WorldWideScience
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Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and neonicotinoid insecticides on the fungus gnat Bradysia sp nr. coprophila (Lintner) (Diptera: Sciaridae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner subsp. israelensis (Bti), the neonicotinoid insecticides dinotefuran, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and clothianidin and the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen were evaluated to determine their efficacy against the larval stages of the fungus gnat Bradysia sp nr. coprophila (Lintner) in the laboratory. Treatments were applied as a drench to the growing medium in polypropylene deli containers. The Bti treatments had no effect on either instar tested, whereas all the other compounds negatively affected both the second and third instars. This study demonstrates that the soil bacterium B. thuringiensis var. israelensis may not be active on these larval stages, whereas the neonicotinoid insecticides and the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen are effective on these stages. The fact that Bti is not effective on the second and third instars of the fungus gnat means that greenhouse producers using this insecticide must make applications before fungus gnat populations build up and before overlapping generations develop. PMID:16408320

Cloyd, Raymond A; Dickinson, Amy

2006-02-01

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Fungus gnats, Bradysia spp. (Diptera: Sciaridae), and other arthropods in commercial bagged soilless growing media and rooted plant plugs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungus gnats, Bradysia spp., in greenhouses cause economic losses to horticultural producers by damaging young root systems during plant propagation, by spreading soilborne diseases, and by reducing the marketability of the crop. In a greenhouse cage study, our observations suggested that bagged soilless growing media or rooted plant plugs from wholesale distributors may be sources for the introduction of fungus gnats into commercial greenhouse facilities. To evaluate these possibilities, carefully collected samples of bagged soilless growing media stored in the greenhouse, as well as bagged soilless growing media and rooted plant plugs delivered from midwestern wholesale distributors, were incubated under controlled conditions in the laboratory. Fungus gnats emerged from soilless media stored in the greenhouse, soilless media delivered from wholesale distributors, and from rooted plant plugs delivered from wholesale distributors. These results demonstrate that pasteurization of even bagged soilless media may be essential to effectively managing greenhouse populations of fungus gnats. However, pasteurization is not an option for responding to contamination of rooted plant plugs. Preliminary evidence is provided that application of entomopathogenic nematodes may offer potential as a method for managing fungus gnats in plant plugs, so long as treatment is early. Other arthropods found contaminating soilless media and rooted plant plugs included the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), Collembola, Acari, Formicidae, Staphylinidae, Psychodidae, and other Diptera. PMID:15154474

Cloyd, Raymond A; Zaborski, Edmond R

2004-04-01

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A new pollinating seed-consuming mutualism between Rheum nobile and a fly fungus gnat, Bradysia sp., involving pollinator attraction by a specific floral compound.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pollinating seed-consuming mutualisms are regarded as exemplary models for studying coevolution, but they are extremely rare. In these systems, olfactory cues have been thought to play an important role in facilitating encounters between partners. We present a new pollinating seed-consuming mutualism from the high Himalayas between the endemic herb, Rheum nobile, and a fly fungus gnat, Bradysia sp. Seed production resulting from pollination by Bradysia flies and seed consumption by their larvae were measured to determine the outcome of this interaction. Floral scent analyses and behavioural tests were conducted to investigate the role of olfactory cues in pollinator attraction. Rheum nobile is self-compatible, but it depends mainly on Bradysia sp. females for pollination. Seed production resulting from pollination by adult flies is substantially higher than subsequent seed consumption by their larvae. Behavioural tests showed that an unusual floral compound, 2-methyl butyric acid methyl ester, emitted by plants only during anthesis, was attractive to female flies. Our results indicate that the R. nobile-Bradysia sp. interaction represents a new pollinating seed-consuming mutualism, and that a single unusual compound is the specific signal in the floral scent of R. nobile that plays a key role in attracting its pollinator. PMID:24861151

Song, Bo; Chen, Gao; Stöcklin, Jürg; Peng, De-Li; Niu, Yang; Li, Zhi-Min; Sun, Hang

2014-09-01

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Fungus gnats and other Diptera in South African forestry nurseries and their possible association with the pitch canker fungus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Fusarium circinatum is the causal agent of a serious disease of seedlings in South African pine nurseries. Insects, especially fungus gnats (Diptera: Sciaridae, Mycetophlidae), are suspected of transmitting this fungus in nurseries. The aim of this study was to ascertain which species of gnats are p [...] resent in South African pine nurseries, and to consider whether these and other Diptera carry F. circinatum. Dipteran fauna were surveyed in four major forestry nurseries between 2000 and 2001. Fungi were isolated from these flies and the resulting Fusarium species were identified. Bradysia difformis was the only fungus gnat species found and it occurred in all nurseries. Other Dipteran families collected included Agromyzidae, Cecidomyiidae, Chironomidae, Ephydridae, Muscidae, Simulidae and Tachinidae. This is the first report of B. difformis in South Africa. Fusarium circinatum was not isolated from any of the Diptera collected. Fusarium oxysporum and F. stil-boides were isolated from Chironomidae, but these fungi are not considered important pathogens in the nurseries surveyed.

Brett P., Hurley; Prem, Govender; Teresa A., Coutinho; Brenda D., Wingfield; Michael J., Wingfield.

2007-02-01

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Fungus gnats and other Diptera in South African forestry nurseries and their possible association with the pitch canker fungus  

OpenAIRE

Fusarium circinatum is the causal agent of a serious disease of seedlings in South African pine nurseries. Insects, especially fungus gnats (Diptera: Sciaridae, Mycetophlidae), are suspected of transmitting this fungus in nurseries. The aim of this study was to ascertain which species of gnats are present in South African pine nurseries, and to consider whether these and other Diptera carry F. circinatum. Dipteran fauna were surveyed in four major forestry nurseries between 2000 and 2001. Fun...

Hurley, Brett P.; Govender, Prem; Coutinho, Teresa A.; Wingfield, Brenda D.; Wingfield, Michael J.

2007-01-01

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Bradysia sp. em morangueiro Bradysia sp. in strawberry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No trabalho, relatam-se os primeiros registros de Bradysia sp. (Insecta: Diptera: Sciaridae em morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa Duch., cultivado no Município de Eldorado do Sul, RS. O cultivo foi realizado em sacolas com três metros de comprimento, preenchidas com substrato composto de casca de arroz e turfa, dispostas horizontalmente sobre bancadas de madeira, em ambiente protegido. A presença de Bradysia sp. foi observada na segunda quinzena de agosto de 2005. Neste trabalho, estão descritos os sintomas apresentados no morangueiro pela praga, prováveis conseqüências sobre o aparecimento de doenças e uma breve descrição morfológica da Bradysia sp., adulto e fase larval.This paper describes the first record of Bradysia sp. (Insecta; Diptera; Sciaridae in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa, cultivated in the city of Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil. Strawberry was planted in plastic bags filled with a mixture of burnt rice hulls and peat and cultivated in a greenhouse. The presence of Bradysia sp was noticed in the second fortnight of August, 2005. The symptoms in strawberry and the probable consequences in terms of disease arising were described in the present study, as well as the morphological characterization of Bradysia sp. and its illustrations.

Bernadete Radin

2009-04-01

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Hey! A Gnat Bit Me!  

Science.gov (United States)

... Body Works Main Page Hey! A Gnat Bit Me! KidsHealth > Kids > Illnesses & Injuries > Bug Bites and Stings > Hey! A Gnat Bit Me! Print A A A Text Size What's in ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Hey! A Flea Bit Me! Rashes: The Itchy Truth Hey! A Bee Stung ...

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Life table study of the effects of sublethal concentrations of thiamethoxam on Bradysia odoriphaga Yang and Zhang.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bradysia odoriphaga Yang and Zhang (chive gnat) is the major insect pest affecting Chinese chive in Northern China. In order to explore the integrated control of B. odoriphaga, sublethal effects of the neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam were studied. The standard contact and stomach bioassay method was used to assess the effects of sublethal (LC5 and LC20) concentrations of thiamethoxam on the demographic parameters of B. odoriphaga, and data were interpreted based on the age-stage, two-sex life table theory. After thiamethoxam treatment, the intrinsic and finite rates of increase, net reproduction rate, survival rate, and reproductive value were all markedly decreased, while the mean generation time, total preovipositional period, and larval and pupal duration were prolonged, compared with controls. The intrinsic rates of increase dropped from 0.1775/day to 0.1502-0.1136/day. Following LC5 and LC20 treatments, net reproduction rate dropped from 61.75 offspring/individual (control) to 43.36 and 20.75 offspring/individual, respectively. Sublethal concentrations of thiamethoxam decreased the developmental rate of laboratory populations of B. odoriphaga, suggesting that such doses may be useful in integrated pest management strategies. PMID:24861931

Zhang, Peng; Liu, Feng; Mu, Wei; Wang, Qiuhong; Li, Hui; Chen, Chengyu

2014-05-01

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Bradysia aliciae sp. nov. (Diptera: Sciaridae) del Pleistoceno de Buenos Aires, Argentina / Bradysia aliciae sp. nov. (Diptera: Sciaridae) from the Pleistocene of Buenos Aires, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Bradysia aliciae sp. nov. (Diptera: Sciaridae) es descripta a partir de un ala con un excepcional estado de preservación proveniente del afloramiento de Camet Norte en Buenos Aires, Argentina, con una antigüedad de 24.500 años A.P. El ejemplar es el primer díptero adulto identificable que proviene d [...] e dichos depósitos. Abstract in english Bradysia aliciae sp. nov. (Diptera: Sciaridae) is described from an exceptionally preserved wing extracted from the Camet Norte outcrop in Buenos Aires, Argentina, dated in 24,500 years B.P. The fossil is the very first identifiable imaginal stage of Diptera that came from these deposits. [...

Leonardo C., Ramírez; Cecilia P., Alonso.

2014-06-01

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Analysis of the sex ratio in Bradysia matogrossensis (Diptera, Sciaridae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Nas espécies de sciarídeos, o controle da determinação do sexo dos indivíduos, assim como da proporção sexual das progênies, é feito pelas fêmeas parentais e baseia-se em um mecanismo diferencial de eliminação de cromossomo X nas primeiras fases do desenvolvimento embrionário. Existem espécies cujas [...] fêmeas produzem progênies de um único sexo (fêmeas monogênicas) e outras cujas proles incluem machos e fêmeas (fêmeas digênicas). A proporção sexual nas proles bissexuais é variável, desviando-se significativamente de 1:1. Bradysia matogrossensis apresenta características dos dois modos de reprodução. Em uma população recém-introduzida no laboratório, existem 15% de fêmeas digênicas, 10% de fêmeas produtoras de fêmeas, 13% de fêmeas produtoras de machos e 62% de fêmeas em cujas proles um sexo foi predominante sobre o outro (33% de progênies de fêmeas com raros machos e 29% de proles de machos com raras fêmeas). Foi mostrado que estas condições se mantêm sem alterações significativas por gerações sucessivas. Fêmeas derivadas de progênies com predominância de fêmeas produzem sempre filhas produtoras de fêmeas e produtoras de machos, na proporção de 1:1. Ao contrário, fêmeas derivadas de progênies bissexuais (com predominância de machos) produzem filhas que dão origem a proles apenas de machos ou, então, com predominância de machos. O cromossomo X de B. matogrossensis não apresenta inversão ou outra aberração visível citologicamente. Os resultados sugerem que no controle da eliminação do cromossomo X deve existir mais que um loco ou, então, mais que um simples par de alelos. Sugerem, também, que os dois modos de reprodução dos sciarídeos, monogenia e digenia, devem ter mecanismos de controle similares, uma hipótese nem sempre considerada em estudos anteriores. Abstract in english In sciarid flies, the control of sex determination and of the progeny sex ratio is exercised by the parental females, and is based on differential X-chromosome elimination in the initial stages of embryogenesis. In some species, the females produce unisexual progenies (monogenic females) while in ot [...] hers, the progenies consist of males and females (digenic females). The sex ratio of bisexual progenies is variable, and departs considerably from 1:1. Bradysia matogrossensis shows both monogenic and digenic reproduction. In a recently established laboratory strain of this species, 15% of the females were digenic, 10% produced only females, 13% produced only males, and 62% produced progenies with one predominant sex (33% predominantly of female and 29% predominantly male progenies). These progeny sex ratios were maintained in successive generations. Females from female-skewed progenies yielded female- and male-producing daughters in a 1:1 ratio. In contrast, daughters of females from male-skewed progenies produce bisexual or male-skewed progenies. The X-chromosome of B. matogrossensis shows no inversion or other gross aberration. These results suggest that the control of the progeny sex ratio (or differential X-chromosome elimination) involves more than one locus or, at least, more than one pair of alleles. The data also suggest that, in sciarid flies, monogeny and digeny may share a common control mechanism.

Lincoln S., Rocha; André Luiz P., Perondini.

2000-03-01

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Analysis of the sex ratio in Bradysia matogrossensis (Diptera, Sciaridae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In sciarid flies, the control of sex determination and of the progeny sex ratio is exercised by the parental females, and is based on differential X-chromosome elimination in the initial stages of embryogenesis. In some species, the females produce unisexual progenies (monogenic females while in others, the progenies consist of males and females (digenic females. The sex ratio of bisexual progenies is variable, and departs considerably from 1:1. Bradysia matogrossensis shows both monogenic and digenic reproduction. In a recently established laboratory strain of this species, 15% of the females were digenic, 10% produced only females, 13% produced only males, and 62% produced progenies with one predominant sex (33% predominantly of female and 29% predominantly male progenies. These progeny sex ratios were maintained in successive generations. Females from female-skewed progenies yielded female- and male-producing daughters in a 1:1 ratio. In contrast, daughters of females from male-skewed progenies produce bisexual or male-skewed progenies. The X-chromosome of B. matogrossensis shows no inversion or other gross aberration. These results suggest that the control of the progeny sex ratio (or differential X-chromosome elimination involves more than one locus or, at least, more than one pair of alleles. The data also suggest that, in sciarid flies, monogeny and digeny may share a common control mechanism.Nas espécies de sciarídeos, o controle da determinação do sexo dos indivíduos, assim como da proporção sexual das progênies, é feito pelas fêmeas parentais e baseia-se em um mecanismo diferencial de eliminação de cromossomo X nas primeiras fases do desenvolvimento embrionário. Existem espécies cujas fêmeas produzem progênies de um único sexo (fêmeas monogênicas e outras cujas proles incluem machos e fêmeas (fêmeas digênicas. A proporção sexual nas proles bissexuais é variável, desviando-se significativamente de 1:1. Bradysia matogrossensis apresenta características dos dois modos de reprodução. Em uma população recém-introduzida no laboratório, existem 15% de fêmeas digênicas, 10% de fêmeas produtoras de fêmeas, 13% de fêmeas produtoras de machos e 62% de fêmeas em cujas proles um sexo foi predominante sobre o outro (33% de progênies de fêmeas com raros machos e 29% de proles de machos com raras fêmeas. Foi mostrado que estas condições se mantêm sem alterações significativas por gerações sucessivas. Fêmeas derivadas de progênies com predominância de fêmeas produzem sempre filhas produtoras de fêmeas e produtoras de machos, na proporção de 1:1. Ao contrário, fêmeas derivadas de progênies bissexuais (com predominância de machos produzem filhas que dão origem a proles apenas de machos ou, então, com predominância de machos. O cromossomo X de B. matogrossensis não apresenta inversão ou outra aberração visível citologicamente. Os resultados sugerem que no controle da eliminação do cromossomo X deve existir mais que um loco ou, então, mais que um simples par de alelos. Sugerem, também, que os dois modos de reprodução dos sciarídeos, monogenia e digenia, devem ter mecanismos de controle similares, uma hipótese nem sempre considerada em estudos anteriores.

Lincoln S. Rocha

2000-03-01

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GNATS, Nonlinear Stress Analysis of 2-D and Axisymmetric Static Structure by Finite Elements Method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1 - Description of problem or function: GNATS is a finite element computer program designed for nonlinear analysis of axisymmetric and two-dimensional static structures. 2 - Method of solution: The GNATS program is based on a total Lagrangian description of the displaced equilibrium configuration. The complete strain-displacement equations are used to include the effects of large displacements and large strains. Elastic-plastic material behavior, with either isotropic or kinematic hardening, may be selected. All solution options included in GNATS contain an equilibrium check which assures that the structure satisfies equilibrium to a specified tolerance at each stage of loading. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: All large arrays in GNATS, MESH2, and GPRINT are dynamically dimensioned to minimize storage requirements

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Nuclear halo from Bradysia hygida (Diptera:Sciaridae salivary gland polytene cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A protocol for recovered nuclear halos from insect polytene nuclei after the extraction of the nuclear proteins using LIS detergent is reported in this work. Analysis was carried out using fluorescence and confocal laser scan microscopy. The extraction of nuclear halos was possible only with nuclei-fraction isolation in hypotonic buffer without spermine and spermidine. The recovered nuclear halos from Bradysia hygida salivary gland polytene nuclei, contributed greatly to the study of the structure and function of these special organelles.Observações à microscopia eletrônica e estudos bioquímicos de cromossomos e núcleos sem histonas tem suportado a hipótese que o DNA de eucariotos é organizado em alças associadas com o esqueleto cromossômico ou à matriz nuclear. A observação da matriz nuclear sem a remoção do DNA, através da digestão com enzimas de restrição, apresenta uma figura em halo que representa a liberação das alças de DNA. Um protocolo para a obtenção de halos nucleares de núcleos politênicos de insetos, através da extração de proteínas usando o detergente LIS, é reportado nesse trabalho. Foram realizadas análises utilizando-se microscopia de fluorescência e microscopia de varredura confocal a laser. A extração de halos nucleares foi possível somente com o isolamento da fração nuclear em tampão sem espermina e espermidina. A obtenção de halos nucleares de núcleos politênicos de glândula salivar de Bradysia hygida contribui significativamente para o estudo da estrutura e função dessas organelas tão especiais.

Celso Aparecido Polinarski

2005-05-01

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Nuclear halo from Bradysia hygida (Diptera:Sciaridae) salivary gland polytene cells  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Observações à microscopia eletrônica e estudos bioquímicos de cromossomos e núcleos sem histonas tem suportado a hipótese que o DNA de eucariotos é organizado em alças associadas com o esqueleto cromossômico ou à matriz nuclear. A observação da matriz nuclear sem a remoção do DNA, através da digestã [...] o com enzimas de restrição, apresenta uma figura em halo que representa a liberação das alças de DNA. Um protocolo para a obtenção de halos nucleares de núcleos politênicos de insetos, através da extração de proteínas usando o detergente LIS, é reportado nesse trabalho. Foram realizadas análises utilizando-se microscopia de fluorescência e microscopia de varredura confocal a laser. A extração de halos nucleares foi possível somente com o isolamento da fração nuclear em tampão sem espermina e espermidina. A obtenção de halos nucleares de núcleos politênicos de glândula salivar de Bradysia hygida contribui significativamente para o estudo da estrutura e função dessas organelas tão especiais. Abstract in english A protocol for recovered nuclear halos from insect polytene nuclei after the extraction of the nuclear proteins using LIS detergent is reported in this work. Analysis was carried out using fluorescence and confocal laser scan microscopy. The extraction of nuclear halos was possible only with nuclei- [...] fraction isolation in hypotonic buffer without spermine and spermidine. The recovered nuclear halos from Bradysia hygida salivary gland polytene nuclei, contributed greatly to the study of the structure and function of these special organelles.

Celso Aparecido, Polinarski; José Luis da Conceição, Silva; Liya Regina, Mikami; Maria Aparecida, Fernandez.

2005-05-01

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Doctor Fungus  

Science.gov (United States)

Doctor Fungus is the work of a group of physicians and medical doctors, along with contributions from Web users. The site attempts to provide scholarly and peer-reviewed information to "promote an understanding of fungi and the ways that fungal diseases affect people living throughout the world." The information is well organized into a variety of categories, and the introductory information uses non-scientific terms. Other sections useful to a general audience include a glossary, a list of abbreviations, and a large image bank that allows users to search for a specific fungus or disease that it causes.

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Activity of an essential oil derived from Chenopodium ambrosioides on greenhouse insect pests.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study involved both greenhouse and laboratory experiments evaluating the effect of an essential oil product (QRD 400) derived from Chenopodium ambrosioides variety nr. Ambrosioides L. (Chenopodiaceae) on greenhouse insect pests that feed on different plant parts: citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso); longtailed mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti); western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), and fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.). Treatments were applied to coleus, Solenostemon scutellarioides plants; transvaal daisy, Gerbera jamesonii flowers; or growing medium, depending on the insect pest. The essential oil was most effective, based on adult emergence, on both the second and third instars of the fungus gnat Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila when applied as a drench to growing medium. In addition, there was a significant rate response for QRD 400 on fungus gnats. The QRD 400 treatment had the highest percentage of mortality on longtailed mealybug (55%) compared with the other treatments. However, the essential oil was less effective against citrus mealybug (3% mortality) and western flower thrips adults (18-34% mortality) compared with standard insecticides, such as acetamiprid (TriStar) and spinosad (Conserve), which are typically used by greenhouse producers. This lack of efficacy may be associated with volatility and short residual properties of the essential oil or with the essential oil taking longer to kill insect pests. Other insecticides and miticides evaluated, including sesame oil, garlic, paraffinic oil, and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, provided minimal control of the designated insect pests. In addition, adult rove beetle Atheta coriaria Kraatz adults were not effective in controlling the larval instars of fungus gnats when applied at a rate of five adults per container. PMID:17461071

Cloyd, Raymond A; Chiasson, Helene

2007-04-01

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Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae) presents two eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A gene homologues: partial characterization of the eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A-F1 gene  

OpenAIRE

Elongation factor 1A is a highly conserved protein that participates in translation. We report the occurrence of two genes homologous to the eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A in Bradysia hygida and describe the partial cloning and characterization of the B. hygida eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A-F1 (BheEF1A-F1) gene. The pattern of BheEF1A-F1 expression in the salivary gland at the end of the fourth larval instar was investigated using real-time PCR. The results showed that BheEF1A-F1 expressio...

Candido-silva, J. A.; Monesi, N.

2010-01-01

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The DNA puff BhB10-1 gene is differentially expressed in various tissues of Bradysia hygida late larvae and constitutively transcribed in transgenic Drosophila  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available We extended the characterization of the DNA puff BhB10-1 gene of Bradysia hygida by showing that, although its mRNA is detected only at the end of the fourth larval instar, BhB10-1 expression is not restricted to the salivary gland, the tissue in which this gene is amplified. Different amounts of Bh [...] B10-1 mRNA were detected in other larval tissues such as gut, Malpighian tubules, fat body, brain and cuticle, suggesting that this gene is expressed differentially in the various tissues analyzed. Analysis of transgenic Drosophila carrying the BhB10-1 transcription unit and flanking sequences revealed that the tested fragment promotes transcription in a constitutive manner. We suggest that either cis-regulatory elements are missing in the transgene or factors that temporally regulate the BhB10-1 gene in B. hygida are not conserved in Drosophila.

N., Monesi; J.F., Sousa; M.L., Paçó-Larson.

2001-07-01

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Effect of pesticides on adult rove beetle Atheta coriaria (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) survival in growing medium.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rove beetle Atheta coriaria (Kraatz) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) is a natural enemy (biological control agent) commercially available for control of certain greenhouse insect pests, including fungus gnats, shore flies, and thrips. This study assessed the compatibility of pesticides (insecticides and fungicides) used in greenhouses with A. coriaria adults. Treatments were applied to 473-ml deli squat containers half-filled with a growing medium. We evaluated the effects of the pesticides when releases of A. coriaria adults were performed both before and after application of the designated pesticide solutions. All three of the neonicotinoid-based insecticides (clothianidin, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam) were directly harmful to A. coriaria adults with toxic to A. coriaria adults, with spinosad) and insect growth regulator azadirachtin were also not directly toxic to A. coriaria adults. Furthermore, many of these same treatments did not inhibit the ability of adult A. coriaria to consume fungus gnat (Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila) larvae in a feeding behavior experiment. Although the neonicotinoid-based insecticides were directly harmful to adult A. coriaria, when adults were released 48, 72, or 96 h after application, survival increased dramatically over time. This study has quantitatively demonstrated that certain pesticides (both insecticides and fungicides) are compatible with and can be used along with A. coriaria in systems that use this natural enemy to manage fungus gnat larvae. PMID:19886438

Cloyd, Raymond A; Timmons, Nicholas R; Goebel, Jessica M; Kemp, Kenneth E

2009-10-01

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Mutant Fungus from Space  

Science.gov (United States)

Space expert Yuri Karash of Russia says that he anticipates that the Mir Space Station could bring virulent new strains of fungus to earth when it splashes down later this month. Various types of fungus, whose smell is the first thing visitors to Mir notice, grow behind panels and in air-conditioning units on the spacecraft and have likely mutated. This article from the BBC News online covers the story.

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Sphenoid sinus fungus ball.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this retrospective study is to present a large series of patients with sphenoid sinus fungus ball (SSFB) and describe clinical manifestations, diagnostic workup, surgical treatment, and eventual complications of this disease. We included patients operated on for this disease over a 14-year period. All patients benefited from mid-to-long-term follow-up. There were 28 patients (18 females, 10 males, mean age 64 years). Main symptoms were posterior rhinorrhea and headache. Less common symptoms were alteration of vision or ocular mobility and cacosmia. Preoperative diagnosis was based on nasal endoscopy and CT scanning. MRI was performed in case of suspicion of a tumor, an intraorbital or intracranial invasion. Treatment consisted in endoscopic transnasal or transethmoidal sphenoidotomy with removal of the fungus ball. Specimens were sent to pathology and mycology to confirm diagnosis. Postoperative complications consisted of two cases of epistaxis and two other cases of bacterial superinfection of the operated sphenoid cavity. No recurrence of the fungus ball was seen after a mean follow-up of 13 months. To conclude, SSFB is a relatively uncommon entity, usually due to Aspergillus infection. Although not invasive, if left untreated, it can lead to long-term serious complications. Preoperative nasal endoscopic examination and CT scan are the standard tools for diagnosis. Endoscopic sphenoidotomy with removal of the fungus ball is the current treatment because it has proven effective and has a low morbidity and recurrence rate. PMID:22850907

Karkas, Alexandre; Rtail, Raed; Reyt, Emile; Timi, Nasser; Righini, Christian Adrien

2013-03-01

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A 28-fold increase in secretory protein synthesis is associated with DNA puff activity in the salivary gland of Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available When the first group of DNA puffs is active in the salivary gland regions S1 and S3 of Bradysia hygida larvae, there is a large increase in the production and secretion of new salivary proteins demonstrable by [3H]-Leu incorporation. The present study shows that protein separation by SDS-PAGE and detection by fluorography demonstrated that these polypeptides range in molecular mass from about 23 to 100 kDa. Furthermore, these proteins were synthesized mainly in the S1 and S3 salivary gland regions where the DNA puffs C7, C5, C4 and B10 are conspicuous, while in the S2 region protein synthesis was very low. Others have shown that the extent of amplification for DNA sequences that code for mRNA in the DNA puffs C4 and B10 was about 22 and 10 times, respectively. The present data for this group of DNA puffs are consistent with the proposition that gene amplification is necessary to provide some cells with additional gene copies for the production of massive amounts of proteins within a short period of time (Spradling AC and Mahowald AP (1980 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 77: 1096-1100.

de-Almeida J.C.

1997-01-01

23

5-Bromo-2’-deoxyuridine induces visible morphological alteration in the DNA puffs of the anterior salivary gland region of Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english 5-Bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdUrd) has long been known to interfere with cell differentiation. We found that treatment ofBradysia hygida larvae with BrdUrd during DNA puff anlage formation in the polytene chromosomes of the salivary gland S1 region noticeably affects anlage morphology. However, it doe [...] s not affect subsequent metamorphosis to the adult stage. The chromatin of the chromosomal sites that would normally form DNA puffs remains very compact and DNA puff expansion does not occur with administration of 4 to 8 mM BrdUrd. Injection of BrdUrd at different ages provoked a gradient of compaction of the DNA puff chromatin, leading to the formation of very small to almost normal puffs. By immunodetection, we show that the analogue is preferentially incorporated into the DNA puff anlages. When BrdUrd is injected in a mixture with thymidine, it is not incorporated into the DNA, and normal DNA puffs form. Therefore, incorporation of this analogue into the amplified DNA seems to be the cause of this extreme compaction. Autoradiographic experiments and silver grains counting showed that this treatment decreases the efficiency of RNA synthesis at DNA puff anlages.

J.C., de Almeida; H., Sauaia; J.C., Viana.

1143-11-01

24

Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae) presents two eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A gene homologues: partial characterization of the eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A-F1 gene  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Elongation factor 1A is a highly conserved protein that participates in translation. We report the occurrence of two genes homologous to the eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A in Bradysia hygida and describe the partial cloning and characterization of the B. hygida eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A-F1 (B [...] heEF1A-F1) gene. The pattern of BheEF1A-F1 expression in the salivary gland at the end of the fourth larval instar was investigated using real-time PCR. The results showed that BheEF1A-F1 expression levels are relatively constant at the time when rapid changes in protein synthesis occur in this tissue. In situ hybridization experiments coupled to Southern blot analyses showed that the BheEF1A-F1 gene is located at position 3d of the A chromosome and a second gene homologous to eEF1A is located at position 6a of the X chromosome. Southern blot analyses showed that both the BheEF1A-F1 gene and the second gene homologous to eEF1A constitute non-amplified genes. The present results contribute to the molecular characterization of a sciarid eEF1A gene.

J.A., Candido-Silva; N., Monesi.

2010-05-01

25

Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae presents two eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A gene homologues: partial characterization of the eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A-F1 gene  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Elongation factor 1A is a highly conserved protein that participates in translation. We report the occurrence of two genes homologous to the eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A in Bradysia hygida and describe the partial cloning and characterization of the B. hygida eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A-F1 (BheEF1A-F1 gene. The pattern of BheEF1A-F1 expression in the salivary gland at the end of the fourth larval instar was investigated using real-time PCR. The results showed that BheEF1A-F1 expression levels are relatively constant at the time when rapid changes in protein synthesis occur in this tissue. In situ hybridization experiments coupled to Southern blot analyses showed that the BheEF1A-F1 gene is located at position 3d of the A chromosome and a second gene homologous to eEF1A is located at position 6a of the X chromosome. Southern blot analyses showed that both the BheEF1A-F1 gene and the second gene homologous to eEF1A constitute non-amplified genes. The present results contribute to the molecular characterization of a sciarid eEF1A gene.

J.A. Candido-Silva

2010-05-01

26

The DNA puff BhB10-1 gene is differentially expressed in various tissues of Bradysia hygida late larvae and constitutively transcribed in transgenic Drosophila  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We extended the characterization of the DNA puff BhB10-1 gene of Bradysia hygida by showing that, although its mRNA is detected only at the end of the fourth larval instar, BhB10-1 expression is not restricted to the salivary gland, the tissue in which this gene is amplified. Different amounts of BhB10-1 mRNA were detected in other larval tissues such as gut, Malpighian tubules, fat body, brain and cuticle, suggesting that this gene is expressed differentially in the various tissues analyzed. Analysis of transgenic Drosophila carrying the BhB10-1 transcription unit and flanking sequences revealed that the tested fragment promotes transcription in a constitutive manner. We suggest that either cis-regulatory elements are missing in the transgene or factors that temporally regulate the BhB10-1 gene in B. hygida are not conserved in Drosophila.

N. Monesi

2001-07-01

27

Identificación y caracterización de la mosca negra Bradysia difformis (Diptera: Sciaridae) en el cultivo de nochebuena (Euphorbia pulcherrima) en el centro de México / Identification and characterization of the black fly, Bradysia difformis (Diptera: Sciaridae) on "poinsettia" crops (Euphorbia pulcherrima) of central Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar y caracterizar los estados de desarrollo de la especie de mosca negra más abundante asociada al cultivo de nochebuena Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, ex Klotzsch en la zona productora del centro del país. La recolección de material entomológico se realiz [...] ó en invernaderos de las localidades de Atlacomulco (México), Tenango de las Flores (Puebla), Xochimilco (Distrito Federal) y Zacatepec y Tetela del Monte (Morelos). Se obtuvieron 2,141 especímenes adultos de Diptera, siendo la especie más abundante (99.5%) Bradysia difformis Frey (Diptera: Sciaridae). El ciclo de vida de esta especie se completó entre 26-28 días bajo condiciones controladas de temperatura y humedad (25°C y 70% HR). La diferenciación de los estadíos larvales fue realizada mediante la morfometría de la cápsula cefálica para los estadíos I vs II, cuyas probabilidades de error fueron muy bajas (1:10,000); en cambio, la diferenciación entre los estadíos II vs III, y III vs IV resultó con una probabilidad de error alta, entre 17:100 y 36:100 individuos, respectivamente. Por esta razón se recomienda explorar otras características que en adición a la medida de anchura de sus cápsulas cefálicas permitan discriminar los diferentes estadíos de desarrollo. Este es el primer registro de B. difformis en México, aun cuando ya se había reportado este género afectando las plantas de nochebuena. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the developmental stages of the most abundant black fly species associated with poinsettia crops (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch) in the producing area of Central Mexico. Collecting samples were conducted in greenhouses of the location [...] s of Atlacomulco (Mexico), Tenango de las Flores (Puebla), Xochimilco (Mexico City), and Zacatepec and Tetela del Monte (Morelos). A total of 2,141 adult specimens of Diptera were obtained, being Bradysia difformis Frey (Diptera: Sciaridae) the most abundant species (99.5%). Life cycle of this species was completed between 26-28 days under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity (25°C and 70% RH). The differentiation of larval instars by morphometrics of the head capsule between instars I vs II, showed very low error probabilities (1:10,000); while differentiation between instars II vs III, and III vs IV resulted with higher error probabilities, between 17:100 and 36:100 individuals, respectively. For this reason it is recommended to explore other features in addition to measurements of width of the cephalic capsules for discriminating different larval stages. This is the first record of B. difformis for Mexico, although this genus was previously reported affecting poinsettia crops.

Evert, VILLANUEVA-SÁNCHEZ; Sergio, IBÁÑEZ-BERNAL; J. Refugio, LOMELÍ-FLORES; Jorge, VALDEZ-CARRASCO.

2013-08-01

28

Smaller than a gnat  

CERN Multimedia

"CERN in Geneva is the largest research center for particle physics in the world; the Institute is a Mecca for scientists. Particle are projected into each other in gigantic ring accelerators to gain information from their reactions about the force and relations inside the elements. These experiments require high vacuum - Oerlikon Leybold Vacuum recently competed in a Eyropean call for bids for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and won the contract." (1,5 page)

2006-01-01

29

Metabolic syndrome is linked to chromosome 7q21 and associated with genetic variants in CD36 and GNAT3 in Mexican Americans.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) has been rising alarmingly worldwide, including in the United States, but knowledge on specific genetic determinants of MS is very limited. Therefore, we planned to identify the genetic determinants of MS as defined by National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP/ATPIII) criteria. We performed linkage screen for MS using data from 692 Mexican Americans, who participated in the San Antonio Family Diabetes/Gallbladder Study (SAFDGS). We found strong evidence for linkage of MS on chromosome 7q (LOD = 3.6, empirical P = 6.0 × 10(-5)), between markers D7S2212 and D7S821. In addition, six chromosomal regions exhibited potential evidence for linkage (LOD ?1.2) with MS. Furthermore, we examined 29 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the fatty acid translocase (FAT or CD36, 18 SNPs) gene and guanine nucleotide binding protein, ? transducing 3 (GNAT3, 11 SNPs) gene, located within the 1-LOD support interval region for their association with MS and its related traits. Several SNPs were associated with MS and its related traits. Remarkably, rs11760281 in GNAT3 and rs1194197 near CD36 exhibited the strongest associations with MS (P = 0.0003, relative risk (RR) = 1.6 and P = 0.004, RR = 1.7, respectively) and several other related traits. These two variants explained ~18% of the MS linkage evidence on chromosome 7q21, and together conferred approximately threefold increase in MS risk (RR = 2.7). In conclusion, our linkage and subsequent association studies implicate a region on chromosome 7q21 to influence MS in Mexican Americans. PMID:22456541

Farook, Vidya S; Puppala, Sobha; Schneider, Jennifer; Fowler, Sharon P; Chittoor, Geetha; Dyer, Thomas D; Allayee, Hooman; Cole, Shelley A; Arya, Rector; Black, Mary H; Curran, Joanne E; Almasy, Laura; Buchanan, Thomas A; Jenkinson, Christopher P; Lehman, Donna M; Watanabe, Richard M; Blangero, John; Duggirala, Ravindranath

2012-10-01

30

Step-changes in the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Gulf of Maine, as documented by the GNATS time series  

Science.gov (United States)

We identify step-changes in the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Gulf of Maine (GoM) using the Gulf of Maine North Atlantic Time Series (GNATS), a series of oceanographic measurements obtained between September 1998 and December 2010 along a transect in the GoM running from Portland, ME, to Yarmouth, NS. GNATS sampled a period of extremes in precipitation and river discharge (4 of the 8 wettest years of the last century occurred between 2005 and 2010). Coincident with increased precipitation, we observed the following shifts: (1) decreased salinity and density within the surface waters of the western GoM; (2) both reduced temperature and vertical temperature gradients in the upper 50 m; (3) increased colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) concentrations and particle scattering in the western GoM; (4) increased concentrations of nitrate and phosphate across all but the eastern GoM; (5) increased silicate, particularly in the western GoM, with a sharp increase in the ratio of silicate to dissolved inorganic nitrogen; (6) sharply decreased carbon fixation by phytoplankton; (7) moderately decreased chlorophyll, particulate organic carbon (POC) and particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) in the central GoM and (8) decreased POC- and PIC-specific growth rates. Gulf-wide anomaly analyses suggest that (1) the surface density changes were predominantly driven by temperature, (2) dissolved nutrients, as well as POC/PON, varied in Redfield ratios and (3) anomalies for salinity, density, CDOM, particle backscattering and silicate were significantly correlated with river discharge. Precipitation and river discharge appear to be playing a critical role in controlling the long-term productivity of the Gulf of Maine by supplying CDOM and detrital material, which ultimately competes with phytoplankton for light absorption.

Balch, William M.; Drapeau, D.T.; Bowler, B.C.; Huntington, Thomas G.

2012-01-01

31

Fungus-insect gall of Phlebopus portentosus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phlebopus portentosus is a popular edible wild mushroom found in the tropical Yunnan, China, and northern Thailand. In its natural habitats, a gall often has been found on some plant roots, around which fungal fruiting bodies are produced. The galls are different from common insect galls in that their cavity walls are not made from plant tissue but rather from the hyphae of P. portentosus. Therefore we have termed this phenomenon "fungus-insect gall". Thus far six root mealy bug species in the family Pseudococcidae that form fungus-insect galls with P. portentosus have been identified: Formicococcus polysperes, Geococcus satellitum, Planococcus minor, Pseudococcus cryptus, Paraputo banzigeri and Rastrococcus invadens. Fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of more than 21 plant species, including Delonix regia, Citrus maxima, Coffea arabica and Artocarpus heterophyllus. Greenhouse inoculation trials showed that fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of A. heterophyllus 1 mo after inoculation. The galls were subglobose to globose, fulvous when young and became dark brown at maturation. Each gall harbored one or more mealy bugs and had a chimney-like vent for ventilation and access to the gall. The cavity wall had three layers. Various shaped mealy bug wax deposits were found inside the wall. Fungal hyphae invaded the epidermis of plant roots and sometimes even the cortical cells during the late stage of gall development. The identity of the fungus inside the cavity was confirmed by molecular methods. PMID:25344264

Zhang, Chun-Xia; He, Ming-Xia; Cao, Yang; Liu, Jing; Gao, Feng; Wang, Wen-Bing; Ji, Kai-Ping; Shao, Shi-Cheng; Wang, Yun

2015-01-01

32

Nuclear flow in a filamentous fungus  

CERN Document Server

The syncytial cells of a filamentous fungus consist of a mass of growing, tube-like hyphae. Each extending tip is fed by a continuous flow of nuclei from the colony interior, pushed by a gradient in turgor pressure. The myco-fluidic flows of nuclei are complex and multidirectional, like traffic in a city. We map out the flows in a strain of the model filamentous fungus {\\it N. crassa} that has been transformed so that nuclei express either hH1-dsRed (a red fluorescent nuclear protein) or hH1-GFP (a green-fluorescent protein) and report our results in a fluid dynamics video.

Hickey, Patrick C; Read, Nick; Glass, N Louise; Roper, Marcus

2012-01-01

33

Spread of Rare Fungus from Vancouver Island  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Cryptococcus gattii, a rare fungus normally found in the tropics, has infected people and animals on Vancouver Island, Canada. Dr. David Warnock, Director, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases, CDC, discusses public health concerns about further spread of this organism.  Created: 12/20/2006 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 12/29/2006.

2006-12-20

34

Notorious tree-killing fungus unravelled  

OpenAIRE

The first multicellular genome to be sequenced in Africa was produced by scientists at the University of Pretoria. They produced the full genome sequence of the tree-killing fungus, Fusarium circinatum, renewing hope that the global destruction that it wreaks in commercial pine plantations may be stemmed in years to come.

University of Pretoria

2010-01-01

35

Enraizamento de estacas de três espécies silvestres de Passiflora Cutting rooting of three wild Passiflora species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Em ambiente com nebulização controlada, estacas herbáceas com um par de folhas, contendo 2 ou 3 nós, foram testadas quanto ao enraizamento, utilizando-se de bandeja de poliestireno com célula de 95cm³ e saco plástico de 15x25x0,02cm com 1.730 cm³. Foram testadas estacas de Passiflora actinia, P. serrato-digitata e P. setacea. Observou-se que P. serrato-digitata apresentou 94,3% de estacas enraizadas com brotos e 2,4% de mortalidade; enquanto P. actinia e P. setacea apresentaram, respetivamente, 30,5% e 28,6% de estacas enraizadas com brotos e 56,8% e 60,7% de mortalidade. A alta mortalidade das estacas foi atribuída ao estado fenológico das matrizes de P. actinia e P. setacea e ao ataque de larvas de bradisia (Bradysia spp. Estacas com dois e três nós não apresentaram diferenças significativas, e o recipiente saco plástico de 1.730 cm³ proporcionou melhor desenvolvimento das mudas.Steam cuttings of three wild Passiflora species where tested for rooting in a mist regulated greenhouse. Cuttings with two or three buds were used with two kinds of containers: polystyrene trays with 95 cm³ cells and perforated plastic bags of 15x25x0.02cm, with 1,730 cm³. Passiflora serrato-digitata was the best, with 94.3% of rooted cuttings with shoots e only 2.4% of death cuttings. P. actinia and P. setacea showed , respectivelly, 30.5% and 28.6% of rooted cuttings and 56.8% and 60.7%, of death cuttings. The high death were attribute to phenological phases of P. actinia and P. setacea or injury caused by fungus-gnat larvae (Bradysia spp.. Cuttings with two or three buds didn't show differences among them. Plastic bags proporcioned the best results, increasing rooted cuttings and plant development.

Marcelo Fideles Braga

2006-08-01

36

Ant-fungus species combinations engineer physiological activity of fungus gardens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungus-gardening insects are among the most complex organisms because of their extensive co-evolutionary histories with obligate fungal symbionts and other microbes. Some fungus-gardening insect lineages share fungal symbionts with other members of their lineage and thus exhibit diffuse co-evolutionary relationships, while others exhibit little or no symbiont sharing, resulting in host-fungus fidelity. The mechanisms that maintain this symbiont fidelity are currently unknown. Prior work suggested that derived leaf-cutting ants in the genus Atta interact synergistically with leaf-cutter fungi (Attamyces) by exhibiting higher fungal growth rates and enzymatic activities than when growing a fungus from the sister-clade to Attamyces (so-called 'Trachymyces'), grown primarily by the non-leaf cutting Trachymyrmex ants that form, correspondingly, the sister-clade to leaf-cutting ants. To elucidate the enzymatic bases of host-fungus specialization in leaf-cutting ants, we conducted a reciprocal fungus-switch experiment between the ant Atta texana and the ant Trachymyrmex arizonensis and report measured enzymatic activities of switched and sham-switched fungus gardens to digest starch, pectin, xylan, cellulose and casein. Gardens exhibited higher amylase and pectinase activities when A. texana ants cultivated Attamyces compared with Trachymyces fungi, consistent with enzymatic specialization. In contrast, gardens showed comparable amylase and pectinase activities when T. arizonensis cultivated either fungal species. Although gardens of leaf-cutting ants are not known to be significant metabolizers of cellulose, T. arizonensis were able to maintain gardens with significant cellulase activity when growing either fungal species. In contrast to carbohydrate metabolism, protease activity was significantly higher in Attamyces than in Trachymyces, regardless of the ant host. Activity of some enzymes employed by this symbiosis therefore arises from complex interactions between the ant host and the fungal symbiont. PMID:24803469

Seal, J N; Schiøtt, M; Mueller, U G

2014-07-15

37

[Bilateral solitary fungus balls sphenoid sinus].  

Science.gov (United States)

Diagnosis of sphenoid sinus disease is very difficult because the location of sinus is deep and hidden within the skull and the symptoms of sphenoiditis are nonspecific. However, thanks to new technologies in imaging (CT and MRI) and nasal endoscopy, the literature on sphenoid sinus fungus ball have been published more. But all of the SSFB which have been reported are isolated or unilateral. We reported one rare case of bilateral sphenoid sinus fungus balls. This patient was treated in our department. Headache was the only symptom in this case. The patient was treated by sphenoidotomy via endoscopic approach and removal both of the lesions. No recurrence was found after 6-months follow-up. PMID:24168003

Yang, Feng; Liu, Huatao; Chen, Zhaozhen

2013-07-01

38

SYSTEMIC INFECTION AND RELATED FUNGUS: AN OVERVIEW  

OpenAIRE

A fungus is a member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds (British English: moulds), as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which are separate from plants, animals, and bacteria. One major difference is that fungal cells have cell walls that contain chitin, unlike the cell walls of plants, which contain cellulose. Many fungi play a crucial role in decomposition (breaking things down)...

Saha Rajsekhar; Mishra Aditya Kumar

2011-01-01

39

Symbiotic Fungi Produce Laccases Potentially Involved in Phenol Degradation in Fungus Combs of Fungus-Growing Termites in Thailand†  

OpenAIRE

Fungus-growing termites efficiently decompose plant litter through their symbiotic relationship with basidiomycete fungi of the genus Termitomyces. Here, we investigated phenol-oxidizing enzymes in symbiotic fungi and fungus combs (a substrate used to cultivate symbiotic fungi) from termites belonging to the genera Macrotermes, Odontotermes, and Microtermes in Thailand, because these enzymes are potentially involved in the degradation of phenolic compounds during fungus comb aging. Laccase ac...

Taprab, Yaovapa; Johjima, Toru; Maeda, Yoshimasa; Moriya, Shigeharu; Trakulnaleamsai, Savitr; Noparatnaraporn, Napavarn; Ohkuma, Moriya; Kudo, Toshiaki

2005-01-01

40

Draft Genome Sequence of the Cellulolytic Fungus Chaetomium globosum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chaetomium globosum is a filamentous fungus typically isolated from cellulosic substrates. This species also causes superficial infections of humans and, more rarely, can cause cerebral infections. Here, we report the genome sequence of C. globosum isolate CBS 148.51, which will facilitate the study and comparative analysis of this fungus. PMID:25720678

Cuomo, Christina A; Untereiner, Wendy A; Ma, Li-Jun; Grabherr, Manfred; Birren, Bruce W

2015-01-01

41

Metacridamides A and B from the biocontrol fungus metarhizium acridum  

Science.gov (United States)

Metarhizium acridum, an entomopathogenic fungus, has been commercialized and used successfully for biocontrol of grasshopper pests in Africa and Australia. As part of an effort to catalog the secondary metabolites of this fungus we discovered that its conidia produce two novel 17-membered macrocycl...

42

SYSTEMIC INFECTION AND RELATED FUNGUS: AN OVERVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A fungus is a member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds (British English: moulds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which are separate from plants, animals, and bacteria. One major difference is that fungal cells have cell walls that contain chitin, unlike the cell walls of plants, which contain cellulose. Many fungi play a crucial role in decomposition (breaking things down and returning nutrients to the soil. They are also used in medicine, an example is the antibiotic penicillin, as well as in industry and food preparation. In the present time the microbes are to be seen as disease causing organisms harming the mankind. The harm done by this community cannot be taken lightly as they are also useful in many ways. The above article is an effort to bring out the various fungal issued related to human.

Saha Rajsekhar

2011-06-01

43

Macrocyclic Trichothecene Production by the Fungus Epibiont of Baccharis Coridifolia  

OpenAIRE

Cultures of the fungus epibiont from the herbaceous shrub B. coridifolia yielded four macrocyclic trichothecenes. As these toxins are the same as those found in B. coridifolia, the relationship between the plant and the epibiont must be considered as mutualistic.

Rosso, M. L.; Maier, M. S.; Bertoni, M. D.

2000-01-01

44

Contributions to the study of Pseudopeziza trifolii (Bernh. Fuck. fungus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper communicates the results of the laboratory experiments concerning the behaviour of the Pseudopeziza trifolii (Bernh. Fuck. fungus that produces the clover brown leaf spot, in different culture mediums. The mycelium of the fungus develops at its best on the peptone-glucose-agar medium. The appearance of pycnides of Sporonema phacidioides Desm. type in vitro, has been reported for the fourth time in Romania especially developing on the potatoe-dextrosis-agar and plum-agar mediums.

Despina MUSAT

1966-08-01

45

Fungus Ball in Concha Bullosa: A Rare Case with Anosmia  

OpenAIRE

Concha bullosa is the pneumatization of the concha and is one of the most common variations of the sinonasal anatomy. The histopathological changes caused by the infections which arise from the impaired aeration of conchal cavity are frequently found. Fungus ball of the nasal cavity is an extremely rare, fungal infection with only three cases reported previously. In this paper, we present the fourth fungus ball case which developed within a concha bullosa and presented with anosmia.

Levent Saydam; Mahmut Özk?r?s; Selda Seçk?n; Zeliha Kapusuz

2013-01-01

46

Termite-egg mimicry by a sclerotium-forming fungus  

OpenAIRE

Mimicry has evolved in a wide range of organisms and encompasses diverse tactics for defence, foraging, pollination and social parasitism. Here, I report an extraordinary case of egg mimicry by a fungus, whereby the fungus gains competitor-free habitat in termite nests. Brown fungal balls, called ‘termite balls’, are frequently found in egg piles of Reticulitermes termites. Phylogenetic analysis illustrated that termite-ball fungi isolated from different hosts (Reticulitermes speratus, Re...

Matsuura, Kenji

2006-01-01

47

Biodegradation of pentachlorophenol by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  

OpenAIRE

Extensive biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance and mineralization of [14C]PCP in nutrient nitrogen-limited culture. Mass balance analyses demonstrated the formation of water-soluble metabolites of [14C]PCP during degradation. Involvement of the lignin-degrading system of this fungus was suggested by the fact the time of onset, time course, and eventual decline in the rate of PCP mineralization were ...

Mileski, G. J.; Bumpus, J. A.; Jurek, M. A.; Aust, S. D.

1988-01-01

48

Efficiency of Actinomycetes Against Phytopathogenic Fungus of Chilli Anthracnose  

OpenAIRE

Phytopathogenic fungus as Colletotricum gloeosporioides is a cause of disease on chilli and wide varieties of agricultural crops resulting in yield loss. The aim of this study was to screened actinomycetes according to its ability to produce various secondary metabolites with inhibition activity against chilli anthracnose. Firstly, actinomycetes from previously study were tested for antagonistic activity toward the fungus by the dual culture technique. Finally, extracellular antifungal metabo...

Sinma, K.; Khucharoenphaisan, K.; Lorrungruang, C.

2013-01-01

49

Isolation and identification of iron ore-solubilising fungus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Potential mineral-solubilising fungi were successfully isolated from the surfaces of iron ore minerals. Four isolates were obtained and identified by molecular and phylogenetic methods as close relatives of three different genera, namely Penicillium (for isolate FO), Alternaria (for isolates SFC2 an [...] d KFC1) and Epicoccum (for isolate SFC2B). The use of tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) in phosphate-solubilising experiments confirmed isolate FO as the only phosphate solubiliser among the isolated fungi. The bioleaching capabilities of both the fungus and its spent liquid medium were tested and compared using two types of iron ore materials, conglomerate and shale, from the Sishen Iron Ore Mine as sources of potassium (K) and phosphorus (P). The spent liquid medium removed more K (a maximum of 32.94% removal, from conglomerate), than the fungus (a maximum of 21.36% removal, from shale). However, the fungus removed more P (a maximum of 58.33% removal, from conglomerate) than the spent liquid medium (a maximum of 29.25% removal, from conglomerate). The results also indicated a potential relationship between the removal of K or P and the production of organic acids by the fungus. A high production of gluconic acid could be related to the ability of the fungus to reduce K and P. Acetic, citric and maleic acids were also produced by the fungus, but in lower quantities. In addition, particle size and iron ore type were also shown to have significant effects on the removal of potassium and phosphorus from the iron ore minerals. We therefore conclude that the spent liquid medium from the fungal isolate FO can potentially be used for biobeneficiation of iron ore minerals.

Rasheed, Adeleke; Eugene, Cloete; Damase, Khasa.

2010-10-01

50

Sinus Fungus Ball in the Japanese Population: Clinical and Imaging Characteristics of 104 Cases  

OpenAIRE

Sinus fungus ball is defined as noninvasive chronic fungal rhinosinusitis occurring in immunocompetent patients with regional characteristics. The clinical and imaging characteristics of paranasal sinus fungus ball were retrospectively investigated in 104 Japanese patients. All patients underwent endoscopic sinus surgery. Preoperative computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, age, sex, chief complaint, causative fungus, and clinical outcome were analyzed. Patients were aged f...

Kazuhiro Nomura; Daiya Asaka; Tsuguhisa Nakayama; Tetsushi Okushi; Yoshinori Matsuwaki; Tsuyoshi Yoshimura; Mamoru Yoshikawa; Nobuyoshi Otori; Toshimitsu Kobayashi; Hiroshi Moriyama

2013-01-01

51

Será fungo? / Is it a fungus?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estima-se que as infecções fúngicas superficiais afectem 20 a 25% da população mundial e a sua incidência continua a aumentar. A maioria é causada por dermatófitos, que são fungos que necessitam de queratina para crescer. As alterações produzidas por estes fungos designam-se de dermatofitoses, epide [...] rmofitias ou tinhas. Em Medicina Geral e Familiar é habitual o clínico deparar-se com questões como: «Dr., apareceram-me umas manchas na pele, será um fungo?». Algumas vezes, particularmente em doentes com risco especial como os polimedicados, os diabéticos, os imunodeprimidos ou as crianças, torna-se difícil saber quando é adequado instituir terapêutica oral. O presente artigo tem como objectivo efectuar uma breve revisão das dermatofitoses, com especial enfoque na sua abordagem terapêutica. As tinhas classificam-se de acordo com a sua localização anatómica: tinea capitis no couro cabeludo, tinea pedis nos pés, tinea corporis no corpo, tinea cruris na região inguinal e tinea unguium nas unhas. Um exame clínico cuidado é o primeiro e mais importante passo no diagnóstico das epidermofitias. No entanto, este pode ser estabelecido através de um dos diversos exames: microscopia com hidróxido de potássio, cultura, lâmpada de Wood e biópsia. Na prática clínica, a recolha de amostras para microscopia e cultura é aconselhada quando há necessidade de terapêutica oral, a infecção parece refractária ao tratamento inicial ou o diagnóstico é incerto. Apesar do tratamento tópico ser suficiente, na maioria das dermatofitoses, a terapêutica oral é aconselhada nas tinhas do couro cabeludo, da barba e das unhas. Os antifúngicos tópicos do grupo das alilaminas possibilitam tratamentos mais curtos e taxas de cura maiores do que os antifúngicos do grupo dos azóis. A terbinafina, o itraconazol e o fluconazol são os fármacos mais utilizados para tratamento sistémico. Abstract in english Superficial mycoses are believed to affect 20% to 25% of the world’s population and its incidence continues to increase. They are mainly caused by dermatophytes, which are fungi that require keratin for their growth. Skin lesions produced by these fungi are named dermatomycosis, dermatophytosis, rin [...] gworm or tinea. In Family Medicine, the clinician often has to deal with questions such as: «Dr., some weird spots have appeared in my skin, is it a fungus?». Frequently it is difficult to decide whether it is appropriate to initiate systemic therapy, particularly in higher risk patients, such as the polimedicated, the immunodepressed, the diabetics and the children. This article intends to review dermatophyte infections, focusing especially on their therapeutic management. Tinea is generally classified according to its anatomic location: tinea capitis is located on the scalp, tinea pedis on the feet, tinea corporis on the body, tinea cruris on the groin, and tinea unguium on the nails. A thorough clinical examination is the primary and most important step to diagnose a dermatophyte infection. Yet, it can be established using potassium hydroxide microscopy, fungal culture, Wood’s lamp examination or histologic examination. Samples should be taken for microscopy and culture in severe or extensive skin fungal infections, when oral treatment is being considered, when skin infections are refractory to initial treatment, or when the diagnosis is uncertain. Although topical treatment is enough in the majority of dermatomycosis, oral antifungals are recommended when considering tinea capitis, tinea barbae and tinea unguium. Cure rates are higher and treatment courses are shorter with topical allylamines than with azoles. Terbinafine, itraconazole and fluconazole formulations are the most commonly used antifungals in systemic therapy.

Diana, Tomaz.

2011-01-01

52

Phenolic Compound Utilization by the Soft Rot Fungus Lecythophora hoffmannii  

OpenAIRE

Nine phenolic compounds were metabolized by the soft rot fungus Lecythophora hoffmannii via protocatechuic acid and subsequently cleaved by protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase as determined by oxygen uptake, substrate depletion, and ring cleavage analysis. Catechol was metabolized by catechol 1,2-dioxygenase. Fungal utilization of these aromatic compounds may be important in the metabolism of wood decay products.

Bugos, Robert C.; Sutherland, John B.; Adler, John H.

1988-01-01

53

Volatile antimicrobials from Muscodor crispans, a novel endophytic fungus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Muscodor crispans is a recently described novel endophytic fungus of Ananas ananassoides (wild pineapple) growing in the Bolivian Amazon Basin. The fungus produces a mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs); some of the major components of this mixture, as determined by GC/MS, are propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-; 1-butanol, 3-methyl-;1-butanol, 3-methyl-, acetate; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-methylbutyl ester; and ethanol. The fungus does not, however, produce naphthalene or azulene derivatives as has been observed with many other members of the genus Muscodor. The mixture of VOCs produced by M. crispans cultures possesses antibiotic properties, as does an artificial mixture of a majority of the components. The VOCs of the fungus are effective against a wide range of plant pathogens, including the fungi Pythium ultimum, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Mycosphaerella fijiensis (the black sigatoka pathogen of bananas), and the serious bacterial pathogen of citrus, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. In addition, the VOCs of M. crispans killed several human pathogens, including Yersinia pestis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus. Artificial mixtures of the fungal VOCs were both inhibitory and lethal to a number of human and plant pathogens, including three drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The gaseous products of Muscodor crispans potentially could prove to be beneficial in the fields of medicine, agriculture, and industry. PMID:19797357

Mitchell, Angela M; Strobel, Gary A; Moore, Emily; Robison, Richard; Sears, Joe

2010-01-01

54

Biodegradation of pentachlorophenol by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Extensive biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance and mineralization of [14C]PCP in nutrient nitrogen-limited culture. Mass balance analyses demonstrated the formation of water-soluble metabolites of [14C]PCP during degradation. Involvement of the lignin-degrading system of this fungus was suggested by the fact that the time of onset, time course, and eventual decline in the rate of PCP mineralization were similar to those observed for [14C]lignin degradation. Also, a purified ligninase was shown to be able to catalyze the initial oxidation of PCP. Although biodegradation of PCP was decreased in nutrient nitrogen-sufficient (i.e., nonligninolytic) cultures of P. chrysosporium, substantial biodegradation of PCP did occur, suggesting that in addition to the lignin-degrading system, another degradation system may also be responsible for some of the PCP degradation observed. Toxicity studies showed that PCP concentrations above 4 mg/liter (15 ?M) prevented growth when fungal cultures were identified by inoculation with spores. The lethal effects of PCP could, however, be the circumvented by allowing the fungus to establish a mycelial mat before adding PCP. With this procedure, the fungus was able to grow and mineralize [14C]PCP at concentrations as high as 500 mg/liter (1.9 mM)

55

Notes on a plant parasite fungus in Portugal: Gymnosporangium cornutum.  

Science.gov (United States)

A rust fungus identified as Gymnosporangium cornutum was found on Sorbus aucuparia in Serra da Estrela (Manteigas), and the disease was severe at that location. Despite the abundance and worldwide occurrence of the genus Gymnosporangium, studies in Portugal are still limited. PMID:17196029

Lopes, Maria C; Martins, Victor C

2006-09-01

56

Diphenyl derivatives from coastal saline soil fungus Aspergillus iizukae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new diphenyl derivatives, named iizukines A (1) and B (2), along with nine known compounds were isolated from coastal saline soil derived fungus Aspergillus iizukae. The structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Their cytotoxicities were preliminarily evaluated on HL-60, BEL-7402 and A-549 cell lines by the MTT assay. PMID:24668154

Liu, Desheng; Yan, Ling; Ma, Liying; Huang, Yuling; Pan, Xiaohong; Liu, Weizhong; Lv, Zhihua

2014-03-27

57

Efficiency of Actinomycetes Against Phytopathogenic Fungus of Chilli Anthracnose  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phytopathogenic fungus as Colletotricum gloeosporioides is a cause of disease on chilli and wide varieties of agricultural crops resulting in yield loss. The aim of this study was to screened actinomycetes according to its ability to produce various secondary metabolites with inhibition activity against chilli anthracnose. Firstly, actinomycetes from previously study were tested for antagonistic activity toward the fungus by the dual culture technique. Finally, extracellular antifungal metabolites produced by selected isolates were evaluated for antifungal potential toward the fungus with agar core technique. Eighty three strains of actinomycetes were screened for their antifungal as well as phytopathogenic activity. Among these, 26 isolates were shown the inhibition activities against Colletotricum gloeosporioides chi in which was isolated from infected chilli. The culture supernatants obtained from 21 actinomycetes strains were affective against the fungus. More interestingly, 7 isolates produced affective thermostable compound that having activity after treated with temperature of 121°C for 20 min. In total, the isolate R58 was most promising on the basis of its interesting antimicrobial activity and it could reduce anthracnose disease of chilli comparing to the absence of biocontrol agent. Based on morphological character, its 16S rDNA sequence and phylogenetic tree analysis, isolate R58 belong to the Streptomyces malaysiensis. These findings have increased the scope of agriculturally important actinomycetes.

K. Sinma

2013-01-01

58

CONIDIAL GERMINATION IN THE FILAMENTOUS FUNGUS FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM  

Science.gov (United States)

The ascomycetous fungus Fusarium graminearum is an important plant pathogen causing Fusarium head blight disease of wheat and barley. To understand early developmental stages of this organism, we followed the germination of macroconidia microscopically to understand the timing of key events. These e...

59

Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Attine ants live in symbiosis with a basidiomycetous fungus that they rear on a substrate of plant material. This indirect herbivory implies that the symbiosis is likely to be nitrogen deprived, so that specific mechanisms may have evolved to enhance protein availability. We therefore hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results: We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing eight genera. We mapped these activity profiles on an independently obtained molecular phylogeny of the symbionts and show that total proteinase activity in lower attine symbionts peaks at ca. pH 6. The higher attine symbionts that have no known free-living relatives had much higher proteinase activities than the lower attine symbionts. Their total in vitro proteinase activity peaked at pH values around 5, which is close to the pH that the ants maintain in their fungus gardens, suggesting that the pH optimum of fungal proteinases may have changed after the irreversible domestication of evolutionary more derived fungal symbionts. This notion is also supported by buffering capacities of fungus gardens at pH 5.2 being remarkably high, and suggests that the fungal symbiont actively helps to maintain garden acidity at this specific level. Metalloproteinases dominated the activity profiles of lower attine gardens and may thus represent the ancestral type of proteinase production, whereas serine proteinase activity dominated the activity profiles of the higher attine gardens reared by Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex, suggesting that there may be trade-offs in the production of these enzyme classes. Remarkably, the single symbiont that is shared by species of the crown group of Atta and Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants mostly showed metalloproteinase activity, suggesting that recurrent changes in enzyme production may have occurred throughout the domestication history of fungus-garden symbionts. Conclusions: Proteinase pH optima and buffering capacities of fungal symbionts appear to have evolved remarkable adaptations to living in obligate symbiosis with farming ants. Although the functional roles of serine and metalloproteinases in fungus gardens are unknown, the differential production of these classes of proteolytic enzymes suggest that substrate specificity may be important and that trade-offs may prevent the simultaneous upregulation of both classes of enzymes.

Semenova, Tatyana; Hughes, David Peter

2011-01-01

60

Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Attine ants live in symbiosis with a basidiomycetous fungus that they rear on a substrate of plant material. This indirect herbivory implies that the symbiosis is likely to be nitrogen deprived, so that specific mechanisms may have evolved to enhance protein availability. We therefore hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing eight genera. We mapped these activity profiles on an independently obtained molecular phylogeny of the symbionts and show that total proteinase activity in lower attine symbionts peaks at ca. pH 6. The higher attine symbionts that have no known free-living relatives had much higher proteinase activities than the lower attine symbionts. Their total in vitro proteinase activity peaked at pH values around 5, which is close to the pH that the ants maintain in their fungus gardens, suggesting that the pH optimum of fungal proteinases may have changed after the irreversible domestication of evolutionary more derived fungal symbionts. This notion is also supported by buffering capacities of fungus gardens at pH 5.2 being remarkably high, and suggests that the fungal symbiont actively helps to maintain garden acidity at this specific level. Metalloproteinases dominated the activity profiles of lower attine gardens and may thus represent the ancestral type of proteinase production, whereas serine proteinase activity dominated the activity profiles of the higher attine gardens reared by Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex, suggesting that there may be trade-offs in the production of these enzyme classes. Remarkably, the single symbiont that is shared by species of the crown group of Atta and Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants mostly showed metalloproteinase activity, suggesting that recurrent changes in enzyme production may have occurred throughout the domestication history of fungus-garden symbionts. Conclusions Proteinase pH optima and buffering capacities of fungal symbionts appear to have evolved remarkable adaptations to living in obligate symbiosis with farming ants. Although the functional roles of serine and metalloproteinases in fungus gardens are unknown, the differential production of these classes of proteolytic enzymes suggest that substrate specificity may be important and that trade-offs may prevent the simultaneous upregulation of both classes of enzymes.

Hughes David P

2011-01-01

61

Enraizamento de estacas de três espécies silvestres de Passiflora / Cutting rooting of three wild Passiflora species  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Em ambiente com nebulização controlada, estacas herbáceas com um par de folhas, contendo 2 ou 3 nós, foram testadas quanto ao enraizamento, utilizando-se de bandeja de poliestireno com célula de 95cm³ e saco plástico de 15x25x0,02cm com 1.730 cm³. Foram testadas estacas de Passiflora actinia, P. ser [...] rato-digitata e P. setacea. Observou-se que P. serrato-digitata apresentou 94,3% de estacas enraizadas com brotos e 2,4% de mortalidade; enquanto P. actinia e P. setacea apresentaram, respetivamente, 30,5% e 28,6% de estacas enraizadas com brotos e 56,8% e 60,7% de mortalidade. A alta mortalidade das estacas foi atribuída ao estado fenológico das matrizes de P. actinia e P. setacea e ao ataque de larvas de bradisia (Bradysia spp.) Estacas com dois e três nós não apresentaram diferenças significativas, e o recipiente saco plástico de 1.730 cm³ proporcionou melhor desenvolvimento das mudas. Abstract in english Steam cuttings of three wild Passiflora species where tested for rooting in a mist regulated greenhouse. Cuttings with two or three buds were used with two kinds of containers: polystyrene trays with 95 cm³ cells and perforated plastic bags of 15x25x0.02cm, with 1,730 cm³. Passiflora serrato-digitat [...] a was the best, with 94.3% of rooted cuttings with shoots e only 2.4% of death cuttings. P. actinia and P. setacea showed , respectivelly, 30.5% and 28.6% of rooted cuttings and 56.8% and 60.7%, of death cuttings. The high death were attribute to phenological phases of P. actinia and P. setacea or injury caused by fungus-gnat larvae (Bradysia spp.). Cuttings with two or three buds didn't show differences among them. Plastic bags proporcioned the best results, increasing rooted cuttings and plant development.

Marcelo Fideles, Braga; Erivanda Carvalho dos, Santos; Nilton Tadeu Vilela, Junqueira; Alex Antonio Torres Cortes de, Sousa; Fábio Gelape, Faleiro; Leylanne Nogueira, Rezende; Keize Pereira, Junqueira.

2006-08-01

62

Transformation of the mycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor using Agrobacterium tumefaciens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most boreal and temperate forest trees form a mutualistic symbiosis with soil borne fungi called ectomycorrhiza (ECM). In this association both partners benefit due to nutrient exchange at the symbiotic interface. Laccaria bicolor is the first mycorrhizal fungus with its genome sequenced thus making possible for the first time to analyze genome scale gene expression profiles of a mutualistic fungus. However, in order to be able to take full advantage of the genome sequence, reverse genetic tools are needed. Among them a high throughput transformation system is crucial. Herein we present a detailed protocol for genetic transformation of L. bicolor by means of Agrobacterium tumefaciens with emphasis on critical steps affecting the success and efficiency of the approach. PMID:21636986

Kemppainen, Minna J; Pardo, Alejandro G

2011-01-01

63

Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Fusarium semitectum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development of environmental friendly procedures for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles through biological processes is evolving into an important branch of nanobiotechnology. In this paper, we report on the use of fungus 'Fusarium semitectum' for the extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate solution (i.e. through the reduction of Ag+ to Ag0). Highly stable and crystalline silver nanoparticles are produced in solution by treating the filtrate of the fungus F. semitectum with the aqueous silver nitrate solution. The formations of nanoparticles are understood from the UV-vis and X-ray diffraction studies. Transmission electron microscopy of the silver particles indicated that they ranged in size from 10 to 60 nm and are mostly spherical in shape. Interestingly the colloidal suspensions of silver nanoparticles are stable for many weeks. Possible medicinal applications of these silver nanoparticles are envisaged

64

Fungus mediated synthesis of biomedically important cerium oxide nanoparticles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • First time biological synthesis of cerium oxide oxide nanoparticles using fungus Humicola sp. • Complete characterization of cerium oxide nanoparticles. • Biosynthesis of naturally protein capped, luminescent and water dispersible CeO2 nanoparticles. • Biosynthesized CeO2 nanoparticles can be used for many biomedical applications. - Abstract: Nanomaterials can be synthesized by chemical, physical and the more recently discovered biological routes. The biological routes are advantageous over the chemical and physical ones as unlike these, the biological synthesis protocols occur at ambient conditions, are cheap, non-toxic and eco-friendly. Although purely biological and bioinspired methods for the synthesis of nanomaterials are environmentally benign and energy conserving processes, their true potential has not been explored yet and attempts are being made to extend the formation of technologically important nanoparticles using microorganisms like fungi. Though there have been reports on the biosynthesis of oxide nanoparticles by our group in the past, no attempts have been made to employ fungi for the synthesis of nanoparticles of rare earth metals or lanthanides. Here we report for the first time, the bio-inspired synthesis of biomedically important cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles using the thermophilic fungus Humicola sp. The fungus Humicola sp. when exposed to aqueous solutions of oxide precursor cerium (III) nitrate hexahydrate (CeN3O9·6H2O) results in the extracellular formation of CeO2 nanoparticles containing Ce (III) and Ce (IV) mixed oxidation states, confirmed by X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS). The formed nanoparticles are naturally capped by proteins secreted by the fungus and thus do not agglomerate, are highly stable, water dispersible and are highly fluorescent as well. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS)

65

Biotransformation of fluorene by the fungus Cunninghamella elegans  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fluorene, a tricyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is formed during the combustion of fossil fuels and is an important pollutant of aquatic ecosystems where it is highly toxic to fish and algae. Few studies on microbial biodegradation of fluorene have been reported. This investigation describes the metabolism of fluorene by the fungus Cunninghamella elegans ATCC 36112 and the identification of major metabolites. 26 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Pothuluri, J.V.; Freeman, J.P.; Evans, F.E.; Cerniglia, C.E. (Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR (United States))

1993-06-01

66

Biotransformation of adrenosterone by filamentous fungus, Cunninghamella elegans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbial transformation of adrenosterone (1) by suspended-cell cultures of the filamentous fungus Cunninghamella elegans resulted in the production of five metabolites 2-6, which were identified as 9alpha-hydroxyadrenosterone (2), 11-ketotestosterone (3), 6beta-hydroxyadrenosterone (4), 9alpha-hydroxy-11-ketotestosterone (5), and 6beta-hydroxy-11-ketotestosterone (6). Structures of new metabolites 2, 5, and 6 were established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. PMID:17889091

Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Khan, Naik T; Musharraf, Syed G; Anjum, Shazia; Atta-Ur-Rahman

2007-12-01

67

Pathogenic Fungus Microsporum canis Activates the NLRP3 Inflammasome  

OpenAIRE

Microsporum canis is a pathogenic fungus with worldwide distribution that causes tinea capitis in animals and humans. M. canis also causes invasive infection in immunocompromised patients. To defy pathogenic fungal infection, the host innate immune system is the first line of defense. As an important arm of innate immunity, the inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes that control the activation of caspase-1, which cleaves proinflammatory cytokine pro-interleukin-1? (IL-1?) in...

Mao, Liming; Zhang, Liping; Li, Hua; Chen, Wei; Wang, Hongbin; Wu, Shuxian; Guo, Caiqin; Lu, Ailing; Yang, Guiwen; An, Liguo; Abliz, Paride; Meng, Guangxun

2014-01-01

68

Antibacterial polyketides from the jellyfish-derived fungus Paecilomyces variotii.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four new polyketides (1-4) were isolated from the fungus Paecilomyces variotii, which was derived from the jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai. The planar structures and relative configurations of these polyketides were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including 2D NMR experiments. The compounds showed inhibitory activity against pathogenic bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 3089 and multi-drug-resistant Vibrio parahemolyticus 7001 with MIC values in the range 5-40 ?g/mL. PMID:21744790

Liu, Juan; Li, Famei; Kim, Eun La; Li, Jian Lin; Hong, Jongki; Bae, Kyung Sook; Chung, Hae Young; Kim, Hyung Sik; Jung, Jee H

2011-08-26

69

Transcriptional responses in Honey Bee larvae infected with chalkbrood fungus  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Diseases and other stress factors working synergistically weaken honey bee health and may play a major role in the losses of bee populations in recent years. Among a large number of bee diseases, chalkbrood has been on the rise. We present here the experimental identification of honey bee genes that are differentially expressed in response to infection of honey bee larvae with the chalkbrood fungus, Ascosphaera apis. Results We used cDNA-AFLP ®Technology to profile transc...

Murray Keith D; Aronstein Katherine A; Saldivar Eduardo

2010-01-01

70

Characterization of the pitch canker fungus, Fusarium circinatum, from Chile  

OpenAIRE

Fusarium circinatum is the causal agent of the pine disease commonly referred to as pitch canker. During 2001, a Fusarium species was isolated from dying Pinus radiata clonal hedges in various forestry nurseries in Chile and was subsequently identified as F. circinatum. The aim of the study reported here was to provide a detailed characterization of Chilean isolates of the fungus. Morphological characters included microconidia carried on false heads and produced on polyphialides. Sterile coil...

Jacobs, Adriaana; Coutinho, Teresa A.; Wingfield, Michael J.; Ahumada, Rodrigo; Wingfield, Brenda D.

2007-01-01

71

Inducible phenotypic multidrug resistance in the fungus Mucor racemosus.  

OpenAIRE

The dimorphic fungus Mucor racemosus exhibited a single-step, inducible resistance to cycloheximide, trichodermin, and amphotericin B. Cells adapted to inhibitory levels of the antibiotics after 12 to 40 h. The adaptation involved all the cells in the population and was not the result of the selection of resistant mutants. Adaptation to one drug provided cross resistance to other, dissimilar drugs. Resistance was lost within several generations of growth in the absence of the inhibitors.

Leathers, T. D.; Sypherd, P. S.

1985-01-01

72

White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) in Bats, Europe  

OpenAIRE

White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences...

Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kurth, Andreas; Hellmann, David; Weishaar, Manfred; Barlow, Alex; Veith, Michael; Pru?ger, Julia; Go?rfo?l, Tama?s; Grosche, Lena; Bontadina, Fabio; Zo?phel, Ulrich; Seidl, Hans-peter; Cryan, Paul M.; Blehert, David S.

2010-01-01

73

Interaction between Hypholoma fasciculare and the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius  

OpenAIRE

In the past few years, cord-forming basidiomycetes have received considerable attention in their growth strategies in the presence of other fungi (saprotrophic and pathogenic). In the present study, the in vitro interaction between the cord-forming basidiomycete Hypholoma fasciculare and the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius was studied. Dual-cultures were established and the radial fungal growth, hyphae morphology and production of volatile compounds were evaluated during inter...

Baptista, Paula; Pinho, P. Guedes; Malheiro, R.; Tavares, Rui Manuel; Lino-neto, Teresa

2010-01-01

74

The yeast spectrum of the 'tea fungus Kombucha'.  

Science.gov (United States)

The tea fungus 'Kombucha' is a symbiosis of Acetobacter, including Acetobacter xylinum as a characteristic species, and various yeasts. A characteristic yeast species or genus has not yet been identified. Kombucha is mainly cultivated in sugared black tea to produce a slightly acidulous effervescent beverage that is said to have several curative effects. In addition to sugar, the beverage contains small amounts of alcohol and various acids, including acetic acid, gluconic acid and lactic acid, as well as some antibiotic substances. To characterize the yeast spectrum with special consideration given to facultatively pathogenic yeasts, two commercially available specimens of tea fungus and 32 from private households in Germany were analysed by micromorphological and biochemical methods. Yeasts of the genera Brettanomyces, Zygosaccharomyces and Saccharomyces were identified in 56%, 29% and 26% respectively. The species Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Candida kefyr were only demonstrated in isolated cases. Furthermore, the tests revealed pellicle-forming yeasts such as Candida krusei or Issatchenkia orientalis/occidentalis as well as species of the apiculatus yeasts (Kloeckera, Hanseniaspora). Thus, the genus Brettanomyces may be a typical group of yeasts that are especially adapted to the environment of the tea fungus. However, to investigate further the beneficial effects of tea fungus, a spectrum of the other typical genera must be defined. Only three specimens showed definite contaminations. In one case, no yeasts could be isolated because of massive contamination with Penicillium spp. In the remaining two samples (from one household), Candida albicans was demonstrated. The low rate of contamination might be explained by protective mechanisms, such as formation of organic acids and antibiotic substances. Thus, subjects with a healthy metabolism do not need to be advised against cultivating Kombucha. However, those suffering from immunosuppression should preferably consume controlled commercial Kombucha beverages. PMID:8559192

Mayser, P; Fromme, S; Leitzmann, C; Gründer, K

1995-01-01

75

An obligately endosymbiotic mycorrhizal fungus itself harbors obligately intracellular bacteria.  

OpenAIRE

Arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi are obligate endosymbionts that colonize the roots of almost 80% of land plants. This paper describes the employment of a combined morphological and molecular approach to demonstrate that the cytoplasm of the arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungus Gigaspora margarita harbors a further bacterial endosymbiont. Intracytoplasmic bacterium-like organisms (BLOs) were detected ultrastructurally in its spores and germinating and symbiotic mycelia. Morphological observations with a...

Bianciotto, V.; Bandi, C.; Minerdi, D.; Sironi, M.; Tichy, H. V.; Bonfante, P.

1996-01-01

76

Inducible phenotypic multidrug resistance in the fungus Mucor racemosus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dimorphic fungus Mucor racemosus exhibited a single-step, inducible resistance to cycloheximide, trichodermin, and amphotericin B. Cells adapted to inhibitory levels of the antibiotics after 12 to 40 h. The adaptation involved all the cells in the population and was not the result of the selection of resistant mutants. Adaptation to one drug provided cross resistance to other, dissimilar drugs. Resistance was lost within several generations of growth in the absence of the inhibitors. PMID:4026262

Leathers, T D; Sypherd, P S

1985-06-01

77

Relationships between Swiss needle cast and ectomycorrhizal fungus diversity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Swiss needle cast (SNC) is a disease specific to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) caused by the ascomycete Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii. Here we examine characteristics of the EM fungus community that are potentially useful in predictive models that would monitor forest health. We found that mean EM density (number of colonized root tips/soil core) varied nearly 10-fold among sites of varying levels of SNC, while mean EM fungus species richness (number of species/soil core) varied by about 2.5 times. Strong relationships were found between EM and SNC parameters: EM species richness was positively correlated with both Douglas-fir needle retention (R(2) = 0.93) and EM density (R(2) = 0.65); EM density also was significantly correlated with Douglas-fir needle retention (R(2) = 0.70). These simple characteristics of the EM fungus community could be used to monitor forest health and generate predictive models of site suitability for Douglas-fir. Based on previous findings that normally common EM types were reduced in frequency on sites with severe SNC, we also hypothesized that some EM fungi would be stress tolerant-dominant species. Instead, we found that various fungi were able to form EM with the stressed trees, but none were consistently dominant across samples in the severely diseased areas. PMID:24895426

Luoma, Daniel L; Eberhart, Joyce L

2014-01-01

78

Comparative studies of the secretome of fungus-growing ants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Leafcutter ants of the species Acromyrmex echinatior live in symbiosis with the fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. The ants harvest fragments of leaves and carry them to the nest where they place the material on the fungal colony. The fungus secretes a wide array of proteins to degrade the leaves into nutrients that the ants can feed on. The focus of this study is to discover, characterize and compare the secreted proteins. In order to do so cDNA libraries are constructed from mRNA extracted from the fungus material. The most efficient technology to screen cDNA libraries selectively for secreted and membrane-bound proteins is the TAST (Transposon Assisted Signal Trapping) technology (Becker et al. 2004,Microbiol Methods 57, 123-133). The TAST screening will give a list of full length gene sequences encoding secreted proteins. The main part of the secretome will consist of biomass degrading enzymes, but also antimicrobial proteins will probably be in the secretome. To date only a few enzymes from the Leucoagaricus secretome have been identified. We expect to discover novel proteins and to gain a better understanding of the biodegrading pathways of Leucoagaricus. Ultimately, this work may identify enzymes that can be used in biomass conversion processes. (Poster # 426)

Linde, Tore; Grell, Morten Nedergaard

2009-01-01

79

Viruses of the white root rot fungus, Rosellinia necatrix.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rosellinia necatrix is a filamentous ascomycete that is pathogenic to a wide range of perennial plants worldwide. An extensive search for double-stranded RNA of a large collection of field isolates led to the detection of a variety of viruses. Since the first identification of a reovirus in this fungus in 2002, several novel viruses have been molecularly characterized that include members of at least five virus families. While some cause phenotypic alterations, many others show latent infections. Viruses attenuating the virulence of a host fungus to its plant hosts attract much attention as agents for virocontrol (biological control using viruses) of the fungus, one of which is currently being tested in experimental fields. Like the Cryphonectria parasitica/viruses, the R. necatrix/viruses have emerged as an amenable system for studying virus/host and virus/virus interactions. Several techniques have recently been developed that enhance the investigation of virus etiology, replication, and symptom induction in this mycovirus/fungal host system. PMID:23498907

Kondo, Hideki; Kanematsu, Satoko; Suzuki, Nobuhiro

2013-01-01

80

Effects of reduced-risk pesticides and plant growth regulators on rove beetle (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

In many regions, pest management of greenhouse crops relies on the use of biological control agents; however, pesticides are also widely used, especially when dealing with multiple arthropod pests and attempting to maintain high esthetic standards. As such, there is interest in using biological control agents in conjunction with chemical control. However, the prospects of combining natural enemies and pesticides are not well known in many systems. The rove beetle, Atheta coriaria (Kraatz), is a biological control agent mainly used against fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.). This study evaluated the effects of reduced-risk pesticides and plant growth regulators on A. coriaria adult survival, development, and prey consumption under laboratory conditions. Rove beetle survival was consistently higher when adults were released 24 h after rather than before applying pesticides. The pesticides acetamiprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, and cyfluthrin were harmful to rove beetle adults, whereas Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, azadirachtin, and organic oils (cinnamon oils, rosemary oil, thyme oil, and clove oil) were nontoxic to A. coriaria adults. Similarly, the plant growth regulators acymidol, paclobutrazol, and uniconazole were not harmful to rove beetle adults. In addition, B. bassiana, azadirachtin, kinoprene, organic oils, and the plant growth regulators did not negatively affect A. coriaria development. However, B. bassiana did negatively affect adult prey consumption. This study demonstrated that A. coriaria may not be used when applying the pesticides, acetamiprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, and cyfluthrin, whereas organic oils, B. bassiana, azadirachtin, and the plant growth regulators evaluated may be used in conjunction with A. coriaria adults. As such, these compounds may be used in combination with A. coriaria in greenhouse production systems. PMID:23356075

Echegaray, Erik R; Cloyd, Raymond A

2012-12-01

81

Defending against parasites: fungus-growing ants combine specialized behaviours and microbial symbionts to protect their fungus gardens  

OpenAIRE

Parasites influence host biology and population structure, and thus shape the evolution of their hosts. Parasites often accelerate the evolution of host defences, including direct defences such as evasion and sanitation and indirect defences such as the management of beneficial microbes that aid in the suppression or removal of pathogens. Fungus-growing ants are doubly burdened by parasites, needing to protect their crops as well as themselves from infection. We show that parasite removal fro...

Little, Ainslie E. F.; Murakami, Takahiro; Mueller, Ulrich G.; Currie, Cameron R.

2005-01-01

82

A novel endophytic Taxol-producing fungus Chaetomella raphigera isolated from a medicinal plant, Terminalia arjuna.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taxol is the most important member of the clinically useful natural anticancer drug. An endophytic fungus Chaetomella raphigera (strain TAC-15) was isolated from a medicinal plant Terminalia arjuna and screened for its potential in Taxol production. The fungus was identified based on the morphology of the fungal culture and the characteristics of the spores. This fungus was grown in MID liquid medium and analyzed by chromatographically and spectrometrically for the presence of Taxol. The amount of Taxol produced by this endophytic fungus was quantified by HPLC which showed that it produced 79.6 microg/L, and further confirmative analyses were done by using UV, IR, FAB mass spectroscopy, and NMR spectroscopy. Thus, the fungus can serve as a potential material for fungus engineering to improve the production of Taxol. PMID:19234679

Gangadevi, V; Muthumary, J

2009-09-01

83

The origin of the attine ant-fungus mutualism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cultivation of fungus for food originated about 45-65 million years ago in the ancestor of fungus-growing ants (Formicidae, tribe Attini), representing an evolutionary transition from the life of a hunter-gatherer of arthropod prey, nectar, and other plant juices, to the life of a farmer subsisting on cultivated fungi. Seven hypotheses have been suggested for the origin of attine fungiculture, each differing with respect to the substrate used by the ancestral attine ants for fungal cultivation. Phylogenetic information on the cultivated fungi, in conjunction with information on the nesting biology of extant attine ants and their presumed closest relatives, reveal that the attine ancestors probably did not encounter their cultivars-to-be in seed stores (von Ihering 1894), in rotting wood (Forel 1902), as mycorrhizae (Garling 1979), on arthropod corpses (von Ihering 1894) or ant faeces in nest middens (Wheeler 1907). Rather, the attine ant-fungus mutualism probably arose from adventitious interactions with fungi that grew on walls of nests built in leaf litter (Emery 1899), or from a system of fungal myrmecochory in which specialized fungi relied on ants for dispersal (Bailey 1920) and in which the ants fortuitously vectored these fungi from parent to offspring nests prior to a true fungicultural stage. Reliance on fungi as a dominant food source has evolved only twice in ants: first in the attine ants, and second in some ant species in the solenopsidine genus Megalomyrmex that either coexist as trophic parasites in gardens of attine hosts or aggressively usurp gardens from them. All other known ant-fungus associations are either adventitious or have nonnutritional functions (e.g., strengthening of carton-walls in ant nests). There exist no unambiguous reports of facultative mycophagy in ants, but such trophic ant-fungus interactions would most likely occur underground or in leaf litter and thus escape easy observation. Indirect evidence of fungivory can be deduced from contents of the ant alimentary canal and particularly from the contents of the infrabuccal pocket, a pharyngeal device that filters out solids before liquids pass into the intestine. Infrabuccal pocket contents reveal that ants routinely ingest fungal spores and hyphal material. Infrabuccal contents are eventually expelled as a pellet on nest middens or away from the nest by foragers, suggesting that the pellet provides fungi with a means for the dispersal of spores and hyphae. Associations between such "buccophilous" fungi and ants may have originated multiple times and may have become elaborated and externalized in the case of the attine ant-fungus mutualism. Thus, contrary to the traditional model in which attine fungi are viewed as passive symbionts that happened to come under ant control, this alternative model of a myrmecochorous origin of the attine mutualism attributes an important role to evolutionary modifications of the fungi that preceded the ant transition from hunter-gatherer to fungus farmer. PMID:11409051

Mueller, U G; Schultz, T R; Currie, C R; Adams, R M; Malloch, D

2001-06-01

84

Degradation of Phenanthrene by a chilean white rot fungus Anthracophyllum discolor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anthracophyllum discolor, a white rot fungus of southern Chile, has been an efficient degrader of clorophenols and azo dyes. This fungus produces ligninolytic enzymes being manganese peroxidase (Mn)) the major one produced. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of phenanthrene concentration of ligninolytic activity of A. Discolor measured by poly R-478 decolorazation, and to evaluate the potential of this fungus for degrading phenanthrene in liquid media. (Author)

85

Caste-specific symbiont policing by workers of Acromyrmex fungus-growing ants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The interaction between leaf-cutting ants and their fungus garden mutualists is ideal for studying the evolutionary stability of interspecific cooperation. Although the mutualism has a long history of diffuse coevolution, there is ample potential for conflicts between the partners over the mixing and transmission of symbionts. Symbiont transmission is vertical by default, and both the ants and resident fungus actively protect the fungal monoculture growing in their nest against secondary introductions of genetically dissimilar symbionts from other colonies. An earlier study showed that mixtures of major and minor Acromyrmex workers eliminate alien fungus fragments even in subcolonies where their resident symbiont is not present. We hypothesize that the different tasks and behaviors performed by majors and minors are likely to select for differential responses to alien fungi. Major workers forage and cut new leaves and masticate them after delivery in the upper parts of the fungus garden and so are likely to more frequently encounter alien fungus than minor workers maintaining the established fungus garden and caring for the brood. We show that major workers of Acromyrmex echinatior indeed express stronger incompatibility reactions toward alien fungus garden fragments than minor workers. This implies that only the major workers, through recognition and exclusion of foreign fungus clones at their point of entry to the nest, have a realistic possibility to eliminate alien fungal tissue before it gets incorporated in the fungus garden and starts competing with the resident fungal symbiont.

Ivens, Aniek B.F.; Nash, David R.

2009-01-01

86

Isolated fungal promoters and gene transcription terminators and methods of protein and chemical production in a fungus  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

Dai, Ziyu; Lasure, Linda L; Magnuson, Jon K

2014-05-27

87

Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of fungus Phomopsis stipata  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Our purpose was to determine the anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of the metabolites produced by the endophitic fungus Phomopsis stipata (Lib.) B. Sutton, (Diaporthaceae), cultivated in different media. The antimycobacterial activity was assessed through the Resazurin Microtiter Assay (REMA) [...] and the cytotoxicity test performed on macrophage cell line. The extracts derived from fungi grown on Corn Medium and Potato Dextrose Broth presented the smallest values of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and low cytotoxicity, which implies a high selectivity index. This is the first report on the chemical composition and antitubercular activity of metabolites of P. stipata, as well as the influence of culture medium on these properties.

Karina Andrade de, Prince; Renata, Sordi; Fernando Rogério, Pavan; Adolfo Carlos Barreto, Santos; Angela R., Araujo; Sergio R.A., Leite; Clarice Q. F., Leite.

2012-03-01

88

Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of fungus Phomopsis stipata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our purpose was to determine the anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of the metabolites produced by the endophitic fungus Phomopsis stipata (Lib. B. Sutton, (Diaporthaceae, cultivated in different media. The antimycobacterial activity was assessed through the Resazurin Microtiter Assay (REMA and the cytotoxicity test performed on macrophage cell line. The extracts derived from fungi grown on Corn Medium and Potato Dextrose Broth presented the smallest values of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and low cytotoxicity, which implies a high selectivity index. This is the first report on the chemical composition and antitubercular activity of metabolites of P. stipata, as well as the influence of culture medium on these properties.

Karina Andrade de Prince

2012-03-01

89

Pitch canker fungus, Fusarium circinatum : implications for South African forestry  

OpenAIRE

Fusarium circinatum, the causal agent of pitch canker of mature pines and root/collar rot of pine seedlings/cuttings, has resulted in large-scale losses to pine forestry in various parts of the world. The disease caused by this fungus is now regarded as one of the most important threats to pine plantations by a pathogen. Fusarium circinatum was first discovered in South Africa in 1990 where it infected Pinus patula seedlings in a nursery. Subsequently, the pathogen spread to pine nur...

Mitchell, R. G.; Steenkamp, Emma Theodora; Coutinho, Teresa A.; Wingfield, Michael J.

2011-01-01

90

Elemental variations in the germinating fungus Phytophthora palmivora  

Science.gov (United States)

We have measured the elemental variations between zoospores and germinating cystospores of the fungus Phytophthora palmivora, using a scanning proton microprobe. Averaged over a number of individual cells, our results indicate that the level of Ca is much lower in germinating cystospores than in zoospores. The levels of S, Cl, and Zn also appear to be lower, and the level of K appears to be higher. The spatial distribution of elements within the germinating cystospore is very similar for P, S, Cl, K, Mn, Fe, and Cu, but significantly different for Ca and Zn.

Mazzolini, A. P.; Grant, B. R.; Sealock, R. M.; Legge, G. J. F.

1991-03-01

91

Two new terpenoids from endophytic fungus Periconia sp. F-31.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new terpenoids, (+)-(3S,6S,7R,8S)-periconone A (1) and (-)-(1R,4R,6S,7S)-2-caren-4,8-olide (2), have been isolated from an endophytic fungus Periconia sp., which was collected from the plant Annona muricata. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. In the in vitro assays, the two compounds showed low cytotoxic activities against six human tumor cell lines (HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A549, A2780 and MCF-7) with IC(50)>10(-5) M. PMID:22130377

Ge, Han-Lin; Zhang, De-Wu; Li, Li; Xie, Dan; Zou, Jian-Hua; Si, Yi-Kang; Dai, Jungui

2011-01-01

92

Elemental variations in the germinating fungus Phytophthora palmivora  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have measured the elemental variations between zoospores and germinating cystospores of the fungus Phytophthora palmivora, using a scanning proton microprobe. Averaged over a number of individual cells, our results indicate that the level of Ca is much lower in germinating cystospores than in zoospores. The levels of S, Cl, and Zn also appear to be lower, and the level of K appears to be higher. The spatial distribution of elements within the germinating cystospore is very similar for P, S, Cl, K, Mn, Fe, and Cu, but significantly different for Ca and Zn. (orig.).

Mazzolini, A.P.; Sealock, R.M.; Legge, G.J.F. (Micro Analytical Research Centre, Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville (Australia)); Grant, B.R. (Biochemistry Dept., Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville (Australia))

1991-03-01

93

Microsatellites from the charcoal rot fungus (Macrophomina phaseolina).  

Science.gov (United States)

Microsatellite loci were identified from the charcoal rot fungus (Macrophomina phaseolina). Primer pairs for 46 loci were developed, and of these, 13 were optimized and screened using genomic DNA from 55 fungal isolates collected predominantly from two soybean fields in Mississippi. Twelve of the optimized loci were polymorphic and the number of alleles per locus ranged from 6 to 22. These microsatellites will be useful in population and pathogenicity studies to correspond with development of potential disease-resistant soybean and other susceptible crops. PMID:21564800

Baird, Richard E; Wadl, Phillip A; Wang, Xinwang; Johnson, Denita H; Rinehart, Timothy A; Abbas, Hamed K; Shier, Thomas; Trigiano, Robert N

2009-05-01

94

Fun Microbiology: Using a Plant Pathogenic Fungus To Demonstrate Koch's Postulates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes an experiment using a plant pathogenic fungus in which students learn to follow aseptic techniques, grow and produce spores of a fungus, use a hemacytometer for enumerating spores, prepare serial dilutions, grow and inoculate plants, isolate a pure culture using agar streak plates, and demonstrate the four steps of Koch's postulates.…

Mitchell, James K.; Orsted, Kathy M.; Warnes, Carl E.

1997-01-01

95

Two novel eremophilane sesquiterpenes from an endophytic Xylariaceous fungus isolated from leaves of Cupressus lusitanica  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two new eremophilane sesquiterpenes, cupressolide A and cupressolide B, along with two known sesquiterpenes, has been characterized from the EtOAc extract of a liquid medium where a Xylariaceous fungus, isolated as an endophytic fungus from health tissues of Cupressus lusitanica leaves, was cultivated. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by analyses of their MS and NMR spectroscopic data. (author)

Amaral, Luciana S.; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson, E-mail: edson@dq.ufscar.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DQ/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

2010-07-01

96

Two novel eremophilane sesquiterpenes from an endophytic Xylariaceous fungus isolated from leaves of Cupressus lusitanica  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two new eremophilane sesquiterpenes, cupressolide A and cupressolide B, along with two known sesquiterpenes, has been characterized from the EtOAc extract of a liquid medium where a Xylariaceous fungus, isolated as an endophytic fungus from health tissues of Cupressus lusitanica leaves, was cultivated. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by analyses of their MS and NMR spectroscopic data. (author)

97

Draft Genome Sequence and Gene Annotation of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Verticillium hemipterigenum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Verticillium hemipterigenum (anamorph Torrubiella hemipterigena) is an entomopathogenic fungus and produces a broad range of secondary metabolites. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of the fungus, including gene structure and functional annotation. Genes were predicted incorporating RNA-Seq data and functionally annotated to provide the basis for further genome studies. PMID:25614560

Horn, Fabian; Habel, Andreas; Scharf, Daniel H; Dworschak, Jan; Brakhage, Axel A; Guthke, Reinhard; Hertweck, Christian; Linde, Jörg

2015-01-01

98

Fungi of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.)-Their Deteriorative Ability, Quality Stability and the Role of the Fungus-Eating Insects  

OpenAIRE

Studies on the deteriorative ability and quality stability of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) and the effect of the fungus-eating insects (Necrobia rufipes, Alphitobius diaperinus, Crematogaster sp. and Tenebrio molitor) were carried out in the Post Graduate Entomology and Plant Pathology Laboratories of the Department of Applied and Environmental Biology and also in Food Science Laboratory of the Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt. Results showed Aspergillus niger v...

Chuku, E. C.; Ogbalu, O. K.; Osakwe, J. A.

2007-01-01

99

Cytotoxic acyl amides from the soil fungus Gymnascella dankaliensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The soil fungus Gymnascella dankaliensis was collected in the vicinity of the Giza pyramids, Egypt. When grown on solid rice medium the fungus yielded four new compounds including 11'-carboxygymnastatin N (1), gymnastatin S (2), dankamide (3), and aranorosin-2-methylether (4), the latter having been reported previously only as a semisynthetic compound. In addition, six known metabolites (5-10) were isolated. Addition of NaCl or KBr to the rice medium resulted in the accumulation of chlorinated or brominated compounds as indicated by LC-MS analysis due to the characteristic isotope patterns observed. From the rice medium spiked with 3.5% NaCl the known chlorinated compounds gymnastatin A (11) and gymnastatin B (12) were obtained. All isolated compounds were unambiguously structurally elucidated on the basis of comprehensive spectral analysis (1D and 2D NMR, and mass spectrometry), as well as by comparison with the literature. Compounds 4, 7 and 11 showed potent cytotoxicity against the murine lymphoma cell line L5178Y (IC50 values 0.44, 0.58 and 0.64?M, respectively), whereas 12 exhibited moderate activity with an IC50 value of 5.80?M. PMID:25600409

Hammerschmidt, Lena; Aly, Amal H; Abdel-Aziz, Mohammed; Müller, Werner E G; Lin, Wenhan; Daletos, Georgios; Proksch, Peter

2015-02-15

100

Stable genetic transformation of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present work the genetic transformation and the expression of gene markers in transgenic Pisolithus tinctorius are reported. The ectomycorrhizae are facultative symbionts of plant roots, which are capable of affording mineral nutrients to its co-host in exchange of fixed carbon. Given the importance of this association (more than 80% of gymnosperms are associated with these fungi), its study from both basic and applied viewpoints is relevant. We have transformed this fungus with reporter genes and analyzed their expression in its saprophytic state. Genetic transformation was performed by microprojectile bombardment and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This last method proved to be the more efficient. Southern analysis of biolistic-transformed fungi revealed the random integration of the transgene into the genome. The accumulation of the transcript of the reporter gene was demonstrated by RT-PCR. The visualization of GFP-associated fluorescence in saprophytic mycelia confirmed the expression of the reporter gene. This is the first report on the stable transformation and expression of GFP in the ectomycorrhizal fungus P. tinctorius. PMID:15936101

Rodríguez-Tovar, Aída V; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto; Herrera-Martínez, Aseneth; Barrera-Figueroa, Blanca E; Hidalgo-Lara, M Eugenia; Reyes-Márquez, Blanca E; Cabrera-Ponce, José Luis; Valdés, María; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz

2005-10-01

101

Metabolism and the rise of fungus cultivation by ants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most ant colonies are comprised of workers that cooperate to harvest resources and feed developing larvae. Around 50 million years ago (MYA), ants of the attine lineage adopted an alternative strategy, harvesting resources used as compost to produce fungal gardens. While fungus cultivation is considered a major breakthrough in ant evolution, the associated ecological consequences remain poorly understood. Here, we compare the energetics of attine colony-farms and ancestral hunter-gatherer colonies using metabolic scaling principles within a phylogenetic context. We find two major energetic transitions. First, the earliest lower-attine farmers transitioned to lower mass-specific metabolic rates while shifting significant fractions of biomass from ant tissue to fungus gardens. Second, a transition 20 MYA to specialized cultivars in the higher-attine clade was associated with increased colony metabolism (without changes in garden fungal content) and with metabolic scaling nearly identical to hypometry observed in hunter-gatherer ants, although only the hunter-gatherer slope was distinguishable from isometry. Based on these evolutionary transitions, we propose that shifting living-tissue storage from ants to fungal mutualists provided energetic storage advantages contributing to attine diversification and outline critical assumptions that, when tested, will help link metabolism, farming efficiency, and colony fitness. PMID:25141145

Shik, Jonathan Z; Santos, Juan C; Seal, Jon N; Kay, Adam; Mueller, Ulrich G; Kaspari, Michael

2014-09-01

102

[Influence of copper, cadmium on growth and cation exchange capacity of two kinds of ectomycorrhizal funguses].  

Science.gov (United States)

Ectomycorrhizal fungus has the ability to enhance the growth of higher plants in the contaminated area, especially ruined by heavy metals. And much attention was focused on how the fungus could enhance the resistance of higher plants. We focused on the resistance of ectomycorrhizal fungus in vitro to heavy metals. In the first experiment, the mycelium biomasses of two ectomycorhizal funguses growing in the Kottke media treated with different concentrations of Cu and Cd were measured after growth as well as the pH value of the medium. The results indicated that heavy metals could reduce the biomasses of the two funguses. Gomplhidius viscidus has higher tolerance to Cu but less Cd than that of Boletus edulis. With development of fungal mycila, the pH value of medium dropped significantly, and this effect might play an important role in enhancing its tolerance. In addition, the higher pH value change per biomass indicated that the fungus treated with heavy metals had the ability to adjust environment of pH more significantly. In the second experiment, the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the cell walls of the fungus treated with heavy metals was measured according to Marschner's. The results indicated that with the increasing of the concentrations of Cu or Cd, the CEC of Gomphidius viscidus increased, but the CEC of Boletus edulis dropped. PMID:17111629

Huang, Zhi-Ji; Huang, Yi; Peng, Bo

2006-08-01

103

Fungus/Disease Analysis in Tomato Crop using Image Processing Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The crop of tomato is very often infected by a disease that leaves spots of brown, gray or off-white colors on the plant’s leafs in winter. Scientifically, this disease is known as cercospora leaf spot or cercospora cruciferarum. It’s a kind of fungus that often kills young seedlings. The fungus spreads by air and can also infect tomato plants. Therefore, it is important to monitor the leaf at regular intervals so as to keep track on quality of growing tomato crop. In the presented paper, a novel machine vision system has been proposed that visual inspects the leafs coming out of the soil and based on spots on leaves, it determines the nature of fungus and its depth into the tomato steam. The size of the fungus, color depth and location and locus of the fungus on leaves give an accurate determination of crop quality under the soil. In the presented thesis work, the image of the crop leaves are taken by a good quality color camera and processed for getting a gray colored and segmented image depending upon the nature and size of the fungus. A criterion is set for acceptable and rejects crop quality based on the fungus level.

Shruti

2014-07-01

104

Two new compounds from gorgonian-associated fungus Aspergillus sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

One new gamma-lactone derivative 5-hydroxy-3-isopropyl-4-methoxyfuranone (1) and one new lactam derivative dehydrated-marinamide (2), along with two known compounds marinamide (3) and marinamide methyl ester (4) were isolated from the fermentation broth of the marine gorgonian-associated fungus Aspergillus sp. SCSGAF0093. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and spectrometric analysis. Compound 1 showed significant toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina) with a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 1.25 microM, and 3 inhibited protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 23.3 microg/mL. PMID:24079168

Xu, Xin-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Yong; He, Fei; Peng, Jiang; Nong, Xu-Hua; Qi, Shu-Hua

2013-08-01

105

The phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria brassicicola: phytotoxin production and phytoalexin elicitation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The metabolites and phytotoxins produced by the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria brassicicola (Schwein.) Wiltshire, as well as the phytoalexins induced in host plants, were investigated. Brassicicolin A emerged as the most selective phytotoxic metabolite produced in liquid cultures of A. brassicicola and spirobrassinin as the major phytoalexin produced in infected leaves of Brassica juncea (whole plants). In detached infected leaves of B. juncea, the main component was N'-acetyl-3-indolylmethanamine, the product of detoxification of the phytoalexin brassinin by A. brassicicola. In addition, the structure elucidation of three hitherto unknown metabolites having a fusicoccane skeleton was carried out and the antifungal activity of several plant defenses against A. brassicicola was determined. PMID:19223049

Pedras, M Soledade C; Chumala, Paulos B; Jin, Wei; Islam, Mohammed S; Hauck, Dominic W

2009-02-01

106

Polyketides from the Halotolerant Fungus Myrothecium sp. GS-17  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two new polyketides, myrothecol (1 and 5-hydroxy-3-methyl-4-(1- hydroxylethyl-furan-2(5H-one (2, were isolated from the fermentation broth of the halotolerant fungus Myrothecium sp. GS-17 along with three known compounds, 5-hydroxyl-3-[(1S-1-hydroxyethyl]-4-methylfuran-2(5H-one (3, 3,5-dimethyl-4- hydroxylmethyl-5-methoxyfuran-2(5H-one (4, and 3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxymethyl-5- hydroxyfuran-2(5H-one (5. Compound 1 is the first natural occurring polyketide with a unique furylisobenzofuran skeleton. The structures of these compounds were established via extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D-, 2D-NMR, HRESI-MS, and crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.

Tao Liu

2013-12-01

107

A new diketopiperazine heterodimer from an endophytic fungus Aspergillus niger.  

Science.gov (United States)

One new diketopiperazine heterodimer, asperazine A (1), and eight known compounds, asperazine (2), cyclo(d-Phe-l-Trp) (3), cyclo(l-Trp-l-Trp) (4), 4-(hydroxymethyl)-5,6-dihydro-pyran-2-one (5), walterolactone A (6), and campyrones A-C (7-9), were isolated from an endophytic fungus Aspergillus niger. Their structures were determined unequivocally on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data analysis. This is the first report of the presence of compound 3 as a natural product. Cytotoxicity test against human cancer cell lines PC3, A2780, K562, MBA-MD-231, and NCI-H1688 revealed that compounds 1 and 2 had weak activities. PMID:25401948

Li, Xiao-Bin; Li, Yue-Lan; Zhou, Jin-Chuan; Yuan, Hui-Qing; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Lou, Hong-Xiang

2015-02-01

108

Radiologic characteristics of sinonasal fungus ball: an analysis of 119 cases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background. It is important to differentiate sinonasal fungus ball from non-fungal sinusitis and other forms of fungal sinusitis in order to determine the optimal treatment. In particular, a sinonasal fungus ball, a non-invasive fungal sinusitis, can be characterized by radiologic findings before surgery. Purpose. To differentiate a sinonasal fungus ball from other types of sinusitis and determine optimal treatment on the basis of radiologic findings before surgery. Material and Methods. We studied 119 patients with clinically and pathologically proven sinonasal fungus balls. Their condition was evaluated radiologically with contrast-enhanced CT (99 patients), non-contrast CT (18 patients) and/or MRI (17 patients) prior to sinonasal surgery. Results. Calcifications were found in 78 of 116 (67.2%) patients who underwent CT scans for fungus ball. As opposed to non-contrast CT scans, contrast CT scans revealed hyper attenuating fungal ball in 82.8% and enhanced inflamed mucosa in 65.5% of the patients, respectively. On MRI, most sinonasal fungal balls showed iso- or hypointensity on T1-weighted images and marked hypointensity on T2-weighted images. Inflamed mucosal membranes were noted and appeared as hypointense on T1-weighted images (64.7%) and hyperintense on T2-weighted images (88.2%). Conclusion. When there are no calcifications visible on the CT scan, a hyper attenuating fungal ball located in the central area of the sinus with mucosal thickening on enhanced CT scans is an important feature of a non-invasive sinonasal fungus ball. On MRI, a sinonasal fungus ball has typical features of a marked hypointense fungus ball with a hyperintense mucosal membrane in T2-weighted images. A contrast-enhanced CT scan or MRI provides sufficient information for the preoperative differentiation of a sinonasal fungus ball from other forms of sinusitis

Seo, Young-Joon; Kim, Kyubo (Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Kim, Jinna (Dept. of Radiology, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Lee, Jeung-Gweon; Kim, Chang-Hoon (Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); The Airway Mucus Institute, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)), email: entman@yuhs.ac; Yoon, Joo-Heon (Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); The Airway Mucus Institute, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Research Center for Human Natural Defense System, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); BK21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of))

2011-09-15

109

Chemically armed mercenary ants protect fungus-farming societies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The ants are extraordinary in having evolved many lineages that exploit closely related ant societies as social parasites, but social parasitism by distantly related ants is rare. Here we document the interaction dynamics among a Sericomyrmex fungus-growing ant host, a permanently associated parasitic guest ant of the genus Megalomyrmex, and a raiding agro-predator of the genus Gnamptogenys. We show experimentally that the guest ants protect their host colonies against agro-predator raids using alkaloid venom that is much more potent than the biting defenses of the host ants. Relatively few guest ants are sufficient to kill raiders that invariably exterminate host nests without a cohabiting guest ant colony. We also show that the odor of guest ants discourages raider scouts from recruiting nestmates to host colonies. Our results imply that Sericomyrmex fungus-growers obtain a net benefit from their costly guest ants behaving as a functional soldier caste to meet lethal threats from agro-predator raiders. The fundamentally different life histories of the agro-predators and guest ants appear to facilitate their coexistence in a negative frequency-dependent manner. Because a guest ant colony is committed for life to a single host colony, the guests would harm their own interests by not defending the host that they continue to exploit. This conditional mutualism is analogous to chronic sickle cell anemia enhancing the resistance to malaria and to episodes in human history when mercenary city defenders offered either net benefits or imposed net costs, depending on the level of threat from invading armies.

Adams, Rachelle Martha Marie; Liberti, Joanito

2013-01-01

110

Chemically armed mercenary ants protect fungus-farming societies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ants are extraordinary in having evolved many lineages that exploit closely related ant societies as social parasites, but social parasitism by distantly related ants is rare. Here we document the interaction dynamics among a Sericomyrmex fungus-growing ant host, a permanently associated parasitic guest ant of the genus Megalomyrmex, and a raiding agro-predator of the genus Gnamptogenys. We show experimentally that the guest ants protect their host colonies against agro-predator raids using alkaloid venom that is much more potent than the biting defenses of the host ants. Relatively few guest ants are sufficient to kill raiders that invariably exterminate host nests without a cohabiting guest ant colony. We also show that the odor of guest ants discourages raider scouts from recruiting nestmates to host colonies. Our results imply that Sericomyrmex fungus-growers obtain a net benefit from their costly guest ants behaving as a functional soldier caste to meet lethal threats from agro-predator raiders. The fundamentally different life histories of the agro-predators and guest ants appear to facilitate their coexistence in a negative frequency-dependent manner. Because a guest ant colony is committed for life to a single host colony, the guests would harm their own interests by not defending the host that they continue to exploit. This conditional mutualism is analogous to chronic sickle cell anemia enhancing the resistance to malaria and to episodes in human history when mercenary city defenders offered either net benefits or imposed net costs, depending on the level of threat from invading armies. PMID:24019482

Adams, Rachelle M M; Liberti, Joanito; Illum, Anders A; Jones, Tappey H; Nash, David R; Boomsma, Jacobus J

2013-09-24

111

Disposable diapers biodegradation by the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research assesses the feasibility of degrading used disposable diapers, an important component (5-15% in weight) of urban solid waste in Mexico, by the activity of the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus, also known as oyster mushroom. Disposable diapers contain polyethylene, polypropylene and a super absorbent polymer. Nevertheless, its main component is cellulose, which degrades slowly. P. ostreatus has been utilized extensively to degrade cellulosic materials of agroindustrial sources, using in situ techniques. The practice has been extended to the commercial farming of the mushroom. This degradation capacity was assayed to reduce mass and volume of used disposable diapers. Pilot laboratory assays were performed to estimate the usefulness of the following variables on conditioning of used diapers before they act as substrate for P. ostreatus: (1) permanence vs removal of plastic cover; (2) shredding vs grinding; (3) addition of grape wastes to improve structure, nitrogen and trace elements content. Wheat straw was used as a positive control. After 68 days, decrease of the mass of diapers and productivity of fungus was measured. Weight and volume of degradable materials was reduced up to 90%. Cellulose content was diminished in 50% and lignine content in 47%. The highest efficiency for degradation of cellulosic materials corresponded to the substrates that showed highest biological efficiency, which varied from 0% to 34%. Harvested mushrooms had good appearance and protein content and were free of human disease pathogens. This research indicates that growing P. ostreatus on disposable diapers could be a good alternative for two current problems: reduction of urban solid waste and availability of high protein food sources. PMID:21474296

Espinosa-Valdemar, Rosa María; Turpin-Marion, Sylvie; Delfín-Alcalá, Irma; Vázquez-Morillas, Alethia

2011-08-01

112

Sperm length evolution in the fungus-growing ants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Eusocial insects offer special opportunities for the comparative study of sperm traits because sperm competition is absent (in species with obligatory monandry) or constrained (in lineages where queens mate multiply but never remate later in life). We measured sperm length in 19 species of fungus-growing ants, representing 9 of the 12 recognized genera, and mapped these onto the ant phylogeny. We show that average sperm length across species is highly variable and decreases with mature colony size in basal genera with singly mated queens, suggesting that sperm production or storage constraints affect the evolution of sperm length. Sperm length does not decrease further in multiply mating leaf-cutting ants, despite substantial further increases in colony size. In a combined analysis, sexual dimorphism explained 63.1% of the variance in sperm length between species. As colony size was not a significant predictor in this analysis, we conclude that sperm production trade-offs in males have been the major selective force affecting sperm length across the fungus-growing ants, rather than storage constraints in females. The relationship between sperm length and sexual dimorphism remained robust in phylogenetically independent contrasts. Some of the remaining variation was explained by the relative size of the sperm-storage organ, but only in the multiply mating leaf-cutting ants, suggesting that sperm-storage constraints become important for the evolution of sperm length in this derived group. Mate number affected sperm length to a minor extent, and only in interaction with other predictor variables, suggesting that sperm competition has not been a major selective force for sperm length evolution in these ants.

Baer, B.; Dijkstra, M. B.

2009-01-01

113

A Collagenolytic Fungus, Cunninghamella elegans, for Biological Control of Plant-parasitic Nematodes  

OpenAIRE

The root-galling index of tomatoes inoculated with Meloidogyne javanica was decreased 70% when collagen was used as a soil amendment (0.1% w/w) and 90% when the amendment was supplemented with the collagenolytic fungus Cunninghamella elegans. The root-galling index was reduced 80% when the fungus was homogenized in collagen culture medium and added to soil without collagen supplement. Culture filtrates of the fungus C. elegans, grown on collagen as a single source of carbon and nitrogen, immo...

Galper, S.; Cohn, E.; Spiegel, Y.; Chet, I.

1991-01-01

114

Biodegradation of hazardous waste using white rot fungus: Project planning and concept development document  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been shown to effectively degrade pollutants such as trichlorophenol, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and other halogenated aromatic compounds. These refractory organic compounds and many others have been identified in the tank waste, groundwater and soil of various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The treatment of these refractory organic compounds has been identified as a high priority for DOE's Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT E) waste treatment programs. Unlike many bacteria, the white rot fungus P. chrysosporium is capable of degrading these types of refractory organics and may be valuable for the treatment of wastes containing multiple pollutants. The objectives of this project are to identify DOE waste problems amenable to white rot fungus treatment and to develop and demonstrate white rot fungus treatment process for these hazardous organic compounds. 32 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

Luey, J.; Brouns, T.M.; Elliott, M.L.

1990-11-01

115

Biodegradation of hazardous waste using white rot fungus: Project planning and concept development document  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been shown to effectively degrade pollutants such as trichlorophenol, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and other halogenated aromatic compounds. These refractory organic compounds and many others have been identified in the tank waste, groundwater and soil of various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The treatment of these refractory organic compounds has been identified as a high priority for DOE's Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) waste treatment programs. Unlike many bacteria, the white rot fungus P. chrysosporium is capable of degrading these types of refractory organics and may be valuable for the treatment of wastes containing multiple pollutants. The objectives of this project are to identify DOE waste problems amenable to white rot fungus treatment and to develop and demonstrate white rot fungus treatment process for these hazardous organic compounds. 32 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

116

Modelling the Hyphal Growth of the Wood-decay Fungus Physisporinus vitreus  

CERN Document Server

The white-rot fungus, Physisporinus vitreus, degrades the membranes of bordered pits in tracheids and consequently increases the permeability of wood, which is a process that can be used by the wood industry to improve the uptake of wood preservatives and environmentally benign wood modification substances to enhance the use and sustainability of native conifer wood species. To understand and apply this process requires an understanding of how a complex system (fungus-wood) interacts under defined conditions. We present a three-dimensional fungal growth model (FGM) of the hyphal growth of P. vitreus in the heartwood of Norway spruce. The model considers hyphae and nutrients as discrete structures and links the microscopic interactions between fungus and wood (e.g. degradation rate and degree of opening of pits) with macroscopic system properties, such penetration depth of the fungus, biomass and distribution of destroyed pits in early- and latewood. Simulations were compared with experimental data. The growth...

Fuhr, M J; Schwarze, F W M R; Herrmann, H J

2011-01-01

117

Study of cobalt distribution in fungus Trichoderma viride using 60Co as radioindicator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uptake and distribution of cobalt by filamentous fungus Trichoderma viride has been studied. By means of 60Co the cobalt concentrations in conidia and mycelium were determined. (author) 5 refs.; 1 fig

118

Extra- and Intracellular Laccases of the Chestnut Blight Fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica  

OpenAIRE

A double-stranded RNA virus of the chestnut blight pathogen, Cryphonectria parasitica, has been shown previously to reduce accumulation of mRNAs of extracellular laccase (laccase A) produced by this fungus. Both extra- and intracellular laccases have been detected after growth of the fungus in liquid culture. In addition to cellular localization, the two laccases are distinguishable by time of appearance during growth and electrophoretic mobility. Laccase A was purified from the culture filtr...

Rigling, Daniel; Alfen, Neal K.

1993-01-01

119

Phenolic profile and antioxidative properties of the beefsteak fungus Fistulina hepatica  

OpenAIRE

The phenolic composition of the edible beefsteak fungus Fistulina hepatica was determined by HPLC/DAD. The results showed a profile composed by caffeic, p-coumaric and ellagic acids, hyperoside and quercetin. Ellagic acid was the main compound in this species. Beefsteak fungus was also investigated for its capacity to act as a scavenger of DPPH radical and reactive oxygen species (superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and hypochlorous acid). Good results were obtained against DPPH and superoxi...

Silva, B. M.; Ribeiro, Ba?rbara; Rangel, Joana; Baptista, Paula; Seabra, R. M.

2006-01-01

120

The prediction of protein-protein interaction networks in rice blast fungus  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Protein-protein interaction (PPI) maps are useful tools for investigating the cellular functions of genes. Thus far, large-scale PPI mapping projects have not been implemented for the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea, which is responsible for the most severe rice disease. Inspired by recent advances in PPI prediction, we constructed a PPI map of this important fungus. Results Using a well-recognized interolog approach, we have predicted 11,674 interactions among 3,017 ...

Zhang Ziding; Chen Hao; Zhang Yan; He Fei; Peng You-Liang

2008-01-01

121

Analysis on the Natural Remedies to Cure Dandruff/Skin Disease-causing Fungus - Malassezia furfur.  

OpenAIRE

A comparative study was conducted on the levels of effectiveness, of natural remedies such as cow's urine, lemon, boiled rice water, Neem extract etc. in curing dandruff and inhibiting the growth of the causative fungus Malassezia. Various plating techniques were applied using modified Oil - Potato Dextrose Agar as the nutrient medium for the fungal growth. Cow's urine was found to be more stable and effective in inhibiting the fungus, along with boiled rice-water. Lemon juice was highly effe...

Saneesh Kumar

2013-01-01

122

Identification of New Lactone Derivatives Isolated from Trichoderma sp., An Endophytic Fungus of Brotowali (Tinaspora crispa)  

OpenAIRE

Endophytic fungi is a rich source of novel organic compounds with interesting biological activities and a high level of structural diversity. As a part of our systematic search for new bioactive lead structures and specific profiles from endophytic fungi, an endophytic fungus was isolated from roots of brotowali (Tinaspora crispa), an important medicinal plant. Colonial morphological trait and microscopic observation revealed that the endophytic fungus was Trichoderma sp. The pure fungal stra...

Elfita; Munawar; Muharni,; Mastur Adhy Sudrajat

2014-01-01

123

Bioactive secondary metabolites from the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco  

OpenAIRE

This study reports the chemical investigation and cytotoxic activity of the secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco. This plant was collected from the Beni-Mellal Mountain in Morocco and belongs to the Lamiaceae family and is named in Morocco “Salmia”. The endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. was isolated from the tissues of the stem of this plant. The fungal strain was identified by PCR. The crude organic extr...

Ebel R.; Proksch P.; Hakiki A.; Mosaddak M.; Weg, Mu?ller; Ra, Edrada-ebel; Ha, Aly; Debbab A.

2009-01-01

124

Characterization of a Sapstaining Fungus, Ophiostoma floccosum, Isolated from the Sapwood of Pinus thunbergii in Korea  

OpenAIRE

An Ophiostoma fungus was isolated from a stump of Pinus thunbergii in a forest on the West coast of Korea. Microscopic analysis using a light microscope, a stereo microscope, and a scanning electron microscope revealed that it had morphological features of Pesotum and Sporothix synanarmorphs. Based on the ?-tubulin gene sequence analysis, the fungus was identified as the anamorph of Ophiostoma floccosum. Mycological properties of the species including its growth properties on different cultu...

Yun, Yeo Hong; Hyun, Min Woo; Suh, Dong Yeon; Kim, Seong Hwan

2009-01-01

125

An NADPH-dependent genetic switch regulates plant infection by the rice blast fungus  

OpenAIRE

To cause rice blast disease, the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae breaches the tough outer cuticle of the rice leaf by using specialized infection structures called appressoria. These cells allow the fungus to invade the host plant and proliferate rapidly within leaf tissue. Here, we show that a unique NADPH-dependent genetic switch regulates plant infection in response to the changing nutritional and redox conditions encountered by the pathogen. The biosynthetic enzyme trehalose-6-phosphate synthas...

Wilson, Richard A.; Gibson, Robert P.; Quispe, Cristian F.; Littlechild, Jennifer A.; Talbot, Nicholas J.

2010-01-01

126

Antifungal activity of metabolites of the endophytic fungus Trichoderma brevicompactum from garlic  

OpenAIRE

The endophytic fungus strain 0248, isolated from garlic, was identified as Trichoderma brevicompactum based on morphological characteristics and the nucleotide sequences of ITS1-5.8S- ITS2 and tef1. The bioactive compound T2 was isolated from the culture extracts of this fungus by bioactivity-guided fractionation and identified as 4?-acetoxy-12,13- epoxy-?9-trichothecene (trichodermin) by spectral analysis and mass spectrometry. Trichodermin has a marked inhibitory activity on Rhizoctonia s...

Shentu, Xuping; Zhan, Xiaohuan; Ma, Zheng; Yu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Chuanxi

2014-01-01

127

Metabolism and Cometabolism of Cyclic Ethers by a Filamentous Fungus, a Graphium sp.?  

OpenAIRE

The filamentous fungus Graphium sp. (ATCC 58400) grows on gaseous n-alkanes and diethyl ether. n-Alkane-grown mycelia of this strain also cometabolically oxidize the gasoline oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). In this study, we characterized the ability of this fungus to metabolize and cometabolize a range of cyclic ethers, including tetrahydrofuran (THF) and 1,4-dioxane (14D). This strain grew on THF and other cyclic ethers, including tetrahydropyran and hexamethylene oxide. However, ...

Skinner, Kristin; Cuiffetti, Lynda; Hyman, Michael

2009-01-01

128

Investigation of the Effect of Heating, Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza and Thermophilic Fungus on Cotton Wilt Disease  

OpenAIRE

In this study, combinations of spores of a thermophilic fungus (Talaromyces flavus), Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM) and microsclerotia of Verticillium dahliae under various temperature treatment (31-38°C) in triplicate trial, were investigated and results were compared with those of non-treated controls. Five cotton seeds were planted in each pot containing 3 kg of pasteurized soil. In each pot, combinations of 4x103 VAM spores, 2.5x10 9 spores of thermophilic fungus (T. flavus ) and ...

Naraghi, L.; Zareh-maivan, H.; Heydari, A.; Afshari-azad, H.

2007-01-01

129

There Is No Structural Relationship between Nasal Septal Deviation, Concha Bullosa, and Paranasal Sinus Fungus Balls  

OpenAIRE

This study aims to determine the relationship between nasal septal deviation, concha bullosa, and chronic rhinosinusitis by using a definitive pathological and simplified model. Fifty-two consecutive sinus computed tomography scans were performed on patients who received endoscopic sinus surgery and whose final diagnosis was paranasal sinus fungus balls. The incidences of nasal septal deviation and concha bullosa for patients diagnosed with paranasal sinus fungus balls among the study group w...

Tsai, Tung-lung; Lan, Ming-ying; Ho, Ching-yin

2012-01-01

130

Major Transcriptome Reprogramming Underlies Floral Mimicry Induced by the Rust Fungus Puccinia monoica in Boechera stricta  

OpenAIRE

Pucciniamonoica is a spectacular plant parasitic rust fungus that triggers the formation of flower-like structures (pseudoflowers) in its Brassicaceae host plant Boecherastricta. Pseudoflowers mimic in shape, color, nectar and scent co-occurring and unrelated flowers such as buttercups. They act to attract insects thereby aiding spore dispersal and sexual reproduction of the rust fungus. Although much ecological research has been performed on P. monoica-induced pseudoflowers, this system has ...

Cano, Liliana M.; Raffaele, Sylvain; Haugen, Riston H.; Saunders, Diane G. O.; Leonelli, Lauriebeth; Maclean, Dan; Hogenhout, Saskia A.; Kamoun, Sophien

2013-01-01

131

Metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into bacterial communities in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens  

OpenAIRE

Herbivores gain access to nutrients stored in plant biomass largely by harnessing the metabolic activities of microbes. Leaf-cutter ants of the genus Atta are a hallmark example; these dominant neotropical herbivores cultivate symbiotic fungus gardens on large quantities of fresh plant forage. As the external digestive system of the ants, fungus gardens facilitate the production and sustenance of millions of workers. Using metagenomic and metaproteomic techniques, we characterize the bacteria...

Aylward, Frank O.; Burnum, Kristin E.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Suen, Garret; Tringe, Susannah G.; Adams, Sandra M.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Starrett, Gabriel J.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Currie, Cameron R.

2012-01-01

132

Control of Root-Knot Nematodes on Tomato by the Endoparasitic Fungus Meria coniospora  

OpenAIRE

The endoparasitic nematophagous fungus Meria coniospora reduced root-knot nematode galling on tomatoes in greenhouse pot trials. The fungus was introduced to pots by addition of conidia at several inoculum levels directly to the soil or addition of nematodes infected with M. coniospora to the soil; both methods reduced root galling by root-knot nematodes. These studies represent a part of a recently initiated effort to evaluate the potential of endoparasitic nematophagous fungi for biocontrol...

Jansson, Hans-bo?rje; Jeyaprakash, A.; Zuckerman, Bert M.

1985-01-01

133

Virus infection decreases the attractiveness of white clover plants for a non-vectoring herbivore  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Plant pathogens and insect herbivores are prone to share hosts under natural conditions. Consequently, pathogen-induced changes in the host plant can affect herbivory, and vice versa. Even though plant viruses are ubiquitous in the field, little is known about plant-mediated interactions between viruses and non-vectoring herbivores. We investigated the effects of virus infection on subsequent infestation by a non-vectoring herbivore in a natural genotype of Trifolium repens (white clover). We tested whether infection with White clover mosaic virus (WClMV) alters (1) the effects of fungus gnat feeding on plant growth, (2) the attractiveness of white clover for adult fungus gnat females, and (3) the volatile emission of white clover plants. We observed only marginal effects of WClMV infection on the interaction between fungus gnat larvae and white clover. However, adult fungus gnat females clearly preferred non-infected over WClMV-infected plants. Non-infected and virus-infected plants could easily be discriminated based on their volatile blends, suggesting that the preference of fungus gnats for non-infected plants may be mediated by virus-induced changes in volatile emissions. The compound beta-caryophyllene was exclusively detected in the headspace of virus-infected plants and may hence be particularly important for the preference of fungus gnat females. Our results demonstrate that WClMV infection can decrease the attractiveness of white clover plants for fungus gnat females. This suggests that virus infections may contribute to protecting their hosts by decreasing herbivore infestation rates. Consequently, it is conceivable that viruses play a more beneficial role in plant-herbivore interactions than generally thought.

van Mölken, Tamara; Caluwe, Hannie de

2012-01-01

134

Fungal garden making inside bamboos by a non-social fungus-growing beetle.  

Science.gov (United States)

In fungus-growing mutualism, it is indispensable for host animals to establish gardens of the symbiotic fungus as rapidly as possible. How to establish fungal gardens has been well-documented in social fungus-farming insects, whereas poorly documented in non-social fungus-farming insects. Here we report that the non-social, fungus-growing lizard beetle Doubledaya bucculenta (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Languriinae) transmits the symbiotic yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus from the ovipositor-associated mycangium into bamboo internode cavities and disperses the yeast in the cavities to make gardens. Microbial isolation and cryo-scanning electron microscopy observation revealed that W. anomalus was constantly located on the posterior ends of eggs, where larvae came out, and on the inner openings of oviposition holes. Direct observation of oviposition behavior inside internodes revealed that the distal parts of ovipositors showed a peristaltic movement when they were in contact with the posterior ends of eggs. Rearing experiments showed that W. anomalus was spread much more rapidly and widely on culture media and internodes in the presence of the larvae than in the absence. These results suggest that the ovipositors play a critical role in vertical transmission of W. anomalus and that the larvae contribute actively to the garden establishment, providing a novel case of fungal garden founding in non-social insect-fungus mutualism. PMID:24223958

Toki, Wataru; Takahashi, Yukiko; Togashi, Katsumi

2013-01-01

135

Carbon utilization profile of a thermophilic fungus, Thermomyces lanuginosus using phenotypic microarray  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The thermophilic filamentous fungus, Thermomyces lanuginosus produces the largest amount of xylanase reported. In addition to this, it expresses large amount of other enzymes that have been used industrially or have academic interest. Thus, this fungus has a potential to be applied for biomass conversion to produce biofuel or other applications. In this study, the Biolog system was used to characterize the utilisation and growth of T. lanuginosus on 95 carbon sources. The carbohydrates based compounds, both single sugars and oligosaccharide, showed the best utilisation profile, with the pentose sugar xylose inducing the highest growth, followed by trehelose, raffinose, D-mannose turanose fructose and glucose. Among oligosaccharides, sucrose had the highest mycelium formation followed by stachyose, maltose, maltotriose, glycogen and dextrin. Interestingly the fungus also grew well on cellobiose suggesting that this fungus can produce cellulose hydrolysing proteins. D-alanine was the best amino acid to promote fungal growth while the effect of other amino acids tested was similar to the control. These results demonstrate the ability of this fungus to grow relatively well on most plant based compounds thus making this fungus a possible candidate for plant biomass conversion which can be applied to a number of biotechnological applications including biofuel production.

Nokuthula Peace Mchunu

2013-09-01

136

The fungus gardens of leaf-cutter ants undergo a distinct physiological transition during biomass degradation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Leaf-cutter ants are dominant herbivores in ecosystems throughout the Neotropics. Rather than directly consuming the fresh foliar biomass they harvest, these ants use it to cultivate specialized fungus gardens. Although recent investigations have shed light on how plant biomass is degraded in fungus gardens, the cycling of nutrients that takes place in these specialized microbial ecosystems is still not well understood. Here, using metametabolomics and metaproteomics techniques, we examine the dynamics of nutrient turnover and biosynthesis in these gardens. Our results reveal that numerous free amino acids and sugars are depleted throughout the process of biomass degradation, indicating that easily accessible nutrients from plant material are readily consumed by microbes in these ecosystems. Accumulation of cellobiose and lignin derivatives near the end of the degradation process is consistent with previous findings of cellulases and laccases produced by Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the fungus cultivated by leaf-cutter ants. Our results also suggest that ureides may be an important source of nitrogen in fungus gardens, especially during nitrogen-limiting conditions. No free arginine was detected in our metametabolomics experiments despite evidence that the host ants cannot produce this amino acid, suggesting that biosynthesis of this metabolite may be tightly regulated in the fungus garden. These results provide new insights into the dynamics of nutrient cycling that underlie this important ant-fungus symbiosis.

Huang, Eric L.; Aylward, Frank O.; Kim, Young-Mo; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Hu, Zeping; Metz, Thomas O.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.; Currie, Cameron R.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.

2014-08-01

137

Microalgae harvesting via co-culture with filamentous fungus  

Science.gov (United States)

Microalgae harvesting is a labor- and energy-intensive process. For instance, classical harvesting technologies such as chemical addition and mechanical separation are economically prohibiting for biofuel production. Newer approaches to harvest microalgae have been developed in order to decrease costs. Among these new methods, fungal co-pelletization seems to be a promising technology. By co-culturing filamentous fungi with microalgae, it is possible to form pellets, which can easily be separated. In this study, different parameters for the cultivation of filamentous fungus (Aspergillus niger) and microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) to efficiently form cell pellets were evaluated under heterotrophic and phototrophic conditions, including organic carbon source (glucose, glycerol and sodium acetate) concentration, pH, initial concentration of fungal spores, initial concentration of microalgal cells, concentration of ionic strength (Calcium and Magnesium) and concentration of salinity (NaCl). In addition, zeta-potential measurements were carried out in order to get a better understanding of the mechanism of attraction. It was found that 2 g/L of glucose, a fungus to microalgae ratio of 1:300, and uncontrolled pH (around 7) are the best culturing conditions for co-pelletization. Under these conditions, it was possible to achieve a high harvesting performance (>90%). In addition, it was observed that most pellets formed in the co-culture were spherical with an average diameter of 3.5 mm and in concentrations of about 5 pellets per mL of culture media. Under phototrophic conditions, co-pelletization required the addition of glucose as organic carbon source to sustain the growth of fungi and to allow the harvesting of microalgae. Zeta-potential measurements indicated that (i) both microalgae and fungi have low zeta-potential values regardless of the pH on the bulk (i.e. <-10 mV) (ii) fungi can have a positive electric charge at low pH (ie. pH=3). These values suggest that it might be possible that the degree of repulsion and dispersion between these organisms is low which facilitates the attraction between them.

Gultom, Sarman Oktovianus

138

Secondary metabolites of the sponge-derived fungus Acremonium persicinum.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports the isolation and characterization of six new acremine metabolites, 5-chloroacremine A (4), 5-chloroacremine H (5), and acremines O (6), P (7), Q (8), and R (9), together with the known acremines A (1), F (2), and N (3) from the fungus Acremonium persicinum cultured from the marine sponge Anomoianthella rubra. The relative configuration of acremine F (2) was determined by analyses of proton coupling constant values and NOESY data, and the absolute configuration confirmed as (1S, 4S, 6R) by X-ray crystallographic analysis of the borate ester derivative 15. Acremines O, P, and R were each shown to be of 8R configuration by ¹H NMR analyses of MPA esters. The relative configurations suggested for acremines P and Q were each deduced by molecular modeling together with NOESY and coupling constant data. The ³J(H-C) values in acremine P were measured using the pulse sequence EXSIDE, and the observed ³J(H8-C4) of 5.4 Hz and small ³J(H-C) values (<1.5 Hz) from H-8 to C-10 and C-11 were fully consistent with stereoisomer 7a. For acremine Q, NOESY data combined with molecular modeling established the preferred diastereomer 8a. PMID:23883432

Suciati; Fraser, James A; Lambert, Lynette K; Pierens, Gregory K; Bernhardt, Paul V; Garson, Mary J

2013-08-23

139

Characterization of Transposable Elements in the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Laccaria bicolor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background: The publicly available Laccaria bicolor genome sequence has provided a considerable genomic resource allowing systematic identification of transposable elements (TEs) in this symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungus. Using a TEspecific annotation pipeline we have characterized and analyzed TEs in the L. bicolor S238N-H82 genome. Methodology/Principal Findings: TEs occupy 24% of the 60 Mb L. bicolor genome and represent 25,787 full-length and partial copy elements distributed within 171 families. The most abundant elements were the Copia-like. TEs are not randomly distributed across the genome, but are tightly nested or clustered. The majority of TEs exhibits signs of ancient transposition except some intact copies of terminal inverted repeats (TIRS), long terminal repeats (LTRs) and a large retrotransposon derivative (LARD) element. There were three main periods of TE expansion in L. bicolor: the first from 57 to 10 Mya, the second from 5 to 1 Mya and the most recent from 0.5 Mya ago until now. LTR retrotransposons are closely related to retrotransposons found in another basidiomycete, Coprinopsis cinerea. Conclusions: This analysis 1) represents an initial characterization of TEs in the L. bicolor genome, 2) contributes to improve genome annotation and a greater understanding of the role TEs played in genome organization and evolution and 3) provides a valuable resource for future research on the genome evolution within the Laccaria genus.

Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL; Murat, Claude [INRA, Nancy, France; Morin, Emmanuelle [INRA, Nancy, France; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Le Tacon, F [UMR, France; Martin, Francis [INRA, Nancy, France

2012-01-01

140

Bioactive spirobisnaphthalenes from the endophytic fungus Berkleasmium sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nine new spirobisnaphthalenes, palmarumycins B1-B9 (1-9), along with 13 known compounds (10-22), were isolated from cultures of the fungus Berkleasmium sp., an endophyte isolated from the medicinal plant Dioscorea zingiberensis C. H. Wright. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by analysis of the 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS spectra and by comparison with known compounds. Compounds 7-9 contain an uncommon 2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one unit. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activities against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus hemolyticus, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Pseudomonas lachrymans, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Xanthomonas vesicatoria and for their antifungal effects against the spore germination of Magnaporthe oryzae. Palmarumycin C8 (22) exhibited the best antibacterial and antifungal effects. In addition, diepoxin ? (11) and palmarumycin C8 (22) showed pronounced cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines (HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A 549, A 2780) with IC50 values of 1.28-5.83 ?M. PMID:25237727

Shan, Tijiang; Tian, Jin; Wang, Xiaohan; Mou, Yan; Mao, Ziling; Lai, Daowan; Dai, Jungui; Peng, Youliang; Zhou, Ligang; Wang, Mingan

2014-10-24

141

Characterization of the pitch canker fungus, Fusarium circinatum, from Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Fusarium circinatum is the causal agent of the pine disease commonly referred to as pitch canker. During 2001, a Fusarium species was isolated from dying Pinus radiata clonal hedges in various forestry nurseries in Chile and was subsequently identified as F. circinatum. The aim of the study reported [...] here was to provide a detailed characterization of Chilean isolates of the fungus. Morphological characters included microconidia carried on false heads and produced on polyphialides. Sterile coils and conidiophores on erect aerial mycelium were evident on synthetic, low nutrient agar. Furthermore, perithecia exuding viable ascospores were produced when isolates were crossed in all possible combinations with the mating tester strains representing the H mating population of Gibberella fujikuroi species complex. PCR-RFLP analysis of the histone H3 gene region, routinely used to distinguish between members of the G. fujikuroi complex, further confirmed the identification of the isolates as F. circinatum. DNA sequence data obtained for the same gene region placed the isolates within a well-characterized G. circinata clade. These studies provide unequivocal evidence that the pitch canker pathogen is well established on pines in Chilean nurseries.

A., Jacobs; T.A., Coutinho; M.J., Wingfield; R., Ahumada; B.D., Wingfield.

2007-06-01

142

Effects of ozone on the germination of fungus spores  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Detached spores of 14 fungi varied in germination after exposure on agar to 10 to 100 parts per hundred million (p.p.hm.) ozone for 1 to 6 h. Large pigmented spores of Chaetomium sp., Stemphylium sarcinaeforme, S. loti, and Alternaria sp. were insensitive to 100 p.p.hm. Spores of Trichoderma viride, Aspergillus terreus, A. niger, Penicillium egyptiacum, Botrytis allii, and Rhizopus stolonifer were reduced in germination primarily by 100 and 50 p.p.hm. for the longer exposures. Small hyaline spores of Fusarium oxysporum, Colletotrichum lagenarium, Verticillium albo-atrum, and V. dahliae were the most sensitive, as their germination was prevented or reduced by most exposures to 100 and 50 pphm and occasionally reduced by doses as low as 25 pphm for 4 and 6 h. Ten parts per hundred million for 6 h had little inhibitory effect, but extended exposures up to 28 h reduced germination of A. terreus, A. niger, and P. egyptiacum spores to below 50% of the controls. The lower doses of ozone sometimes stimulated spore germination. Fungus colonies maintained in an ozone atmosphere had abnormal growth characteristics. Ozone had little inhibitory effect on air-dried spores in a liquid medium. 37 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

Hibben, C.R.; Stotzky, G.

1969-01-01

143

Ecological and Evolutionary Determinants of Bark Beetle —Fungus Symbioses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ectosymbioses among bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae and fungi (primarily ophiostomatoid Ascomycetes are widespread and diverse. Associations range from mutualistic to commensal, and from facultative to obligate. Some fungi are highly specific and associated only with a single beetle species, while others can be associated with many. In addition, most of these symbioses are multipartite, with the host beetle associated with two or more consistent partners. Mycangia, structures of the beetle integument that function in fungal transport, have evolved numerous times in the Scolytinae. The evolution of such complex, specialized structures indicates a high degree of mutual dependence among the beetles and their fungal partners. Unfortunately, the processes that shaped current day beetle-fungus symbioses remain poorly understood. Phylogeny, the degree and type of dependence on partners, mode of transmission of symbionts (vertical vs. horizontal, effects of the abiotic environment, and interactions among symbionts themselves or with other members of the biotic community, all play important roles in determining the composition, fidelity, and longevity of associations between beetles and their fungal associates. In this review, I provide an overview of these associations and discuss how evolution and ecological processes acted in concert to shape these fascinating, complex symbioses.

Diana L. Six

2012-03-01

144

Bioremediation of BTEX hydrocarbons: Effect of soil inoculation with the toluenegrowing fungus Cladophialophora sp strain T1  

OpenAIRE

The biodegradation of a mixture of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, (BTEX) and methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was studied in soil microcosms. Soil inoculation with the toluene-metabolising fungusCladophialophora sp. strain T1 was evaluated in sterile and non-sterile soil. Induction of biodegradation capacity following BTEX addition was faster in the soil native microflora than in axenic soil cultures of the fungus. Toluene, ethylbenzenes, and the xylenes were metabolized by the fungus ...

Prenafeta, F. X.; Ballerstedt, H.; Gerritse, J.; Grotenhuis, J. T. C.

2004-01-01

145

Analysis on Blast Fungus-Responsive Characters of a Flavonoid Phytoalexin Sakuranetin; Accumulation in Infected Rice Leaves, Antifungal Activity and Detoxification by Fungus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To understand the role of the rice flavonoid phytoalexin (PA sakuranetin for blast resistance, the fungus-responsive characteristics were studied. Young rice leaves in a resistant line exhibited hypersensitive reaction (HR within 3 days post inoculation (dpi of a spore suspension, and an increase in sakuranetin was detected at 3 dpi, increasing to 4-fold at 4 dpi. In the susceptible line, increased sakuranetin was detected at 4 dpi, but not at 3 dpi, by which a large fungus mass has accumulated without HR. Induced expression of a PA biosynthesis gene OsNOMT for naringenin 7-O-methyltransferase was found before accumulation of sakuranetin in both cultivars. The antifungal activity of sakuranetin was considerably higher than that of the major rice diterpenoid PA momilactone A in vitro and in vivo under similar experimental conditions. The decrease and detoxification of sakuranetin were detected in both solid and liquid mycelium cultures, and they took place slower than those of momilactone A. Estimated local concentration of sakuranetin at HR lesions was thought to be effective for fungus restriction, while that at enlarged lesions in susceptible rice was insufficient. These results indicate possible involvement of sakuranetin in blast resistance and its specific relation to blast fungus.

Morifumi Hasegawa

2014-08-01

146

Fungi of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.-Their Deteriorative Ability, Quality Stability and the Role of the Fungus-Eating Insects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies on the deteriorative ability and quality stability of coconut (Cocos nucifera L. and the effect of the fungus-eating insects (Necrobia rufipes, Alphitobius diaperinus, Crematogaster sp. and Tenebrio molitor were carried out in the Post Graduate Entomology and Plant Pathology Laboratories of the Department of Applied and Environmental Biology and also in Food Science Laboratory of the Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt. Results showed Aspergillus niger van Tieghem, Rhizopus stolonifer Lind and Penicillium italiucum Wehmer as the seed-borne fungi of coconut. Frequency of occurrence was 80% for Aspergillus niger and 100% for both Rhizopus stolonifer and Penicillium italicum. On storage stability, heat drying offered significantly higher protection to coconut copra. Percentage consumption of fungal hyphae by the fungus-eating insects varied with Tenebrio molitor consuming 100% of the three aforementioned fungi. A. diaperinius contributed up to 84.1% reduction of A. niger as against 80.3% reduction by Necrobia rufipes of A. niger, Crematogaster sp. offered the least reduction (64.2%.

E.C. Chuku

2007-01-01

147

Fungi of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.)-Their Deteriorative Ability, Quality Stability and the Role of the Fungus-Eating Insects  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies on the deteriorative ability and quality stability of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) and the effect of the fungus-eating insects (Necrobia rufipes, Alphitobius diaperinus, Crematogaster sp. and Tenebrio molitor) were carried out in the Post Graduate Entomology and Plant Pathology Laboratories of the Department of Applied and Environmental Biology and also in Food Science Laboratory of the Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt. Results showed Aspergillus niger van Tieghem, Rhizopus stolonifer Lind and Penicillium italiucum Wehmer as the seed-borne fungi of coconut. Frequency of occurrence was 80% for Aspergillus niger and 100% for both Rhizopus stolonifer and Penicillium italicum. On storage stability, heat drying offered significantly higher protection to coconut copra. Percentage consumption of fungal hyphae by the fungus-eating insects varied with Tenebrio molitor consuming 100% of the three aforementioned fungi. A. diaperinius contributed up to 84.1% reduction of A. niger as against 80.3% reduction by Necrobia rufipes of A. niger, Crematogaster sp. offered the least reduction (64.2%).

Chuku, E. C.; Ogbalu, O. K.; Osakwe, J. A.

148

Monitoring of white-rot fungus during bioremediation of polychlorinated dioxin-contaminated fly ash  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bioremediation is a low-cost treatment alternative for the cleanup of polychlorinated-dioxin-contaminated soils and fly ash when pollution spread is wide-ranging. An interesting fungus, Ceriporia sp. MZ-340, with a high ability to degrade dioxin, was isolated from white rotten wood of a broadleaf tree from Kyushu Island in Japan. We have attempted to use the fungus for bioremediation of polychlorinated-dioxin-contaminated soil on site. However, we have to consider that this trial has the potential problem of introducing a biohazard to a natural ecosystem if this organism is naturalized. We have therefore developed a monitoring system for the introduced fungus as a part of the examination and evaluation of bioremediation in our laboratory. We have also developed a PCR-based assay to reliably detect the fungus at the bioremediation site. DNA isolated from the site was amplified by PCR using a specific primer derived from internal transcribed spacer region (ITS: ITS1, 5.8S rDNA and ITS2) sequences of ceriporia sp. MZ-340. We successfully monitored Ceriporia sp. MZ-340 down to 100 fg/{mu}l DNA and down to 2 mg/g mycelium. We also successfully monitored the fungus specifically at the bioremediation site. The polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran content was observed to decrease in response to treatment with the fungus. The species-specific PCR technique developed in the present work is useful in evaluating the possibility of on-site bioremediation using the fungus Ceriporia sp. MZ-340. (orig.)

Suhara, H.; Daikoku, C.; Kondo, R. [Lab. of Systematic Forest and Forest Products Sciences, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Takata, H. [Dept. of Geriatric Research, National Inst. for Longevity Sciences, Aichi (Japan); Suzuki, S.; Matsufuji, Y. [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Fukuoka Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Sakai, K. [Lab. of Forest Chemistry and Biochemistry, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

2003-07-01

149

Exploring the potential for actinobacteria as defensive symbionts in fungus-growing termites  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play a role as defensive symbionts against Pseudoxylaria in fungus-growing termites. We sampled for Actinobacteria from 30 fungus-growing termite colonies, spanning the three main termite genera and two geographically distant sites. Our isolations yielded 360 Actinobacteria, from which we selected subsets for morphological (288 isolates, grouped in 44 morphotypes) and for 16S rRNA (35 isolates, spanning the majority of morphotypes) characterisation. Actinobacteria were found throughout all sampled nests and colony parts and, phylogenetically, they are interspersed with Actinobacteria from origins other than fungus-growing termites, indicating lack of specificity. Antibiotic-activity screening of 288 isolates against thefungal cultivar and competitor revealed that most of the Actinobacteria-produced molecules with antifungal activity. A more detailed bioassay on 53 isolates, to test the specificity of antibiotics, showed that many Actinobacteria inhibit both Pseudoxylaria and Termitomyces, and that the cultivar fungus generally is more susceptible to inhibition than the competitor. This suggests that either defensive symbionts are not present in the system or that they, if present, represent a subset of the community isolated. If so, the antibiotics must be used in a targeted fashion, being applied to specific areas by the termites. We describe the first discovery of an assembly of antibiotic-producing Actinobacteria occurring in fungus-growing termite nests. However, due to the diversity found, and the lack of both phylogenetic and bioactivity Electronic supplementary material

Visser, Anna A.; Nobre, Tânia

2012-01-01

150

Distribution pattern and maintenance of ectomycorrhizal fungus diversity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ectomycorrhiza (ECM are symbionts formed between soil fungi and plant root systems, in which the fungus exchanges soil-derived nutrients for carbohydrates obtained from the host plant. As an important component of terrestrial ecosystems, ECM fungi can play an essential role in biodiversity maintenance and plant community succession. Understanding the distribution pattern and maintenance of ECM fungal diversity is therefore critical to the study of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. An analysis of results of recent research indicates that ECM fungal diversity increases with increasing latitude, i.e. from tropical to subtropical and temperate regions. The role of dispersal in ECM fungal distribution is dependent on spatial scale. Thus, it has been found to be weak across global and local scales, but strong at regional and small scales. At the local scale, its influence has also been shown to be host-dominant dependent; thus, it is important in host non-dominant ecosystems, but not in host dominant ecosystems. Selection by plant, animal, microbe and abiotic factors can also affect the distribution pattern of ECM fungi, according to studies of temperate ecosystems. In contrast, studies of tropical ecosystems indicate that selection on ECM fungal distribution can be either strong or weak. ECM fungal diversity is also influenced by plant diversity and productivity. The plant diversity hypothesis at host genus-level fits well with ECM fungal diversity in temperate, subtropical and tropical forest ecosystems; in contrast, the productivity diversity hypothesis is only supported by some studies in temperate forest ecosystems. We propose that future studies should focus on the distribution pattern, maintenance mechanism and ecosystem function of ECM fungal diversity at a global scale, taking account ofscenarios of global climate change.

Cheng Gao

2013-07-01

151

Pathogenic fungus Microsporum canis activates the NLRP3 inflammasome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microsporum canis is a pathogenic fungus with worldwide distribution that causes tinea capitis in animals and humans. M. canis also causes invasive infection in immunocompromised patients. To defy pathogenic fungal infection, the host innate immune system is the first line of defense. As an important arm of innate immunity, the inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes that control the activation of caspase-1, which cleaves proinflammatory cytokine pro-interleukin-1? (IL-1?) into its mature form. To determine whether the inflammasome is involved in the host defense against M. canis infection, we challenged human monocytic THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells with a clinical strain of M. canis isolated from patients with tinea capitis. We found that M. canis infection triggered rapid secretion of IL-1? from both THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells. Moreover, by using gene-specific shRNA and competitive inhibitors, we determined that M. canis-induced IL-1? secretion was dependent on NLRP3. The pathways proposed for NLRP3 inflammasome activation, namely, cathepsin B activity, K(+) efflux, and reactive oxygen species production, were all required for the inflammasome activation triggered by M. canis. Meanwhile, Syk, Dectin-1, and Card9 were found to be involved in M. canis-induced IL-1? secretion via regulation of pro-IL-1? transcription. More importantly, our data revealed that M. canis-induced production of IL-1? was dependent on the NLRP3 inflammasome in vivo. Together, this study unveils that the NLRP3 inflammasome exerts a critical role in host innate immune responses against M. canis infection, and our data suggest that diseases that result from M. canis infection might be controlled by regulating the activation of inflammasomes. PMID:24478101

Mao, Liming; Zhang, Liping; Li, Hua; Chen, Wei; Wang, Hongbin; Wu, Shuxian; Guo, Caiqin; Lu, Ailing; Yang, Guiwen; An, Liguo; Abliz, Paride; Meng, Guangxun

2014-02-01

152

Extraction of DNA from plant and fungus tissues in situ  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background When samples are collected in the field and transported to the lab, degradation of the nucleic acids contained in the samples is frequently observed. Immediate extraction and precipitation of the nucleic acids reduces degradation to a minimum, thus preserving accurate sequence information. An extraction method to obtain high quality DNA in field studies is described. Findings DNA extracted immediately after sampling was compared to DNA extracted after allowing the sampled tissues to air dry at 21°C for 48 or 72 hours. While DNA extracted from fresh tissues exhibited little degradation, DNA extracted from all tissues exposed to 21°C air for 48 or 72 hours exhibited varying degrees of degradation. Yield was higher for extractions from fresh tissues in most cases. Four microcentrifuges were compared for DNA yield: one standard electric laboratory microcentrifuge (max rcf?=?16,000×g, two battery-operated microcentrifuges (max rcf?=?5,000 and 3,000 ×g, and one manually-operated microcentrifuge (max rcf?=?120×g. Yields for all centrifuges were similar. DNA extracted under simulated field conditions was similar in yield and quality to DNA extracted in the laboratory using the same equipment. Conclusions This CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide DNA extraction method employs battery-operated and manually-operated equipment to isolate high quality DNA in the field. The method was tested on plant and fungus tissues, and may be adapted for other types of organisms. The method produced high quality DNA in laboratory tests and under simulated field conditions. The field extraction method should prove useful for working in remote sites, where ice, dry ice, and liquid nitrogen are unavailable; where degradation is likely to occur due to the long distances between the sample site and the laboratory; and in instances where other DNA preservation and transportation methods have been unsuccessful. It may be possible to adapt this method for genomic, metagenomic, transcriptomic and metabolomic projects using samples collected in situ.

Abu Almakarem Amal S

2012-06-01

153

Co-evolution of enzyme function in the attine ant-fungus symbiosis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Introduction: Fungus-growing ants cultivate specialized fungi in the tribe Leucocoprineae (Lepiotaceae: Basidiomycota) inside their nests. The conspicuous leaf-cutting ants in the genus Atta build huge nests displacing several cubic meters of soil, whereas lower attine genera such as Cyphomyrmex have small nests with a fungus garden the size of a table-tennis ball. Only the leaf-cutting ants are specialized on using fresh leaves as substrate for their fungus gardens, whereas the more basal attine genera use substrates such as dry plant material (leaf litter and small twigs) and also insect feces and insect carcasses. This diverse array of fungal substrates across the attine lineage implies that the symbiotic fungus needs different enzymes to break down the plant material that the ants provide or different efficiencies of enzyme function. Methods: (1.) We made a literature survey of substrate use in all extant fungus-growing ant genera to know the range of substrates used for any particular ant genus. (2.) Field assays of enzyme activity in fungus gardens of five candidate enzymes (Amylase, proteinase, pectinase, cellulose and xylanase) to indicate differences in enzyme activity between ant groups. (3.) Phylogenetic comparison and divergence estimates of nuclear ribosomal sequences and sequences coding for candidate enzyme genes (work in progress). Results: Enzyme activity assays showed significant differences in enzyme activity across major fungus-growing ant groups. Notably the fresh leaf feeding species had a higher activity of amylase. The group of higher attines had a higher activity of proteinase and pectinase. In contrast the lower genera had a non-significant trend towards a higher activity of xylanase compared to the higher attine genera. Cellulase activity was uniform across all tested genera. Discussion: In this study we document that there are differences in fungus garden enzyme activity between the different ant genera. These different enzyme activity profiles can be partially explained by the difference in substrates brought back by the ants to manure the fungus garden. This system can be viewed as ant induced crop optimization similar to human agricultural practices.

de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; SchiØtt, Morten

154

Combining microtomy and confocal laser scanning microscopy for structural analyses of plant-fungus associations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The serious problem of extended tissue thickness in the analysis of plant-fungus associations was overcome using a new method that combines physical and optical sectioning of the resin-embedded sample by microtomy and confocal microscopy. Improved tissue infiltration of the fungal-specific, high molecular weight fluorescent probe wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 633 resulted in high fungus-specific fluorescence even in deeper tissue sections. If autofluorescence was insufficient, additional counterstaining with Calcofluor White M2R or propidium iodide was applied in order to visualise the host plant tissues. Alternatively, the non-specific fluorochrome acid fuchsine was used for rapid staining of both, the plant and the fungal cells. The intricate spatial arrangements of the plant and fungal cells were preserved by immobilization in the hydrophilic resin Unicryl™. Microtomy was used to section the resin-embedded roots or leaves until the desired plane was reached. The data sets generated by confocal laser scanning microscopy of the remaining resin stubs allowed the precise spatial reconstruction of complex structures in the plant-fungus associations of interest. This approach was successfully tested on tissues from ectomycorrhiza (Betula pendula), arbuscular mycorrhiza (Galium aparine; Polygala paniculata, Polygala rupestris), ericoid mycorrhiza (Calluna vulgaris), orchid mycorrhiza (Limodorum abortivum, Serapias parviflora) and on one leaf-fungus association (Zymoseptoria tritici on Triticum aestivum). The method provides an efficient visualisation protocol applicable with a wide range of plant-fungus symbioses. PMID:24249491

Rath, Magnus; Grolig, Franz; Haueisen, Janine; Imhof, Stephan

2014-05-01

155

Metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into bacterial communities in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Herbivores gain access to nutrients stored in plant biomass largely by harnessing the metabolic activities of microbes. Leaf-cutter ants of the genus Atta are a hallmark example; these dominant Neotropical herbivores cultivate symbiotic fungus gardens on massive quantities of fresh plant forage. As the external digestive system of the ants, fungus gardens facilitate the production and sustenance of millions of workers in mature Atta colonies. Here we use metagenomic, and metaproteomic techniques to characterize the bacterial diversity and overall physiological potential of fungus gardens from two species of Atta. Our analysis of over 1.2 Gbp of community metagenomic sequence and three 16S pyrotag libraries reveals that, in addition to harboring the dominant fungal crop, these ecosystems contain abundant populations of Enterobacteriaceae, including the genera Enterobacter, Pantoea, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, and Escherichia. We show that these bacterial communities possess genes commonly associated with lignocellulose degradation, and likely participate in the processing of plant biomass. Additionally, we demonstrate that bacteria in these environments encode a diverse suite of biosynthetic pathways, and that they may enrich the nitrogen-poor forage of the ants with B-vitamins, amino acids, and proteins. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fungus gardens are highly-specialized fungus-bacteria communities that efficiently convert plant material into usable energy for their ant hosts. Together with recent investigations into the microbial symbionts of vertebrates, our work underscores the importance of microbial communities to the ecology and evolution of herbivorous metazoans.

Aylward, Frank O.; Burnum, Kristin E.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Suen, Garret; Tringe, Susannah G.; Adams, Sandra M.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Starrett, Gabriel J.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Currie, Cameron R.

2012-09-01

156

The dynamics of plant cell-wall polysaccharide decomposition in leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The degradation of live plant biomass in fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants is poorly characterised but fundamental for understanding the mutual advantages and efficiency of this obligate nutritional symbiosis. Controversies about the extent to which the garden-symbiont Leucocoprinus gongylophorus degrades cellulose have hampered our understanding of the selection forces that induced large scale herbivory and of the ensuing ecological footprint of these ants. Here we use a recently established technique, based on polysaccharide microarrays probed with antibodies and carbohydrate binding modules, to map the occurrence of cell wall polymers in consecutive sections of the fungus garden of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior. We show that pectin, xyloglucan and some xylan epitopes are degraded, whereas more highly substituted xylan and cellulose epitopes remain as residuals in the waste material that the ants remove from their fungus garden. These results demonstrate that biomass entering leaf-cutting antfungus gardens is only partially utilized and explain why disproportionally large amounts of plant material are needed to sustain colony growth. They also explain why substantial communities of microbial and invertebrate symbionts have evolved associations with the dump material from leaf-cutting ant nests, to exploit decomposition niches that the ant garden-fungus does not utilize. Our approach thus provides detailed insight into the nutritional benefits and shortcomings associated with fungus-farming in ants.

Moller, Isabel Eva; de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard

2011-01-01

157

Metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into bacterial communities in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herbivores gain access to nutrients stored in plant biomass largely by harnessing the metabolic activities of microbes. Leaf-cutter ants of the genus Atta are a hallmark example; these dominant neotropical herbivores cultivate symbiotic fungus gardens on large quantities of fresh plant forage. As the external digestive system of the ants, fungus gardens facilitate the production and sustenance of millions of workers. Using metagenomic and metaproteomic techniques, we characterize the bacterial diversity and physiological potential of fungus gardens from two species of Atta. Our analysis of over 1.2?Gbp of community metagenomic sequence and three 16S pyrotag libraries reveals that in addition to harboring the dominant fungal crop, these ecosystems contain abundant populations of Enterobacteriaceae, including the genera Enterobacter, Pantoea, Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Escherichia. We show that these bacterial communities possess genes associated with lignocellulose degradation and diverse biosynthetic pathways, suggesting that they play a role in nutrient cycling by converting the nitrogen-poor forage of the ants into B-vitamins, amino acids and other cellular components. Our metaproteomic analysis confirms that bacterial glycosyl hydrolases and proteins with putative biosynthetic functions are produced in both field-collected and laboratory-reared colonies. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fungus gardens are specialized fungus-bacteria communities that convert plant material into energy for their ant hosts. Together with recent investigations into the microbial symbionts of vertebrates, our work underscores the importance of microbial communities in the ecology and evolution of herbivorous metazoans. PMID:22378535

Aylward, Frank O; Burnum, Kristin E; Scott, Jarrod J; Suen, Garret; Tringe, Susannah G; Adams, Sandra M; Barry, Kerrie W; Nicora, Carrie D; Piehowski, Paul D; Purvine, Samuel O; Starrett, Gabriel J; Goodwin, Lynne A; Smith, Richard D; Lipton, Mary S; Currie, Cameron R

2012-09-01

158

The fungus gardens of leaf-cutter ants undergo a distinct physiological transition during biomass degradation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leaf-cutter ants are dominant herbivores in ecosystems throughout the Neotropics that feed on fungus gardens cultivated on fresh foliar biomass. Although recent investigations have shed light on how plant biomass is degraded in fungus gardens, the cycling of nutrients that takes place in these specialized microbial ecosystems is still not well understood. Here, using metabolomic and metaproteomic techniques, we examine the dynamics of nutrient turnover in these gardens. Our results reveal that numerous free amino acids and sugars are depleted throughout the process of biomass degradation, indicating that easily accessible nutrients from plant material are readily consumed by microbes in these ecosystems. Accumulation of cellobiose and lignin derivatives near the end of the degradation process is consistent with previous characterization of lignocellulases produced by the fungal cultivar of the ants. Our results also suggest that ureides may be an important source of nitrogen in fungus gardens, especially during nitrogen-limiting conditions. No free arginine was detected in our metabolomic experiments despite evidence that the host ants cannot produce this amino acid, suggesting that biosynthesis of this metabolite may be tightly regulated in fungus gardens. These results provide new insights into microbial community-level processes that underlie this important ant-fungus symbiosis. PMID:24992538

Huang, Eric L; Aylward, Frank O; Kim, Young-Mo; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M; Nicora, Carrie D; Hu, Zeping; Metz, Thomas O; Lipton, Mary S; Smith, Richard D; Currie, Cameron R; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E

2014-08-01

159

A Collagenolytic Fungus, Cunninghamella elegans, for Biological Control of Plant-parasitic Nematodes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The root-galling index of tomatoes inoculated with Meloidogyne javanica was decreased 70% when collagen was used as a soil amendment (0.1% w/w) and 90% when the amendment was supplemented with the collagenolytic fungus Cunninghamella elegans. The root-galling index was reduced 80% when the fungus was homogenized in collagen culture medium and added to soil without collagen supplement. Culture filtrates of the fungus C. elegans, grown on collagen as a single source of carbon and nitrogen, immobilized M. javanica second-stage juveniles and inhibited egg hatch. Root galling was reduced when tomato plants were inoculated with filtrate-treated juveniles. Culture filtrates reduced the motility of Rotylenchulus reniformis and Xiphinema index, but they had less effect on Anguina tritici and almost no effect on Ditylenchus dipsaci. Cunninghamella elegans had collagenolytic, elastolytic, keratinolytic, and nonspecific proteolytic activities when grown on collagen media, but only chitinolytic activity when grown on chitin media. PMID:19283126

Galper, S; Cohn, E; Spiegel, Y; Chet, I

1991-07-01

160

ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION AND PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF WHITE ROT FUNGUS AND HETEROLOGOUS EXPRESSION OF GENE ENCODING LACCASE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to isolate wild white rot fungus and characterize the organism with respect to laccase gene. White rot fungus was isolated from decay wood sample and was subjected to Phylogenetic analysis by using basidiomycete-specific ITS primers for identification. mRNA of laccase enzyme was isolated, amplified by RT-PCR with specific forward and reverse primer that targeted the nucleotides present in right and left border of the mRNA. Amplified gene was tried to be transformed in to E.coli cells and the transformants were subjected for colony PCR, plate assay and decolorisation assay. All the results very clearly indicated the presence of laccase gene in the isolated white rot fungus and also the successful transformation of the gene in to E.coli cells.

R. INDIRA PRIYADARSINI

2011-03-01

161

Taxol production by Pestalotiopsis terminaliae, an endophytic fungus of Terminalia arjuna (arjun tree).  

Science.gov (United States)

Terminalia arjuna is a medicinal plant (the arjun tree) that possesses anticancer activity. An endophytic fungus, Pestalotiopsis terminaliae, was isolated from the fresh healthy leaves of this tree and was screened for the production of taxol, an anticancer drug, in artificial culture medium. The taxol produced was analysed chromatographically and spectrometrically. The amount of taxol produced by the fungus was found to be 211.1 microg/litre. This was sufficient for the fungus to be considered as a potential source material for improvement, by engineering, the production of taxol. The fungal taxol extracted from an organic extract of the fungal culture had strong cytotoxic activity towards BT220, H116, Int 407, HL 251 and HLK 210 human cancer cells in vitro when tested using an apoptosis assay. PMID:18254723

Gangadevi, Venkatraman; Muthumary, Johnpaul

2009-01-01

162

Antifungal Depsidone Metabolites from Cordyceps dipterigena, an Endophytic Fungus Antagonistic to the Phytopathogen Gibberella fujikuroi.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among thirty four endophytic fungal strains screened for in vitro antagonism, the endophytic fungus Cordyceps dipterigena was found to strongly inhibit mycelial growth of the plant pathogenic fungus Gibberella fujikuroi. Two new depsidone metabolites, cordycepsidone A (1) and cordycepsidone B (2), were isolated from the PDA culture extract of C. dipterigena and identified as being responsible for the antifungal activity. Elucidation of their chemical structures was carried out using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy in combination with IR and MS spectroscopic data. Cordycepsidone A displayed strong and dose-dependent antifungal activity against the plant pathogenic fungus Gibberella fujikuroi. The isolates were inactive in bioassays for malaria (Plasmodium falciparum), leishmaniasis (Leishmania donovani), Chagas's disease (Trypanosoma cruzi), and cytotoxicity at 10 ?g/mL. The compounds were also found to be inactive against several bacterial strains at 50 ?g/mL. PMID:22707798

Varughese, Titto; Riosa, Nivia; Higginbotham, Sarah; Arnold, A Elizabeth; Coley, Phyllis D; Kursar, Thomas A; Gerwick, William H; Cubilla Rios, L

2012-03-28

163

Characterisation and bioactivity of oosporein produced by endophytic fungus Cochliobolus kusanoi isolated from Nerium oleander L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioactive compounds comprising secondary metabolites produced by endophytic fungi have wide applications in pharmacology and agriculture. Isolation, characterisation and evaluation of biological activities of secondary metabolites were carried out from Cochliobolus kusanoi an endophytic fungus of Nerium oleander L. The fungus was identified based on 18S rDNA sequence analysis. There are no reports available on the compounds of C.kusanoi hence, antimicrobial metabolite produced by this fungus was extracted and purified by fractionation using hexane, diethyl ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Out of all the solvent fractions, the methanol fraction exhibited better antimicrobial activity which was further purified and characterised as oosporein. Oosporein from C.kusanoi exhibited broad spectrum in vitro antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. The characterisation and antioxidant activity of oosporein from C. kusanoi are reported for the first time. PMID:24934634

Alurappa, Ramesha; Bojegowda, Madhusudhan Reddy Muthukurpalya; Kumar, Vijith; Mallesh, Naveen Kumar; Chowdappa, Srinivas

2014-01-01

164

Macromolecular trafficking between a vesicular arbuscular endomycorrhizal fungus and roots of transgenic tobacco  

Science.gov (United States)

The root system of transgenic tobacco plants expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the 35S cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) promoter were colonized with the endomycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices. Translocation of EGFP protein from the root to the fungus was registered by light and confocal microscopy. Immunolocalization also showed the presence of EGFP in the mycelium of Glomus intraradices. Carboxyfluorescein feeding experiments on wild-type mycorrhized plants evidenced the transport of fluorescein, a symplasmic tracer, from the plant to the fungus. Our results suggest that endomycorrhiza possess the capacity to exchange functional biological macromolecules as evidenced by the transport EGFP from the plant to the fungal symbiont. PMID:21448001

Morales-Rayas, Rocío; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto

2011-01-01

165

COMPARISON THE DYE REMOVAL ACTIVITY OF SYSTEMS CONTAINED SURFACTANTS AND FUNGUS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Dye decolorization ability of the systems contained only R. arrhizus, only cationic surfactants and both of them were studied. The optimal pH (3-7), initial dye (50-800 mg/L) and surfactant concentration (0.5 and 1 mM) for Alkythrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) was determined in three days incubatio [...] n period and the difference of Remazol Blue dye removal activity between Dodecylthrimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB), Hegzadecylthrimethyl ammonium bromide (HTAB) and CTAB was identified. In the surfactant effect experiments it was observed that maximum dye removal activity occured in the system contained both fungus and 0.5 mM CTAB as, 77.52%, while the dye removal activity of only fungus and only CTAB were 21.2% and 71.2% in 100 mg/L dye concentration. The optimal conditions for dye removal were pH 5, low initial dye concentratios such as 100 mg/L and 1 mM CTAB concentration at the end of three days incubation period and the 95.4% dye removed by the sytem contained both fungus and CTAB. The dye removal activiy of the system contained fungus and cationic surfactants (DTAB, CTAB and HTAB) was compaired in the same optimal conditions and observed that maximum dye removal occured in the system that contained fungus and 1 mM HTAB, as 98.4%. The systems that contained surfactant and fungus are new approcahes for effective dye removal from textile effluents. According to this study, the CMC of surfactant is an important issue to increase dye removal efficiency.

ÜLKÜYE, DUDU GÜL; GÖNÜL, DÖNMEZ.

1170-11-01

166

COMPARISON THE DYE REMOVAL ACTIVITY OF SYSTEMS CONTAINED SURFACTANTS AND FUNGUS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dye decolorization ability of the systems contained only R. arrhizus, only cationic surfactants and both of them were studied. The optimal pH (3-7, initial dye (50-800 mg/L and surfactant concentration (0.5 and 1 mM for Alkythrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB was determined in three days incubation period and the difference of Remazol Blue dye removal activity between Dodecylthrimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB, Hegzadecylthrimethyl ammonium bromide (HTAB and CTAB was identified. In the surfactant effect experiments it was observed that maximum dye removal activity occured in the system contained both fungus and 0.5 mM CTAB as, 77.52%, while the dye removal activity of only fungus and only CTAB were 21.2% and 71.2% in 100 mg/L dye concentration. The optimal conditions for dye removal were pH 5, low initial dye concentratios such as 100 mg/L and 1 mM CTAB concentration at the end of three days incubation period and the 95.4% dye removed by the sytem contained both fungus and CTAB. The dye removal activiy of the system contained fungus and cationic surfactants (DTAB, CTAB and HTAB was compaired in the same optimal conditions and observed that maximum dye removal occured in the system that contained fungus and 1 mM HTAB, as 98.4%. The systems that contained surfactant and fungus are new approcahes for effective dye removal from textile effluents. According to this study, the CMC of surfactant is an important issue to increase dye removal efficiency.

ÜLKÜYE DUDU GÜL

2012-01-01

167

Levels of specificity of Xylaria species associated with fungus-growing termites: a phylogenetic approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fungus-growing termites live in obligate mutualistic symbiosis with species of the basidiomycete genus Termitomyces, which are cultivated on a substrate of dead plant material. When the termite colony dies, or when nest material is incubated without termites in the laboratory, fruiting bodies of the ascomycete genus Xylaria appear and rapidly cover the fungus garden. This raises the question whether certain Xylaria species are specialised in occupying termite nests or whether they are just occasional visitors. We tested Xylaria specificity at four levels: (1) fungus-growing termites, (2) termite genera, (3) termite species, and (4) colonies. In South Africa, 108 colonies of eight termite species from three termite genera were sampled for Xylaria. Xylaria was isolated from 69% of the sampled nests and from 57% of the incubated fungus comb samples, confirming high prevalence. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS region revealed 16 operational taxonomic units of Xylaria, indicating high levels of Xylaria species richness. Not much of this variation was explained by termite genus, species, or colony; thus, at level 2-4 the specificity is low. Analysis of the large subunit rDNA region, showed that all termite-associated Xylaria belong to a single clade, together with only three of the 26 non-termite-associated strains. Termite-associated Xylaria thus show specificity for fungus-growing termites (level 1). We did not find evidence for geographic or temporal structuring in these Xylaria phylogenies. Based on our results, we conclude that termite-associated Xylaria are specific for fungus-growing termites, without having specificity for lower taxonomic levels.

Visser, Andre; Ros, V I D

2009-01-01

168

Complete Genome of Serratia sp. Strain FGI 94, a Strain Associated with Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens  

OpenAIRE

Serratia sp. strain FGI 94 was isolated from a fungus garden of the leaf-cutter ant Atta colombica. Analysis of its 4.86-Mbp chromosome will help advance our knowledge of symbiotic interactions and plant biomass degradation in this ancient ant-fungus mutualism.

Aylward, Frank O.; Tremmel, Daniel M.; Starrett, Gabriel J.; Bruce, David C.; Chain, Patrick; Chen, Amy; Davenport, Karen W.; Detter, Chris; Han, Cliff S.; Han, James; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas

2013-01-01

169

Complete Genome of Enterobacteriaceae Bacterium Strain FGI 57, a Strain Associated with Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens  

OpenAIRE

The Enterobacteriaceae bacterium strain FGI 57 was isolated from a fungus garden of the leaf-cutter ant Atta colombica. Analysis of its single 4.76-Mbp chromosome will shed light on community dynamics and plant biomass degradation in ant fungus gardens.

Aylward, Frank O.; Tremmel, Daniel M.; Bruce, David C.; Chain, Patrick; Chen, Amy; Walston Davenport, Karen; Detter, Chris; Han, Cliff S.; Han, James; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Nolan, Matt

2013-01-01

170

Complete Genome of Enterobacteriaceae Bacterium Strain FGI 57, a Strain Associated with Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Enterobacteriaceae bacterium strain FGI 57 was isolated from a fungus garden of the leaf-cutter ant Atta colombica. Analysis of its single 4.76-Mbp chromosome will shed light on community dynamics and plant biomass degradation in ant fungus gardens. PMID:23469353

Aylward, Frank O; Tremmel, Daniel M; Bruce, David C; Chain, Patrick; Chen, Amy; Walston Davenport, Karen; Detter, Chris; Han, Cliff S; Han, James; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia N; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Nolan, Matt; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Pitluck, Sam; Deshpande, Shweta; Goodwin, Lynne; Woyke, Tanja; Currie, Cameron R

2013-01-01

171

Complete Genome of Serratia sp. Strain FGI 94, a Strain Associated with Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serratia sp. strain FGI 94 was isolated from a fungus garden of the leaf-cutter ant Atta colombica. Analysis of its 4.86-Mbp chromosome will help advance our knowledge of symbiotic interactions and plant biomass degradation in this ancient ant-fungus mutualism. PMID:23516234

Aylward, Frank O; Tremmel, Daniel M; Starrett, Gabriel J; Bruce, David C; Chain, Patrick; Chen, Amy; Davenport, Karen W; Detter, Chris; Han, Cliff S; Han, James; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia N; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Nolan, Matt; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Pitluck, Sam; Teshima, Hazuki; Deshpande, Shweta; Goodwin, Lynne; Woyke, Tanja; Currie, Cameron R

2013-01-01

172

Gamma radiation effects on the frequency of toxigenic fungus on sene (Cassia angustifolia) and green tea (Camelia sinensis) samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The levels of contamination and gamma radiation effects were analyzed in the reduction of toxigenic filamentous fungus in two types of medicinal plants. Aspergillus and Penicillium were the predominant genders and 73,80% of the samples showed high levels of fungus contamination

173

Transcriptional responses in Honey Bee larvae infected with chalkbrood fungus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Diseases and other stress factors working synergistically weaken honey bee health and may play a major role in the losses of bee populations in recent years. Among a large number of bee diseases, chalkbrood has been on the rise. We present here the experimental identification of honey bee genes that are differentially expressed in response to infection of honey bee larvae with the chalkbrood fungus, Ascosphaera apis. Results We used cDNA-AFLP ®Technology to profile transcripts in infected and uninfected bee larvae. From 64 primer combinations, over 7,400 transcriptionally-derived fragments were obtained A total of 98 reproducible polymorphic cDNA-AFLP fragments were excised and sequenced, followed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR analysis of these and additional samples. We have identified a number of differentially-regulated transcripts that are implicated in general mechanisms of stress adaptation, including energy metabolism and protein transport. One of the most interesting differentially-regulated transcripts is for a chitinase-like enzyme that may be linked to anti-fungal activities in the honey bee larvae, similarly to gut and fat-body specific chitinases found in mosquitoes and the red flour beetle. Surprisingly, we did not find many components of the well-characterized NF-?B intracellular signaling pathways to be differentially-regulated using the cDNA-AFLP approach. Therefore, utilizing qRT-PCR, we probed some of the immune related genes to determine whether the lack of up-regulation of their transcripts in our analysis can be attributed to lack of immune activation or to limitations of the cDNA-AFLP approach. Conclusions Using a combination of cDNA-AFLP and qRT-PCR analyses, we were able to determine several key transcriptional events that constitute the overall effort in the honey bee larvae to fight natural fungal infection. Honey bee transcripts identified in this study are involved in critical functions related to transcriptional regulation, apoptotic degradation of ubiquitinated proteins, nutritional regulation, and RNA processing. We found that immune regulation of the anti-fungal responses in honey bee involves highly coordinated activation of both NF-?B signaling pathways, leading to production of anti-microbial peptides. Significantly, activation of immune responses in the infected bee larvae was associated with down-regulation of major storage proteins, leading to depletion of nutritional resources.

Murray Keith D

2010-06-01

174

Laccase activity from the fungus trametes hirsuta using an air-lift bioreactor  

OpenAIRE

Aim: To produce high laccase activities from the white-rot fungus Trametes hirsuta in an in-house air-lift bioreactor (ALB). Methods and Results: Trametes hirsuta was grown in a 6-l ALB. A fed-batch strategy with glycerol as an addition resulted in maximum laccase activity of 19 400 U l)1, which was the highest reported from the fungus. Conclusion: The ALB configuration with additional glycerol resulted in high laccase activities. Significance and Impact of the Study: This study p...

Rodri?guez Couto, S.; Rodri?guez, A.; Paterson, R. R. M.; Lima, Nelson; Teixeira, J. A.

2006-01-01

175

Bio-liquefaction/solubilization of lignitic humic acids by white-rot fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Humic acid samples obtained from lignite were liquefied/solubilized by using white-rot fungus, and chemical characterization of the products was investigated by FTIR and GC-MS techniques. Prior to the microbial treatment, raw lignite was oxidized with hydrogen peroxide and nitric acid separately, and then humic acids were extracted by alkali solution. The prepared humic acid samples were placed on the agar surface of the fungus and liquid products formed by microbial affects were collected. The products were analyzed and the chemical properties were compared. The results show that oxidation agent and oxidation degree affect composition of the liquid products formed by microbial attack.

Elbeyli, I.Y.; Palantoken, A.; Piskin, S.; Peksel, A.; Kuzu, H. [Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2006-08-15

176

Intracellular pH homeostasis in the filamentous fungus Aspergillys niger  

OpenAIRE

Intracellular pH homeostasis in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger was measured in real time by 31P NMR during perfusion in the NMR tube of fungal biomass immobilized in Ca2 -alginate beads. The fungus maintained constant cytoplasmic pH (pHcyt) and vacuolar pH (pHvac) values of 7.6 and 6.2, respectively, when the extracellular pH (pHex) was varied between 1.5 and 7.0 in the presence of citrate. Intracellular metabolism did not collapse until a pH over the cytoplasmic membrane of 6.6-6.7...

Hesse, S. J. A.; Ruijter, G. J. G.; Dijkema, C.; Visser, J.

2002-01-01

177

A new eremophilane-type sesquiterpene from the phytopatogen fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Sphaeropsidaceae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The phytopatogenic fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae, isolated from guava, was cultivated in rice for 32 days at room temperature. Extraction with CH2Cl2:MeOH (3:7), followed by chromatography fractionation of the extract provided ergosterol. From the fungus culture in Czapeck medium for 40 days at room temperature, were isolated isocoumarin cis-4-hydroxymeleine and an eremophilane-type sesquiterpene. The latter compound is being reported for the first time in the literature. Also, this is the first time that an eremophilane sesquiterpene is described for Lasiodiplodia genus. (author)

178

A new eremophilane-type sesquiterpene from the phytopatogen fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Sphaeropsidaceae)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The phytopatogenic fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae, isolated from guava, was cultivated in rice for 32 days at room temperature. Extraction with CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}:MeOH (3:7), followed by chromatography fractionation of the extract provided ergosterol. From the fungus culture in Czapeck medium for 40 days at room temperature, were isolated isocoumarin cis-4-hydroxymeleine and an eremophilane-type sesquiterpene. The latter compound is being reported for the first time in the literature. Also, this is the first time that an eremophilane sesquiterpene is described for Lasiodiplodia genus. (author)

Nunes, Fatima M.; Oliveira, Maria da Conceicao F. de; Arriaga, Angela M.C.; Lemos, Telma L.G.; Andrade-Neto, Manoel; Mattos, Marcos C. de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: mcfo@ufc.br; Mafezoli, Jair [Universidade de Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Curso de Farmacia; Viana, Francisco M.P.; Ferreira, Viviane M. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Lab. de Fitopatologia; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Ferreira, Antonio G. [Universidade Federal de Sa Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

2008-07-01

179

Enzyme mediated extracellular synthesis of CdS nanoparticles by the fungus, Fusarium oxysporum.  

Science.gov (United States)

The biosynthesis of Q-state CdS nanoparticles by reaction of aqueous CdSO4 solution with the fungus, Fusarium oxysporum, is demonstrated. Nanoparticle formation proceeds by release of sulfate reductase enzymes by the fungus, conversion of sulfate ions to sulfide ions that subsequently react with aqueous Cd2+ ions to yield highly stable CdS nanoparticles. Elucidation of an enzymatic pathway using fungi opens up the exciting possibility of developing a rational, biosynthesis strategy for nanomaterials over a range of chemical compositions which is currently not possible. PMID:12371846

Ahmad, Absar; Mukherjee, Priyabrata; Mandal, Deendayal; Senapati, Satyajyoti; Khan, M Islam; Kumar, Rajiv; Sastry, Murali

2002-10-16

180

Isolation and fusion of protoplasts from the phytopathogenic fungus sclerotium rolfsii(sacc.)  

OpenAIRE

Sclerotium rolfsii (Sacc.) is a serious plant pathogenic fungus and lacks perfect (basidial) stage in production. Protoplast fusion technology was employed to reconstruct fusants from this fungus. Two strains designated as A and R were used. Maximum protoplast yields of 3.8x10(5) /g mycelia and 2.8x10(5) /g mycelia were formed in strains A and R respectively. Osmotic stabilizer sucrose 1M gave maximum yield. Lysing enzyme at the rate of 15mg/ml was found best for yield. Fusion of protoplasts ...

Sikandar Hayat; Christos Christias

2010-01-01

181

Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Endophytic Fungus Fennellia nivea NRRL 5504  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antioxidant is an interesting bioactivity since it has several correlations with disease such as Alzheimer, cancer, ageing and many others in which were promoted by free radicals. Investigation on our endophytic fungus collection namely Fennelia nivea NRRL 5504 revealed that the fermented medium has antioxidant property against DPPH through free radical scavenging effect. Fermentation in liquid medium i.e. Potatoes Dextrose Broth, resulted that the fermented medium reached about 86.51% (p-1 equivalent to pyrogallol. By exposure above, we have alternative source of antioxidant that came from our endophytic fungus collection which we isolated previously from Typhonium divaricatum Lodd.

Jasmansyah

2013-01-01

182

Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intra-radices on accumulation of radiocaesium by plant species  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intra-radices in 134Cs isotope uptake by different plant species is studied. The impact of radiocaesium on mycorrhizal development and functioning of plant photosynthetic apparatus is considered. The possibility of mycorrhizal symbiosis application in phytoremediation of radioactively contaminated areas is analyzed.It is found that colonization of plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus resulted in significant decrease of radiocaesium concentration in their aboveground parts, while it did not have considerable impact on the radionuclide uptake by plant root system

183

A virus in a fungus in a plant: Three-way symbiosis required for thermal tolerance  

Science.gov (United States)

A mutualistic association between a fungal endophyte and a tropical panic grass allows both organisms to grow at high soil temperatures. We characterized a virus from this fungus that is involved in the mutualistic interaction. Fungal isolates cured of the virus are unable to confer heat tolerance, but heat tolerance is restored after the virus is reintroduced. The virus-infected fungus confers heat tolerance not only to its native monocot host but also to a eudicot host, which suggests that the underlying mechanism involves pathways conserved between these two groups of plants.

Marquez, L.M.; Redman, R.S.; Rodriguez, R.J.; Roossinck, M.J.

2007-01-01

184

[Effect of aromatic compounds and Mn2+ on the ligninolytic enzyme complex from the fungus Pleurotus floridae (FRIES) Kummer--a white-rot wood fungus].  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of aromatic compounds and Mn ions on activities of ligninolityc enzymes from white-rot fungus Pleurotus floridae has been studied. The specific inducers: vanillic acid and vanillyl alcohol--for activity of manganese-dependent peroxidase; vanillyl alcohol--for activity of cellobiose: quinone oxidoreductase during submerged, fermentation of Pleurotus floridae in Kirk's medium have been revealed. The inducers of laccase activity among studied aromatic compounds have not been revealed. The influence of Mn2+ in concentration range 0.4-68.4 mM on activities of ligninolytic enzymes of submerged culture of fungus P. floridae has been studied. Concentration of Mn ions 32.4 mM was optimal for manganese-dependent peroxidase activity. PMID:10791056

Dombrovs'ka, O M; Kostyshyn, S S

1999-01-01

185

Co-evolutionary patterns and diversification of ant-fungus associations in the asexual fungus-farming ant Mycocepurus smithii in Panama.  

Science.gov (United States)

Partner fidelity through vertical symbiont transmission is thought to be the primary mechanism stabilizing cooperation in the mutualism between fungus-farming (attine) ants and their cultivated fungal symbionts. An alternate or additional mechanism could be adaptive partner or symbiont choice mediating horizontal cultivar transmission or de novo domestication of free-living fungi. Using microsatellite genotyping for the attine ant Mycocepurus smithii and ITS rDNA sequencing for fungal cultivars, we provide the first detailed population genetic analysis of local ant-fungus associations to test for the relative importance of vertical vs. horizontal transmission in a single attine species. M. smithii is the only known asexual attine ant, and it is furthermore exceptional because it cultivates a far greater cultivar diversity than any other attine ant. Cultivar switching could permit the ants to re-acquire cultivars after garden loss, to purge inferior cultivars that are locally mal-adapted or that accumulated deleterious mutations under long-term asexuality. Compared to other attine ants, symbiont choice and local adaptation of ant-fungus combinations may play a more important role than partner-fidelity feedback in the co-evolutionary process of M. smithii and its fungal symbionts. PMID:23639137

Kellner, K; Fernández-Marín, H; Ishak, H D; Sen, R; Linksvayer, T A; Mueller, U G

2013-06-01

186

Production of microsclerotia of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae in liquid culture  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this study was the development of a liquid culture method for producing stable, infective propagules of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for control of soil-dwelling insect pests. Three strains of M. anisopliae, F52, TM109, and MA1200, were evaluated using aerated, liq...

187

Identification of the gene encoding the major cellobiohydrolase of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  

OpenAIRE

Previous studies have shown that the cellobiohydrolases of the white rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium are encoded by a family of structurally related genes. In this investigation, we identified and sequenced the most highly transcribed gene, cbh1-4. Evidence suggests that in this fungus the dominant isozyme, CBH1, is encoded by chb1-4.

Vanden Wymelenberg, A.; Covert, S.; Cullen, D.

1993-01-01

188

Toxicidade de filtrados fúngicos a meloidogyne incognita Fungus filtrates toxicity to Meloidogyne incognita  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Visando à obtenção de novas moléculas nematicidas, 18 filtrados de espécies fúngicas e extratos de sete micélios fúngicos foram estudados in vitro quanto aos efeitos sobre a eclosão, motilidade e mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de Meloidogyne incognita. Filtrados fúngicos foram obtidos de culturas em meio Czapek. Metanol foi usado como solvente para obter extratos dos micélios fúngicos. Filtrados de Paecilomyces lilacinus, Fusarium moniliforme e Fusarium oxysporum reduziram a motilidade e eclosão, e aumentaram a mortalidade (P In the search for new nematicidal molecules, 18 fungal species filtrates and seven fungus mycelium extracts were studied in vitro to see their influence on hatching, mobility and mortality of second stage juveniles (J2 of Meloidogyne incognita. Fungal filtrates were obtained from fifteen day Czapek cultures. Methanol was used as solvent to obtain fungus mycelium extracts. Paecilomyces lilacinus, Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium oxysporum filtrates reduced J2 motility and hatching, and increased J2 mortality (P < 0,05 similarly to Aldicarb. Some fungus filtrates reduced J2 mobility without leading to death. Aspergillus flavus, Cylindrocarpon magnusianum, Fusarium solani and Mortierella sp. filtrates reduced (P < 0,05 only J2 hatching. Production of toxic fungus metabolites was not dependent on the amount of mycelium produced. P. lilacinus produced toxic filtrates after one day culturing. Since then, toxicity increased steadily, reaching 100% J2 mortality on the thirteenth day.

MAURO J.N. COSTA

2001-12-01

189

Treatment of a textile effluent from dyeing with cochineal extracts using Trametes versicolor fungus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trametes versicolor (Tv) fungus can degrade synthetic dyes that contain azo groups, anthraquinone, triphenylmethane polymers, and heterocyclic groups. However, no references have been found related to the degradation of natural dyes, such as the carminic acid that is contained in the cochineal extract. Experiments to determine the decolorization of the effluent used in the cotton dyeing process with cochineal extract by means of Tv fungus were done. Treatments to determine decolorization in the presence or absence of Kirk's medium, glucose, and fungus, with an addition of 50% (v v-1) of nonsterilized effluent were performed. Physicochemical characterization was performed at the start and end of the treatment. Degradation kinetics were determined. A direct relationship was found between the dry weight of fungi, pH, and the decolorization system, with higher decolorization at lower pH levels (pH ~4.3). High decolorization (81% ± 0.09; 88% ± 0.17; and 99% ± 0.04) for three of the eight treatments (Kirk's medium without glucose, Kirk's medium with glucose, and without medium with glucose, respectively) was found. Toxicity tests determined an increase in the initial effluent toxicity (7.33 TU) compared with the final treatment (47.73 TU) in a period of 11 days. For this system, a degradation sequence of the carminic acid structure present in the effluent by the Tv fungus is suggested, in which it is seen that metabolites still containing aromatic structures are generated. PMID:21552764

Arroyo-Figueroa, Gabriela; Ruiz-Aguilar, Graciela M L; López-Martínez, Leticia; González-Sánchez, Guillermo; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Germán; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio

2011-01-01

190

Bacterium induces cryptic meroterpenoid pathway in the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stimulating encounter: The intimate, physical interaction between the soil-derived bacterium Streptomyces rapamycinicus and the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus led to the activation of an otherwise silent polyketide synthase (PKS) gene cluster coding for an unusual prenylated polyphenol (fumicycline A). The meroterpenoid pathway is regulated by a pathway-specific activator gene as well as by epigenetic factors. PMID:23649940

König, Claudia C; Scherlach, Kirstin; Schroeckh, Volker; Horn, Fabian; Nietzsche, Sandor; Brakhage, Axel A; Hertweck, Christian

2013-05-27

191

Microsatellite loci for the fungus, Ascosphaera apis, cause of honey bee chalkbrood disease  

Science.gov (United States)

The fungus Ascosphaera apis (Ascomycota:Ascosphaeriaceae) is a worldwide fungal pathogen of honey bees. To provide tools for understanding the dispersal history of this pathogen, strain differences in virulence, and host-pathogen interactions, we developed and tested microsatellite loci for this sp...

192

Mortality of Tilletia spp. teliospores caused by volatiles from the biofumigant fungus Muscodor albus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Volatiles produced by the fungus Muscodor albus inhibit or kill numerous fungi. The effect of these volatiles was tested on teliospores of the smut fungi Tilletia horrida, T. indica, and T. tritici which cause kernel smut of rice, Karnal bunt of wheat, and common bunt of wheat, respectively. Ten g...

193

Amphibians acquire resistance to live and dead fungus overcoming fungal immunosuppression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emerging fungal pathogens pose a greater threat to biodiversity than any other parasitic group, causing declines of many taxa, including bats, corals, bees, snakes and amphibians. Currently, there is little evidence that wild animals can acquire resistance to these pathogens. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a pathogenic fungus implicated in the recent global decline of amphibians. Here we demonstrate that three species of amphibians can acquire behavioural or immunological resistance to B. dendrobatidis. Frogs learned to avoid the fungus after just one B. dendrobatidis exposure and temperature-induced clearance. In subsequent experiments in which B. dendrobatidis avoidance was prevented, the number of previous exposures was a negative predictor of B. dendrobatidis burden on frogs and B. dendrobatidis-induced mortality, and was a positive predictor of lymphocyte abundance and proliferation. These results suggest that amphibians can acquire immunity to B. dendrobatidis that overcomes pathogen-induced immunosuppression and increases their survival. Importantly, exposure to dead fungus induced a similar magnitude of acquired resistance as exposure to live fungus. Exposure of frogs to B. dendrobatidis antigens might offer a practical way to protect pathogen-naive amphibians and facilitate the reintroduction of amphibians to locations in the wild where B. dendrobatidis persists. Moreover, given the conserved nature of vertebrate immune responses to fungi and the fact that many animals are capable of learning to avoid natural enemies, these results offer hope that other wild animal taxa threatened by invasive fungi might be rescued by management approaches based on herd immunity. PMID:25008531

McMahon, Taegan A; Sears, Brittany F; Venesky, Matthew D; Bessler, Scott M; Brown, Jenise M; Deutsch, Kaitlin; Halstead, Neal T; Lentz, Garrett; Tenouri, Nadia; Young, Suzanne; Civitello, David J; Ortega, Nicole; Fites, J Scott; Reinert, Laura K; Rollins-Smith, Louise A; Raffel, Thomas R; Rohr, Jason R

2014-07-10

194

Modelling the hyphal growth of the wood-decay fungus Physisporinus vitreus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The white-rot fungus, Physisporinus vitreus, degrades the membranes of bordered pits in tracheids and consequently increases the permeability of wood, which is a process that can be used by the wood industry to improve the uptake of wood preservatives and environmentally benign wood modification substances to enhance the use and sustainability of native conifer wood species. To understand and apply this process requires an understanding of how a complex system (fungus-wood) interacts under defined conditions. We present a three-dimensional fungal growth model (FGM) of the hyphal growth of P. vitreus in the heartwood of Norway spruce. The model considers hyphae and nutrients as discrete structures and links the microscopic interactions between fungus and wood (e.g. degradation rate and degree of opening of pits) with macroscopic system properties, such penetration depth of the fungus, biomass, and distribution of destroyed pits in early- and latewood. Simulations were compared with experimental data. The growth of P. vitreus is characterized by a stepwise capture of the substrate and the effect of this on wood according to different model parameters is discussed. PMID:21872189

Fuhr, M J; Schubert, M; Schwarze, F W M R; Herrmann, H J

2011-09-01

195

A molecular approach to explore the extent of the threatened fungus Hypocreopsis rhododendri within wood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypocreopsis rhododendri is a rare fungus that grows on woody stems in hyperoceanic climax scrub on the west coasts of Britain, Ireland, and France. Knowledge of the distribution and abundance of the fungus is based entirely on sporocarp records; it does not account for any occurrence as vegetative mycelia. To address this issue, a H. rhododendri-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed and used to assay Corylus avellana (hazel) stems for the presence of H. rhododendri mycelia. The primers ITSHrF and ITSHrR were designed within the internal transcribed spacer 2 region, and their specificity to H. rhododendri was established by their failure to amplify DNA extracted from 14 other Hypocreaceae species. The sensitivity of the assay was demonstrated by amplifying DNA extracted from 4 mg C. avellana wood spiked with 0.0013 % H. rhododendri mycelium. Samples of wood and bark were then taken from around and directly underneath 11 H. rhododendri sporocarps and assayed for the presence of H. rhododendri. PCR products were obtained from a third of the surface bark samples, but only one faint product was obtained from 70 samples taken from beneath the outer bark. The results support the view that H. rhododendri does not form mycelia within stems. We suggest that H. rhododendri is not a saprotrophic fungus, but instead appears to be a parasitic on the wood decay fungus Hymenochaete corrugata, with which it always occurs. Evidence that tissue of H. corrugata is present within the sporocarps of H. rhododendri is discussed. PMID:22385618

Grundy, Katherine C; Woodward, Steve; Genney, David R; Taylor, Andy F S

2012-03-01

196

Susceptibility of Seven Termite Species (Isoptera) to the Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium anisopliae  

OpenAIRE

Seven termite species (Isoptera) from five families were tested for disease susceptibility against the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae using a standard protocol: Mastotermes darwiniensis (Mastotermitidae), Hodotermopsis sjoestedti (Termopsidae), Hodotermes mossambicus (Hodotermitidae), Kalotermes flavicollis (Kalotermitidae), Reticulitermes flavipes and Prorhinotermes canalifrons (Rhinotermitidae), and Nasutitermes voeltzkowi (Termitidae). Our results showed a large diversity i...

Chouvenc, Thomas; Su, Nan-yao; Robert, Alain

2009-01-01

197

Metabolites from the endophytic fungus Sporormiella minimoides isolated from Hintonia latiflora  

Science.gov (United States)

An extract of the solid cultures of Sporormiella minimoides (Sporormiaceae) isolated as an endophytic fungus from Hintonia latiflora (Rubiaceae), yielded three polyketides, 3,6-dimethoxy-8-methyl-1H,6H-benzo[de]isochromene-1,9-dione, 3-hydroxy-1,6,10-trimethoxy-8-methyl-1H,3H-benzo[de]isochromen-9-o...

198

Investigation of the Effect of Heating, Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza and Thermophilic Fungus on Cotton Wilt Disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, combinations of spores of a thermophilic fungus (Talaromyces flavus, Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM and microsclerotia of Verticillium dahliae under various temperature treatment (31-38°C in triplicate trial, were investigated and results were compared with those of non-treated controls. Five cotton seeds were planted in each pot containing 3 kg of pasteurized soil. In each pot, combinations of 4x103 VAM spores, 2.5x10 9 spores of thermophilic fungus (T. flavus and 5x105 microsclerotia of V. dahliae were added. Symptoms of Verticillium wilt were observed after 45 days. Index of disease severity was measured. Results indicated that pre-heating of microsclerotia at 31 and 35°C for 10 and 14 h, respectively, caused a 15% reduction in leaf infection index. Presence of VAM and thermophilic fungus (T. flavus spores caused 23 and 50% reductions in the disease development , respectively. Concurrent presence of mycorrhiza and thermophilic fungus spores caused a 10-20% reduction in disease development. These findings provide a promising approach to the control of Verticillium wilt of cotton. However, heat treatment of soil may prove difficult. Further studies in this regard are required and useful agricultural practices such as seasonal heating may be applied in the cotton fields.

L. Naraghi

2007-01-01

199

The ability of fungus Mucor racemosus Fresenius to degrade high concentration of detergent  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ability of fungus Mucor racemosus Fresenius to decompose high concentration of commercial detergent (MERIX, Henkel, Serbia was investigated in this study. Fungus was cultivated in liquid growth medium by Czapek with addition of detergent at concentration 0.5% during 16 days. The biochemical changes of pH, redox potential, amount of free and total organic acids, and activity of alkaline phosphatase were evaluated by analysis of fermentation broth. Simultaneously, biodegradation percentage of anionic surfactant of tested detergent was confirmed by MBAS assay. At the same time, the influence of detergent on fungal growth and total dry weight biomass was determined. Detergent at concentration 0.5% influenced on decreasing of pH value and increasing of redox potential as well as increasing of free and total organic acids. Enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase was reduced by detergent at concentration 0.5%. The fungus was decomposed about 62% of anionic surfactant during 16 day. Due to fungus was produced higher dry weight biomass (53% in relation to control. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43004

Jakovljevi? Violeta D.

2014-01-01

200

Improvement of barnyardgrass potential biocontrol fungus by NTG inducing and 60Co ?-ray irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Helminthosporium gramineum Rabenh f.sp. echinochloae (HGE), the Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa spp.) potential biocontrol fungus was induced by nitrosoguanidine (NTG, C2H5N5O3). The high yield of conidia production of inducing strain I262 was obtained. Conidia production of I262 increased 52.6% compared with its original fungus HGE. The experiments of nuclear irradiation were conducted by using I262 as starting strain. I262 was irradiated for 57 minutes by 60Co ?-rays at the dose of 650 Gy. Among selecting mutants, there are 7.75% strains' conidia production higher than that of I262. Among them, conidia production of mutants F II121, F II116 and F II140 increased 54.4%, 51.5% and 41.7% compared with that of I262, respectively. Conidia yield of mutants F II121 and F II116 were doubled compared with their original fungus HGE when using chemical in combine with physical technologies to treat the barnyardgrass' pathogen. The pathogenicity and control efficacy to barnyardgrass of high yield conidia production mutants were as the same as their original fungus HGE. (authors)

201

Characterization of two rice peroxidase promoters that respond to blast fungus-infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peroxidase (POX) genes consist of a large gene family possibly contributing to self-defense, however constitutive and stress-induced expression patterns of individual gene were poorly understood in rice. We studied here the characteristic expression of two representative rice POX genes, R2329 and R2184, which are blast fungus-inducible (Sasaki et al. in Plant Cell Physiol 45:1442-1452, 2004). Basal GUS activity in R2329 promoter::GUS rice plants was 100-fold higher than that in R2184 promoter::GUS plants, and these levels reflected the transcript levels monitored by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. R2329 promoter was activated by blast fungus-infection and wounding, and R2184 promoter was activated by the fungal-infection and methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-treatment. By histochemical GUS staining analysis, constitutive R2329 and R2184 expression was commonly found in vascular bundle and exodermis in leaves and roots, while the precise expression profile was characteristic. In blast fungus inoculated R2329 promoter::GUS leaves, GUS staining was induced just around fungus-induced local lesions. Analysis of the 5' deleted promoters suggests the presence of many kinds of stress-responsive elements in the regions between -1798 and -748 of R2329 promoter and between -1975 and -548 of R2184 promoter. These results revealed the stress-responsive characteristics of R2329 and R2184 promoters, and indicated the possible use for generation of useful transgenic plants. PMID:17805575

Sasaki, Katsutomo; Yuichi, Ohtsu; Hiraga, Susumu; Gotoh, Yoko; Seo, Shigemi; Mitsuhara, Ichiro; Ito, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Hirokazu; Ohashi, Yuko

2007-12-01

202

Tsugicoline E, a new polyoxygenated protoilludane sesquiterpene from the fungus laurilia tsugicola1  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsugicoline E (3) has been isolated from cultures of the Basidiomycetous fungus Laurilia tsugicola and its structure deduced from 1H and 13C NMR and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The suggested absolute configuration is consistent with biogenetic considerations. PMID:9917281

Arnone; De Gregorio C; Meille; Nasini; Sidoti

1999-01-01

203

Allelochemical effects of volatile compounds from Muscodor yucatanensis, an endophytic fungus from Bursera simaruba  

Science.gov (United States)

Muscodor yucatanensis, a recently described endophytic fungus, was isolated from the leaves of Bursera simaruba. In the present study we tested in vitro the mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by M. yucatanensis for the allelochemical effects against phytopathogenic fungi and fungo...

204

[Screening and identification of an endophytic fungus from Atractylodes lancea which utilizes volatile oil selectively].  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to transform main active ingredient of volatile oil, endophytic fungi were screened from the root of Atractylodes lancea. Transformation method was used in vitro. The changes of volatile oil were traced by gas chromatography. One endophytic fungus (strain ALG-13) which could uitilize volatile oil selectively was screened. Single factor experiment were conducted for exploring the effects of various factors that including kinds of carbon source, speed, liquid volume, pH and concentration of plant tissue on degradation by this strain. Subsequently, the main affecting factors carbon source, speed, pH and liquid volume were optimized using orthogonal array design. Results showed that endophytic fungus ALG-13 selectively used the volatile oil, change the relative percentage of the main components of volatile oil, Atractylon and Atractydin were increased, While, beta-eudesmol and Atractylol decreased. After selectively degradation by fungus, volatile oil components percentage were closer to the geo-herbs. Strain ALG-13 was identified as Bionectria ochroleuca according to its morphological characteristics and systematic analysis of ITS sequence. The optimal conditions were as follows: sucrose used as carbon source, rotating speed was 200 r x min(-1), initial pH for medium was 4.5, 50 mL liquid was added in 250 mL flask. The endophytic fungus ALG-13 could degrade the volatile oil selectively, which was benefit for forming geoherbs A. lancea volatile oil composition. PMID:23270221

Li, Lei; Liu, Fu-yan; Ren, Cheng-gang; Dai, Chuan-chao

2012-10-01

205

Convergent coevolution in the domestication of coral mushrooms by fungus-growing ants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Comparisons of phylogenetic patterns between coevolving symbionts can reveal rich details about the evolutionary history of symbioses. The ancient symbiosis between fungus-growing ants, their fungal cultivars, antibiotic-producing bacteria and cultivar-infecting parasites is dominated by a pattern of parallel coevolution, where the symbionts of each functional group are members of monophyletic groups. However, there is one outstanding exception in the fungus-growing ant system, the unidentified cultivar grown only by ants in the Apterostigma pilosum group. We classify this cultivar in the coral-mushroom family Pterulaceae using phylogenetic reconstructions based on broad taxon sampling, including the first mushroom collected from the garden of an ant species in the A. pilosum group. The domestication of the pterulaceous cultivar is independent from the domestication of the gilled mushrooms cultivated by all other fungus-growing ants. Yet it has the same overall assemblage of coevolved ant-cultivar-parasite-bacterium interactions as the other ant-grown fungal cultivars. This indicates a pattern of convergent coevolution in the fungus-growing ant system, where symbionts with both similar and very different evolutionary histories converge to functionally identical interactions.

Munkacsi, A.B.; Pan, J.J.

2004-01-01

206

Glycosidases of the rumen anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix frontalis grown on cellulosic substrates.  

OpenAIRE

The rumen anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix frontalis was grown on cellulosic substrates, and the cellular distribution and types of glycosidases produced by the organism were studied. Fungal cultures were fractionated into extracellular, insoluble (membrane), and intracellular fractions and assayed for glycosidase activity by using Avicel, carboxymethylcellulose, xylan, starch, polygalacturonic acid, and the p-nitrophenyl derivatives of galactose, glucose, and xylose as substrates. Enzymic act...

Pearce, P. D.; Bauchop, T.

1985-01-01

207

Draft Genome Sequence of Lichen-Forming Fungus Cladonia metacorallifera Strain KoLRI002260.  

Science.gov (United States)

The lichen-forming fungus Cladonia metacorallifera strain KoLRI002260 is capable of producing a number of secondary metabolites, including usnic, didymic, and squamatic acids, which have antitumor, antioxidant, and antibiotic activities. The draft genome assembly has a size of 36,682,060 bp, with a G+C content of 44.91%, and consists of 30 scaffolds. PMID:24526650

Park, Sook-Young; Choi, Jaeyoung; Lee, Gir-Won; Kim, Jung A; Oh, Soon-Ok; Jeong, Min-Hye; Yu, Nan-Hee; Kim, Soonok; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Hur, Jae-Seoun

2014-01-01

208

Draft Genome Sequence of Lichen-Forming Fungus Cladonia metacorallifera Strain KoLRI002260  

OpenAIRE

The lichen-forming fungus Cladonia metacorallifera strain KoLRI002260 is capable of producing a number of secondary metabolites, including usnic, didymic, and squamatic acids, which have antitumor, antioxidant, and antibiotic activities. The draft genome assembly has a size of 36,682,060 bp, with a G+C content of 44.91%, and consists of 30 scaffolds.

Park, Sook-young; Choi, Jaeyoung; Lee, Gir-won; Kim, Jung A.; Oh, Soon-ok; Jeong, Min-hye; Yu, Nan-hee; Kim, Soonok; Lee, Yong-hwan; Hur, Jae-seoun

2014-01-01

209

Sequencing and functional analysis of the genome of a nematode egg-parasitic fungus, Pochonia chlamydosporia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pochonia chlamydosporia is a worldwide-distributed soil fungus with a great capacity to infect and destroy the eggs and kill females of plant-parasitic nematodes. Additionally, it has the ability to colonize endophytically roots of economically-important crop plants, thereby promoting their growth and eliciting plant defenses. This multitrophic behavior makes P. chlamydosporia a potentially useful tool for sustainable agriculture approaches. We sequenced and assembled ?41 Mb of P. chlamydosporia genomic DNA and predicted 12,122 gene models, of which many were homologous to genes of fungal pathogens of invertebrates and fungal plant pathogens. Predicted genes (65%) were functionally annotated according to Gene Ontology, and 16% of them found to share homology with genes in the Pathogen Host Interactions (PHI) database. The genome of this fungus is highly enriched in genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes, such as proteases, glycoside hydrolases and carbohydrate esterases. We used RNA-Seq technology in order to identify the genes expressed during endophytic behavior of P. chlamydosporia when colonizing barley roots. Functional annotation of these genes showed that hydrolytic enzymes and transporters are expressed during endophytism. This structural and functional analysis of the P. chlamydosporia genome provides a starting point for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the multitrophic lifestyle of this fungus. The genomic information provided here should also prove useful for enhancing the capabilities of this fungus as a biocontrol agent of plant-parasitic nematodes and as a plant growth-promoting organism. PMID:24530791

Larriba, Eduardo; Jaime, María D L A; Carbonell-Caballero, José; Conesa, Ana; Dopazo, Joaquín; Nislow, Corey; Martín-Nieto, José; Lopez-Llorca, Luis Vicente

2014-04-01

210

BIOTRANSFORMATION OF 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE (TNT) BY A PLANT-ASSOCIATED FUNGUS FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM  

Science.gov (United States)

The capability of a plant-associated fungus, Fusarium oxyvorum, to transform TNT in liquid cultures was investigated. TNT was transformed into 2-amino-4, 6-dinitrotoluene (2-A-DNT), 4-amino-2, 6-dinitrotoluene (4-A- DNT), and 2, 4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2, 4-DAT) via 2- and 4-hy...

211

HETEROLOGOUS PRODUCTION BY TRICHODERMA REESEI OF A XYLANASE OF THE ANAEROBIC FUNGUS ORPINOMYCES PC-2  

Science.gov (United States)

Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) is one of the most commonly used fungi for the manufacturing of enzyme products. These products are widely used in food, feed, pulp and paper, biomass conversion, and textile processes. Because of the long use in fermentation, the fungus has gained GRAS statu...

212

Fungus ball pieloureteral en pacientes con litiasis urinaria: Tratamiento con ureterorrenoscopia / Pyelo-ureteral fungus ball in patients with urinary lithiasis: Ureterorrenoscopic management  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIÓN: C. albicans es el hongo que con mayor frecuencia produce infecciones oportunistas del tracto urinario. Cuando las hifas se aglutinan alrededor de un núcleo de tejido necrótico (necrosis papilar), hebras mucosas, restos de suturas quirúrgicas y/o material litiásico, se forma una pelota [...] fúngica que puede obstruir cualquier tramo del tracto urinario. CASOS CLÍNICOS: Presentamos dos pacientes formadores crónicos de cálculos que en ausencia de otros factores de riesgo para las infecciones fúngicas oportunistas, desarrollan fungus balls en el tracto urinario superior dilatado por una litiasis ureteral obstructiva. La paciente 1 tuvo afectación bilateral y en ningún momento hubo manifestaciones sistémicas. El tratamiento consistió en ureterorrenoscopia con extracción de las bolas fúngicas, derivación bilateral y anfotericina B sistémica y en irrigaciones tópicas. El paciente 2, en el contexto de una sepsis candidiásica, se trató con anfotericina B sistémica, desobstrucción mediante ureterorrenoscopia con extracción de un cálculo ureteral y de pelotas fúngicas, y colocación de catéter JJ y nefrostomía con irrigaciones de anfotericina B. DISCUSIÓN: La litiasis urinaria constituye por sí sola un factor de riesgo para la infección fúngica del tracto urinario superior, en ausencia de otros factores favorecedores de las infecciones fúngicas oportunistas. El mecanismo por el cual el cálculo favorece el crecimiento de los hongos es, por un lado, la obstrucción pieloureteral con éstasis retrógrado y, por otro lado, la nucleación alrededor de una matriz de material cálcico sobre la que crecen, se agregan y se ramifican los micelios. La vía de infección es probablemente ascendente y puede complicarse con funguemia y sepsis. Los antimicóticos sistémicos, la derivación con catéteres ureterales o de nefrostomía que permitan irrigación local con antifúngicos, y las técnicas endourológicas, constituyen los tres pilares básicos del tratamiento. La ureterorrenoscopia juega aquí un papel importante al ser una técnica diagnóstica y al mismo tiempo terapéutica al permitir la desobstrucción litiásica y la limpieza de las masas fúngicas. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: C. albicans is the most frequent fungus causing opportunist infections of the urinary tract. Agglutination of necrotic tissue nucleus (papilar necrosis), mucosus debri and chirurgic or lithiasic debri, originates a fungus ball, which can obstruct the urinary tract at any level. CLINICA [...] L DATA: We present 2 patients with obstructive urinary lithiasis developing fungus ball in the dilated upper urinary tract. Patient 1 was bilaterally affected and never had systemic symptoms. Treatment consisted of uretherorrenoscope for removal of fungus ball, bilateral urinary diversion and anphotericine B irrigations and systemic. Patient 2 developed a candidemia and was treated with systemic liposomal anphotericine B, uretherorrenoscopy with removal of ureteric calculus and fungus ball, and placement of a double J catheter and nephrostomy tube for anphotericine B irrigation. DISCUSSION: Urinary lithiasis is a risk factor for fungal infection of the upper urinary tract, provided there is no other predisponent factor for opportunistic fungal infections. Calculi facilitates fungal growth by means of obstruction and subsequent retrograde estasis and creating a nucleus for growth, aggregation and ramification of mycelium. The infection pathway is probably ascendent and may turn into fungemia and septicaemia. Systemic antimicotics, urinary diversion and local irrigations with antimicotics, and endourologic technics, are the three basic items in the treatment. Ureterorrenoscopy plays an important roll as a diagnostic and terapeutic tool as it may solve the obstruction and allows removal of fungus ball.

J.P., Burgués Gasión; J.M., Alapont Alacreu; F., Oliver Amorós; A., Benedicto Redón; F., Boronat Tormo; J.F., Jiménez Cruz.

2003-01-01

213

SnoRNAs from the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa: structural, functional and evolutionary insights  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background SnoRNAs represent an excellent model for studying the structural and functional evolution of small non-coding RNAs involved in the post-transcriptional modification machinery for rRNAs and snRNAs in eukaryotic cells. Identification of snoRNAs from Neurospora crassa, an important model organism playing key roles in the development of modern genetics, biochemistry and molecular biology will provide insights into the evolution of snoRNA genes in the fungus kingdom. Results Fifty five box C/D snoRNAs were identified and predicted to guide 71 2'-O-methylated sites including four sites on snRNAs and three sites on tRNAs. Additionally, twenty box H/ACA snoRNAs, which potentially guide 17 pseudouridylations on rRNAs, were also identified. Although not exhaustive, the study provides the first comprehensive list of two major families of snoRNAs from the filamentous fungus N. crassa. The independently transcribed strategy dominates in the expression of box H/ACA snoRNA genes, whereas most of the box C/D snoRNA genes are intron-encoded. This shows that different genomic organizations and expression modes have been adopted by the two major classes of snoRNA genes in N. crassa . Remarkably, five gene clusters represent an outstanding organization of box C/D snoRNA genes, which are well conserved among yeasts and multicellular fungi, implying their functional importance for the fungus cells. Interestingly, alternative splicing events were found in the expression of two polycistronic snoRNA gene hosts that resemble the UHG-like genes in mammals. Phylogenetic analysis further revealed that the extensive separation and recombination of two functional elements of snoRNA genes has occurred during fungus evolution. Conclusion This is the first genome-wide analysis of the filamentous fungus N. crassa snoRNAs that aids in understanding the differences between unicellular fungi and multicellular fungi. As compared with two yeasts, a more complex pattern of methylation guided by box C/D snoRNAs in multicellular fungus than in unicellular yeasts was revealed, indicating the high diversity of post-transcriptional modification guided by snoRNAs in the fungus kingdom.

Chen Chun-Long

2009-11-01

214

Forage collection, substrate preparation, and diet composition in fungus-growing ants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

2. The attine fungus-growing ants are a tribe of more than 230 described species (12 genera) that use a variety of different substrates to manure the symbiotic fungus they cultivate inside the nest. Common 'wisdom' is that the conspicuous leaf-cutting ants primarily use freshly cut plant material, whereas most of the other attine species use dry and partly degraded plant material such as leaf litter and caterpillar frass, but systematic comparative studies of actual resource acquisition across the attine ants have not been done. 3. Here we review 179 literature records of diet composition across the extant genera of fungus-growing ants. The records confirm the dependence of leaf-cutting ants on fresh vegetation but find that flowers, dry plant debris, seeds (husks), and insect frass are used by all genera, whereas other substrates such as nectar and insect carcasses are only used by some. 4. Diet composition was significantly correlated with ant substrate preparation behaviours before adding forage to the fungus garden, indicating that diet composition and farming practices have co-evolved. Neither diet nor preparation behaviours changed when a clade within the paleoattine genus Apterostigma shifted from rearing leucocoprinous fungi to cultivating pterulaceous fungi, but the evolutionary derived transition to yeast growing in the Cyphomyrmex rimosus group, which relies almost exclusively on nectar and insect frass, was associated with specific changes in diet composition. 5. The co-evolutionary transitions in diet composition across the genera of attine ants indicate that fungus-farming insect societies have the possibility to obtain more optimal fungal crops via artificial selection, analogous to documented practice in human subsistence farming

Licht, H.H.D.; Boomsma, J.J.

2010-01-01

215

Effects of greenhouse pesticides on the soil-dwelling predatory mite Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Acari: Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) under laboratory conditions.  

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Knowledge of the effects of pesticides on biological control agents is required for the successful implementation of integrated pest management (IPM) programs in greenhouse production systems. Laboratory assays were conducted to assess the effects of an acaricide (dicofol), two insecticides (chlorpyrifos and pyriproxyfen), and two fungicides (fosetyl-Al and mefenoxam) on Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Womersley), a soil-dwelling predatory mite widely marketed in North America under the name Hypoaspis miles (Berlese) as a biological control agent of dark-winged fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.). Eggs, larvae, protonymphs, deutonymphs, and adult male and female mites were first assayed using dicofol, an acaricide used in the experiments as a positive control, applied to filter paper in an enclosed arena. Protonymphs were assayed for lethal and sublethal effects against the remaining pesticides at maximum label-recommended rates applied to filter paper, by using dicofol as a positive control and water as a negative control. The larva and protonymph were the life stages most susceptible to dicofol, with estimated 24-h LC50 values of 9 and 26 mg m(-2), respectively. Chlorpyrifos was highly toxic to the protonymphs of S. scimitus, causing >95% mortality after 24-h exposure and 100% mortality after 48 h. In contrast, the insect growth regulator (IGR) pyriproxyfen was much less toxic to protonymphs of S. scimitus; pyriproxyfen caused no significant mortality, compared with fosetyl-Al and mefenoxam resulted in 17.4 and 27.5% mortality, respectively. The IGR and fungicides increased the duration of the protonymphal stage by 1.2-1.8-fold, but they had no effect on the duration of subsequent life stages, nor on the duration of preoviposition, oviposition, and postoviposition periods of adult females. Total numbers and viability of eggs laid by mites exposed to the IGR and fungicides did not differ from the negative control, although the average rate of egg production during the oviposition of mites exposed to fosetyl-Al was increased. Pyriproxyfen, fosetyl-Al, and mefenoxam are likely to be compatible with S. scimitus under field conditions, because these pesticides caused little mortality of protonymphs, and they did not negatively affect the development and reproduction of S. scimitus under extreme laboratory conditions. In contrast, the use of chlorpyrifos in conjunction with S. scimitus is not recommended unless more comprehensive testing under semifield or field conditions demonstrates compatibility. PMID:15279255

Cabrera, Ana R; Cloyd, Raymond A; Zaborski, Edmond R

2004-06-01

216

Biotite weathering and nutrient uptake by ectomycorrhizal fungus, Suillus tomentosus, in liquid-culture experiments  

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Ectomycorrhiza-forming fungi (EMF) alter the nutrient-acquisition capabilities of vascular plants, and may play an important role in mineral weathering and the partitioning of products of weathering in soils under nutrient-limited conditions. In this study, we isolated the weathering function of Suillus tomentosus in liquid-cultures with biotite micas incubated at room temperature. We hypothesized that the fungus would accelerate weathering by hyphal attachment to biotite surfaces and transmission of nutrient cations via direct exchange into the fungal biomass. We combined a mass-balance approach with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to estimate weathering rates and study dissolution features on biotite surfaces. Weathering of biotite flakes was about 2-3 orders of magnitude faster in shaken liquid-cultures with fungus compared to shaken controls without fungus, but with added inorganic acids. Adding fungus in nonshaken cultures caused a higher dissolution rate than in inorganic pH controls without fungus, but it was not significantly faster than organic pH controls without fungus. The K +, Mg 2+ and Fe 2+ from biotite were preferentially partitioned into fungal biomass in the shaken cultures, while in the nonshaken cultures, K + and Mg 2+ was lost from biomass and Fe 2+ bioaccumulated much less. Fungal hyphae attached to biotite surfaces, but no significant surface changes were detected by SEM. When cultures were shaken, the AFM images of basal planes appeared to be rougher and had abundant dissolution channels, but such channel development was minor in nonshaken conditions. Even under shaken conditions the channels only accounted for only 1/100 of the total dissolution rate of 2.7 × 10 -10 mol of biotite m -2 s -1. The results suggest that fungal weathering predominantly occurred not by attachment and direct transfer of nutrients via hyphae, but because of the acidification of the bulk liquid by organic acids, fungal respiration (CO 2), and complexation of cations which accelerated dissolution of biotite. Results further suggest that both carbohydrate source (abundant here) and a host with which nutrients are exchanged (missing here) may be required for EMF to exert an important weathering effect in soils. Unsaturated conditions and physical dispersal of nutrient-rich minerals in soils may also confer a benefit for hyphal growth and attachment, and promote the attachment-mediated weathering which has been observed elsewhere on soil mineral surfaces.

Balogh-Brunstad, Zsuzsanna; Kent Keller, C.; Thomas Dickinson, J.; Stevens, Forrest; Li, C. Y.; Bormann, Bernard T.

2008-06-01

217

Relations between rhizobial nodulation and root colonization of Acacia crassicarpa provenances by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus intraradices Schenk and Smith or an ectomycorrhizal fungus, Pisolithus tinctorius Coker & Couch  

OpenAIRE

The present study was initiated to (i) determine the ability of an ectomycorrhizal and an arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiont to colonize three provenances of Acacia crassicarpa root systems, (ii) to examine plant growth response to the mycorrhizal inoculation and (iii) to measure their influence on the rhizobial symbiosis with a Bradyrhizobium isolate. This study has been performed with 2 fungal symbionts: Glomus intraradices, an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungus, and an ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisol...

Lesueur, Didier; Duponnois, Robin

2005-01-01

218

Relationship Between a-amylase Activity and Pullulan Profiles, and a-amylase Gene Analyses of the Fungus Aureobasidium Pullulans  

Science.gov (United States)

Tropical isolates of Aureobasidium pullulans isolated from various habitats in Thailand were classified based on multilocus phylogenetic analyses using concordance analysis of DNA sequences. This fungus is the major source of commercially produced pullulan, a high molecular weight polysaccharide th...

219

Time-dose-mortality data and modeling for the entomopathogenic fungus Aschersonia placenta against the whitefly Bemisia tabaci.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fungus Aschersonia placenta FJSM was evaluated for control of the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. Bemisia tabaci nymphs (1st-4th instars) on tomato plants in the greenhouse (25-27 °C, 70%-85% relative humidity) were sprayed with suspensions containing 0, 10(4), 10(5), 10(6), 10(7), or 10(8) A. placenta FJSM conidia/mL. Mortality of fungus-treated 1st to 3rd instar nymphs ranged from 93% to 100% but was <25% for 4th instar nymphs; the fungus sporulated from 70% to 80% of the fungus-treated B. tabaci cadavers. LD50 and LD90 values decreased with time after treatment and increased with instar. LT50 values decreased with conidial concentration. The data were then described with time-dose-mortality models. The results indicate that A. placenta FJSM has potential as a mycoinsecticide for control of B. tabaci. PMID:23461516

Qiu, Junzhi; Song, Feifei; Mao, Lihui; Tu, Jie; Guan, Xiong

2013-02-01

220

Molecular phylogeny of bark and ambrosia beetles reveals multiple origins of fungus farming during periods of global warming  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Fungus farming is an unusual life style in insects that has evolved many times in the wood boring weevils named ‘ambrosia beetles’. Multiple occurrences of this behaviour allow for a detailed comparison of the different origins of fungus farming through time, its directionality, and possible ancestral states. We tested these hypotheses with a phylogeny representing the largest data set to date, nearly 4 kb of nucleotides from COI, EF-1?, CAD, ArgK, 28S, and 200 scolyt...

Jordal Bjarte H; Cognato Anthony I

2012-01-01

221

Development of molecular and genomic tools for functional analysis in the cucurbit powdery mildew Fungus Podosphaera Fusca  

OpenAIRE

The powdery mildew fungus Podosphaera fusca (synonym Podosphaera xanthii) is the main causal agent of cucurbit powdery mildew and one of the most important limiting factors for cucurbit production worldwide. Despite the fungus economic importance, very little is known about the physiological and molecular processes involved in P. fusca biology and pathogenesis. In this study, we isolated and characterised the ?-tubulin-encoding gene of P. fusca (PfTUB2) to develop molecular tools with differ...

Vela Corcia, David

2014-01-01

222

Biodegradation of ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (Lindane) by a non-white rot fungus conidiobolus 03-1-56 isolated from litter  

OpenAIRE

Biodegradation of chlorinated pesticide ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane) by a nonwhite rot fungus Conidiobolus 03-1-56 is reported for the first time. Conidiobolus 03-1-56, a phycomyceteous fungus isolated from litter, completely degraded lindane on the 5th day of incubation in the culture medium, and GC-ECD studies confirmed that lindane removal did not occur via adsorption on the fungal biomass. Degradation studies using different medium compositions showed that nitrogen/carbon limiting c...

Nagpal, Varima; Srinivasan, M. C.; Paknikar, K. M.

2008-01-01

223

Metagenomic Insights into Metabolic Capacities of the Gut Microbiota in a Fungus-Cultivating Termite (Odontotermes yunnanensis)  

OpenAIRE

Macrotermitinae (fungus-cultivating termites) are major decomposers in tropical and subtropical areas of Asia and Africa. They have specifically evolved mutualistic associations with both a Termitomyces fungi on the nest and a gut microbiota, providing a model system for probing host-microbe interactions. Yet the symbiotic roles of gut microbes residing in its major feeding caste remain largely undefined. Here, by pyrosequencing the whole gut metagenome of adult workers of a fungus-cultivatin...

Liu, Ning; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Haokui; Zhang, Meiling; Yan, Xing; Wang, Qian; Long, Yanhua; Xie, Lei; Wang, Shengyue; Huang, Yongping; Zhou, Zhihua

2013-01-01

224

Innate Immunity to the Pathogenic Fungus Coccidioides posadasii Is Dependent on Toll-Like Receptor 2 and Dectin-1  

OpenAIRE

Coccidioides posadasii is a pathogenic fungus that causes endemic and epidemic coccidioidomycosis in the deserts of North, Central, and South America. How the innate immune system responds to the organism is not well understood. Here we show that elicited mouse peritoneal macrophages respond to spherules (the tissue form of the fungus) by producing proinflammatory cytokines as measured by quantitative PCR of cellular transcripts and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assays for secr...

Viriyakosol, Suganya; Fierer, Joshua; Brown, Gordon D.; Kirkland, Theo N.

2005-01-01

225

Decolorization and Degradation of Phenolic Paper Mill Effluent by Native White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

OpenAIRE

A white rot fungus isolated from soil samples enriched by continuous pulp and paper mill effluent irrigation and identified as Phanerochaete chrysosporium was capable of decolorization and degradation of chlorinated phenol from paper mill effluent. There was 84% effluent decolourisation along with 79% COD reduction by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The effluent chlorinated phenol degradation was 91% by the fungus when added with 1% glucose as co-substrate.

Prabu, P. C.; Udayasoorian, C.

2005-01-01

226

Intersporal Genetic Variation of Gigaspora margarita, a Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus, Revealed by M13 Minisatellite-Primed PCR  

OpenAIRE

Spores of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi contain thousands of nuclei. In order to understand the karyotic structure of a VAM fungus spore, the genetic variation of the first generation of spores from a VAM fungus (Gigaspora margarita) was examined. Spores originating from both single- and multispore inoculations of the species G. margarita were analyzed by M13 minisatellite-primed PCR. In both cases, different fingerprints were obtained from individual spores with few spores exh...

Zeze, A.; Sulistyowati, E.; Ophel-keller, K.; Barker, S.; Smith, S.

1997-01-01

227

Degradation of Pentachlorophenol by White Rot Fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium-TL 1) Grown in Ammonium Lignosulphonate Media  

OpenAIRE

The white rot fungus isolated from continuous pulp and paper mill effluent irrigated soil and identified as Phanerochaete chrysosporium (TL 1) was capable of degrading pentachlorophenol. 14C synthetic lignin mineralization assays showed that the fungus assimilated 33.6% of the total label. Removal and degradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by the organism in static flask cultures was studied using ammonium lignosulphonate (LS), a waste product of paper mill industry, as a carbon and nitrogen ...

Udayasoorian, C.; Prabu, P. C.; Balasubramanian, G.

2007-01-01

228

Isolation and fusion of protoplasts from the phytopathogenic fungus sclerotium rolfsii(sacc.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Sclerotium rolfsii (Sacc.) is a serious plant pathogenic fungus and lacks perfect (basidial) stage in production. Protoplast fusion technology was employed to reconstruct fusants from this fungus. Two strains designated as A and R were used. Maximum protoplast yields of 3.8x10(5)/g mycelia and 2.8x10(5)/g mycelia were formed in strains A and R respectively. Osmotic stabilizer sucrose 1M gave maximum yield. Lysing enzyme at the rate of 15mg/ml was found best for yield. Fusion of protoplasts from strains A and R was carried out in fusion media containing PEG 4000 30% (w/v) with 0.2mM CaCl2. Four fusants F1, F2, F3 and F4 were recovered. Morphological, physiological and pathogenic characters of fusants were compared with parent strains on carrots, beans and tomato. PMID:24031488

Cai, Yun; Christias, Christos

2010-01-01

229

Isolation and fusion of protoplasts from the phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotium rolfsii (Sacc.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sclerotium rolfsii (Sacc. is a serious plant pathogenic fungus and lacks perfect (basidial stage in production. Protoplast fusion technology was employed to reconstruct fusants from this fungus. Two strains designated as A and R were used. Maximum protoplast yields of 3.8x10(5 /g mycelia and 2.8x10(5 /g mycelia were formed in strains A and R respectively. Osmotic stabilizer sucrose 1M gave maximum yield. Lysing enzyme at the rate of 15mg/ml was found best for yield. Fusion of protoplasts from strains A and R was carried out in fusion media containing PEG 4000 30% (w/v with 0.2mM CaCl2. Four fusants F1, F2, F3 and F4 were recovered. Morphological, physiological and pathogenic characters of fusants were compared with parent strains on carrots, beans and tomato.

Sikandar Hayat

2010-03-01

230

Nickel oxide nanoparticles film produced by dead biomass of filamentous fungus  

Science.gov (United States)

The synthesis of nickel oxide nanoparticles in film form using dead biomass of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus aculeatus as reducing agent represents an environmentally friendly nanotechnological innovation. The optimal conditions and the capacity of dead biomass to uptake and produce nanoparticles were evaluated by analyzing the biosorption of nickel by the fungus. The structural characteristics of the film-forming nickel oxide nanoparticles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). These techniques showed that the nickel oxide nanoparticles had a size of about 5.89 nm and were involved in a protein matrix which probably permitted their organization in film form. The production and uptake of nickel oxide nanoparticles organized in film form by dead fungal biomass bring us closer to sustainable strategies for the biosynthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles.

Salvadori, Marcia Regina; Nascimento, Cláudio Augusto Oller; Corrêa, Benedito

2014-09-01

231

MICROBIAL DYNAMICS IN COMMERCIAL VERMICOMPOSTS WITH AND WITHOUT TRICHODERMA SPP. FUNGUS INOCULATION  

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Full Text Available In this paper, presents the results are presented onof the growthefectiveness of the Trichoderma fungus in a inoculation in a commercial vermicompost, in comparison with the fungus from a vermicompostand without inoculation. In a three-phase laboratory process (cultivation, isolation and inoculation of fungal strains, three different commercial vermicompost, prepared from coffee pulp, have beenwere used, coming from three different commercial vermicomposts. The results of experiments carried out in the Post-Harvest Laboratory of the Universidad de Costa Rica, don’t show any increase or decrease of the Trichoderma population after inoculation. The experiment was carried out in the Post -harvest Laboratory of University of Costa Rica. It was developed following three phases, using three commercial vermicompost prepared with broza of coffee. Results showed no differences in Trichoderma population as product of inoculation of it into the compost.

VILMA AMPARO HOLGUIN CASTAÑO

2009-12-01

232

Acceleration of tributyltin chloride (TBT) degradation in liquid cultures of the filamentous fungus Cunninghamella elegans.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we have examined the effects of synthetic medium ingredients and culture incubation conditions on growth and tributyltin chloride (TBT) degradation activity of the fungus Cunninghamella elegans. The best efficiency of TBT conversion to less toxic derivatives: dibutyltin and monobutyltin was noticed on media which contained glucose, NH(4)Cl, K(2)HPO(4) and MgSO(4). Next, the constructed M3 medium (with the above components) ensured vigorous growth of C. elegans and allowed the reduction of 80% of the initial TBT content (10 mg l(-1)), after 3d of biodegradation. The further acceleration of the biocide utilization by C. elegans was achieved by additional oxygen supply (pO(2) >or = 20%) to the growing fungus (89% after 2d of incubation in the BioFlo II bioreactor). The efficient xenobiotic biodegradation was related to the intensity of fungal growth. The obtained results suggest a cometabolic nature of TBT utilization by C. elegans. PMID:15961138

Bernat, Przemys?aw; D?ugo?ski, Jerzy

2006-01-01

233

The use of the fungus Dichomitus squalens for degradation in rotating biological contactor conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biodegradation potential of Dichomitus squalens in biofilm cultures and rotating biological contactor (RBC) was investigated. The fungus formed thick biofilms on inert and lignocellulosic supports and exhibited stable activities of laccase and manganese peroxidase to reach 40-62 and 25-32% decolorization of anthraquinone Remazol Brilliant Blue R and heterocyclic phthalocyanine dyes, respectively. The decolorization ceased when glucose concentration dropped to 1 mmol l(-1). In RBC reactor, respective decolorizations of Remazol Brilliant Blue R and heterocyclic Methylene Blue and Azure B dyes (50 mg l(-1)) attained 99%, 93%, and 59% within 7, 40 and 200 h. The fungus exhibited tolerance to coliform and non-coliform bacteria on rich organic media, the inhibition occurred only on media containing tryptone and NaCl. The degradation efficiency in RBC reactor, capability to decolorize a wide range of dye structures and tolerance to bacterial stress make D. squalens an organism applicable to remediation of textile wastewaters. PMID:22513255

Novotný, Cen?k; Trošt, Nina; Šlušla, Martin; Svobodová, Kate?ina; Mikesková, Hana; Válková, Hana; Malachová, Kate?ina; Pavko, Aleksander

2012-06-01

234

Isolation, characterization, and primary structure of the vanadium chloroperoxidase from the fungus Embellisia didymospora.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here we describe the isolation, purification, and basic kinetic parameters of a vanadium type chloroperoxidase from the hyphomycete fungus Embellisia didymospora. The enzyme proved to possess similar high substrate affinities, a Km of 5 microM for a bromide, 1.2 mM for a chloride, and 60 microM for a hydrogen peroxide, as those of the vanadium chloroperoxidase from Curvularia inaequalis, although with lower turnover rates for both Cl- and Br-. Substrate bromide was also found to inhibit the enzyme, a feature subsequently also noted for the chloroperoxidase from C. inaequalis. The gene encoding this enzyme was identified using DNA Southern blotting techniques and subsequently isolated and sequenced. A comparison is made between this vanadium chloroperoxidase and that of the fungus C. inaequalis both kinetically and at the sequence level. At the primary structural level the two chloroperoxidases share 68% identity, with conservation of all active site residues. PMID:9722573

Barnett, P; Hemrika, W; Dekker, H L; Muijsers, A O; Renirie, R; Wever, R

1998-09-01

235

Degradation of a model pollutant ferulic acid by the endophytic fungus Phomopsis liquidambari.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biodegradation of ferulic acid, by an endophytic fungus called Phomopsis liquidambari was investigated in this study. This strain can use ferulic acid as the sole carbon for growth. Both in mineral salt medium and in soil, more than 97% of added ferulic acid was degraded within 48 h. The metabolites were identified and quantified using GC-MS and HPLC-MS. Ferulic acid was first decarboxylated to 4-vinyl guaiacol and then oxidized to vanillin and vanillic acid, followed by demethylation to protocatechuic acid, which was further degraded through the ?-ketoadipate pathway. During degradation, ferulic acid decarboxylase, laccase and protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase activities and their gene transcription levels were significantly affected by the variation of substrate and product concentrations. Moreover, ferulic acid degradation was determined to some extent by P. liquidambari laccase. This study is the first report of an endophytic fungus that has a great potential for practical application in ferulic acid-contaminated environments. PMID:25514400

Xie, Xing-Guang; Dai, Chuan-Chao

2015-03-01

236

Bioactive secondary metabolites from the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco  

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Full Text Available This study reports the chemical investigation and cytotoxic activity of the secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco. This plant was collected from the Beni-Mellal Mountain in Morocco and belongs to the Lamiaceae family and is named in Morocco “Salmia”. The endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. was isolated from the tissues of the stem of this plant. The fungal strain was identified by PCR. The crude organic extract of the fungal strain was proven to be active when tested for cytotoxicity against L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. Chemical investigation of the secondary metabolites showed that cochliodinol is the main component beside isocochliodinol. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined on the basis of NMR analysis (1H, 13C, COSY and HMBC as well as by mass spectrometry using ESI (Electron Spray Ionisation as source.

Ebel R.

2009-01-01

237

Two novel eremophilane sesquiterpenes from an endophytic Xylariaceous fungus isolated from leaves of Cupressus lusitanica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Dois novos sesquiterpenos eremofilanos, cupressolideo A e cupressolideo B, além de dois outros conhecidos, foram isolados a partir do extrato AcOEt do meio de cultura de uma espécie de Xylaria, isolada como fungo endofítico dos tecidos sadios das folhas de Cupressus lusitanica. Estudos espectroscópi [...] cos, usando EM e RMN, levaram às estruturas dos dois sesquiterpenos de esqueleto eremofilanos, novos na literatura. Abstract in english Two new eremophilane sesquiterpenes, cupressolide A and cupressolide B, along with two known sesquiterpenes, has been characterized from the EtOAc extract of a liquid medium where a Xylariaceous fungus, isolated as an endophytic fungus from health tissues of Cupressus lusitanica leaves, was cultivat [...] ed. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by analyses of their MS and NMR spectroscopic data.

Luciana S., Amaral; Edson, Rodrigues-Filho.

1446-14-01

238

Biological decolourisation of pulp mill effluent using white rot fungus Trametes versicolor.  

Science.gov (United States)

The conventional biological treatment methods employed in the pulp and paper industries are not effective in reducing the colour and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The white-rot fungi are reported to have the ability to biodegrade the lignin and its derivatives. This paper is focused on the biological treatment of pulp mill effluent from a bagasse-based pulp and paper industry using fungal treatment. Experiments were conducted using the white rot fungus, Trametes versicolor in shake flasks operated in batch mode with different carbon sources. The decolourisation efficiencies of 82.5% and 80.3% were obtained in the presence of 15 g/L and 5 g/L of glucose and sucrose concentrations respectively with a considerable COD reduction. The possibility of reusing the grown fungus was examined for repeated treatment studies. PMID:24749195

Srinivasan, S V; Murthy, D V S; Swaminathan, T

2012-07-01

239

Hydroxylation of a hederagenin derived saponin by a Xylareaceous fungus found in fruits of Sapindus saponaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During our screening of tropical plants for endophyte microorganisms, a Xylareaceous fungus was found living on the internal part of Sapindus saponaria fruits. The fruits of S. saponaria accumulate great amounts of triterpenoidal and sesquiterpenoidal saponins. The saponin 3-O-(?-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1?3)-?-L -rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-L-arabinopyranosyl-hederagenin was isolated using chromatographic methods, after alkaline hydrolysis of the crude extract obtained from S. saponaria fruits and added to the culture medium used to grows the fungus. A new saponin was isolated from this experiment by preparative scale HPLC and characterized as a 22?-hydroxy derivative. The structure of this hydroxylated saponin was elucidated based on interpretation of MS/MS data and NMR spectra. (author)

240

Mathematical Modeling on Obligate Mutualism: Interactions between leaf-cutter ants and their fungus garden  

CERN Document Server

We propose a simple mathematical model by applying Michaelis-Menton equations of enzyme kinetics to study the mutualistic interaction between the leaf cutter ant and its fungus garden at the early stage of colony expansion. We derive the sufficient conditions on the extinction and coexistence of these two species. In addition, we give a region of initial condition that leads to the extinction of two species when the model has an interior attractor. Our global analysis indicates that the division of labor by workers ants and initial conditions are two important {factors} that determine whether leaf cutter ants colonies and their fungus garden survive and grow can exist or not. We validate the model by doing the comparing between model simulations and data on fungal and ant colony growth rates under laboratory conditions. We perform sensitive analysis and parameter estimation of the model based on the experimental data to gain more biological insights on the ecological interactions between leaf cutter ants and ...

Kang, Yun; Clark, Rebecca; Fewell, Jennifer

2011-01-01

241

Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in the fungus gardens of leaf-cutter ants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacteria-mediated acquisition of atmospheric N2 serves as a critical source of nitrogen in terrestrial ecosystems. Here we reveal that symbiotic nitrogen fixation facilitates the cultivation of specialized fungal crops by leaf-cutter ants. By using acetylene reduction and stable isotope experiments, we demonstrated that N2 fixation occurred in the fungus gardens of eight leaf-cutter ant species and, further, that this fixed nitrogen was incorporated into ant biomass. Symbiotic N2-fixing bacteria were consistently isolated from the fungus gardens of 80 leaf-cutter ant colonies collected in Argentina, Costa Rica, and Panama. The discovery of N2 fixation within the leaf-cutter ant-microbe symbiosis reveals a previously unrecognized nitrogen source in neotropical ecosystems. PMID:19965433

Pinto-Tomás, Adrián A; Anderson, Mark A; Suen, Garret; Stevenson, David M; Chu, Fiona S T; Cleland, W Wallace; Weimer, Paul J; Currie, Cameron R

2009-11-20

242

Coqui frogs persist with the deadly chytrid fungus despite a lack of defensive antimicrobial peptides.  

Science.gov (United States)

The amphibian skin fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) occurs widely in Puerto Rico and is thought to be responsible for the apparent extinction of 3 species of endemic frogs in the genus Eleutherodactylus, known as coquis. To examine immune defenses which may protect surviving species, we induced secretion of skin peptides from adult common coqui frogs E. coqui collected from upland forests at El Yunque. By matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, we were unable to detect peptide signals suggestive of antimicrobial peptides, and enriched peptides showed no capacity to inhibit growth of Bd. Thus, it appears that E. coqui depend on other skin defenses to survive in the presence of this deadly fungus. PMID:25667340

Rollins-Smith, Louise A; Reinert, Laura K; Burrowes, Patricia A

2015-02-10

243

Efficient Transmission of an Introduced Pathogen Via an Ancient Insect-Fungus Association  

Science.gov (United States)

In Cupressus sempervirens the association between seed insects and tree pathogens has resulted in optimal exploitation of the cones. A fungus-infected cone can be inhabited by the nymphs of a true seed bug (Orsillus maculatus), the adults of which may carry a heavy spore load at emergence. Cones are infected when eggs are laid within the cone, most frequently via the emergence holes of a seed wasp (Megastigmus wachtli). This symbiotic association evolved with the nonaggressive fungus Pestalotiopsis funerea within the natural range of the cypress. When the aggressive cypress canker disease (Seiridium cardinale) was introduced into Europe, it was transmitted by O. maculatus to cones usually colonized by Pestalotiopsis funerea, with disastrous consequences for the regeneration and survival of C. sempervirens in the entire Mediterranean area.

Battisti, A.; Roques, A.; Colombari, F.; Frigimelica, G.; Guido, M.

244

Leucoagaricus gongylophorus Produces Diverse Enzymes for the Degradation of Recalcitrant Plant Polymers in Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plants represent a large reservoir of organic carbon comprised largely of recalcitrant polymers that most metazoans are unable to deconstruct. Many herbivores gain access to nutrients in this material indirectly by associating with microbial symbionts, and leaf-cutter ants are a paradigmatic example. These ants use fresh foliar biomass as manure to cultivate fungus gardens composed primarily of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, a basidiomycetous symbiont that produces specialized hyphal swellings that serve as a food source for the host ant colony. Although leaf-cutter ants are conspicuous herbivores that contribute substantially to carbon turnover in Neotropical ecosystems, the process through which plant biomass is degraded in their fungus gardens is not well understood. Here we present the first draft genome of L. gongylophorus, and using genomic, metaproteomic, and phylogenetic tools we investigate its role in lignocellulose degradation in the fungus gardens of both Atta cephalotes and Acromyrmex echinatior leaf-cutter ants. We show that L. gongylophorus produces a diversity of lignocellulases in fungus gardens, and is likely the primary driver of plant biomass degradation in these ecosystems. We also show that this fungus produces distinct sets of lignocellulases throughout the different stages of biomass degradation, including numerous cellulases and laccases that may be playing an important but previously uncharacterized role in lignocellulose degradation. Our study provides a comprehensive analysis of plant biomass degradation in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens and provides insight into the molecular dynamics underlying the symbiosis between these dominant herbivores and their obligate fungal cultivar.

Aylward, Frank O.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Teiling, Clotilde; Tremmel, Daniel; Moeller, Joseph; Scott, Jarrod J.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Malfatti, Stephanie; Monroe, Matthew E.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Smith, Richard D.; Weinstock, George; Gerardo, Nicole; Suen, Garret; Lipton, Mary S.; Currie, Cameron R.

2013-06-12

245

Production of Some Biologically Active Secondary Metabolites From Marine-derived Fungus Varicosporina ramulosa  

OpenAIRE

In a screening of fungal isolates associated with marine algae collected from Abou-keer, Alexanderia during the four seasons of 2004, to obtain new biologically active compounds. Varicosporina ramulosa isolate was identified and selected as a producer of 13 compounds. Out of 13 pure compounds produced, compounds 3 and 10 were considered as antibacterial and antifungal compounds, respectively as they were active against gram positive, gram negative bacteria and a fungus. Optimization of condit...

Atalla, M. M.; Zeinab, H. K.; Eman, R. H.; Amani, A. Y.; Abeer, A. A. E. A.

2008-01-01

246

Exploring MicroRNA-Like Small RNAs in the Filamentous Fungus Fusarium oxysporum  

OpenAIRE

RNA silencing such as quelling and meiotic silencing by unpaired DNA (MSUD) and several other classes of special small RNAs have been discovered in filamentous fungi recently. More than four different mechanisms of microRNA-like RNAs (milRNAs) production have been illustrated in the model fungus Neurospora crassa including a dicer-independent pathway. To date, very little work focusing on small RNAs in fungi has been reported and no universal or particular characteristic of milRNAs were defin...

Chen, Rui; Jiang, Nan; Jiang, Qiyan; Sun, Xianjun; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Hui; Hu, Zheng

2014-01-01

247

Lecythomycin, a new macrolactone glycoside from the endophytic fungus Lecythophora sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new macrolactone glycoside, lecythomycin (1), 23-methyl-3-(1-O-mannosyl)-oxacyclotetracosan-1-one, was isolated from the endophytic fungus Lecythophora sp. (code 30.1), an endopyte of the Indonesian plant Alyxia reinwardtii. The structure of 1 was elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data. The isolated compound displayed antifungal activity against strains of Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida kruzei at minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 62.5-125 microg/mL. PMID:21615031

Sugijanto, Noor Erma; Diesel, Arnulf; Rateb, Mostafa; Pretsch, Alexander; Gogalic, Selma; Zaini, Noor Cholies; Ebel, Rainer; Indrayanto, Gunawan

2011-05-01

248

Chemical constituents of the endophytic fungus Lecythophora sp. isolated from Alyxia reinwardtii.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seven compounds, (2R)-3-(2-hydroxypropyl)-benzene-1,2-diol (1), kojic acid (2), 7-O-acetyl-kojic acid (3), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (4), emodine (5), 7-chloroemodine (6), and ergosterol-5,8-peroxide (7) were isolated from the endophytic fungus Lecythophora sp. (specimen codes 30.1 and 30.5), which were isolated from Alyxia reinwardtii (Apocynaceae). PMID:19967979

Sugijanto, Noor Erma; Diesel, Arnulf; Ebel, Rainer; Indrayanto, Gunawan; Zaini, Noor Cholies

2009-11-01

249

The rhizosphere microbial community in a multiple parallel mineralization system suppresses the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum  

OpenAIRE

The rhizosphere microbial community in a hydroponics system with multiple parallel mineralization (MPM) can potentially suppress root-borne diseases. This study focused on revealing the biological nature of the suppression against Fusarium wilt disease, which is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum, and describing the factors that may influence the fungal pathogen in the MPM system. We demonstrated that the rhizosphere microbiota that developed in the MPM system could suppress Fusarium wil...

Fujiwara, Kazuki; Iida, Yuichiro; Iwai, Takashi; Aoyama, Chihiro; Inukai, Ryuya; Ando, Akinori; Ogawa, Jun; Ohnishi, Jun; Terami, Fumihiro; Takano, Masao; Shinohara, Makoto

2013-01-01

250

[Incorporation of caffeine into the macromicete fungus Pleurotus sajor-caju growing on coffee pulp].  

Science.gov (United States)

TWhen the chemical composition of secondary metabolites from the Pleurotus sajor-caju growing on coffee pulp were study, it was found that the fungus has the faculty of incorporating caffeine inside its fructiferous body. Component of the substrate (around 1.3% on dry basis) did not show a structural change over the alkaloid; this constitutes an unexpected outcome for a species belonging to realm of the fungi. PMID:17592899

Nieto Ramírez, Ivonne Jeannette; Chegwin Angarita, Carolina; Osorio Zuloaga, Hector Jairo

2007-03-01

251

Role of mannitol metabolism in the pathogenicity of the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola  

OpenAIRE

In this study, the physiological functions of fungal mannitol metabolism in the pathogenicity and protection against environmental stresses were investigated in the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola. Mannitol metabolism was examined during infection of Brassica oleracea leaves by sequential HPLC quantification of the major soluble carbohydrates and expression analysis of genes encoding two proteins of mannitol metabolism, i.e., a mannitol dehydrogenase (AbMdh), and a mannitol-1-phos...

Calmes, Benoit; Guillemette, Thomas; Teyssier, Le?ny; Siegler, Benjamin; Pigne?, Sandrine; Landreau, Anne; Iacomi, Be?atrice; Lemoine, Re?mi; Richomme, Pascal; Simoneau, Philippe

2013-01-01

252

Microscopic fungus-like organisms and fungi of the S?owi?ski National Park. I.  

OpenAIRE

In the years 1996- 1998, the occurrence of microscopic fungus-like organisms and fungi in plant associations of seven permanent plots of the S?owi?ski National Park, Poland, was investigated. The plant associations included Betuletum pubescentis,Betulo-Quercetum roboris, Cirsio-Polygoneum, Filipendulo-Geronietum, Myrico-Salicetum auritae, Phragmitetum australis, and Ribo nigri-Alnetum. A total of 1509 plant samples representing 272 species in 48 families were collected. Three hundred and te...

Jwona Adamska; Janusz B?aszkowski

2000-01-01

253

Marilones A–C, phthalides from the sponge-derived fungus Stachylidium sp.  

OpenAIRE

The marine-derived fungus Stachylidium sp. was isolated from the sponge Callyspongia sp. cf. C. flammea. Culture on a biomalt medium supplemented with sea salt led to the isolation of three new phthalide derivatives, i.e., marilones A–C (1–3), and the known compound silvaticol (4). The skeleton of marilones A and B is most unusual, and its biosynthesis is suggested to require unique biochemical reactions considering fungal secondary metabolism. Marilone A (1) was found to have ant...

Celso Almeida; Stefan Kehraus; Miguel Prudêncio; Nig, Gabriele M. K.

2011-01-01

254

Genetic and Molecular Analysis of Phytochromes from the Filamentous Fungus Neurospora crassa  

OpenAIRE

Phytochromes (Phys) comprise a superfamily of red-/far-red-light-sensing proteins. Whereas higher-plant Phys that control numerous growth and developmental processes have been well described, the biochemical characteristics and functions of the microbial forms are largely unknown. Here, we describe analyses of the expression, regulation, and activities of two Phys in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. In addition to containing the signature N-terminal domain predicted to covalently ass...

Froehlich, Allan C.; Noh, Bosl; Vierstra, Richard D.; Loros, Jennifer; Dunlap, Jay C.

2005-01-01

255

A Hair & a Fungus: Showing Kids the Size of a Microbe  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple method is presented to show kids the size of a microbe--a fungus hypha--compared to a human hair. Common household items are used to make sterile medium on a stove or hotplate, which is dispensed in the cells of a weekly plastic pill box. Mold fungi can be easily and safely grown on the medium from the classroom environment. A microscope…

Richter, Dana L.

2013-01-01

256

A new phenalenone derivative from the soil fungus Penicillium herquei PSU-RSPG93.  

Science.gov (United States)

One new phenalenone derivative, peniciherqueinone (1), together with five known phenalenone derivatives (2-6), one known anthraquinone (7) and two known acetophenones (8 and 9) were isolated from the soil fungus Penicillium herquei PSU-RSPG93. Their structures were established by spectroscopic evidence. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by anisotropic effect and electronic circular dichroism spectroscopy. Compound 2 exhibited mild antioxidant activity and is noncytotoxic to Vero (African green monkey kidney fibroblasts) cell lines. PMID:25079041

Tansakul, Chittreeya; Rukachaisirikul, Vatcharin; Maha, Atip; Kongprapan, Thippaya; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Hutadilok-Towatana, Nongporn; Borwornwiriyapan, Kawitsara; Sakayaroj, Jariya

2014-01-01

257

Biotransformation of the Herbicide Atrazine by the White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

OpenAIRE

Biotransformation of atrazine by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by a 48% decrease of the initial herbicide concentration in the growth medium within the first 4 days of incubation, which corresponded to the mycelium-growing phase. Results clearly established the mineralization of the ethyl group of the herbicide. Analysis of the growth medium showed the formation of hydroxylated and/or N-dealkylated metabolites of atrazine during fungal degradation.

Mougin, Christian; Laugero, Chantal; Asther, Michele; Dubroca, Jacqueline; Frasse, Pierre; Asther, Marcel

1994-01-01

258

A new cyclic tetrapeptide from the jellyfish-derived fungus Phoma sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new cyclic tetrapeptide (1), along with known congeners (2, 3), was isolated from the fungus Phoma sp. derived from the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined using the modified Mosher's method and Marfey's method. Compound 1 displayed a weak suppressive effect on the production of nitric oxide (NO) in murine macrophage cells (RAW264.7) without notable cytotoxicity. PMID:23037010

Kim, Eun La; Li, Jian Lin; Xiao, Bin; Hong, Jongki; Yoo, Eun Sook; Yoon, Won Duk; Jung, Jee H

2012-01-01

259

Colonization of Corn, Zea mays, by the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana†  

OpenAIRE

Light and electron microscopy were used to describe the mode of penetration by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin into corn, Zea mays L. After inoculation with a foliar spray of conidia, germinating hyphae grew randomly across the leaf surface. Often a germ tube formed from a conidium and elongated only a short distance before terminating its growth. Not all developing hyphae on the leaf surface penetrated the cuticle. However, when penetration did occur, the p...

Wagner, Bruce L.; Lewis, Leslie C.

2000-01-01

260

Dactylospora glaucomarioides (Ascomycetes, Dactylosporaceae): A Lichenicolous Fungus New to South Korea  

OpenAIRE

The lichenicolous fungi flora of South Korea is poorly known. During recent field trips to various parts of South Korea and after an extensive examination of herbarium lichen specimens, we encountered a lichenicolous fungi growing over a thallus of the lichen Ochrolechia yasudae Vain., characterized by small black apothecia with mostly three-septate brown ascospores. It was identified as Dactylospora glaucomarioides. This is the first report of this lichenicolous fungus from South Korea. A ta...

Joshi, Yogesh; Knudsen, Kerry; Wang, Xin Yu; Hur, Jae-seoun

2010-01-01

261

Gene cluster involved in melanin biosynthesis of the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata.  

OpenAIRE

The filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata produces melanin, a black pigment, from acetate via 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene. To isolate a fungal gene required for melanin biosynthesis, we transformed an A. alternata Brm1- (light brown) mutant with the DNA of a wild-type strain genomic library constructed by use of a cosmid carrying the hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene. When hygromycin B-resistant transformants were screened for melanin production, 1 of 1,363 transformants appeared to regain ...

Kimura, N.; Tsuge, T.

1993-01-01

262

Structures of meroterpenes produced by Penicillium sp, an endophytic fungus found associated with Melia azedarach  

OpenAIRE

The fungus Penicillium sp was isolated from the root bark of Melia azedarach after surface sterilisation and cultivated for three weeks on sterilised rice. A new meroterpene, named austinoneol, and the known meroterpenes 7-b-acetoxy-dehydroaustin, neoaustin and dehydroaustin were isolated from the methanol extract of this rice culture. Their structures were identified after extensive spectroscopic studies, which also helped on the revision of ¹H and 13C chemical shift assignment for some of ...

Geris Dos, Santos Regina M.; Rodrigues-Filho Edson

2003-01-01

263

Characterization of a Brown Rot Fungus Isolated from Dwarf Flowering Almond in Korea  

OpenAIRE

The fruits showing brown rot symptom on dwarf flowering almond were found in Gongju, Chungchungnam-Do in Korea in July 2005. Small water-soaked lesions on the fruits were initiated, and gradually developed to soft rot covered with gray conidia. Then the diseased fruits were shrunk and became grayish-black mummies. A fungus was isolated from the diseased fruit and its morphological, cultural and molecular genetic characteristics were investigated. Typical blastospores of Monilinia spp. were ob...

Shim, Myoung Yong; Jeon, Young Jae; Kim, Seong Hwan

2007-01-01

264

Supernatant protein and cellulase activities of the anaerobic ruminal fungus Neocallimastix frontalis EB188.  

OpenAIRE

Protein and cellulose activities were measured in culture supernatants of the anaerobic ruminal fungus Neocallimastix frontalis EB188 established in glucose medium and switched to either glucose, cellobiose, or cellulose media. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to show differences caused by changing medium carbon source. Culture supernatants contained proteins with molecular weights ranging from greater than 116,000 to about 19,000. Low levels of cellulose activity were evident in g...

Barichievich, E. M.; Calza, R. E.

1990-01-01

265

Secondary metabolites of Pyrenochaeta sp. B36, an endophytic fungus from Annona squamosa L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four new metabolites, named pyrenochaetamide A, pyrenochaetolide A, pyrenochaetoxy A and pyrenochaetolide B, together with five known compounds, were isolated from strain Pyrenochaeta sp. B36, an endophytic fungus of Annona squamosa L. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses including 1D- and 2D-NMR (HMQC, HMBC, ¹H-¹H COSY and NOESY) and HRFT-MS. The cytotoxic activities of these compounds were evaluated and some of them showed substantial effect. PMID:21644182

Lin, Ting; Lin, Xiao; Lu, Chunhua; Shen, Yuemao

2011-06-01

266

Dactylospora glaucomarioides (Ascomycetes, Dactylosporaceae): A Lichenicolous Fungus New to South Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

The lichenicolous fungi flora of South Korea is poorly known. During recent field trips to various parts of South Korea and after an extensive examination of herbarium lichen specimens, we encountered a lichenicolous fungi growing over a thallus of the lichen Ochrolechia yasudae Vain., characterized by small black apothecia with mostly three-septate brown ascospores. It was identified as Dactylospora glaucomarioides. This is the first report of this lichenicolous fungus from South Korea. A taxonomic description and comments are presented. PMID:23956673

Joshi, Yogesh; Knudsen, Kerry; Wang, Xin Yu; Hur, Jae-Seoun

2010-12-01

267

Biotechnological applications of the gene transfer from the beneficial fungus Trichoderma harzianum to plants  

OpenAIRE

Alternative and ecological strategies are necessary and demanded for disease management in order to reduce the use of pesticides in agriculture. Thus, the use of biological control agents such as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) or several strains of the beneficial fungus Trichoderma spp. to combat plant diseases is the basis of biocontrol of plant pathogens and is a good approach to reach this healthy and environmentally adequate objective.

Hermosa, Rosa; Botella, Leticia; Montero-barrientos, Marta; Alonso-rami?rez, Ana; Arbona, Vicent; Go?mez-cadenas, Aurelio; Monte, Enrique; Nicola?s, Carlos

2011-01-01

268

Endemic Infection of the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus in a Frog Community Post-Decline  

OpenAIRE

The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in the decline and extinction of numerous frog species worldwide. In Queensland, Australia, it has been proposed as the cause of the decline or apparent extinction of at least 14 high-elevation rainforest frog species. One of these, Taudactylus eungellensis, disappeared from rainforest streams in Eungella National Park in 1985-1986, but a few remnant populations were subsequently discovered. Here, we report the analysis of ...

Retallick Richard W. R; McCallum Hamish; Speare Rick

2004-01-01

269

Presence of the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Native Amphibians Exported from Madagascar  

OpenAIRE

The emerging infectious disease chytridiomycosis is driven by the spread of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd), a highly virulent pathogen threatening global amphibian biodiversity. Although pandemic in distribution, previous intensive field surveys have failed to detect Bd in Madagascar, a biodiversity hotspot home to hundreds of endemic amphibian species. Due to the presence of Bd in nearby continental Africa and the ecological crisis that can be expected followin...

Kolby, Jonathan E.

2014-01-01

270

Genome-Wide Transcriptional Response of Silurana (Xenopus) tropicalis to Infection with the Deadly Chytrid Fungus  

OpenAIRE

Emerging infectious diseases are of great concern for both wildlife and humans. Several highly virulent fungal pathogens have recently been discovered in natural populations, highlighting the need for a better understanding of fungal-vertebrate host-pathogen interactions. Because most fungal pathogens are not fatal in the absence of other predisposing conditions, host-pathogen dynamics for deadly fungal pathogens are of particular interest. The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (h...

Rosenblum, Erica Bree; Poorten, Thomas J.; Settles, Matthew; Murdoch, Gordon K.; Robert, Jacques; Maddox, Nicole; Eisen, Michael B.

2009-01-01

271

Cytotoxic illudalane sesquiterpenes from the wood-decay fungus Granulobasidium vellereum (Ellis & Cragin) Jülich.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seven illudalane sesquiterpenes were obtained from the wood decomposing fungus Granulobasidium vellereum: granuloinden A, granuloinden B and dihydrogranuloinden, along with the previously known compounds radulactone, pterosin M, echinolactone A and D. Granuloinden B showed potent cytotoxic activity against the Huh7 and MT4 tumor cell lines (CC50 values of 6.7 and 0.15 µM, respectively), whereas granuloinden A and dihydrogranuloinden had no or moderate activity. PMID:25207719

Nord, Christina L; Menkis, Audrius; Broberg, Anders

2014-01-01

272

Cytotoxic Illudalane Sesquiterpenes from the Wood-Decay Fungus Granulobasidium vellereum (Ellis & Cragin Jülich  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seven illudalane sesquiterpenes were obtained from the wood decomposing fungus Granulobasidium vellereum: granuloinden A, granuloinden B and dihydrogranuloinden, along with the previously known compounds radulactone, pterosin M, echinolactone A and D. Granuloinden B showed potent cytotoxic activity against the Huh7 and MT4 tumor cell lines (CC50 values of 6.7 and 0.15 µM, respectively, whereas granuloinden A and dihydrogranuloinden had no or moderate activity.

Christina L. Nord

2014-09-01

273

ENZYME SYSTEMS FROM THE THERMOPHILIC FUNGUS TALAROMYCES EMERSONII FOR SUGAR BEET BIOCONVERSION  

OpenAIRE

The thermostable enzyme systems produced by the thermophilic ascomycete fungus Talaromyces emersonii cultivated on various carbon sources were investigated for the production of high value products from sugar beet. A broad range of enzymatic activities relevant to cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin hydrolysis were identified in T. emersonii culture filtrates. In hydrolysis experiments conducted at 71ºC, the enzyme cocktails generated sugar-rich syrups from untreated sugar beet plants. Ma...

Sara Fernandes; Murray, Patrick G.; Tuohy, Maria G.

2008-01-01

274

Impact of a Nematode-parasitic Fungus on the Effectiveness of Entomopathogenic Nematodes  

OpenAIRE

The impact of the nematode-parasitic fungus Hirsutella rhossiliensis on the effectiveness of Steinernema carpocapsae, S. glaseri, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora against Galleria mellonella larvae was assessed in the laboratory. The presence of Hirsutella conidia on the third-stage (J3) cuticle of S. carpocapsae and H. bacteriophora interfered with infection of insect larvae. Conidia on the J3 cuticle of S. glaseri and on the ensheathing second-stage cuticle of H. bacteriophora did not redu...

Timper, Patricia; Kaya, Harry K.

1992-01-01

275

Efficacy of Edible Film Incorporated with Essential Oils against White-rot Decay Fungus (Trametes versicolor)  

OpenAIRE

Antifungal activities of edible film incorporated with essential oils (cinnamon oil, clove oil, anise oil, citronella oil, orange oil, tangerine oil, turmeric oil, guava leave oil, nutmeg oil and lime oil) against a white-rot decay fungus (Trametes versicolor) identified from rubberwood were investigated. The disc dilution method was employed to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) by mixing edible film with essential oil at ratios 1:...

Saifon Phothisuwan; Narumol Matan

2013-01-01

276

Nematicidal activities of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and oidiolactone D produced by the fungus Oidiodendron sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two nematicides, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (4-HPA) (1) and oidiolactone D (2), were isolated from cultures of the fungus Oidiodendron sp., and their structures were identified by spectroscopic analyses. Compound 2 showed nematicidal activities against the root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans, and the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Compound 1 was also active against these two nematodes but to a lesser extent. PMID:21476434

Ohtani, Kouhei; Fujioka, Shozo; Kawano, Tsuyoshi; Shimada, Atsumi; Kimura, Yasuo

2011-01-01

277

Whole genome evaluation of horizontal transfers in the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus.  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Numerous cases of horizontal transfers (HTs) have been described for eukaryote genomes, but in contrast to prokaryote genomes, no whole genome evaluation of HTs has been carried out. This is mainly due to a lack of parametric methods specially designed to take the intrinsic heterogeneity of eukaryote genomes into account. We applied a simple and tested method based on local variations of genomic signatures to analyze the genome of the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. RESUL...

Mallet, Ludovic; Becq, Jennifer; Deschavanne, Patrick

2010-01-01

278

Multiple Sex Pheromones and Receptors of a Mushroom-producing Fungus Elicit Mating in Yeast  

OpenAIRE

The mushroom-producing fungus Schizophyllum commune has thousands of mating types defined, in part, by numerous lipopeptide pheromones and their G protein-linked receptors. Compatible combinations of pheromones and receptors encoded by different mating types regulate a pathway of sexual development leading to mushroom formation and meiosis. A complex set of pheromone–receptor interactions maximizes the likelihood of outbreeding; for example, a single pheromone can activate more than one rec...

Fowler, Thomas J.; Desimone, Susan M.; Mitton, Michael F.; Kurjan, Janet; Raper, Carlene A.

1999-01-01

279

Niche-Specific Activation of the Oxidative Stress Response by the Pathogenic Fungus Candida albicans?  

OpenAIRE

Candida albicans is a major opportunistic pathogen of humans. The pathogenicity of this fungus depends upon its ability to deal effectively with the host defenses and, in particular, the oxidative burst of phagocytic cells. We have explored the activation of the oxidative stress response in C. albicans in ex vivo infection models and during systemic infection of a mammalian host. We have generated C. albicans strains that contain specific green fluorescent protein (GFP) promoter fusions and h...

Enjalbert, Brice; Maccallum, Donna M.; Odds, Frank C.; Brown, Alistair J. P.

2007-01-01

280

Biocontrol of pigeon tick Argas reflexus (Acari: Argasidae) by entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium Anisopliae (Ascomycota: Hypocreales)  

OpenAIRE

The pigeon tick Argas reflexus is a pathogen-transmitting soft tick that typically feeds on pigeons, but can also attack humans causing local and systemic reactions. Chemical control is made difficult due to environmental contamination and resistance development. As a result, there is much interest in increasing the role of other strategies like biological control. In this study, the efficacy of three strains (V245, 685 and 715C) of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for biologica...

Mosa Tavassoli; Seyed Hassan Pourseyed; Abdulghaffar Ownagh; Iraj Bernousi; Karim Mardani

2011-01-01

281

Biodegradation of Natural and Synthetic Humic Acids by the White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

OpenAIRE

Biodegradation of natural and synthetic (melanoidin) humic acids by Phanerochaete chrysosporium BKM-F 1767 was demonstrated by decolorization in batch culture, reduction in molecular weight, and 14CO2 production from labeled melanoidin. This biodegradation occurred during secondary metabolism of the fungus in nitrogen-limited cultures; experimental results suggest that all or a part of the lignin-degrading system of BKM-F 1767 plays a part in biodegradation.

Blondeau, Roland

1989-01-01

282

Potential of ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius to tolerate and to degrade trifluoroacetate into fluoroform  

OpenAIRE

Trifluoroacetate (TFA) is a persistent fluorinated organic compound originated from the degradation of fluorinated compounds, such as HCFC and isoflurane, or as a side product from the thermolysis of fluoropolymers, like Teflon. TFA can reach soil through precipitation, where it persists in water and soil, and may contribute to forest decline. In this study, we assessed the capacity of P. tinctorius, an ectomycorrhizal fungus (ECMF), to tolerate and/or degrade TFA. In vitro studies in glucose...

Franco, Albina R.; Ramos, Miguel A.; Cravo, Sara; Afonso, Carlos; Castro, Paula M. L.

2014-01-01

283

Heterogeneous Occupancy and Density Estimates of the Pathogenic Fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Waters of North America  

OpenAIRE

Biodiversity losses are occurring worldwide due to a combination of stressors. For example, by one estimate, 40% of amphibian species are vulnerable to extinction, and disease is one threat to amphibian populations. The emerging infectious disease chytridiomycosis, caused by the aquatic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is a contributor to amphibian declines worldwide. Bd research has focused on the dynamics of the pathogen in its amphibian hosts, with little emphasis on investigati...

Chestnut, Tara; Anderson, Chauncey; Popa, Radu; Blaustein, Andrew R.; Voytek, Mary; Olson, Deanna H.; Kirshtein, Julie

2014-01-01

284

Purification and Characterization of Iso-Ribonucleases from a Novel Thermophilic Fungus  

OpenAIRE

A thermophilic fungus previously isolated from composted horse manure was found to produce extracellular iso-RNases that were purified 127.6-fold using a combination of size exclusion chromatography and a novel affinity membrane purification system. The extent of purification was determined electrophoretically using 4%–15% gradient polyacrylamide gels. RNase activity was dependent on the presence of a metal co-factor with significantly more activity with Zn2+ or Mn2+ than Mg2+. The RNases...

Landry, Kyle S.; Levin, Robert E.

2014-01-01

285

Iron competition in fungus-plant interactions: The battle takes place in the rhizosphere  

OpenAIRE

Soilborne fungal pathogens are highly persistent and provoke important crop losses. During saprophytic and infectious stages in the soil, these organisms face situations of nutrient limitation and lack of essential elements, such as iron. We investigated the role of the bZIP transcription factor HapX as a central regulator of iron homeostasis and virulence in the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum. This root-infecting plant pathogen attacks more than hundred different crops and is an eme...

Lo?pez-berges, Manuel S.; Turra?, David; Capilla, Javier; Schafferer, Lukas; Matthijs, Sandra; Jo?chl, Christoph; Cornelis, Pierre; Guarro, Josep; Haas, Hubertus; Di Pietro, Antonio

2013-01-01

286

Identification of a Gene Cluster for Biosynthesis of Mannosylerythritol Lipids in the Basidiomycetous Fungus Ustilago maydis  

OpenAIRE

Many microorganisms produce surface-active substances that enhance the availability of water-insoluble substrates. Although many of these biosurfactants have interesting potential applications, very little is known about their biosynthesis. The basidiomycetous fungus Ustilago maydis secretes large amounts of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) under conditions of nitrogen starvation. We recently described a putative glycosyltransferase, Emt1, which is essential for MEL biosynthesis and whose exp...

Hewald, Sandra; Linne, Uwe; Scherer, Mario; Marahiel, Mohamed A.; Ka?mper, Jo?rg; Bo?lker, Michael

2006-01-01

287

Steroids produced by Penicillium herquei, an endophytic fungus isolated from the fruits of Melia azedarach (Meliaceae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Six compounds comprising the groups of steroids, the ergosterol, the ergosterol peroxide, the cerevisterol, the neociclocitrinols, the ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one, the 25-hydroxy-ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one, were isolated from Penicillium herquei fungus obtained from Melia azedarach. The structures were identified by spectral methods of RMN 1D and 2D and MS. (author)

288

Plasticizers Increase Adhesion of the Deteriogenic Fungus Aureobasidium pullulans to Polyvinyl Chloride  

OpenAIRE

Initial adhesion of fungi to plasticized polyvinyl chloride (pPVC) may determine subsequent colonization and biodeterioration processes. The deteriogenic fungus Aureobasidium pullulans was used to investigate the physicochemical nature of adhesion to both unplasticized PVC (uPVC) and pPVC containing the plasticizers dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and dioctyl adipate (DOA). A quantitative adhesion assay using image analysis identified fundamental differences in the mechanism of adhesion of A. pullula...

Webb, Jeremy S.; Mei, Henny C.; Nixon, Marianne; Eastwood, Ian M.; Greenhalgh, Malcolm; Read, Simon J.; Robson, Geoffrey D.; Handley, Pauline S.

1999-01-01

289

Analysis of simple sequence repeats (SSRs)dynamics in fungus Fusarium graminearum  

OpenAIRE

The abundance and inherent potential for variations in simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites resulted in valuable source for genetic markers in eukaryotes. We describe the organization and abundance of SSRs in fungus Fusarium graminearum (causative agent for Fusarium head blight or head scab of wheat). We identified 1705 SSRs of various nucleotide repeat motifs in the sequence database of F. graminearum. It is observed that mononucleotide repeats (62%) were most abun...

Singh, Rajender; Sheoran, Sonia; Sharma, Pradeep; Chatrath, Ravish

2011-01-01

290

Induced autolysis of fungus Aspergillus terreus AT-490 grown on agricultural and food industry wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Autolysis of the biomass of fungus Aspergillus terreus AT-490 grown on citrus meal and tomato residues was studied. The optimal conditions of conducting it were determined: preliminary ultrasonic treatment for 5 min, temperature 55 degrees C, concentration of dry materials 50 g/liter, duration 23 hr, inducer 3% ethanol. The amino acid composition of the biomass of A. terreus AT-490 was determined

291

X-ray structure of a vanadium-containing enzyme: chloroperoxidase from the fungus Curvularia inaequalis.  

OpenAIRE

The chloroperoxidase (EC 1.11.1.-) from the fungus Curvularia inaequalis belongs to a class of vanadium enzymes that oxidize halides in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to the corresponding hypohalous acids. The 2.1 A crystal structure (R = 20%) of an azide chloroperoxidase complex reveals the geometry of the catalytic vanadium center. Azide coordinates directly to the metal center, resulting in a structure with azide, three nonprotein oxygens, and a histidine as ligands. In the native state...

Messerschmidt, A.; Wever, R.

1996-01-01

292

Quercinol, an anti-inflammatory chromene from the wood-rotting fungus Daedalea quercina (Oak Mazegill).  

Science.gov (United States)

The fungus Daedalea quercina (oak mazegill) was examined for its capability of producing antioxidative and anti-inflammatory compounds. Bioactivity guided fractionation of the extract from a mycelial culture led to the isolation of quercinol, which was identified as (-)-(2S)-2-hydroxymethyl-2-methyl-6-hydroxychromene 1 by NMR and X-ray analyses. The cryptic hydroquinone 1 shows a broad anti-inflammatory activity against cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), xanthine oxidase (XO), and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) at micromolar concentrations. PMID:17346963

Gebhardt, P; Dornberger, K; Gollmick, F A; Gräfe, U; Härtl, A; Görls, H; Schlegel, B; Hertweck, C

2007-05-01

293

Growth characteristics of the thermophilic fungus Scytalidium thermophilum in relation to production of mushroom compost.  

OpenAIRE

Scytalidium thermophilum is an important thermophilic fungus in the production of mushroom compost. I investigated the characteristics of this organism and present a simple model with which fungal growth in compost can be described. The model is used to predict better circumstances for rapid indoor production of mushroom compost. I conclude that inoculation of the starting material with prepared compost either before or after the pasteurization phase has only a minor effect on the shortening ...

Wiegant, W. M.

1992-01-01

294

Quinazolin-4-one Coupled with Pyrrolidin-2-iminium Alkaloids from Marine-Derived Fungus Penicillium aurantiogriseum  

OpenAIRE

Three new alkaloids, including auranomides A and B (1 and 2), a new scaffold containing quinazolin-4-one substituted with a pyrrolidin-2-iminium moiety, and auranomide C (3), as well as two known metabolites auranthine (4) and aurantiomides C (5) were isolated from the marine-derived fungus Penicillium aurantiogriseum. The chemical structures of compounds 1–3 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods, including IR, HRESIMS and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configurati...

Song, Fuhang; Ren, Biao; Yu, Ke; Chen, Caixia; Guo, Hui; Yang, Na; Gao, Hong; Liu, Xueting; Liu, Mei; Tong, Yaojun; Dai, Huanqin; Bai, Hua; Wang, Jidong; Zhang, Lixin

2012-01-01

295

Antifungal compounds of Xylaria sp., an endophytic fungus isolated from Palicourea marcgravii (Rubiaceae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five compounds, 2-hexyl-3-methyl-butanodioic acid (1), cytochalasin D (2), 7-dechlorogriseofulvin (3), cytochalasin B (4) and griseofulvin (5), have been isolated from the endophytic fungus Xylaria sp., and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. In the bioautography assay against Cladosporium cladosporioides and Cladosporium sphaerospermum, compounds 1 and 2 were found to be active while compounds 3, 4 and 5 did not show antifungal activity. (author)

296

Cryptic sex and many-to-one coevolution in the fungus-growing ant symbiosis  

OpenAIRE

The fungus-growing ants have long provided a spectacular example of coevolutionary integration. Their ecological success is thought to depend largely on the evolutionary alignment of reproductive interests between ants and fungi after vertical transmission and the ancient suppression of fungal sexuality. In the present study we test these assumptions and provide the first evidence of recombination in attine cultivars, contradicting widely held perceptions of obligate clonality. In addition, w...

Mikheyev, Alexander S.; Mueller, Ulrich G.; Abbot, Patrick

2006-01-01

297

Phenolic compounds, organic acids profiles and antioxidative properties of beefsteak fungus (Fistulina hepatica)  

OpenAIRE

The phenolic compounds and the organic acids composition of the edible beefsteak fungus Fistulina hepatica was determined by HPLC/DAD and HPLC/UV, respectively. The results showed a profile composed by five phenolic compounds (caffeic, p-coumaric and ellagic acids, hyperoside and quercetin) and six organic acids (oxalic, aconitic, citric, malic, ascorbic and fumaric acids). The quantification of the identified compounds revealed that ellagic acid (ca. 49.7%) and malic acid (ca. 57.9%) are the...

Ribeiro, Ba?rbara; Valenta?o, P.; Baptista, Paula; Seabra, R. M.; Andrade, P. B.

2007-01-01

298

Molecular Cloning, Characterization, and Differential Expression of a Glucoamylase Gene from the Basidiomycetous Fungus Lentinula edodes  

OpenAIRE

The complete nucleotide sequence of putative glucoamylase gene gla1 from the basidiomycetous fungus Lentinula edodes strain L54 is reported. The coding region of the genomic glucoamylase sequence, which is preceded by eukaryotic promoter elements CAAT and TATA, spans 2,076 bp. The gla1 gene sequence codes for a putative polypeptide of 571 amino acids and is interrupted by seven introns. The open reading frame sequence of the gla1 gene shows strong homology with those of other fungal glucoamyl...

Zhao, J.; Chen, Y. H.; Kwan, H. S.

2000-01-01

299

The Bacterially Produced Metabolite Violacein Is Associated with Survival of Amphibians Infected with a Lethal Fungus ?  

OpenAIRE

The disease chytridiomycosis, which is caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, is associated with recent declines in amphibian populations. Susceptibility to this disease varies among amphibian populations and species, and resistance appears to be attributable in part to the presence of antifungal microbial species associated with the skin of amphibians. The betaproteobacterium Janthinobacterium lividum has been isolated from the skins of several amphibian species and pro...

Becker, Matthew H.; Brucker, Robert M.; Schwantes, Christian R.; Harris, Reid N.; Minbiole, Kevin P. C.

2009-01-01

300

Comparative EST analysis provides insights into the basal aquatic fungus Blastocladiella emersonii  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Blastocladiella emersonii is an aquatic fungus of the Chytridiomycete class, which is at the base of the fungal phylogenetic tree. In this sense, some ancestral characteristics of fungi and animals or fungi and plants could have been retained in this aquatic fungus and lost in members of late-diverging fungal species. To identify in B. emersonii sequences associated with these ancestral characteristics two approaches were followed: (1 a large-scale comparative analysis between putative unigene sequences (uniseqs from B. emersonii and three databases constructed ad hoc with fungal proteins, animal proteins and plant unigenes deposited in Genbank, and (2 a pairwise comparison between B. emersonii full-length cDNA sequences and their putative orthologues in the ascomycete Neurospora crassa and the basidiomycete Ustilago maydis. Results Comparative analyses of B. emersonii uniseqs with fungi, animal and plant databases through the two approaches mentioned above produced 166 B. emersonii sequences, which were identified as putatively absent from other fungi or not previously described. Through these approaches we found: (1 possible orthologues of genes previously identified as specific to animals and/or plants, and (2 genes conserved in fungi, but with a large difference in divergence rate in B. emersonii. Among these sequences, we observed cDNAs encoding enzymes from coenzyme B12-dependent propionyl-CoA pathway, a metabolic route not previously described in fungi, and validated their expression in Northern blots. Conclusion Using two different approaches involving comparative sequence analyses, we could identify sequences from the early-diverging fungus B. emersonii previously considered specific to animals or plants, and highly divergent sequences from the same fungus relative to other fungi.

Gomes Suely L

2006-07-01

301

Pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycetes) to Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)  

Science.gov (United States)

The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is highly pathogenic to the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis. Spore concentrations of 108/ml for engorged larvae and 107/ml for engorged females resulted in 100% tick mortality, 2 wk post-infection. The LC50 value for engorged larvae (concentration to kill 50% of ticks) was 107 spores/ml. Metarhizium anisopliae shows considerable potential as a microbial control agent for the management of Ixodes scapularis.

Zhioua, E.; Browning, M.; Johnson, P.W.; Ginsberg, H.S.; LeBrun, R.A.

1997-01-01

302

Biodecolorization of Phenolic Paper Mill Effluent by Ligninolytic Fungus Trametes versicolor  

OpenAIRE

A white rot fungus isolated from soil samples enriched by continuous pulp and paper mill effluent irrigation and identified as Trametes versicolor was capable of decolorization and degradation of phenol from paper mill effluent. 14C synthetic lignin mineralization assays showed that Trametes versicolor assimilated 24.3% of the total label. There was 76% effluent decolourization along with 78% COD reduction. The effluent chlorinated phenol degradation was 85% by Trametes versicolor, when added...

Prabu, P. C.; Udayasoorian, C.

2005-01-01

303

Functional Analysis of the Polyketide Synthase Genes in the Filamentous Fungus Gibberella zeae (Anamorph Fusarium graminearum)  

OpenAIRE

Polyketides are a class of secondary metabolites that exhibit a vast diversity of form and function. In fungi, these compounds are produced by large, multidomain enzymes classified as type I polyketide synthases (PKSs). In this study we identified and functionally disrupted 15 PKS genes from the genome of the filamentous fungus Gibberella zeae. Five of these genes are responsible for producing the mycotoxins zearalenone, aurofusarin, and fusarin C and the black perithecial pigment. A comprehe...

Gaffoor, Iffa; Brown, Daren W.; Plattner, Ron; Proctor, Robert H.; Qi, Weihong; Trail, Frances

2005-01-01

304

Invasion of Spores of the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Gigaspora decipiens by Burkholderia spp.  

OpenAIRE

Burkholderia species are bacterial soil inhabitants that are capable of interacting with a variety of eukaryotes, in some cases occupying intracellular habitats. Pathogenic and nonpathogenic Burkholderia spp., including B. vietnamiensis, B. cepacia, and B. pseudomallei, were grown on germinating spores of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Gigaspora decipiens. Spore lysis assays revealed that all Burkholderia spp. tested were able to colonize the interior of G. decipiens spores. Amplification ...

Levy, Avram; Chang, Barbara J.; Abbott, Lynette K.; Kuo, John; Harnett, Gerry; Inglis, Timothy J. J.

2003-01-01

305

Sequencing and functional analysis of the genome of a nematode egg-parasitic fungus, Pochonia chlamydosporia  

OpenAIRE

Pochonia chlamydosporia is a worldwide-distributed soil fungus with a great capacity to infect and destroy the eggs and kill females of plant-parasitic nematodes. Additionally, it has the ability to colonize endophytically roots of economically-important crop plants, thereby promoting their growth and eliciting plant defenses. This multitrophic behavior makes P. chlamydosporia a potentially useful tool for sustainable agriculture approaches. We sequenced and assembled ?41 Mb of P. chlamydos...

Larriba Tornel, Eduardo; Jaime, Maria Dla; Carbonell Caballero, Jose?; Conesa, Ana; Dopazo, Joaqui?n; Nislow, Corey; Marti?n Nieto, Jose?; Lo?pez Llorca, Luis Vicente

2014-01-01

306

Enzymatic Mechanisms Involved in Phenanthrene Degradation by the White Rot Fungus Pleurotus ostreatus  

OpenAIRE

The enzymatic mechanisms involved in the degradation of phenanthrene by the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus were examined. Phase I metabolism (cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase and epoxide hydrolase) and phase II conjugation (glutathione S-transferase, aryl sulfotransferase, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, and UDP-glucosyltransferase) enzyme activities were determined for mycelial extracts of P. ostreatus. Cytochrome P-450 was detected in both cytosolic and microsomal fractions at 0.16 and 0.3...

Bezalel, L.; Hadar, Y.; Cerniglia, C. E.

1997-01-01

307

Isolation and Structural Elucidation of Chondrosterins F–H from the Marine Fungus Chondrostereum sp.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The marine fungus Chondrostereum sp. was collected from a soft coral of the species Sarcophyton tortuosum from the South China Sea. Three new compounds, chondrosterins F–H (1, 4 and 5, together with three known compounds, incarnal (2, arthrosporone (3, and (2E-decene-4,6,8-triyn-1-ol (6, were isolated. Their structures were elucidated primarily based on NMR and MS data. Incarnal (2 exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against various cancer cell lines.

Wen-Jian Lan

2013-02-01

308

UV-B-irradiation effect on growth reactions of phytopathogenic fungus fusarium solani  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The UV-B irradiation effect on spore germination and hyphae growth of phythopathogenic fungus Fusarium solani was studied. Spores irradiation by small doses of 0,1 - 1,0 kJ/m2 results in growth stimulation of primary hyphae. Adaptive effect of UV-B small doses for fungi was shown. Preliminary irradiation in doses of 0,1 - 0,5 kJ/m2 increased spore radioresistance and diminished the effect of the next damaging dose

309

Degradative Activity of Enzyme from Synnematous sp. Endophytic Fungus on Raw Starches  

OpenAIRE

The degradative activity on various raw starches by enzyme from Synnematous sp., an endophytic fungus was studied. The enzyme hydrolyzed raw starches to produce maltose and glucose. Maximum maltose and glucose were produced from raw rice and tapioca starch were 18.8 and 3.6 %, respectively. The yields were dependent on accessibility of granules surface to be attacked by the enzyme. The results of this study suggest that enzyme from Synnematous sp. has potential for the production of glucose a...

Yetti Marlida; Nazamid Saari; Son Radu; Fatimah Abu Bakar

2000-01-01

310

Ectomycorrhizal fungus (Paxillus involutus) and hydrogels affect performance of Populus euphratica exposed to drought stress  

OpenAIRE

Mycorrhizal fungi and hydrogels (water-absorbing polymers) can improve water availability for trees. The combination of both factors for plant performance under water limitation has not yet been studied. • To investigate the influence of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus, hydrogel and the combination of both factors, a drought-sensitive poplar, Populus euphratica, was examined in this study. • After 16 weeks of inoculation, no ectomycorrhizas were found. Neverth...

Luo, Zhi-bin; Li, Ke; Jiang, Xiangning; Polle, Andrea

2009-01-01

311

Sensitivity of the Entomogenous Fungus Beauveria bassiana to Selected Plant Growth Regulators and Spray Additives  

OpenAIRE

Mefluidide was the only one of four plant growth regulators that caused little to no significant inhibition of in vitro germination and growth of the entomogenous fungus Beauveria bassiana. Silaid, paclobutrazol, and flurprimidol significantly inhibited germination and growth. Mortality of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, resulting from B. bassiana was significantly reduced when larvae were exposed to conidia plus soil treated with paclobutrazol. Larval mortality resulting from conidia p...

Storey, Greggory K.; Gardner, Wayne A.

1986-01-01

312

The role of phytopathogenicity in bark beetle-fungus symbioses : a challenge to the classic paradigm  

OpenAIRE

The idea that phytopathogenic fungi associated with tree-killing bark beetles are critical for overwhelming tree defenses and incurring host tree mortality, herein called the classic paradigm (CP), has driven research on bark beetle–fungus symbiosis for decades. It has also strongly influenced our views of bark beetle ecology. We discuss fundamental flaws in the CP, including the lack of consistency of virulent fungal associates with tree-killing bark beetles, the lack of correspondence bet...

Six, Diana L.; Wingfield, Michael J.

2011-01-01

313

Attack of the Killer Fungus: A Hypothesis-Driven Lab Module †  

OpenAIRE

Discovery-driven experiments in undergraduate laboratory courses have been shown to increase student learning and critical thinking abilities. To this end, a lab module involving worm capture by a nematophagous fungus was developed. The goals of this module are to enhance scientific understanding of the regulation of worm capture by soil-dwelling fungi and for students to attain a set of established learning goals, including the ability to develop a testable hypothesis and search for primary ...

Sato, Brian K.

2013-01-01

314

Intraspecific variation of the aquatic fungus Articulospora tetracladia : an ubiquitous perspective  

OpenAIRE

The worldwide-distributed aquatic fungus Articulospora tetracladia Ingold is a dominant sporulating species in streams of the Northwest Iberian Peninsula. To elucidate the genetic diversity of A. tetracladia, we analyzed isolates collected from various types of plant litter or foam in streams from North and Central Portugal and North Spain, between 2000 and 2010. Genetic diversity of these fungal populations was assessed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprints and by us...

Seena, Sahadevan; Duarte, Sofia; Pascoal, Cla?udia; Ca?ssio, Fernanda

2012-01-01

315

Intraspecific Variation of the Aquatic Fungus Articulospora tetracladia: An Ubiquitous Perspective  

OpenAIRE

The worldwide-distributed aquatic fungus Articulospora tetracladia Ingold is a dominant sporulating species in streams of the Northwest Iberian Peninsula. To elucidate the genetic diversity of A. tetracladia, we analyzed isolates collected from various types of plant litter or foam in streams from North and Central Portugal and North Spain, between 2000 and 2010. Genetic diversity of these fungal populations was assessed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprints and by us...

Seena, Sahadevan; Duarte, Sofia; Pascoal, Cla?udia; Ca?ssio, Fernanda

2012-01-01

316

?-Glucosidases from the Fungus Trichoderma: An Efficient Cellulase Machinery in Biotechnological Applications  

OpenAIRE

?-glucosidases catalyze the selective cleavage of glucosidic linkages and are an important class of enzymes having significant prospects in industrial biotechnology. These are classified in family 1 and family 3 of glycosyl hydrolase family. ?-glucosidases, particularly from the fungus Trichoderma, are widely recognized and used for the saccharification of cellulosic biomass for biofuel production. With the rising trends in energy crisis and depletion of fossil fuels, alternative strategies...

Tiwari, Pragya; Misra, B. N.; Sangwan, Neelam S.

2013-01-01

317

Evolutionary transition from single to multiple mating in fungus-growing ants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Queens of leafcutter ants exhibit the highest known levels of multiple mating (up to 10 mates per queen) among ants. Multiple mating may have been selected to increase genetic diversity among nestmate workers, which is hypothesized to be critical in social systems with large, long-lived colonies under severe pressure of pathogens. Advanced fungus-growing (leafcutter) ants have large numbers (104-106 workers) and long-lived colonies, whereas basal genera in the attine tribe have small (<200 workers) colonies with probably substantially shorter lifespans. Basal attines are therefore expected to have lower queen mating frequencies, similar to those found in most other ants. We tested this prediction by analysing queen mating frequency and colony kin structure in three basal attine species: Myrmicocrypta ednaella, Apterostigma collare and Cyphomyrmex longiscapus. Microsatellite marker analyses revealed that queens in all three species were single mated, and that worker-to-worker relatedness in these basal attine species is very close to 0.75, the value expected under exclusively single mating. Fungus growing per se has therefore not selected for multiple queen mating. Instead, the advanced and highly productive social structure of the higher attine ants, which is fully dependent on the rearing of an ancient clonal fungus, may have necessitated high genetic diversity among nestmate workers. This is not the case in the lower attines, which rear fungi that were more recently derived from free-living fungal populations.

Villesen, Poul; Gertsch, P J

1999-01-01

318

A fibronectin receptor on Candida albicans mediates adherence of the fungus to extracellular matrix  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Binding of fibronectin, an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein, to Candida albicans was measured, and adherence of the fungus to immobilized ECM proteins, fibronectin, laminin, types I and IV collagen, and subendothelial ECM was studied. 125I-labeled fibronectin was inhibited from binding to the fungus by unlabeled human plasma fibronectin and by Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), Gly-Arg-Gly-Glu-Ser-Pro (GRGESP), and Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr-Pro (GRGDTP), but binding was not inhibited by Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-Pro. Soluble fibronectin, RGD, GRGESP, and GRGDTP also inhibited fungal adherence to the individual immobilized ECM proteins in a complex pattern, but only soluble fibronectin (10(-7) M) inhibited fungal adherence to subendothelial ECM. Thus, C. albicans possesses at least one type of cell surface receptor for binding soluble fibronectin that can be inhibited with peptides. This receptor apparently is used to bind the fungus to immobilized ECM proteins and to subendothelial ECM and may play a role in the initiation of disseminated disease by bloodborne fungi by providing for adherence of the microorganisms to ECM proteins

319

The fungus Cunninghamella elegans can produce human and equine metabolites of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs).  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are a group of substances that have potential to be used as doping agents in sports. Being a relatively new group not available on the open market means that no reference materials are commercially available for the main metabolites. In the presented study, the in vitro metabolism of SARMs by the fungus Cunninghamella elegans has been investigated with the purpose of finding out if it can produce relevant human and equine metabolites. 2. Three different SARMs, S1, S4 and S24, were incubated for 5 days with C. elegans. The samples were analysed both with and without sample pretreatment using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. 3. All the important phase I and some phase II metabolites from human and horse were formed by the fungus. They were formed through reactions such as hydroxylation, deacetylation, O-dephenylation, nitro-reduction, acetylation and sulfonation. 4. The study showed that the fungus produced relevant metabolites of the SARMs and thus can be used to mimic mammalian metabolism. Furthermore, it has the potential to be used for future production of reference material. PMID:23153056

Rydevik, Axel; Thevis, Mario; Krug, Oliver; Bondesson, Ulf; Hedeland, Mikael

2013-05-01

320

Speciation despite globally overlapping distributions in Penicillium chrysogenum: the population genetics of Alexander Fleming's lucky fungus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eighty years ago, Alexander Fleming described the antibiotic effects of a fungus that had contaminated his bacterial culture, kick starting the antimicrobial revolution. The fungus was later ascribed to a putatively globally distributed asexual species, Penicillium chrysogenum. Recently, the species has been shown to be genetically diverse, and possess mating-type genes. Here, phylogenetic and population genetic analyses show that this apparently ubiquitous fungus is actually composed of at least two genetically distinct species with only slight differences detected in physiology. We found each species in air and dust samples collected in and around St Mary's Hospital where Fleming worked. Genotyping of 30 markers across the genome showed that preserved fungal material from Fleming's laboratory was nearly identical to derived strains currently in culture collections and in the same distinct species as a wild progenitor strain of current penicillin producing industrial strains rather than the type species P. chrysogenum. Global samples of the two most common species were found to possess mating-type genes in a near 1:1 ratio, and show evidence of recombination with little geographic population subdivision evident. However, no hybridization was detected between the species despite an estimated time of divergence of less than 1MYA. Growth studies showed significant interspecific inhibition by P. chrysogenum of the other common species, suggesting that competition may facilitate species maintenance despite globally overlapping distributions. Results highlight under-recognized diversity even among the best-known fungal groups and the potential for speciation despite overlapping distribution. PMID:21951491

Henk, D A; Eagle, C E; Brown, K; Van Den Berg, M A; Dyer, P S; Peterson, S W; Fisher, M C

2011-10-01

321

Repeated evolution of crop theft in fungus-farming ambrosia beetles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ambrosia beetles, dominant wood degraders in the tropics, create tunnels in dead trees and employ gardens of symbiotic fungi to extract nutrients from wood. Specificity of the beetle-fungus relationship has rarely been examined, and simple vertical transmission of a specific fungal cultivar by each beetle species is often assumed in literature. We report repeated evolution of fungal crop stealing, termed mycocleptism, among ambrosia beetles. The mycocleptic species seek brood galleries of other species, and exploit their established fungal gardens by tunneling through the ambient mycelium-laden wood. Instead of carrying their own fungal sybmbionts, mycocleptae depend on adopting the fungal assemblages of their host species, as shown by an analysis of fungal DNA from beetle galleries. The evidence for widespread horizontal exchange of fungi between beetles challenges the traditional concept of ambrosia fungi as species-specific symbionts. Fungus stealing appears to be an evolutionarily successful strategy. It evolved independently in several beetle clades, two of which have radiated, and at least one case was accompanied by a loss of the beetles' fungus-transporting organs. We demonstrate this using the first robust phylogeny of one of the world's largest group of ambrosia beetles, Xyleborini. PMID:20633043

Hulcr, Jiri; Cognato, Anthony I

2010-11-01

322

Identification of Fungus Flora Associated with Lagenaria Siceraria (Molina Standl in Côte d’Ivoire  

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Full Text Available Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl is a cucurbit which seeds are consumed by people in rural and urban Africa. This plant is subjected to a strong parasitic and diseases pressure that reduces seeds production. Efficient fight against plant parasite, particularly fungus is a prerequisite for an improved productivity. This study was undertaken in five localities (Alepe, Bondoukou, Bongouanou, Divo and Korhogo belonging to three agroecological areas of Côte d’Ivoire. The aim was to identify fungal genera infecting L. siceraria in order to design an efficient control measure. Leaf samples with necrosis and discoloration symptoms were collected throughout the localities and subsequently, fungus were isolated and identified in laboratory. From a total of 750 samples collected, 7 types of symptoms were distinguished. Fungal genera found in all of the localities were Aspergillus, Botryosphaeria, Cochliobolus, Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia and Phoma. Only Pestalotiopsis was specific to the locality of Divo. An ANOVA test performed on the data showed a significant difference between fungal genera in terms of isolation frequency. Principal components analysis revealed that fungus distribution in each locality was correlated with climatic factors.

Koffi Ah?bé Marie-Hélène

2013-10-01

323

Recent and massive expansion of the mating-type-specific region in the smut fungus microbotryum.  

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The presence of large genomic regions with suppressed recombination (SR) is a key shared property of some sex- and mating-type determining (mat) chromosomes identified to date in animals, plants, and fungi. Why such regions form and how they evolve remain central questions in evolutionary genetics. The smut fungus Microbotryum lychnis-dioicae is a basidiomycete fungus in which dimorphic mat chromosomes have been reported, but the size, age, and evolutionary dynamics of the SR region remains unresolved. To identify the SR region in M. lychnis-dioicae and to study its evolution, we sequenced 12 genomes (6 per mating type) of this species and identified the genomic contigs that show fixed sequence differences between the mating types. We report that the SR region spans more than half of the mat chromosome (>2.3 Mbp) and that it is of very recent origin (?2 × 10(6) years) as the average sequence divergence between mating types was only 2% in the SR region. This contrasts with a much higher divergence in and around the mating-type determining pheromone receptor locus in the SR, suggesting a recent and massive expansion of the SR region. Our results comprise the first reported case of recent massive SR expansion documented in a basidiomycete fungus. PMID:25567990

Whittle, Carrie A; Votintseva, Antonina; Ridout, Kate; Filatov, Dmitry A

2015-03-01

324

Spermidine and the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius synergistically induce maturation of Scots pine embryogenic cultures.  

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Exogenous spermidine (Spd) and the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker and Couch had a synergistic effect on the maturation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) somatic embryos. Induced maturation was expressed as a higher number of cell masses able to form embryos and a greater number of embryos formed per cell mass. In contrast, treatment with P. tinctorius alone on the hormone-free medium resulted in the lowest embryo-forming capacity. Retarded proliferation growth appeared to be required for maturation, but did not explain the synergistic effect of the fungus and exogenous Spd. Simultaneous treatment did not result in lower concentrations of putrescine (Put), Spd or spermine (Spm) in the embryogenic cell masses relative to the separate treatments. Our study is the first report on the use of a specific ECM fungus to induce maturation of somatic embryos, and it indicates that P. tinctorius was able to modify the maturation media in a way that, together with exogenous Spd, positively affected embryogenic cultures of Scots pine. Our study also shows that it is possible to enhance plant development other than root formation by using specific ECM fungi. PMID:16777261

Niemi, Karoliina; Sarjala, Tytti; Chen, Xiwen; Häggman, Hely

2007-05-01

325

Phenanthrene uptake by Medicago sativa L. under the influence of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phenanthrene uptake by Medicago sativa L. was investigated under the influence of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. Inoculation of lucerne with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus etunicatum L. resulted in higher phenanthrene accumulation in the roots and lower accumulation in the shoots compared to non-mycorrhizal controls. Studies on sorption and desorption of phenanthrene by roots and characterization of heterogeneity of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal roots using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C NMR) demonstrated that increased aromatic components due to mycorrhizal inoculation resulted in enhanced phenanthrene uptake by the roots but lower translocation to the shoots. Direct visualization using two-photon excitation microscopy (TPEM) revealed higher phenanthrene accumulation in epidermal cells of roots and lower transport into the root interior and stem in mycorrhizal plants than in non-mycorrhizal controls. These results provide some insight into the mechanisms by which arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation may influence the uptake of organic contaminants by plants. - Colonization by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus promoted root uptake and decreased shoot uptake of phenanthrene by Medicago sativa L.

326

Fusarium moniliforme Sheld. A fungus producing a broad spectrum of bioactive metabolites.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon (perfect stage Gibberella fujikuroi (SAW. Wollenweber), an ubiquitous fungus belonging to the section Liseola (Booth), is one of the widespread, phytopathogenic fungi. This field fungus common on many crops, including rice, oats, wheat, maize, barley and soybeans was well known because of the ability to produce gibberellins in high quantities. Today beside of the very important gibberellic acid (GA3) other gibberellins such as GA4 and GA7 are of significance for agriculture and horticulture. Moreover, this fungus produces further biologically active metabolites, e.g. pigments, mycotoxins, phytotoxins, oestrogens and extracellular enzymes. Fusarium moniliforme strains are able to produce 2 pigment groups - the karotenoids and the bikaverins, the last of which has antibiotical activity against Leishmania brasiliensis. The biosynthesis of some mycotoxic substances, such as moniliformin, fusaric acid, fusarin C and fusariocin C, is described. From enzymes the milk-clotting rennin, cellulolytic and amylolytic enzymes, pectinases and phenol-degrading enzymes are of economical interest. Therefore, Fusarium moniliforme is a source of different bioactive metabolites. The production is dependent on the conditions and strain specifity. PMID:2652945

Brückner, B; Blechschmidt, D; Schubert, B

1989-01-01

327

Detection of wood discoloration in a canker fungus-inoculated Japanese cedar by neutron radiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron radiography (NRG) was applied to trace the development of discolored tissue in the wood of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) after being infected with a canker fungus. Japanese cedar seedlings were wound inoculated with a virulent and avirulent isolate of a canker fungus, Guignardia cryptomeriae. Three, 7, 13 and 22 days after the inoculation, the seedlings were irradiated with thermal neutrons. The image on the X-ray film showed that the whiteness in the image corresponded to the water content in the sample. Discolored tissue and surrounding dry zones induced by the fungal inoculation were detected as dark areas, indicating water deficiency with a high resolution. Through image analysis, the dry zones were detected as early as 3 days after inoculation. Neutron images also showed the difference in the size of water deficient parts due to the tissue damage among the treatments. The neutron beam dose used in this experiment had no effect on the growth rate of the fungus on a medium, showing that NRG is an effective method for pathological research of trees. (author)

328

Larvicidal effects of endophytic and basidiomycete fungus extracts on Aedes and Anopheles larvae (Diptera, Culicidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction In vitro bioassays were performed to access the larvicidal activity of crude extracts from the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis virgulata (Melanconiales, Amphisphaeriaceae) and the saprophytic fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus (Basidiomycetes, Polyporaceae) against the mosquitoes Aedes aegy [...] pti and Anopheles nuneztovari. Methods The extracts were tested at concentrations of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500ppm. Ethyl acetate mycelia (EAM) extracts and liquid culture media (LCM) from Pe. virgulata and Py. sanguineus were tested against third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and An. nuneztovari. Results The larvicidal activity of the EAM extracts from Pe. virgulata against Ae. aegypti had an LC50=101.8ppm, and the extract from the basidiomycete fungus Py. sanguineus had an LC50=156.8ppm against the Ae. aegypti larvae. The Pe. virgulata extract had an LC50=16.3ppm against the An. nuneztovari larvae, and the Py. sanguineus extract had an LC50=87.2ppm against these larvae. Conclusions These results highlight the larvicidal effect of EAM extracts from the endophyte Pe. virgulata against the two larval mosquitoes tested. Thus, Pe. virgulata and Py. sanguineus have the potential for the production of bioactive substances against larvae of these two tropical disease vectors, with An. nuneztovari being more susceptible to these extracts.

Augusto, Bucker; Nadia Cristina Falcao, Bucker; Antonia Queiroz Lima de, Souza; Auricelia Matos da, Gama; Edson, Rodrigues-Filho; Fabio Medeiros da, Costa; Cecilia Veronica, Nunez; Ademir Castro e, Silva; Wanderli Pedro, Tadei.

2013-08-08

329

Isolation of Phosphate-solubilizing Fungus and Its Application in Solubilization of Rock Phosphates  

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Full Text Available Microorganisms have been obtained to improve the agronomic value of Rock Phosphates (RPs, but the phosphorus solubilizing rate by these approaches is very slow. It is important to explore a high-efficient phosphate-solubilizing approach with a kind of microorganisms. This study aimed to isolate a high-efficient level of phosphate-solubilizing fungus from rhizosphere soil samples phosphate mines (Liuyang County, Hunan province, China and apply it in solubilization of RPs. The experiments were carried out by the conventional methodology for morphological and biochemical fungus characterization and the analysis of 18s rRNA sequence. Then the effects of time, temperature, initial pH, phosphorus (P sources, RPs concentration, shaking speed and silver ion on the content of soluble P released by this isolate were investigated. The results showed this isolate was identified as Galactomyces geotrichum P14 (P14 in GeneBank and the maximum amount of soluble P was 1252.13 mg L-1 within 40 h in a modified phosphate growth agar’s medium (without agar where contained tricalcium phosphate (TCP as sole phosphate source. At the same time, it could release phosphate and solubilize various rock phosphates. The isolated fungus can convert RPs from insoluble form into plant available form and therefore it hold great potential for biofertilizers to enhance soil fertility and promote plant growth.

Zhang Aiqun

2012-01-01

330

Mathematical modeling on obligate mutualism: Interactions between leaf-cutter ants and their fungus garden.  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose a simple mathematical model by applying Michaelis-Menton equations of enzyme kinetics to study the mutualistic interaction between the leaf cutter ant and its fungus garden at the early stage of colony expansion. We derive sufficient conditions on the extinction and coexistence of these two species. In addition, we give a region of initial condition that leads to the extinction of two species when the model has an interior attractor. Our global analysis indicates that the division of labor by worker ants and initial conditions are two important factors that determine whether leaf cutter ants' colonies and their fungus garden can survive and grow or not. We validate the model by comparing model simulations and data on fungal and ant colony growth rates under laboratory conditions. We perform sensitive analysis of the model based on the experimental data to gain more biological insights on ecological interactions between leaf-cutter ants and their fungus garden. Finally, we give conclusions and discuss potential future work. PMID:21903102

Kang, Yun; Clark, Rebecca; Makiyama, Michael; Fewell, Jennifer

2011-11-21

331

Antimicrobial Metabolites from the Endophytic Fungus Pichia guilliermondii Isolated from Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis  

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Full Text Available Three steroids and one nordammarane triterpenoid were isolated for the first time from the endophytic fungus Pichia guilliermondii Ppf9 derived from the medicinal plant Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis. By means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis, they were identified as ergosta-5,7,22-trienol (1, 5?,8?-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3?-ol (2, ergosta-7,22-dien-3?,5?,6?-triol (3, and helvolic acid (4. Both micro-dilution-colorimetric and spore germination assays were employed to evaluate their antimicrobial activity. Among them, helvolic acid (4 exhibited the strongest antibacterial activity against all test bacteria, with MIC values ranging from 1.56 µg/mL to 50 µg/mL, and IC50 values from 0.98 µg/mL to 33.19 µg/mL. It also showed strong inhibitory activity on the spore germination of Magnaporthe oryzae with an IC50 value of 7.20 µg/mL. Among the three steroids, 5?,8?-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3?-ol (2 exhibited relatively strong antimicrobial activity. The results suggest that the endophytic fungus Pichia guillermondii Ppf9 could be a candidate for producing helvolic acid, and the metabolites from this fungus could be potentially developed as antimicrobial agents in the future.

Yan Mou

2010-11-01

332

Antimicrobial metabolites from the endophytic fungus Pichia guilliermondii isolated from Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three steroids and one nordammarane triterpenoid were isolated for the first time from the endophytic fungus Pichia guilliermondii Ppf9 derived from the medicinal plant Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis. By means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis, they were identified as ergosta-5,7,22-trienol (1), 5?,8?-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3?-ol (2), ergosta-7,22-dien-3?,5?,6?-triol (3), and helvolic acid (4). Both micro-dilution-colorimetric and spore germination assays were employed to evaluate their antimicrobial activity. Among them, helvolic acid (4) exhibited the strongest antibacterial activity against all test bacteria, with MIC values ranging from 1.56 µg/mL to 50 µg/mL, and IC(50) values from 0.98 µg/mL to 33.19 µg/mL. It also showed strong inhibitory activity on the spore germination of Magnaporthe oryzae with an IC(50) value of 7.20 µg/mL. Among the three steroids, 5?,8?-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3?-ol (2) exhibited relatively strong antimicrobial activity. The results suggest that the endophytic fungus Pichia guillermondii Ppf9 could be a candidate for producing helvolic acid, and the metabolites from this fungus could be potentially developed as antimicrobial agents in the future. PMID:21060302

Zhao, Jianglin; Mou, Yan; Shan, Tijiang; Li, Yan; Zhou, Ligang; Wang, Mingan; Wang, Jingguo

2010-11-01

333

Ambispora granatensis, a new arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, associated with Asparagus officinalis in Andalucia (Spain).  

Science.gov (United States)

A new dimorphic fungal species in the arbuscular mycorrhiza-forming Glomeromycota, Ambispora granatensis, was isolated from an agricultural site in the province of Granada (Andalucía, Spain) growing in the rhizosphere of Asparagus officinalis. It was propagated in pot cultures with Trifolium pratense and Sorghum vulgare. The fungus also colonized Ri T-DNA transformed Daucus carota roots but did not form spores in these root organ cultures. The spores of the acaulosporoid morph are 90-150 ?m diam and hyaline to white to pale yellow. They have three walls and a papillae-like rough irregular surface on the outer surface of the outer wall. The irregular surface might become difficult to detect within a few hours in lactic acid-based mountings but are clearly visible in water. The structural central wall layer of the outer wall is only 0.8-1.5 ?m thick. The glomoid spores are formed singly or in small, loose spore clusters of 2-10 spores. They are hyaline to pale yellow, (25)40-70 ?m diam and have a bilayered spore wall without ornamentation. Nearly full length sequences of the 18S and the ITS regions of the ribosomal gene place the new fungus in a separate clade next to Ambispora fennica and Ambispora gerdemannii. The acaulosporoid spores of the new fungus can be distinguished easily from all other spores in genus Ambispora by the conspicuous thin outer wall. PMID:20952800

Palenzuela, Javier; Barea, José-Miguel; Ferrol, Nuria; Oehl, Fritz

2011-01-01

334

Pan-European Distribution of White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) Not Associated with Mass Mortality  

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Background The dramatic mass mortalities amongst hibernating bats in Northeastern America caused by “white nose-syndrome” (WNS) continue to threaten populations of different bat species. The cold-loving fungus, Geomyces destructans, is the most likely causative agent leading to extensive destruction of the skin, particularly the wing membranes. Recent investigations in Europe confirmed the presence of the fungus G. destructans without associated mass mortality in hibernating bats in six countries but its distribution remains poorly known. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected data on the presence of bats with white fungal growth in 12 countries in Europe between 2003 and 2010 and conducted morphological and genetic analysis to confirm the identity of the fungus as Geomyces destructans. Our results demonstrate the presence of the fungus in eight countries spanning over 2000 km from West to East and provide compelling photographic evidence for its presence in another four countries including Romania, and Turkey. Furthermore, matching prevalence data of a hibernaculum monitored over two consecutive years with data from across Europe show that the temporal occurrence of the fungus, which first becomes visible around February, peaks in March but can still be seen in some torpid bats in May or June, is strikingly similar throughout Europe. Finally, we isolated and cultured G. destructans from a cave wall adjacent to a bat with fungal growth. Conclusions/Significance G. destructans is widely found over large areas of the European continent without associated mass mortalities in bats, suggesting that the fungus is native to Europe. The characterisation of the temporal variation in G. destructans growth on bats provides reference data for studying the spatio-temporal dynamic of the fungus. Finally, the presence of G. destructans spores on cave walls suggests that hibernacula could act as passive vectors and/or reservoirs for G. destructans and therefore, might play an important role in the transmission process. PMID:21556356

Korn, Vanessa; Fuller, Hubert; Forget, Frédéric; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Kurth, Andreas; Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw; Borel, Christophe; Bosch, Thijs; Cherezy, Thomas; Drebet, Mikhail; Görföl, Tamás; Haarsma, Anne-Jifke; Herhaus, Frank; Hallart, Guénael; Hammer, Matthias; Jungmann, Christian; Le Bris, Yann; Lutsar, Lauri; Masing, Matti; Mulkens, Bart; Passior, Karsten; Starrach, Martin; Wojtaszewski, Andrzej; Zöphel, Ulrich; Teeling, Emma C.

2011-01-01

335

Characterization of Perylene in Tropical Environment: Comparison of New and Old Fungus Comb for Identifying Perylene Precursor in Macrotermes gilvus Termite Nests of Peninsular Malaysia  

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Full Text Available This is the first record on the distribution of perylene in new and old fungus combs of termite nest (Macrotermes gilvus in order to determine perylene source in tropical environment. Twenty four samples of new and old fungus combs, inner and outer nest walls, fresh and decomposed bark, decomposed stem, soil, and soil-wood interface were collected in order to test of two hypotheses; i Perylene is produced in the termite’s hindgut (M. gilvus and ii Perylene is present only in new fungus comb of M. gilvus termite nests. For one Station (Station A the profile of perylene concentration was the following order: fungus comb > outer nest wall ? Soil-Wood interface ? decomposed stem ? decomposed bark ? Inner nest wall > Soil. For the other Station (i.e. B the profile was new fungus comb > inner nest wall > old fungus comb ? outer nest wall ~ Soil. The perylene concentration was found up to 21-54 times higher in fungus comb as compare to the rest of the samples in Station A. whereas, the perylene concentration was 85-400 times higher in new fungus comb as compare to the remaining samples in Station B, this can be due to the production or accumulation of perylene in these nests. On the other hand, smaller termite nests (Stations C and E no perylene was detected, due to the fact that the new fungus comb was not found in those nests. The results confirmed the following hypotheses; perylene occurs only in new fungus comb and may be attributed to the high concentrations of aromatic rings of lignin in new fungus comb.

Alireza Riyahi Bakhtiari

2010-01-01

336

Fungus infection in immunocompromised rabbits: correlation of thin-section CT findings and histopathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To compare the thin-section CT findings of pulmonary candidiasis, aspergillosis and cryptococcosis with histopathology in immunocompromised rabbits and improve the diagnostic accuracy of fungus infection. Methods: Healthy New Zealand white rabbits were used for immunocompromised animal models. Thin-section CT scan was performed before and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 d after inoculation. The pattern and distribution of the pulmonary abnormalities were retrospectively assessed by two thoracic radiologists and compared with histopathology. The granulocyte count was compared before and after administration of immunosuppressive agents. The paired t test, chi square test and the Fisher's exact test were used for the statistics. Results: Fourteen rabbits had candidiasis, 16 rabbits had eryptococcosis, 15 rabbits had aspergillosis. The granulocyte counts before and after administration of immunosuppressive agents were (2.91±0.92) and (0.35±0.19) x 109/L respectively in candidiasis group, there was a significant difference (t=12.484, P9/L in aspergillosis group, there was a significant difference (t=5.792, P9/L in cryptococcosis group, there was a significant difference (t=8.199, P0.05). Ground glass opacity (GGO) and consolidation were the two most common finidation were the two most common findings in immunocompromised rabbits with three fungus infections, areas of GGO was correlated with the congestion, hemorrhage, inflammatory cell infiltration and interstitial hyperplasia in pathology. Consolidation was correlated with the severe congestion, hemorrhage, inflammatory cell infiltration, interstitial hyperplasia, necrosis and vascular embolism in pathology. Conclusion: GGO and consolidation are the two most common findings of fungus infections in immunocompromised animal models and thin-section CT findings can reflect the pathological changes. (authors)

337

Evolution of ant-cultivar specialization and cultivar switching in Apterostigma fungus-growing ants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Almost all of the more than 200 species of fungus-growing ants (Formicidae: Attini) cultivate litter-decomposing fungi in the family Lepiotaceae (Basidiomycota: Agaricales). The single exception to this rule is a subgroup of ant species within the lower attine genus Apterostigma, which cultivate pterulaceous fungi distantly related to the Lepiotaceae. Comparison of cultivar and ant phylogenies suggests that a switch from lepiotaceous to pterulaceous fungiculture occurred only once in the history of the fungus-growing ants. This unique switch occurred after the origin of the genus Apterostigma, such that the basal Apterostigma lineages retained the ancestral attine condition of lepiotaceous fungiculture, and none of the Apterostigma lineages in the monophyletic group of pterulaceous fungiculturists are known to have reverted back to lepiotaceous fungiculture. The origin of pterulaceous fungiculture in attine ants may have involved a unique transition from the ancestral cultivation of litter-decomposing lepiotaceous fungi to the cultivation of wood-decomposing pterulaceous fungi. Phylogenetic analyses further indicate that distantly related Apterostigma ant species sometimes cultivate the same cultivar lineage, indicating evolutionarily frequent, and possibly ongoing, exchanges of fungal cultivars between Apterostigma ant species. The pterulaceous cultivars form two sister clades, and different Apterostigma ant lineages are invariably associated with, and thus specialized on, only one of the two cultivar clades. However, within clades Apterostigma ant species are able to switch between fungi. This pattern of broad specialization by attine ants on defined cultivar clades, coupled with flexible switching between fungi within cultivar clades, is also found in other attine lineages and appears to be a general phenomenon of fungicultural evolution in all fungus-growing ants.

Villesen, Palle; Mueller, Ulrich G

2004-01-01

338

Effect of the fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia on Echinostoma paraensei (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Echinostoma paraensei is a trematode of the genus Echinostoma that causes echinostomiasis in humans. The objectives of this study were to: evaluate the ovicidal activity of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia (VC1 and VC4) on a solid medium 2% water-agar (2% WA) against E. paraensei eggs (assay A); evaluate ovicidal effect (destruction of eggs) of the isolate VC4 in supplemented culture media (assay B); and evaluate the ovicidal ability of the crude extract (VC4) on E. paraensei eggs (assay C). Eggs of E. paraensei (assay A) were placed in Petri dishes containing 2% WA with an isolate of the fungus P. chlamydosporia (VC1 and VC4) grown for 10 days, and without fungus as a control and evaluated regarding their destruction. In assay B, eggs of E. paraensei were placed in Petri dishes with different supplemented culture media and with VC4 isolate and the destruction of eggs was examined at the end of 25 days of interaction. In assay C, effects of the crude extract of P. chlamydosporia (VC4) on eggs were evaluated at the end of 7 days. In assay A, there was no difference (p>0.05) in ovicidal activity among the tested isolates (VC1 and VC4); however, the highest percentage for ovicidal activity (type 3 effect) was demonstrated by the isolate VC4. In assay B, the culture medium starch-agar showed the best results for the destruction of the eggs, with a percentage of 46.6% at the end of the assay. In assay C, the crude extract of VC4 was effective in the destruction of E. paraensei eggs, with a percentage reduction of 53%. The results of this study demonstrate that a rich culture medium with a greater availability of carbon and nitrogen may interfere directly in the predatory characteristics of ovicidal fungi. PMID:25046695

Lelis, Rosane Teixeira; Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; de Carvalho, Lorendane Millena; de Paula, Alessandra Teixeira; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Fausto, Mariana Costa; Junior, Arnaldo Maldonado; Rodrigues, João Victor Facchini; de Freitas Soares, Filippe Elias; Garcia, Juberlan Silva; de Araújo, Jackson Victor

2014-11-01

339

Genomic Resources of Magnaporthe oryzae (GROMO: A comprehensive and integrated database on rice blast fungus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Magnaporthe oryzae, rice blast fungus, is the most devastating pathogen of rice. It has emerged as a model phytopathogen for the study of host-pathogen interactions. A large body of data has been generated on different aspects of biology of this fungus and on host-pathogen interactions. However, most of the data is scattered and is not available as a single resource for researchers in this field. Description Genomic Resources of Magnaporthe oyzae (GROMO, is a specialized, and comprehensive database for rice blast fungus, integrating information from several resources. GROMO contains information on genomic sequence, mutants available, gene expression, localization of proteins obtained from a variety of repositories, as primary data. In addition, prediction of domains, pathways, protein-protein interactions, sumolyation sites and biochemical properties that were obtained after computational analysis of protein sequences have also been included as derived data. This database has an intuitive user interface that shall prompt the user to explore various possible information resources available on a given gene or a protein, from a single source. Conclusion Currently, information on M. oryzae is available from different resources like BROAD MIT Magnaporthe database, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT M. oryzae database, Magnaporthe grisea – Oryza sativa (MGOS and Massive Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS databases. In the GROMO project, an effort has been made to integrate information from all these databases, derive some new data based on the available information analyzed by relevant programs and make more insightful predictions to better understand the biology of M. oryzae. The database is currently available at: http://gromo.msubiotech.ac.in/

Chattoo Bharat

2009-07-01

340

Exploring the Chemodiversity and Biological Activities of the Secondary Metabolites from the Marine Fungus Neosartorya pseudofischeri  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The production of fungal metabolites can be remarkably influenced by various cultivation parameters. To explore the biosynthetic potentials of the marine fungus, Neosartorya pseudofischeri, which was isolated from the inner tissue of starfish Acanthaster planci, glycerol-peptone-yeast extract (GlyPY and glucose-peptone-yeast extract (GluPY media were used to culture this fungus. When cultured in GlyPY medium, this fungus produced two novel diketopiperazines, neosartins A and B (1 and 2, together with six biogenetically-related known diketopiperazines,1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2, 3-dimethyl-1,4-dioxopyrazino[1,2-a]indole (3, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-methyl-3-methylen e-1,4-dioxopyrazino[1,2-a]indole (4, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-methyl-1,3,4-trioxopyrazino[1,2-a] indole (5, 6-acetylbis(methylthiogliotoxin (10, bisdethiobis(methylthiogliotoxin (11, didehydrobisdethiobis(methylthiogliotoxin (12 and N-methyl-1H-indole-2-carboxamide (6. However, a novel tetracyclic-fused alkaloid, neosartin C (14, a meroterpenoid, pyripyropene A (15, gliotoxin (7 and five known gliotoxin analogues, acetylgliotoxin (8, reduced gliotoxin (9, 6-acetylbis(methylthiogliotoxin (10, bisdethiobis(methylthio gliotoxin (11 and bis-N-norgliovictin (13, were obtained when grown in glucose-containing medium (GluPY medium. This is the first report of compounds 3, 4, 6, 9, 10 and 12 as naturally occurring. Their structures were determined mainly by MS, 1D and 2D NMR data. The possible biosynthetic pathways of gliotoxin-related analogues and neosartin C were proposed. The antibacterial activity of compounds 2 14 and the cytotoxic activity of compounds 4, 5 and 7–13 were evaluated. Their structure-activity relationships are also preliminarily discussed.

Wan-Ling Liang

2014-11-01

341

Exploring the chemodiversity and biological activities of the secondary metabolites from the marine fungus Neosartorya pseudofischeri.  

Science.gov (United States)

The production of fungal metabolites can be remarkably influenced by various cultivation parameters. To explore the biosynthetic potentials of the marine fungus, Neosartorya pseudofischeri, which was isolated from the inner tissue of starfish Acanthaster planci, glycerol-peptone-yeast extract (GlyPY) and glucose-peptone-yeast extract (GluPY) media were used to culture this fungus. When cultured in GlyPY medium, this fungus produced two novel diketopiperazines, neosartins A and B (1 and 2), together with six biogenetically-related known diketopiperazines,1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2, 3-dimethyl-1,4-dioxopyrazino[1,2-a]indole (3), 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-methyl-3-methylen e-1,4-dioxopyrazino[1,2-a]indole (4), 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-methyl-1,3,4-trioxopyrazino[1,2-a] indole (5), 6-acetylbis(methylthio)gliotoxin (10), bisdethiobis(methylthio)gliotoxin (11), didehydrobisdethiobis(methylthio)gliotoxin (12) and N-methyl-1H-indole-2-carboxamide (6). However, a novel tetracyclic-fused alkaloid, neosartin C (14), a meroterpenoid, pyripyropene A (15), gliotoxin (7) and five known gliotoxin analogues, acetylgliotoxin (8), reduced gliotoxin (9), 6-acetylbis(methylthio)gliotoxin (10), bisdethiobis(methylthio) gliotoxin (11) and bis-N-norgliovictin (13), were obtained when grown in glucose-containing medium (GluPY medium). This is the first report of compounds 3, 4, 6, 9, 10 and 12 as naturally occurring. Their structures were determined mainly by MS, 1D and 2D NMR data. The possible biosynthetic pathways of gliotoxin-related analogues and neosartin C were proposed. The antibacterial activity of compounds 2-14 and the cytotoxic activity of compounds 4, 5 and 7-13 were evaluated. Their structure-activity relationships are also preliminarily discussed. PMID:25421322

Liang, Wan-Ling; Le, Xiu; Li, Hou-Jin; Yang, Xiang-Ling; Chen, Jun-Xiong; Xu, Jun; Liu, Huan-Liang; Wang, Lai-You; Wang, Kun-Teng; Hu, Kun-Chao; Yang, De-Po; Lan, Wen-Jian

2014-11-01

342

Identifying the transition between single and multiple mating of queens in fungus-growing ants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Obligate mating of females (queens) with multiple males has evolved only rarely in social Hymenoptera (ants, social bees, social wasps) and for reasons that are fundamentally different from those underlying multiple mating in other animals. The monophyletic tribe of ('attine') fungus-growing ants is known to include evolutionarily derived genera with obligate multiple mating (the Acromyrmex and Atta leafcutter ants) as well as phylogenetically basal genera with exclusively single mating (e.g. Apterostigma, Cyphomyrmex, Myrmicocrypta). All attine genera share the unique characteristic of obligate dependence on symbiotic fungus gardens for food, but the sophistication of this symbiosis differs considerably across genera. The lower attine genera generally have small, short-lived colonies and relatively non-specialized fungal symbionts (capable of living independently of their ant hosts), whereas the four evolutionarily derived higher attine genera have highly specialized, long-term clonal symbionts. In this paper, we investigate whether the transition from single to multiple mating occurred relatively recently in the evolution of the attine ants, in conjunction with the novel herbivorous 'leafcutter' niche acquired by the common ancestor of Acromyrmex and Atta, or earlier, at the transition to rearing specialized long-term clonal fungi in the common ancestor of the larger group of higher attines that also includes the genera Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex. We use DNA microsatellite analysis to provide unambiguous evidence for a single, late and abrupt evolutionary transition from exclusively single to obligatory multiple mating. This transition is historically correlated with other evolutionary innovations, including the extensive use of fresh vegetation as substrate for the fungus garden, a massive increase in mature colony size and morphological differentiation of the worker caste.

Villesen, Palle; Murakami, Takahiro

2002-01-01

343

Punctaporonins H–M: Caryophyllene-Type Sesquiterpenoids from the Sponge-Associated Fungus Hansfordia sinuosae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Six new caryophyllene-based sesquiterpenoids named punctaporonins H–M (1–6, together with punctaporonin B (7 and humulane (8 were isolated from the fermentation broth of the sponge-derived fungus Hansfordia sinuosae. Their structures were determined by the extensive HRESIMS and NMR spectroscopic analysis, including the X-ray crystallographic data for the assignment of the absolute configurations of punctaporonins H–I (1–2. The isolated compounds were evaluated for antihyperlipidemic, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities, and punctaporonin K (4 exhibited potent effects to reduce the triglycerides and total cholesterol in the intracellular levels.

Zehong Wu

2014-06-01

344

Efficacy of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum in controlling the tick Rhipicephalus annulatus under field conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

High infectivity of entomopathogenic fungi to ticks under laboratory conditions has been demonstrated in many studies. However, the few reports on their use under field conditions demonstrate large variations in their success, often with no clear explanation. The present study evaluated the factors affecting the efficacy of the fungus Metarhizium brunneum against the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus. It demonstrates how environmental conditions and ground cover affect the efficiency of the fungus under field conditions. During the summer, 93% of tick females exposed to fungus-contaminated ground died within 1 week, whereas during the winter, only 62.2% died within 6 weeks. Nevertheless, the hatchability of their eggs was only 6.1% during the summer and 0.0% during winter. Covering the ground with grass, leaves or gravel improved fungal performance. Aside from killing female ticks, the fungus had a substantial effect on tick fecundity. Fungal infection reduced the proportion of female ticks laying full-size egg masses by up to 91%, and reduced egg hatchability by up to 100%. To reduce the negative effect of outdoor factors on fungal activity, its conidia were mixed with different oils (olive, canola, mineral or paraffin at 10% v/v) and evaluated in both laboratory and field tests for efficacy. All tested oils without conidia sprayed on the sand did not influence tick survival or weight of the laid eggs but significantly reduced egghatchability. Conidia in water with canola or mineral oil spread on agarose and incubated for 18 h showed 57% and 0% germination, respectively. Comparing, under laboratory conditions, the effects of adding each of the four oils to conidia in water on ticks demonstrated no effect on female mortality or weight of the laid egg mass, but the percentage of hatched eggs was reduced. In outdoor trials, female ticks placed on the ground sprayed with conidia in water yielded an average of 175 larvae per female and there was no hatching of eggs laid by females placed on ground sprayed with conidia in water with canola or mineral oils. PMID:25468024

Samish, M; Rot, A; Ment, D; Barel, S; Glazer, I; Gindin, G

2014-12-15

345

Biotransformation of chalcones by the endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus isolated from Paspalum maritimum trin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fungus Aspergillus flavus isolated as endophytic of the plant Paspalum maritimum Trin. was evaluated for its potential application in biotransformation reactions. The compounds chalcone (1), 3,4,5-trimethoxychalcone (2) and 2,3,4,4'-tetramethoxy chalcone (3) were biotransformed, respectively, in dihydrochalcone (4), 3,4,5-trimethoxydihydrochalcone (5) and 2,3,4,4'-tetramethoxydihydrochalcone (6). The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR techniques, and MS analysis. The dihydrochalcones 5 and 6 are new compounds. (author)

Correa, Marivaldo J.C.; Nunes, Fatima M.; Bitencourt, Heriberto R.; Borges, Fabio C.; Guilhon, Giselle M.S.P.; Arruda, Mara S.P.; Marinho, Andrey M. R.; Santos, Alberdan S.; Alves, Claudio N.; Santos, Lourivaldo S., E-mail: lss@ufpa.b [Universidade Federal do Para (IQ/FEQ/UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Tecnologia. Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica; Brasil, Davi S.B. [Universidade Federal do Para (PPGQ/IQ/UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Quimica

2011-07-01

346

Biotransformation of chalcones by the endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus isolated from Paspalum maritimum trin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fungus Aspergillus flavus isolated as endophytic of the plant Paspalum maritimum Trin. was evaluated for its potential application in biotransformation reactions. The compounds chalcone (1), 3,4,5-trimethoxychalcone (2) and 2,3,4,4'-tetramethoxy chalcone (3) were biotransformed, respectively, in dihydrochalcone (4), 3,4,5-trimethoxydihydrochalcone (5) and 2,3,4,4'-tetramethoxydihydrochalcone (6). The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR techniques, and MS analysis. The dihydrochalcones 5 and 6 are new compounds. (author)

347

Fungus-growing ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on Santa Catarina Island, Brazil: patterns of occurrence  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A taxonomic survey on fungus-growing ants (Attini) was made at 14 beaches on Santa Catarina Island (SC), Brazil. The samplings were manual, in soil or litterfall, in the following habitats: sandy beach, herbaceous vegetation and shrubby vegetation. From 12 species of Attini (ten of Acromyrmex Mayr a [...] nd two of Cyphomyrmex Mayr), the most frequent were Cyphomyrmex morschi Emery and Acromyrmex crassispinus Forel, collected, respectively, on eight and ten of the monitored beaches. Altogether, Sorensen’s similarity coefficients were high (range: 0.59-0.80), in spite of the lower numbers of ant species on sandy beaches

Benedito, Cortês Lopes; Harold, Gordon Fowler.

2000-06-01

348

Degradation of the fluoroquinolone enrofloxacin by the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum striatum: identification of metabolites.  

OpenAIRE

The degradation of enrofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibacterial drug used in veterinary medicine, was investigated with the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum striatum. After 8 weeks, mycelia suspended in a defined liquid medium had produced 27.3, 18.5, and 6.7% 14CO2 from [14C]enrofloxacin labeled either at position C-2, at position C-4, or in the piperazinyl moiety, respectively. Enrofloxacin, applied at 10 ppm, was transformed into metabolites already after about 1 week. The most stable interm...

Wetzstein, Heinz-georg; Schmeer, Norbert; Karl, Wolfgang

1997-01-01

349

Characterization of an Acetyl Xylan Esterase from the Anaerobic Fungus Orpinomyces sp. Strain PC-2  

OpenAIRE

A 1,067-bp cDNA, designated axeA, coding for an acetyl xylan esterase (AxeA) was cloned from the anaerobic rumen fungus Orpinomyces sp. strain PC-2. The gene had an open reading frame of 939 bp encoding a polypeptide of 313 amino acid residues with a calculated mass of 34,845 Da. An active esterase using the original start codon of the cDNA was synthesized in Escherichia coli. Two active forms of the esterase were purified from recombinant E. coli cultures. The size difference of 8 amino acid...

Blum, David L.; Li, Xin-liang; Chen, Huizhong; Ljungdahl, Lars G.

1999-01-01

350

Molecular Characterization and Expression of a Phytase Gene from the Thermophilic Fungus Thermomyces lanuginosus  

OpenAIRE

The phyA gene encoding an extracellular phytase from the thermophilic fungus Thermomyces lanuginosus was cloned and heterologously expressed, and the recombinant gene product was biochemically characterized. The phyA gene encodes a primary translation product (PhyA) of 475 amino acids (aa) which includes a putative signal peptide (23 aa) and propeptide (10 aa). The deduced amino acid sequence of PhyA has limited sequence identity (ca. 47%) with Aspergillus niger phytase. The phyA gene was ins...

Berka, Randy M.; Rey, Michael W.; Brown, Kimberly M.; Byun, Tony; Klotz, Alan V.

1998-01-01

351

New Prenylxanthones from the Deep-Sea Derived Fungus Emericella sp. SCSIO 05240  

OpenAIRE

Four new prenylxanthones, emerixanthones A–D (1–4), together with six known analogues (5–10), were isolated from the culture of the deep-sea sediment derived fungus Emericella sp. SCSIO 05240, which was identified on the basis of morphology and ITS sequence analysis. The newstructures were determined by NMR (1H, 13C NMR, HSQC, HMBC, and 1H-1H COSY), MS, CD, and optical rotation analysis. The absolute configuration of prenylxanthone skeleton was also confirmed by the X-ray crystallograph...

Mangaladoss Fredimoses; Xuefeng Zhou; Xiuping Lin; Xinpeng Tian; Wen Ai; Junfeng Wang; Shengrong Liao; Juan Liu; Bin Yang; Xianwen Yang; Yonghong Liu

2014-01-01

352

Regulation of cellulase gene expression in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei.  

OpenAIRE

Basic features of regulation of expression of the genes encoding the cellulases of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei QM9414, the genes cbh1 and cbh2 encoding cellobiohydrolases and the genes egl1, egl2 and egl5 encoding endoglucanases, were studied at the mRNA level. The cellulase genes were coordinately expressed under all conditions studied, with the steady-state mRNA levels of cbh1 being the highest. Solka floc cellulose and the disaccharide sophorose induced expression to almost t...

Ilme?n, M.; Saloheimo, A.; Onnela, M. L.; Penttila?, M. E.

1997-01-01

353

Sesquiterpenes produced by endophytic fungus Phomopsis cassiae with antifungal and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two new diastereoisomeric cadinanes sesquiterpenes 3,9-dihydroxycalamenene (1-2), along with the known 3-hydroxycalamen-8-one (3) and aristelegone-A (4), were isolated from ethyl acetate extract of Phomopsis cassiae, an endophytic fungus in Cassia spectabilis. Their structures, including relative stereochemistry, were determined on the basis of detailed interpretation of 2D NMR spectra and comparison with related known compounds. Compounds 1-4 displayed antifungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, as well as inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. (author)

354

Cytotoxic anthranilic acid derivatives from deep sea sediment-derived fungus Penicillium paneum SD-44.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five new anthranilic acid derivatives, penipacids A-E (1-5), together with one known analogue (6), which was previously synthesized, were characterized from the ethyl acetate extract of the marine sediment-derived fungus Penicillium paneum SD-44. Their structures were elucidated mainly by extensive NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analysis. The cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of the isolated compounds were evaluated. Compounds 1, and 5 exhibited inhibitory activity against human colon cancer RKO cell line, while compound 6 displayed cytotoxic activity against Hela cell line. PMID:23966037

Li, Chun-Shun; Li, Xiao-Ming; Gao, Shu-Shan; Lu, Yan-Hua; Wang, Bin-Gui

2013-08-01

355

Bioactive Chemical Constituents of a Sterile Endophytic Fungus from Meliotus dentatus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chemical and biological investigations of the endophytic fungus of an unidentifiedAscomycete, isolated from Meliotus dentatus led to the isolation of six known polyketide metabolites (1–6 andtwo steroids (7 and 8. Compounds 1–3, and 5 were tested for antibacterial, antialgal and antifungal activities.Compounds 2, 3, and 5 showed good activity against the alga Chlorella fusca, while compounds 2 and 3 wereactive against the Gram negative bacterium Escherichia coli and compounds 3 and 5 also against the Grampositive Bacillus megaterium. Similarly, compounds 3 and 5 also showed antifungal activity againstMicrobotryum violaceum.

Barbara Schulz

2009-03-01

356

Five Sesquiterpenoids from a Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp. Isolated from a Gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three new phenolic bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoids: (+-methyl sydowate (1, 7-deoxy-7,14-didehydrosydonic acid (2, and 7-deoxy-7,8-didehydrosydonic acid (3, together with two known fungal metabolites were isolated from the fermentation broth of a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp., which was isolated in turn from a gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea collected from the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated by combined spectroscopic methods, and the structure of 1 was further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray data.

Mei-Yan Wei

2010-03-01

357

Mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

White rot fungi, including Pleurotus ostreatus, have the ability to efficiently degrade lignin, a naturally occurring aromatic polymer. Previous work has found these organisms were able to degrade PAHs and in some cases to mineralize them; most of the work was done with Phanerochaete chrysosporium. P. ostreatus differs from P. chrysosporium in its lignin degradation mechanism. In this study, enzymatic activities were monitored during P. ostreatus growth in the presence of PAHs and the fungus`s ability to mineralize catechol and various PAHs was demonstrated. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Bezalel, L.; Hadar, Y. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel); Cerniglia, C.E. [National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR (United States)

1996-01-01

358

New Spiral ?-Lactone Enantiomers from the Plant Endophytic Fungus Pestalotiopsis foedan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available (?-(4S, 8S-Foedanolide (1a and (+-(4R, 8R-foedanolide (1b, a pair of new spiro-?-lactone enantiomers, were isolated from the fermentation broth of the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis foedan by HPLC using a chiral column, achieving over 7% ee. Their structures and absolute configurations were determined on the basis of extensive analysis of NMR spectra combined with computational methods via calculation of the electronic circular dichroism (ECD and optical rotation (OR. Compounds 1a and 1b showed moderate activities against HeLa, A-549, U-251, HepG2 and MCF-7 tumor cell lines.

Xiao-Long Yang

2013-02-01

359

The methane fermentation of Citrus unshu peel pretreated with fungus enzymes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Of five fungi isolated from Citrus unshu peels, an Aspergillus sp. strain designated A-1 had the highest activity in macerating peels. When C. unshu peel slurry was treated with Aspergillus sp. A-1 crude enzymes for 48 h, the 200-mesh filter passing rate reached 89.8%. Most of the peel oil (95.8%) was removed by 48-h enzyme treatment with agitation. Pretreatment of peels with fungus enzymes resulted in 50% increase in the amount of limit load for anaerobic digestion. (author).

Akao, T.; Mizuki, E.; Saito, H.; Okumura, S. (Material Research Inst. (JP). Fukuoka Industrial Technology Center); Murao, S. (Kumamoto Inst. of Technology (JP). Dept. of Applied Microbial Technology)

1992-01-01

360

Chartarlactams A-P, phenylspirodrimanes from the sponge-associated fungus Stachybotrys chartarum with antihyperlipidemic activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical examination of the solid culture of the endophytic fungus Stachybotrys chartarum isolated from the sponge Niphates recondita resulted in the isolation of 16 new phenylspirodrimanes, named chartarlactams A-P (1-16), together with eight known analogues. Their structures were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including X-ray single-crystal diffraction for the determination of the absolute configurations. The isoindolone-drimane dimer chartarlactam L (12) was determined as a new skeleton. Compounds 1-6 and 8-24 were evaluated for antihyperlipidemic effects in HepG2 cells, and the primary structure-activity relationships are discussed. PMID:24387683

Li, Yong; Wu, Chongming; Liu, Dong; Proksch, Peter; Guo, Peng; Lin, Wenhan

2014-01-24

361

Biodecolorization of Phenolic Paper Mill Effluent by Ligninolytic Fungus Trametes versicolor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A white rot fungus isolated from soil samples enriched by continuous pulp and paper mill effluent irrigation and identified as Trametes versicolor was capable of decolorization and degradation of phenol from paper mill effluent. 14C synthetic lignin mineralization assays showed that Trametes versicolor assimilated 24.3% of the total label. There was 76% effluent decolourization along with 78% COD reduction. The effluent chlorinated phenol degradation was 85% by Trametes versicolor, when added with 1% glucose as co-substrate.

P.C. Prabu

2005-01-01

362

Three New Asperentin Derivatives from the Algicolous Fungus Aspergillus sp. F00785  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three new asperentin-type compounds, 6-O-?-d-ribosylasperentin (1 and 6-O-?-d-ribosyl-8-O-methylasperentin (2 and 5-hydroxyl-6-O-methylasperentin (3, along with asperentin (4 and its known analogues (5–9, were isolated from a halotolerant Aspergillus sp. strain F00785, an endotrophic fungus from marine alga. Their structures were determined using extensive NMR and HRESIMS spectroscopic analysis, including the X-ray crystallographic data for the assignment of the absolute configurations of compound 9. Compound 4 exhibited highly potent inhibitory activity against crop pathogens, Colletotrichum gleosporioides Penz. and Colletotrichum gleosporioides (Penz. Sacc.

Qian Tang

2014-12-01

363

Antimicrobial Metabolites from the Endophytic Fungus Pichia guilliermondii Isolated from Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis  

OpenAIRE

Three steroids and one nordammarane triterpenoid were isolated for the first time from the endophytic fungus Pichia guilliermondii Ppf9 derived from the medicinal plant Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis. By means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis, they were identified as ergosta-5,7,22-trienol (1), 5?,8?-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3?-ol (2), ergosta-7,22-dien-3?,5?,6?-triol (3), and helvolic acid (4). Both micro-dilution-colorimetric and spore germination assays were employed...

Yan Mou; Tijiang Shan; Yan Li; Ligang Zhou; Mingan Wang; Jingguo Wang; Jianglin Zhao

2010-01-01

364

Myrotheciumones: bicyclic cytotoxic lactones isolated from an endophytic fungus of Ajuga decumbens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new bicyclic lactones, myrotheciumones A (1) and B (2) which possessed a rare ring-fusion system were isolated from Myrothecium roridum (M. roridum), an endophytic fungus of the medicinal herb plant Ajuga decumbens (A. decumbens) via an in vitro cytotoxicity assay. Structures were deduced from 1D and 2D NMR (Nuclear magnetic resonance) data. Myrotheciumone A's in vitro cytotoxicity and apoptotic activity were evaluated and myrotheciumone A was shown to exert cytotoxicity via inducing apoptosis in cancer cell line. PMID:24775302

Lin, Ting; Wang, Guanghui; Shan, Wenjun; Zeng, Dequan; Ding, Rong; Jiang, Xin; Zhu, Dan; Liu, Xiaoxuan; Yang, Shuiyuan; Chen, Haifeng

2014-06-01

365

Morphological, molecular and ecological aspects of the South American hypogeous fungus Alpova austroalnicola sp. nov.  

Science.gov (United States)

Field studies in Argentina's Yunga District revealed Alpova austroalnicola sp. nov., a hypogeous fungus associated with Alnus acuminata ssp. acuminata. Morphological and molecular studies based on amplification and sequencing of the nuclear LSU rDNA gene showed its unique identity within Alpova. Related genera included in the analyses were Boletus edulis, Rhizopogon spp., Suillus luteus and Truncocolumella citrina. Additional observations of animal diggings around the sites and microscopic examination of fecal pellets of the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus novemcinctus) indicate A. austroalnicola is consumed and its spores dispersed by animals. PMID:16392248

Nouhra, Eduardo R; Dominguez, Laura S; Becerra, Alejandra G; Trappe, James M

2005-01-01

366

Biosynthesis and degradation of storage protein in spores of the fungus Botryodiplodia theobromae.  

OpenAIRE

Muiridin, a spore-specific protein of the fungus Botryodiplodia theobromae, comprises about 25% of the mature pycnidiospore protein. It has an apparent molecular weight of 16,000 to 17,000 and is rich in glutamine, asparagine, and arginine. Muiridin is synthesized in developing spores via a precursor with an apparent molecular weight of 24,000. Two other polypeptides present in young developing spores with apparent molecular weights of 18,000 and 15,000 are immunologically related to muiridin...

Petersen, G. R.; Dahlberg, K. R.; Etten, J. L.

1983-01-01

367

Involvement of Cytochrome P450 in Pentachlorophenol Transformation in a White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

OpenAIRE

The occurrence of cytochrome P450 and P450-mediated pentachlorophenol oxidation in a white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated in this study. The carbon monoxide difference spectra indicated induction of P450 (103±13 pmol P450 per mg protein in the microsomal fraction) by pentachlorophenol. The pentachlorophenol oxidation by the microsomal P450 was NADPH-dependent at a rate of 19.0±1.2 pmol min?1 (mg protein)?1, which led to formation of tetrachlorohydroquinone and w...

Ning, Daliang; Wang, Hui

2012-01-01

368

Improving durability of Wood-polymer composite processed by gamma radiation against the Polyporus sanguineus fungus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study of wood durability was done measuring the wood weight lost after 90 days and the change of surface morphology. This study was done with the fungus Polyporus sanguineus in three wood species: Catahua (Hura crepitans L.), Mohena (Aniba amazonica Meiz), and Capirona (Calycophy spruceanum Be) without treatment and wood-polymer composite obtained by gamma irradiation. The Capirona and Mohena composites improve its durability, while the Catahua composite maintains its level of durability. Regarding surface morphology, there is no a significant change between the untreated woods and Capirona and Mohena composites. While the untreated Catahua shows deterioration of its surface. (orig.)

369

Butyrolactones from the Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus versicolor and their Anti-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Activity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available New butyrolactones aspernolides C and D, along with two known butyrolactones (A and B) were isolated from the culture of the endophytic fungus Aspergillus versicolor. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic ressonance te [...] chniques, and electronic circular dichroism. The butyrolactones aspernolides C and D were tested for their anti-tobacco mosaic virus activity. The results showed that butyrolactones aspernolides C and D exhibited moderate anti-tobacco mosaic virus activity with IC50 values of 64.2 and 88.6 ?M, respectively.

Min, Zhou; Jie, Lou; Yin-Ke, Li; Yue-De, Wang; Kun, Zhou; Bing-Kun, Ji; Wei, Dong; Xue-Mei, Gao; Gang, Du; Qiu-Fen, Hu.

2015-03-01

370

Three New Non-reducing Polyketide Synthase Genes from the Lichen-Forming Fungus Usnea longissima  

OpenAIRE

Usnea longissima has a long history of use as a traditional medicine. Several bioactive compounds, primarily belonging to the polyketide family, have been isolated from U. longissima. However, the genes for the biosynthesis of these compounds are yet to be identified. In the present study, three different types of non-reducing polyketide synthases (UlPKS2, UlPKS4, and UlPKS6) were identified from a cultured lichen-forming fungus of U. longissima. Phylogenetic analysis of product template doma...

Wang, Yi; Wang, Juan; Cheong, Yong Hwa; Hur, Jae-seoun

2014-01-01

371

Antiviral alkaloids produced by the mangrove-derived fungus Cladosporium sp. PJX-41.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six new indole alkaloids including five new glyantrypine derivatives (1, 2a, 2b, 3, 4) and a new pyrazinoquinazoline derivative (5), together with eight known alkaloids (6-13), were isolated from the culture of the mangrove-derived fungus Cladosporium sp. PJX-41. Their structures were elucidated primarily by spectroscopic and physical data. The absolute configurations of compounds 1-9 were established on the basis of CD, NOESY data, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compounds 2b, 5, 7-9, and 11 exhibited significant activities against influenza virus A (H1N1), with IC50 values of 82-89 ?M. PMID:23758051

Peng, Jixing; Lin, Tao; Wang, Wei; Xin, Zhihong; Zhu, Tianjiao; Gu, Qianqun; Li, Dehai

2013-06-28

372

The fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis harbors bacillaene-producing Bacillus sp. that inhibit potentially antagonistic fungi.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ancient fungus-growing termite (Mactrotermitinae) symbiosis involves the obligate association between a lineage of higher termites and basidiomycete Termitomyces cultivar fungi. Our investigation of the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis shows that Bacillus strains from M. natalensis colonies produce a single major antibiotic, bacillaene A (1), which selectively inhibits known and putatively antagonistic fungi of Termitomyces. Comparative analyses of the genomes of symbiotic Bacillus strains revealed that they are phylogenetically closely related to Bacillus subtilis, their genomes have high homology with more than 90% of ORFs being 100% identical, and the sequence identities across the biosynthetic gene cluster for bacillaene are higher between termite-associated strains than to the cluster previously reported in B. subtilis. Our findings suggest that this lineage of antibiotic-producing Bacillus may be a defensive symbiont involved in the protection of the fungus-growing termite cultivar. PMID:24248063

Um, Soohyun; Fraimout, Antoine; Sapountzis, Panagiotis; Oh, Dong-Chan; Poulsen, Michael

2013-01-01

373

[The role of laccase and peroxidase of Lentinus (Panus) tigrinus fungus in biodegradation of high phenol concentrations in liquid medium].  

Science.gov (United States)

The possibility of the usage of Lentinus tigrinus fungus strain VKM F-3616D for biodegradation of high (up to 5%) phenol concentrations in liquid medium and the involvement of laccase and peroxidase in this process have been studied. L. tigrinus fungus was demonstrated to effectively digrade phenol with easy biomass separation from the liquid. Decrease in phenol concentration was accompanied by increased secretion level and laccase activity at the preliminary stages of biodegradation, while that of peroxidase was at the latest stages of biodegradation. These enzyme secretions in distinct ratios and consequences are necessary for effective phenol biodegradation. An effective approach for phenol concentration decrease in the waste water of smoking shops in meat-processing factories using L. tigrinus fungus was described. PMID:21442922

Kadimaliev, D A; Revin, V V; Atykian, N A; Nadezhina, O S; Parshin, A A

2011-01-01

374

Bioactive secondary metabolites from Nigrospora sp. LLGLM003, an endophytic fungus of the medicinal plant Moringa oleifera Lam.  

Science.gov (United States)

An endophytic fungus was isolated from the root of the medicinal plant Moringa oleifera Lam. Based on analyzing the rDNA sequence, the fungus was identified as Nigrospora sp. This is the first report of the isolation of endophytic Nigrospora from M. oleifera. By bioassay-guided fractionation, four antifungal secondary metabolites were isolated from liquid cultures of the fungus Nigrospora sp. LLGLM003, and their chemical structures were determined to be griseofulvin (1), dechlorogriseofulvin (2), 8-dihydroramulosin (3) and mellein (4) on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. Compound 2, 3 and 4 were isolated from Nigrospora sp. for the first time. In vitro antifungal assay showed that griseofulvin displayed clear inhibition of the growth of 8 plant pathogenic fungi. Dechlorogriseofulvin and mellein exhibited only weak antifungal activities, whereas 8-dihydroramulosin displayed no antifungal activities. PMID:22806033

Zhao, J H; Zhang, Y L; Wang, L W; Wang, J Y; Zhang, C L

2012-05-01

375

Evaluation of the fungus Beauveria bassiana as a potential biological control agent against phlebotomine sand flies in Colombian coffee plantations.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Colombia, the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) is widely used to control the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in coffee plantations. Recent studies suggested that this fungus is also pathogenic to several important vectors of disease, including Phlebotomus papatasi and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae). The present study evaluated the use of B. bassiana as a potential biological control agent against phlebotomine sand flies in Colombian coffee plantations. Histopathologic examination indicates that B. bassiana is unable to infect sand flies under natural conditions, although dead sand flies were shown to be readily infected. In addition, laboratory bioassays where flies were exposed to the fungus applied onto coffee plants (though not filter paper) showed lower mean survival times than the control. PMID:9281401

Reithinger, R; Davies, C R; Cadena, H; Alexander, B

1997-09-01

376

Biosorption of uranium(VI) by a mangrove endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. ZZF51 from the South China Sea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uranium(VI) accumulation was studied in detail by using the biomass of mangrove endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. ZZF51 from the South China Sea. The uranium(VI) biosorption process onto the tested fungus powders was optimized at pH 4.0, adsorption time 60 min, and uranium(VI) initial concentration 50 mg L-1 with 61.89% of removal efficiency. According to Fourier transform infrared spectra for the tested fungus before and after loaded with uranium(VI), the results showed that both of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups acted as the important roles in the adsorption process. In addition, the experimental data were analyzed by using parameter and kinetic models, and it was obtained that the Langmuir isotherm model and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided better correlation with the experimental data for adsorption of uranium(VI). (author)

377

Development and characterization of expressed sequence tag-derived microsatellite markers for the wheat stripe rust fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici  

Science.gov (United States)

Puccinia striiformis, a basidiomycete fungus, causes stripe rust of wheat, barley, and many grass species. Microsatellite markers are needed to study its population biology. In this study, we characterized microsatellite loci based on three EST libraries previously developed for this fungus. By s...

378

Enhancement of Diosgenin Production in Dioscorea zingiberensis Cell Cultures by Oligosaccharides from Its Endophytic Fungus Fusarium oxysporum Dzf17  

OpenAIRE

The effects of the oligosaccharides from the endophytic fungus Fusarium oxysporum Dzf17 as elicitors on diosgenin production in cell suspension cultures of its host Dioscorea zingiberensis were investigated. Three oligosaccharides, DP4, DP7 and DP10, were purified from the oligosaccharide fractions DP2-5, DP5-8 and DP8-12, respectively, which were prepared from the water-extracted mycelial polysaccharide of the endophytic fungus F. oxysporum Dzf17. When the cell cultures were treated with fra...

Ligang Zhou; Shiqiong Lu; Yan Mou; Yan Li; Jingfeng Lou; Ziling Mao; Peiqin Li; Youliang Peng

2011-01-01

379

Evaluation of SO2 Using Bioindicators: Fungus (Rhytisma acerinum and Lichen (Lichenes in Air of Vilnius City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article describes a negative impact of pollution on the environment considering the reaction of live organism bioindicators to the level of pollution., Due to the sensitiveness to gas waste, Lichen (Lichenes and fungus (Rhytisma acerinum are very important for estimating air pollution. Therefore, the paper analyzes air pollution on the basis of testing lichens and fungus and compares the situation of SO2 in the air in Vilnius districts Karolinišk?s, Šeškin? and Justinišk?s with the suburban area of Avižieniai.Article in Lithuanian

Alicija Jank?nien?

2011-04-01

380

The rust fungus Uromyces geranii (DC. Lev. localization and impact on anatomy of the host plant Geranium sanguineum L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The investigations on the rust fungus Uromyces geranii (DC. Lev. influence on the anatomy of the vegetative organs of the host plantGeranium sanguineumL. (Geraniaceae were conducted. The local and endophytic arrangement of U. geraniiin the tissues of the host plant were identified. The tissues hypertrophy and organs deformation in G. sanguineum were revealed as a consequences of the fungus U. geraniiinfluence as well as increment of pericyclic ring sclerenchyma lignification in the stem. While the mature aecia and uredinia on the stem cause the epidermis tears and fill the primary cortex up to the stele.

Emma Biruliova

2013-04-01

381

Decomposition of cellulose by the fungus curvularia lunata wakker-II: factors affecting the elaboration of cellulolytic enzymes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study of the effect of nutritional factors on the elaboration of extracellular cellulolytic enzyme by the fungus Curvularia lunata has been carried out. A modified Omeliansky's medium has ben formulated substituting ammonium sulphate by ammonium chloride in the Omeliansky's medium and incorporating sodium carboxy methyl cellulose as cellulose is substrate. Use of indole-acetic acid in the growth medium has been found to increase the in vivo as well as in vitro cellulolytic activity. The fungus when grown in the presence of subthresh hold concentrations of sodium pentachlorophenate elaborate an extracellular cellulolytic enzyme of enhanced activity.

G. M. Verma

2014-05-01

382

Influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus (Glomus etunicatum with Lettuce Plants under Zinc Toxicity in Nutrient Solution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of zinc toxicity on growth, chlorophyll, total sugar and protein content and mineral content of lettuce plants infected or not by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (Am fungus Glomus etunicatum and treated with nutrient solution containing 0, 1.5, 3.5, 5.5, 7.5 mM ZnSO4 were studied. The introduction of Zn caused a decrease in the inhibiting effect of zinc on dry weight of roots and shoots of lettuce plant infected by Am in contrary with non-Am plants. This increase observed in dry weight may be due to improvement of Phosphorous uptake by mycorrhizal fungi. The decrease in dry weight of non-Am plants may be because of inhibitory effects of zinc on growth. Chlorophyll and total sugar content decreased in both Am and non-Am plants, which indicate the toxic effect of Zn on photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism. Mycorrhizal plants due to changing the translocation of Zn and sequestering in the hypha could elevate the effects of Zn to some extent. Total protein content increased in Am plants, probably due to induction of antioxidant enzymes and some stress proteins but reduced in non-Am plants which maybe caused by toxic effects of Zn on protein synthesis. Alleviating the severe effects of Am fungus observed in this study aroused an interest in considering the role of Am fungi in protection and elevation the sever effects of heavy metals in plants.

Shadi Farshian

2007-01-01

383

Isolation and fusion of protoplasts from the phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotium rolfsii (Sacc.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Sclerotium rolfsii (Sacc.) is a serious plant pathogenic fungus and lacks perfect (basidial) stage in production. Protoplast fusion technology was employed to reconstruct fusants from this fungus. Two strains designated as A and R were used. Maximum protoplast yields of 3.8x10(5) /g mycelia and 2.8x [...] 10(5) /g mycelia were formed in strains A and R respectively. Osmotic stabilizer sucrose 1M gave maximum yield. Lysing enzyme at the rate of 15mg/ml was found best for yield. Fusion of protoplasts from strains A and R was carried out in fusion media containing PEG 4000 30% (w/v) with 0.2mM CaCl2. Four fusants F1, F2, F3 and F4 were recovered. Morphological, physiological and pathogenic characters of fusants were compared with parent strains on carrots, beans and tomato.

Sikandar, Hayat; Christos, Christias.

2010-03-01

384

Population evidence of cryptic species and geographical structure in the cosmopolitan ectomycorrhizal fungus, Tricholoma scalpturatum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tricholoma scalpturatum is an ectomycorrhizal fungus that forms symbioses with roots of diverse trees and shrubs. It is commonly encountered in a wide range of habitats, across temperate ecosystems. A previous study has revealed a high genetic diversity at a local scale, and ruderal abilities. To examine genetic structure at a large geographical scale, a total of 164 basidiocarps were collected from 30 populations located in Western Europe, from Spain to Scandinavia. These samples were analyzed by three molecular methods with different levels of resolution: inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs), restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) in the rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS), and ITS sequence analysis. Considerable genetic variation was found, and the morphospecies was separated into two genetic groups that were distinct from each other. The ISSR data and the relatively low percentage value (96%) of shared sequence polymorphisms in the ITS between isolates from the two groups, strongly suggest cryptic species and long-lasting separation. No geographical exclusion was detected for these two widely distributed taxa. However, high estimates of population differentiation were observed in each group, including between populations less than a few kilometers apart. This result provides evidence for limited gene flow and/or founding effects. It also indicates that T. scalpturatum does not constitute a random mating population, and the hypothesis of endemism cannot be excluded for this cosmopolitan wind-dispersed fungus. PMID:18305983

Carriconde, Fabian; Gardes, Monique; Jargeat, Patricia; Heilmann-Clausen, Jacob; Mouhamadou, Bello; Gryta, Hervé

2008-10-01

385

Toxicidade de filtrados fúngicos a meloidogyne incognita / Fungus filtrates toxicity to Meloidogyne incognita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Visando à obtenção de novas moléculas nematicidas, 18 filtrados de espécies fúngicas e extratos de sete micélios fúngicos foram estudados in vitro quanto aos efeitos sobre a eclosão, motilidade e mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2) de Meloidogyne incognita. Filtrados fúngicos foram obtido [...] s de culturas em meio Czapek. Metanol foi usado como solvente para obter extratos dos micélios fúngicos. Filtrados de Paecilomyces lilacinus, Fusarium moniliforme e Fusarium oxysporum reduziram a motilidade e eclosão, e aumentaram a mortalidade (P Abstract in english In the search for new nematicidal molecules, 18 fungal species filtrates and seven fungus mycelium extracts were studied in vitro to see their influence on hatching, mobility and mortality of second stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita. Fungal filtrates were obtained from fifteen day Czapek [...] cultures. Methanol was used as solvent to obtain fungus mycelium extracts. Paecilomyces lilacinus, Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium oxysporum filtrates reduced J2 motility and hatching, and increased J2 mortality (P

MAURO J.N., COSTA; VICENTE P., CAMPOS; LUDWIG H., PFENNING; DENILSON F., OLIVEIRA.

2001-12-01

386

Acanthamoebicidal activity of Fusarium sp. Tlau3, an endophytic fungus from Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl.  

Science.gov (United States)

A fungal endophyte identified as Fusarium sp. Tlau3 was isolated from fresh twig of Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl., a Thai medicinal plant collected from the forest of Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand. The fungus was grown on a medium containing yeast extracts and sucrose. The fungal metabolites were isolated from the culture broth by dichloromethane extraction, isooctane/methanol then n-butanol/water partitions, and fractionation with Sephadex LH 20 column chromatography. Acanthamoebicidal fractions were found to induce the formation of large contractile vacuole (LCV) in trophozoites of an Acanthamoeba clinical isolate, leading to cell lysis under isotonic and hypotonic conditions within 1 h. In hypertonic condition, LCV formation was also induced but without cell lysis. Acridine orange staining of the treated cells revealed increased intracellular acidity, implying an increased proton pumping or a vacuolar proton-ATPase (V-ATPase) stimulation. Scanning electron microscopy showed cell membrane damage with intact cytoplasmic organelles. Our finding has indicated that contractile vacuoles of Acanthamoeba trophozoites are the primary target of the amoebicidal substance(s) from this endophytic fungus. PMID:18633646

Boonman, Narumon; Wiyakrutta, Suthep; Sriubolmas, Nongluksna; Dharmkrong-at Chusattayanond, Araya

2008-10-01

387

Stereoselective metabolism of anthracene and phenanthrene by the fungus Cunninghamella elegans  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fungus Cunninghamella elegans oxidized anthracene and phenanthrene to form predominately transdihydrodiols. The metabolites were isolated by reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography for structural and conformational analyses. Comparison of the circular dichroism spectrum of the fungal trans-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydroanthracene to that formed by rat liver microsomes indicated that the major enantiomer of the trans-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydroanthracene formed by C. elegans had an S,S absolute stereochemistry, which is opposite to the predominately 1R,2R dihydrodiol formed by rat liver microsomes. C. elegans oxidized phenanthrene primarily in the 1,2-positions to form trans-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydrophenanthrene. In addition, a minor amount of trans-3,4-dihydroxy-3,4-dihydrophenanthrene was detected. Metabolism at the K-region (9,10-positions) of phenanthrene was not detected. Comparison of the circular dichroism spectra of the phenanthrene trans-1,2- and trans-3,4-dihydrodiols formed by C. elegans to those formed by mammalian enzymes indicated that each of the dihydrodiols formed by C. elegans had an S,S absolute configuration. The results indicate that there are differences in both the regio- and stereoselective metabolism of anthracene and phenanthrene between the fungus C. elegans and rat liver microsomes. 26 references.

Cerniglia, C.E.; Yang, S.K.

1984-01-01

388

Decolorization of malachite green by cytochrome c in the mitochondria of the fungus Cunninghamella elegans.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the decolorization of malachite green (MG) by the fungus Cunninghamella elegans. The mitochondrial activity for MG reduction was increased with a simultaneous increase of a 9-kDa protein, called CeCyt. The presence of cytochrome c in CeCyt protein was determined by optical absorbance spectroscopy with an extinction coefficient (E(550-535)) of 19.7+/-6.3 mM(-1) cm(-1) and reduction potential of + 261 mV. When purified CeCyt was added into the mitochondria, the specific activity of CeCyt reached 440 +/- 122 micromol min(-1) mg(-1) protein. The inhibition of MG reduction by stigmatellin, but not by antimycin A, indicated a possible linkage of CeCyt activity to the Qo site of the bc1 complex. The RT-PCR results showed tight regulation of the cecyt gene expression by reactive oxygen species. We suggest that CeCyt acts as a protein reductant for MG under oxidative stress in a stationary or secondary growth stage of this fungus. PMID:19944668

Kim, Yong-Hak; Lee, Cheolju; Go, Hayoung; Konishi, Kyoko; Lee, Kangseok; Lau, Peter C K; Yu, Myeong-Hee

2010-02-15

389

Quantification of the glucosamine content in the filamentous fungus Monascus ruber cultured on solid surfaces.  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated whether the glucosamine content in the filamentous fungus Monascus ruber NBRC 32318, cultured on a solid surface (agar) containing different carbon and nitrogen sources, could be used as a measure of biomass. The relationship between the amounts of glucosamine and biomass was independent of the cultivation period, but was dependent on the carbon source (D-glucose, D-fructose, maltose, sucrose, or rice starch) and the nitrogen source (ammonium chloride, sodium nitrate, monosodium glutamate, or yeast extract) in the agar; it was also dependent on the culture method (solid-surface culture or submerged culture). We concluded that the amount of glucosamine extracted from M. ruber is a useful index for the fungal biomass when the relationship between M. ruber biomass and glucosamine content has previously been calibrated for the carbon and nitrogen sources used. Examination of microphotographs of M. ruber hyphae in conjunction with quantification of the glucosamine and biomass contents indicated that the variation in the glucosamine content per unit biomass affects the hyphal morphology of the fungus, and especially the hyphal diameter. PMID:23686715

Chysirichote, Teerin; Reiji, Takahashi; Asami, Kazuhiro; Ohtaguchi, Kazuhisa

2014-05-01

390

A new eremophilane-type sesquiterpene from the phytopatogen fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Sphaeropsidaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O fungo fitopatogênico Lasiodiplodia theobromae, isolado de goiaba, foi cultivado em arroz por 32 dias à temperatura ambiente. Extração com CH2Cl2:MeOH (3:7), seguido de fracionamento cromatográfico do extrato forneceu o esteróide ergosterol. Da cultura fúngica em meio de Czapeck por 40 dias à tempe [...] ratura ambiente, foram isolados a isocumarina cis-4-hidroximeleína e um sesquiterpeno do tipo eremofilano. O sesquiterpeno eremofilano está sendo descrito pela primeira vez na literatura. Este é o primeiro relato do isolamento de um sesquiterpeno eremofilano para o gênero Lasiodiplodia. Abstract in english The phytopatogenic fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae, isolated from guava, was cultivated in rice for 32 days at room temperature. Extraction with CH2Cl2:MeOH (3:7), followed by chromatography fractionation of the extract provided ergosterol. From the fungus culture in Czapeck medium for 40 days at ro [...] om temperature, were isolated isocoumarin cis-4-hydroxymeleine and an eremophilane-type sesquiterpene. The latter compound is being reported for the first time in the literature. Also, this is the first time that an eremophilane sesquiterpene is described for Lasiodiplodia genus.

Fátima M., Nunes; Maria da Conceição F. de, Oliveira; Ângela M. C., Arriaga; Telma L. G., Lemos; Manoel, Andrade-Neto; Marcos C. de, Mattos; Jair, Mafezoli; Francisco M. P., Viana; Viviane M., Ferreira; Edson, Rodrigues-Filho; Antônio G., Ferreira.

391

Estimation of Fungus/Disease in Tomato Crop using K-Means Segmentation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tomato crop is primarily infected by various common diseases like Bacterial Canker, bird's-eye fruit spots, Bacterial Spot, Chlorosis, Curly Top, Early Blight, Fusarium Wilt, Gray Leaf, Gray Mold Rot, Leaf Mold, Leaf Roll and Leaf Curl, Powdery mildew, Septoria Leaf Spot, Tobacco Mosaic Virus, Verticillium Wilt. The presented work describes a algorithm for different disease detection based on the infected images of various tomato plants. Images of the infected tomato plants are captured by closed circuit CCD cameras to cover approximately 5 sq. meter area that could acquire good quality images of tomato crop. The acquired images are in jpeg format and are converted to gray scale image. The gray scale image are the enhanced and made noise free. The Otsu algorithm is applied in order to get the thresholded image. The segmentation techniques based in pixel neighborhood are applied to get the segmented leaf and infected part of the leaf. The methods evolved in this system are both image processing and soft computing technique applied on number of diseased tomato plant images. The tomato images are acquired by using a CCD camera of approx. 3 M-Pixel resolution in 24-bits color resolution. The images are then transferred to PC and represented in MATLAB software. The RGB image is then segmented using K-means algorithm for segmentation of fungus in the tomato crop. The segmented fungus part is now analyzed for its percentage presence.

Shruti

2014-05-01

392

Bioactive metabolites from the endophytic fungus Stemphylium globuliferum isolated from Mentha pulegium.  

Science.gov (United States)

The endophytic fungus Stemphylium globuliferum was isolated from stem tissues of the Moroccan medicinal plant Mentha pulegium. Extracts of the fungus, which was grown on solid rice medium, exhibited considerable cytotoxicity when tested in vitro against L5178Y cells. Chemical investigation yielded five new secondary metabolites, alterporriol G (4) and its atropisomer alterporriol H (5), altersolanol K (11), altersolanol L (12), stemphypyrone (13), and the known compounds 6-O-methylalaternin (1), macrosporin (2), altersolanol A (3), alterporriol E (6), alterporriol D (7), alterporriol A (8), alterporriol B (9), and altersolanol J (10). The structures were determined on the basis of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Among the alterporriol-type anthranoid dimers, the mixture of alterporriols G and H (4/5) exhibited considerable cytotoxicity against L5178Y cells with an EC(50) value of 2.7 microg/mL, whereas the other congeners showed only modest activity. The compounds were also tested for kinase inhibitory activity in an assay involving 24 different kinases. Compounds 1, 2, 3, and the mixture of 4 and 5 were the most potent inhibitors, displaying EC(50) values between 0.64 and 1.4 microg/mL toward individual kinases. PMID:19271717

Debbab, Abdessamad; Aly, Amal H; Edrada-Ebel, Ruangelie; Wray, Victor; Müller, Werner E G; Totzke, Frank; Zirrgiebel, Ute; Schächtele, Christoph; Kubbutat, Michael H G; Lin, Wen Han; Mosaddak, Mahjouba; Hakiki, Abdelhak; Proksch, Peter; Ebel, Rainer

2009-04-01

393

Population evidence of cryptic species and geographical structure in the cosmopolitan ectomycorrhizal fungus, Tricholoma scalpturatum  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Tricholoma scalpturatum is an ectomycorrhizal fungus that forms symbioses with roots of diverse trees and shrubs. It is commonly encountered in a wide range of habitats, across temperate ecosystems. A previous study has revealed a high genetic diversity at a local scale, and ruderal abilities. To examine genetic structure at a large geographical scale, a total of 164 basidiocarps were collected from 30 populations located in Western Europe, from Spain to Scandinavia. These samples were analyzed by three molecular methods with different levels of resolution: inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs), restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) in the rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS), and ITS sequence analysis. Considerable genetic variation was found, and the morphospecies was separated into two genetic groups that were distinct from each other. The ISSR data and the relatively low percentage value (96%) of shared sequence polymorphisms in the ITS between isolates from the two groups, strongly suggest cryptic species and long-lasting separation. No geographical exclusion was detected for these two widely distributed taxa. However, high estimates of population differentiation were observed in each group, including between populations less than a few kilometers apart. This result provides evidence for limited gene flow and/or founding effects. It also indicates that T. scalpturatum does not constitute a random mating population, and the hypothesis of endemism cannot be excluded for this cosmopolitan wind-dispersed fungus.

Carriconde, Fabian; Gardes, Monique

2008-01-01

394

An NADPH-dependent genetic switch regulates plant infection by the rice blast fungus.  

Science.gov (United States)

To cause rice blast disease, the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae breaches the tough outer cuticle of the rice leaf by using specialized infection structures called appressoria. These cells allow the fungus to invade the host plant and proliferate rapidly within leaf tissue. Here, we show that a unique NADPH-dependent genetic switch regulates plant infection in response to the changing nutritional and redox conditions encountered by the pathogen. The biosynthetic enzyme trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (Tps1) integrates control of glucose-6-phosphate metabolism and nitrogen source utilization by regulating the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, the generation of NADPH, and the activity of nitrate reductase. We report that Tps1 directly binds to NADPH and, thereby, regulates a set of related transcriptional corepressors, comprising three proteins, Nmr1, Nmr2, and Nmr3, which can each bind NADP. Targeted deletion of any of the Nmr-encoding genes partially suppresses the nonpathogenic phenotype of a ?tps1 mutant. Tps1-dependent Nmr corepressors control the expression of a set of virulence-associated genes that are derepressed during appressorium-mediated plant infection. When considered together, these results suggest that initiation of rice blast disease by M. oryzae requires a regulatory mechanism involving an NADPH sensor protein, Tps1, a set of NADP-dependent transcriptional corepressors, and the nonconsuming interconversion of NADPH and NADP acting as signal transducer. PMID:21115813

Wilson, Richard A; Gibson, Robert P; Quispe, Cristian F; Littlechild, Jennifer A; Talbot, Nicholas J

2010-12-14

395

Chaetochromones A and B, two new polyketides from the fungus Chaetomium indicum (CBS.860.68).  

Science.gov (United States)

Chaetochromones A (1) and B (2), two novel polyketides, were isolated from the crude extract of fungus Chaetomium indicum (CBS.860.68) together with three known analogues PI-3(3), PI-4 (4) and SB236050 (5). The structures of these compounds were determined by HRESI-MS and NMR experiments. Chaetochromones A (1) and B (2) are a member of the polyketides family, which might originate from a similar biogenetic pathway as the known compounds PI-3 (3), PI-4 (4) and SB236050 (5). The biological activities of these secondary metabolites were evaluated against eight plant pathogens, including Alternaria alternata, Ilyonectria radicicola, Trichoderma viride pers, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium verticillioide, Irpex lacteus (Fr.), Poria placenta (Fr.) Cooke and Coriolus versicolor (L.) Quél. Compound 1 displayed moderate inhibitory rate (>60%) against the brown rot fungus Poria placenta (Fr.) Cooke, which causes significant wood decay. In addition, the cytotoxic activities against three cancer cell lines A549, MDA-MB-231, PANC-1 were also tested, without any inhibitory activities being detected. PMID:24013408

Lu, Keyang; Zhang, Yisheng; Li, Li; Wang, Xuewei; Ding, Gang

2013-01-01

396

Chaetochromones A and B, Two New Polyketides from the Fungus Chaetomium indicum (CBS.860.68  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chaetochromones A (1 and B (2, two novel polyketides, were isolated from the crude extract of fungus Chaetomium indicum (CBS.860.68 together with three known analogues PI-3(3, PI-4 (4 and SB236050 (5. The structures of these compounds were determined by HRESI-MS and NMR experiments. Chaetochromones A (1 and B (2 are a member of the polyketides family, which might originate from a similar biogenetic pathway as the known compounds PI-3 (3, PI-4 (4 and SB236050 (5. The biological activities of these secondary metabolites were evaluated against eight plant pathogens, including Alternaria alternata, Ilyonectria radicicola, Trichoderma viride pers, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium verticillioide, Irpex lacteus (Fr., Poria placenta (Fr. Cooke and Coriolus versicolor (L. Quél. Compound 1 displayed moderate inhibitory rate (>60% against the brown rot fungus Poria placenta (Fr. Cooke, which causes significant wood decay. In addition, the cytotoxic activities against three cancer cell lines A549, MDA-MB-231, PANC-1 were also tested, without any inhibitory activities being detected.

Xuewei Wang

2013-09-01

397

The evolution of fungus-growing termites and their mutualistic fungal symbionts.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have estimated phylogenies of fungus-growing termites and their associated mutualistic fungi of the genus Termitomyces using Bayesian analyses of DNA sequences. Our study shows that the symbiosis has a single African origin and that secondary domestication of other fungi or reversal of mutualistic fungi to a free-living state has not occurred. Host switching has been frequent, especially at the lower taxonomic levels, and nests of single termite species can have different symbionts. Data are consistent with horizontal transmission of fungal symbionts in both the ancestral state of the mutualism and most of the extant taxa. Clonal vertical transmission of fungi, previously shown to be common in the genus Microtermes (via females) and in the species Macrotermes bellicosus (via males) [Johnson, R. A., Thomas, R. J., Wood, T. G. & Swift, M. J. (1981) J. Nat. Hist. 15, 751-756], is derived with two independent origins. Despite repeated host switching, statistical tests taking phylogenetic uncertainty into account show a significant congruence between the termite and fungal phylogenies, because mutualistic interactions at higher taxonomic levels show considerable specificity. We identify common characteristics of fungus-farming evolution in termites and ants, which apply despite the major differences between these two insect agricultural systems. We hypothesize that biparental colony founding may have constrained the evolution of vertical symbiont transmission in termites but not in ants where males die after mating. PMID:12386341

Aanen, Duur K; Eggleton, Paul; Rouland-Lefevre, Corinne; Guldberg-Froslev, Tobias; Rosendahl, Soren; Boomsma, Jacobus J

2002-11-12

398

Active pharmaceutical ingredient (api) from an estuarine fungus, Microdochium nivale (Fr.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Various marine habitats sustain variety of bio-sources of ecological and biotech potentials. Pharmaceutical potential compound Cyclosporine A was reported from marine fungus Microdochium nivale associated with Porteresia coarctata, a marine salt marsh grass from mangrove environment distributed along the Central West Coast (CWC) of India. This study involves association of M. nivale with P. coarctata plant, fermentation conditions, purification of Cyclosporine A, chemical characterization etc. Its antifungal inhibition and MIC (Minimum inhibitory concentration) against Aspergillus strains (A. niger, A. japonicus, A. fresenii), yeasts and dermatophytes (Candida sp., Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. tonsurans, T. violaceum, Microsporium gypsum and Fusarium sp.) were evaluated. However, the MIC against A. japonicus, C. neoformans, Candida sp. and T. tonsurans were confirmed to be as low as 12.5-25 mg disc(-1). The antifungal properties of Cyclosporine A against Aspergillus species, yeast and dermatophytes revealed that CyclosporineAwould be a potential compound for life threatening diseases caused by above fungi in both human and animals. Furthermore, we have reported herewith another source of Cyclosporin Aderived from filamentous fungus, M. nivale. occurring in marine environment. PMID:22319884

Bhosale, S H; Patil, K B; Parameswaran, P S; Naik, C G; Jagtap, T G

2011-09-01

399

Profile of natural redox mediators production of laccase-producing fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are highly toxic organic pollutants which are abundant and environmentally widespread. Anthracene is a simple PAH that can be oxidized by laccases, copper-containing oxidase enzymes, produced by some plants, fungi, and bacteria. In this work, the extracellular culture fluid (CF) of laccase-producing fungus Pleurotus ostreatus was separated to crude laccase (CL) and aqueous ultrafiltrate (AU) fractions. The rate of anthracene oxidation by CF was 68.7 % while oxidation by CL was only 27.8 %. The addition of AU enhanced anthracene oxidation rate by CL to 60.4 %, indicating that the natural redox-mediators were present in the CF. The laccase-catalyzed anthracene oxidation rate increased with increased AU concentration, implying that oxidation rate is positively related to the concentration of natural mediators when laccase activity is constant. The AU from fungal culture containing bran or straw enhanced laccase-catalyzed anthracene oxidation; this enhancement increased further with prolonged fungus-cultivation, implying that both bran and straw induce the natural mediators. Our findings suggest increasing natural mediator levels may be an alternative strategy to improve the biodegradability of laccase-producing fungi. PMID:25108623

Li, Xuanzhen; La, Guixiao; Cheng, Qian; Wang, Fengji; Feng, Fajie; Zhang, Bao; Zhang, Zhongyi

2014-10-01

400

Rice False Smut Fungus, Ustilaginoidea virens, Inhibits Pollen Germination and Degrades the Integuments of Rice Ovule  

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Full Text Available Ustilaginoidea virens is a flower-infecting fungus that forms false smut balls in rice panicle. Rice false smut has long been considered a minor disease, but recently it occurred frequently and emerged as a major disease in rice production. In vitro co-cultivation of U. virens strain with young rice panicles showed that U. virens enters inside of spikelets from the apex and then grows downward to infect floral organs. In response to U. virens infection, rice host exhibits elevated ROS accumulation and enhanced callose deposition. The secreted compounds of U. virens can suppress rice pollen germination. Examination of sectioning slides of freshly collected smut balls demonstrated that both pistil and stamens of rice flower are infected by U. virens, hyphae degraded the contents of the pollen cells, and also invaded the filaments. In addition, U. virens entered rice ovary through the thin-walled papillary cells of the stigma, then decomposed the integuments and infected the ovary. The invaded pathogen could not penetrate the epidermis and other layers of the ovary. Transverse section of the pedicel just below the smut balls showed that there were no fungal hyphae observed in the vascular bundles of the pedicel, implicating that U. virens is not a systemic flower-infecting fungus.

Wenlu Li

2013-11-01

401

Coexisting Curtobacterium bacterium promotes growth of white-rot fungus Stereum sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

White-rot basidiomycetes are the main decomposers of woody biomass in forest ecosystems. Little is known, however, about the interactions between white-rot fungi and other microorganisms in decayed wood. A wood-rotting fungus, Stereum sp. strain TN4F, was isolated from a fruit body, and its coexisting cultivable bacteria were isolated from its substrate; natural white-rot decayed wood. The effects of bacteria on fungal growth were examined by confrontational assay in vitro. A growth-promoting bacterium for this Stereum strain was identified as Curtobacterium sp. TN4W-19, using 16SrRNA sequencing. A confrontational assay revealed that Curtobacterium sp. TN4W-19 significantly promoted the mycelial growth of Stereum sp. TN4F in the direction of the bacterial colony, without direct contact between the mycelium and bacterial cells. This is the first report of a positive interaction between a white-rot fungus and a coexisting bacterial strain in vitro. PMID:22101455

Kamei, Ichiro; Yoshida, Takehiro; Enami, Daisuke; Meguro, Sadatoshi

2012-02-01

402

Microtubules and organelle movements in the rust fungus Uromyces phaseoli var. vignae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Direct visual observation and time lapse films of in vitro differentiating infection structures of the cowpea rust fungus Uromyces phaseoli var. vignae revealed three categories of movement: a) general movement of cytoplasm, plus organelles, into the developing portions of the fungus during which the nuclei, in particular, maintained their characteristic position with remarkable constancy, b) relatively slow movements of various organelles such that they became displaced relative to one another and to the growing fungal tip, and c) erratic, rapid, saltations of small organelles over short distances. Serial section ultrastructural analysis showed that microtubules were typically orientated parallel to the direction of cytoplasm migration. Simple statistical analyses showed that the microtubules were non-randomly associated with mitochondria but only rarely associated with lipid droplets or microbodies. All microtubules were typically short (less than 2 micrometer) and, in various parts of the cell, were often intimately associated with 3 to 6 nm diameter filaments of unidentified material. Interphase nuclei characteristically lacked microtubules emanating from their variously laterally or posteriorly located NAOs (nucleus associated organelle) but were associated with groups of laterally placed microtubules. The correlations between the observed types of movement and the ultrastructure of the cells discussed in terms of various models for organelle motility. PMID:648694

Heath, I B; Heath, M C

1978-04-01

403

Changes in major components of tea fungus metabolites during prolonged fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in major components and microbes in tea fungus broth (or kombucha; teakwass) prepared from nine different sources during a prolonged fermentation of up to 60 days were investigated. Cell concentrations of both yeasts and acetic acid bacteria in broth were generally higher than those in the cellulosic pellicles. The residual sucrose concentration decreased linearly with time, although the rate fell after the first month. Metabolic fates of glucose and fructose produced as a result of the hydrolysis of sucrose were different. Glucose was not produced in parallel with fructose (0.085 g 100 ml(-1) d(-1)) but was produced with a lower initial rate (0.041 g 100 ml(-1) d(-1)). Both titratable acidity and gluconic acid increased steadily with time for all samples, although gluconic acid was not generated for 6 days until the fermentation had begun. Acetic acid increased slowly to a maximum value of 1.1 g 100 ml(-1) after 30 days; thereafter, it decreased gradually. Gluconic acid contributed to the titratable acidity and thus, the taste of tea fungus broth, during the final stage of fermentation. It is concluded that the desired quality or composition of kombucha can be obtained through the proper control of fermentation time. PMID:11119158

Chen, C; Liu, B Y

2000-11-01

404

Identification of New Lactone Derivatives Isolated from Trichoderma sp., An Endophytic Fungus of Brotowali (Tinaspora crispa  

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Full Text Available Endophytic fungi is a rich source of novel organic compounds with interesting biological activities and a high level of structural diversity. As a part of our systematic search for new bioactive lead structures and specific profiles from endophytic fungi, an endophytic fungus was isolated from roots of brotowali (Tinaspora crispa, an important medicinal plant. Colonial morphological trait and microscopic observation revealed that the endophytic fungus was Trichoderma sp. The pure fungal strain was cultivated on 7 L Potatos Dextose Broth (PDB medium under room temperature (no shaking for 8 weeks. The ethyl acetate were added to cultur medium and left overnight to stop cell growth. The culture filtrates were collected and extracted with EtOAc and then taken to evaporation. Two new lactone derivatives, 5-hydroxy-4-hydroxymethyl-2H-pyran-2-one (1 and (5-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H pyran-4-yl methyl acetate (2 were obtained from the EtOAc extracts of Trichoderma sp. Their structures were determined on the basic of spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HMQC, and HMBC.

Elfita

2014-03-01

405

Variation in fungal enzyme spectra may affect mutualistic division of labour between ants and fungus gardens  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Partners in obligate mutualisms often contribute complementary elements to joint pathways for synthesizing or degrading metabolites. Their committed cooperation can make new niches accessible, with evolutionary diversification and speciation as possible consequences. However, when individual partners vary in metabolic performance, division of labour may not always be optimized and co-evolutionary trajectories become less predictable. The higher fungus-growing (attine) ants consist of the leafcutter ants (Acromyrmex and Atta), which rear a single fungal species throughout their Latin American range, and a paraphyletic assembly of Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex species that cultivate more genetically diverse fungal symbionts. Leaf-decomposition productivity of colonies depends on the combined efforts of ant foragers collecting and macerating plant material and fungal enzymes excreted directly or indirectly via ant fecal fluid. We determined the interaction specificity between ant species and fungal strains across sympatric populations of six Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex species in Panama, and established that these ants jointly reared eight fungal haplotype groups that differed significantly in garden enzyme activity independent of ant species association. This illustrates that the mosaic of coevolutionary interactions in Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex fungus-growers may be fundamentally different from the interactions in Acromyrmex and, particularly, Atta leaf-cutting ants. The former appear to be analogous to a diverse array of subsistence farming practices at the mercy of local conditions, whereas the latter resemble large-scale, low-diversity “industrial” farming.

de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

406

Functional characterisation and transcript analysis of an alkaline phosphatase from the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Funneliformis mosseae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alkaline phosphatases (ALP) in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have been suggested to be involved in transfer of phosphate from the mycorrhizal fungus to the host plant, but exact mechanisms are still unknown, partially due to the lack of molecular information. We isolated a full-length cDNA (FmALP) from the AM fungus Funneliformis mosseae (syn. Glomus mosseae) showing similarity with putative ALP genes from Rhizophagus intraradices (syn. Glomus intraradices) and Gigaspora margarita. For functional characterisation FmALP was expressed heterologously in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The recombinant FmALP protein had a pH optimum of 9.5, and catalysed the hydrolysis of glycerolphosphate and, to a lesser extent of glucose-1- and 6-phosphate, confirming it to be an alkaline phosphatase belonging to the family of alkaline phosphomonoesterases (EC 3.1.3.1). FmALP did not catalyse the hydrolysis of ATP or polyP. Relative FmALP transcript levels were analysed in intra- and extraradical hyphae isolated from F. mosseae infected ryegrass (Lolium perenne) using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). FmALP was highly expressed in intraradical hyphae at low P(i) supply, and its expression was repressed by high P(i) supply. Taken together this study provides evidence for mycorrhizal alkaline phosphatases playing a role in P mobilisation from organic substrates under P starvation conditions. PMID:23474124

Liu, Qianhe; Parsons, Anthony J; Xue, Hong; Jones, Chris S; Rasmussen, Susanne

2013-05-01

407

Endobacteria affect the metabolic profile of their host Gigaspora margarita, an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this paper was to understand whether the endobacterium identified as Candidatus Glomeribacter gigasporarum has an effect on the biology of its host, the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Gigaspora margarita, through the study of the modifications induced on the fungal proteome and lipid profile. The availability of G. margarita cured spores (i.e. spores that do not contain bacteria), represented a crucial tool to enable the comparison between two fungal homogeneous populations in the presence and the absence of the bacterial components. Our results demonstrate that the endobacterial presence leads to a modulation of fungal protein expression in all the different conditions we tested (quiescent, germinating and strigolactone-elicited germinating spores), and in particular after treatment with a strigolactone analogue. The fungal fatty acid profile resulted to be modified both quantitatively and qualitatively in the absence of endobacteria, being fatty acids less abundant in the cured spores. The results offer one of the first comparative metabolic studies of an AM fungus investigated under different physiological conditions, reveal that endobacteria have an important impact on the host fungal activity, influencing both protein expression and lipid profile, and suggest that the bacterial absence is perceived by G. margarita as a stimulus which activates stress-responsive proteins. PMID:21966904

Salvioli, Alessandra; Chiapello, Marco; Fontaine, Joel; Hadj-Sahraoui, Anissa Lounes; Grandmougin-Ferjani, Anne; Lanfranco, Luisa; Bonfante, Paola

2010-08-01

408

White-Nose Syndrome fungus introduced from Europe to North America.  

Science.gov (United States)

The investigation of factors underlying the emergence of fungal diseases in wildlife has gained significance as a consequence of drastic declines in amphibians, where the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has caused the greatest disease-driven loss of biodiversity ever documented [1]. Identification of the causative agent and its origin (native versus introduced) is a crucial step in understanding and controlling a disease [2]. Whereas genetic studies on the origin of B. dendrobatidis have illuminated the mechanisms behind the global emergence of amphibian chytridiomycosis [3], the origin of another recently-emerged fungal disease, White-Nose Syndrome (WNS) and its causative agent, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, remains unresolved [2,4]. WNS is decimating multiple North American bat species with an estimated death toll reaching 5-6 million. Here, we present the first informative molecular comparison between isolates from North America and Europe and provide strong evidence for the long-term presence of the fungus in Europe and a recent introduction into North America. Our results further demonstrate great genetic similarity between the North American and some European fungal populations, indicating the likely source population for this introduction from Europe. PMID:25784035

Leopardi, Stefania; Blake, Damer; Puechmaille, Sébastien J

2015-03-16

409

Endemic Infection of the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus in a Frog Community Post-Decline  

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Full Text Available The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in the decline and extinction of numerous frog species worldwide. In Queensland, Australia, it has been proposed as the cause of the decline or apparent extinction of at least 14 high-elevation rainforest frog species. One of these, Taudactylus eungellensis, disappeared from rainforest streams in Eungella National Park in 1985-1986, but a few remnant populations were subsequently discovered. Here, we report the analysis of B. dendrobatidis infections in toe tips of T. eungellensis and sympatric species collected in a mark-recapture study between 1994 and 1998. This longitudinal study of the fungus in individually marked frogs sheds new light on the effect of this threatening infectious process in field, as distinct from laboratory, conditions. We found a seasonal peak of infection in the cooler months, with no evidence of interannual variation. The overall prevalence of infection was 18% in T. eungellensis and 28% in Litoria wilcoxii/jungguy, a sympatric frog that appeared not to decline in 1985-1986. No infection was found in any of the other sympatric species. Most importantly, we found no consistent evidence of lower survival in T. eungellensis that were infected at the time of first capture, compared with uninfected individuals. These results refute the hypothesis that remnant populations of T. eungellensis recovered after a B. dendrobatidis epidemic because the pathogen had disappeared. They show that populations of T. eungellensis now persist with stable, endemic infections of B. dendrobatidis.

Retallick Richard W. R

2004-01-01

410

Effects of selenium oxyanions on the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of Phanerochaete chrysosporium to reduce the oxidized forms of selenium, selenate and selenite, and their effects on the growth, substrate consumption rate, and pellet morphology of the fungus were assessed. The effect of different operational parameters (pH, glucose, and selenium concentration) on the response of P. chrysosporium to selenium oxyanions was explored as well. This fungal species showed a high sensitivity to selenium, particularly selenite, which inhibited the fungal growth and substrate consumption when supplied at 10 mg L(-1) in the growth medium, whereas selenate did not have such a strong influence on the fungus. Biological removal of selenite was achieved under semi-acidic conditions (pH 4.5) with about 40 % removal efficiency, whereas less than 10 % selenium removal was achieved for incubations with selenate. P. chrysosporium was found to be a selenium-reducing organism, capable of synthesizing elemental selenium from selenite but not from selenate. Analysis with transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and a 3D reconstruction showed that elemental selenium was produced intracellularly as nanoparticles in the range of 30-400 nm. Furthermore, selenite influenced the pellet morphology of P. chrysosporium by reducing the size of the fungal pellets and inducing their compaction and smoothness. PMID:25341399

Espinosa-Ortiz, Erika J; Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Saikaly, Pascal E; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L

2015-03-01

411

Characterization of sakA gene from pathogenic dimorphic fungus Penicillium marneffei.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eukaryotes utilize stress activated protein kinase (SAPK) pathways to adapt to environmental stress, including heat, osmotic, oxidative or nutrient stresses. Penicillium marneffei (Talaromyces marneffei), the dimorphic pathogenic fungus that can cause disseminated mycosis in HIV-infected patients, has to encounter various types of stresses both outside and inside host cells. However, the strategies used by this fungus in response to these stresses are still unclear. In this report, the stress-activated kinase (sakA) gene of P. marneffei was characterized and the roles of this gene on various stress conditions were studied. The sakA gene deletion mutant was constructed using the split marker method. The phenotypes and sensitivities to varieties of stresses, including osmotic, oxidative, heat and cell wall stresses of the deletion mutant were compared with the wild type and the sakA complemented strains. Results demonstrated that the P. marneffei sakA gene encoded a putative protein containing TXY phosphorylation lip found in the stress high osmolarity glycerol 1 (Hog1)/Spc1/p38 MAPK family, and that this gene was involved not only in tolerance against oxidative and heat stresses, but also played a role in asexual development, chitin deposition, yeast cell generation in vitro and survival inside mouse and human macrophages. PMID:25466206

Nimmanee, Panjaphorn; Woo, Patrick C Y; Kummasook, Aksarakorn; Vanittanakom, Nongnuch

2015-01-01

412

Physisporinus vitreus: a versatile white rot fungus for engineering value-added wood products.  

Science.gov (United States)

The credo of every scientist working in the field of applied science is to transfer knowledge "from science to market," a process that combines (1) science (fundamental discoveries and basic research) with (2) technology development (performance assessment and optimization) and (3) technology transfer (industrial application). Over the past 7 years, we have intensively investigated the potential of the white rot fungus, Physisporinus vitreus, for engineering value-added wood products. Because of its exceptional wood degradation pattern, i.e., selective lignification without significant wood strength losses and a preferential degradation of bordered pit membranes, it is possible to use this fungus under controlled conditions to improve the acoustic properties of tonewood (i.e., "mycowood") as well as to enhance the uptake of preservatives and wood modification substances in refractory wood species (e.g., Norway spruce), a process known as "bioincising." This minireview summarizes the research that we have performed with P. vitreus and critically discusses the challenges encountered during the development of two distinct processes for engineering value-added wood products. Finally, we peep into the future potential of the bioincising and mycowood processes for additional applications in the forest and wood industry. PMID:21901405

Schwarze, Francis W M R; Schubert, Mark

2011-11-01

413

Biocontrol of pigeon tick Argas reflexus (Acari: Argasidae by entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium Anisopliae (Ascomycota: Hypocreales  

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Full Text Available The pigeon tick Argas reflexus is a pathogen-transmitting soft tick that typically feeds on pigeons, but can also attack humans causing local and systemic reactions. Chemical control is made difficult due to environmental contamination and resistance development. As a result, there is much interest in increasing the role of other strategies like biological control. In this study, the efficacy of three strains (V245, 685 and 715C of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for biological control of three life stages of pigeon tick A. reflexus including eggs, larvae, engorged and unfed adults was investigated under laboratory conditions. Five concentrations of different strains of M. anisopliae ranging from 10³ to 10(7 conidia/ml were used. All fungal strains significantly decreased hatchability of A. reflexus eggs. Strain V245 was the most effective strain on the mortality of larval stage with nearly 100% mortality at the lowest concentration (10³ conidia/ml at 10 days post-inoculation. The mortality rate of both engorged and unfed adult ticks were also increased significantly exposed to different conidial concentrations compared to the control groups (P < 0.05 making this fungus a potential biological control agent of pigeon tick reducing the use of chemical acaricides.

Mosa Tavassoli

2011-12-01

414

Antifungal activity of metabolites of the endophytic fungus Trichoderma brevicompactum from garlic.  

Science.gov (United States)

The endophytic fungus strain 0248, isolated from garlic, was identified as Trichoderma brevicompactum based on morphological characteristics and the nucleotide sequences of ITS1-5.8S- ITS2 and tef1. The bioactive compound T2 was isolated from the culture extracts of this fungus by bioactivity-guided fractionation and identified as 4?-acetoxy-12,13- epoxy-?(9)-trichothecene (trichodermin) by spectral analysis and mass spectrometry. Trichodermin has a marked inhibitory activity on Rhizoctonia solani, with an EC50 of 0.25 ?g mL(-1). Strong inhibition by trichodermin was also found for Botrytis cinerea, with an EC50 of 2.02 ?g mL(-1). However, a relatively poor inhibitory effect was observed for trichodermin against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (EC50 = 25.60 ?g mL(-1)). Compared with the positive control Carbendazim, trichodermin showed a strong antifungal activity on the above phytopathogens. There is little known about endophytes from garlic. This paper studied in detail the identification of endophytic T. brevicompactum from garlic and the characterization of its active metabolite trichodermin. PMID:24948941

Shentu, Xuping; Zhan, Xiaohuan; Ma, Zheng; Yu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Chuanxi

2014-01-01

415

Interaction of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia and Parascaris equorum eggs in different culture media.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research involving the use of nematophagous fungi in the biological control of parasites of interest to veterinarians has occurred over recent years, with promising results. This article reports the infection of Parascaris equorum eggs by the fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia (isolates VC1 and VC4). Six groups were formed for each isolate, with six different culture media: 2% water-agar (2% WA); agar-chitin (AC); YPSSA (yeast extract, K2HPO4, MgSO4 ·7H2O, soluble starch); AELA extract (starch?+?water?+?agar); 2% corn-meal-agar (2% CMA); and 2% potato dextrose-agar (2% PDA). A total of 1000 eggs of P. equorum were transferred to each plate containing isolates grown for a period of 7 days (treatment group). Also, 1000 eggs were added to each plate without fungus (controlgroup). The plates were kept in an environmental chamber at 25?°C in the dark for 21 days. After, we analyzed the effects on ovicidal activity: effect 1 (accession shell); effect 2 (penetration hyphae); and effect 3 (destruction of the eggs). No differences were observed in the destruction of eggs between the two isolates. The decreasing effectiveness of the different culture media was: PDA (38.9%); CMA (38.3%); WA (36.7%); YPSSA (36.45%); and AC (32.5%). The highest percentage egg destruction was observed when the strains were grown in culture medium AELA (44.9%); this was the best medium. PMID:25088293

de Carvalho, Lorendane Millena; Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; Domingues, Rafael Reis; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Lelis, Rosane Teixeira; de Paula, Alessandra Teixeira; da Silveira, Wendeo Ferreira; de Araújo, Jackson Victor

2014-07-01

416

An endophytic fungus from Azadirachta indica A. Juss. that produces azadirachtin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Azadirachtin A and its structural analogues are a well-known class of natural insecticides having antifeedant and insect growth-regulating properties. These compounds are exclusive to the neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Juss, from where they are currently sourced. Here we report for the first time, the isolation and characterization of a novel endophytic fungus from A. indica, which produces azadirachtin A and B in rich mycological medium (Sabouraud dextrose broth), under shake-flask fermentation conditions. The fungus was identified as Eupenicillium parvum by ITS analysis (ITS1 and ITS2 regions and the intervening 5.8S rDNA region). Azadirachtin A and B were identified and quantified by LC-HRMS and LC-HRMS(2), and by comparison with the authentic reference standards. The biosynthesis of azadirachtin A and B by the cultured endophyte, which is also produced by the host neem plant, provides an exciting platform for further scientific exploration within both the ecological and biochemical contexts. PMID:22805849

Kusari, Souvik; Verma, Vijay C; Lamshoeft, Marc; Spiteller, Michael

2012-03-01

417

Antifungal activity of metabolites of the endophytic fungus Trichoderma brevicompactum from garlic  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The endophytic fungus strain 0248, isolated from garlic, was identified as Trichoderma brevicompactum based on morphological characteristics and the nucleotide sequences of ITS1-5.8SITS2 and tef1. The bioactive compound T2 was isolated from the culture extracts of this fungus by bioactivity-guided f [...] ractionation and identified as 4?-acetoxy-12,13-epoxy-?9-trichothecene (trichodermin) by spectral analysis and mass spectrometry. Trichodermin has a marked inhibitory activity on Rhizoctonia solani, with an EC50 of 0.25 µgmL-1. Strong inhibition by trichodermin was also found for Botrytis cinerea, with an EC50 of 2.02 µgmL-1. However, a relatively poor inhibitory effect was observed for trichodermin against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (EC50 = 25.60 µgmL-1). Compared with the positive control Carbendazim, trichodermin showed a strong antifungal activity on the above phytopathogens. There is little known about endophytes from garlic. This paper studied in detail the identification of endophytic T. brevicompactum from garlic and the characterization of its active metabolite trichodermin.

Xuping, Shentu; Xiaohuan, Zhan; Zheng, Ma; Xiaoping, Yu; Chuanxi, Zhang.

418

Growth of the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Pisolithus Microcarpus in different nutritional conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The most important plant species employed in reforestation programs depend on ectomycorrhizal fungi for their establishment and growth. The exploitation of this symbiosis to improve forest productivity requires fungal inoculants in a large scale level. To develop such a technology it is necessary to [...] define the optimal composition of the culture medium for each fungus. With these objectives in mind, the effect of the composition of the culture medium on biomass production of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus microcarpus (isolate UFSC-Pt116) was studied. The original composition of two culture media, already employed for cultivation of ectomycorrhizal fungi, was submitted to several variations with the C/N ratio as the main variable. A variation of the Pridham-Gottlieb medium was the most efficient for the production of biomass. Therefore, it was submitted to a factorial assay where glucose, peptone and yeast extract components were the factors analyzed. Results showed that the glucose concentration may be increased up to 40 % in order to promote higher biomass production. Peptone had a positive effect on this variable, whereas yeast extract promoted a deleterious effect. These results indicate that it is advisable to eliminate yeast extract from the medium and replace it with peptone prior to use.

Márcio José, Rossi; Vetúria L., Oliveira.

2011-06-01

419

Growth of the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Pisolithus Microcarpus in different nutritional conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The most important plant species employed in reforestation programs depend on ectomycorrhizal fungi for their establishment and growth. The exploitation of this symbiosis to improve forest productivity requires fungal inoculants in a large scale level. To develop such a technology it is necessary to define the optimal composition of the culture medium for each fungus. With these objectives in mind, the effect of the composition of the culture medium on biomass production of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus microcarpus (isolate UFSC-Pt116 was studied. The original composition of two culture media, already employed for cultivation of ectomycorrhizal fungi, was submitted to several variations with the C/N ratio as the main variable. A variation of the Pridham-Gottlieb medium was the most efficient for the production of biomass. Therefore, it was submitted to a factorial assay where glucose, peptone and yeast extract components were the factors analyzed. Results showed that the glucose concentration may be increased up to 40 % in order to promote higher biomass production. Peptone had a positive effect on this variable, whereas yeast extract promoted a deleterious effect. These results indicate that it is advisable to eliminate yeast extract from the medium and replace it with peptone prior to use.

Márcio José Rossi

2011-06-01

420

PRESENCE OF NAPHTHALENE DETECTED IN SAWDUST DECAYED BY A LIGNIN-DEGRADING FUNGUS AND IT'S EFFECT ON THE FEEDING AND TRAIL-FOLLOWING BEHAVIOR OF THE FORMOSAN SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE (ISOPTERA:RHINOTERMITIDAE)  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined chemical differences in redwood sawdust that had been decayed by the fungus, Marasmiellus troyanus (Murrill) Singer compared with redwood sawdust without fungus using solid phase microextraction (SPME). The presence of naphthalene was detected in sawdust decayed by the fungus, bu...

421

The House Fly and Other Filth Flies  

Science.gov (United States)

A primer on recognizing and controlling so-called "filth flies". Diptera commonly associated with trash, waste, and decay. The article covers common larger flies muscids, calliphorids, sarcophagids, as well as smaller fungus gnats, drain flies, and humpbacked flies (conspicuously missing are the soldier flies). Fly development, and biology are covered. No links, and no bibliography are offered.

0000-00-00

422

Tree planters` notes, Volume 46, Number 2, Spring 1995. Quarterly report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

;Contents: Certified Seed and Artificial Forest Regeneration; Missoula Technology and Development Center`s 1995 Nursery and Reforestation Programs; Trees Grow Better With Water; Botrytis cinerea Carried by Adult Fungus Gnats (Diptera: Sciaridae) in Container Nurseries; Oak Seedling Root and Shoot Growth on Restored Topsoil; Improved Vegetative Propagation of Scouler Willow; Estimating Poller Yield From Western White Pine: Preliminary Studies.

Nisley, R.

1995-12-31

423

Chloro phenols degradation in soil columns inoculated with the with-rot fungus Anthracophyllum discolor Immobilized on wheat grains  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anthracophyllum discolor, a white-rot fungus of southern chile, produces ligninolytic enzymes specially manganese peroxidase (MnP), and has been studied for its potential use on bioremediation of contaminated soils with chloro phenols. the main purpose of this study was to evaluate the chloro phenols degradation in soils columns inoculated with Anthracopyllum discolor immobilized on wheat grains. (Author)

424

Leucoagaricus gongylophorus produces diverse enzymes for the degradation of recalcitrant plant polymers in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants represent a large reservoir of organic carbon comprised primarily of recalcitrant polymers that most metazoans are unable to deconstruct. Many herbivores gain access to nutrients in this material indirectly by associating with microbial symbionts, and leaf-cutter ants are a paradigmatic example. These ants use fresh foliar biomass as manure to cultivate gardens composed primarily of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, a basidiomycetous fungus that produces specialized hyphal swellings that serve as a food source for the host ant colony. Although leaf-cutter ants are conspicuous herbivores that contribute substantially to carbon turnover in Neotropical ecosystems, the process through which plant biomass is degraded in their fungus gardens is not well understood. Here we present the first draft genome of L. gongylophorus, and, using genomic and metaproteomic tools, we investigate its role in lignocellulose degradation in the gardens of both Atta cephalotes and Acromyrmex echinatior leaf-cutter ants. We show that L. gongylophorus produces a diversity of lignocellulases in ant gardens and is likely the primary driver of plant biomass degradation in these ecosystems. We also show that this fungus produces distinct sets of lignocellulases throughout the different stages of biomass degradation, including numerous cellulases and laccases that likely play an important role in lignocellulose degradation. Our study provides a detailed analysis of plant biomass degradation in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens and insight into the enzymes underlying the symbiosis between these dominant herbivores and their obligate fungal cultivar. PMID:23584789

Aylward, Frank O; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E; Tringe, Susannah G; Teiling, Clotilde; Tremmel, Daniel M; Moeller, Joseph A; Scott, Jarrod J; Barry, Kerrie W; Piehowski, Paul D; Nicora, Carrie D; Malfatti, Stephanie A; Monroe, Matthew E; Purvine, Samuel O; Goodwin, Lynne A; Smith, Richard D; Weinstock, George M; Gerardo, Nicole M; Suen, Garret; Lipton, Mary S; Currie, Cameron R

2013-06-01

425

Draft Genome Sequence of Cladonia macilenta KoLRI003786, a Lichen-Forming Fungus Producing Biruloquinone.  

Science.gov (United States)

The lichen-forming fungus Cladonia macilenta strain KoLRI003786 is capable of producing an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, biruloquinone, which effectively prevents neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease. Laying the foundation to unravel the biruloquinone biosynthetic pathway, we present the 37.11-Mb draft genome sequence of strain KoLRI003786. PMID:24009123

Park, Sook-Young; Choi, Jaeyoung; Kim, Jung A; Jeong, Min-Hye; Kim, Soonok; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Hur, Jae-Seoun

2013-01-01

426

Draft Genome Sequence of Cladonia macilenta KoLRI003786, a Lichen-Forming Fungus Producing Biruloquinone  

OpenAIRE

The lichen-forming fungus Cladonia macilenta strain KoLRI003786 is capable of producing an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, biruloquinone, which effectively prevents neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease. Laying the foundation to unravel the biruloquinone biosynthetic pathway, we present the 37.11-Mb draft genome sequence of strain KoLRI003786.

Park, Sook-young; Choi, Jaeyoung; Kim, Jung A.; Jeong, Min-hye; Kim, Soonok; Lee, Yong-hwan; Hur, Jae-seoun

2013-01-01

427

Isolation and identification of an anticancer drug, taxol from Phyllosticta tabernaemontanae, a leaf spot fungus of an angiosperm, Wrightia tinctoria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phyllosticta tabernaemontanae, a leaf spot fungus isolated from the diseased leaves of Wrightia tinctoria, showed the production of taxol, an anticancer drug, on modified liquid medium (M1D) and potato dextrose broth (PDB) medium in culture for the first time. The presence of taxol was confirmed by spectroscopic and chromatographic methods of analysis. The amount of taxol produced by this fungus was quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The maximum amount of taxol production was recorded in the fungus grown on M1D medium (461 microg/L) followed by PDB medium (150 microg/L). The production rate was increased to 9.2 x 10(3) fold than that found in the culture broth of earlier reported fungus, Taxomyces andreanae. The results designate that P. tabernaemontanae is an excellent candidate for taxol production. The fungal taxol extracted also showed a strong cytotoxic activity in the in vitro culture of tested human cancer cells by apoptotic assay. PMID:19229490

Kumaran, Rangarajulu Senthil; Muthumary, Johnpaul; Hur, Byung-Ki

2009-02-01

428

Production of (-)-Botryodiplodin, but not Phaseolinone, by the Soybean Charcoal Rot Disease Fungus Macrophomina phaseolina in Mississippi  

Science.gov (United States)

Charcoal rot disease, which causes significant losses in crops grown in hot, relatively dry areas, is caused by the fungus Macrophomina phaseolina. M. phaseolina produces a phytotoxin believed to play a role in helping establish infections. Siddiqui et al. [Experentia 35, 1222 (1979)] purified and...

429

Impact of water relations on the production, ecological fitness and stability of the biocontrol fungus Metarhizium anisopliae  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this work was the production of high numbers of propagules of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae with high germination capacity under low water availability, good storage stability and enhanced pathogenicity. To this end modifications of cultural conditions were employed. Water-stress in solid substrate fermentation reduced the conidial production but resulted in enhancement of germination capacity. Coni...

Ypsilos, Ioannis K.

2004-01-01

430

Allelochemical effects of volatile compounds and organic extracts from Muscodor yucatanensis, a tropical endophytic fungus from Bursera simaruba  

Science.gov (United States)

Muscodor yucatanensis, a recently described endophytic fungus, was isolated from the leaves of Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) growing in the dry, semideciduous tropical forest of the Ecological Reserve El Eden, Quintana Roo, Mexico. In the present study we tested in vitro the mixture of volatile org...

431

Comparative study of nest architecture and colony structure of the fungus-growing ants, Mycocepurus goeldii and M. smithii.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nest architecture and demography of the non leaf-cutting fungus-growing ant species Mycocepurus goeldii and M. smithii (Attini: Formicidae) were studied in an agroforest habitat near Manaus, Brazil during the excavation of 13 nests. Both species built their nests in two different ways. The first type possessed a "tree-like" architecture, in which a vertical tunnel led downwards and lateral tunnels branched off at 90 degrees angles from the main tunnel, with a chamber at the end of each side branch. Alternatively, other nests displayed a "necklace-like" architecture, where the main tunnel also led down vertically, but entered each chamber from the top and exited it at the bottom, resulting in an architecture where chambers appeared like pearls on a necklace. The nest systems of M. goeldii and M. smithii consisted of 1-21 or 1-15 chambers, respectively. Of 199 excavated chambers, 57 % contained fungus-gardens. Chambers not containing fungus gardens were filled with organic matter from decaying fungus gardens or earthworm feces. Only M. smithii workers deposited loose soil in abandoned chambers during the construction of new nest chambers. Workers of M. smithii constructed significantly smaller chambers than those of M. goeldii. In both species, fungus garden-containing chambers were larger than non-garden chambers and were homogenously distributed in the soil between 17 cm and 105 cm depth. Neither fungus gardens nor abandoned chambers were encountered more frequently in deeper or shallower soil strata indicating that ants of both species did not abandon shallower versus deeper chambers, or move the colony to deeper soil layers with increasing colony age. Fungus gardens were suspended from the ceiling of the subterranean chambers and originated as small mycelial tufts. Through continual addition of organic debris, the tufts first grew vertically to strands before they expanded laterally until most of the chamber volume was filled with fungus garden curtains. New garden chambers were found at depths ranging from 17 to 83 cm, suggesting that new garden chambers were not constructed in deeper soil strata with increasing colony age. The size of M. goeldii and M. smithii colonies was dependent on their age. Worker counts varied between a few individuals in recently founded colonies and 1352 workers in an adult M. goeldii colony. The ratio of worker number per fungus garden chamber was higher in M. goeldii colonies than M. smithii colonies; the M. goeldii colonies were more populous. Both species were oligogynous with a maximum of four and three queens observed in a single chamber of M. goeldii and M. smithii, respectively. The reproductive status of each queen was unknown. In both species the ratio of brood to workers was approximately 2:3. Larvae and pupae were unequally distributed throughout the nest, but were only located in chambers containing a garden. Their location in the chamber was dependent upon the developmental state of the fungus garden. PMID:20331400

Rabeling, C; Verhaagh, M; Engels, W

2007-01-01

432

Detection of Phakopsora pachyrhizi fungus by Polymerase Chain Reaction technique (PCR) after soy grains treatment by electron beams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Today Brazil, as the largest soy exporter in the world, has undergone the consequences of the contamination of these crops by the Asian dust fungus, being harmed since the plantation up to the harvest, with losses in its productivity ranging 10-80%. As it is a new disease in the Americas, there are not any resistant species to this fungus attack. The grains contamination harms the exportation for countries which do not want to have their crops contaminated, affecting therefore the international commerce and agro-business relationship with those countries Brazil has trade with. The Asian dust is caused by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi and its dissemination is of difficult control, since occurs through the wind dispersion. The P. pachyrhizi is an Asian fungus and was recently found in South Africa, Paraguay, Argentina and Brazil. As an alternative process to minimize these losses is the process to preserve the grains by radiation, the use of the electron accelerator was indicated, since its advantage for the grains exportation industry is fundamental. Besides the possibility of being disconnected when not in use, this source does not need to be recharged, is easily available and has high dose rate, streamlining the process and reducing logistics costs. The present work aims to identify, by the Polymerase Chain Reaction technique (PCR), the P. pachyrhizi fungus presence in the irradiated soy grains, at doses 1 and 2 kGy, at the IPEN-CNEN electron Accelerator, a Dynamie IPEN-CNEN electron Accelerator, a Dynamitron Machine (Radiation Dynamics Co. model JOB, New York, USA), with 1.5 MeV power and 2.5 mA electrical current. (author)

433

N-METHYL-1H- INDOLE-2-CARBOXAMIDE FROM THE MARINE FUNGUS CLADOSPORIUM CLADOSPORIOIDES  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The crystal structure of N-methyl-1H- indole-2-carboxamide C10H10N2O was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The structure can be described as consisting of an indole group and as substituent, linked at C2, the N-methylcarboxamide group. The molecular structure is essentially planar. The [...] crystal packing results in N-H ------ O hydrogen bonds which join the molecules into centrosymmetric dimeric rings. The knowledge of the crystal structure allows a complete assignment of the ¹H and 13C-NMR spectra. The N-methyl-lH- indole-2-carboxamide is the first indole derivative isolated from marine fungus.

V, MANRÍQUEZ; A, GALDÁMEZ; B, VELIZ; J, ROVIROSA; A. R, DÍAZ-MARRERO; M, CUETO; J, DARIAS; C, MARTÍNEZ; A, SAN-MARTÍN.

434

A Novel Expansin Protein from the White-Rot Fungus Schizophyllum commune  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel expansin protein (ScExlx1) was found, cloned and expressed from the Basidiomycete fungus Schizophylum commune. This protein showed the canonical features of plant expansins. ScExlx1 showed the ability to form “bubbles” in cotton fibers, reduce the size of avicel particles and enhance reducing sugar liberation from cotton fibers pretreated with the protein and then treated with cellulases. ScExlx1 was able to bind cellulose, birchwood xylan and chitin and this property was not affected by different sodium chloride concentrations. A novel property of ScExlx1 is its capacity to enhance reducing sugars (N-acetyl glucosamine) liberation from pretreated chitin and further added with chitinase, which has not been reported for any expansin or expansin-like protein. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a bona fide fungal expansin found in a basidiomycete and we could express the bioactive protein in Pichia pastoris. PMID:25803865

Sánchez-Carbente, María del Rayo; Iracheta-Cárdenas, María Magdalena; Arévalo-Niño, Katiushka; Folch-Mallol, Jorge Luis

2015-01-01

435

Evolution of a subtilisin-like protease gene family in the grass endophytic fungus Epichloë festucae  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Subtilisin-like proteases (SLPs form a superfamily of enzymes that act to degrade protein substrates. In fungi, SLPs can play either a general nutritive role, or may play specific roles in cell metabolism, or as pathogenicity or virulence factors. Results Fifteen different genes encoding SLPs were identified in the genome of the grass endophytic fungus Epichloë festucae. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these SLPs belong to four different subtilisin families: proteinase K, kexin, pyrolysin and subtilisin. The pattern of intron loss and gain is consistent with this phylogeny. E. festucae is exceptional in that it contains two kexin-like genes. Phylogenetic analysis in Hypocreales fungi revealed an extensive history of gene loss and duplication. Conclusion This study provides new insights into the evolution of the SLP superfamily in filamentous fungi.

Hesse Uljana

2009-07-01

436

Morphological and molecular characterization of Magnaporthe oryzae (fungus) from infected rice leaf samples  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnaporthe oryzae is a plant-pathogenic fungus that causes a serious disease affecting rice called rice blast. Outbreaks of rice blast have been a threat to the global production of rice. This fungal disease is estimated to cause production losses of US55 million each year in South and Southeast Asia. It has been used as a primary model for elucidating various aspects of the host-pathogen interaction with its host. We have isolated five isolates of Magnaporthe oryzae from diseased leaf samples obtained from the field at Kompleks Latihan MADA, Kedah, Malaysia. We have identified the isolates using morphological and microscopic studies on the fungal spores and the lesions on the diseased leaves. Amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) was carried out with universal primers ITS1 and ITS4. The sequence of each isolates showed at least 99% nucleotide identity with the corresponding sequence in GenBank for Magnaporthe oryzae.

Muni, Nurulhidayah Mat; Nadarajah, Kalaivani

2014-09-01

437

Application of micro-computed tomography to microstructure studies of the medicinal fungus Hericium coralloides.  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential of 3-D nondestructive imaging techniques such as micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) was evaluated to study morphological patterns of the potential medicinal fungus Hericium coralloides (Basidiomycota). Micro-CT results were correlated with histological information gained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy (LM). It is demonstrated that the combination of these imaging methods results in a more distinct picture of the morphology of the edible and potentially medicinal Hericium coralloides basidiomata. In addition we have created 3-D reconstructions and visualizations based on micro-CT imagery from a randomly selected part of the upper region of a fresh H. coralloides basidioma: Analyses for the first time allowed an approximation of the evolutionary effectiveness of this bizarrely formed basidioma type in terms of the investment of tissue biomass and its reproductive output (production of basidiospores). PMID:25376797

Pallua, Johannes D; Kuhn, Volker; Pallua, Anton F; Pfaller, Kristian; Pallua, Anton K; Recheis, Wolfgang; Pöder, Reinhold

2015-01-01

438

Mitochondrial Microsatellite Markers for the Australian Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Laccaria sp. A (Hydnangiaceae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria sp. A to investigate the population genetic structure of this fungal symbiont across its fragmented distribution in southeastern Australia. Methods and Results: A partial genome sequence from an individual collection of Laccaria sp. A was obtained by 454 genome sequencing. Eight microsatellite markers were selected from 66 loci identified in the genome. The selected markers were highly polymorphic (4–19 alleles per locus, average 13 alleles and amplified reproducibly from collections made across the distribution of this species. Five of these markers also amplified reproducibly in the sister species Laccaria sp. E (1. All eight of the selected microsatellite loci were from the mitochondrial genome. Conclusions: The highly polymorphic markers described here will enable population structure of Laccaria sp. A to be determined, contributing to research on mycorrhizal fungi from a novel distribution.

Elizabeth M. Sheedy

2014-02-01

439

Inhibition of the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium proliferatum by volatile compounds produced by Pseudomonas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Fusarium head blight of grain cereals is a significant disease worldwide. In Argentina, high levels of contamination with Fusarium proliferatum have been found in crops. Many strains of the Pseudomonas genus antagonize the growth of fungi by different mechanisms, such as the production of antibiotics, siderophores, volatiles, and extracellular enzymes. In this work, we have designed a new system for studying the growth inhibition of F. proliferatum-namely by volatile compounds produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens MGR12. In both rich and minimal media, the bacterium released volatiles that negatively affected the mycelial growth of that phytopathogenic fungus. These bacterial compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, but only a few could be identified by comparing their mass spectra with the libraries of the National Institutes of Standards and Technology MS search. PMID:25085617

Cordero, Paula; Príncipe, Analía; Jofré, Edgardo; Mori, Gladys; Fischer, Sonia

2014-11-01

440

Cytotoxic cytochalasins from the endozoic fungus Phoma sp. of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four new cytochalasin derivatives (1-4), together with cytochalasin B (5), were isolated from the fungus Phoma sp. obtained from the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai. The planar structure and relative stereochemistry were established by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR data. The absolute configuration was defined by the modified Mosher's method. The compounds showed significant cytotoxicity against a small panel of human solid tumor cell lines (A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, XF 498, and HCT15) with IC(50) values in the range of 0.5-30 ?M. The cytochalasin B (5) showed obvious cytotoxicity with IC(50) of 7.9 ?M against HeLa human cervical carcinoma cells. PMID:22483395

Kim, Eun La; Li, Jian Lin; Dang, Hung The; Hong, Jongki; Lee, Chong-Ok; Kim, Dong-Kyoo; Yoon, Won Duk; Kim, Euikyung; Liu, Yonghong; Jung, Jee H

2012-05-01

441

Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from Phomopsis sp., an Endophytic Fungus from Senna spectabilis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chemical investigation of an acetonitrile fraction from the endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp. led to the isolation of the new natural product 2-hydroxy-alternariol (7 together with the known compounds cytochalasins J (1 and H (2, 5'-epialtenuene (3 and the mycotoxins alternariol monomethyl ether (AME, 4, alternariol (AOH, 5 and cytosporone C (6. The structure of the new compound was elucidated by using 1-D and 2-D NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance and high resolution mass spectrometry. The cytochalasins J (1 and H (2 and AOH (5 exhibited potent inhibition of the total ROS (reactive oxygen species produced by stimulated human neutrophils and acted as potent potential anti-inflammatory agents. Moreover, cytochalasin H (2 demonstrated antifungal and acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE inhibition in vitro.

Vanessa Mara Chapla

2014-05-01

442

Cyclodepsipeptides from the ascocarps and insect-body portions of fungus Cordyceps cicadae.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new cyclodepsipeptide cordycecin A (1), together with four known ones beauvericin E (2), beauvericin J (3), beauvericin (4), and beauvericin A (5) was isolated from the ascocarps and insect-body portions of fungus Cordyceps cicadae. Their structures were identified by NMR and MS analyses. The absolute configuration of 1 was confirmed by crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 2-5 exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on HepG2 and HepG2/ADM cells with IC50 values ranging from 2.40±0.37 to 14.48±1.68 ?M. Interestingly, compounds 3-5 showed cytotoxic activity against multiple drug resistant HepG2 cell line (HepG2/ADM) with IC50 value 25-fold more sensitive to doxorubicin. PMID:24862062

Wang, Jing; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Jia, Jun-Feng; Peng, Qun-Long; Tian, Hai-Yan; Wang, Lei; Ye, Wen-Cai

2014-09-01

443

Antibacterial Bisabolane-Type Sesquiterpenoids from the Sponge-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp.  

KAUST Repository

Four new bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoids, aspergiterpenoid A (1), (-)-sydonol (2), (-)-sydonic acid (3), and (-)-5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(2?, 6?,6?-trimethyltetrahydro-2Hpyran-2-yl)phenol (4) together with one known fungal metabolite (5) were isolated from the fermentation broth of a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp., which was isolated from the sponge Xestospongia testudinaria collected from the South China Sea. Four of them (1-4) are optically active compounds. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by using NMR spectroscopic techniques and mass spectrometric analysis, and by comparing their optical rotations with those related known analogues. Compounds 1-5 showed selective antibacterial activity against eight bacterial strains with the MIC (minimum inhibiting concentrations) values between 1.25 and 20.0 ?M. The cytotoxic, antifouling, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of these compounds were also examined. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI.

Li, Dan

2012-01-19

444

Meroterpenes with Toll-Like Receptor 3 Regulating Activity from the Endophytic Fungus Guignardia mangiferae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The endophytic fungus Guignardia mangiferae isolated from Ilex cornuta leaves was shown to produce a family of meroterpenes with toll-like receptor 3 regulating activity (1-9), of which 1-3 possessed new structures. The absolute stereochemistry of 1-3 was assigned through a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, chemical derivation, CD spectra, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses (CuK ? ). The precursor labeled cultivation suggests that these meroterpenes are most likely assembled through terpenoid-shikimate pathways. Moreover, meroterpenes 1-3, 5-7, and 9 selectively upregulate, but 4 and 8 downregulate the toll-like receptor 3 expression in mouse dendritic cells at 10.0?µM. PMID:25519918

Han, Wen Bo; Dou, Huan; Yuan, Wei Hua; Gong, Wei; Hou, Ya Yi; Ng, Seik Weng; Tan, Ren Xiang

2015-01-01

445

Protoilludane sesquiterpenes from the wood decomposing fungus Granulobasidium vellereum (Ellis & Cragin) Jülich.  

Science.gov (United States)

The secondary metabolites of the saprotrophic wood-decay basidiomycete fungus Granulobasidium vellereum were studied. Six sesquiterpenes were obtained; 2-hydroxycoprinolone (1), 8-deoxy-4a-hydroxytsugicoline (2), 8-deoxydihydrotsugicoline (3), which were previously not described, radulone A and B, and coprinolone ketodiol. Additionally, base-treatment of 1 yielded the diagnostic degradation products 1a and 1b, whe