites displayed potent toxicity to the brine shrimp (Artemia salina). In addition, compounds 2, 3, and 6 showed weak phytotoxic activities against lettuce seeds. A preliminary structure-activity relationship of the metabolites is also discussed. PMID:22312738

Zhao, Li; Liu, Li; Wang, Nan; Wang, Shu-Jin; Hu, Jing-Chun; Gao, Jin-Ming

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
321

Chemical Constituents of the New Endophytic Fungus Mycosphaerella sp. nov. and Their Anti-Parasitic Activity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chemical investigation of a new endophytic fungus, Mycosphaerella sp. nov. strain F2140 associated with the foliage of the plant Psychotria horizontalis (Rubiaceae) in Panama, resulted in the isolation of cercosporin (1) and a new cercosporin analogue (3) as the major components. The structures of minor compounds in the extract were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis as 2-(2-butyl)-3-hydroxy-6-ethyl-6-methylcyclohex-2-ene-1,5-dione (4), 3-(2-butyl)-6-ethyl-6-methyl-5-hydroxy-2-meth...

Moreno, Eufemio; Varughese, Titto; Spadafora, Carmenza; Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Coley, Phyllis D.; Kursar, Thomas A.; Gerwick, William H.; Cubilla-rios, Luis

2011-01-01

322

Cytotoxic anthranilic acid derivatives from deep sea sediment-derived fungus Penicillium paneum SD-44.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five new anthranilic acid derivatives, penipacids A-E (1-5), together with one known analogue (6), which was previously synthesized, were characterized from the ethyl acetate extract of the marine sediment-derived fungus Penicillium paneum SD-44. Their structures were elucidated mainly by extensive NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analysis. The cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of the isolated compounds were evaluated. Compounds 1, and 5 exhibited inhibitory activity against human colon cancer RKO cell line, while compound 6 displayed cytotoxic activity against Hela cell line. PMID:23966037

Li, Chun-Shun; Li, Xiao-Ming; Gao, Shu-Shan; Lu, Yan-Hua; Wang, Bin-Gui

2013-01-01

323

Isariotins E and F, spirocyclic and bicyclic hemiacetals from the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria tenuipes BCC 12625.  

Science.gov (United States)

New spirocyclic and bicyclic hemiacetals, isariotins E (1) and F (2), together with TK-57-164A (3) were isolated from the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria tenuipes BCC 12625. The absolute configuration of 3 was addressed by application of the modified Mosher's method. Isariotin F (2) exhibited activity against the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum K1 with an IC(50) value of 5.1 microM and cytotoxic activities against cancer cell lines (KB, BC, and NCI-H187) and nonmalignant (Vero) cells with respective IC(50) values of 15.8, 2.4, 1.6, and 2.9 microM. PMID:19265430

Bunyapaiboonsri, Taridaporn; Yoiprommarat, Seangaroon; Intereya, Kamolphan; Rachtawee, Pranee; Hywel-Jones, Nigel L; Isaka, Masahiko

2009-04-01

324

Hopane-type triterpenes and binaphthopyrones from the scale insect pathogenic fungus Aschersonia paraphysata BCC 11964.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new triterpenes, 17(21)-hopene-6alpha,12beta-diol (1) and 17(21)-hopen-12beta-ol (2), the known 17(21)-hopen-6alpha-ol (zeorinin, 3), and two new biarylic dihydronaphthopyrones, aschernaphthopyrones A (4) and B (5), were isolated from the scale insect pathogenic fungus Aschersonia paraphysata BCC 11964. Hopene 1 and aschernaphthopyrone A (4) exhibited antimalarial activity with IC(50) values of 15 and 7.3 microM, respectively. PMID:20364867

Isaka, Masahiko; Yangchum, Arunrat; Rachtawee, Pranee; Komwijit, Somjit; Lutthisungneon, Apisara

2010-04-23

325

Lanostane and hopane triterpenes from the entomopathogenic fungus Hypocrella sp. BCC 14524.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seven new lanostane-type triterpenes, hypocrellols A-G (1-7), and six new hopane-type triterpenes, 7?,15?-dihydroxy-22(29)-hopene (8), 3?,7?-dihydroxy-22(29)-hopene (9), 3?-acetoxy-15?-hydroxy-22(29)-hopene (10), 3?,7?,15?,22-tetrahydroxyhopane (11), 3?-acetoxy-7?,15?,22-trihydroxyhopane (12), and 7?,15?,22-trihydroxyhopane (13), were isolated from the scale insect pathogenic fungus Hypocrella sp. BCC 14524. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by analyses of the NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometry data. The structure of 1 was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. PMID:21995505

Isaka, Masahiko; Chinthanom, Panida; Sappan, Malipan; Chanthaket, Rungtiwa; Luangsa-ard, J Jennifer; Prabpai, Samran; Kongsaeree, Palangpon

2011-10-28

326

The Production of Polysaccharide Degrading Enzymes By Phytopathogenic Fungus Verticillium tricorpus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The growth of phytopathogenic fungus Verticillium tricorpus on 15 carbohydrate substrates was monitored to analyse the range of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes and glucosidases production. The secretions of endo and exoenzymes, capable of degrading cellulosic, hemicellulosic and pectinolytic polysaccharide were observed during the course of the experiment. Pectinolytic activities were produced constitutively on all of the substrate tested, while cellulolytic enzymes were to induced in simple sugar (i.e., glucose or xylose media. Polysaccharide growth substrates and cellulase inducers increased all of the enzyme activities tested.

Ali H. Bahkali

1999-01-01

327

Degradation of organic sulfur compounds by a coal-solubilizing fungus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Paecilomyces sp. TLi, a coal-solubilizing fungus, was shown to degrade organic sulfur-containing coal substructure compounds. Dibenzothiophene was degraded via a sulfur-oxidizing pathway to 2,2{prime}-dihydroxybiphenyl. No further metabolism of that compound was observed. Ethyl phenyl sulfide and diphenyl sulfide were degraded to the corresponding sulfones. A variety of products were formed from dibenzyl sulfide, presumably via free radical intermediates. Diphenyl disulfide and dibenzyl disulfide were cleaved to the corresponding thiols and other single-ring products. It was concluded that degradation of organic sulfur compounds by Paecilomyces involves an oxidative attack localized at the sulfur atom.

Faison, B.D.; Lewis, S.N.; Ma, C.Y.; Woodward, C.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Clark, T.M. [Univ. of Detroit, MI (United States); Sharkey, D.M. [California Polytechnic Univ., San Luis Obispo, CA (United States)

1991-12-31

328

Degradation of organic sulfur compounds by a coal-solubilizing fungus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

{ital Paecilomyces} sp. TLi, a coal-solubilizing fungus, was shown to degrade organic sulfur-containing coal substructure compounds. Dibenzothiophene was degraded via a sulfur-oxidizing pathway to 2,2- dihydroxybiphenyl. No further metabolism of that compound was observed. Ethyl phenyl sulfide and diphenyl sulfide were degraded to the corresponding sulfones. A variety of products were formed from dibenzyl, sulfide, presumably via free radical intermediates. Diphenyl disulfide and dibenzyl disulfide were cleaved to the corresponding thiols and other single-ring products. It was concluded that degradation of organic sulfur compounds by {ital Paecilomyces} involves an oxidative attack localized at the sulfur atom. 21 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Faison, B.D.; Clark, T.M.; Lewis, S.N.; Ma, C.Y.; Sharkey, D.M.; Woodward, C.A. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

329

Degradation of organic sulfur compounds by a coal-solubilizing fungus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Paecilomyces sp. TLi, a coal-solubilizing fungus, was shown to degrade organic sulfur-containing coal substructure compounds. Dibenzothiophene was degraded via a sulfur-oxidizing pathway to 2.2'-biphenol. No further metabolism of the biphenol was observed. Ethyl phenyl sulfide and phenyl sulfide were degraded to the corresponding sulfones. A variety of products were formed from benzyl sulfide, presumably via free radical intermediates. Phenyl disulfide and benzyl disulfide were cleaved to the corresponding thiols and other single-ring products. It was concluded that degradation of organic sulfur compounds by Paecilomyces involves an oxidative attack localized at the sulfur atom. 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Faison, B.D.; Clark, T.M.; Lewis, S.N.; Sharkey, D.M.; Woodward, C.A.; Ma, C.Y.

1990-01-01

330

Biotransformation of chalcones by the endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus isolated from Paspalum maritimum trin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fungus Aspergillus flavus isolated as endophytic of the plant Paspalum maritimum Trin. was evaluated for its potential application in biotransformation reactions. The compounds chalcone (1), 3,4,5-trimethoxychalcone (2) and 2,3,4,4'-tetramethoxy chalcone (3) were biotransformed, respectively, in dihydrochalcone (4), 3,4,5-trimethoxydihydrochalcone (5) and 2,3,4,4'-tetramethoxydihydrochalcone (6). The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR techniques, and MS analysis. The dihydrochalcones 5 and 6 are new compounds. (author)

Correa, Marivaldo J.C.; Nunes, Fatima M.; Bitencourt, Heriberto R.; Borges, Fabio C.; Guilhon, Giselle M.S.P.; Arruda, Mara S.P.; Marinho, Andrey M. R.; Santos, Alberdan S.; Alves, Claudio N.; Santos, Lourivaldo S., E-mail: lss@ufpa.b [Universidade Federal do Para (IQ/FEQ/UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Tecnologia. Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica; Brasil, Davi S.B. [Universidade Federal do Para (PPGQ/IQ/UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Quimica

2011-07-01

331

Acromyrmex insinuator new species: an incipient social parasite of fungus-growing ants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The two known social parasites of fungus-growing ants (tribe Attini) occupy an advanced grade of social parasitism characterized by absence of a worker caste and highly derived morphology and behavior. In contrast, the Panamanian Acromyrmex insinuator new species, described here, appears to occupy an early grade of social parasitism in which males, females, and minor workers are nearly indistinguishable from those of the host species. Based on allozyme and morphological evidence, the host, A. octospinosus ssp. echinatior, is clearly different and reproductively isolated from the sympatric A. octospinosus ssp. octospinosus, and is therefore elevated to species status.

Schultz, T.R.; Bekkevold, D.

1998-01-01

332

New prenylxanthones from the deep-sea derived fungus Emericella sp. SCSIO 05240.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four new prenylxanthones, emerixanthones A-D (1-4), together with six known analogues (5-10), were isolated from the culture of the deep-sea sediment derived fungus Emericella sp. SCSIO 05240, which was identified on the basis of morphology and ITS sequence analysis. The newstructures were determined by NMR (1H, 13C NMR, HSQC, HMBC, and 1H-1H COSY), MS, CD, and optical rotation analysis. The absolute configuration of prenylxanthone skeleton was also confirmed by the X-ray crystallographic analysis. Compounds 1and 3 showed weak antibacterial activities, and 4 displayed mild antifungal activities against agricultural pathogens. PMID:24879543

Fredimoses, Mangaladoss; Zhou, Xuefeng; Lin, Xiuping; Tian, Xinpeng; Ai, Wen; Wang, Junfeng; Liao, Shengrong; Liu, Juan; Yang, Bin; Yang, Xianwen; Liu, Yonghong

2014-06-01

333

A new isobenzofuranone from the mangrove endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. (ZH58).  

Science.gov (United States)

A new isobenzofuranone, 4-(methoxymethyl)-7-methoxy-6-methyl-1(3H)-isobenzofuranone (1), together with seven known compounds, dilation (2), lumichrome (3), curvulari (4), 5,5'-oxy-dimethylene-bis(2-furaldehyde) (5), chromone (6), harman(1-methyl-?-carboline) (7), N9-methyl-1methyl-?-carboline (8), was isolated from the mangrove endophytic fungus, Penicillium sp. ZH58 obtained from the South China Sea coast. Their structures were determined by analysis of spectroscopic data. Compound 1 exhibited cytotoxicity against KB and KBV200 cells with IC50 values of 6 and 10 ?g/mL, respectively. PMID:23581456

Yang, Jianxiang; Huang, Riming; Qiu, Sheng Xiang; She, Zhigang; Lin, Yongcheng

2013-10-01

334

Sorbicatechols A and B, antiviral sorbicillinoids from the marine-derived fungus Penicillium chrysogenum PJX-17.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two novel sorbicillinoids combining a bicyclo[2.2.2]octane with a 2-methoxyphenol moiety, named sorbicatechols A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the culture of the marine sediment-derived fungus Penicillium chrysogenum PJX-17, together with the known protocatechuic acid methyl ester and caffeic acid methyl ester (3). Their structures, including absolute configurations, were assigned by analysis of NMR, MS data, and TDDFT ECD calculations. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited activities against influenza virus A (H1N1), with IC50 values of 85 and 113 ? M, respectively. PMID:24495078

Peng, Jixing; Zhang, Xiaomin; Du, Lin; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Tianjiao; Gu, Qianqun; Li, Dehai

2014-02-28

335

Isozyme differentiation among three pathotypes of the entomogenous fungus Nomuraea rileyi.  

Science.gov (United States)

The zymogram technique has been applied to three pathotypes of the entomopathogenic fungus Nomuraea rileyi. Isozyme profiles of isolates from Heliothis zea, Pseudoplusia includens, and Anticarsia gemmatalis were compared for 17 enzymes of known metabolic function. Electrophoretic data supported the taxonomic differences inferred for the three pathotypes based on host specificity. The isolate from A. gemmatalis was found consistently to be the most distinct. This study demonstrates that isozyme analysis may be used to distinguish closely related fungal isolates of N. rileyi. PMID:7195298

Joslyn, D J; Boucias, D G

1981-03-01

336

Cost-effective multiplication of the entomopathogenic fungus Nomuraea rileyi (F) Samson.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cost-effective and rapid multiplication of Nomuraea rileyi is reported. The spore yields in semi-synthetic media were comparable or significantly higher to the standard medium. Maltose and peptone, carbon and nitrogen sources could be effectively replaced with 2% barley extract and 1% soybean extract respectively. However, replacement of yeast extract with dry yeast resulted in lower spore yields. Sporulation of the fungus multiplied on solid substrate was possible only when the bags used had a 0.2 microm filter to facilitate passive exchange of sterile air. A high spore yield of 2.8 x 10(9)/g of substrate was realized on crushed sorghum. PMID:11502062

Vimala Devi, P S; Chowdary, A; Prasad, Y G

2001-01-01

337

PRODUCTION, PARTIAL PURIFICATION AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYPHENOL OXIDASE FROM TRICOTHECIUMSP (ENDOPHYTIC FUNGUS OF COCOA PODHUSK)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fungal strains are considered to be excellent sources for industrial polyphenol oxidase production. Polyphenol oxidase could be produced by endophytic fungus Trichotheciumsp from podhusk of Theobroma cacaoL. The aim of this research is to partial purify and characterize of the enzyme. The enzyme was produced by submerged fermentation using media with composition, i.e: 1 % yeast extract, 25 ppm CuSO 4.5H 2O, 0.034 % gallic acid, 0.1 % KH2PO 4, 0.05 % MgSO 4.7H 2 0. The steps of purification we...

Sartini; Patong, Abd Rauf; Harlim, Tjodi; Pirman

2013-01-01

338

Degradation of Pentachlorophenol by White Rot Fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium-TL 1 Grown in Ammonium Lignosulphonate Media  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The white rot fungus isolated from continuous pulp and paper mill effluent irrigated soil and identified as Phanerochaete chrysosporium (TL 1 was capable of degrading pentachlorophenol. 14C synthetic lignin mineralization assays showed that the fungus assimilated 33.6% of the total label. Removal and degradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP by the organism in static flask cultures was studied using ammonium lignosulphonate (LS, a waste product of paper mill industry, as a carbon and nitrogen source. After eight days, Phanerochaete chrysosporium (TL 1 grown in 2% LS (nitrogen sufficient medium removed 85% of PCP which was comparable that of degradation in 2% glucose medium (93%. The presence of laccase (EC.1.10.3.2 extracellular activity suggested that the fungus secrete the enzyme into the extracellular medium, which was responsible for the degradation on PCP. The extracellular laccase activity was assayed on agarose plates containing ABTS.

C. Udayasoorian

2007-01-01

339

Do novel genotypes drive the success of an invasive bark beetle-fungus complex? Implications for potential reinvasion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Novel genotypes often arise during biological invasions, but their role in invasion success has rarely been elucidated. Here we examined the population genetics and behavior of the fungus, Leptographium procerum, vectored by a highly invasive bark beetle, Dendroctonus valens, to determine whether genetic changes in the fungus contributed to the invasive success of the beetle-fungal complex in China. The fungus was introduced by the beetle from the United States to China, where we identified several novel genotypes using microsatellite markers. These novel genotypes were more pathogenic to Chinese host seedlings than were other genotypes and they also induced the release of higher amounts of 3-carene, the primary host attractant for the beetle vector, from inoculated seedlings. This evidence suggests a possible mechanism, based on the evolution of a novel genotype during the two or three decades since its introduction, for the success of the beetle-fungal complex in its introduced region. PMID:22164824

Lu, Min; Wingfield, Michael J; Gillette, Nancy; Sun, Jiang-Hua

2011-11-01

340

Has substrate-dependent co-evolution of enzyme function occured in the attine ant-fungus symbiosis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The conspicuous leaf-cutter ants in the genus Atta build huge nests displacing several cubic meters of soil, whereas lower attine genera such as Cyphomyrmex have small nests with a fungus garden the size of a table-tennis ball. Only the leaf-cutter ants are specialized on using fresh leaves as substrate for their fungus gardens, whereas the more basal attine genera use substrates such as flowers, plant debris, small twigs, insect feces and insect carcasses. This diverse array of fungal substrates across the attine lineage implies that the symbiotic fungus needs different enzymes to break down the plant material that the ants provide or different efficiencies of enzyme function. Here we present the fist partial amino acid sequences from a fungal xylanase gene to test the hypothesis that fungal enzymes that degrade plant cell walls have functionally co-evolved with the ants.

de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; SchiØtt, Morten

 
 
 
 
341

[The role of laccase and peroxidase of Lentinus (Panus) tigrinus fungus in biodegradation of high phenol concentrations in liquid medium].  

Science.gov (United States)

The possibility of the usage of Lentinus tigrinus fungus strain VKM F-3616D for biodegradation of high (up to 5%) phenol concentrations in liquid medium and the involvement of laccase and peroxidase in this process have been studied. L. tigrinus fungus was demonstrated to effectively digrade phenol with easy biomass separation from the liquid. Decrease in phenol concentration was accompanied by increased secretion level and laccase activity at the preliminary stages of biodegradation, while that of peroxidase was at the latest stages of biodegradation. These enzyme secretions in distinct ratios and consequences are necessary for effective phenol biodegradation. An effective approach for phenol concentration decrease in the waste water of smoking shops in meat-processing factories using L. tigrinus fungus was described. PMID:21442922

Kadimaliev, D A; Revin, V V; Atykian, N A; Nadezhina, O S; Parshin, A A

2011-01-01

342

Evaluation of SO2 Using Bioindicators: Fungus (Rhytisma acerinum and Lichen (Lichenes in Air of Vilnius City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article describes a negative impact of pollution on the environment considering the reaction of live organism bioindicators to the level of pollution., Due to the sensitiveness to gas waste, Lichen (Lichenes and fungus (Rhytisma acerinum are very important for estimating air pollution. Therefore, the paper analyzes air pollution on the basis of testing lichens and fungus and compares the situation of SO2 in the air in Vilnius districts Karolinišk?s, Šeškin? and Justinišk?s with the suburban area of Avižieniai.Article in Lithuanian

Alicija Jank?nien?

2011-04-01

343

The rust fungus Uromyces geranii (DC. Lev. localization and impact on anatomy of the host plant Geranium sanguineum L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The investigations on the rust fungus Uromyces geranii (DC. Lev. influence on the anatomy of the vegetative organs of the host plantGeranium sanguineumL. (Geraniaceae were conducted. The local and endophytic arrangement of U. geraniiin the tissues of the host plant were identified. The tissues hypertrophy and organs deformation in G. sanguineum were revealed as a consequences of the fungus U. geraniiinfluence as well as increment of pericyclic ring sclerenchyma lignification in the stem. While the mature aecia and uredinia on the stem cause the epidermis tears and fill the primary cortex up to the stele.

Emma Biruliova

2013-04-01

344

Enhancement of Diosgenin Production in Dioscorea zingiberensis Cell Cultures by Oligosaccharides from Its Endophytic Fungus Fusarium oxysporum Dzf17  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effects of the oligosaccharides from the endophytic fungus Fusarium oxysporum Dzf17 as elicitors on diosgenin production in cell suspension cultures of its host Dioscorea zingiberensis were investigated. Three oligosaccharides, DP4, DP7 and DP10, were purified from the oligosaccharide fractions DP2-5, DP5-8 and DP8-12, respectively, which were prepared from the water-extracted mycelial polysaccharide of the endophytic fungus F. oxysporum Dzf17. When the cell cultures were treated with fra...

Ligang Zhou; Shiqiong Lu; Yan Mou; Yan Li; Jingfeng Lou; Ziling Mao; Peiqin Li; Youliang Peng

2011-01-01

345

Toxicidade de filtrados fúngicos a meloidogyne incognita / Fungus filtrates toxicity to Meloidogyne incognita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Visando à obtenção de novas moléculas nematicidas, 18 filtrados de espécies fúngicas e extratos de sete micélios fúngicos foram estudados in vitro quanto aos efeitos sobre a eclosão, motilidade e mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2) de Meloidogyne incognita. Filtrados fúngicos foram obtido [...] s de culturas em meio Czapek. Metanol foi usado como solvente para obter extratos dos micélios fúngicos. Filtrados de Paecilomyces lilacinus, Fusarium moniliforme e Fusarium oxysporum reduziram a motilidade e eclosão, e aumentaram a mortalidade (P Abstract in english In the search for new nematicidal molecules, 18 fungal species filtrates and seven fungus mycelium extracts were studied in vitro to see their influence on hatching, mobility and mortality of second stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita. Fungal filtrates were obtained from fifteen day Czapek [...] cultures. Methanol was used as solvent to obtain fungus mycelium extracts. Paecilomyces lilacinus, Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium oxysporum filtrates reduced J2 motility and hatching, and increased J2 mortality (P

MAURO J.N., COSTA; VICENTE P., CAMPOS; LUDWIG H., PFENNING; DENILSON F., OLIVEIRA.

2001-12-01

346

Endemic Infection of the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus in a Frog Community Post-Decline  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in the decline and extinction of numerous frog species worldwide. In Queensland, Australia, it has been proposed as the cause of the decline or apparent extinction of at least 14 high-elevation rainforest frog species. One of these, Taudactylus eungellensis, disappeared from rainforest streams in Eungella National Park in 1985-1986, but a few remnant populations were subsequently discovered. Here, we report the analysis of B. dendrobatidis infections in toe tips of T. eungellensis and sympatric species collected in a mark-recapture study between 1994 and 1998. This longitudinal study of the fungus in individually marked frogs sheds new light on the effect of this threatening infectious process in field, as distinct from laboratory, conditions. We found a seasonal peak of infection in the cooler months, with no evidence of interannual variation. The overall prevalence of infection was 18% in T. eungellensis and 28% in Litoria wilcoxii/jungguy, a sympatric frog that appeared not to decline in 1985-1986. No infection was found in any of the other sympatric species. Most importantly, we found no consistent evidence of lower survival in T. eungellensis that were infected at the time of first capture, compared with uninfected individuals. These results refute the hypothesis that remnant populations of T. eungellensis recovered after a B. dendrobatidis epidemic because the pathogen had disappeared. They show that populations of T. eungellensis now persist with stable, endemic infections of B. dendrobatidis.

Retallick Richard W. R

2004-01-01

347

Genetic Diversity and Evolution of Chinese Traditional Medicinal Fungus Polyporus umbellatus (Polyporales, Basidiomycota)  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Polyporus umbellatus is an important medicinal fungus distributed throughout most area of China. Its wide distribution may have resulted in substantial intraspecific genetic diversity for the fungus, potentially creating variation in its medical value. To date, we know little about the intraspecific genetic diversity of P. umbellatus. Methodology/Principal Findings The objective of this research was to assess genetic differences of P. umbellatus from geographically diverse regions of China based on nrDNA ITS and 28S rRNA (LSU, large subunit) sequences. Significant sequence variations in the ITS and LSU sequences were detected. All sclerotial samples were clustered into four clades based on phylogenetic analysis of ITS, LSU and a combined data set of both regions. Heterogeneity of ITS and LSU sequences was detected in 5 and 7 samples respectively. All clone sequences clustered into the same clade except for one LSU clone sequences (from Henan province) which clustered into two clades (Clade I and Clade II). Significant genetic divergence in P. umbellatus was observed and the genetic diversification was greater among sclerotial samples from Shaanxi, Henan and Gansu provinces than among other provinces. Polymorphism of ITS and LSU sequences indicated that in China, P. umbellatus may spread from a center (Shaanxi, Henan and Gansu province) to other regions. Conclusions/Significance We found sclerotial samples of P. umbellatus contained levels of intraspecific genetic diversity. These findings suggested that P. umbellatus populations in Shaanxi, Henan and Gansu are important resources of genetic diversity and should be conserved accordingly. PMID:23554929

Xing, Xiaoke; Ma, Xueting; Hart, Miranda M.; Wang, Airong; Guo, Shunxing

2013-01-01

348

Colonisation of Pinus halepensis roots by Pseudomonas fluorescens and interaction with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus granulatus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Colonisation of Pinus halepensis roots by GFP-tagged Pseudomonas fluorescens Aur6 was monitored by epifluorescence microscopy and dilution plating. Aur6-GFP was able to colonise and proliferate on P. halepensis roots. Co-inoculation with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus granulatus did not affect the bacterial colonisation pattern whereas it had an effect on bacterial density. Bacterial counts increased during the first 20 days of seedling growth, irrespective of seedlings being mycorrhizal or not. After 40 days, bacterial density significantly decreased and bacteria concentrated on the upper two-thirds of the pine root. The presence of S. granulatus significantly stimulated survival of bacteria in the root elongation zone where fungal colonisation was higher. The number of mycorrhizas formed by S. granulatus was not affected by co-inoculation with Aur6-GFP. Neither Aur6-GFP nor S. granulatus stimulated P. halepensis development when inoculated alone, but a synergistic effect was observed on seedling growth when bacteria and fungus were co-inoculated. PMID:16329878

Rincón, Ana; Ruiz-Díez, Beatriz; García-Fraile, Sonia; García, José Antonio Lucas; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes; Pueyo, José J; de Felipe, María R

2005-02-01

349

An endophytic fungus from Azadirachta indica A. Juss. that produces azadirachtin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Azadirachtin A and its structural analogues are a well-known class of natural insecticides having antifeedant and insect growth-regulating properties. These compounds are exclusive to the neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Juss, from where they are currently sourced. Here we report for the first time, the isolation and characterization of a novel endophytic fungus from A. indica, which produces azadirachtin A and B in rich mycological medium (Sabouraud dextrose broth), under shake-flask fermentation conditions. The fungus was identified as Eupenicillium parvum by ITS analysis (ITS1 and ITS2 regions and the intervening 5.8S rDNA region). Azadirachtin A and B were identified and quantified by LC-HRMS and LC-HRMS(2), and by comparison with the authentic reference standards. The biosynthesis of azadirachtin A and B by the cultured endophyte, which is also produced by the host neem plant, provides an exciting platform for further scientific exploration within both the ecological and biochemical contexts. PMID:22805849

Kusari, Souvik; Verma, Vijay C; Lamshoeft, Marc; Spiteller, Michael

2012-03-01

350

Side-effects of pesticides on the life cycle of the mite pathogenic fungus Neozygites floridana.  

Science.gov (United States)

The tomato red spider mite, Tetranychus evansi Baker and Pritchard, is an invasive species in Africa causing considerable damage to Solanaceous crops. The fungal pathogen Neozygites floridana Weiser and Muma from Brazil has been considered a potential candidate for introduction into Africa for the control of T. evansi. To be incorporated in the tomato production system, N. floridana has to be compatible with the pesticides used for the control of other pests and diseases. Pesticides used in tomatoes that might affect the fungus were therefore studied by the use of different methods. Two insecticides (Lambda-cyhalothrin and Methomyl), two acaricides (Propargite and Abamectin), and two fungicides (Captan and Mancozeb) were tested in two concentrations: the mean commercial rate (CR) and 50% of the mean commercial rate (CR/2). Fungus-killed mite cadavers or the substrates used for sporulation (leaf discs and coverslips) were either immersed or sprayed with the pesticides before testing their effects on sporulation, germination of primary conidia and infectivity of N. floridana. Direct immersion of cadavers, coverslips or leaf discs into pesticides affected sporulation and germination stronger than the spray tower method, although infectivity of capilliconidia was neither affected by the method of application nor the concentration of the pesticides. The fungicides Captan and Mancozeb resulted in a high reduction in sporulation and germination at both concentrations. Propargite did not inhibit sporulation but affected germination of primary conidia. Methomyl and Abamectin resulted in less effects on N. floridana. PMID:18584133

Wekesa, V W; Knapp, M; Delalibera, I

2008-12-01

351

Growth of the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Pisolithus Microcarpus in different nutritional conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The most important plant species employed in reforestation programs depend on ectomycorrhizal fungi for their establishment and growth. The exploitation of this symbiosis to improve forest productivity requires fungal inoculants in a large scale level. To develop such a technology it is necessary to define the optimal composition of the culture medium for each fungus. With these objectives in mind, the effect of the composition of the culture medium on biomass production of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus microcarpus (isolate UFSC-Pt116 was studied. The original composition of two culture media, already employed for cultivation of ectomycorrhizal fungi, was submitted to several variations with the C/N ratio as the main variable. A variation of the Pridham-Gottlieb medium was the most efficient for the production of biomass. Therefore, it was submitted to a factorial assay where glucose, peptone and yeast extract components were the factors analyzed. Results showed that the glucose concentration may be increased up to 40 % in order to promote higher biomass production. Peptone had a positive effect on this variable, whereas yeast extract promoted a deleterious effect. These results indicate that it is advisable to eliminate yeast extract from the medium and replace it with peptone prior to use.

Márcio José Rossi

2011-06-01

352

Novel bioactive metabolites producing endophytic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus calls for inventive research and development strategies. Inhibition of this bacterial pathogenesis may be a promising therapeutic approach. The screening of antimicrobial compounds from endophytes is a promising way to meet the increasing threat of drug-resistant strains of human and plant pathogens. In the present study, a novel endophytic fungus, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, was isolated from the medicinal plant Vitex negundo L. Extracts of C. gloeosporioides were obtained using hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol solvents. The fungal extracts exhibited an effective antimicrobial activity against bacterial and fungal strains. The extracts were also analysed for antibacterial activity against methicillin-, penicillin- and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus strains (1-10). The methanol extract showed an effective antibacterial activity against S. aureus strain 9, with a minimal inhibitory concentration of 31.25 ?g mL(-1) . The synergistic action of endophytic fungal extract with antibiotics such as methicillin, penicillin and vancomycin was observed against S. aureus strain 6. The fractional inhibitory concentration index of methanol extract with methicillin, penicillin and vancomycin was 1.0, 0.5 and 0.375, respectively. These results clearly indicate that the metabolite of endophytic fungus C. gloeosporioides is a potential source of new antibiotics. PMID:21219448

Arivudainambi, U S Ezhil; Anand, Thangarajan Durai; Shanmugaiah, Vellasamy; Karunakaran, Chandran; Rajendran, Ayyappan

2011-04-01

353

Genome Sequencing and Analysis of the Biomass-Degrading Fungus Trichoderma reesei (syn. Hypocrea jecorina)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A major thrust of the white biotechnology movement involves the development of enzyme systems which depolymerize biomass to simple sugars which are subsequently converted to sustainable biofuels (e.g., ethanol) and chemical intermediates. The fungus Trichoderma reesei (syn. Hypocrea jecorina) represents a paradigm for the industrial production of highly efficient cellulases and hemicellulases needed for hydrolysis of biomass polysaccharides. Herein we describe intriguing attributes of the T. reeseigenome in relation to the future of fuel biotechnology. The T. reesei genome sequence was derived using a whole genome shotgun approach combined with finishing work to generate an assembly comprising 89 scaffolds totaling 34 Mbp with few gaps. In total, 9,130 gene models were predicted using a combination of ab initio and sequence similarity-based methods and EST data. Considering the industrial utility and effectiveness of its enzymes, the T. reesei genome surprisingly encodes the fewest cellulases and hemicellulases of any fungus having the ability to hydrolyze plant cell wall polysaccharides and whose genome has been sequenced. Many genes encoding carbohydrate active enzymes are distributed non-randomly in groups or clusters that interestingly lie between regions of synteny with other Sordariomycetes. Additionally, the T. reesei genome contains a multitude of genes encoding biosynthetic pathways for secondary metabolites (possible antibacterial and antifungal compounds) which may promote successful competition and survival in the crowded and competitive soil habitat occupied by T. reesei. Our analysis coupled with the availability of genome sequence data provides a roadmap for construction of enhanced T. reesei strains for industrial applications.

Martinez, Antonio D.; Berka, Randy; Henrissat, Bernard; Saloheimo, Markku; Arvas, Mikko; Baker, Scott E.; Chapman, Jaro d; Chertkov, Olga; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Cullen, Dan; Danchin, Etienne G.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Harris, Paul; Jackson, Melissa ?.; kubicek, Christian P.; Han, Cliff F.; Ho, Isaac; Larrando, Luis F.; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo; Magnuson, Jon K.; Merino, Sandy; Misra, Monica; Nelson, Beth; Putnam, Nicholas; Robbertse, Barbara; Salamov, Asaf; Schmoll, Monika; Terry, Astrid ?.; Thayer, Nina; Westerholm-Parvinen, Ann; Schoch, Conrad L.; Yao, Jian ?.; Barbote, Ravi; Nelson, Mary Anne; Detter, Chris J.; Bruce, David; Kuske, Cheryl; Xie, Gary; Richardson, P. M.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Lucas, Susan; Rubin, Eddie M.; Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Ward, Michael ?.; Brettin, T.

2008-05-01

354

Characterization of pyrene biodegradation by white-rot fungus Polyporus sp. S133.  

Science.gov (United States)

A white-rot fungus of Polyporus sp. S133 was isolated from an oil-polluted soil. The metabolism of pyrene by this fungus was investigated in liquid medium with 5 mg of the compound. Depletion of pyrene was evident during the 30-day growth period and was 21% and 90%, respectively, in cometabolism and metabolism of pyrene alone. Pyrene was absorbed to fungal cells or biodegraded to form simpler structural compounds. Seventy-one percent of eliminated pyrene was transformed by Polyporus sp. S133 into other compounds, whereas only 18% was absorbed in the fungal cell. The effects of pH and temperature on biomass production of Polyporus sp. S133 for pyrene were examined; the properties of laccase and 1,2-dioxygenase produced by Polyporus sp. S133 during pyrene degradation were investigated. The optimal values of pH were 3, 5, and 4 for laccase, 1,2-dioxygenase, and biomass production, respectively, whereas the optimal values of temperature were 25 °C for laccase and 50 °C for 1,2-dioxygenase and biomass production. Under optimal conditions, pyrene was mainly metabolized to 1-hydroxypyrene and gentisic acid. The structure of 1-hydroxypyrene and gentisic acid was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after identification using thin-layer chromatography. PMID:23586956

Hadibarata, Tony; Kristanti, Risky Ayu; Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali; Nugroho, Agung Endro

2012-01-01

355

Antifungal activity of metabolites of the endophytic fungus Trichoderma brevicompactum from garlic  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The endophytic fungus strain 0248, isolated from garlic, was identified as Trichoderma brevicompactum based on morphological characteristics and the nucleotide sequences of ITS1-5.8SITS2 and tef1. The bioactive compound T2 was isolated from the culture extracts of this fungus by bioactivity-guided f [...] ractionation and identified as 4?-acetoxy-12,13-epoxy-?9-trichothecene (trichodermin) by spectral analysis and mass spectrometry. Trichodermin has a marked inhibitory activity on Rhizoctonia solani, with an EC50 of 0.25 µgmL-1. Strong inhibition by trichodermin was also found for Botrytis cinerea, with an EC50 of 2.02 µgmL-1. However, a relatively poor inhibitory effect was observed for trichodermin against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (EC50 = 25.60 µgmL-1). Compared with the positive control Carbendazim, trichodermin showed a strong antifungal activity on the above phytopathogens. There is little known about endophytes from garlic. This paper studied in detail the identification of endophytic T. brevicompactum from garlic and the characterization of its active metabolite trichodermin.

Xuping, Shentu; Xiaohuan, Zhan; Zheng, Ma; Xiaoping, Yu; Chuanxi, Zhang.

356

Antifungal activity of metabolites of the endophytic fungus Trichoderma brevicompactum from garlic.  

Science.gov (United States)

The endophytic fungus strain 0248, isolated from garlic, was identified as Trichoderma brevicompactum based on morphological characteristics and the nucleotide sequences of ITS1-5.8S- ITS2 and tef1. The bioactive compound T2 was isolated from the culture extracts of this fungus by bioactivity-guided fractionation and identified as 4?-acetoxy-12,13- epoxy-?(9)-trichothecene (trichodermin) by spectral analysis and mass spectrometry. Trichodermin has a marked inhibitory activity on Rhizoctonia solani, with an EC50 of 0.25 ?g mL(-1). Strong inhibition by trichodermin was also found for Botrytis cinerea, with an EC50 of 2.02 ?g mL(-1). However, a relatively poor inhibitory effect was observed for trichodermin against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (EC50 = 25.60 ?g mL(-1)). Compared with the positive control Carbendazim, trichodermin showed a strong antifungal activity on the above phytopathogens. There is little known about endophytes from garlic. This paper studied in detail the identification of endophytic T. brevicompactum from garlic and the characterization of its active metabolite trichodermin. PMID:24948941

Shentu, Xuping; Zhan, Xiaohuan; Ma, Zheng; Yu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Chuanxi

2014-01-01

357

A dipeptide transporter from the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis is upregulated in the intraradical phase  

Science.gov (United States)

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which form an ancient and widespread mutualistic symbiosis with plants, are a crucial but still enigmatic component of the plant micro biome. Nutrient exchange has probably been at the heart of the success of this plant-fungus interaction since the earliest days of plants on land. To characterize genes from the fungal partner involved in nutrient exchange, and presumably important for the functioning of the AM symbiosis, genome-wide transcriptomic data obtained from the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis were exploited. A gene sequence, showing amino acid sequence and transmembrane domains profile similar to members of the PTR2 family of fungal oligopeptide transporters, was identified and called RiPTR2. The functional properties of RiPTR2 were investigated by means of heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants defective in either one or both of its di/tripeptide transporter genes PTR2 and DAL5. These assays showed that RiPTR2 can transport dipeptides such as Ala-Leu, Ala-Tyr or Tyr-Ala. From the gene expression analyses it seems that RiPTR2 responds to different environmental clues when the fungus grows inside the root and in the extraradical phase. PMID:25232358

Belmondo, Simone; Fiorilli, Valentina; Perez-Tienda, Jacob; Ferrol, Nuria; Marmeisse, Roland; Lanfranco, Luisa

2014-01-01

358

Extrolites of Wallemia sebi, a very common fungus in the built environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wallemia sebi has been primarily known as a spoilage fungus of dried, salted fish and other foods that are salty or sweet. However, this fungus is also very common in house dust. The health effects of chronic exposure to mold and dampness are known to be associated with both allergens and various inflammatory compounds, including the secondary metabolites of building associated fungi and their allergens. IgE sensitization to W. sebi has been long reported from housing and occupational exposures. However, its allergens have not been described previously. Strains from food have been reported to produce a number of compounds with modest toxicity. Strains from the built environment in Canada produced a number of metabolites including the known compound walleminone and a new compound 1-benzylhexahydroimidazo [1,5-?] pyridine-3,5-dione which we call wallimidione. Based on an in silico analysis, wallimidione is likely the most toxic of the metabolites reported to date from W. sebi. We found that the primary human antigen of W. sebi is a 47 kDa excreted cellulase present in high concentrations in W. sebi arthrospores. This species is a basidiomycete and, unsurprisingly, the antigen was not found in extracts of other fungi common in the built environment, all ascomycetes. PMID:24471934

Desroches, T C; McMullin, D R; Miller, J D

2014-10-01

359

Laccase is upregulated via stress pathways in the phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on the factors affecting the production of the newly characterized laccase from the phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. The carbon/nitrogen ratio appears to be of great importance. Rather than a simple nutrient-rich nitrogen source, yeast extract (YE) behaves as a true laccase upregulator, apparently acting via a stress pathway. Chelidonium majus extract, a known antifungal agent, acts in a similar manner. The compound(s) in the YE responsible for enhancing laccase synthesis are suggested to be hydrolysable choline derivatives. Both extracts reduce biomass and sclerotia development and enhance laccase production, leading to an increase in laccase activity by one order of magnitude compared to controls. The pH of the medium, a well-known virulence regulator for this fungus, also acts as a true laccase regulator, though via a different mechanism. The effect of pH appeared to be linked to the acidification kinetics of the extracellular medium during fungal development. A number of other known laccase inducers were found to enhance laccase production at most twofold. PMID:23931118

Coman, Cristina; Mo?, Augustin C; Gal, Emese; Pârvu, Marcel; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu

2013-01-01

360

Cellobiose dehydrogenase formation by filamentous fungus Chaetomium sp. INBI 2-26(-).  

Science.gov (United States)

Laccase-negative filamentous fungus INBI 2-26(-) isolated from non-sporulating laccase-forming fungal association INBI 2-26 by means of protoplast technique was identified as Chaetomium sp. based on partial sequence of its rRNA genes. In the presence of natural cellulose sources, the strain secreted neutral cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) activity both in pure culture and in co-culture with laccase-positive filamentous fungus INBI 2-26(+) isolated from the same association. INBI 2-26(-) also secreted CDH during submerged cultivation in minimal medium with glucose as the sole carbon source. Maximal CDH activity of 1IU/ml at pH 6 with 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPIP) as an acceptor was obtained on 12th day of submerged cultivation with filter paper as major cellulose source. Cellulase system of Chaetomium sp. INBI 2-26(-) capable of adsorption onto H(3)PO(4)-swollen filter paper consisted of four major proteins (Mr 200, 95, 65 and 55K) based on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and was capable of DCPIP reduction without exogenous cellobiose. PMID:15996782

Vasil'chenko, L G; Khromonygina, V V; Karapetyan, K N; Vasilenko, O V; Rabinovich, M L

2005-09-22

 
 
 
 
361

Reduced biological control and enhanced chemical pest management in the evolution of fungus farming in ants.  

Science.gov (United States)

To combat disease, most fungus-growing ants (Attini) use antibiotics from mutualistic bacteria (Pseudonocardia) that are cultured on the ants' exoskeletons and chemical cocktails from exocrine glands, especially the metapleural glands (MG). Previous work has hypothesized that (i) Pseudonocardia antibiotics are narrow-spectrum and control a fungus (Escovopsis) that parasitizes the ants' fungal symbiont, and (ii) MG secretions have broad-spectrum activity and protect ants and brood. We assessed the relative importance of these lines of defence, and their activity spectra, by scoring abundance of visible Pseudonocardia for nine species from five genera and measuring rates of MG grooming after challenging ants with disease agents of differing virulence. Atta and Sericomyrmex have lost or greatly reduced the abundance of visible bacteria. When challenged with diverse disease agents, including Escovopsis, they significantly increased MG grooming rates and expanded the range of targets. By contrast, species of Acromyrmex and Trachymyrmex maintain abundant Pseudonocardia. When challenged, these species had lower MG grooming rates, targeted primarily to brood. More elaborate MG defences and reduced reliance on mutualistic Pseudonocardia are correlated with larger colony size among attine genera, raising questions about the efficacy of managing disease in large societies with chemical cocktails versus bacterial antimicrobial metabolites. PMID:19324734

Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Zimmerman, Jess K; Nash, David R; Boomsma, Jacobus J; Wcislo, William T

2009-06-22

362

Growth of the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Pisolithus Microcarpus in different nutritional conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The most important plant species employed in reforestation programs depend on ectomycorrhizal fungi for their establishment and growth. The exploitation of this symbiosis to improve forest productivity requires fungal inoculants in a large scale level. To develop such a technology it is necessary to [...] define the optimal composition of the culture medium for each fungus. With these objectives in mind, the effect of the composition of the culture medium on biomass production of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus microcarpus (isolate UFSC-Pt116) was studied. The original composition of two culture media, already employed for cultivation of ectomycorrhizal fungi, was submitted to several variations with the C/N ratio as the main variable. A variation of the Pridham-Gottlieb medium was the most efficient for the production of biomass. Therefore, it was submitted to a factorial assay where glucose, peptone and yeast extract components were the factors analyzed. Results showed that the glucose concentration may be increased up to 40 % in order to promote higher biomass production. Peptone had a positive effect on this variable, whereas yeast extract promoted a deleterious effect. These results indicate that it is advisable to eliminate yeast extract from the medium and replace it with peptone prior to use.

Márcio José, Rossi; Vetúria L., Oliveira.

2011-06-01

363

Coexisting Curtobacterium bacterium promotes growth of white-rot fungus Stereum sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

White-rot basidiomycetes are the main decomposers of woody biomass in forest ecosystems. Little is known, however, about the interactions between white-rot fungi and other microorganisms in decayed wood. A wood-rotting fungus, Stereum sp. strain TN4F, was isolated from a fruit body, and its coexisting cultivable bacteria were isolated from its substrate; natural white-rot decayed wood. The effects of bacteria on fungal growth were examined by confrontational assay in vitro. A growth-promoting bacterium for this Stereum strain was identified as Curtobacterium sp. TN4W-19, using 16SrRNA sequencing. A confrontational assay revealed that Curtobacterium sp. TN4W-19 significantly promoted the mycelial growth of Stereum sp. TN4F in the direction of the bacterial colony, without direct contact between the mycelium and bacterial cells. This is the first report of a positive interaction between a white-rot fungus and a coexisting bacterial strain in vitro. PMID:22101455

Kamei, Ichiro; Yoshida, Takehiro; Enami, Daisuke; Meguro, Sadatoshi

2012-02-01

364

Microbial transformation of the sesquiterpene lactone tagitinin C by the fungus Aspergillus terreus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The biotransformation of the sesquiterpene lactone tagitinin C by the fungus Aspergillus terreus MT 5.3 yielded a rare derivative that was elucidated by spectrometric methods. The fungus led to the formation of a different product through an unusual epoxidation reaction between C4 and C5, formation of a C3,C10 ether bridge, and a methoxylation of the C1 of tagitinin C. The chemical structure of the product, namely 1?-methoxy-3?-hydroxy-3,10?-4,5?-diepoxy-8?-isobutyroyloxygermacr-11(13)-en-6?,12-olide, is the same as that of a derivative that was recently isolated from the flowers of a Brazilian population of Mexican sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia), which is the source of the substrate tagitinin C. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the substrate and the biotransformed product were evaluated in HL-60 cells using an MTT assay, and both compounds were found to be cytotoxic. We show that soil fungi may be useful in the biotransformation of sesquiterpene lactones, thereby leading to unusual changes in their chemical structures that may preserve or alter their biological activities, and may also mimic plant biosynthetic pathways for production of secondary metabolites. PMID:22782617

Rocha, Bruno Alves; Pupo, Mônica Tallarico; Antonucci, Gilmara Ausech; Sampaio, Suely Vilela; de Melo Alves Paiva, Raquel; Said, Suraia; Gobbo-Neto, Leonardo; Da Costa, Fernando Batista

2012-11-01

365

Relative importance of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Rhizophagus intraradices) and root hairs in plant drought tolerance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Both arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and root hairs play important roles in plant uptake of water and mineral nutrients. To reveal the relative importance of mycorrhiza and root hairs in plant water relations, a bald root barley (brb) mutant and its wild type (wt) were grown with or without inoculation of the AM fungus Rhizophagus intraradices under well-watered or drought conditions, and plant physiological traits relevant to drought stress resistance were recorded. The experimental results indicated that the AM fungus could almost compensate for the absence of root hairs under drought-stressed conditions. Moreover, phosphorus (P) concentration, leaf water potential, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and water use efficiency were significantly increased by R. intraradices but not by root hairs, except for shoot P concentration and photosynthetic rate under the drought condition. Root hairs even significantly decreased root P concentration under drought stresses. These results confirm that AM fungi can enhance plant drought tolerance by improvement of P uptake and plant water relations, which subsequently promote plant photosynthetic performance and growth, while root hairs presumably contribute to the improvement of plant growth and photosynthetic capacity through an increase in shoot P concentration. PMID:24743902

Li, Tao; Lin, Ge; Zhang, Xin; Chen, Yongliang; Zhang, Shubin; Chen, Baodong

2014-11-01

366

Involvement of cytochrome P450 in pentachlorophenol transformation in a white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence of cytochrome P450 and P450-mediated pentachlorophenol oxidation in a white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated in this study. The carbon monoxide difference spectra indicated induction of P450 (103±13 pmol P450 per mg protein in the microsomal fraction) by pentachlorophenol. The pentachlorophenol oxidation by the microsomal P450 was NADPH-dependent at a rate of 19.0±1.2 pmol min(-1) (mg protein)(-1), which led to formation of tetrachlorohydroquinone and was significantly inhibited by piperonyl butoxide (a P450 inhibitor). Tetrachlorohydroquinone was also found in the cultures, while the extracellular ligninases which were reported to be involved in tetrachlorohydroquinone formation were undetectable. The formation of tetrachlorohydroquinone was not detectable in the cultures added with either piperonyl butoxide or cycloheximide (an inhibitor of de novo protein synthesis). These results revealed the pentachlorophenol oxidation by induced P450 in the fungus, and it should be the first time that P450-mediated pentachlorophenol oxidation was demonstrated in a microorganism. Furthermore, the addition of the P450 inhibitor to the cultures led to obvious increase of pentachlorophenol, suggesting that the relationship between P450 and pentachlorophenol methylation is worthy of further research. PMID:23029295

Ning, Daliang; Wang, Hui

2012-01-01

367

Induction of steroidal hydroxylase activity by plant defence compounds in the filamentous fungus Cochliobolus lunatus  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the hypothesis that the endogenous role of the commercially important inducible steroid hydroxylase cytochrome P450s of fungi was in defense against plant toxophores/secondary metabolites. Two plant defense compounds, the aglycones tomatidine and solanidine, the steroidal glycoalkaloid alpha-tomatine and the triterpene saponin beta-escin were tested as inducers of 11beta/14alpha-steroid hydroxylase in the filamentous fungus Cochliobolus lunatus. The extracts of saponins from the roots of Primula veris and green oat leaves were also tested as inducers of 11beta/14alpha-hydroxylation activity in progesterone biotransformation with the same fungus. Induction of steroid hydroxylase and inhibition of activity in some cases support our hypothesis that their endogenous function is in biochemical defence against secondary metabolites. 4-Pregnene-3,11,20-trione was added as a substrate for biotransformation with C. lunatus. We isolated from culture broth 14alpha-hydroxy-4-pregnene-3,11,20-trione, and the hitherto unreported compounds, 7alpha,14alpha-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3,11,20-trione and 7alpha-hydroxy-pregna-4,8(14)-diene-3,11,20-trione. PMID:10903116

Vitas; Smith; Plavec; Kesselmeier; Pajic; Ferlan; Zigon; Kelly; Komel

1999-02-01

368

An NADPH-dependent genetic switch regulates plant infection by the rice blast fungus.  

Science.gov (United States)

To cause rice blast disease, the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae breaches the tough outer cuticle of the rice leaf by using specialized infection structures called appressoria. These cells allow the fungus to invade the host plant and proliferate rapidly within leaf tissue. Here, we show that a unique NADPH-dependent genetic switch regulates plant infection in response to the changing nutritional and redox conditions encountered by the pathogen. The biosynthetic enzyme trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (Tps1) integrates control of glucose-6-phosphate metabolism and nitrogen source utilization by regulating the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, the generation of NADPH, and the activity of nitrate reductase. We report that Tps1 directly binds to NADPH and, thereby, regulates a set of related transcriptional corepressors, comprising three proteins, Nmr1, Nmr2, and Nmr3, which can each bind NADP. Targeted deletion of any of the Nmr-encoding genes partially suppresses the nonpathogenic phenotype of a ?tps1 mutant. Tps1-dependent Nmr corepressors control the expression of a set of virulence-associated genes that are derepressed during appressorium-mediated plant infection. When considered together, these results suggest that initiation of rice blast disease by M. oryzae requires a regulatory mechanism involving an NADPH sensor protein, Tps1, a set of NADP-dependent transcriptional corepressors, and the nonconsuming interconversion of NADPH and NADP acting as signal transducer. PMID:21115813

Wilson, Richard A; Gibson, Robert P; Quispe, Cristian F; Littlechild, Jennifer A; Talbot, Nicholas J

2010-12-14

369

Toxicidade de filtrados fúngicos a meloidogyne incognita / Fungus filtrates toxicity to Meloidogyne incognita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Visando à obtenção de novas moléculas nematicidas, 18 filtrados de espécies fúngicas e extratos de sete micélios fúngicos foram estudados in vitro quanto aos efeitos sobre a eclosão, motilidade e mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2) de Meloidogyne incognita. Filtrados fúngicos foram obtido [...] s de culturas em meio Czapek. Metanol foi usado como solvente para obter extratos dos micélios fúngicos. Filtrados de Paecilomyces lilacinus, Fusarium moniliforme e Fusarium oxysporum reduziram a motilidade e eclosão, e aumentaram a mortalidade (P Abstract in english In the search for new nematicidal molecules, 18 fungal species filtrates and seven fungus mycelium extracts were studied in vitro to see their influence on hatching, mobility and mortality of second stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita. Fungal filtrates were obtained from fifteen day Czapek [...] cultures. Methanol was used as solvent to obtain fungus mycelium extracts. Paecilomyces lilacinus, Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium oxysporum filtrates reduced J2 motility and hatching, and increased J2 mortality (P

MAURO J.N., COSTA; VICENTE P., CAMPOS; LUDWIG H., PFENNING; DENILSON F., OLIVEIRA.

370

Cryptic speciation and recombination in the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis as revealed by gene genealogies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiologic agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a disease confined to Latin America and of marked importance in the endemic areas due to its frequency and severity. This species is considered to be clonal according to mycological criteria and has been shown to vary in virulence. To characterize natural genetic variation and reproductive mode in this fungus, we analyzed P. brasiliensis phylogenetically in search of cryptic species and possible recombination using concordance and nondiscordance of gene genealogies with respect to phylogenies of eight regions in five nuclear loci. Our data indicate that this fungus consists of at least three distinct, previously unrecognized species: S1 (species 1 with 38 isolates), PS2 (phylogenetic species 2 with six isolates), and PS3 (phylogenetic species 3 with 21 isolates). Genealogies of four of the regions studied strongly supported the PS2 clade, composed of five Brazilian and one Venezuelan isolate. The second clade, PS3, composed solely of 21 Colombian isolates, was strongly supported by the alpha-tubulin genealogy. The remaining 38 individuals formed S1. Two of the three lineages of P. brasiliensis, S1 and PS2, are sympatric across their range, suggesting barriers to gene flow other than geographic isolation. Our study provides the first evidence for possible sexual reproduction in P. brasiliensis S1, but does not rule it out in the other two species. PMID:16151188

Matute, Daniel R; McEwen, Juan G; Puccia, Rosana; Montes, Beatriz A; San-Blas, Gioconda; Bagagli, Eduardo; Rauscher, Jason T; Restrepo, Angela; Morais, Favia; Niño-Vega, Gustavo; Taylor, John W

2006-01-01

371

Characterization of Secondary Metabolites of an Endophytic Fungus from Curcuma wenyujin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endophytic fungi are ubiquitous in the plant kingdom and they produce a variety of secondary metabolites to protect plant communities and to show some potential for human use. However, secondary metabolites produced by endophytic fungi in the medicinal plant Curcuma wenyujin are sparsely explored and characterized. The aim of this study was to characterize the secondary metabolites of an active endophytic fungus. M7226, the mutant counterpart of endophytic fungus EZG0807 previously isolated from the root of C. wenyujin, was as a target strain. After fermentation, the secondary metabolites were purified using a series of purification methods including thin layer chromatography, column chromatography with silica, ODS-C18, Sephadex LH-20, and macroporous resin, and were analyzed using multiple pieces of data (UV, IR, MS, and NMR). Five compounds were isolated and identified as curcumin, cinnamic acid, 1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone, gibberellic acid, and kaempferol. Interestingly, curcumin, one of the main active ingredients of C. wenyujin, was isolated as a secondary metabolite from a fungal endophyte for the first time. PMID:25002358

Yan, Jvfen; Qi, Ningbo; Wang, Suping; Gadhave, Kiran; Yang, Shulin

2014-11-01

372

A new eremophilane-type sesquiterpene from the phytopatogen fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Sphaeropsidaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O fungo fitopatogênico Lasiodiplodia theobromae, isolado de goiaba, foi cultivado em arroz por 32 dias à temperatura ambiente. Extração com CH2Cl2:MeOH (3:7), seguido de fracionamento cromatográfico do extrato forneceu o esteróide ergosterol. Da cultura fúngica em meio de Czapeck por 40 dias à tempe [...] ratura ambiente, foram isolados a isocumarina cis-4-hidroximeleína e um sesquiterpeno do tipo eremofilano. O sesquiterpeno eremofilano está sendo descrito pela primeira vez na literatura. Este é o primeiro relato do isolamento de um sesquiterpeno eremofilano para o gênero Lasiodiplodia. Abstract in english The phytopatogenic fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae, isolated from guava, was cultivated in rice for 32 days at room temperature. Extraction with CH2Cl2:MeOH (3:7), followed by chromatography fractionation of the extract provided ergosterol. From the fungus culture in Czapeck medium for 40 days at ro [...] om temperature, were isolated isocoumarin cis-4-hydroxymeleine and an eremophilane-type sesquiterpene. The latter compound is being reported for the first time in the literature. Also, this is the first time that an eremophilane sesquiterpene is described for Lasiodiplodia genus.

Fátima M., Nunes; Maria da Conceição F. de, Oliveira; Ângela M. C., Arriaga; Telma L. G., Lemos; Manoel, Andrade-Neto; Marcos C. de, Mattos; Jair, Mafezoli; Francisco M. P., Viana; Viviane M., Ferreira; Edson, Rodrigues-Filho; Antônio G., Ferreira.

373

Basidiome formation of an edible wild, putatively ectomycorrhizal fungus, Phlebopus portentosus without host plant.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phlebopus portentosus is a popular wild edible ectomycorrhizal fungus in northern Thailand. In general ectomycorrhizal fungi produce basidiomes when associated with a host plant. In this paper mycelium growth and basidiome production of P. portentosus were examined in pure culture both in vitro and in pot-culture experiments. Five mycelial strains of P. portentosus were isolated from basidiomes and used in the experiments. The mycelia grew fastest on sorghum grains supplemented with fungal-host solution. The mycelia produced sclerotia-like structures after 3 wk incubation in darkness at 30 C. All strains of P. portentosus had the ability to form primordia. The primordia were formed under lowered temperature, high humidity and a 12 h photo-period. They developed to mature basidiomes after 8-12 d in in vitro. In the pot-culture primordia were found after 28-35 d incubation in the greenhouse and mature basidiomes released basidiospores within 6-8 d. Basidiospores were germinated on fungal-host medium and formed mycelial colonies. This fungus showed an ability to produce basidiomes even 2 y after the original isolation from tissues. This research provides valuable information concerning the techniques and protocols for the large scale commercial production of P. portentosus basidiomes in the absence of a host plant. PMID:22453121

Kumla, Jaturong; Bussaban, Boonsom; Suwannarach, Nakarin; Lumyong, Saisamorn; Danell, Eric

2012-01-01

374

Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation as a tool for insertional mutagenesis in medicinal fungus Cordyceps militaris.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cordyceps militaris is an insect-born fungus with various biological and pharmacological activities. The mutant library of C. militaris was constructed by improved Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT), for the ultimate identification of genes involved in isolate degeneration during fruiting body production. Successful transformation of C. militaris JM4 by A. tumefaciens AGL-1 carrying vector pATMT1 was performed, with efficiency in the range of 30-600 transformants per 1×10(5) conidia. Acetosyringone (AS) supplement in C. militaris ATMT was not necessary during either precultivation or cocultivation. The transformation procedure was optimised based on the ratios between donor A. tumefaciens and recipient conidia, and pH value of cocultivation media. The integration of the hyg gene into C. militaris genome was determined by PCR and Southern blot analysis, suggesting that 67-88% resulting transformants in cultivation conditions with or without AS were inserted by T-DNA and 55-80% were single-copy. Special mutants with altered phenotypes and growth potentials were characterised. The efficient TAIL-PCR approach was established for identifying T-DNA flanking sequences from C. militaris mutants. The successful construction of the mutant library indicated the usefulness of this approach for functional genetic analysis in this important fungus. PMID:21354533

Zheng, Zhuangli; Huang, Chuanhua; Cao, Li; Xie, Cuihong; Han, Richou

2011-03-01

375

Multiple mitochondrial viruses in an isolate of the Dutch Elm disease fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nucleotide sequences of three mitochondrial virus double-stranded (ds) RNAs, RNA-4 (2599 nucleotides), RNA-5 (2474 nucleotides), and RNA-6 (2343 nucleotides), in a diseased isolate Log1/3-8d2 (Ld) of the Dutch elm disease fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi have been determined. All these RNAs are A-U-rich (71-73% A + U residues). Using the fungal mitochondrial genetic code in which UGA codes for tryptophan, the positive-strand of each of RNAs 4, 5, and 6 contains a single open reading frame (ORF) with the potential to encode a protein of 783, 729, and 695 amino acids, respectively, all of which contain conserved motifs characteristic of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps). Sequence comparisons showed that these RNAs are related to each other and to a previously characterized RNA, RNA-3a, from the same O. novo-ulmi isolate, especially within the RdRp-like motifs. However, the overall RNA nucleotide and RdRp amino acid sequence identities were relatively low (43-55% and 20-32%, respectively). The 5'- and 3'-terminal sequences of these RNAs are different, but they can all be folded into potentially stable stem-loop structures. Those of RNA-4 and RNA-6 have inverted complementarity, potentially forming panhandle structures. Their molecular and biological properties indicate that RNAs 3a, 4, 5, and 6 are the genomes of four different viruses, which replicate independently in the same cell. These four viruses are also related to a mitochondrial RNA virus from another fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, recently designated the type species of the Mitovirus genus of the Narnaviridae family, and to a virus from the fungus Rhizoctonia solani. It is proposed that the four O. novo-ulmi mitochondrial viruses are assigned to the Mitovirus genus and designated O. novo-ulmi mitovirus (OnuMV) 3a-Ld, 4-Ld, 5-Ld, and 6-Ld, respectively. Northern blot analysis indicated that O. novo-ulmi Ld nucleic acid extracts contain more single-stranded (ss, positive-stranded) RNA than dsRNA for all three newly described mitoviruses. O. novo-ulmi RNA-7, previously believed to be a satellite-like RNA, is shown to be a defective RNA, derived from OnuMV4-Ld RNA by multiple internal deletions. OnuMV4-Ld is therefore the helper virus for the replication of both RNA-7 and another defective RNA, RNA-10. Sequence comparisons indicate that RNA-10 could be derived from RNA-7, as previously suggested, or derived directly from RNA-4. PMID:10329574

Hong, Y; Dover, S L; Cole, T E; Brasier, C M; Buck, K W

1999-05-25

376

Screening of bacterial biocontrols against sapstain fungus (Lasiodiplodia theobromae Pat.) of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.Arg.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Diverse bacterial biocontrol agents from various sources of aerobic composts against the sapstain fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae in rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) were isolated, screened and identified by various morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques. The inhibitory effect of seventeen bacterial isolates was examined and seven exhibited inhibition towards the sapstain fungus. Among the seven antagonists, six were conclusively identified as Bacillus subtilis and one as Paenibacillus polymyxa using 16S rRNA-encoding gene sequencing. This is the first report on the occurrence of P. polymyxa, a potent biofertilizer and antagonist in vermicompost. HiCrome Bacillus agar was identified as an effective medium for differentiation of B. subtilis from other Bacillus species. The present work demonstrates the efficacy of the antagonistic property of B. subtilis strains against rubberwood sapstain fungus. Culture-based antagonistic inhibition displayed by B. subtilis can be extended to cater to the biocontrol requirements of wood-based industries against the stain fungus. The study showed the utility of an integrated approach, employing morphological, biochemical and molecular tools for conclusive identification of several bacterial isolates present in aerobic composts from diverse sources. PMID:25049165

Sajitha, K L; Maria Florence, E J; Dev, Suma Arun

2014-09-01

377

In vitro Isolation and Influence of Nutritional Conditions on the Mycelial Growth of the Entomopathogenic and Medicinal Fungus Cordyceps militaris  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cordyceps militaris is an entomopathogenic and medicinal fungus. Therefore in vitro isolation and influence of nutritional conditions on the mycelial growth of this fungus was carried out in this study. A small bit of tissue from stipe and stroma was used as starting material for in vitro isolation. The present study revealed that this fungus showed optimum growth in Yeastal Potato Dextrose Agar Medium and Glucose Asparagine Solution. The maximum mycelial growth was observed at 25°C and pH 7.5 and 5.5 in solid and liquid medium, respectively. Among 12 carbon and 9 nitrogen sources tested, the best growth was supported by Sucrose and Ammonium phosphate, respectively. All the four mineral sources supported good growth of the fungus, however 2 ppm calcium chloride and manganese sulphate, ppm ferrous sulphate and 5 ppm ammonium molybdate proved superior as compared to higher or lower concentrations of the same mineral source tried. Among the 4 growth regulators, Gibberellic acid supported the maximum mycelial growth at 100 ppm concentration.

Amit Kumar Sehgal

2006-01-01

378

Chloro phenols degradation in soil columns inoculated with the with-rot fungus Anthracophyllum discolor Immobilized on wheat grains  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anthracophyllum discolor, a white-rot fungus of southern chile, produces ligninolytic enzymes specially manganese peroxidase (MnP), and has been studied for its potential use on bioremediation of contaminated soils with chloro phenols. the main purpose of this study was to evaluate the chloro phenols degradation in soils columns inoculated with Anthracopyllum discolor immobilized on wheat grains. (Author)

379

Chlorophenols degradation in soil columns inoculated with the with-rot fungus Anthracophyllum discolor Immobilized on wheat grains  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Anthracophyllum discolor, a white-rot fungus of southern chile, produces ligninolytic enzymes specially manganese peroxidase (MnP), and has been studied for its potential use on bioremediation of contaminated soils with chloro phenols. the main purpose of this study was to evaluate the chloro phenols degradation in soils columns inoculated with Anthracopyllum discolor immobilized on wheat grains. (Author)

Diez, M. C.; Tortella, G.; Navia, R.; Bornhardt, C.

2009-07-01

380

Evaluation of the use of Pycnoporus sanguineus fungus for phenolics and genotoxicity decay of a pharmaceutical effluent treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available If not properly and efficiently treated, wastes produced by the chemical industry can contaminate the environment. Using fungi able to degrade organic compounds (e.g. phenol seems to be a prominent method to treat pharmaceutical wastewaters, in particular, the white-rot fungus. The aim of this work was to treat pharmaceutical effluent by the Pycnoporus sanguineus fungus. Three effluent samples were collected in a pharmaceutical industry. The production of enzymes such as laccase and manganese peroxidase was determined. Their production increased throughout the treatment with the P. sanguineus fungus, reaching maximum concentration of 4.48 U.mL-1 (Effluent 1, 8.16 U.mL-1 (Effluent 2, 2.8 U.mL-1 (Effluent 3 and 0.03 Abs.min-1 (Effluent 2, respectively, during 96 hours of biological treatment. Genotoxic effects of the raw and treated effluents were also investigated using the in vivo mouse bone marrow micronucleus (MN assay. Results showed the biological treatment reduced the frequency of MN, in a dose-dependent manner, when compared to untreated sample. The decreasing of around 20% and 45% of phenolics concentration was observed throughout the treatment, confirming that laccase production can be related to the degradation of toxic compounds present in the effluent. Therefore, the biodegradation by the P. sanguineus fungus seems a promising method for the mineralization of recalcitrant compounds present in pharmaceutical effluents.

Mariângela Fontes Santiago

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
381

Serpula lacrymans, The Dry Rot Fungus and Tolerance Towards Copper-Based Wood Preservatives  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Serpula lacrymans (Wulfen : Fries) Schröter, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most (Wulfen : Fries) Schröterthe dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in temperate regions of the world i.e. northern Europe, Japan and Australia. Previously copper based wood preservatives were the most commonly used preservatives for pressure treatment of wood for building constructions. Because of a suspicion about tolerance toward copper components, a soil block test was undertaken to clarify the effect of two copper based preservatives, copper citrate and ACQ-D, on the dry rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans compared to an alternative non-copper containing wood preservative. The extensive use of copper-based wood preservatives has hastened the need for understanding why some fungi are able to attack copper-treated wood. The copper tolerance of S. lacrymans and other brown-rot fungi is thought to be due in part to oxalic acid production and accumulation. Oxalic acid has been implicated in copper tolerance by the formation of copper oxalate crystals. Twelve isolates of the dry rot fungus, S. lacrymans and four other brown rot species were evaluated for weight loss on wood treated with 1.2% copper citrate, 0.5% ACQ-D and 0.5% N'N-naphthaloylhydroxylamine (NHA). Eleven out of 12 S. lacrymans were shown to be tolerant towards copper citrate. ACQ-D and NHA, on the other were shown to be tolerant towards copper citrate. ACQ-D and NHA, on the other hand, were both effective against the dry rot isolates. These wood preservatives are less toxic toward the environment than traditional copper based preservatives.

Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Jensen, Bo

2005-01-01

382

Detection of Phakopsora pachyrhizi fungus by Polymerase Chain Reaction technique (PCR) after soy grains treatment by electron beams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Today Brazil, as the largest soy exporter in the world, has undergone the consequences of the contamination of these crops by the Asian dust fungus, being harmed since the plantation up to the harvest, with losses in its productivity ranging 10-80%. As it is a new disease in the Americas, there are not any resistant species to this fungus attack. The grains contamination harms the exportation for countries which do not want to have their crops contaminated, affecting therefore the international commerce and agro-business relationship with those countries Brazil has trade with. The Asian dust is caused by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi and its dissemination is of difficult control, since occurs through the wind dispersion. The P. pachyrhizi is an Asian fungus and was recently found in South Africa, Paraguay, Argentina and Brazil. As an alternative process to minimize these losses is the process to preserve the grains by radiation, the use of the electron accelerator was indicated, since its advantage for the grains exportation industry is fundamental. Besides the possibility of being disconnected when not in use, this source does not need to be recharged, is easily available and has high dose rate, streamlining the process and reducing logistics costs. The present work aims to identify, by the Polymerase Chain Reaction technique (PCR), the P. pachyrhizi fungus presence in the irradiated soy grains, at doses 1 and 2 kGy, at the IPEN-CNEN electron Accelerator, a Dynamitron Machine (Radiation Dynamics Co. model JOB, New York, USA), with 1.5 MeV power and 2.5 mA electrical current. (author)

383

Three dimeric naphtho-?-pyrones from the mangrove endophytic fungus Aspergillus tubingensis isolated from Pongamia pinnata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three new dimeric naphtho-?-pyrones, named rubasperone A (1), rubasperone B (2), and rubasperone C (3), together with two known compounds, rubrofusarin (4) and rubrofusarin B (5), were isolated from the mangrove endophytic fungus Aspergillus tubingensis (GX1-5E). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods, including IR, MS, and 1D and 2D NMR. The structures of 1 and 2 were further confirmed by X-ray crystallography. In the bioactivity assays against tyrosinase and ?-glucosidase, rubrofusarin (4) exhibited moderate tyrosinase inhibitory activity, with an IC(50) value of 65.6 µM, and rubasperone C (3) showed mild ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity, with an IC(50) value of 97.3 µM. PMID:20506081

Huang, Hong-Bo; Feng, Xiao-Jun; Liu, Lan; Chen, Bin; Lu, Yong-Jun; Ma, Lin; She, Zhi-Gang; Lin, Yong-Cheng

2010-11-01

384

Biotransformation of 20(R)-panaxadiol by the fungus Rhizopus chinensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbial transformation of 20(R)-panaxadiol by the fungus Rhizopus chinensis CICC 3043 yielded seven metabolites. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. R. chinensis could catalyze hydroxylation and further dehydrogenation at C-24 of 20(R)-panaxadiol, as well as hydroxylation at C-7, C-15, C-16, and C-29. Three of these compounds at 10?M could moderately inhibit growth of HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells with an inhibition rate of about 40%. Three compounds (also at 10?M) showed approximately 30% inhibition on NF-?B transcriptional activity in SW480 human colon carcinoma cells stably transfected with NF-?B luciferase reporter and induced by LPS. PMID:24994672

Lin, Xiong-Hao; Cao, Ming-Nan; He, Wen-Ni; Yu, Si-Wang; Guo, De-An; Ye, Min

2014-09-01

385

Genomic adaptations of the halophilic Dead Sea filamentous fungus Eurotium rubrum.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Dead Sea is one of the most hypersaline habitats on Earth. The fungus Eurotium rubrum (Eurotiomycetes) is among the few species able to survive there. Here we highlight its adaptive strategies, based on genome analysis and transcriptome profiling. The 26.2?Mb genome of E. rubrum shows, for example, gains in gene families related to stress response and losses with regard to transport processes. Transcriptome analyses under different salt growth conditions revealed, among other things differentially expressed genes encoding ion and metabolite transporters. Our findings suggest that long-term adaptation to salinity requires cellular and metabolic responses that differ from short-term osmotic stress signalling. The transcriptional response indicates that halophilic E. rubrum actively counteracts the salinity stress. Many of its genes encode for proteins with a significantly higher proportion of acidic amino acid residues. This trait is characteristic of the halophilic prokaryotes as well, supporting the theory of convergent evolution under extreme hypersaline stress. PMID:24811710

Kis-Papo, Tamar; Weig, Alfons R; Riley, Robert; Peršoh, Derek; Salamov, Asaf; Sun, Hui; Lipzen, Anna; Wasser, Solomon P; Rambold, Gerhard; Grigoriev, Igor V; Nevo, Eviatar

2014-01-01

386

Antibacterial Bisabolane-Type Sesquiterpenoids from the Sponge-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Four new bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoids, aspergiterpenoid A (1, (?-sydonol (2, (?-sydonic acid (3, and (?-5-(hydroxymethyl-2-(2?,6?,6?-trimethyltetrahydro-2H- pyran-2-ylphenol (4 together with one known fungal metabolite (5 were isolated from the fermentation broth of a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp., which was isolated from the sponge Xestospongia testudinaria collected from the South China Sea. Four of them (1–4 are optically active compounds. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by using NMR spectroscopic techniques and mass spectrometric analysis, and by comparing their optical rotations with those related known analogues. Compounds 1–5 showed selective antibacterial activity against eight bacterial strains with the MIC (minimum inhibiting concentrations values between 1.25 and 20.0 µM. The cytotoxic, antifouling, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of these compounds were also examined.

Chang-Yun Wang

2012-01-01

387

Cadmium induces a novel metallothionein and phytochelatin 2 in an aquatic fungus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cadmium stress response was measured at the thiol peptide level in an aquatic hyphomycete (Heliscus lugdunensis). In liquid culture, 0.1mM cadmium increased the glutathione (GSH) content and induced the synthesis of additional thiol peptides. HPLC, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and Edman degradation confirmed that a novel small metallothionein as well as phytochelatin (PC2) were synthesized. The metallothionein has a high homology to family 8 metallothioneins (http://www.expasy.ch/cgi-bin/lists?metallo.txt). The bonding of at least two cadmium ions to the metallothionein was demonstrated by mass spectrometry (MALDI MS). This is the first time that simultaneous induction of metallothionein and phytochelatin accompanied by an increase in GSH level has been shown in a fungus under cadmium stress, indicating a potential function of these complexing agents for in vivo heavy metal detoxification. The method presented here should be applicable as biomarker tool. ol

388

Cascading effects of a highly specialized beech-aphid-fungus interaction on forest regeneration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Specialist herbivores are thought to often enhance or maintain plant diversity within ecosystems, because they prevent their host species from becoming competitively dominant. In contrast, specialist herbivores are not generally expected to have negative impacts on non-hosts. However, we describe a cascade of indirect interactions whereby a specialist sooty mold (Scorias spongiosa) colonizes the honeydew from a specialist beech aphid (Grylloprociphilus imbricator), ultimately decreasing the survival of seedlings beneath American beech trees (Fagus grandifolia). A common garden experiment indicated that this mortality resulted from moldy honeydew impairing leaf function rather than from chemical or microbial changes to the soil. In addition, aphids consistently and repeatedly colonized the same large beech trees, suggesting that seedling-depauperate islands may form beneath these trees. Thus this highly specialized three-way beech-aphid-fungus interaction has the potential to negatively impact local forest regeneration via a cascade of indirect effects. PMID:25024911

Cook-Patton, Susan C; Maynard, Lauren; Lemoine, Nathan P; Shue, Jessica; Parker, John D

2014-01-01

389

Cyclodepsipeptides from the ascocarps and insect-body portions of fungus Cordyceps cicadae.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new cyclodepsipeptide cordycecin A (1), together with four known ones beauvericin E (2), beauvericin J (3), beauvericin (4), and beauvericin A (5) was isolated from the ascocarps and insect-body portions of fungus Cordyceps cicadae. Their structures were identified by NMR and MS analyses. The absolute configuration of 1 was confirmed by crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 2-5 exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on HepG2 and HepG2/ADM cells with IC50 values ranging from 2.40±0.37 to 14.48±1.68 ?M. Interestingly, compounds 3-5 showed cytotoxic activity against multiple drug resistant HepG2 cell line (HepG2/ADM) with IC50 value 25-fold more sensitive to doxorubicin. PMID:24862062

Wang, Jing; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Jia, Jun-Feng; Peng, Qun-Long; Tian, Hai-Yan; Wang, Lei; Ye, Wen-Cai

2014-09-01

390

Morphological and molecular characterization of Magnaporthe oryzae (fungus) from infected rice leaf samples  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnaporthe oryzae is a plant-pathogenic fungus that causes a serious disease affecting rice called rice blast. Outbreaks of rice blast have been a threat to the global production of rice. This fungal disease is estimated to cause production losses of US55 million each year in South and Southeast Asia. It has been used as a primary model for elucidating various aspects of the host-pathogen interaction with its host. We have isolated five isolates of Magnaporthe oryzae from diseased leaf samples obtained from the field at Kompleks Latihan MADA, Kedah, Malaysia. We have identified the isolates using morphological and microscopic studies on the fungal spores and the lesions on the diseased leaves. Amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) was carried out with universal primers ITS1 and ITS4. The sequence of each isolates showed at least 99% nucleotide identity with the corresponding sequence in GenBank for Magnaporthe oryzae.

Muni, Nurulhidayah Mat; Nadarajah, Kalaivani

2014-09-01

391

Two new polyketides from a marine sediment-derived fungus Eutypella scoparia FS26.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new polyketides, 7,8-dihydroxy-3,5,7-trimethyl-8,8a-dihydro-1H-isochromen-6(7H)-one (1) and 6-(hydroxymethyl)-2,2-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-chromene-3,4-diol (2), together with a known nitrogen-containing polyketide (cytochalasin-type of metabolites), [12]-cytochalasin (3), have been isolated from the fermentation broth of a marine sediment-derived fungus Eutypella scoparia FS26 obtained from the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, mainly 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques. The absolute configurations of compound 1 were determined by NOESY analysis and the literature data were compared with circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The cytotoxic effects on MCF-7, NCI-H460 and SF-268 cell lines of all compounds were evaluated by the sulforhodamine B method. PMID:23061665

Sun, Li; Li, Dongli; Tao, Meihua; Chen, Yuchan; Zhang, Qingbo; Dan, Feijun; Zhang, Weimin

2013-01-01

392

Influence of culture parameters on paper mill effluent decolourization by a white rot fungus Ganoderma lucidum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Efficacy of a white rot fungus G. lucidum for reduction of colour of paper mill effluent under various growth conditions was evaluated. G. lucidum cultured in IBME medium supported maximum colour reduction on 18th day of fungal growth. The optimization of growth parameters further improved colour reduction. The 18 day old culture at 4 g/l inoculum concentration resulted in maximum decolourization (89%) of the effluent with pH adjusted to 6.5 at 35 degrees C along with maximum reduction in biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand. Relative contribution of lignin peroxidase and laccase to the decolourization of paper mill effluent by G. lucidum was also observed. PMID:11218817

Perumal, K; Murugesan, K; Kalaichelvan, P T

2000-04-01

393

Isochromenones, isobenzofuranone, and tetrahydronaphthalenes produced by Paraphoma radicina, a fungus isolated from a freshwater habitat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six isochromenones (1-6), clearanols F (5) and G (6), one isobenzofuranone (7), and two tetrahydronaphthalene derivatives (8 and radinaphthalenone (9)), were isolated and identified from a culture of the fungus Paraphoma radicina, which was isolated from submerged wood in a freshwater lake. Compounds 5, 6 and 9 were previously unknown. The structures were elucidated using a set of spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques; the absolute configurations of compounds 5 and 6 were determined by comparison of their experimental ECD measurements with values predicted by TDDFT calculations. Compounds 1-9 were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against an array of bacteria and fungi. The inhibitory activity of compound 4 against Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation was evaluated. PMID:24833033

El-Elimat, Tamam; Raja, Huzefa A; Figueroa, Mario; Falkinham, Joseph O; Oberlies, Nicholas H

2014-08-01

394

The mycorrhizal fungus (¤Glomus intraradices¤) affects microbial activity in the rhizosphere of pea plants (¤Pisum sativum¤)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pea plants were grown in gamma-irradiated soil in pots with and without addition of the AM fungus Glomus intraradices at sufficient N and limiting P. Depending on the growth phase of the plant presence of AM had negative or positive effect on rhizosphere activity. Before flowering during nutrient acquisition AM decreased rhizosphere respiration and number of protozoa but did not affect bacterial number suggesting top-down regulation of bacterial number by protozoan grazing. In contrast, during flowering and pod formation AM stimulated rhizosphere respiration and the negative effect on protozoa decreased. AM also affected the composition of the rhizosphere bacterial community as revealed from DNA analysis (DGGE). With or without mycorrhiza, rhizosphere respiration was P-limited on very young roots, not nutrient limited at more mature roots and C-limited at withering. This suggests changes in the rhizosphere community during plant growth also supported by changes in the bacteria (DGGE). (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Jakobsen, I.

2003-01-01

395

Bacterial production of the fungus-derived cholesterol-lowering agent mevinolin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Forty-five strains from two different species (Salinispora arenicola and Salinispora pacifica) were isolated from three different marine sponge species in the Great Barrier Reef region of Australia. We found that two of the strains of Salinispora arenicola (MV0335 and MV0029) produced mevinolin, a fungus-derived cholesterol-lowering agent. Compound structure was determined using an integrated approach: (a) high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometric analysis with multimode ionization (electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization) and fast polarity switching; and (b) database searching and matching of monoisotopic masses, retention times and mass spectra of the precursor and product ions of the compounds of interest and the authentic reference standards thereof. PMID:24474532

Bose, Utpal; Hodson, Mark P; Shaw, P Nicholas; Fuerst, John A; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

2014-09-01

396

Evaluation of herbicidal potential of depsides from Cladosporium uredinicola, an endophytic fungus found in Guava fruit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two natural products produced by Cladosporium uredinicola, an endophytic fungus isolated from guava fruit, were evaluated for their effects on photosynthesis. Both of them inhibited electron flow (basal, phosphorylating, and uncoupled) from water to methylviologen (MV), acting as Hill reaction inhibitors in freshly lysed spinach thylakoids. These polyketides, belonging to depsides class, inhibited partial reactions of photosystem II (PS II) electron flow from water to 2,5-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (DCBQ), from water to sodium silicomolybdate (SiMo Na{sup +}), and partially inhibited electron flow from 1,5-diphenylcarbazide (DPC) to 2,6-dichloroindophenol (DCPIP). These results established that the depsides sites of inhibition are located on the donor and acceptor sides of PS II, between P680 and QA . Chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements corroborated this mechanism of action. None of the tested compounds inhibited photosystem I (PS I) electron transport. (author)

Medeiros, Livia S. de; Sampaio, Olivia M.; Silva, Maria Fatima das G.F. da; Rodrigues Filho, Edson [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Veiga, Thiago Andre M., E-mail: tveiga@unifesp.br [Instituto de Ciencias Ambientais, Quimicas e Farmaceuticas, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Diadema, SP (Brazil)

2012-08-15

397

Parasitism of Nematodes by the Fungus Hirsutella rhossiliensis as Affected by Certain Organic Amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiments were conducted to determine whether the addition of organic matter to soil increased numbers of bacterivorous nematodes and parasitic activity of the nematophagous fungus Hirsutella rhossiliensis. In a peach orchard on loamy sand, parasitism of the plant-parasitic nematode Criconemella xenoplax by H. rhossiliensis was slightly suppressed and numbers of C. xenoplax were not affected by addition of 73 metric tons of composted chicken manure/ha. In the laboratory, numbers of bacterivorous nematodes (especially Acrobeloides spp.) and fungivorous nematodes increased but parasitism of nematodes by H. rhossiliensis usually decreased with addition of wheat straw or composted cow manure to a loamy sand naturally infested with H. rhossiliensis. These results do not support the hypothesis that organic amendments will enhance parasitism of nematodes by H. rhossiliensis. PMID:19279878

Jaffee, B A; Ferris, H; Stapleton, J J; Norton, M V; Muldoon, A E

1994-06-01

398

Suppression of Cyst Nematode by Natural Infestation of a Nematophagous Fungus  

Science.gov (United States)

Penetration of cabbage roots by Heterodera schachtii was suppressed 50-77% in loamy sand naturally infested with the nematophagous fungus Hirsutella rhossiliensis. When Heterodera schachtii was incubated in the suppressive soil without plants for 2 days, 40-63% of the juveniles had Hirsutella rhossiliensis spores adhering to their cuticles. Of those with spores, 82-92% were infected. Infected nematodes were killed and filled with hyphae within 2-3 days. Addition of KCl to soil did not increase infection of Heterodera schachtii by Hirsutella rhossiliensis. The percentage of infection was lower when nematodes were touched to two spores and incubated in KCl solution than when nematodes naturally acquired two spores in soil. PMID:19287645

Jaffee, B. A.; Muldoon, A. E.

1989-01-01

399

Culture characteristics of carotenoid-producing filamentous fungus T-1, and carotenoid production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The culture characteristics, carotenoid production, and associated biosynthetic pathway of strain T-1 were examined. As a result of examining the culture temperature and light irradiation, an increase of neurosporaxanthin and neurosporaxanthin beta-D-glucopyranoside was observed at a low temperature and 0 lx. It was suggested that highly polar carotenoids, such as neurosporaxanthin, and carotenoid glycosides were involved in the stabilization of membrane during nutrition storage other than the defense function of fungus bodies. Strain T-1 produced lycopene, beta-carotene, gamma-carotene, torulene, neurosporaxanthin, and neurosporaxanthin beta-D-glucopyranoside, as assessed by HPLC, LC-MS, and NMR analysis. Carotenoid biosynthesis begins with neurosporene, passing to lycopene and gamma-carotene through cyclization, and produces beta-carotene. In addition, it is saturated, gamma-carotene is converted to torulene, and neurosporaxanthin is produced. Thus, the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in strain T-1 was estimated. PMID:17992006

Sumiya, Yasuji; Sakaki, Hideyuki; Tsushima, Miyuki; Miki, Wataru; Komemushi, Sadao; Sawabe, Akiyoshi

2007-01-01

400

Naphthoquinone spiroketals and organic extracts from the endophytic fungus Edenia gomezpompae as potential herbicides.  

Science.gov (United States)

From the fermentation mycelium of the endophytic fungus Edenia gomezpompae were obtained several phytotoxic compounds including two new members of the naphthoquinone spiroketal family, namely, palmarumycin EG1 (1) and preussomerin EG4 (4). In addition, preussomerins EG1-EG3 (7-9) and palmarumycins CP19 (2), CP17 (3), and CP2 (6), as well as ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (5), were obtained. Compounds 2, 3, and 5 are new to this species. The structures of palmarumycins CP19 (2) and CP17 (3) were unambiguously determined by X-ray analysis. The isolates and mycelium organic extracts from four morphological variants of E. gomezpompae caused significant inhibition of seed germination, root elongation, and seedling respiration of Amaranthus hypochondriacus, Solanum lycopersicum, and Echinochloa crus-galli. The treatments also affected respiration on intact mitochondria isolated from spinach. PMID:24689520

Macías-Rubalcava, Martha L; Ruiz-Velasco Sobrino, M Emma; Meléndez-González, Claudio; Hernández-Ortega, Simón

2014-04-23

 
 
 
 
401

A new ?-glucuronidase inhibiting butyrolactone from the marine endophytic fungus Aspergillus terreus.  

Science.gov (United States)

An endophytic fungus Aspergillus terreus, var. boedijnii (Blochwitz) was isolated from red marine alga Laurencia ceylanica, J. Agardh, cultured in large scale and extracted with EtOAc. The above-mentioned extract yielded a new butyrolactone, 3-hydroxy-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-methoxycarbonyl-5-(4-hydroxy-3-formylbenzyl)-2,5-dihydro-2-furanone (1), along with the previously reported nine compounds, butyrolactone-1 (2), 6-hydroxymellin (3), (3?R, 4?R)-6,7-dimethoxy-4-hydroxymellin (4), (+)-territonin (5), (+)-territonin-A (6), (+)-asterrelenin (7), (+)-terrein (8), oleic acid (9) and glucopyranosyl-?-sitosterol (10), on column and preparative thin-layer chromatography. Compounds 1-8 were subjected to ?-glucuronidase inhibitory activity test, and 1 showed a remarkable activity, while 2 and 7 showed moderate activity. PMID:22913423

Haroon, M H; Premaratne, S R; Choudhry, M Iqbal; Dharmaratne, H R W

2013-01-01

402

Purification and Characterization of Iso-Ribonucleases from a Novel Thermophilic Fungus  

Science.gov (United States)

A thermophilic fungus previously isolated from composted horse manure was found to produce extracellular iso-RNases that were purified 127.6-fold using a combination of size exclusion chromatography and a novel affinity membrane purification system. The extent of purification was determined electrophoretically using 4%–15% gradient polyacrylamide gels. RNase activity was dependent on the presence of a metal co-factor with significantly more activity with Zn2+ or Mn2+ than Mg2+. The RNases exhibited maximum activity at both pH 3.0 and pH 7.0 with no activity at pH 2.0 or 10.0. The optimal temperature for the iso-RNase was 70 °C. The molecular weight of the iso-RNase was determined to be 69 kDa using a Sephadex G-75 column. PMID:24434639

Landry, Kyle S.; Levin, Robert E.

2014-01-01

403

Isolation and characterization of a fungus for extracellular synthesis of small selenium nanoparticles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The use of biogenic selenium nanoparticles for various purposes is going to be an issue of considerable importance; thus, appropriate simple methods should be developed and tested for the synthesis and recovery of these nanoparticles. In this study, a fungus was isolated from a soil sample, identified as Aspergillus terreus and used for extracellular synthesis of selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs. UV–Vis spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrum studies were carried out to confirm Se NPs formation within 60 min. Dynamic light scattering and scan electron microscopic methods were also used to characterize both size and shapes of the Se NPs. The results show that spherical particles with average size of 47 nm were formed by adding a culture supernatant of A. terreus to selenium ions solution. This approach appears to be an easy and appropriate method for extracellular synthesis of small Se NPs. Extracellular synthesis of small Se NPs has not been reported yet

Bijan Zare

2013-01-01

404

Multigene phylogeny reveals new lineage for Stachybotrys chartarum, the indoor air fungus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stachybotrys chartarum is an asexually reproducing fungus commonly isolated from soil and litter that is also known to occur in indoor environments and is implicated as the cause of serious illness and even death in humans. Despite its economic importance, higher level phylogenetic relationships of Stachybotrys have not been determined nor has a sexual state for S. chartarum been reported. DNA sequences from four nuclear and one mitochondrial gene were analyzed to determine the ordinal and familial placement of Stachybotrys within the Euascomycota. These data reveal that species of Stachybotrys including S. chartarum, S. albipes, for which the sexual state Melanopsamma pomiformis is reported, species of Myrothecium, and two other tropical hypocrealean species form a previously unknown monophyletic lineage within the Hypocreales. These results suggest that Stachybotrys and Myrothecium are closely related and share characteristics with other hypocrealean fungi. In addition, S. chartarum may have a sexual state in nature that consists of small, black, fleshy perithecia similar to Melanopsamma. PMID:15449591

Castlebury, Lisa A; Rossman, Amy Y; Sung, Gi-Ho; Hyten, Aimee S; Spatafora, Joseph W

2004-08-01

405

Farnesol induces apoptosis-like cell death in the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus flavus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Farnesol (FOH) is known to induce apoptosis in some fungi and mammalian cells. We treated Aspergillus flavus, one of the leading causes of human invasive aspergillosis and a key producer of the most potent naturally occurring hepatocarcinogenic compounds, with FOH to assess its effect on the viability of the fungus. FOH strongly inhibited germination and growth of A. flavus and induced markers for apoptosis including nuclear condensation, phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization, DNA fragmentation and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, metacaspase activation and abnormal cellular ultrastructure. Moreover, FOH-induced apoptosis in A. flavus was inhibited by the broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk and partially inhibited by the ROS scavenger l-proline, which suggests that FOH induces apoptosis in A. flavus via a mechanism involving metacaspase activation and ROS production. PMID:24895430

Wang, Xiaoyun; Wang, Youzhi; Zhou, Yuguang; Wei, Xinli

2014-01-01

406

Chrysomyxa pirolata G. Wint in Rabenh: New parasitic fungus on the cones and seeds of spruce  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The new spruce disease known as "spruce cone rust" was discovered for the first time in Serbia and Montenegro. The fungus was detected in spruce forests only in the mountains regions (Kopaonik, Zlatar, Durmitor. This rust periodically damages the cones in localised forest areas and can be a serious problem. Usually seeds are not formed in diseased cones, and even when they are produced, malformation and resinosis of the cones hinder seed dispersal or extraction. Those seeds that are formed tend to weigh less and have poor germination. As this disease is a serious problem, care must be taken to prevent the spread of the disease to the new uninfected regions.

Karadži? Dragan

2007-01-01

407

The glutathione response to salt stress in the thermophilic fungus thermomyces lanuginosus  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In order to investigate the role of glutathione in response to salt stress in the thermophilic fungus, Thermomyces lanuginosus, the biomass and the intracellular pool of protein and the glutathione + glutathione disulphid (GSH + GSSG) was measured for four days in a medium with NaCl or KCl added and in the basal medium. Due to the osmotic and ionic stress imposed by the salts, the growth of T. lanuginosus was delayed and the inhibitory effect of KCl exceeded that of NaCl. Glutathione seemed to be involved in the response of T. lanuginosus towards high concentrations of salt, as the level of stress was negatively correlated with the amount of total glutathione. Salt stress did not result in an increased intracellular protein production. GSH accumulated while nutrients were abundant and were subsequently degraded later, suggesting that nutrients stored in GSH are used when the medium is depleted.

Friborg Jepsen, Helene; Posci, Istvan

2008-01-01

408

Wildlife disease. Recent introduction of a chytrid fungus endangers Western Palearctic salamanders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emerging infectious diseases are reducing biodiversity on a global scale. Recently, the emergence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans resulted in rapid declines in populations of European fire salamanders. Here, we screened more than 5000 amphibians from across four continents and combined experimental assessment of pathogenicity with phylogenetic methods to estimate the threat that this infection poses to amphibian diversity. Results show that B. salamandrivorans is restricted to, but highly pathogenic for, salamanders and newts (Urodela). The pathogen likely originated and remained in coexistence with a clade of salamander hosts for millions of years in Asia. As a result of globalization and lack of biosecurity, it has recently been introduced into naïve European amphibian populations, where it is currently causing biodiversity loss. PMID:25359973

Martel, A; Blooi, M; Adriaensen, C; Van Rooij, P; Beukema, W; Fisher, M C; Farrer, R A; Schmidt, B R; Tobler, U; Goka, K; Lips, K R; Muletz, C; Zamudio, K R; Bosch, J; Lötters, S; Wombwell, E; Garner, T W J; Cunningham, A A; Spitzen-van der Sluijs, A; Salvidio, S; Ducatelle, R; Nishikawa, K; Nguyen, T T; Kolby, J E; Van Bocxlaer, I; Bossuyt, F; Pasmans, F

2014-10-31

409

Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from Phomopsis sp., an Endophytic Fungus from Senna spectabilis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chemical investigation of an acetonitrile fraction from the endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp. led to the isolation of the new natural product 2-hydroxy-alternariol (7 together with the known compounds cytochalasins J (1 and H (2, 5'-epialtenuene (3 and the mycotoxins alternariol monomethyl ether (AME, 4, alternariol (AOH, 5 and cytosporone C (6. The structure of the new compound was elucidated by using 1-D and 2-D NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance and high resolution mass spectrometry. The cytochalasins J (1 and H (2 and AOH (5 exhibited potent inhibition of the total ROS (reactive oxygen species produced by stimulated human neutrophils and acted as potent potential anti-inflammatory agents. Moreover, cytochalasin H (2 demonstrated antifungal and acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE inhibition in vitro.

Vanessa Mara Chapla

2014-05-01

410

N-METHYL-1H- INDOLE-2-CARBOXAMIDE FROM THE MARINE FUNGUS CLADOSPORIUM CLADOSPORIOIDES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The crystal structure of N-methyl-1H- indole-2-carboxamide C10H10N2O was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The structure can be described as consisting of an indole group and as substituent, linked at C2, the N-methylcarboxamide group. The molecular structure is essentially planar. The crystal packing results in N-H ------ O hydrogen bonds which join the molecules into centrosymmetric dimeric rings. The knowledge of the crystal structure allows a complete assignment of the ¹H and 13C-NMR spectra. The N-methyl-lH- indole-2-carboxamide is the first indole derivative isolated from marine fungus.

V MANRÍQUEZ

2009-01-01

411

A new pyrrole derivative from the extracts of the fungus monascus pilosus-fermented rice.  

Science.gov (United States)

A chemical study on the n-BuOH-soluble fraction of the 95% EtOH extract of red yeast rice fermented with the fungus Monascus pilosus BCRC 38093 (Eurotiaceae) has resulted in the isolation of one new natural pyrrole derivative, designated as monascuspyrrole (1) together with nine known compounds, 3?-hydroxystigmast-5-en-7-one (2), ?-sitostenone (3), monascin (4), ankaflavin (5), N-trans-feruloyltyramine (6), N-cis-feruloyltyramine (7), vanillic acid (8), methyl paraben (9), and syringaldehyde (10). The structure of the new compound 1 was identified by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, as well as by high-resolution mass spectrometry. Other known compounds were identified by comparison of their spectral data with the literature data of authentic samples. Compounds 1 and 4 displayed mild inhibitory effect of nitric oxide production. Among the nine known isolates, compounds 2, 3, 6, and 7 were found for the first time in this species. PMID:24061724

Wu, Ming-Der; Cheng, Ming-Jen; Yuan, Gwo-Fang; Yech, Yi-Jen; Chen, Ih-Sheng

2010-06-01

412

Three new resveratrol derivatives from the mangrove endophytic fungus Alternaria sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three new resveratrol derivatives, namely, resveratrodehydes A-C (1-3), were isolated from the mangrove endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. R6. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by analysis of their MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. All compounds showed broad-spectrum inhibitory activities against three human cancer cell lines including human breast MDA-MB-435, human liver HepG2, and human colon HCT-116 by MTT assay (IC50 < 50 ?M). Among them, compounds 1 and 2 both exhibited marked cytotoxic activities against MDA-MB-435 and HCT-116 cell lines (IC?? < 10 ?M). Additionally, compounds 1 and 3 showed moderate antioxidant activity by DPPH radical scavenging assay. PMID:24828291

Wang, Jinhua; Cox, Daniel G; Ding, Weijia; Huang, Guanghao; Lin, Yongcheng; Li, Chunyuan

2014-05-01

413

ENZYME SYSTEMS FROM THE THERMOPHILIC FUNGUS TALAROMYCES EMERSONII FOR SUGAR BEET BIOCONVERSION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The thermostable enzyme systems produced by the thermophilic ascomycete fungus Talaromyces emersonii cultivated on various carbon sources were investigated for the production of high value products from sugar beet. A broad range of enzymatic activities relevant to cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin hydrolysis were identified in T. emersonii culture filtrates. In hydrolysis experiments conducted at 71ºC, the enzyme cocktails generated sugar-rich syrups from untreated sugar beet plants. Maximal levels of sugar beet hydrolysis were obtained with T. emersonii enzyme cocktails induced with sorghum/ beet pulp (68% and sugar beet plant (56%. The principle monosaccharides released were glucose, xylose, and arabinose with minor amounts of galactose and galacturonic acid. Northern analysis of RNA isolated from T. emersonii when sugar beet plants were used as the sole carbon inducing source showed that genes required for polysaccharide hydrolysis and five carbon monosaccharide metabolism were co-ordinately expressed.

Sara Fernandes

2008-08-01

414

The use of gamma radiation on fungus control in papers naturally contaminated  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The efficiency of treatments using gamma radiation for the disinfection of authentic papers naturally contaminated by fungi and bacteria was investigated. The effect of pre-treatments using temperature and humidity aiming to reduce the dose of gamma radiation applied for disinfection was also studied. The results obtained on the treatments using high doses of radiation (17.5 and 20.0 kGy) showed a reduction on the number of fungus colonies, indicating that the latent spores become viable after the irradiation germinating when exposed to favorable conditions. Using the same doses of radiation, the pre-treatments A (laboratory room conditions) and C (heating at 500 C, 95% RH, 24 h) reduced the frequency of fungi isolated when compared to pre-treatment B (drying at 500 C, 24 h). The number of bacterium colonies, however, increased when the paper was heated at high humidity conditions compared to the control. (author). 8 refs, 2 tabs

415

Isolation, Characterization and Production of Phytase from Endophytic Fungus its Application for Feed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thirty four isolates of endophytic fungus produce phytases were isolated from leaf, stem and root fragments of soybean. Two isolates were the best of phytases enzyme producer and identified as Rhizoctonia sp. and Fusarium verticillioides. The phytase production was induced by phytate in medium used. The crude preparations were used in subsequent characterization studies, pH and temperature optimum and compared to other phytases tested and is thus a promising candidate for animal feed applications. The results showed that optimal production of phytase from Rhizoctonia sp. were pH 4.0 and temperature 50oC and pH 5.0, temperature 50oC for Fusarium verticillioides.

Peri Adnadi

2010-01-01

416