WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Constitutive Model for a Thawing, Frost-Susceptible Sand  

Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (Canada)

A material model for soft, wet soil was generated to simulate the deformation behavior of thawing soil under vehicle loading on paved and unpaved roads. Freeze-thaw action produces a loose, wet soil that undergoes large deformation when subjected to vehicle loads. The soil modeled is a frost-susceptible fine sand, which was used in full-scale tests of paved and unpaved road sections in CRREL's Frost Effects Research Facility (FERF). The soil was subjected to a full suite of saturated and unsaturated triaxial testing, using density, moisture, and loading conditions duplicating those experienced during the freeze-thaw testing in the FERF. Material parameters were generated for a capped Drucker-Prager plasticity model. These were calibrated in triaxial test simulations using the commercial finite element code ABAQUS. The material model was then implemented in several three-dimensional finite element simulations for validation and robustness. The model for Lebanon Sand was compared to the same model for other granular materials.

2005-01-01

2

Molecular polarizabilities and susceptibilities from Frost-model wavefunctions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Average polarizabilities and susceptibilities of a number of molecules are computed from Frost-model wavefunctions using a form of symmetry-adapted double perturbation theory. The anisotropy of ? and chi is found for a few molecules using the elliptical Gaussian form of the Frost model. The results obtained are in reasonable agreement with experiment and other calculated values

1975-12-01

3

A Community Frost/Freeze Susceptibility Operational Guidance Tool  

Science.gov (United States)

In response to historical costly and damaging freeze events in the north-central United States, the Midwestern Regional Climate Center (MRCC) has teamed up with the National Weather Service (NWS), State Climatologists, and land grant university Extension agricultural and horticultural specialists to develop an operational online guidance tool to help monitor, assess, and mitigate these extreme weather phenomena. The Vegetation Impact Program (VIP), hosted by the MRCC, was established in spring 2013 to provide a partnership opportunity among these stakeholders of vegetation and climate monitoring and assessment. It offers an online portal to operational assessment tools, a means of communicating status of vegetative growth and climate conditions in the region, and multiple methods of communicating between sectors and stakeholders. The Frost/Freeze Project is the first impact monitoring project within VIP and was inspired by NWS forecasters requesting help attaining decision-making assistance and guidance tools both within the NWS community and the community of vegetation experts. Early accomplishments have included: (1) the development of daily, operational climate monitoring maps based upon in situ atmospheric observations from the cooperative network (Co-op), (2) development of online guidance and impact reporting forms for VIP subscribers to submit their observations from both the field and forecasting offices, and (3) an email listserv for the VIP community to share general information. Future plans include expanding the spatial domain of the project to the 48 states, incorporating hourly observations from both national and local/state mesonets, and integrating digital forecast data real-time to provide vegetation susceptibility and risk guidance tools.

Hall, B. L.; Curtis, A.; Timlin, M.; Woloszyn, M.; Zaloudek, Z.; Hilberg, S.; Guinan, P.; Andresen, J.; Longstroth, M.; Wolf, R.; Shanklin, R.; Spoden, P.

2013-12-01

4

Water content and matric potential of soil under different soil frost conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

Eastern Hokkaido, where is one of the largest agricultural production regions in Japan, is characterized by low air temperature and relatively thin snow covers resulting in soil frost over the winter. However, the soil frost depth has been significantly decreasing since late 1980's due to an insulation from the cold air by a thick snow cover developing in early winter. In the current study, soil water movement under different soil frost conditions were monitored to obtain a knowledge of changes in hydraulic-regime of the agricultural production systems in the Eastern Hokkaido associated with the decreasing soil frost depth in the region. A paired soil plot experiment was conducted from Nov. 2005 to May 2006, where the frost depth was artificially enhanced by removing snow in the treatment plot and the natural condition was maintained in the control plot. The soil in the experimental field was classified as Andisol with much porosity and high drainability. In each plot, water content and matric potential were measured by TDR and thermally-insulated tensiometer, respectively. Changes in snow water equivalent volume (SWE) and soil-frost depth were manually recorded. The maximum soil-frost depth in the treatment and control plots resulted in 47 and 19 cm, respectively. In both plots, soil water content and matric potential in underlying unfrozen soil decreased with the progress of freezing front, and the direction of soil water flow between 90 and 100 cm changed from downward to upward after the onset of the soil freezing. It is of note that the matric potential at 90 cm in the treatment plot decreased down to -480 cm, while the matric potential at the same depth in the control plot was -200 cm at minimum. When the underlying unfrozen soil was most driest the soil water volume stored in a depth interval from 50 to 100 cm for the treatment and control plots was 189 and 212 mm, respectively. Further, the magnitude of upward hydraulic gradient between 90 and 100 cm in the treatment plot was 17 times greater than that in the control plot at maximum. The control plot with a thin frozen layer allowed infiltration of snow melt water, water content at the lower subsoil increased, and the hydraulic gradient changed to downward immediately after snow melting occurred, whereas a thick frozen layer in the treatment plot impeded the infiltration resulting in waterlogging being observed on the soil surface, which may induce surface runoff. Consequently, the results suggest that the resent decreasing soil frost depth inhibits lower subsoil from drying and facilitates infiltration of snow melt water.

Suzuki, S.; Iwata, Y.; Hiirota, T.; Hasegawa, S.; Arima, J.

2006-12-01

5

The effect of seasonal soil frost on the alpine groundwater recharge including climate change aspects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In alpine areas, the snow cover plays an important role as a water reservoir. Water is stored as snow over the winter and released in spring, recharging mountain aquifers through infiltration. These aquifers are essential, especially for supplying water for human activities during dry seasons. Numerous studies have shown that locally soil frost can drastically reduce the water infiltration. However, we know much less about the hydrological impact of soil frost at a larger scale, in particular...

Bayard, Daniel

2003-01-01

6

Two-dimensional model of coupled heat and moisture transport in frost-heaving soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A two-dimensional model of coupled heat and moisture flow in frost-heaving soils is developed based upon well known equations of heat and moisture flow in soils. Numerical solution is by the nodal domain integration method which includes the integrated finite difference and the Galerkin finite element methods. Solution of the phase change process is approximated by an isothermal approach and phenomenological equations are assumed for processes occurring in freezing or thawing zones. The model has been verified against experimental one-dimensional freezing soil column data and experimental two-dimensional soil thawing tank data as well as two-dimensional soil seepage data. The model has been applied to several simple but useful field problems such as roadway embankment freezing and frost heaving

1984-01-01

7

Orchard floor management utilizing soil-applied coal dust for frost protection. Part 1. Potential microclimate modification on radiation frost nights  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Little is known of the microclimate differences in orchards posed by different floor management systems. Comparisons were made of microclimatic factors on eight radiation frost nights in the spring of 1986 between two adjacent. 1.4 ha peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) plots in the Shenandoah Valley of West Virginia. The two plots were under different floor management systems; one plot with a complete grass cover (grass plot) and the other plot consisted of alternating 3-m-wide soil, 3-m-wide grass strips with coal dust applied to the soil strip of the tree row (coal dust plot). The net radiative flux (R/sub n/) on radiation frost nights from the coal dust plot was 10-15 W m/sup -2/ lower (greater radiative loss) than from the grass plot. Only 50% of this R/sub n/ difference in the early morning hours at the beginning of this study was accounted for by the soil heat flux (G) difference. However, G accounted for an increased percentage of the R/sub n/ difference in the early morning hours as the study progressed, reaching 100% at approximately 30 days from the commencement of this study. Because the differences in R/sub n/ and G were nearly equal during radiation frost nights, it is apparent that little of the energy liberated by the soil was intercepted by the canopy. Provided a means of trapping the energy from the soil in the canopy can be devised, a potential 2-3 degrees C difference in canopy temperature may be realized between these floor management systems for the site studied. These differences in canopy temperature, however would be site-specific due to the effect of aspect, slope, relative position on slope, and vegetation on solar energy partitioning. 12 refs.

Sharratt, B.S.; Glenn, D.M.

1988-06-01

8

Impact of strong winds, heavy snow loads and soil frost conditions on the risks to forests in Northern Europe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The aim of this work was to study the potential impacts of strong winds, heavy snow loads, and soil frost conditions on the risks to forests in northern Europe under the current and changing climate (until 2100), with the main focus on Finland. More specifically, the analyses concentrated on: i) changes in the occurrence of strong winds, heavy snow loads, and unfrozen soil conditions in Finland, ii) regional risks to Finnish forests from heavy snow loads and strong win...

Gregow, Hilppa

2013-01-01

9

A preliminary synoptic assessment of soil frost on Marion Island and the possible consequences of climate change in a maritime sub-Antarctic environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Located in the sub-Antarctic, Marion Island (46° 54? S, 37° 45? E) has a distinct periglacial environment that is sensitive to climate change. Diurnal soil frost is the most important geomorphic process occurring on the island and this paper aims to understand the synoptic weather circulation pattern associated with summer soil frost occurrence in a sub-Antarctic environment. Preliminary results from automated microclimate measurements in the interior of Marion Isl...

Werner Nel

2012-01-01

10

Crusting susceptibility in some allic Colombian soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many lab methods were used: dry and water soil aggregates stability, instability index and erosion index and their results were related with soil characteristics like texture, Fe and Al oxides and organic matter. Soil samples collected within 0-2.5 and 2.5-5 cm of the soil surface came from terrains with many kinds of both forest and savanna intervened systems. Those results were analyzed like a completely randomized designed. It was found that significative changes in oxides content could increase soil-crusting susceptibility unless soil humus was up to was up to 4%. In this sense, pastures or its rotation with rice and leguminous offer a best alternative for intervening these natural systems. Intensive land husbandry or monocultures with low stubble soil incorporation caused an increase in physical instability at the top of soil. Dry soil stability test and instability index were most adequate for these soils

2001-12-01

11

Frost and the Prevention of Frost Damage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contents: The nature of frost; Protection from frost; Heater types; Damaging temperatures; Meteorological instruments and exposures; Economic factors in frost protection; Sources of information and assistance.

W. J. Rogers H. L. Swift

1970-01-01

12

Frost heaving of planted tree seedlings in the boreal forest of northern Sweden  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Frost heaving can be a leading cause of tree seedling mortality in many places in the boreal forest of Northern Sweden. The aim of this investigation was to improve our understanding of frost heaving of planted tree seedlings as related to snow cover, scarification, planting methods and soil types. The thesis is based on a review paper, three field experiments and one laboratory experiment. The experiments focus on different methods to control frost heaving of forest tree seedlings and on a number of factors affecting the extent of frost heaving. The review paper identifies the many aspects of frost heaving of forest tree seedlings and agricultural crops based on an intensive review of the research contributions made during the last century. Even if many investigations have been carried out with the aim to decrease the extent of frost heaving, very little quantitative results are available for tree seedlings. In a field experiment, the choice of planting positions was effective in decreasing frost heaving of planted seedlings following mounding or disc-trenching. Seedlings planted in the depressions were largely affected by frost heaving with a maximal vertical displacement of 5.4 cm while frost heaving did not occur on the top of the mound. On the other hand, the planting time and planting depth had no influence on the extent of frost heaving. In another field experiment the size of the scarified patches was strongly correlated to frost heaving which reached between 7.6 and 11.5 cm in 4 and 8-dm patches compared to between 4.4 and 5.3 in non-scarified soil and in a 1-dm patch. Ground vegetation probably decreases the diurnal temperature variation and the number of freezing-thawing cycles. The duration and magnitude of frost temperatures, the frost hour sum, increased with patch size. The difference between the 8-dm and 1-dm patch increased to 2064 hour-degrees at the end of the winter. In larger patches, the planting depth seemed to be effective in reducing the maximum frost heaving of the seedlings. In the third field experiment snow cover also showed to be an important factor in regard to frost heaving of tree seedlings. In a snow-free treatment combined with soil scarification, an uplift of 14.6 cm was measured during a winter season. In contrast no vertical displacement was observed under a simulated snow cover. The strong influence of snow on the extent of frost heaving indicates that further investigation should be focused on the interaction between maximum frost heaving and snow depth. In the laboratory freezing chamber experiment it was demonstrated that soil from spodic B horizon is less susceptible to frost heaving than soil from E horizon. Needle ice did not grow at all on soil samples from E horizon during a 3-day test, neither on fresh, nor on oven dried samples. On fresh samples of soil from Bs horizon, needle ices reached a maximum height of 9.7 cm in average. The use of theodolite and wooden dowels to estimate the extent of frost heaving in this study allowed to follow the process during the frost heaving period. A vertical uplift in millimetres could be recorded. A development of reliable measuring methods which allow a continuous estimation of the extent of frost heaving damage during the whole process, would undoubtedly represent an important step towards a better understanding of frost heaving of tree seedlings.

Goulet, France

2000-07-01

13

Non-stationary temporal characterization of the temperature profile of a soil exposed to frost in south-eastern Canada  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this work was to compare time and frequency fluctuations of air and soil temperatures (2-, 5-, 10-, 20- and 50-cm below the soil surface) using the continuous wavelet transform, with a particular emphasis on the daily cycle. The analysis of wavelet power spectra and cross power spectra provided detailed non-stationary accounts with respect to frequencies (or periods) and to time of the structure of the data and also of the relationships that exist between time series. For this particular application to the temperature profile of a soil exposed to frost, both the air temperature and the 2-cm depth soil temperature time series exhibited a dominant power peak at 1-d periodicity, prominent from spring to autumn. This feature was gradually damped as it propagated deeper into the soil and was weak for the 20-cm depth. Influence of the incoming solar radiation was also revealed in the wavelet power spectra analysis by a weaker intensity of the 1-d peak. The principal divergence between air and soil temperatures, besides damping, occurred in winter from the latent heat release associated to the freezing of the soil water and the insulation effect of snowpack that cease the dependence of the soil temperature to the air temperature. Attenuation and phase-shifting of the 1-d periodicity could be quantified through scale-averaged power spectra and time-lag estimations. Air temperature variance was only partly transferred to the 2-cm soil temperature time series and much less so to the 20-cm soil depth.

Anctil, F.; Pratte, A.; Parent, L. E.; Bolinder, M. A.

2008-05-01

14

Non-stationary temporal characterization of the temperature profile of a soil exposed to frost in south-eastern Canada  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare time and frequency fluctuations of air and soil temperatures (2-, 5-, 10-, 20- and 50-cm below the soil surface using the continuous wavelet transform, with a particular emphasis on the daily cycle. The analysis of wavelet power spectra and cross power spectra provided detailed non-stationary accounts with respect to frequencies (or periods and to time of the structure of the data and also of the relationships that exist between time series. For this particular application to the temperature profile of a soil exposed to frost, both the air temperature and the 2-cm depth soil temperature time series exhibited a dominant power peak at 1-d periodicity, prominent from spring to autumn. This feature was gradually damped as it propagated deeper into the soil and was weak for the 20-cm depth. Influence of the incoming solar radiation was also revealed in the wavelet power spectra analysis by a weaker intensity of the 1-d peak. The principal divergence between air and soil temperatures, besides damping, occurred in winter from the latent heat release associated to the freezing of the soil water and the insulation effect of snowpack that cease the dependence of the soil temperature to the air temperature. Attenuation and phase-shifting of the 1-d periodicity could be quantified through scale-averaged power spectra and time-lag estimations. Air temperature variance was only partly transferred to the 2-cm soil temperature time series and much less so to the 20-cm soil depth.

F. Anctil

2008-05-01

15

Frost evolution in tailings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review was carried out on the physical and thermal mechanisms of permafrost evaluation in soils and uranium tailings. The primary mechanism controlling permafrost evolution is conductive heat transfer with the latent heat of fusion of water being liberated as phase change occurs. Depending on the soil properties and freezing rate, pore water can be expelled from the frost front or pore water can migrate towards the frost front. Solute redistribution may occur as the frost front penetrates into the soil. The rate of frost penetration is a function of the thermal properties of the tailings and the climatic conditions. Computer modelling programmes capable of modelling permafrost evolution were reviewed. The GEOTHERM programme was selected as being the most appropriate for this study. The GEOTHERM programme uses the finite element method of thermal analysis. The ground surface temperature is determined by solving the energy balance equations a the ground surface. The GEOTHERM programme was used to simulate the permafrost evolution in the Key Lake Mine tailings located in north central Saskatchewan. The analyses indicated that the existing frozen zones in the tailing pond will eventually thaw if an average snow depth covers the tailings. Hundreds of years are required to thaw the tailings. If minimal snow cover is present the extent of the frozen zone in the tailings will increase

1991-01-01

16

Investigation of effects of moisture on soil temperature regimes and frost depth in a laboratory model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Freezing depth is one the most important climatic parameters for indices applied in various fields such as agriculture and civil engineering. The parameter of freezing depth depends on different factors including astronomical, surface air temperature, humidity; soil characteristics such as texture, heat capacity, thermal conductivity and specific heat. This study investigated the effect of air temperature on freezing depth. Apparatus able to reach temperatures of -16 ?C was set up to test soil freezing points. To measure and record soil temperature at depths of 10, 20, 50, and 70 cm, an automatic measurement system was designed. The system’s sensors included an electronic thermostat, inserted at various different soil depths. Variations of temperature measured by the sensors were transferred to a transformer and these measurements were then transferred to a computer as binary codes. These codes were then processed by a computer program and converted to a numerical format. After calibration, several experiments were conducted using soil bins of different textures including clay, clay-sand and sand, at percentage moisture contents of 0, 10, and 15%. Results of tests showed that freezing depth of soil in a dry state (0% moisture content for soil with smaller pores (such as clay was less than that of soil with larger pores (such as sand. The advancing speed of the freezing front had a similar trend. By increasing soil moisture (0% to 10%, for all soil samples, the depth of freezing and the advancing speed of the freezing front increased. This condition was more pronounced in soil with finer texture than in soil with coarser texture. By increasing the amount of soil moisture content, clay soil maintained its moisture throughout depth, but in sandy and clay-sandy soil, the moisture content decreased from the top to the bottom (due to drainage. This phenomenon affected the advancing speed of the freezing front in these soil samples. Finally, the correlation between the time of soil freezing (t, and the temperature at different depths during the freezing process (T, was investigated, and it was concluded that this can be written in the form of{ }, significant at 1% level for all three types of soil.

Rahnama Yami E. et al.

2012-08-01

17

Effects of freezing on soil temperature, frost propagation and moisture redistribution in peat: laboratory investigations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effects of freezing on soil temperature and water movement were monitored in four peat Mesocosms subjected to bidirectional freezing. Temperature gradients were applied by bringing the Mesocosm tops in contact with sub-zero air temperature while maintaining a continuously frozen layer at the bottom (proxy permafrost). Soil water movement towards the freezing front (from warmer to colder regions) was inferred from soil freezing curves and from the total water content of frozen core samples...

Nagare, R. M.; Schincariol, R. A.; Quinton, W. L.; Hayashi, M.

2011-01-01

18

Robert Frost on Writing.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book is a collection of Frost's letters, reviews, introductions, lectures, and interviews on writing dating back to 1913. It provides Frost's view of literature, and its relation to language and social order. Part one, "Frost as a Literary Critic," discusses the scope of Frost's criticism and Frost as both critical theorist and practical…

Barry, Elaine

19

Orchard floor management utilizing soil-applied coal dust for frost protection. Part II. Seasonal microclimate effect  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Orchard floor management has been found to affect the microclimate on radiation frost nights; however, long-term effects of management on the seasonal microclimate have not been studied. Comparisons were made of microclimatic factors in the spring of 1986 between two adjacent 1.4 ha peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) plots in the Shenandoah Valley of West Virginia. The orchard floor of one plot has grass maintained in both the 3-m-wide tree row and 3-m-wide grass alley (grass plot); the floor of the other plot was similar except that coal dust was applied to the soil surface of the tree row (coal dust plot). Net radiative (R/sub n/), soil heat (G), and sensible heat flux were greater during the daytime in the coal dust plot. Averaged over the 55-day period of this study, the daily R/sub n/ and G was 7 and 2 W m/sup -2/ greater in the coal dust plot, respectively. Thus, G accounted for 30% of R/sub n/ on a daily basis. Daily average tree-row air (to 195 cm) and soil (to 5 cm) temperatures were approx. 0.2 and 2.5 degrees C higher, respectively, in the coal dust plot. The cumulative differences found at the end of this study indicated that the coal dust plot absorbed 32 MJ more net radiant energy than the grass plot. Cumulative G differences accounted for 9 MJ (30%) of the R/sub n/ difference, with a greater heat flux into the soil in the coal dust plot. An approximate difference of 130 growing-degree-hours (GDH), which represented a 1% difference, was found at the end of the study. However, at the time of bloom, which required 4000 GDH, only a 40 GDH difference was found. These results indicate that microclimatic differences between management systems are cumulative and that differences for the site studied can develop by late spring. In years with greater cloud-free days, even larger microclimatic differences could develop than those reported in this study. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Sharratt, B.S.; Glenn, D.M.

1988-07-01

20

Seasonal Frost in Terra Sirenum  

Science.gov (United States)

This image of the Terra Sirenum region of Mars was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 0918 UTC (4:18 a.m. EST) on Nov. 25, 2006, near 38.9 degrees south latitude, 195.9 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 18 meters (60 feet) across. At this time, Mars' southern hemisphere was experiencing mid-winter. During Martian southern winter, the southern polar cap is covered and surrounded by carbon dioxide frost and water frost. This is unlike Earth, whose frozen winter precipitation is made up of only one volatile -- water. The carbon dioxide frost evaporates, or sublimates, at a lower temperature than water frost. So, during spring, the carbon dioxide ice evaporates first and leaves a residue of water frost, which later sublimates as well. The image shown here covers part of a crater rim, which is illuminated from the upper left. North is at the top. The topography creates a cold microenvironment on the south side of the rim that is partially protected from solar illumination. That cold surface contains an outlier of the southern seasonal frost about 15 degrees of latitude closer to the equator than the average edge of the frost at this season. The top image was constructed from three infrared wavelengths that highlight the bluer color of frost than the background rock and soil. Note that the frost occurs both on sunlit and shaded surfaces on the south side of the rim. The shaded areas are still visible because they are illuminated indirectly by the Martian sky. The bottom image was constructed by measuring the depths of spectral absorption bands due to water frost and carbon dioxide frost, and displaying the results in image form. Blue shows strength of an absorption due to water frost near 1.50 micrometers, and green shows strength of an absorption due to carbon dioxide frost near 1.45 micrometers. Red shows brightness of the surface at 1.33 micrometers -- outside of the frost absorption bands -- in order to show the relationship of frost to the illuminated crater rim. In comparing the top and bottom images, note that water frost occurs in many locations on the south-facing side of the crater rim, both in sunlit and shaded areas. Because it faces away from the sun, this side of the crater rim is colder than the north, sun-facing side. This favors the formation of frost. In contrast, carbon dioxide frost occurs only in the coldest, most shaded areas. CRISM's mission: Find the spectral fingerprints of aqueous and hydrothermal deposits and map the geology, composition and stratigraphy of surface features. The instrument will also watch the seasonal variations in Martian dust and ice aerosols, and water content in surface materials -- leading to new understanding of the climate. The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Frost formation and ice adhesion on superhydrophobic surfaces  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study frost formation and its impact on icephobic properties of superhydrophobic surfaces. Using an environmental scanning electron microscope, we show that frost nucleation occurs indiscriminately on superhydrophobic textures without any particular spatial preference. Ice adhesion measurements on superhydrophobic surfaces susceptible to frost formation show increased adhesion over smooth surfaces with a strong linear trend with the total surface area. These studies indicate that frost for...

Varanasi, Kripa K.; Deng, Tao; Hsu, Ming; Bhate, Nitin; Smith, Jonathan David

2010-01-01

22

Additional requirements for protective filtering materials of closed drainage laying in the seasonal soil frost zone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of preserving the filtration properties of the drainage material in the zone of seasonal freezing. Studies have shown that drainage can lay in the zone of seasonal freezing, but the pores in the filter should not be completely filled with ice. The drainage filter may include a geotextile.The article introduces the filtration model, taking into account the freezing of water in the geotextile. The model analysis allows obtaining conclusions about changes in the porosity and the coefficient of filtration of geotextile with according to changes in ice content. The diameter of the geotextile fiber, the initial porosity and the experimentally determined water loss geotextiles are considered. The formulas relating these parameters are found.The results can be applied for the selection of geotextiles used in the zone of seasonal freezing for the drainage protection or as separating filter layers in the soil.

A.B. Ponomarev

2012-06-01

23

Geostatistical 3-dimensional integration of measurements of soil magnetic susceptibility  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In soil magnetometry, two types of measurements are usually performed. The first type is measurements performed on the soil surface, frequently using an MS2D sensor. The second type includes measurements of magnetic susceptibility carried out in the soil profile, usually to a depth of about 30 cm. Up to now, such measurement results were analyzed separately. However, it is possible and advantageous to integrate these two types of measurements. The goal of the study was to integrate measureme...

Zawadzki, Jaros?aw; Magiera, Tadeusz; Fabijan?czyk, Piotr; Kusza, Grzegorz

2012-01-01

24

Assessment of soil erosion susceptibility using empirical modeling  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil erosion is one of the most serious land degradation problems all over the world, causing irreversible land quality reduction. In this paper, we modify the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model by replacing the factors of slope length and gradient with Sediment Transport Index (STI). The Digital Elevation Model, terrain parameters, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and rainfall data are used as inputs to the model. Along with the application of remote sensing techniques and ground survey measurements, erosion susceptibility maps are produced. The revised models are then used to obtain the optimal estimate of soil erosion susceptibility at Alianello of southern Italy, which is prone to soil erosion. The soil loss estimated from the modified RUSLE model shows a large spatial variance, ranging from 10 to as much as 7000 ton ha-1 yr-1. The high erosion susceptible area constitutes about 46.8% of the total erosion area, and when classified by land cover type, 33% is "mixed bare with shrubs and grass", followed by 5.29% of "mixture of shrubs and trees", with "shrubs" having the lowest percentage of 0.06%. In terms of slope types, very steep slope accounts for a total of 40.90% and belongs to high susceptibility, whereas flat slope accounts for only 0.12%, indicating that flat topography has little effect on the erosion hazard. As far as the geomorphologic types are concerned, the type of "moderate steep-steep slopes with moderate to severe erosion" is most favorable to high soil erosion, which comprises about 9.34%. Finally, we validate the soil erosion map from the adapted RUSLE model against the visual interpretation map, and find a similarity degree of 71.9%, reflecting the efficiency of the adapted RUSLE model in mapping the soil erosion in this study area.

Guo, Jianping; Niu, Tao; Rahimy, Pooyan; Wang, Fu; Zhao, Haiying; Zhang, Jiahua

2013-02-01

25

Magnetic susceptibility mapping of soil pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fast and cost-effective detection of industrial pollution can significantly promote its ecological, economic and social assesment. A magnetometric method, used for qualitative determination of anthropogenic contamination, meets these requirements but needs further development in more quantitative terms.lt could be used successfully in numerous cases when heavy metals coexists with strongly magnetic iron oxide particles in the source dust. We presented a magnetic study which examines the utility of magnetometric techniques for rapid, qualitative detection of metallic pollutants in soils. In the present paper we tested the use of rock-magnetic method designed to access the degree of pollution of soil taken from Novaky situated in the south-western of Slovakia. The aim was to identify magnetic particles and to link magnetic pollution, to trace distribution and concentration of contaminants in soil. About 40 years the rainwater overflow the dump and flooded out the ash waste from the brown coal power plant in Novaky. Soil samples have been taken from 3 horizons (20, 40 and 60 cm) and measured by KLY-kappabridge in the Slovak Academy of Sciences, in Geophysical Institute in Bratislava. Our results clearly demonstrate that magnetic anomalies can be explained by human activity. (authors)

2006-10-01

26

RADIATION FROST PROTECTION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The rich green drapery of a frost-damaged Hubbard Squash leaf, backlit by a late afternoon sun, caught the attention of micrometerologist/ photographer L.F. Hall in September 1981 . The leaf turned out to be part of a particularly clear illustration of variations in frost intensity near a small lilac bush. Photographic and instrumented studies of progressing frost damage and temperatures in the vicinity of the bush during the succeeding three week episode of several killing frosts led to the ...

1982-01-01

27

Evaluation on almond flower tolerance to frosts by chlorophyl fluorescence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most almond cultivars are susceptible to negative temperatures, a limiting factor for almond expansion to regions with risks of spring frosts. As a consequence, the main objective of most almond breeding programmes is to select late- or very late-blooming genotypes, in order to avoid the periods of high frost risk. Flower and fruitlet tolerance to frosts has been only studied so far by observing the morphological damages produced by low temperatures. Thus, our objective was the evaluation of ...

Kodad, O.; Morales Iribas, Fermi?n; Soci?as, Rafael

2010-01-01

28

Magnetic susceptibility properties of pesticide contaminated volcanic soil  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticides, unfortunately, are still widely used in many countries as way to eradicate agricultural pests. As they are being used continuously over a long period of time, they accumulate as residues in soils posing serious threats to the environment. In this study, we study the changes in magnetite-rich volcanic soils that were deliberately contaminated by pesticide. Such changes, in any, would be useful in the detection of pesticide residue in contaminated soils. Two different types of magnetically strong volcanic soil from the area near Lembang, West Java, Indonesia were used in this study where they were contaminated with varying concentrations of pesticide. The samples were then measured for magnetic susceptibility at two different frequencies. The measurements were then repeated after a period of three months. We found a reduction of magnetic susceptibility as well as a reduction in SP (superparamagnetic) grains proportion in contaminated soil. These might be caused by pesticide-induced magnetic dissolution as supported by SEM analyses. However the impact of pesticide concentration as well as exposure time on magnetic dissolution is still inconclusive.

Agustine, Eleonora; Fitriani, Dini; Safiuddin, La Ode; Tamuntuan, Gerald; Bijaksana, Satria

2013-09-01

29

Frost risks in the Mantaro river basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As part of the study on the Mantaro river basin's (central Andes of Perú current vulnerability to climate change, the temporal and spatial characteristics of frosts were analysed. These characteristics included intensity, frequency, duration, frost-free periods, area distribution and historical trends. Maps of frost risk were determined for the entire river basin, by means of mathematical algorithms and GIS (Geographic Information Systems tools, using minimum temperature – 1960 to 2002 period, geomorphology, slope, land-use, types of soils, vegetation and life zones, emphasizing the rainy season (September to April, when the impacts of frost on agriculture are most severe. We recognized four categories of frost risks: low, moderate, high and critical. The critical risks (with a very high probability of occurrence were related to high altitudes on the basin (altitudes higher than 3800 m a.s.l., while the low (or null probability of occurring risks were found in the lower zones (less than 2500 m a.s.l.. Because of the very intense agricultural activity and the high sensitivity of the main crops (Maize, potato, artichoke in the Mantaro valley (altitudes between 3100 and 3300 m a.s.l., moderate to high frost risks can be expected, with a low to moderate probability of occurrence. Another significant result was a positive trend of 8 days per decade in the number of frost days during the rainy season.

G. Trasmonte

2008-04-01

30

An instrument for measuring complex magnetic susceptibility of soils  

Science.gov (United States)

To improve the success of electromagnetic induction (EMI) metal detectors in identifying anti-personnel land mines buried in slightly ferromagnetic natural soils, we need to know what range of soil physical properties must be dealt with. We have therefore built a laboratory instrument for measuring complex magnetic susceptibility in inch-sized samples over a frequency range from 100 Hz to ~ 70 kHz with errors of a few percent of the sample susceptibility in a sample of ~1 milli-SIU volume susceptibility, (i.e. ~30 micro-SIU). The instrument is a symmetrical, six coil, induction spectrometer. A pair of transmitter coils in Helmholtz configuration generates a uniform magnetic field over the sample region. The magnetic moment induced in the sample is detected (mainly) by a pair of receiver coils which are closer to the sample than the transmitter pair and also (nearly) in Helmholtz configuration, so as to provide uniform sensitivity over the whole sample region. The coupling of the main receiver pair to the transmitter pair is annulled with a second pair of coils (called the reference receiver pair) situated outside the transmitter pair. The transmitter coils are energized with a wideband current. Data acquisition is by a PC computer with a 192 kHz, 24 bit, 2 channel sound card using software in written in MatLab. Although our instrument is still a prototype and its design continues to evolve, we have measured susceptibility spectra of some samples from de-mining projects in areas where false alarms are a problem and have found dispersive susceptibilities.

West, Gordon F.; Bailey, Richard C.

2005-06-01

31

Assessing Biodegradation Susceptibilities of Selected Petroleum Hydrocarbons at Contaminated Soils  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The susceptibility to biodegradation of selected saturated hydrocarbons (SHCs, polycyclic aromatichydrocarbons (PAHs and asphaltenes in a Barrow crude oil and extracts isolated from soils contaminated with theBarrow crude oil at day 0 and 39 was determined. Soil samples were contaminated with a Barrow crude oil across thesurface (5% w/w as part of a mesocosm experiment in order to mimic similar conditions in the environment. Theextent of biodegradation of the Barrow oil extracted from the contaminated soils at day 0 and day 39 was assessed byGC-MS analyses of SHCs and PAHs fractions. Changes in the relative abundances of n-alkanes (loss of low-molecularweighthydrocarbons and pristane relative to phytane (Pr/Ph and their diastereoisomers were determined. Changesin the diastereoisomer ratios of Pr and Ph relate to the decrease in abundance of the phytol-derived 6(R,10(Sisoprenoids with increasing biodegradation. The percentage change in abundances of each of selectedalkylnaphathalenes with time (day 0 to 39 was determined, enabling an order of susceptibility of their isomers tobiodegradation. It was established that the 2-methylnaphthalene isomers (2-MN is more susceptible to microbialattack than 1-MN isomer indicated by decreasing in percent abundance from day 0 to 39 for the 2-MN isomer. TheGC-MS analyses of the original Barrow oil indicated the oil had not undergone biodegradation. When this oil wasused in the soil mesocosm experiments the oil was shown to biodegrade to about a level 2 -3 based on the biodegradationsusceptibility of the various SHCs and PAHs described above

Markus Heryanto Langsa

2010-01-01

32

Frost heave in He  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Frost heave occurs in various phenomena in natural environment. It has been studied in helium on porous glasses under perfect ice-segregation condition. The maximum frost heave pressure was investigated for various conditions and was in good agreement with the thermodynamical prediction. The dynamical properties of frost heave are discussed and some of the preliminary results of the growth rate measurement are presented. (orig.)

1995-05-01

33

Soil magnetic susceptibility reflects soil moisture regimes and the adaptability of tree species to these regimes  

Science.gov (United States)

Flooded, saturated or poorly drained soils are frequently anaerobic, leading to dissolution of the strongly magnetic minerals, magnetite and maghemite, and a corresponding decrease in soil magnetic susceptibility (MS). In this study of five temperate deciduous forests in east-central Illinois, USA, mean surface soil MS was significantly higher adjacent to upland tree species (31 ?? 10-5 SI) than adjacent to floodplain or lowland tree species (17 ?? 10-5 SI), when comparing regional soils with similar parent material of loessal silt. Although the sites differ in average soil MS for each tree species, the relative order of soil MS means for associated tree species at different locations is similar. Lowland tree species, Celtis occidentalis L., Ulmus americana L., Acer saccharinum L., Carya laciniosa (Michx. f.) Loud., and Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. were associated with the lowest measured soil MS mean values overall and at each site. Tree species' flood tolerance rankings increased significantly, as soil MS values declined, the published rankings having significant correlations with soil MS values for the same species groups. The three published classifications of tree species' flood tolerance were significantly correlated with associated soil MS values at all sites, but most strongly at Allerton Park, the site with the widest range of soil drainage classes and MS values. Using soil MS measurements in forests with soil parent material containing similar initial levels of strongly magnetic minerals can provide a simple, rapid and quantitative method to classify soils according to hydric regimes, including dry conditions, and associated plant composition. Soil MS values thus have the capacity to quantify the continuum of hydric tolerances of tree species and guide tree species selection for reforestation. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Wang, J. -S.; Grimley, D. A.; Xu, C.; Dawson, J. O.

2008-01-01

34

Frost on Utopia Planitia  

Science.gov (United States)

This Viking Lander 2 picture from Utopia Planitia shows the first clear indication of frost accumulation on the Martian surface seen by lander cameras. The picture, looking due north, was obtained with a blue filter at 12:59 p.m. local lander time, Sept. 13, 1977. The season is late winter. Frost appears as a white accumulation around the bottom of rocks, in a trench dug by the lander sampler arm, and in scattered patches on the darker surface. The shadow of the lander, including the camera (center) and the meteorology boom (left), appears in foreground. As the sun moves, the shadow is moving from left to right, exposing areas covered by frost and previously protected from the sun by the lander shadow. (Another image taken one-half hour later suggests the frost patches have become smaller.) Apparently frost, formed during the Martian night, at least partially disappears during the warmer daytime. The composition of the frost, whether carbon dioxide or water or a mixture of the two (CO2 clathrate), is not known. Measurements from the meteorology instrument indicate minimum nighttime temperatures of 160 Kelvin (-171 Fahrenheit). At the time the image was taken, the temperature had risen to 175 Kelvin (-144 Fahrenheit). The atmospheric pressure was 8.835 millibars. This combination of pressure and temperature are inconsistent with carbon dioxide frost formation, but plausible near-surface mechanisms might have resulted in conditions favorable for CO2 frost formation. Viking orbiter thermal mapping and water vapor instruments indicate temperatures might have been slightly lower than measured by the lander, suggesting that the frost is more likely CO2 than H20. A remote, but possible, explanation is that the material is an extremely bright dust deposit. Color images to be taken will be able to discount this interpretation. The mechanism for frost deposition is unknown. Possibilities include formation directly on the surface, precipitation as snow, or material blown to the area around the lander from colder regions.

1977-01-01

35

Part 2. State of the art paper on frost heave : a review of frost heave theory and models  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This technical review for a proposed pipeline in the Mackenzie Valley in the Northwest Territories represents the first of 3 reports that document the current state of knowledge about frost heave theory, testing and predictive modelling. The review considers whether frost heave is sufficiently understood and can be controlled to allow for the safe construction and operation of a large diameter chilled gas pipeline. It provides a complete review of frost heavy theory, prediction models acquisition of input data for prediction models, validation of theory and models by laboratory experiments. Details on most of the significant models and experiments were presented on small scale frost heave experiments for northern pipeline design and operation, frost heave prediction models, and frost heave prediction models for buried chilled gas pipelines. The most recent developments applicable to chilled pipelines include the discrete ice lens model, the 2 dimensional rigid ice model, and the development of a 3 dimensional hydrodynamic model. The authors noted that a comprehensive analysis of the pipeline/frost heave problem should consider coupled heat flow and moisture transport in frozen and unfrozen soils; mechanical behaviour of unfrozen soil; moving boundary challenges associated with a moving freezing front and frost heave; growth of pore ice and ice lenses; mechanical behavior of the buried pipe; and pipeline-soil interface behaviour. The other 2 accompanying reports have also been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

NONE

2005-07-01

36

Non-stationary temporal characterization of the temperature profile of a soil exposed to frost in south-eastern Canada  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this work was to compare time and frequency fluctuations of air and soil temperatures (2-, 5-, 10-, 20- and 50-cm below the soil surface) using the continuous wavelet transform, with a particular emphasis on the daily cycle. The analysis of wavelet power spectra and cross power spectra provided detailed non-stationary accounts with respect to frequencies (or periods) and to time of the structure of the data and also of the relationships that exist between time series. For thi...

Anctil, F.; Pratte, A.; Parent, L. E.; Bolinder, M. A.

2008-01-01

37

Frosted Chasma Boreale Dunes  

Science.gov (United States)

MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-390, 13 June 2003This is a Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) view of frost-covered sand dunes in Chasma Boreale in the early northern spring season. Dark spots, some of them with bright halos of re-precipitated frost, have formed as the dunes begin to defrost. Most of the frost is carbon dioxide which freezes out of the atmosphere during the cold martian polar winters. This picture is located near 84.7oN, 358.8oW, and is illuminated from the lower left.

2003-01-01

38

Enhanced by Frost  

Science.gov (United States)

30 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows outcrops of south polar layered terrain. Their appearance in this July 2005 springtime image is enhanced by bright patches of carbon dioxide frost. The frost is left over from the previous southern winter season; by summer, the frost would be gone. Location near: 84.6oS, 203.5oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

2005-01-01

39

Frost/Nixon  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This project investigates power relations’ constitution through interaction in an institutionalised news interview setting. Two objects, The Nixon Interviews and Frost/Nixon, have been analysed to explore this. The objects are an interview with former President Richard Nixon, conducted by the British journalist David Frost and the film, adapted from a stage play, based on said interviews. Comparing these two concludes how participants in both the original and fictionalised interviews consti...

2013-01-01

40

Effects of Parent Materials, Gypsum and Carbonates on the Magnetic Susceptibility of Soils in Southern Mashhad  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Magnetic susceptibility measurement is a simple and quick technique for characterizing soils and sediments and describing soil-forming processes. The interpretation of soil magnetic susceptibility data needs sufficient knowledge about the factors affecting this parameter. To identify the effects of parent material, gypsum and calcium carbonate equivalent, 42 samples were taken from horizons of soils developed on loessial, alluvial, granitic and marly materials in southern Mashhad. Gypsum and carbonates of soil samples were removed by successive washing with distilled water and diluted HCl, respectively. Magnetic susceptibility of bulk samples (?lfbulk, gypsum free samples (?lfGf, gypsum and carbonates free samples (?lfGCf and gypsum, carbonates and sand free samples (?lfGCSf was measured. The results revealed a strong 1:1 correlation between the measured and calculated ?lfGf and ?lfGCf. Despite the high amounts of gypsum and carbonates in soils developed on marls, their ?lfbulk was much more than that of the other soils and reached up to 121.8×10-8m3 kg-1. In contrast, the ?lfbulk values of saprolitic granite were less than 10.4×10-8m3 kg-1. The ?lfbulk values of loessial and alluvial soils were less than those of marly soils but higher than those of soils developed on saprolitic granite. ?lfbulk values were negatively correlated with the amount of sand. However, reduction in magnetic susceptibility values of marly soils after removing sand reflects the different nature of this soil. The correlation between ?lfbulk and amount of silt and clay is positive, but the magnetic susceptibility values are more sensitive to clay percentage, indicating the more important contribution of clay to magnetic susceptibility values. The results of this study highlight the role of parent materials, gypsum and carbonates in the soil magnetic susceptibility values that should be considered.

A. Karimi

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
41

Evaluation of almond flower tolerance to frosts by chlorophyll fluorescence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most almond cultivars are susceptible to negative temperatures, a limiting factor for almond expansion to regions with risks of spring frosts. Flower and fruitlet tolerance to frosts has only been studied so far by observing the morphological damages produced by low temperatures. Thus, our objective was the evaluation of chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) to estimate the tolerance of 12 commercial almond cultivars of different origin to low temperatures. Flowers were maintained for 24 hours at dif...

Kodad, Ossama; Socias I Company, Rafel; Morales Iribas, Fermi?n

2011-01-01

42

Frost on Mars  

Science.gov (United States)

This image shows bluish-white frost seen on the Martian surface near NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The image was taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager on the 131st Martian day, or sol, of the mission (Oct. 7, 2008). Frost is expected to continue to appear in images as fall, then winter approach Mars' northern plains. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

43

Lithological and pedological influences on the magnetic susceptibility of soil: their consideration in magnetic pollution mapping.  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetic susceptibility measurements are widely used to map and monitor the heavy metal pollution of soils. However, the magnetic properties of soils are influenced significantly by the bedrock lithology and soil-forming processes. Therefore, a main challenge in the data interpretation is to filter out the anthropogenic pollution signal. In this study we address this problem by analysing susceptibility values, heavy metal concentrations, as well as pedological parameters in a large soil data set from the eastern segment of Austria, covering a wide range of different lithologies and soil types. The statistic assessment demonstrates an influence of lithology and soil type on the magnetic susceptibility signal. Therefore anomalies are defined in sub sets of different soil types separately. Three different methods were applied to detect susceptibility anomalies: the median absolute deviation method, the boxplot method, and the population modelling method. These methods evaluate topsoil data only and can therefore also be applied to field measurements of magnetic susceptibility. The results were compared to the conventional method of calculating the difference of topsoil and subsoil susceptibility. All three approaches identify the main anomalies in the study area and are successful in circumventing the problem of erroneous anomaly definition due to pedological processes. However, knowledge of the lithological background is still necessary for a meaningful interpretation and can only be substituted by a large amount of data. The tested methods lead to thresholds of different height and therefore act as filters of different strength for the definition of anomalies. PMID:17509666

Hanesch, Monika; Rantitsch, Gerd; Hemetsberger, Sigrid; Scholger, Robert

2007-09-01

44

Tints, Shades and Frost  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes a classroom art project inspired by the work of Robert Frost, one of the most acclaimed and beloved American poets of all time. Using tints and shades in a composition, this project demonstrates how quality literature may be incorporated into elementary art lessons in a very useful way, making art an important complement to…

Sterling, Joan

2009-01-01

45

Frost-covered dunes  

Science.gov (United States)

MOC image of dunes in Chasma Boreale, a giant trough in the north polar cap. This September 1998 view shows dark sand emergent from beneath a veneer of bright frost left over from the northern winter that ended in July 1998.

1999-01-01

46

Frost heave and northern pipelines, state of the art and status of research : three contributing studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three review studies were conducted in response to the renewed interest in building a large diameter buried chilled natural gas pipeline in the Mackenzie Valley, Northwest Territories, to transport gas from the Beaufort/Mackenzie Delta to southern markets. The 3 review studies were commissioned by the Geological Survey of Canada to document the current state of knowledge about frost heave theory, testing and predictive modelling. The usefulness of this knowledge to the design, construction and operation of a buried chilled gas pipeline was also evaluated. The studies addressed one of the primary technical and engineering design issues that must be considered in the design of northern pipelines, that of the development of a frost bulb around buried chilled pipelines, and the associated heave of frost-susceptible soil and stresses imposed on the pipeline. The issue of differential heave is of particular concern. The information gathered from this study can be used to form the basis for the regulatory review process. This open file report provides a summary of the 3 studies. The 3 individual commissions reports were catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

Lawrence, D.E.; Smith, S.L.; Burgess, M.M. (comps.) [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada

2005-07-01

47

Importance of winter climate and soil frost for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in boreal forest soils and streams : - implications for a changing climate  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a defining feature of surface waters in a large part of the world and it influences a variety of physical, chemical and biological processes in aquatic ecosystems. Riparian soils exert a major control on stream water chemistry in many northern latitude regions and provide a local source of DOC to adjacent streams. As the winter climate in northern regions is predicted to be particularly affected by climate change, it is important to investigate the sensitivit...

2011-01-01

48

ISOLATION AND ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING OF RAPIDLY-GROWING MYCOBACTERIA FROM GRASSLAND SOILS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are common soil saprophytes, but certain strains cause infections in human and animals. The infections due to RGM have been increasing in past decades and are often difficult to treat. The susceptibility to antibiotics is regularly evaluated in clinical isolates of RGM, but the data on soil RGM are missing. The objectives of this study was to isolate RGM from four grassland soils with different impact of manuring, and assess their resistance to antibiotics a...

Martina Kyselková; Alica Chro?áková; Jan N?mec; Lucie Kotrbová; Dana Elhottová

2013-01-01

49

Frost in Charitum Montes  

Science.gov (United States)

MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-387, 10 June 2003This is a Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) wide angle view of the Charitum Montes, south of Argyre Planitia, in early June 2003. The seasonal south polar frost cap, composed of carbon dioxide, has been retreating southward through this area since spring began a month ago. The bright features toward the bottom of this picture are surfaces covered by frost. The picture is located near 57oS, 43oW. North is at the top, south is at the bottom. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left. The area shown is about 217 km (135 miles) wide.

2003-01-01

50

Frost resistance of reproductive tissues during various stages of development in high mountain plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Frost resistance of reproductive vs aboveground vegetative structures was determined for six common European high alpine plant species that can be exposed to frosts throughout their whole reproductive cycle. Freezing tests were carried out in the bud, anthesis and fruit stage. Stigma and style, ovary, placenta, ovule, flower stalk/peduncle and, in Ranunculus glacialis, the receptacle were separately investigated. In all species, the vegetative organs tolerated on an average 2-5 K lower freezing temperatures than the most frost-susceptible reproductive structures that differed in their frost resistance. In almost all species, stigma, style and the flower stalk/peduncle were the most frost-susceptible reproductive structures. Initial frost damage (LT??) to the most susceptible reproductive structure usually occurred between -2 and -4°C independent of the reproductive stage. The median LT?? across species for stigma and style ranged between -3.4 and -3.7°C and matched the mean ice nucleation temperature (-3.7 ± 1.4°C). In R. glacialis, the flower stalk was the most frost-susceptible structure (-5.4°C), and was in contrast to the other species ice-tolerant. The ovule and the placenta were usually the most frost-resistant structures. During reproductive development, frost resistance (LT??) of single reproductive structures mostly showed no significant change. However, significant increases or decreases were also observed (2.1 ± 1.2 K). Reproductive tissues of nival species generally tolerated lower temperatures than species occurring in the alpine zone. The low frost resistance of reproductive structures before, during and shortly after anthesis increases the probability of frost damage and thus, may restrict successful sexual plant reproduction with increasing altitude. PMID:22420836

Neuner, Gilbert; Erler, Agnes; Ladinig, Ursula; Hacker, Jürgen; Wagner, Johanna

2013-01-01

51

Frost Forecasting for Fruitgrowers  

Science.gov (United States)

Progress in forecasting from satellite data reviewed. University study found data from satellites displayed in color and used to predict frost are valuable aid to agriculture. Study evaluated scheme to use Earth-temperature data from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite in computer model that determines when and where freezing temperatures endanger developing fruit crops, such as apples, peaches and cherries in spring and citrus crops in winter.

Martsolf, J. D.; Chen, E.

1983-01-01

52

Frost on Dunes  

Science.gov (United States)

18 March 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark dunes on a crater floor during the southern spring. Some of the dunes have frost on their south-facing slopes. Location near: 52.3oS, 326.7oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

2005-01-01

53

Water frost on Charon  

Science.gov (United States)

New spectra of the Pluto-Charon system taken just before and during a total eclipse of the satellite are presented. The spectrum of Charon extracted from the data reveals the signature of water ice. There is no evidence for any methane or ammonia frost on the surface of Charon. The significance of these findings for the evolution of the Pluto-Charon system are discussed.

Buie, Marc W.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Lebofsky, Larry A.; Tedesco, Edward F.

1987-01-01

54

Soil magnetic susceptibility as indicator of radioactive contamination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurement of magnetic susceptibility is a method, which is used in many areas of research. The locality Ak-Tjuz is typical example of old ecological load. One of the negative effects represents radioactive contamination. This situation is caused by environmental disaster in 1964. For useful reparation it is really necessary to determinate the surface range of contamination. And measurement of the magnetic susceptibility could be the suitable method for that kind of monitoring. (author)

2006-10-01

55

Sand Dunes with Frost  

Science.gov (United States)

9 May 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a suite of frost-covered sand dunes in the north polar region of Mars in early spring, 2004. The dunes indicate wind transport of sand from left to right (west to east). These landforms are located near 78.1oN, 220.8oW. This picture is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

2004-01-01

56

Winter Frost and Fog  

Science.gov (United States)

This somewhat oblique blue wide angle Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the 174 km (108 mi) diameter crater, Terby, and its vicinity in December 2004. Located north of Hellas, this region can be covered with seasonal frost and ground-hugging fog, even in the afternoon, despite being north of 30oS. The subtle, wavy pattern is a manifestation of fog. Location near: 28oS, 286oW Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

2005-01-01

57

Evaluation of Magnetic Susceptibility Source Using CBD Treatment and Micro CT-Scan Images in Some Soils of Fars Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Magnetic susceptibility (? measurements are widely used for the evaluation of soil profile development. Fourteen soil profiles were studied in a relatively wide range of climatic conditions in Fars Province. Citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite (CBD extraction and micro CT-Scan images were used to evaluate the source of magnetic susceptibility. The results showed that soil samples lost 23 to 91 percent of their magnetic susceptibility after CBD extraction (?CBD, reflecting differences in the source (pedogenic or lithogenic of magnetic susceptibility. Greater values of the decrease were noticed mostly in well developed soil profiles as well as in soil surface. 22 to 89% of the decrease was observed in frequency dependence of magnetic susceptibility (?fd after CBD extraction. A significant positive correlation (P<0.01 was obtained between ?CBD and ?fd in the soil studied. Micro CT-Scan images with a spatial resolution of 33 µm showed lithogenic magnetic Fe oxide (magnetite grains.

H Owliaie

2009-01-01

58

Frost on Mars Rover Opportunity  

Science.gov (United States)

Frost can form on surfaces if enough water is present and the temperature is sufficiently low. On each of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, the calibration target for the panoramic camera provides a good place to look for such events. A thin frost was observed by Opportunity's panoramic camera on the rover's 257th sol (Oct. 13, 2004) 11 minutes after sunrise (left image). The presence of the frost is most clearly seen on the post in the center of the target, particularly when compared with the unsegmented outer ring of the target, which is white. The post is normally black. For comparison, note the difference in appearance in the image on the right, taken about three hours later, after the frost had dissipated. Frost has not been observed at Spirit, where the amount of atmospheric water vapor is observed to be appreciably lower. Both images were taken through a filter centered at a wavelength of 440 nanometers (blue).

2004-01-01

59

Frost-free Dunes  

Science.gov (United States)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03291 Frost-free Dunes These dark dunes are frost covered for most of the year. As southern summer draws to a close, the dunes have been completely defrosted. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -66.6N, Longitude 37.0E. 34 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2006-01-01

60

Soil characterization using patterns of magnetic susceptibility versus effective radium concentration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Low-field magnetic susceptibility ?m and effective radium concentration ECRa, obtained from radon emanation, have been measured in the laboratory with 129 soil samples from Nepal. Samples along horizontal profiles in slope debris or terrace scarps showed rather homogeneous values of both ?m and ECRa. One sample set, collected vertically on a lateritic terrace scarp, had homogeneous values of ECRa while ?m<...

Girault, F.; Poitou, C.; Perrier, F.; Koirala, B. P.; Bhattarai, M.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Robert Frost: Teacher "Earner, Learner, Yearner."  

Science.gov (United States)

An account of Robert Frost's teaching, along with an assessment of it, are presented. Material consulted includes Frost's published letters, prose, and poetry; Lawrance Thompson's authorized biography; Lesley Frost's "New Hampshire's Child: The Derry Journals of Lesley Frost;" and additional sources such as films and periodicals, particularly…

Vogel, Nancy Sue

62

Restraint of frost heave in a test filling using lime stabilization; Shiken moritsuchi ni okeru sekkai antei shori no tojo yokusei koka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes restraint of frost heave in a test filling frost waste soil from construction using lime stabilization. The restraint of frost heave is significant for the road design in cold districts, and replacement has been conventionally adopted. However, due to the exhaustion of replacement materials which are a great amount of coarse grain materials and the treatment of waste soil, construction method using soil generated at original site has been required. The frost depth of stabilized soil using untreated soil and site soil is constant between 68 and 70 cm. The restraint effect of frost heave was enhanced with increasing the lime addition. The addition of 10% lime decreased the frost heave to 4 mm which was of the same order experienced in the sand replacement method. Through the lime stabilization, the frost heave can be suppressed by the reduction of permeability and by the increase in intergranular force due to pozzolanic reaction. Based on the relationship between the frost depth and frost heave, it was found that the frost heave of soil stabilized by lime concentrates on the surface part of improved layer. This was considered to be caused by the increase in the water content of upper layer with rain water and snowmelt water due to the uneven mixing of improving agent and the reduction of permeability of treated layer. 9 refs., 8 figs.

Kawabata, S.; Kamiya, M. [Hokkaido Institute of Technology, Sapporo (Japan); Osawa, M.

1998-04-01

63

Dunes with Frost  

Science.gov (United States)

31 May 2004 Springtime for the martian northern hemisphere brings defrosting spots and patterns to the north polar dune fields. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an example located near 76.7oN, 250.4oW. In summer, these dunes would be darker than their surroundings. However, while they are still covered by frost, they are not any darker than the substrate across which the sand is slowly traveling. Dune movement in this case is dominated by winds that blow from the southwest (lower left) toward the northeast (upper right). The picure covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

2004-01-01

64

Dynamics of frost resistance in various provenances of Abies grandis Lindl.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The frost resistance of one year old needles and shoots of Abies grandis (seven provenances and Abies alba (one provenance was determined using Dexter's method since early autumn till late spring (September-May. Material was collected from trees over ten year old, planted in Beskid S?decki Range near Krynica, 800 m above sea level. In this study it was found, that in early autumn (September A. grandis develops weaker frost hardiness than Abies alba. In the late autumn and in winter, provenances coming from region II (according to Müller, and especially provenance 12016, are equal in respect to frost hardiness of shoots and needles to Abies alba. Among the provenances from Müller's region I exceptional frost hardiness is displayed by provenance 12005, which is also characterized by fast growth. In spring, Abies alba flushes earlier than A. grandis, which makes it more susceptible to late frosts.

Adam Dolnicki

1998-03-01

65

Frost formation mechanism analysis and frost growth prediction on ground aircraft  

Science.gov (United States)

Frost predictions are needed to help the deicing operation decide. The mechanism of frost formation on aircraft surface under icing conditions has been analyzed. A simple theoretical frost growth prediction model by heat and mass transfer analysis has been presented. It produces a method to forecast the frost growth tendency. An experimental system for atmospheric frost reproduction is also presented. Effects of aircraft surface temperatures, air temperature on the frost growth is evaluated by this model.

Xu, Dandan; Wang, Liwen

2013-10-01

66

Effect of frost damage on leaf macronutrient status of eight apple cultivars in integrated apple orchard in Eastern-Hungary  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The year of 2007 was critical for fruit growers in the region of Easter-Hungary. Several orchards were suffered frost damages. Significant frost damage was also happened in the orchard of Tedej Rt., which caused total fruit failure in the orchard. Our study was conducted in the integrated apple orchard (Malus domestica Borkh.) established on a lowland chernozem soil in East-Hungary, to investigate how frost changes the mineral content of different apple species. Leaf samples were coll...

Pt, Nagy; Ka?tai J, Nye?ki J.; Szabó Z; Nagy Péter Tamás (1970-) (vegyész)

2009-01-01

67

Managing Potato Biodiversity to Cope with Frost Risk in the High Andes: A Modeling Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

Austral summer frosts in the Andean highlands are ubiquitous throughout the crop cycle, causing yield losses. In spite of the existing warming trend, climate change models forecast high variability, including freezing temperatures. As the potato center of origin, the region has a rich biodiversity which includes a set of frost resistant genotypes. Four contrasting potato genotypes –representing genetic variability- were considered in the present study: two species of frost resistant native potatoes (the bitter Solanum juzepczukii, var. Luki, and the non-bitter Solanum ajanhuiri, var. Ajanhuiri) and two commercial frost susceptible genotypes (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum var. Alpha and Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigenum var. Gendarme). The objective of the study was to conduct a comparative growth analysis of four genotypes and modeling their agronomic response under frost events. It included assessing their performance under Andean contrasting agroecological conditions. Independent subsets of data from four field experiments were used to parameterize, calibrate and validate a potato growth model. The validated model was used to ascertain the importance of biodiversity, represented by the four genotypes tested, as constituents of germplasm mixtures in single plots used by local farmers, a coping strategy in the face of climate variability. Also scenarios with a frost routine incorporated in the model were constructed. Luki and Ajanhuiri were the most frost resistant varieties whereas Alpha was the most susceptible. Luki and Ajanhuiri, as monoculture, outperformed the yield obtained with the mixtures under severe frosts. These results highlight the role played by local frost tolerant varieties, and featured the management importance –e.g. clean seed, strategic watering- to attain the yields reported in our experiments. The mixtures of local and introduced potatoes can thus not only provide the products demanded by the markets but also reduce the impact of frosts and thus the vulnerability of the system to abiotic stressors.

Condori, Bruno; Hijmans, Robert J.; Ledent, Jean Francois; Quiroz, Roberto

2014-01-01

68

Managing potato biodiversity to cope with frost risk in the high Andes: a modeling perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Austral summer frosts in the Andean highlands are ubiquitous throughout the crop cycle, causing yield losses. In spite of the existing warming trend, climate change models forecast high variability, including freezing temperatures. As the potato center of origin, the region has a rich biodiversity which includes a set of frost resistant genotypes. Four contrasting potato genotypes--representing genetic variability--were considered in the present study: two species of frost resistant native potatoes (the bitter Solanum juzepczukii, var. Luki, and the non-bitter Solanum ajanhuiri, var. Ajanhuiri) and two commercial frost susceptible genotypes (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum var. Alpha and Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigenum var. Gendarme). The objective of the study was to conduct a comparative growth analysis of four genotypes and modeling their agronomic response under frost events. It included assessing their performance under Andean contrasting agroecological conditions. Independent subsets of data from four field experiments were used to parameterize, calibrate and validate a potato growth model. The validated model was used to ascertain the importance of biodiversity, represented by the four genotypes tested, as constituents of germplasm mixtures in single plots used by local farmers, a coping strategy in the face of climate variability. Also scenarios with a frost routine incorporated in the model were constructed. Luki and Ajanhuiri were the most frost resistant varieties whereas Alpha was the most susceptible. Luki and Ajanhuiri, as monoculture, outperformed the yield obtained with the mixtures under severe frosts. These results highlight the role played by local frost tolerant varieties, and featured the management importance--e.g. clean seed, strategic watering--to attain the yields reported in our experiments. The mixtures of local and introduced potatoes can thus not only provide the products demanded by the markets but also reduce the impact of frosts and thus the vulnerability of the system to abiotic stressors. PMID:24497912

Condori, Bruno; Hijmans, Robert J; Ledent, Jean Francois; Quiroz, Roberto

2014-01-01

69

Soil loss and landslide susceptibility evaluations at the Hills of Freisa Vineyards (Central Piedmont, Northwestern Italy)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the paper, the potential soil loss and the landslides susceptibility have been evaluated means of empirical models at one of the hilly sites candidate as “Typical Piedmont Vineyard Landscapes: Langhe, Monferrato, Roero” to the World Heritage List of UNESCO. The study area is defined as “Core 1 – Freisa” and its territory is included within the municipalities of Albugnano, Castelnuovo Don Bosco, Moncucco Torinese and Pino d’Asti all in the Asti district.

2011-01-01

70

Soil characterization using patterns of magnetic susceptibility versus effective radium concentration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Low-field magnetic susceptibility ?m and effective radium concentration ECRa, obtained from radon emanation, have been measured in the laboratory with 129 soil samples from Nepal. Samples along horizontal profiles in slope debris or terrace scarps showed rather homogeneous values of both ?m and ECRa. One sample set, collected vertically on a lateritic terrace scarp, had homogeneous values of EC...

2011-01-01

71

ISOLATION AND ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING OF RAPIDLY-GROWING MYCOBACTERIA FROM GRASSLAND SOILS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM are common soil saprophytes, but certain strains cause infections in human and animals. The infections due to RGM have been increasing in past decades and are often difficult to treat. The susceptibility to antibiotics is regularly evaluated in clinical isolates of RGM, but the data on soil RGM are missing. The objectives of this study was to isolate RGM from four grassland soils with different impact of manuring, and assess their resistance to antibiotics and the ability to grow at 37°C and 42°C. Since isolation of RGM from soil is a challenge, a conventional decontamination method (NaOH/malachite green/cycloheximide and a recent method based on olive oil/SDS demulsification were compared. The olive oil/SDS method was less efficient, mainly because of the emulsion instability and plate overgrowing with other bacteria. Altogether, 44 isolates were obtained and 23 representatives of different RGM genotypes were screened. The number of isolates per soil decreased with increasing soil pH, consistently with previous findings that mycobacteria were more abundant in low pH soils. Most of the isolates belonged to the Mycobacterium fortuitum group. The majority of isolates was resistant to 2-4 antibiotics. Multiresistant strains occurred also in a control soil that has a long history without the exposure to antibiotic-containing manure. Seven isolates grew at 37°C, including the species M. septicum and M. fortuitum known for infections in humans. This study shows that multiresistant RGM close to known human pathogens occur in grassland soils regardless the soil history of manuring.

Martina Kyselková

2013-08-01

72

Tolerância de frutos de pessegueiro a geadas / Fruit frost tolerance in peach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a tolerância de frutos de pessegueiro aos danos ocasionados pela geada. A geada ocorreu no dia 5 de setembro de 2006, sendo que a temperatura mínima, a 1,5 m do solo, foi de - 1,06ºC. Foram avaliados 28 genótipos de pessegueiro em diferentes estádios fenológi [...] cos. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições (plantas de pessegueiro), procedendo-se à avaliação em seis ramos por planta. No dia em que ocorreu a geada, foram mensurados o número de frutos por ramo, diâmetro sutural médio dos frutos, número total de gemas vegetativas, percentual de brotação e percentual de brindilas formadas a partir das gemas brotadas. Uma segunda avaliação foi realizada 15 dias após a primeira, para avaliar o percentual de queda de frutos e o diâmetro sutural médio dos frutos remanescentes. Genótipos bem enfolhados e cujos frutos apresentavam endocarpo endurecido, no momento da ocorrência da geada, foram tolerantes ao dano ocasionado pelo frio; frutos com diâmetro sutural inferior a 20 mm foram suscetíveis à geada, enquanto frutos com diâmetro sutural superior a 30 mm apresentaram boa tolerância, independentemente do genótipo avaliado. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to evaluate the fruit damage tolerance in different peach tree genotypes after natural freeze. The frost happened on September 5, 2006, and the minimum temperature, 1.5 meters over soil, was -1.06ºC. Twenty- eight peach tree genotypes, in different stages of development, wer [...] e evaluated, in a completely random design, in three replication (plants) and six branches by plants. Immediately after frost, we measured the number of fruits per branches, average fruit suture diameter, percentage of sprouts and percentage of twigs in formation. A second evaluation was accomplished fifteen days after the first one in order to assess the percentage of fruit drop and the average remaining fruit suture diameter. Genotypes with good leafing and hard pit (endocarp) during frost have freeze tolerance; fruits with suture diameter lass than 20 mm are susceptible to frost damage, while fruits with suture diameter superior to 30 mm are tolerant.

André Paulo, Assmann; Idemir, Citadin; Mauro Cristovão, Locatelli; Silvia, Scariot; Moeses Andrigo, Danner; Maria do Carmo Bassols, Raseira.

73

Tolerância de frutos de pessegueiro a geadas Fruit frost tolerance in peach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a tolerância de frutos de pessegueiro aos danos ocasionados pela geada. A geada ocorreu no dia 5 de setembro de 2006, sendo que a temperatura mínima, a 1,5 m do solo, foi de - 1,06ºC. Foram avaliados 28 genótipos de pessegueiro em diferentes estádios fenológicos. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições (plantas de pessegueiro, procedendo-se à avaliação em seis ramos por planta. No dia em que ocorreu a geada, foram mensurados o número de frutos por ramo, diâmetro sutural médio dos frutos, número total de gemas vegetativas, percentual de brotação e percentual de brindilas formadas a partir das gemas brotadas. Uma segunda avaliação foi realizada 15 dias após a primeira, para avaliar o percentual de queda de frutos e o diâmetro sutural médio dos frutos remanescentes. Genótipos bem enfolhados e cujos frutos apresentavam endocarpo endurecido, no momento da ocorrência da geada, foram tolerantes ao dano ocasionado pelo frio; frutos com diâmetro sutural inferior a 20 mm foram suscetíveis à geada, enquanto frutos com diâmetro sutural superior a 30 mm apresentaram boa tolerância, independentemente do genótipo avaliado.The aim of this work was to evaluate the fruit damage tolerance in different peach tree genotypes after natural freeze. The frost happened on September 5, 2006, and the minimum temperature, 1.5 meters over soil, was -1.06ºC. Twenty- eight peach tree genotypes, in different stages of development, were evaluated, in a completely random design, in three replication (plants and six branches by plants. Immediately after frost, we measured the number of fruits per branches, average fruit suture diameter, percentage of sprouts and percentage of twigs in formation. A second evaluation was accomplished fifteen days after the first one in order to assess the percentage of fruit drop and the average remaining fruit suture diameter. Genotypes with good leafing and hard pit (endocarp during frost have freeze tolerance; fruits with suture diameter lass than 20 mm are susceptible to frost damage, while fruits with suture diameter superior to 30 mm are tolerant.

André Paulo Assmann

2008-12-01

74

Impact of organic carbon and iron bioavailability on the magnetic susceptibility of soils  

Science.gov (United States)

Microorganisms are known to couple the degradation of hydrocarbons to Fe(III) reduction leading to the dissolution and (trans)formation of Fe minerals including ferro(i)magnetic Fe minerals such as magnetite. The screening of soil magnetic properties, in particular magnetic susceptibility (MS), has the potential to assist in locating and assessing hydrocarbon (e.g. gasoline) contamination in the environment. In order to evaluate this, it must be understood how changes in soil geochemistry and hydrocarbon input impact MS. To this end, we incubated microcosms with soils from six different field sites anoxically and followed the changes in soil MS. In parallel we simulated hydrocarbon (i.e., gasoline) contamination in the same soils under anoxic conditions. We found that in microbially active microcosms both with or without added gasoline, average changes in MS of 6.9 ± 2.6% occurred, whereas in sterile controls the changes were less than 2.5% demonstrating that microbial metabolism played a major role in the (trans)formation of ferro(i)magnetic minerals. The microcosms reached stable MS values after a few weeks to months in four out of the six soils showing an increase in MS while in two soils the MS decreased over time. After stable MS values were reached, further addition of labile organic carbon (i.e., lactate/acetate) did not lead to further changes in MS, but the addition of Fe(III) oxyhydroxides (ferrihydrite) led to increases in MS suggesting that the changes in MS were limited by bioavailable Fe and not by bioavailable organic carbon. In the control experiments without carbon amendment, we observed that natural organic matter was mobilized from the soil matrix by water or microbial growth medium (0.33-0.47 mL/g field moist soil) added to the microcosms, and that this mobilized organic matter also stimulated microbial Fe metabolism and thus also led to a microbially driven change in MS. This study shows that changes in MS after an increase of the amount of bioavailable organic carbon can occur in a variety of soils. It also suggests that whether MS increases or decreases depends on the initial MS of the soil and the extent of the MS change seems to depend upon the amount of bioavailable Fe(III).

Porsch, Katharina; Rijal, Moti L.; Borch, Thomas; Troyer, Lyndsay D.; Behrens, Sebastian; Wehland, Florian; Appel, Erwin; Kappler, Andreas

2014-03-01

75

Seasonal frost effects on the dynamic behavior of a twenty-story office building  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies have shown that seasonal frost can significantly affect the seismic behavior of a bridge foundation system in cold regions. However, little information could be found regarding seasonal frost effects on the dynamic behavior of buildings. Based on the analysis of building vibration data recorded by a permanent strong-motion instrumentation system, the objective of this paper is to show that seasonal frost can impact the building dynamic behavior and the magnitude of impact may be different for different structures. Ambient noise and seismic data recorded on a twenty-story steel-frame building have been analyzed to examine the building dynamic characteristics in relationship to the seasonal frost and other variables including ground shaking intensity. Subsequently, Finite Element modeling of the foundation-soil system and the building superstructure was conducted to verify the seasonal frost effects. The Finite Element modeling was later extended to a reinforced-concrete (RC) type building assumed to exist at a similar site as the steel-frame building. Results show that the seasonal frost has great impact on the foundation stiffness in the horizontal direction and a clear influence on the building dynamic behavior. If other conditions remain the same, the effects of seasonal frost on structural dynamic behavior may be much more prominent for RC-type buildings than for steel-frame buildings. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Yang, Z.; Dutta, U.; Xiong, F.; Biswas, N.; Benz, H.

2008-01-01

76

Frost heave modelling of buried pipelines using non-linear Fourier finite elements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Numerical analysis of the response of a three-dimensional soil-pipeline system in a freezing environment using non-linear Fourier finite elements was described as an illustration of the effectiveness of this technique in analyzing plasticity problems. Plastic deformations occur when buried pipeline is under the action of non-uniform frost heave. The three-dimensional frost heave which develops over time including elastoplastic deformations of the soil and pipe are computed. The soil heave profile obtained in the numerical analysis was consistent with experimental findings for similar configurations. 8 refs., 8 figs

1998-10-04

77

Mapping soil erosion susceptibility using GIS techniques within the Danube floodplain, the Calafat - Turnu M?gurele sector (Romania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Danube floodplain, the Calafat - Turnu M?gurele sector, through its main features (topographic and climatic characteristics, land use and soil type and human activities, constitutes an area exposed to soil erosion. The main objective of the present research is to map soil erosion susceptibility using the GIS techniques for the computation and representation of areas, which are exposed to soil erosion correlated with the field data for the validation. Analyzing the entire model, the relatively simple methodology, the database consistence, the comparability of the results with the existent soil erosion values at national and local scale, we can say that the model was applied with success in the studied area (areas and classes of water erosion susceptibility: very low, low, moderate, high - Ciupercenii Noi, Desa, M?ce?u de Jos, Grojdibodu, Orlea, very high - Rast, Negoi, Catane, Bistre?, Goicea; areas and classes of wind erosion susceptibility: very low, low, moderate - Ciupercenii Noi, D?buleni, Ianca, high - Calafat, Poiana Mare, Desa, Goicea, Piscu Vechi, very high - Poiana Mare, Rast, Negoi, Bistre?, Gighera, Orlea. The soil erosion susceptibility map can be useful for planning erosion control measures and for selecting suitable sites for runoff plot experiments.

Ionu? Oana

2013-01-01

78

Soil characterization using patterns of magnetic susceptibility versus effective radium concentration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Low-field magnetic susceptibility ?m and effective radium concentration ECRa, obtained from radon emanation, have been measured in the laboratory with 129 soil samples from Nepal. Samples along horizontal profiles in slope debris or terrace scarps showed rather homogeneous values of both ?m and ECRa. One sample set, collected vertically on a lateritic terrace scarp, had homogeneous values of ECRa while ?m increased by a factor of 1 to 10 for residual soils and topsoils. However, for a set of samples collected on three imbricated river terraces, values of ECRa, homogeneous over a given terrace, displayed a gradual increase from younger to older terraces. By contrast, ?m showed more homogeneous mean values over the three terraces, with a larger dispersion, however, for the younger one. Similarly, Kathmandu sediments exhibited a large increase in ECRa from sand to clay layers, while ?m increased moderately. The combination of ?m and ECRa, thus, provides a novel tool to characterize quantitatively various soil groups and may be of interest to distinguish modes of alteration or deposition histories.

F. Girault

2011-08-01

79

Neural Network-Based Model for Landslide Susceptibility and Soil Longitudinal Profile Analyses : two case studies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this study was to create an empirical model for assessing the landslide risk potential at Savadkouh Azad University, which is located in the rural surroundings of Savadkouh, about 5 km from the city of Pol-Sefid in northern Iran. The soil longitudinal profile of the city of Babol, located 25 km from the Caspian Sea, also was predicted with an artificial neural network (ANN). A multilayer perceptron neural network model was applied to the landslide area and was used to analyze specific elements in the study area that contributed to previous landsliding events. The ANN models were trained with geotechnical data obtained from an investigation of the study area. The quality of the modeling was improved further by the application of some controlling techniques involved in ANN. The observed >90% overall accuracy produced by the ANN technique in both cases is promising for future studies in landslide susceptibility zonation.

Farrokhzad, F.; Barari, Amin

2011-01-01

80

Susceptibility of polysiloxane and colloidal silica to degradation by soil microorganisms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is a description of the laboratory study undertaken to determine the biodegradability of Colloidal Silica (CS) and PolySiloXane (PSX), a new generation of barrier liquids employed by the Viscous Liquid Barrier (VLB) technology in the containment of subsurface contaminants. Susceptibility of either material to microbial degradation would suggest that the effectiveness of a barrier in the subsurface may deteriorate over time. Degradation may result from several different biological events. Organisms may consume the material as a carbon and/or energy source, organisms may chemically change the material as a detoxification mechanism, or organisms may erode the material by their physical penetration of the material during growth. To determine if degradation occurs, physical interactions between soil microbes and the barrier materials were analyzed, and the metabolic activity of individual organisms in the presence of CS and PSX was measured.

Lundy, D.Z.; Hunter-Cevera, J.C.; Moridis, G.J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.

1997-11-01

 
 
 
 
81

On Frost’s Colorful Imagery with Profound Implication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Robert Frost prefers employing common imagery to help express profound ideas. This leads to the deceptive simpleness of his poetry. The understanding of the imagery is crucial to the understanding of his poetry. Through the analysis of the colorful and ordinary imagery world, the poet’s deep thoughts on nature and society is manifested: he finds nature both benevolent and violent; and facing the chaotic and disordered reality, poetry composition can provide a momentary escape for him and enable him to be courageous enough to treat the reality.

Qian Chen

2012-02-01

82

Effects of frost on wildflowers: an unexpected consequence of climate change--image 14 of 22  

Science.gov (United States)

A female broad-tailed hummingbird (Selasphorus platycercus) in Colorado visiting tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi). The hummingbirds migrate north from Mexico each spring. Larkspurs serve as an important food source for them and for bumble bees. But larkspurs are also susceptible to frost, impacting the species that feed on them.

Inouye, David

2012-01-04

83

A method for the integration of satellite vegetation activities observations and magnetic susceptibility measurements for monitoring heavy metals in soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a procedure for monitoring heavy metals in soil based on the integration of satellite and ground-based techniques, tested in an area affected by high anthropogenic pressure. High resolution multispectral satellite data were elaborated to obtain information on vegetation status. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of soils were collected as proxy variable for monitoring heavy metal presence. Chemical analyses of heavy metals were used for supporting and validating the integrated monitoring procedure. Magnetic and chemical measurements were organized in a GIS environment to be overlapped to satellite-based elaborations and to analyze the pattern distribution. Results show the presence of correlation between anomalies in vegetation activity and soil characteristics. The relationship between the distribution of normalized difference vegetation index anomalies and magnetic susceptibility values provides hints for adopting the integrated procedure as preliminary screening to minimize monitoring efforts and costs by supporting the planning activities of field campaigns. PMID:23044196

D'Emilio, Mariagrazia; Macchiato, Maria; Ragosta, Maria; Simoniello, Tiziana

2012-11-30

84

Morning Frost on Martian Surface  

Science.gov (United States)

A thin layer of water frost is visible on the ground around NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander in this image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager at 6 a.m. on Sol 79 (August 14, 2008), the 79th Martian day after landing. The frost begins to disappear shortly after 6 a.m. as the sun rises on the Phoenix landing site. The sun was about 22 degrees above the horizon when the image was taken, enhancing the detail of the polygons, troughs and rocks around the landing site. This view is looking east southeast with the lander's eastern solar panel visible in the bottom lefthand corner of the image. The rock in the foreground is informally named 'Quadlings' and the rock near center is informally called 'Winkies.' This false color image has been enhanced to show color variations. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

85

Suscetibilidade de dois tipos de solo à compactação Compaction susceptibility of two classes of soil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Com vistas ao aumento da produção agrícola, optou-se no Brasil, pelo acréscimo de área cultivada; para tal o uso indiscriminado da motomecanização mostrou-se eficiente em um primeiro momento, porém acarretando problemas à física do solo no decorrer dos anos. Paralelamente, práticas conservacionistas se fazem presentes, vide semeadura sob a palha (Plantio Direto, uma realidade no sul do Brasil. Sendo assim, avaliou-se a suscetibilidade de compactação de dois tipos de solo, ambos com sistema de semeadura sob a palha. Para dimensionar a suscetibilidade a compactação, utilizou-se ensaio de Proctor. Os solos foram ensaiados com e sem a presença de matéria orgânica livre. Os resultados demonstraram que para o Cambissolo, textura média, não houve diferença nos valores que representam a suscetibilidade, enquanto no Latossolo Vermelho, textura argilosa, não houve diferença entre a máxima densidade aparente, porém houve diferença significativa no conteúdo de água para a máxima densidade, o mesmo alterou-se de 0,249 g g-1 no ponto de máxima compactação no ensaio sem a presença de matéria orgânica livre, para 0,283 g g-1 no ponto de máxima compactação, quando da presença da matéria orgânica livre.For increasing agricultural production, Brazil opted to enlarge the cultivated area, and indiscriminate mechanization was efficient at the first moment, although it altered adversely the soil properties with the passage of time. At the same time, conservation practices, like the direct sowing under the straw (No Tillage were adopted which is a reality in Southern Brazil. Considering this, the susceptibility for compaction of two classes of soil was evaluated under no tillage system, with and without free organic matter. The Proctor test was used to measure the degree of compaction. The results of a medium texture Cambissol showed there was no difference in susceptibility for compaction. The clay textured Red Latossol, showed no difference in the maximum apparent density, although there was significant difference in water content at maximum density. The values altered from 0.249 g g-1, at a maximum compaction point without free organic matter to 0.283 g g-1 with free organic matter.

Pedro H. Weirich Neto

2002-01-01

86

Frost action of freezing ground surrounding underground storage of a cold liquid  

Science.gov (United States)

A small tank in the shape of a cylinder 80 cm in diameter and 50 cm in depth was placed in a basin, filled with a silty soil, of the frost test field in Tomakomai, Hokkaido Japan, with its top at the same level as the ground surface in the basin. The double wall (two steel sheets 10 cm apart) constituted the exterior of the side and bottom. As a cold liquid at temperature of -23 C was poured inside the gap of the double wall and circulated, the soil around the tank began to freeze sideways and downwards from the tank. Studies made are as follows: (1) the progress of the freezing front was measured and preestimated; (2) frost heaving characters of the tank and the ground surface around it were observed; (3) soil water migration was calculated by measuring moisture tensions at several points within the soil; (4) soil pressure acting on the tank was measured.

Kinosita, S.; Fukuda, M.; Ishizaki, T.; Yamamoto, H.

87

Future bloom and blossom frost risk for Malus domestica considering climate model and impact model uncertainties.  

Science.gov (United States)

The future bloom and risk of blossom frosts for Malus domestica were projected using regional climate realizations and phenological (?=?impact) models. As climate impact projections are susceptible to uncertainties of climate and impact models and model concatenation, the significant horizon of the climate impact signal was analyzed by applying 7 impact models, including two new developments, on 13 climate realizations of the IPCC emission scenario A1B. Advancement of phenophases and a decrease in blossom frost risk for Lower Saxony (Germany) for early and late ripeners was determined by six out of seven phenological models. Single model/single grid point time series of bloom showed significant trends by 2021-2050 compared to 1971-2000, whereas the joint signal of all climate and impact models did not stabilize until 2043. Regarding blossom frost risk, joint projection variability exceeded the projected signal. Thus, blossom frost risk cannot be stated to be lower by the end of the 21st century despite a negative trend. As a consequence it is however unlikely to increase. Uncertainty of temperature, blooming date and blossom frost risk projection reached a minimum at 2078-2087. The projected phenophases advanced by 5.5 d K(-1), showing partial compensation of delayed fulfillment of the winter chill requirement and faster completion of the following forcing phase in spring. Finally, phenological model performance was improved by considering the length of day. PMID:24116022

Hoffmann, Holger; Rath, Thomas

2013-01-01

88

Frost sensitivity of desulphurisation by-products. Laboratory investigation of hardened dry product and dry product in pellet form  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To investigate the frost susceptibility of desulphurization products, and experimental set-up has been developed. This consists of a rectangular sample with dimensions 80 x 70 x 30 cm, positioned in a controlled temperature field between two heat reservoirs. The heat reservoirs are connected with two automatically controlled cooling baths with an effective temperature range between -15 and +30 deg. C. Insulation assures a uniform temperature gradient through the sample, with no significant side friction effects. The arrangement is equipped with displacement transducers for measurement of any frost heaves that develop. Temperature variations within the sample are monitored by two series of thermo-elements with electronic data logging. With the use of this apparatus, hardened, compacted desulphurization product, as well as pelletized samples have been examined through long-term freezing experiments. Detailed results and graphic analysis are presented and evaluated. Unsaturated samples with no addition of water show no frost heaving. With addition and absorptions of water, hardened desulphurization product must be considered low to moderately frost susceptible, with a freezing rate of 2 mm/24 hr and greater than 20 mm of heaving after 250 hours freezing. Pellets can be considered as non-frost susceptible after international criteria. (author).

Foged, N.; Foged, N.; Joens, E. (eds.)

1989-02-01

89

Condensation and frost formation in heat exchangers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The occurence of condensation and of frost formation are considered for air to heat exchangers with emphasis on how such occurrences would affect the performance of such heat exchangers when they are used in ventilating applications. The formulations which predict performance are developed for parallel, counter flow and cross flow with either formation or condensation, and for condensation the consequences for evaporation of condensate and of the effect of longitudinal conduction in the walls of the exchanger are also considered. For the prediction of the exchanger performance with frost formation there must be specified the growth of the frost layer with time and existing theories for this growth are examined, a new method of calculation of the growth is presented and this is shown to give results for the growth that are in accord with available experimental evidence. This new theory for the growth of a frost layer is used to predict the performance of a parallel flow exchanger under conditions in which frost formation occurs, by successively applying the steady state performance calculation for time increments over which the frost layer build-up is calculated for these time increments. The calculation of counter flow exchanger performance by this method, while feasible, is so time consuming that only the general aspects of the calculation are considered.

Rostami, A.A.

1982-01-01

90

Condensation and frost formation in heat exchangers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The occurence of condensation and of frost formation are considered for air to heat exchangers with emphasis on how such occurrences would affect the performance of such heat exchangers when they are used in ventilating applications. The formulations which predict performance are developed for parallel, counter flow and cross flow with either formation or condensation, and for condensation the consequences for evaporation of condensate and of the effect of longitudinal conduction in the walls of the exchanger are also considered. For the prediction of the exchanger performance with frost formation there must be specified the growth of the frost layer with time and existing theories for this growth are examined, a new method of calculation of the growth is presented and this is shown to give results for the growth that are in accord with available experimental evidence. This new theory for the growth of a frost layer is used to predict the performance of a parallel flow exchanger under conditions in which frost formation occurs, by successively applying the steady state performance calculation for time increments over which the frost layer build-up is calculated for these time increments. The calculation of counter flow exchanger performance by this method, while feasible, is so time consuming that only the general aspects of the calculation are considered

1982-01-01

91

Frost Growth and Densification in Laminar Flow Over Flat Surfaces  

Science.gov (United States)

One-dimensional frost growth and densification in laminar flow over flat surfaces has been theoretically investigated. Improved representations of frost density and effective thermal conductivity applicable to a wide range of frost circumstances have been incorporated. The validity of the proposed model considering heat and mass diffusion in the frost layer is tested by a comparison of the predictions with data from various investigators for frost parameters including frost thickness, frost surface temperature, frost density and heat flux. The test conditions cover a range of wall temperature, air humidity ratio, air velocity, and air temperature, and the effect of these variables on the frost parameters has been exemplified. Satisfactory agreement is achieved between the model predictions and the various test data considered. The prevailing uncertainties concerning the role air velocity and air temperature on frost development have been elucidated. It is concluded that that for flat surfaces increases in air velocity have no appreciable effect on frost thickness but contribute to significant frost densification, while increase in air temperatures results in a slight increase the frost thickness and appreciable frost densification.

Kandula, Max

2011-01-01

92

Evaluation of Cover Crops with Potential for Use in Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD) for Susceptibility to Three Species of Meloidogyne.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several cover crops with potential for use in tropical and subtropical regions were assessed for susceptibility to three common species of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica. Crops were selected based on potential use as organic amendments in anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) applications. Nematode juvenile (J2) numbers in soil and roots, egg production, and host plant root galling were evaluated on arugula (Eruca sativa, cv. Nemat), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, cv. Iron & Clay), jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis, cv. Comum), two commercial mixtures of Indian mustard and white mustard (Brassica juncea & Sinapis alba, mixtures Caliente 61 and Caliente 99), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum, cv. Tifleaf III), sorghum-sudangrass hybrid (Sorghum bicolor × S. bicolor var. sudanense, cv. Sugar Grazer II), and three cultivars of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, cvs. 545A, Nusun 660CL, and Nusun 5672). Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, cv. Rutgers) was included in all trials as a susceptible host to all three nematode species. The majority of cover crops tested were less susceptible than tomato to M. arenaria, with the exception of jack bean. Sunflower cv. Nusun 5672 had fewer M. arenaria J2 isolated from roots than the other sunflower cultivars, less galling than tomato, and fewer eggs than tomato and sunflower cv. 545A. Several cover crops did not support high populations of M. incognita in roots or exhibit significant galling, although high numbers of M. incognita J2 were isolated from the soil. Arugula, cowpea, and mustard mixture Caliente 99 did not support M. incognita in soil or roots. Jack bean and all three cultivars of sunflower were highly susceptible to M. javanica, and all sunflower cultivars had high numbers of eggs isolated from roots. Sunflower, jack bean, and both mustard mixtures exhibited significant galling in response to M. javanica. Arugula, cowpea, and sorghum-sudangrass consistently had low numbers of all three Meloidogyne species associated with roots and are good selections for use in ASD for root-knot nematode control. The remainder of crops tested had significant levels of galling, J2, and eggs associated with roots, which varied among the Meloidogyne species tested. PMID:24379486

Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy; Butler, David M; Rosskopf, Erin N

2013-12-01

93

Frost Growth on Vertical Surfaces with Varying Wettability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Frosting occurs on heat exchangers in heat pumping and refrigeration applications when the surface temperature of the heat exchanger is below the freezing point of water. The accumulation of frost on the heat transfer surface increases pressure drop (fan power) and decreases heat transfer, because the frost layer has a low thermal conductivity much lower than that of the heat exchanger material, and it blocks the air flow. System efficiency is reduced by frost accumulation, and operation is c...

2012-01-01

94

Visualization of frosting phenomena by using neutron radiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study focuses on the frost formation on the fin-tube heat exchanger using neutron radiography. The visualization of the frost formation was estimated by the attenuation of the neutron beam through the water. The visualization image of the neutron radiography shows clearly the frost formation phenomena on the fin-tube heat exchanger. The rapid frost formation was observed at the fin and tube edges. Local mass transfer coefficient can be calculated from the differential images of the neutron radiography. (author)

2012-09-01

95

A Gentle Frost: Poet Helen Frost Talks about the Healing Power of Poetry and Her Latest Novel  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents an interview with poet Helen Frost. Frost talked about how poetry can help at-risk children. She also related the challenges she faced when she wrote her latest book titled "The Braid."

Margolis, Rick

2006-01-01

96

Modelling apple flower and fruit damage to frost  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Good quality apples are grown in relatively cold areas. However, frost frequently causes damage to flowers and small fruits. When the percentage of frost damage losses is higher than the thinning requirement of the cultivar, production is reduced. In addition to reducing yield, frost damage to the skin and malformation of the fruits often devalues the quality and reduces profits.

2004-01-01

97

AVALIAÇÃO DA SUSCEPTIBILIDADE DE SOLOS GNAISSICOS À EROSÃO SUBSUPERFICIAL / Evaluation of piping erosion susceptibility in gnaissic soils  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The basement rock areas of the Maracujá hydrographic basin show great incidence of hugegullies. This work aims to investigate the influence of the underground erosive processes inthe evolution of these features and to understand how the mineralogical and textural factorscould affect soil erodibility, specially of the saprolites, since the lateric soils of this basin aremore resistant to erosion. So, basic characterization and erodibility essays were carried out in representative soil samples. Soil susceptibility to piping and seepage erosion were investigatedthrough current and modified pin-hole-essays. Laboratory physical models were used in orderto observe these and other possible underground erosion mechanisms, especially the slides.However, piping erosion only occurs in the unsaturated portion of gully slopes, provoked bythe concentration of superficial water, since pipes are not stable under total saturation, whentheir roofs tend to collapse, because of the low cohesion of these saprolites. In the other hand,slumps are very common in the saturated portion of gullies, affecting saprolites even in smalland low declivity slopes.

Frederico Garcia Sobreira

2007-12-01

98

Fatores abióticos envolvidos na tolerância de trigo à geada Abiotic factors involved in wheat tolerance to frost  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da aclimatação, da intensidade de geada e da disponibilidade hídrica sobre os danos causados pela geada em trigo. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em telados, com trigo cultivado em vasos. A aclimatação e a incidência de geada foram simuladas em câmaras de crescimento. Os fatores abióticos avaliados foram: regimes de aclimatação (com e sem; gradiente de temperatura (2, -2, -4 e -7°C; e variação de disponibilidade hídrica no solo, antes da geada (9, 6, 3 e 1 dia sem irrigação. Todos os fatores foram avaliados no afilhamento, alongamento e espigamento das cultivares: BR-18 Terena, mais tolerante à geada; e BRS 194, menos tolerante. As variáveis avaliadas foram: grau de queima de folhas, sete dias após a geada; massa de matéria seca total; e massa de grãos. A aclimatação do trigo, antes da geada, diminuiu os danos provocados antes do espigamento, e resultou em menor queima de folhas e maior rendimento de grãos. A temperatura de -7°C, no espigamento, resultou em falha na produção de grãos de ambas as cultivares; e os prejuízos com geada foram menores nas plantas com nove dias sem irrigação. As condições anteriores à ocorrência de geada têm influência sobre os danos provocados por ela.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of acclimatization, frost intensity and soil water availability on damage caused by frost on wheat. The experiments were carried out in screen house conditions. The wheat plants were grown in pots. The acclimatization and frost incidence were simulated in a growth chamber. The abiotic factors evaluated were: acclimatization regimes (with and without; temperature gradient (2, -2, -4 and -7°C and variation of soil water availability prior to frost incidence (9, 6, 3 and 1 day without irrigation. All factors were evaluated at tillering, stem elongation and heading stage on wheat cultivars BR-18 Terena, more tolerant to frost, and BRS 194, less tolerant. The response variables were: degree of leaf scorching symptoms at 7 days after frost; total dry weight; and grain weight. The acclimatization, before frost, decreased the damage caused on wheat heading stage, which resulted in less leaf scorching symptoms and higher grain yield. Temperature of -7°C, at heading stage, resulted in grain set failure in both cultivars; and frost damage was lower in plants with nine days without irrigation. Prevailing conditions before frost influence frost damage.

Eunice Portela da Silva

2008-10-01

99

Fatores abióticos envolvidos na tolerância de trigo à geada / Abiotic factors involved in wheat tolerance to frost  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da aclimatação, da intensidade de geada e da disponibilidade hídrica sobre os danos causados pela geada em trigo. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em telados, com trigo cultivado em vasos. A aclimatação e a incidência de geada foram simuladas em câm [...] aras de crescimento. Os fatores abióticos avaliados foram: regimes de aclimatação (com e sem); gradiente de temperatura (2, -2, -4 e -7°C); e variação de disponibilidade hídrica no solo, antes da geada (9, 6, 3 e 1 dia sem irrigação). Todos os fatores foram avaliados no afilhamento, alongamento e espigamento das cultivares: BR-18 Terena, mais tolerante à geada; e BRS 194, menos tolerante. As variáveis avaliadas foram: grau de queima de folhas, sete dias após a geada; massa de matéria seca total; e massa de grãos. A aclimatação do trigo, antes da geada, diminuiu os danos provocados antes do espigamento, e resultou em menor queima de folhas e maior rendimento de grãos. A temperatura de -7°C, no espigamento, resultou em falha na produção de grãos de ambas as cultivares; e os prejuízos com geada foram menores nas plantas com nove dias sem irrigação. As condições anteriores à ocorrência de geada têm influência sobre os danos provocados por ela. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of acclimatization, frost intensity and soil water availability on damage caused by frost on wheat. The experiments were carried out in screen house conditions. The wheat plants were grown in pots. The acclimatization and frost incidence were [...] simulated in a growth chamber. The abiotic factors evaluated were: acclimatization regimes (with and without); temperature gradient (2, -2, -4 and -7°C) and variation of soil water availability prior to frost incidence (9, 6, 3 and 1 day without irrigation). All factors were evaluated at tillering, stem elongation and heading stage on wheat cultivars BR-18 Terena, more tolerant to frost, and BRS 194, less tolerant. The response variables were: degree of leaf scorching symptoms at 7 days after frost; total dry weight; and grain weight. The acclimatization, before frost, decreased the damage caused on wheat heading stage, which resulted in less leaf scorching symptoms and higher grain yield. Temperature of -7°C, at heading stage, resulted in grain set failure in both cultivars; and frost damage was lower in plants with nine days without irrigation. Prevailing conditions before frost influence frost damage.

Eunice Portela da, Silva; Gilberto Rocca da, Cunha; João Leonardo Fernandes, Pires; Genei Antonio, Dalmago; Aldemir, Pasinato.

100

Latest results from FROST at Jefferson Lab  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The spectrum of broad and overlapping nucleon excitations can be greatly clarified by use of a polarized photon beam incident on a polarized target in meson photoproduction experiments. At Jefferson Lab, a program of such measurements has made use of the Jefferson Lab FROzen Spin Target (FROST). An overview of preliminary results are presented.

Ritchie, Barry G. [Arizona State University

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
101

Latest results from FROST at Jefferson Lab  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The spectrum of broad and overlapping nucleon excitations can be greatly clarified by use of a polarized photon beam incident on a polarized target in meson photoproduction experiments. At Jefferson Lab, a program of such measurements has made use of the Jefferson Lab FROzen Spin Target (FROST. An overview of preliminary results are presented.

Ritchie B.G.

2014-06-01

102

Frost Heave Control with Buried Insulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the effectiveness of extruded insulation panels in the mitigation of frost heave problems, two sites were selected: SH 40 at Rabbit Ears Pass with an elevation of 9,000 feet and I-70 east of Eisenhower Tunnel at an elevation of 10,000 feet....

A. Ardani

1987-01-01

103

Insulator (Heat and Frost). Occupational Analyses Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

This analysis covers tasks performed by an insulator, an occupational title some provinces and territories of Canada have also identified as heat and frost insulator. A guide to analysis discusses development, structure, and validation method; scope of the occupation; trends; and safety. To facilitate understanding the nature of the occupation,…

McRory, Aline; Ally, Mohamed

104

Investigating the effects of soils with complex magnetic susceptibility on EMI measurements using numerical modelling of Maxwell's equations  

Science.gov (United States)

Soils that exhibit strong Viscous Remanent Magnetization (VRM) have a major effect on time- and frequency-domain data collected by electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensors. Small scale topography in the form of bumps or troughs will also distort the EM signal due to UXO. If these components of "geologic noise" are not adequately accounted for in the inversion process, then the ability to carry out discrimination will be marginalized. Our long-term goal is to include these effects into the inversion but the chosen methodology depends upon some crucial issues. Foremost, we need to be certain that we can numerically compute the effects of complex magnetic susceptibility and topography that would be encountered in field surveys. Second, we need to investigate whether there is significant electromagnetic interaction between the UXO and its host material or whether the signals are additive. If the total signal can be adequately represented by the superposition of the two individual signals (ie the field of a UXO in free space, and the effect of a conductive host with topography and complex magnetic susceptibility) then there are many avenues by which data can be preprocessed to remove contaminating effects, or by which joint inversion of UXO and host parameters can be carried out. In this paper we concentrate upon the issues of modeling and the possibility of additivity. We first validate our EM numerical modeling code for halfspaces having VRM. We then show that EM interaction between the host and a compact metallic object is minimal for a specific example which is typical of a buried ordnance in a highly magnetic soil such as on Kaho'olawe, Hawaii. We also model soil responses for simple variations of surface roughness including both a single bump and a single trench and compare those results with field data acquired over similar environments.

Kingdon, Kevin A.; Pasion, Leonard R.; Oldenburg, Douglas W.

2009-05-01

105

A hyphothesis on the mechanism of surface scaling due to combined salt and frost attack  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A hypothesis on the mechanism of "salt-scaling" of porous building materials based on theories for frost heaving in soils and observations made by Powers and Helmuth /1953/ is described. Though the text mainly deals with cement based materials, the mechanism described should be valid for any brittle, porous material. A simplified calculation of possible scalings shows that the hypothesis predicts reasonable values. Results from a first qualitative test support the hypothesis.

Lindmark, Sture

1996-01-01

106

Development and application of a forecasting system to avoid spring frost damage in chiana valley  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Late frost is one of the more serious adversity for Italian agriculture. Several methods have been developed to protect cultivations, but their application results particularly effective (also from an economic point of view only if supported by forecasting systems during the more susceptible period of the year. On these basis a forecasting system of late frost in Val di Chiana (an area in central Italy mainly cultivated with cereals and high quality fruits was developed. The system consists in an empirical model, based on a preventive agroclimatic analysis of the area to identify night cooling dynamics (for several meteorological conditions in the spring. A network of 10 thermohygrometric stations was installed in the area integrating the information obtained by a local agrometeorological station network. The final product was a forecasting bulletin emitted every three hours beginning from the 13:00 p.m. A validation of the system was performed for 2006 to verify the forecast skill.

Gaetano Zipoli

2011-02-01

107

Development and application of a forecasting system to avoid spring frost damage in chiana valley  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Late frost is one of the more serious adversity for Italian agriculture. Several methods have been developed to protect cultivations, but their application results particularly effective (also from an economic point of view only if supported by forecasting systems during the more susceptible period of the year. On these basis a forecasting system of late frost in Val di Chiana (an area in central Italy mainly cultivated with cereals and high quality fruits was developed. The system consists in an empirical model, based on a preventive agroclimatic analysis of the area to identify night cooling dynamics (for several meteorological conditions in the spring. A network of 10 thermohygrometric stations was installed in the area integrating the information obtained by a local agrometeorological station network. The final product was a forecasting bulletin emitted every three hours beginning from the 13:00 p.m. A validation of the system was performed for 2006 to verify the forecast skill.

Simone Orlandini

108

Frost heave in helium and other substances  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A thermomolecular pressure associated with a thermal gradient produces the phenomenon known as 'frost heave' in moisture-containing frozen ground. Thermomolecular pressures can occur in any material. As described here it is known that frost heave or thermomolecular pressures can be exhibited by any material undergoing 'premelting,' where liquid exists at temperatures below the normal solid-liquid phase boundary. Yet, the recent work on 4He [Hiroi, et a., Phys. Rev.B 40, 6581 (1989)] is the first published study of thermomolecular pressure in nonaqueous material. The striking prominence of the effect presents advantages of further applications of thermomolecular pressure for fundamental research. This paper describes the phenomenon, outlines the theory and discusses some possible static and dynamic studies of quantum liquids

1992-10-01

109

Frost-proof heat recovery; Frostsikker varmegjenvinning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Technical regulations (TEK10) sets high standards for temperature efficiency of ventilation systems. Heat recovery equipment should be selected from the risk of leakage. Rotating heat exchanger has normally no problem with icing before the temperature approaches -20 C. For the countercurrent heat exchanger bypass-icing is the best method of frost resistant heat exchanger. In addition to selecting the best frost protection method, it is also important how to monitor the formation of ice in the exchanger. The best way is to measure the pressure drop over the heat exchanger. Bypass deicing requires that the unit is designed so that outside air can be led outside heat exchanger and directly to the heater. (AG)

Groenbaek, Henning; Jenssen, Henning Bent

2011-07-01

110

Winter Frosted Dunes in Kaiser Crater  

Science.gov (United States)

As the Mars Global Surveyor Primary Mission draws to an end, the southern hemisphere of Mars is in the depths of winter. At high latitudes, it is dark most, if not all, of the day. Even at middle latitudes, the sun shines only thinly through a veil of water and carbon dioxide ice clouds, and the ground is so cold that carbon dioxide frosts have formed. Kaiser Crater (47oS, 340oW) is one such place. At a latitude comparable to Seattle, Washington, Duluth, Minnesota, or Helena, Montana, Kaiser Crater is studied primarily because of the sand dune field found within the confines of its walls (lower center of the Mars Orbiter Camera image, above). The normally dark-gray or blue-black sand can be seen in this image to be shaded with light-toned frost. Other parts of the crater are also frosted. Kaiser Crater and its dunes were the subject of an earlier presentation of results. Close-up pictures of these and other dunes in the region show details of their snow-cover, including small avalanches. The two Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera images that comprise this color view (M23-01751 and M23-01752) were acquired on January 26, 2001.

2001-01-01

111

Frost formation under different gaseous atmospheres  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rates of water frost growth in a vessel with a cooled horizontal plate were experimentally determined under reduced pressure atmospheres of hydrogen, helium, methane and nitrogen. The mass deposited on the cooled surface under each of the atmospheres was almost in proportion to time. The Sherwood number under the condition of no mist formation, Sh0, in the atmospheres of methane and nitrogen was in good agreement with Catton's equation for natural convection between horizontal parallel plates. Sh0 in a hydrogen atmosphere was unity, which corresponds to control by molecular diffusion in the stagnant gas. The tendency of the decrease in Sh due to mist formation could be evaluated well by multiplying Sh0 by a factor ?CSM. The ?CSM value was calculated based on the critical supersaturation model as a function of the two interface temperatures and the total pressure. Frost growth rates under each atmosphere were in proportion to [(TS1-TW1)t/(1+1/AS1)]0.5. The proportional constant for hydrogen was greater than that for any other tested gas. Agreement and disagreement of the frost effective thermal conductivity with previous models were discussed. (author)

1995-12-01

112

Modelling apple flower and fruit damage to frost  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Good quality apples are grown in relatively cold areas. However, frost frequently causes damage to flowers and small fruits. When the percentage of frost damage losses is higher than the thinning requirement of the cultivar, production is reduced. In addition to reducing yield, frost damage to the skin and malformation of the fruits often devalues the quality and reduces profits. Critical temperature tables in relation to phenological stage are available for apples and other deciduou...

Abreu, J. P. Melo E.; Ribeiro, A. C.; Snyder, R. L.

2004-01-01

113

Fan supplied heat exchanger fin performance under frosting conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, a validated numerical model for frost growth on heat exchange fins is modified to simulate a fan-supplied finned heat exchanger under refrigeration frosting conditions. It is found that frost growth on refrigeration heat exchangers causes a dramatic drop in the fin heat rate, airflow rate, and fin efficiency while the pressure drop increases. A sensitivity study shows the effects of changing several design parameters including the type of fan. (Author)

Hong Chen; Besant, Robert W. [Saskatchewan Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Thomas, Leena [Corning Cable Systems, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

2003-01-01

114

Modelling of frost formation in rotary heat exchangers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A numerical model of frost formation in a rotary heat exchanger was developed based on an investigation of the phenomenon of frosting in air-to-air rotary energy recovery ventilators in which the surface was coated with a dessicant. Two types of frost have been observed in the experimental portion of the study, and have been shown to influence heat and mass transfer differently. The numerical model will be validated by using results from an extensive study of frosting in rotary heat exchangers, which is currently underway. Following validation, parametric studies to assess the performance of rotary heat exchangers will be undertaken. 8 refs., 7 figs.

Bilodeau, S.; Brosseau, P.; Mercadier, Y.; Lacroix, M. [Sherbrooke Univ., PQ (Canada). Dept. de Genie Mecanique

1996-10-01

115

Assessment of Liquefaction Susceptibility of Kutahya Soils Based on Recent Earthquakes in Turkey  

Science.gov (United States)

The plate tectonic setting of Turkey resulted many destructive earthquakes having magnitude higher than 7 in several cities situated close to faulting system. The city of Kutahya and its surrounding counties are notable examples to be located in the earthquake prone region and therefore, several earthquakes have been recently recorded particularly in its Simav district. A significant part of the residential area of Kutahya is found on alluvial deposits dominated by silt and fine sand size materials, and its southern boundary is controlled by Kutahya fault zone (KFZ) extending parallel to the city settlement. In this study, considering the possibility of a potential destructive earthquake in future as well as increasing population dependent further demand for new building in this city, investigation liquefaction potential of these soils is aimed for using in earthquake risk mitigation strategies. For this purpose, physical, ground water condition and standard penetration test (SPT) results from 283 different boreholes spreading over a wide area were examined to understand the behaviour this soil under earthquake induced dynamic loading. The total assessed drilling depth is about 2140 m. Required corrections were applied to all SPT data for obtaining SPT-(N1)60 values for liquefaction analyses. The estimation representative magnitude, depth of epicentre and maximum ground acceleration (amax) based on previous earthquakes and faulting characteristics of KFZ were initial targets for accurately assessment liquefaction phenomena of this city. For determination of amax in this region, in addition to attenuation relationship based on Turkish strong ground motion data, individual measurements from earthquakes stations closing to study site were also collected. As a result of all analyses and reviewing previous earthquakes records in this region, earthquake magnitudes vary between 5.0 and 7.4, and amax values changing between 400 and 800 gal were used in liquefaction analyses and in liquefaction hazard maps. Considering the variation physical properties, particularly relative density and grain size of soil with depth, these maps were prepared for the depth of 1.5 m, 3.0 m, 4.5 m, 6.0 m, 7.5 m and 9.0 m. In addition, three different maps were designed based on the concept of liquefaction index for M-amax data pairs of 6.5- 400 gal, 7.2-400 gal and 7.2-800 gal, respectively. It may be concluded that these maps can be used better tools for the general public as well as land-use planners to provide more secure and planned urbanization in the city of Kutahya.

Zengin, Enes; Abiddin Erguler, Zeynal

2014-05-01

116

Statistical Examination of Frost Characterization: A Case of Global Warming Impact in Jordan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Radiation and advection frost are common in Jordan as well as other neighboring countries as they face several frost waves each year during the late months of winter. Recently, many frost episodes hit the valley and damaged the crops that were compensated by millions of dollars by the Jordanian Government. This manuscript addresses and characterizes frost, and assesses the role of global warming in impacting frost in terms of its frequency, severity, and total number of frost days per year. A...

Hamdi, Moshrik R.; Mahmoud Abu Alaban; Mohammed Jaber

2011-01-01

117

Avaliação da susceptibilidade de solos gnaissicos à erosão subsuperficial / Evaluation of piping erosion susceptibility in gnaissic soils  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As áreas com rochas do embasamento cristalino da bacia do rio Maracujá apresentam grande incidência de voçorocas de grandes dimensões. O presente trabalho objetivou investigar a influência dos processos erosivos subsuperficiais na evolução destas formas de erosão, além de compreender quais os fatore [...] s mineralógicos e texturais que poderiam influenciar na erodibilidade dos solos da bacia, especialmente dos saprolitos. Para tanto, foram realizados ensaios de caracterização básica e de avaliação da erodibilidade em amostras representativas, sendo o principal destes o ensaio de pin-hole, que avalia a suscetibilidade dos solos à erosão por piping e, com modificações, também por erosão por carreamento. Foram construídos em laboratório modelos físicos a fim de se observar estes e outros possíveis mecanismos de erosão atuantes nos taludes das voçorocas, especialmente os escorregamentos. Os resultados mostram que as voçorocas da bacia não sofrem influência significativa dos pipings em seu avanço, tendo em vista que estes só ocorrem na parte não saturada dos taludes das voçorocas, quando são formados pela ação da concentração de águas superficiais. Isto se dá porque os saprolitos colapsam quando saturados em função de sua baixa coesão, fazendo com que os pipings não se preservem. Por outro lado, as experiências com modelagem física e os dados de campo evidenciam que os saprolitos, quando saturados, instabilizam-se por meio de escorregamentos rotacionais (slumps), mesmo em taludes baixos e pouco íngremes. Abstract in english The basement rock areas of the Maracujá hydrographic basin show great incidence of huge gullies. This work aims to investigate the influence of the underground erosive processes in the evolution of these features and to understand how the mineralogical and textural factors could affect soil erodibil [...] ity, specially of the saprolites, since the lateric soils of this basin are more resistant to erosion. So, basic characterization and erodibility essays were carried out in representative soil samples. Soil susceptibility to piping and seepage erosion were investigated through current and modified pin-hole-essays. Laboratory physical models were used in order to observe these and other possible underground erosion mechanisms, especially the slides. However, piping erosion only occurs in the unsaturated portion of gully slopes, provoked by the concentration of superficial water, since pipes are not stable under total saturation, when their roofs tend to collapse, because of the low cohesion of these saprolites. In the other hand, slumps are very common in the saturated portion of gullies, affecting saprolites even in small and low declivity slopes.

Fernando, Morais; Luis Almeida Prado, Bacellar; Frederico Garcia, Sobreira.

118

Geophysical Implications of Enceladus' CO2 Frost  

Science.gov (United States)

CO2 frost has been reported on the surface of Enceladus [1]. We suggest that the frost originated from shallow gas pockets below the surface. These pockets are a natural consequence of the ocean water circulation hypothesis [2]. They are different from the plume chambers [3] and would constitute a previously unrecognized structure in the surface. The oceanic circulation uses gas bubbles to make seawater buoyant and bring up water, chemicals, and heat from a warm ocean at depth [2]. The ocean water rises through the icy crust and near the surface it spreads out laterally beneath a relatively thin ice cap, following the pattern indicated by the thermal anomalies identified in Cassini data [4,5]. Topography on the bottom of this cap ice is conducive to the formation of gas pockets. As the ocean water flows horizontally, the gas bubbles in it continue to rise vertically. Even though their vertical migration may be slow and even if the flow is relatively turbulent, some bubbles reach recesses in the bottom of the ice cap and, over time, pop and form gas pockets. The gas pockets are envisioned as being ruptured by the regular fissuring of ice in the South Polar Region. Hurford et al. [6] have modelled the tidally controlled openings of rifts in the SPR. If one of these rifts reaches a gas pocket, CO2 gas may come to the surface. The tortuosity and other properties of its route will determine if it vents as a seep or a jet. If enough gas is vented and the molecules in the transient cloud have many collisions, some of them will be scattered to the surface and freeze. It was noted by Brown, et al. [1] that the frost deposits may not be permanent and that an active replenishment processes might be necessary. Studies of CO2 frost on Iapetus suggest that migration can be significant [7]. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA. al., Science 311, 1425-1428, 2006. [2] Matson D. L. et al., Icarus 221, 53-62, 2012. (also see Matson et al. LPS 44 Abstract 1371, 2013). [3] Schmidt J. et al., Nature 451, 685-688, 2008. [4] Spencer J. R. et al., Science 311, 1401-1405, 2006. [5] Howett C. et al., JGR 116, E03003, 2011. [6] Hurford T. A. et al., Nature 447, 292-294, 2007. [7] Palmer E. E. and Brown R. H. Icarus 195, 434-446, 2008.

Matson, D.; Davies, A. G.; Johnson, T. V.; Castillo, J. C.; Lunine, J. I.

2013-12-01

119

Frosted branch angiitis associated with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Simultaneous occurrence of frosted branch angiitis and immune-mediated rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis is reported. The two diseases possibly share a common immune mechanism. Patients of frosted branch angiitis should undergo complete systemic evaluation including renal function tests even if the patient is systemically asymptomatic.

Gupta Amod

2002-01-01

120

Moisture Conditions and Frost Resistance of Concrete in Hydraulic Structures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Owing to the winter conditions in Sweden, the effects of frost action may have a considerable impact on the deterioration of concrete. Both superficial and internal damage, which are suspected to have been caused by frost action, have been found in concrete in hydraulic structures. These observations have raised questions about the long-term behaviour of hydraulic structures in cold regions.

Rosenqvist, Martin

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Suscetibilidade magnética do solo e estimação da capacidade de suporte à aplicação de vinhaça / Soil magnetic susceptibility for estimating the support capacity to vinasse application  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da suscetibilidade magnética do solo para estimar a capacidade de suporte de áreas à aplicação de vinhaça. Foram coletadas 241 amostras de solo, de uma área de 380 ha, nas quais foram determinados os atributos químicos, os teores de argila e a susce [...] tibilidade magnética do solo. Foram calculadas as doses de vinhaça recomendadas para cada amostra. Os dados foram submetidos à análise estatística descritiva, e foram desenvolvidos modelos de regressão entre a suscetibilidade magnética e os outros atributos avaliados. A análise da dependência espacial dos dados foi feita com uso da geoestatística. Foram construídos mapas de krigagem e variogramas cruzados, para averiguar a correlação espacial entre a suscetibilidade magnética e os atributos estudados. Com base no mapa de recomendação de vinhaça, nas classes de solo e nos mapas de krigagem, foram calculadas as doses médias de vinhaça e as capacidades de suporte médias, ponderadas pela área. A suscetibilidade magnética apresenta correlação espacial linear significativa com as doses de vinhaça recomendadas e com a capacidade de suporte do solo à aplicação desse efluente, e pode ser utilizada como componente da função de pedotransferência, na quantificação indireta da capacidade de suporte. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the magnetic susceptibility efficiency for estimating the support capacity of areas for vinasse application. Two hundred forty-one soil samples were collected from a 380-ha area, on which soil chemical properties, clay content, and magnetic susceptibility w [...] ere determined. Vinasse requirement was calculated for each sample. Data were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis, and regression models were developed between magnetic susceptibility and the other evaluated attributes. The analysis of data spatial dependence was performed using geostatistics. Kriging maps and cross variograms were built in order to investigate the spatial correlation between soil magnetic susceptibility and studied attributes. Based on the map of vinasse requirement, on the soil classes, and on the kriging map, calculations were done for average vinasse dose and average soil support capacity, weighted by the area. Magnetic susceptibility has significant linear spatial correlation with recommended vinasse doses and soil support capacity for the application of this effluent, and it can be used as a pedotransfer function for indirect quantification of soil support capacity.

Rafael Gonçalves, Peluco; José, Marques Júnior; Diego Silva, Siqueira; Gener Tadeu, Pereira; Ronny Sobreira, Barbosa; Daniel de Bortoli, Teixeira; Cássia Rita, Adame; Lucas Aguilar, Cortez.

122

How endangered is sexual reproduction of high-mountain plants by summer frosts? Frost resistance, frequency of frost events and risk assessment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In temperate-zone mountains, summer frosts usually occur during unpredictable cold spells with snow-falls. Earlier studies have shown that vegetative aboveground organs of most high-mountain plants tolerate extracellular ice in the active state. However, little is known about the impact of frost on reproductive development and reproductive success. In common plant species from the European Alps (Cerastium uniflorum, Loiseleuria procumbens, Ranunculus glacialis, Rhododendron ferrugineum, Saxif...

Ladinig, Ursula; Hacker, Ju?rgen; Neuner, Gilbert; Wagner, Johanna

2013-01-01

123

Identifying and Mapping Seasonal Surface Water Frost with MGS TES  

Science.gov (United States)

The Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) visible/near-infrared and thermal infrared bolometers measured surface broadband albedo and temperature for more than three Mars years. As seasons progress on Mars, surface temperatures may fall below the frost point of volatiles in the atmosphere (namely, carbon dioxide and water). Systematic mapping of the spatial and temporal occurrence of these volatiles in the martian atmosphere, on the surface, and in the subsurface has shown their importance in understanding the climate of Mars. However, few studies have investigated seasonal surface water frost and its role in the global water cycle. We examine zonally-averaged TES daytime albedo, temperature, and water vapor abundance data [after Smith, 2004] to map the presence of surface water frost on Mars. Surface water frost occurs in the polar and mid latitudes, in regions with surface temperatures less than 220 K and above 150 K, and can significantly increase albedo relative to the bare surface. In the northern hemisphere water frost is most apparent in late fall/early winter, before the onset of carbon dioxide frost. Dust storms occurring near northern winter solstice affect albedo data and prevent us from putting a latitudinal lower limit on the water frost in the northern hemisphere. Regardless, seasonal water frost occurs at least as low as 48°N in Utopia Planitia, beginning at Ls=~230°, as observed by Viking Lander 2 [Svitek and Murray, 1990]. Daytime surface water frost was also observed at the Phoenix Lander site (68°N) beginning at Ls=~160° [Cull et al., 2010]. The timing of albedo variations observed by TES agree relatively well with lander observations of seasonal frost. Seasonal water frost is not detected during fall in the southern hemisphere. A potential explanation for this discrepancy, compared with frost detections in the north, is the disparity in atmospheric water vapor abundance between the two hemispheres. The frost point temperatures for water vapor in the southern hemisphere are ~5-10 K lower for the corresponding season and latitude in the north [Smith, 2004]. This inhibits the stability of water frost on the surface in the southern hemisphere and also lowers the maximum thickness of a water frost layer, potentially limiting its effect on surface albedo. Our work here shows that the seasonal progression in the northern hemisphere of Mars involves extensive deposition of water frost, similar in progression to the carbon dioxide seasonal ice cap. This behavior results in variation of surface albedo and therefore affects surface and subsurface temperatures, which could impact the distribution of ground ice. Surface frost and subsequent mixing of vapor back into the atmosphere likely plays an important role in the global water cycle. Mapping of water frost's geographical extent, timing, and impact on surface albedo can provide insight into the processes controlling the present Martian climate. References: Cull, S. et al. (2010) JGR, 115, E00E19. Smith, M. D. (2004) Icarus, 167, 148-165. Svitek, T. and Murray, B. (1990) JGR, 95(B2), 1495-1510.

Bapst, J.; Bandfield, J. L.; Wood, S. E.

2013-12-01

124

Effect of variations in air speed on cross-flow cylinder frosting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper the effect of fluctuating air speed on frost growth and heat transfer to a cylinder in cross-flow is discussed. Frost-growth of up to 20 hours is simulated using an experimentally validated finite difference computer model. Graphical results are presented for frost mass, frost depth, frost surface temperature and heat transfer versus time under both steady and fluctuating air speed conditions. In general, it is found that a thinner, more dense frost layer develops under fluctuating air speed conditions giving improved heat transfer. This phenomenon may be explained by the increased frequency of frost surface thaw/freeze cycles when fluctuating air speed conditions prevail

1990-06-18

125

Frost-protected shallow foundation: work in seasonally-freezing through grounds, practice of thermal calculation (rus)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The object of research is frost-protected shallow foundations.The article focuses on a technique of solving the nonstationary and nonlinear problem of freezing/thawing of soil in a 2D target setting, using software based on the finite-element method. The COSMOS/M package from Structural Research & Analysis Corp. is used as an example. The article also mentions some peculiarities of data input, caused by the non-linearity and nonstationarity of the problem.

2011-01-01

126

Frost related dieback in Estonian energy plantations of willows in relation to fertilisation and pathogenic bacteria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two 9-year old Estonian Salix plantations suffering from dieback were studied: one situated on poor mineral soil and divided into fertilised and unfertilised plots (Saare plantation) and another growing on a well-decomposed and nitrogen-rich organic soil, without fertiliser application (Kambja plantation). Bacteria from internal tissues of visually damaged shoots from seven clones were isolated in spring and autumn. The strains were subsequently biochemically characterised and tested for ice nucleation activity and pathogenicity on Salix. Some strains were also analysed with 16S rRNA. High numbers of culturable bacteria were found, belonging mainly to Erwinia, Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas spp. Fertilised plots were significantly more colonised by bacteria than unfertilised plots and also more extensively damaged, showing a lower density of living plants after 7 years of culture. More ice nucleation active (INA) strains were found in Saare fertilised plots and at Kambja than in Saare unfertilised plots. Likewise, most pathogenic strains were isolated from Saare fertilised plots and from Kambja. For some of the willow clones studied, dieback appeared to be related to both clonal frost sensitivity and abundance of INA and pathogenic bacteria. The plantations probably suffered from the presence of high amounts of pathogens and from frost related injuries aggravated by INA bacteria. Most probably the fertilisation at Saare and the nitrogen-rich soil at Kambja created a favourable environment for bacterial development and led to high dieback levels after the first harvest. (author)

Cambours, M.A.; Nejad, P. [Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7026, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Heinsoo, K. [Institute of Zoology and Botany, Estonian Agricultural University, Riia 181, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Granhall, U. [Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7025, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

2006-03-15

127

Characteristics of heat pump system operating with frost formation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on the performance of heat pump system operating with frost formation that was predicted related to the change of the performance of evaporator due to frosting. The predicted results were compared with the experimental results using a cross-finned tube evaporator. The poor performance of evaporator due to frosting causes the decrease in the heating capacity as the results of the drop of the evaporating temperature and the decrease in the flow rate of refrigerant. The calculated results were in agreement with the experimental results

1991-03-17

128

Nitrogen frost migration on Triton: A historical model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author presents the results of numerical simulations of the seasonal migration of nitrogen frost on Triton, constrained by Voyager observations of atmospheric pressure, temperature, and albedo distribution. Most of the exposed nitrogen is probably seasonal frost, whose migration can produce major variations in atmospheric pressure. For instance, models explored here predict a tenfold pressure drop in the coming decade. The observed albedo patterns can be understood if fresh nitrogen frost is relatively dark butt brightens with increasing insolation in a manner analogous to the Martian southern CO2 cap

1990-01-01

129

A method for assessing frost damage risk in sweet cherry orchards of South Patagonia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Quantification of frost damage risk is important in planning the development of new orchard areas and for decision-making on design and installation of frost control systems. The objective of this study was to develop a comprehensive method to quantify frost damage risk in different sweet cherry production areas of South Patagonia and to estimate the potential impact of frost control systems on risk reduction. Lack of historical weather data required a theoretical-empirical approach. Frost da...

Cittadini, E. D.; Ridder, N.; Peri, P. L.; Keulen, H.

2006-01-01

130

Risk analysis of first and last frost occurrences in central Alborz region, Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Central Alborz is one of the important agricultural regions of Iran. Occurrence of the first frost in fall and the last frost in spring causes damage to the crops in this region every year. Information about the probable dates of frost occurrence helps farmers in preventing or reducing the damages caused by frost. Six stations, with 34 years of daily minimum temperature data, were selected at various elevations. Dates of frost occurrences in three degrees of severity (mild, moderate, and seve...

Rahimi, M.; Khalili, A.; Hajjam, S.; Kamali, G. A.; Stigter, C. J.

2007-01-01

131

Prediction of Frost Risks and Plagues using WRF model: a Port Wine region case study  

Science.gov (United States)

In viticulture where the quality of the wine, the selection of the grapevines or even the characteristics of the farming soil, also depending from local soil features like topography, proximity of a river or water body, will act locally on the weather. Frosts are of significant concern to growers of many cultures crops such as winegrapes. Because of their high latitude and some altitude, the vineyards of the Demarcated Douro Region (DDR) are subjected to the frost, which cause serious damages. But the hazards of vineyard don't confine to the incidents of the fortuitous and meteorological character. The illnesses and plagues affect frequently the vineyards of Demarcated Douro Region due, namely to the weather, to the high power of the regional stocks, to the dense vegetation badly drained and favourable to the setting of numberless fungi, viruses and/or poisonous insects. In the case of DDR it is worth noticing the meteorological conditions due to the weather characteristics. Although there are several illnesses and plagues the most important enemies for the vine in the DDR are the mildew, oidium, grey rottenness, grape moth,. . . , if the climatic conditions favour their appearance and development. For this study, we selected some months for different periods, at the 16 weather stations of the Region of Douro. We use the Weather Research and Forecast Model (WRF) to study and possibly predict the occurrence of risk and plagues (mildew) episodes. The model is first validated with the meteorological data obtained at the weather stations. The knowledge of frost and plagues occurrence allows one to decrease its risks not only by selecting the cultural species and varieties but also the places of growth and the planting and sowing dates.

Rodrigues, M. A.; Rocha, A.; Monteiro, A.; Quénol, H.; de Freitas, J. R.

2012-04-01

132

Internal frost damage in concrete - experimental studies of destruction mechanisms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the study was to identify mechanisms acting at internal frost destruction of concrete. By 'internal frost destruction' is meant damage caused inside concrete that is moisture insulated from the surroundings, i.e. when no moisture exchange with the surroundings is possible during freeze-thaw. Thus, the aim was not to investigate destruction processes (scaling) taking place at the surface of concrete exposed to water or salt solution. The aim should be reached by experimental...

Fridh, Katja

2005-01-01

133

Frost-related dieback of Swedish and Estonian Salix plantations due to pathogenic and ice nucleation-active bacteria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the past decade, important dieback has been observed in short-rotation forestry plantations of Salix viminalis and S. dasyclados in Sweden and Estonia, plantations from which the isolation of ice nucleation-active (INA) and pathogenic bacteria has also been reported. This thesis investigates the connection between bacterial infection and frost as a possible cause for such damage, and the role played by internal and external factors (e.g. plant frost sensitivity, fertilisation) in the dieback observed. Bacterial floras isolated from ten Salix clones growing on fertilised/unfertilised mineral soil or nitrogen-rich organic soil, were studied. Culturable bacterial communities present both in internal necrotic tissues and on the plant surface (i.e. epiphytes) were isolated on two occasions (spring and autumn). The strains were biochemically characterised (with gram, oxidase and fluorescence tests), and tested for ice nucleation-activity. Their pathogenic properties were studied with and without association to a freezing stress. Certain strains were eventually identified with BIOLOG plates and 16S rRNA analysis. A high number of culturable bacterial strains was found in the plant samplings, belonging mainly to Erwinia and Sphingomonas spp.; pathogenic and INA communities being mostly Erwinia-, Sphingomonas- and Xanthomonas-like. The generally higher plant dieback noted in the field on nutrient-rich soils and for frost sensitive clones was found connected to higher numbers of pathogenic and INA bacteria in the plants. We thus confirm Salix dieback to be related to a synergistic effect of frost and bacterial infection, possibly aggravated by fertilisation.

Cambours, M.A.

2004-07-01

134

Delayed Frost Growth on Jumping-Drop Superhydrophobic Surfaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Self-propelled jumping drops are continuously removed from a condensing superhydrophobic surface to enable a micrometric steady-state drop size. Here, we report that subcooled condensate on a chilled superhydrophobic surface are able to repeatedly jump off the surface before heterogeneous ice nucleation occurs. Frost still forms on the superhydrophobic surface due to ice nucleation at neighboring edge defects, which eventually spreads over the entire surface via an inter-drop frost wave. The growth of this inter-drop frost front is shown to be up to three times slower on the superhydrophobic surface compared to a control hydrophobic surface, due to the jumping-drop effect dynamically minimizing the average drop size and surface coverage of the condensate. A simple scaling model is developed to relate the success and speed of inter-drop ice bridging to the drop size distribution. While other reports of condensation frosting on superhydrophobic surfaces have focused exclusively on liquid-solid ice nucleation for isolated drops, these findings reveal that the growth of frost is an inter-drop phenomenon that is strongly coupled to the wettability and drop size distribution of the surface. A jumping-drop superhydrophobic condenser was found to be superior to a conventional dropwise condenser in two respects: preventing heterogeneous ice nucleation by continuously removing subcooled condensate, and delaying frost growth by minimizing the success of interdrop ice bridge formation.

Boreyko, Jonathan B [ORNL; Collier, Pat [ORNL

2013-01-01

135

Effect of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici on the soil-to-root translocation of heavy metals in tomato plants susceptible and resistant to the fungus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this work was to gain an insight on the potential role of the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in the translocation of metals and metalloids from soil to plant roots in tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum). Two varieties of tomato (one susceptible and another resistant to infection by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici) were challenged with the fungus for different periods of time, and several elements (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Pb) were determined in roots and in soil substrate. Additionally, phenolic plant products were also analyzed for the evaluation of the plant response to biotic stress. In order to obtain representative results for plants cultivated in noncontaminated environments, the infected and control plants were grown in commercial soil with natural, relatively low metal concentrations, partly associated with humic substances. Using such an experimental design, a specific role of the fungus could be observed, while possible effects of plant exposure to elevated concentrations of heavy metals were avoided. In the infected plants of two varieties, the root concentrations of several metals/metalloids were increased compared to control plants; however, the results obtained for elements and for phenolic compounds were significantly different in the two plant varieties. It is proposed that both Lycopersicum esculentum colonization by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and the increase of metal bioavailability due to fungus-assisted solubilization of soil humic substances contribute to element traffic from soil to roots in tomato plant. PMID:21053907

Corrales Escobosa, Alma Rosa; Wrobel, Katarzyna; Landero Figueroa, Julio Alberto; Gutíerrez Corona, J Felix; Wrobel, Kazimierz

2010-12-01

136

Combined effects of copper, desiccation, and frost on the viability of earthworm cocoons  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of heavy metal pollution on earthworms have been extensively studied, but no studies have examined how earthworms react if they are simultaneously exposed to metal pollution and climatic stress. This question has been addressed in a laboratory study where cocoons of Aporrectodea caliginosa and Dendrobaena octaedra were initially exposed to copper in aqueous solutions of copper chloride and thereafter exposed to realistic degrees of either desiccation or frost. Earthworm embryos absorbed copper in amounts comparable to concentrations found in various tissues of earthworms from metal-polluted soils. Desiccation and copper exposure in combination had synergistic effects on survival rates for both species. For example, at full saturation, the NOEC (the highest tested concentration with no statistically significant effect) for copper of A. caliginosa was 12 mg/L, whereas at 97% relative humidity it was only 6 mg/L. Frost and copper exposure in combination also showed synergistic effects in some experiments. No cocoons of A. caliginosa exposed to 20 mg copper/L were viable after exposure to {minus}3 C but at 0 C viability was as high as 95%. The same tendency was seen in D. octaedra but not as clearly as in A/. caliginosa. A change of the environmental conditions (moisture, temperature) to increasing severity caused a shift in the statistically derived NOEC toward lower critical values of copper. The involvement of combination effects in ecotoxicological tests could therefore improve risk assessment of soil-polluting compounds.

Holmstrup, M. [National Environmental Research Inst., Silkeborg (Denmark). Dept. of Terrestrial Ecology; Petersen, B.F. [National Environmental Research Inst., Silkeborg (Denmark). Dept. of Terrestrial Ecology]|[Univ. of Aarhus (Denmark); Larsen, M.M. [National Environmental Research Inst., Roskilde (Denmark). Dept. of Marine Ecology and Microbiology

1998-01-01

137

A model for nocturnal frost formation on a wing section: Aircraft takeoff performance penalties  

Science.gov (United States)

The nocturnal frost formation on a wing section, to explain the hazard associated with frost during takeoff was investigated. A model of nocturnal frost formation on a wing section which predicts when the nocturnal frost will form and also its thickness and density as a function of time was developed. The aerodynamic penalities as related to the nocturnal frost formation properties were analyzed to determine how much the takeoff performance would be degraded by a specific frost layer. With an aircraft takeoff assuming equations representing a steady climbing flight, it is determined that a reduction in the maximum gross weight or a partial frost clearance and a reduction in the takeoff angle of attack is needed to neutralize drag and life penalities which are due to frost. Atmospheric conditions which produce the most hazardous frost buildup are determined.

Dietenberger, M. A.

1983-01-01

138

On the Effective Thermal Conductivity of Frost Considering Mass Diffusion and Eddy Convection  

Science.gov (United States)

A physical model for the effective thermal conductivity of water frost is proposed for application to the full range of frost density. The proposed model builds on the Zehner-Schlunder one-dimensional formulation for porous media appropriate for solid-to-fluid thermal conductivity ratios less than about 1000. By superposing the effects of mass diffusion and eddy convection on stagnant conduction in the fluid, the total effective thermal conductivity of frost is shown to be satisfactorily described. It is shown that the effects of vapor diffusion and eddy convection on the frost conductivity are of the same order. The results also point out that idealization of the frost structure by cylindrical inclusions offers a better representation of the effective conductivity of frost as compared to spherical inclusions. Satisfactory agreement between the theory and the measurements for the effective thermal conductivity of frost is demonstrated for a wide range of frost density and frost temperature.

Kandula, Max

2010-01-01

139

Suitability aero-geophysical methods for generating conceptual soil maps and their use in the modeling of process-related susceptibility maps  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past years, several times large-scale disasters occurred in Austria, which were characterized not only by flooding, but also by numerous shallow landslides and debris flows. Therefore, for the purpose of risk prevention, national and regional authorities also require more objective and realistic maps with information about spatially variable susceptibility of the geosphere for hazard-relevant gravitational mass movements. There are many and various proven methods and models (e.g. neural networks, logistic regression, heuristic methods) available to create such process-related (e.g. flat gravitational mass movements in soil) suszeptibility maps. But numerous national and international studies show a dependence of the suitability of a method on the quality of process data and parameter maps (f.e. Tilch & Schwarz 2011, Schwarz & Tilch 2011). In this case, it is important that also maps with detailed and process-oriented information on the process-relevant geosphere will be considered. One major disadvantage is that only occasionally area-wide process-relevant information exists. Similarly, in Austria often only soil maps for treeless areas are available. However, in almost all previous studies, randomly existing geological and geotechnical maps were used, which often have been specially adapted to the issues and objectives. This is one reason why very often conceptual soil maps must be derived from geological maps with only hard rock information, which often have a rather low quality. Based on these maps, for example, adjacent areas of different geological composition and process-relevant physical properties are razor sharp delineated, which in nature appears quite rarly. In order to obtain more realistic information about the spatial variability of the process-relevant geosphere (soil cover) and its physical properties, aerogeophysical measurements (electromagnetic, radiometric), carried out by helicopter, from different regions of Austria were interpreted. Previous studies show that, especially with radiometric measurements, the two-dimensional spatial variability of the nature of the process-relevant soil, close to the surface can be determined. In addition, the electromagnetic measurements are more important to obtain three-dimensional information of the deeper geological conditions and to improve the area-specific geological knowledge and understanding. The validation of these measurements is done with terrestrial geoelectrical measurements. So both aspects, radiometric and electromagnetic measurements, are important and subsequently, interpretation of the geophysical results can be used as the parameter maps in the modeling of more realistic susceptibility maps with respect to various processes. Within this presentation, results of geophysical measurements, the outcome and the derived parameter maps, as well as first process-oriented susceptibility maps in terms of gravitational soil mass movements will be presented. As an example results which were obtained with a heuristic method in an area in Vorarlberg (Western Austria) will be shown. References: Schwarz, L. & Tilch, N. (2011): Why are good process data so important for the modelling of landslide susceptibility maps?- EGU-Postersession "Landslide hazard and risk assessment, and landslide management" (NH 3.6), Vienna. [http://www.geologie.ac.at/fileadmin/user_upload/dokumente/pdf/poster/poster_2011_egu_schwarz_tilch_1.pdf] Tilch, N. & Schwarz, L. (2011): Spatial and scale-dependent variability in data quality and their influence on susceptibility maps for gravitational mass movements in soil, modelled by heuristic method.- EGU-Postersession "Landslide hazard and risk assessment, and landslide management" (NH 3.6); Vienna. [http://www.geologie.ac.at/fileadmin/user_upload/dokumente/pdf/poster/poster_2011_egu_tilch_schwarz.pdf

Tilch, Nils; Römer, Alexander; Jochum, Birgit; Schattauer, Ingrid

2014-05-01

140

AVALIAÇÃO DA SUSCEPTIBILIDADE DE SOLOS GNAISSICOS À EROSÃO SUBSUPERFICIAL / Evaluation of piping erosion susceptibility in gnaissic soils  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The basement rock areas of the Maracujá hydrographic basin show great incidence of hugegullies. This work aims to investigate the influence of the underground erosive processes inthe evolution of these features and to understand how the mineralogical and textural factorscould affect soil erodibility, specially of the saprolites, since the lateric soils of this basin aremore resistant to erosion. So, basic characterization and erodibility essays were carried out in representative soil samples...

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Soils  

Soils Here you can find a practical guide to soil assessment which can help you increase income and save money. We've developed Thinksoils in consultation with farmers, soil surveyors and agricultural advisors to provide advice on good soil management. About soil and 'thinksoils' Soil is your key…

142

Experimental measurements of the effects of frost formation on heat exchanger performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Frost formation on compact heat exchangers can lead to reductions in heat transfer of the order of 50 to 75% and to substantial increases in pressure drop. These effects are dependent upon the spatial pattern of the frost deposition, the growth history of the frost, and the thicknesses of the frost. This paper describes a series of experiments to measure the effects of frost when cold air (260 - 273 K) is passing through the exchanger. It is found that the thermal performance is a function of time and specific humidity levels while the pressure is function only of the frost thickness and surface roughness

1990-06-18

143

Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale: the portuguese version / Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale: versão portuguesa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese CONTEXTO: A Escala Multidimensional de Perfeccionismo de Frost (FMPS) é uma das escalas mais usadas em todo o mundo para avaliar o perfeccionismo. OBJETIVO: Analisar as características psicométricas da versão portuguesa da FMPS. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi constituída por 217 estudantes do ensino superio [...] r (178 mulheres). Um subgrupo (n = 166) completou o reteste após quatro semanas. RESULTADOS: A consistência interna da escala mostrou ser elevada (alfa de Cronbach = ,857). As correlações item-total corrigido variaram entre ,019 e ,548. Os resultados também sugeriram uma boa estabilidade temporal da escala, sendo a correlação teste-reteste de ,765. Foi realizada a análise das componentes principais com rotação Varimax e com base no Scree plot foram extraídas duas soluções fatoriais robustas (quatro e seis fatores). A análise paralela (Monte Carlo PCA) confirmou a solução de seis fatores. A validade concorrente com a escala MPS de Hewitt e Flett foi elevada, assim como a sua capacidade discriminante dos afetos positivos e negativos (Perfil de Estados de Humor - POMS). CONCLUSÃO: As duas estruturas fatoriais (quatro e seis fatores) encontradas na versão portuguesa da Escala Multidimensional de Perfeccionismo de Frost replicam os resultados obtidos por diferentes autores, em diferentes amostras e culturas. Esse fato sugere que essa escala é um instrumento robusto para a avaliação do perfeccionismo em vários contextos, clínicos e de investigação, bem como em estudos transculturais. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: The Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale is one of the most world widely used measures of perfectionism. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale. METHODS: Two hundred and seventeen (178 females) s [...] tudents from two Portuguese Universities filled in the scale, and a subgroup (n = 166) completed a retest with a four weeks interval. RESULTS: The scale reliability was good (Cronbach alpha = .857). Corrected item-total correlations ranged from .019 to .548. The scale test-retest reliability suggested a good temporal stability with a test-retest correlation of .765. A principal component analysis with Varimax rotation was performed and based on the Scree plot, two robust factorial structures were found (four and six factors). The principal component analyses, using Monte Carlo PCA for parallel analyses confirmed the six factor solution. The concurrent validity with Hewitt and Flett MPS was high, as well as the discriminant validity of positive and negative affect (Profile of Mood Stats-POMS). DISCUSSION: The two factorial structures (of four and six dimensions) of the Portuguese version of Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale replicate the results from different authors, with different samples and cultures. This suggests this scale is a robust instrument to assess perfectionism, in several clinical and research settings as well as in transcultural studies.

Amaral, Ana Paula Monteiro; Soares, Maria João; Pereira, Ana Telma; Bos, Sandra Carvalho; Marques, Mariana; Valente, José; Nogueira, Vasco; Azevedo, Maria Helena; Macedo, António.

144

Identification of soils susceptible to risk erosion and with hight capacity of water storage Identificación de suelos susceptibles a riesgos de erosión y con mayor capacidad de almacenamiento de agua  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The investigation was carried out in seven methodological steps under integral approaches, holistic analysis, logical sequence, participation and simplicity. The following aspects were highlighted: Conceptualization and contextualizacion, soil sampling , data processing, data spacializatión of the information, identification of susceptible areas to risk erosion with higher capacity of water storage, management norms and socialization of the investigation. The methodological proposal was validated and adjusted by a case of study in the rural areas of Chicoral, watershed of the Bitaco river, Municipality of La Cumbre, Cauca Valley , Colombia. Using participation processes and agreement with the communities of the study area, the diagnostic of the causes and consequences that intervene in processes of physical soil degradation were reached. At the same time, the places with higher potentiality of water storage were localized. All of these factors are important for planning and rational use of the natural resources in a watershed.La investigación se basó en el desarrollo de siete etapas metodológicas con criterios de integralidad, análisis holístico, secuencia lógica, participación y sencillez, destacándose los siguientes aspectos: Conceptualización y contextualización, muestreo de suelos, procesamiento de la información, espacialización de la información, identificación de zonas susceptibles a riesgos de erosión y con mayor capacidad de almacenamiento de agua, recomendaciones de manejo y socialización de la investigación. La propuesta metodológica se validó y ajustó mediante un caso de estudio en la vereda Chicoral, subcuenca del río Bitaco, municipio de La Cumbre, Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Mediante procesos de participación y concertación con los actores socioeconómicos del área de estudio se lograron diagnosticar las causas y consecuencias que intervienen en procesos de degradación física del suelo y a la vez se localizaron los sitios con mayor potencialidad de almacenamiento de agua, factores importantes para la planificación y uso racional de los recursos naturales en una cuenca hidrográfica.

Escobar Chalarca Carlos Alberto

2007-09-01

145

Identificación de suelos susceptibles a riesgos de erosión y con mayor capacidad de almacenamiento de agua Identification of soils susceptible to risk erosion and with hight capacity of water storage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La investigación se basó en el desarrollo de siete etapas metodológicas con criterios de integralidad, análisis holístico, secuencia lógica, participación y sencillez, destacándose los siguientes aspectos: Conceptualización y contextualización, muestreo de suelos, procesamiento de la información, espacialización de la información, identificación de zonas susceptibles a riesgos de erosión y con mayor capacidad de almacenamiento de agua, recomendaciones de manejo y socialización de la investigación. La propuesta metodológica se validó y ajustó mediante un caso de estudio en la vereda Chicoral, subcuenca del río Bitaco, municipio de La Cumbre, Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Mediante procesos de participación y concertación con los actores socioeconómicos del área de estudio se lograron diagnosticar las causas y consecuencias que intervienen en procesos de degradación física del suelo y a la vez se localizaron los sitios con mayor potencialidad de almacenamiento de agua, factores importantes para la planificación y uso racional de los recursos naturales en una cuenca hidrográfica.The investigation was carried out in seven methodological steps under integral approaches, holistic analysis, logical sequence, participation and simplicity. The following aspects were highlighted: Conceptualization and contextualizacion, soil sampling , data processing, data spacializatión of the information, identification of susceptible areas to risk erosion with higher capacity of water storage, management norms and socialization of the investigation. The methodological proposal was validated and adjusted by a case of study in the rural areas of Chicoral, watershed of the Bitaco river, Municipality of La Cumbre, Cauca Valley, Colombia. Using participation processes and agreement with the communities of the study area, the diagnostic of the causes and consequences that intervene in processes of physical soil degradation were reached. At the same time, the places with higher potentiality of water storage were localized. All of these factors are important for planning and rational use of the natural resources in a watershed.

Velásquez Valencia Henry

146

The New KRISS Low Frost-Point Humidity Generator  

Science.gov (United States)

A new low frost-point humidity generator (LFPG) has been designed, and its performance has been tested, in order to extend the calibration capabilities to the low frost-point range at KRISS. The water vapor gas mixture is generated by saturating air with water vapor over a surface of an ice-coated saturator under the conditions of constant temperature and pressure. This LFPG covers a range of frost point from - 99 °C to - 40 °C. The temperature of the saturator, which is controlled by thermoelectric devices and a two-stage mechanical refrigeration system, is stable within 5 mK, and the difference between the saturator temperature and the frost point generated at the saturator outlet is less than 20 mK. This stability is achieved by using oxygen-free high-conductivity copper materials as the saturator body, and applying a precision PID temperature control system. The performance of this new LFPG system is compared with the KRISS standard two-temperature generator in the frost-point range ( - 80 to - 40) °C, and its performance is tested with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), which was built at KRISS, to - 91 °C.

Choi, B. I.; Nham, H. S.; Woo, S. B.; Kim, J. C.; Kwon, S. Y.

2008-10-01

147

Correlation of Water Frost Porosity in Laminar Flow over Flat Surfaces  

Science.gov (United States)

A dimensionless correlation has been proposed for water frost porosity expressing its dependence on frost surface temperature and Reynolds number for laminar forced flow over a flat surface. The correlation is presented in terms of a dimensionless frost surface temperature scaled with the cold plate temperature, and the freezing temperature. The flow Reynolds number is scaled with reference to the critical Reynolds number for laminar-turbulent transition. The proposed correlation agrees satisfactorily with the simultaneous measurements of frost density and frost surface temperature covering a range of plate temperature, ambient air velocity, humidity, and temperature. It is revealed that the frost porosity depends primarily on the frost surface and the plate temperatures and the flow Reynolds number, and is only weakly dependent on the relative humidity. The results also point out the general character of frost porosity displaying a decrease with an increase in flow Reynolds number.

Kandula, Max

2011-01-01

148

Predicting Frost Resistance of Concrete with Different Coarse Aggregate Concentration by Porosity Parameters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Frost resistance is one of the key indicators of concrete quality. Frost resistance can be determined by direct testing; however it is time-consuming and labour-intensive method. Concrete decomposition is a complex process (from initial signs of degradation to complete failure of the surface subjected to freezing) involving many factors. Frost resistance of concrete can be predicted from porosity parameters after determining their relation to frost resistance. Test results showed the relation...

Nagrockiene?, Dz?igita; Skripkiu?nas, Gintautas; Girskas, Giedrius

2011-01-01

149

Quantitative trait loci of frost tolerance and physiologically related trait in faba bean (Vicia faba L.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In faba bean, field based winter-hardiness is a complex trait that is significantly correlated to frost tolerance. Frost tolerance could be used to indirectly select for faba bean winter-hardiness. The aim of this study was to identify putative QTL associated with frost tolerance and auxiliary traits and to quantify the efficiency of marker assisted selection. Thus, 101 recombinant inbred lines derived from the cross between two frost tolerant lines were tested for their hardened and unharden...

Arbaoui, Mustapha; Link, Wolfgang; Satovic, Zlatko; Torres, Ana-maria

2008-01-01

150

Lessons in the Conversation That We Are: Robert Frost's "Death of the Hired Man."  

Science.gov (United States)

Looks at Robert Frost's "The Death of the Hired Man" as a "representative anecdote" for Frost's work, which, taken as a whole, shows readers how to lose themselves among the overlooked places and turnings, the topics and tropes, that make up Frost's rhetorical home, the place of everyday human talk and gossip. (TB)

Jost, Walter

1996-01-01

151

Genetic Architecture of Winter Hardiness and Frost Tolerance in Triticale  

Science.gov (United States)

Abiotic stress experienced by autumn-sown crops during winter is of great economic importance as it can have a severe negative impact on yield. In this study, we investigated the genetic architecture of winter hardiness and frost tolerance in triticale. To this end, we used a large mapping population of 647 DH lines phenotyped for both traits in combination with genome-wide marker data. Employing multiple-line cross QTL mapping, we identified nine main effect QTL for winter hardiness and frost tolerance of which six were overlapping between both traits. Three major QTL were identified on chromosomes 5A, 1B and 5R. In addition, an epistasis scan revealed the contribution of epistasis to the genetic architecture of winter hardiness and frost tolerance in triticale. Taken together, our results show that winter hardiness and frost tolerance are complex traits that can be improved by phenotypic selection, but also that genomic approaches hold potential for a knowledge-based improvement of these important traits in elite triticale germplasm.

Liu, Wenxin; Maurer, Hans Peter; Li, Guoliang; Tucker, Matthew R.; Gowda, Manje; Weissmann, Elmar A.; Hahn, Volker; Wurschum, Tobias

2014-01-01

152

From soil to brain: zinc deficiency increases the neurotoxicity of Lathyrus sativus and may affect the susceptibility for the motorneurone disease neurolathyrism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Zinc deficiency and oversupply of iron to the roots of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) induce increases in the content of the neurotoxin beta-L-ODAP (3-oxalyl-L-2,3-diaminopropanoic acid) in the ripe seeds. The transport of zinc to the shoots is enhanced by the addition of beta-L-ODAP. The neurotoxin of L. sativus is proposed to function as a carrier molecule for zinc ions. Soils, depleted in micronutrients from flooding by monsoon rains (Indian subcontinent) or otherwise poor in available zinc and with high iron content (Ethiopian vertisols), may be responsible for higher incidence of human lathyrism, one of the oldest neurotoxic diseases known to man. A role for brain zinc deficiency in the susceptibility for lathyrism is postulated. PMID:8053001

Lambein, F; Haque, R; Khan, J K; Kebede, N; Kuo, Y H

1994-04-01

153

Gamma-ray spectrometry, electrical resistivity, and magnetic susceptibility of agricultural soils in the Northwest region of the Parana State, Brazil; Gamaespectrometria, resistividade eletrica e susceptibilidade magnetica de solos agricolas no noroeste do estado do Parana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gamma-ray spectrometry, electrical resistivity, and magnetic susceptibility measurements were taken from agricultural areas near the City of Maringa, in the Northwest region of the Parana state, south Brazil, in order to characterize the spatial distribution of radionuclides (K, eU, and eTh), the apparent resistivity, and the magnetic susceptibility determined for soils. Three different types of soils are present in this agricultural area: Alfisoil, clayey texture Oxisoil, both deriving from Lower Cretaceous basalts of the Serra Geral Formation; and medium texture Oxisoil from reworked Serra Geral and Goio-Ere formations, the latter deriving from sandstones of the Upper Cretaceous Caiua Group. It could be observed that in more clayey soils both concentration of radionuclides and susceptibility values are higher than in more sandy soils, especially due to the higher adsorption in the former and to the higher availability of magnetic minerals in the latter. The average ppm and Bq Kg{sup -1} grades for K, eU, and eTh in the areas under anthropic activity are of 1766-54.75, 0.83-10.22, and 1.78-7.27, respectively. These grades are significantly higher than those of non-occupied or non-fertilized areas (1101-34.15 K, 0.14-1.69 eU, and 1.31-5.36 eTh in ppm and Bq Kg-1, respectively.) Correlations were observed between uranium and clay, uranium and magnetic susceptibility, uranium and organic matter, and between electric resistivity and clay grades. Varied concentrations of radionuclides were also observed in different fertilizer formulations applied to soy and wheat cultures. Apparent electric resistivity values between 25 and 647 Ohm.m and magnetic susceptibility values between 0.28 e 1.10 x 10-3 SI due to clay and magnetic minerals represented important soil discrimination factors in the study area that can be incorporated as easy, low-cost soil mapping tools. (author)

Becegato, Valter Antonio [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina-UDESC, Centro de Ciencias Agroveterinarias, Lages, SC (Brazil); Ferreira, Francisco Jose Fonseca, E-mail: becegato@cav.udesc.br, E-mail: francisco.ferreira@ufpr.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (LPGA/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia. Lab. de Pesquisas em Geofisica Aplicada

2005-10-15

154

Suscetibilidade magnética do horizonte B de solos do Estado do Paraná Magnetic susceptibility of B horizon of soils in the State of Paraná  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os minerais ferrimagnéticos maghemita (?Fe2O3 e magnetita (Fe3O4 possuem alta relação com a disponibilidade de cátions metálicos e com a capacidade do solo em adsorver ânions como o fosfato. Uma percentagem expressiva dos solos brasileiros apresenta magnetização espontânea. No Estado do Paraná essa área corresponde a aproximadamente 50 %. A determinação da suscetibilidade magnética por unidade de massa (?BF é o método mais simples de identificar a presença e quantificar esses minerais nos solos. A BF é uma técnica rápida, barata, não destrutiva e de boa reprodutibilidade, que pode ser utilizada como critério nos estudos pedogenéticos em que os minerais ferrimagnéticos estão presentes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência do material de origem nos valores de ?BF da terra fina seca ao ar (TFSA de amostras do horizonte B de solos do Paraná. As amostras foram coletadas em todo o Estado, num total de 45 pontos. Na TFSA foram determinados os valores de BF e da porcentagem da frequência dependente da suscetibilidade magnética (?FD. Os valores de suscetibilidade magnética dos solos formados sobre rochas eruptivas básicas foram significativamente maiores (1.000 a 7.800 x 10-8 m³ kg-1 que os encontrados em solos formados sobre rochas metamórficas e sedimentares (menores do que 500 x 10-8 m³ kg-1, demonstrando a influência do material de origem na presença de minerais ferrimagnéticos. Os valores de ?FD indicaram a presenca de partículas superparamagnéticas (maghemita na maioria dos solos paranaenses.The ferrimagnetic minerals maghemite (?Fe2O3 are closely related with metal availability and P adsorption capacity. Magnetization is spontaneous in a significant percentage of Brazilian soils. In the State of Paraná (Brazil this area represents up to 50 %. The determination of the mass-specific magnetic susceptibility (?BF is the simplest method of identification and quantification of ferrimagnetic minerals in soils. The ?LF is a quick, cheap, non-destructive technique, with satisfactory reproducibility, and can be used as a criterion in pedogenetic studies involving ferrimagnetic minerals. The aim of this paper was to verify the influence of parent rock material on ?LF values of air-dried fine earth of B horizon of soil samples from Paraná. The samples were collected at 45 sites across the entire State to determine the ?LF values and percentage of frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility (?FD. The values of mass-specific magnetic susceptibility of soils formed from basic eruptive rocks were significantly higher (1,000 to 7,800 x 10-8 m³ kg-1 than of those from sedimentary and metamorphic rocks (lower than 500 x 10-8 m³ kg-1. The data show the strong influence of the parent rock material on the presence of ferrimagnetic minerals. The ?FD values indicate the presence of superparamagnetic particles (maghemite in the majority of the Paraná State soils.

Alceu Rodrigues da Silva

2010-04-01

155

Predicting Frost Resistance of Concrete with Different Coarse Aggregate Concentration by Porosity Parameters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Frost resistance is one of the key indicators of concrete quality. Frost resistance can be determined by direct testing; however it is time-consuming and labour-intensive method. Concrete decomposition is a complex process (from initial signs of degradation to complete failure of the surface subjected to freezing involving many factors. Frost resistance of concrete can be predicted from porosity parameters after determining their relation to frost resistance. Test results showed the relation between the closed porosity of concrete and frost resistance factor. Closed porosity of concrete was found to have a significant influence on frost resistance factor. It is shown that closed porosity depends on the concentration of coarse aggregate in concrete, the closed porosity and predicted frost resistance of concrete increase with lower concentration of coarse aggregate.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.2.493

Džigita NAGROCKIEN?

2011-07-01

156

Frost behavior of a fin surface with temperature variation along heat exchanger fins  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a mathematical model for predicting the frost behavior formed on heat exchanger fins, considering fin heat conduction under frosting condition. The model is composed of air-side, the frost layer, and fin region, and they are coupled to the frost layer. The frost behavior is more accurately predicted with fin heat conduction considered (Case A) than with a constant fin surface temperature assumed (Case B). The results indicate that the frost thickness and heat transfer rate for Case B are over-predicted in most regions of the fin, as compared to those for Case A. Also, for Case A, the maximum frost thickness varies little with the fin length variations, and the extension of the fin length over 30 mm contributes insignificantly to heat transfer

2007-06-01

157

Assessment of the chloride migration coefficient, internal frost resistance, salt frost scaling and sulphate resistance of self-compacting concrete : with some interrelated properties  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report describes laboratory and analytical studies of the chloride migration coefficient, D, defined by Tang, the salt frost scaling, the internal frost resistance and the sulphate resistance of SCC that contains increased amount of filler, different types of casting and different air content.

Persson, Bertil

2001-01-01

158

Soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental soil surveys in each province of Austria have been performed, soils of about 5,000 sites were described and analyzed for nutrients and pollutants, the majority of these data are recorded in the soil information system of Austria (BORIS) soil database, http://www.ubavie.gv.at/umweltsituation/boden/boris), which also contains a soil map of Austria, data from 30 specific investigations mainly in areas with industry and results from the Austria - wide cesium investigation. With respect to the environmental state of soils a short discussion is given, including two geographical charts, one showing which sites have soil data (2001) and the other the cadmium distribution in top soils according land use (forest, grassland, arable land, others). Information related to the soil erosion, Corine land cover (Europe-wide land cover database), evaluation of pollutants in soils (reference values of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, Pb, Tl, Va, Zn, AOX, PAH, PCB, PCDD/pcdf, dioxin), and relevant Austrian and European standards and regulations is provided. Figs. 2, Tables 4. (nevyjel)

2002-01-01

159

Influence of coffee pruning on the severity of frost damage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Frost damages in a field experiment of pruning types and systems for the cultivars of Coffea arabica Catuaí and Mundo Novo, were evaluated at Londrina (23º22’S, 52º10´W, State of Parana, southern Brazil, during the winter of 1990 and 1994. Pruning types evaluated were ‘esqueletamento’ (cutting off all plagiotropic branches at 20-30 cm from the orthotropic branch, ‘decote’ (cutting off the orthotropic branch at 1.5 m and 2.0 m above ground and ‘recepa’ (cutting off the orthotropic branch at 0.8 m above ground, performed on all rows and on alternate rows, and on different sections of the plant. Results indicated that frost damage could increase according to the type and height of pruning. The pruning type ‘esqueletamento’ and prunings at higher levels were more suitable for regions with frost risk. Under severe frost condition, pruning type did not affect the damage in anyone of the treatments evaluated.Foram avaliados os danos causados pelas geadas ocorridas em 1990 e 1994 em cafeeiros de duas cultivares de Coffea arabica L., Catuaí e Mundo Novo, conduzidos em Londrina-PR. Os tipos e sistemas de podas aplicados foram o esqueletamento a 20-30 cm do tronco, decote a 1,5 m e 2,0 m de altura e recepa a 0,80 m de altura. As podas foram feitas em área total e em linhas alternadas e em diferentes partes da planta. Os dados obtidos indicaram que os danos por geada podem ser intensificados em função do tipo e altura da poda. A poda do tipo esqueletamento e as podas altas são mais indicadas para o manejo das lavouras nas regiões mais sujeitas ao fenômeno de geada. No caso de geada severa, todos os cafeeiros foram afetados, independente do tipo de poda.

Armando Androcioli Filho

2000-01-01

160

Climate Change Shifts Frost Seasons and Plant Growth  

Science.gov (United States)

This month's issue of Ecology Letters adds new evidence to the effect of climate change on ecosystems. In a paper by Professor of Biology Dr. David Inouye of the University of Maryland, global climate change appears to influence early and late frost events, which in turn, "inhibit growth and possibly damage many plants." This news brief from ScienceDaily.com describes the recent finding and comments on its wider significance.

 
 
 
 
161

Acrylic coatings with surprising antifogging and frost-resisting properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report an unusually effective antifogging/frost-resisting coating based on conventional acrylic polymers. The intriguing antifogging property originated from the delicate balance between the hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity of the acrylic copolymers of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate and methyl methacrylate, as well as between the water-swellability of the copolymer and the cross-linked network due to ethylene glycol dimethacrylate. PMID:24201972

Zhao, Jie; Meyer, Anthony; Ma, Li; Ming, Weihua

2013-12-28

162

Morning Frost in Trench Dug by Phoenix, Sol 113  

Science.gov (United States)

This image from the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows morning frost inside the 'Snow White' trench dug by the lander, in addition to subsurface ice exposed by use of a rasp on the floor of the trench. The camera took this image at about 9 a.m. local solar time during the 113th Martian day of the mission (Sept. 18, 2008). Bright material near and below the four-by-four set of rasp holes in the upper half of the image is water-ice exposed by rasping and scraping in the trench earlier the same morning. Other bright material especially around the edges of the trench, is frost. Earlier in the mission, when the sun stayed above the horizon all night, morning frost was not evident in the trench. This image is presented in approximately true color. The trench is 4 to 5 centimeters (about 2 inches) deep, about 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide. Phoenix landed on a Martian arctic plain on May 25, 2008. The mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

163

Modeling for predicting frosting behavior of a fin-tube heat exchanger  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A mathematical model is proposed to evaluate the frosting behavior of a fin-tube heat exchanger under frosting conditions. Empirical correlations of the heat transfer coefficients for the plate and tube surfaces and a diffusion equation for the frost layer are used to establish the model. The correlations for the heat transfer coefficients, derived from various experimental data, were obtained as functions of the Reynolds number and Prandtl number. The proposed model is validated by comparing the numerical results with experimental data for the frost thickness, frost accumulation, and heat transfer rate. The numerical results agree well with the experimental data. It is also found that this model can be applied to evaluate the thermal performance of a common fin-tube heat exchanger under frosting conditions. (author)

Yang, Dong-Keun [Digital Appliance Research Laboratory, LG Electronics Inc., 222-22 Guro3-dong, Seoul 152-848 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kwan-Soo; Song, Simon [School of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Sungdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-04-15

164

A computer simulation for performance prediction of fin-tube heat exchanger under frosting conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study is concerned with the numerical analysis of performance on fin-tube heat exchanger under frosting condition. In this work, tube-by-tube method using LMED is employed. The present results are compared with O`Neal`s experimental and numerical results. A standard evaporator model with 2 rows-2 columns is selected to investigate the effects of the various parameters such as fin pitch, air flow velocity, and humidity. The results show that frost thickness and the amount of frost per unit area decrease as fin-pitch becomes narrower. In the meantime, frost thickness and accumulation rate increase with higher inlet air humidity. It is shown that heat transfer rate increases during 30 minutes and then it decreases. Heat transfer rate and the amount of frost increase with air velocity, however frost thickness does not increase over a certain velocity. (author). 12 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

Lee, Kwan Soo; Pak, Hui Yong; Lee, Wook Yong; Lee, Tae Hui [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soo Yeop; Lee, Myung Ryul

1995-02-01

165

A new model for predicting performance of fin-and-tube heat exchanger under frost condition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Accurate prediction of frost characteristics has crucial influence on designing effective heat exchangers. In this paper, a new CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) model has been proposed to predict the frost behaviour. The initial period of frost formation can be predicted and the influence of surface structure can be considered. The numerical simulations have been carried out to investigate the performance of fin-and-tube heat exchanger under frost condition. The results have been validated by comparison of simulations with the data computed by empirical formulas. The transient local frost formation has been obtained. The average frost thickness, heat exchanger coefficient and pressure drop on air side has been analysed as well. In addition, the influence factors have also been discussed, such as fin pitch, relative humidity, air flow rate and evaporating temperature of refrigerant.

Cui, J. [Key Lab. of Ocean Energy Utilization and Energy Conservation of Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Li, W.Z., E-mail: wzhongli@dlut.edu.c [Key Lab. of Ocean Energy Utilization and Energy Conservation of Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu, Y.; Zhao, Y.S. [Key Lab. of Ocean Energy Utilization and Energy Conservation of Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

2011-02-15

166

A new model for predicting performance of fin-and-tube heat exchanger under frost condition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accurate prediction of frost characteristics has crucial influence on designing effective heat exchangers. In this paper, a new CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) model has been proposed to predict the frost behaviour. The initial period of frost formation can be predicted and the influence of surface structure can be considered. The numerical simulations have been carried out to investigate the performance of fin-and-tube heat exchanger under frost condition. The results have been validated by comparison of simulations with the data computed by empirical formulas. The transient local frost formation has been obtained. The average frost thickness, heat exchanger coefficient and pressure drop on air side has been analysed as well. In addition, the influence factors have also been discussed, such as fin pitch, relative humidity, air flow rate and evaporating temperature of refrigerant.

2011-02-01

167

Proteins Involved in Distinct Phases of Cold Hardening Process in Frost Resistant Winter Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Luxor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Winter barley is an economically important cereal crop grown in higher latitudes and altitudes where low temperatures represent an important environmental constraint limiting crop productivity. In this study changes in proteome of leaves and crowns in a frost tolerant winter barley cv. Luxor in relation to short and long term periods of cold followed by a brief frost treatment were studied in order to disclose proteins responsible for the cold hardening process in distinct plant tissues. The mentioned changes have been monitored using two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE with subsequent peptide-mapping protein identification. Regarding approximately 600–700 distinct protein spots detected on 2D gels, there has been found at least a two-fold change after exposure to low temperatures in about 10% of proteins in leaves and 13% of proteins in crowns. Protein and nitrogen metabolic processes have been influenced by low temperature to a similar extent in both tissues while catabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and proteins involved in stress response have been more affected in crowns than in leaves. The range of changes in protein abundance was generally higher in leaves and chloroplast proteins were frequently affected which suggests a priority to protect photosynthetic apparatus. Overall, our data proved existence of slightly different response strategies to low temperature stress in crowns and leaves, i.e., tissues with different biological role. Moreover, there have been found several proteins with large increase in accumulation, e.g., 33 kDa oxygen evolving protein of photosystem II in leaves and “enhanced disease susceptibility 1” in crowns; these proteins might have potential to indicate an enhanced level of frost tolerance in barley.

Radovan Hynek

2013-04-01

168

Critically reduced frost resistance of Picea abies during sprouting could be linked to cytological changes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Frost resistance of sprouting Picea abies shoots is insufficient for survival of naturally occurring late frosts. The cellular changes during sprouting appeared to be responsible for frost damage as frost events that damaged sprouting shoots did not damage older needles and stems. Whilst resting buds showed initial frost damage at -15.0 degrees C, 20 days later, current year's growth was damaged at -5.6 degrees C. The decrease in frost resistance in sprouting shoots of P. abies was accompanied by a significant reduction of the cellular solute concentration, indicated by much less negative Psi(oSAT) values (increase from -2.8 to -1.2 MPa). psi(oSAT) decreased again after the final cell volume was reached and cell wall thickening began. After bud break, ice nucleation temperature increased from -4.7 degrees C to -1.5 degrees C. This increase was probably caused by the loss of bud scales, the onset of expansion growth of the central cylinder and the development of vascular tissue permitting the spread of ice from the stem into the growing needles. The onset of mesophyll cell wall thickening coincided with the lowest frost resistances. Cell wall thickening caused an increase in the modulus of elasticity, epsilon, indicating a decrease in tissue elasticity and after that frost resistance increased again. Metabolic and cytological changes that evidently leave little leeway for frost hardening are responsible for the low frost resistance in current year's growth of P. abies. This low frost resistance will be significant in the future as the risk of frost damage due to earlier bud break is anticipated to even further increase. PMID:19533300

Neuner, G; Beikircher, B

2010-07-01

169

An Analysis of Life and Death in Robert Frost's Selected Poems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Skripsi ini adalah penganalisisan puisi Robert Frost yang bertemakan hidup dan mati. Judul skripsi ini ialah An Analysis Of Life And Death In Robert Frost’s Selected Poems. Sanjak – sanjak yang dibahas ialah “Meeting and Passing”, “Nothing Gold Can Stay”, “After Apple Picking”, dan “Home Burial”.Sanjak – sanjak tersebut bertemakan kehidupan dan kematian. Dengan adanya pembahasan ini kita dapat mengerti bagaimana kita menghargai hidup dan dapat mensyukuri apa yang telah T...

Artika Sari, Dina

2010-01-01

170

Effects of frost on wildflowers: an unexpected consequence of climate change--image 08 of 22  

Science.gov (United States)

Photo of a meadow with thousands of Helianthella quinquenervis (aspen sunflower, Asteraceae) plants. In the year that this photo was taken, a springtime frost killed all but a few flower buds. Compare with the photo of the same meadow in a year without frost. The lack of flowers in years having springtime frost has ecological consequences. There is no pollen or nectar for pollinators (bees and flies), no seeds for seed predators (tephritid flies and caterpillars), and no seed predators for parasitoid wasps.

Inouye, David

2012-01-04

171

A Basic Thermodynamic Derivation of the Maximum Overburden Pressure Generated in Frost Heave  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

I describe a simple heat-engine derivation of the maximum overburden pressure that can be generated in frost heave. The method stems from the fact that useful work can, in principle, be extracted from the forces generated by an advancing solidification front via the frost heave mechanism. Using an idealized frost heave engine, together with the maximum thermodynamic efficiency of any heat engine, one can derive the maximum overburden pressure. A similar argument can also pro...

Libbrecht, Kenneth G.

2008-01-01

172

Experimental assessment on the frost sensitivity during leaf development of juvenile Fagus sylvatica L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Late frost events in spring shape species distribution as well as reduce productivity. Till now, it is still not clear if future warming will lead to more frequent / stronger / more harmful frost damages in forestry and agriculture or not. Since the variability of extremes is increasing it seems that the risk of late frost damages in many regions may not decrease, even if the mean air temperature in general is increasing. A late frost event is only harmful if plants have initiated their leaf / flower development. Closed buds are usually very frost tolerant. However, once leaves develop after mild and warm spring periods, the new tissue is especially sensitive to freezing temperatures. Therefore not only the date of the last frost but also the weather history of the late winter / early spring determines if a frost event might result in frost damage or not. Tissue sensitivity to frost varies among species, but even within species there might be differences in frost tolerance during the different stages in leaf development. We set up an experiment to identify the frost risk in connection with the developmental stage of the leaves of juvenile beech. In order to vary the timing of frost events, we placed 1-year old potted beech trees 7times overnight in a climate chamber, in which the air temperature was cooled down to - 3° for five hours. For each tree the phenological stages were observed before and after the frost, the percent of damage was estimated after two days; additionally phenology of the damaged plants was observed weekly to document the recovery of their damage till May 23, 2013. Only about 30% of the plants were damaged. In general it can be stated if damage occurred it was a severe damage, only very few plants sustained little damage. We observed dependence on the date of the freezing event, rather than on specific phenological phases - the later the frost was applied the more plants were damaged. Damaged plants recovered relatively rapidly from the frost damage; three to six weeks after the event most of the damage plants were foliated equally to non-damaged plants. Only a few plants did not recover at all from the frost event.

Estrella, Nicole; Menzel, Annette

2014-05-01

173

Effects of frost on wildflowers: an unexpected consequence of climate change--image 06 of 22  

Science.gov (United States)

Ants (Formica obscuripes) searching for extrafloral nectar on the involucral bracts around a flower head in bud in the frost-sensitive herb Helianthella quinquenervis. The ants help to deter oviposition by flies (Tephritidae) that try to lay eggs on the flower heads. Because fly larvae eat developing seeds, the ants benefit the plants. Thus, the ant / herb interaction represents a mutualism. This mutualism can be disrupted if flower buds are killed by frost, as they won't secrete the extrafloral nectar. But frost also negatively impacts the flies, as frost-killed buds provide no food for the fly larvae.

Inouye, David

2012-01-04

174

Relationship between frost hardiness of adults and seedlings of different tree species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between frost hardiness and the macroclimatic niche of adult individuals and seedlings of eight temperate tree species. Frost damage was investigated on winter buds and needles of adult individuals and on freshly germinated seedlings. We hypothesized that frost hardiness of adult individuals and seedlings is in accordance with their macroclimatic niche and that frost hardiness of seedlings increases with increasing plant age. Frost hardiness was tested in a climate chamber by exposing the plant material to different freezing temperatures and was assessed by LT50-values. In contrast to our expectations, we did not find any relationship between LT50-values and the macroclimatic niche variables, neither for adults nor for seedlings. There was a positive trend between seedlings development and frost hardiness, although average frost hardiness of all species differed only between -7.5 and -9 °C for one-week old and two- or four weeks old seedlings, respectively. We have to conclude that frost hardiness of adult individuals as well as seedlings at our study site does not reflect the species’ geographic distribution range, and therefore, it seems not be possible to predict the geographical distribution ranges of tree species from their frost tolerance.

Hofmann M

2014-04-01

175

GIVRE: A Protection Against Frost Deposit on Polar Instruments  

Science.gov (United States)

The CEA, in coordination with IPEV and LUAN, will prepare an experiment to study frost formation on surfaces in radiative cooling in the winter. This experiment has been shipped to be installed at Concordia before the 2007 winter period. It will be controlled from Concordia winterover personal, through PC server that will locally archive data from WEBcams and several local heat regulators. This experiment will be used to give recipes on the way to compensate with heaters the radiative cooling from the sky and maintain instrument surfaces at temperature just above icing conditions. The individual regulators proposed in this experiment will be usable as standalone ice protection systems for existing and future telescopes.

Durand, G.; Cadelis, L.; Minier, V.; Veyssière, C.; Walter, C.; Pierre, A.; Agabi, A.; Fossat, E.; Jeanneaux, F.

176

Frost resistance of concrete with crushed brick as aggregate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The investigation included concrete made by using recycled brick as aggregate. Experimental work included several types of concrete made with the same cement content (385 kg/m3, and same consistency (slump about 1 cm. Recycled brick and combination of natural river aggregate and recycled brick were used as aggregates. The influence of percentage and grain size of crushed brick aggregate on concrete compressive strength, water absorption and frost resistance were observed. On the basis of the results obtained during experimental research, a general conclusion can be drawn that the application of recycled concrete as aggregate can lead to new composites with satisfactory physical-mechanical properties.

Jankovi? Ksenija

2010-01-01

177

Heat and mass transfer in frost and ice, packed beds, and environmental discharges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This volume covers issues related to heat and mass transfer in frost and ice packed beds, and environmental discharges. Topics include: measurements of the effects of frost on heat exchanger performance, a study of steam zone behavior in porous media, heat and mass transfer by natural convection, and a review of selected programs for atmospheric dispersion

1990-06-18

178

Effects of frost on wildflowers: an unexpected consequence of climate change--image 04 of 22  

Science.gov (United States)

A graphical representation of a frost event at the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory (Colorado). The temperature dipped to 25.1 F on 11 June 2004. Winter snowpack melted at the monitoring location on 8 May that year. The late-spring frost killed flower buds that had developed in the four weeks following snowmelt.

Inouye, David

2012-01-04

179

An experimental study on the performance of fin-tube heat exchanger under frosting condition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, the experiment with 2 rows-2 columns fin-tube heat exchanger under forced convection and frosting condition is performed. The influence of each operating condition(the temperature of air, the humidity of air, the velocity of air, the temperature of coolant) on the growth of frost layer, air-side pressure drop, and characteristics of heat transfer is investigated. The experimental results show that the frost thickness increases rapidly in the early stage of frost formation and increases linearly after sometime. The frost thickness increases with the increase of the inlet air humidity and velocity and the decrease of inlet air temperature and coolant temperature. It is also found that the total energy transfer rate increases with the increase of inlet air temperature and velocity and with the decrease of inlet air humidity and coolant temperature. (author). 6 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

Lee, Kwan Soo; Pak, Hee Yong; Lee, Tae Hee; Lee, Nam Gyo [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soo Yeop; Lee, Myung Ryul

1995-05-01

180

Numerical and experimental investigation on frosting of energy-recovery ventilator  

Science.gov (United States)

Frosting of energy-recovery ventilators results in two major problems: increase of pressure losses and reduction of heat transfer rates. Frost formation of heat and mass exchangers used in these ventilation systems is investigated both experimentally and numerically. A numerical model for the prediction of the thermal behavior of the exchanger is presented. The model is validated with experimental data and is then employed to conduct a parametric study. Results indicate that the absolute humidity is the prevailing parameter for characterizing the frosting phenomenon. A frost-mass-fraction chart is established in terms of the absolute humidity of the warm exhaust stream and of the temperature of the cold supply stream. The effect of time and mass flowrate is also evaluated. The transient three-dimensional model shows that the absolute humidity and the temperature of both air flows vary nonlinearly in the frosted zone.

Bilodeau, Stephane; Mercadier, Yves; Brousseau, Patrick

 
 
 
 
181

Activating the Microscale Edge Effect in a Hierarchical Surface for Frosting Suppression and Defrosting Promotion  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite extensive progress, current icephobic materials are limited by the breakdown of their icephobicity in the condensation frosting environment. In particular, the frost formation over the entire surface is inevitable as a result of undesired inter-droplet freezing wave propagation initiated by the sample edges. Moreover, the frost formation directly results in an increased frost adhesion, posing severe challenges for the subsequent defrosting process. Here, we report a hierarchical surface which allows for interdroplet freezing wave propagation suppression and efficient frost removal. The enhanced performances are mainly owing to the activation of the microscale edge effect in the hierarchical surface, which increases the energy barrier for ice bridging as well as engendering the liquid lubrication during the defrosting process. We believe the concept of harnessing the surface morphology to achieve superior performances in two opposite phase transition processes might shed new light on the development of novel materials for various applications.

Chen, Xuemei; Ma, Ruiyuan; Zhou, Hongbo; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Che, Lufeng; Yao, Shuhuai; Wang, Zuankai

2013-08-01

182

Frost as a first wall for the ICF laboratory microfusion facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors introduce the concept of using frost as the first wall of the ICF Laboratory Microfusion Facility being designed to produce 200-1000 MJ of thermonuclear yield. They present one design incorporating 2cm of frost deposited at 0.1 g/cm/sup 3/ on an LN-cooled fiber-reinforced polymer substrate. They calculate that such a frost layer will protect the substrate from ablation by target x rays and debris, and from shock-induced spallation. Postshot washdown with water should permit low-activation operation, and should preserve the original wall properties. The authors expect the impact of the frost on laser optics to be minimal, and expect the preshot lifetime of thermally unprotected cryogenic targets to be extended by operating the wall at 100-150 K. Moreover, they believe that such a frost first wall involves little technical risk, and will be inexpensive to construct and operate

1989-03-01

183

Soil  

…multiple uses to which we put it. We will promote schemes and implement strategies that bring about better soil management and more sustainable agricultural practices. We will help local authorities to identify and improve contaminated land sites, securing the necessary funding and managing the improvement…

184

Soil  

…the improvement programmes. We will enforce permits that remove 50% of acid rain pollutants from power stations, to bring a reduction in soil acidification. We will work closely with local planning authorities and developers so that our views are reflected in development strategies and planning decisions…

185

Soils  

…runoff * Identifying problems with soil structure in the field * General principles to avoid erosion and runoff We deliver thinksoils through training courses and workshops. If you want to find out about training in your area, or have a question about thinksoils, call us on 0370 8506506. To order a copy visit…

186

Estimativa da susceptibilidade à compactação e do suporte de carga do solo com base em propriedades físicas de solos do Rio Grande do Sul / Estimating soil susceptibility to compaction and load support capacity based on physical parameters of soils from Rio Grande do Sul State  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O conhecimento das relações entre propriedades físicas e mecânicas do solo pode contribuir no desenvolvimento de funções de pedotransferência, que permitam estimar outras propriedades do solo de difícil mensuração. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a relação entre a susceptibilidade à compactação [...] e o suporte de carga com propriedades físicas de solos do sul do Brasil. Foram avaliadas a resistência à penetração, a umidade, a densidade e a compressibilidade de seis solos. A resistência à penetração pode ser estimada pelo modelo que considera a umidade e densidade do solo. Solos com maior densidade inicial apresentaram menor susceptibilidade à compactação e menor deformação, quando submetidos a pressões externas. Quanto maior a resistência do solo à penetração, menor é a deformação e maior é a capacidade de suporte de carga, embora isso não indique solos com qualidade física adequada para as culturas; quanto maior a deformação do solo, maior a susceptibilidade à compactação e menor a capacidade de suporte de carga. A susceptibilidade de um solo à compactação e sua capacidade de suporte de carga podem ser estimadas, respectivamente, pela densidade inicial e pela resistência do solo à penetração. Abstract in english Quantifying the relationship between physical and mechanical soil properties can contribute to the development of pedotransfer functions that allow estimating hard-to-measure soil properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interrelations between susceptibility to compaction and load [...] support with some physical properties of soils from Southern Brazil. Penetration resistance, moisture, bulk density and compressibility of six soils were evaluated. In a model including soil moisture and bulk density as independent variables, the relation with penetration resistance values obtained in the field was high. Soils with higher initial bulk density were less susceptible to compaction and exhibited less deformation under external loads. With increasing soil penetration resistance, less deformation and greater load support were observed, which does not necessarily indicate a satisfactory soil physical quality for crop cultivation. The greater the soil deformation, the higher is the susceptibility to compaction and the lower is its load support. The compaction susceptibility and load support of a soil can be estimated, respectively, by its initial bulk density and resistance to penetration.

Luis Eduardo Akiyoshi Sanches, Suzuki; Dalvan José, Reinert; José Miguel, Reichert; Cláudia Liane Rodrigues de, Lima.

187

Efectos genéticos de la formación de calosa en ápices radicales de líneas de maíz resistentes y susceptibles a suelos ácidos / Genetic effects in callose content in root apex of inbred resistant and susceptible corn lines to acid soils  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la herencia de la producción de calosa utilizando líneas endogámicas de maíz. Seleccionando 14 líneas (7 tolerantes y 7 susceptibles a suelos ácidos) se formó un dialelo que fue probado en campo y en invernadero. Se determinó el contenido de calosa en los 91 [...] cruzamientos resultantes y los 14 progenitores. Para ello se colocaron las semillas en cámara de crecimiento en condiciones controladas. Después de 4-5 días las plántulas fueron transferidas a cubetas que contenían solución nutritiva con aireación constante. Luego de 48 horas se adicionaron 25 µM de aluminio (AlCl3) a cada una de las cubetas y se mantuvieron por 12 horas. Se cortaron tres ápices radicales de cada genotipo y se mantuvieron en etanol 96%. Para medir el contenido de calosa se utilizó Methyl blue como colorante, este forma un complejo con la calosa llamado Siruflúor-calosa, que es medido con el espectrofotómetro de fluorescencia. Se encontraron diferencias significativas para los progenitores, los cruzamientos y los progenitores Vs cruzamientos. El contenido de calosa de los progenitores varió de 0.746 a 2.035 µg PE/cm ápice de raíz. La heterosis varió desde -21.2% a 276.3%. La Habilidad Combinatoria General (HCG) y la Habilidad Combinatoria Específica (HCE) fueron altamente significativas, lo que indica que tanto los efectos genéticos aditivos y no aditivos fueron importantes en la herencia de calosa. El 46% de SC entre cruzamientos correspondió a la HCG y el 54% a la HCE. El coeficiente de correlación entre el contenido de calosa y la producción de grano del maíz en el campo fue negativo aunque no significativo (r = -0.38). Abstract in english The main objective of this work was to identify genetic parameters that are related to callose accumulation using tropical inbreeds corn. Fourteen inbreed lines selected for different levels of tolerance to acid soils were chosen and a diallel among them was generated. The seeds were grown under con [...] trolled environmental conditions in a growth chamber and transferred to a nutrient solution at pH 4.3. After 12 hours of 25 µM Al (AlCl3) treatment was applied, callose contents of 1 cm root apex were determined with fluorescence spectrophotometer. Significant differences were found for parents, crosses and parents vs crosses. Average callose content varied from 0.746 to 2.035 (µg PE/cm root apex). Heterosis varied from -21.2% to 276.3%. General combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) were highly significant indicating that both, additive and non-additive gene effects were important for callose inheritance. SCA and GCA sum of squares accounted for 54% and 46%, respectively of crosses of squares sum. Correlation coefficient between callose content and corn grain yield in the field was negative but not significant (r = -0.38).

Alba Lucía, Arcos; Luis Alberto, Narro; Fredy, Salazar; Creuci, Caetano.

188

Habitat characteristics of adult frosted elfins (Callophrys irus) in sandplain communities of southeastern Massachusetts, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes to land use and disturbance frequency threaten disturbance-dependent Lepidoptera within sandplain habitats of the northeastern United States. The frosted elfin (Callophrys irus) is a rare and declining monophagous butterfly that is found in xeric open habitats maintained by disturbance. We surveyed potential habitat for adult frosted elfins at four sites containing frosted elfin populations in southeastern Massachusetts, United States. Based on the survey data, we used kernel density estimation to establish separate adult frosted elfin density classes, and then used regression tree analysis to describe the relationship between density and habitat features. Adult frosted elfin density was greatest when the host plant, wild indigo (Baptisia tinctoria), density was >2.6 plants/m2 and tree canopy cover was <29%. Frosted elfin density was inversely related to tree cover and declined when the density of wild indigo was <2.6 plants/m2 and shrub cover was ???16%. Even small quantities of non-native shrub cover negatively affected elfin densities. This effect was more pronounced when native herbaceous cover was <36%. Our results indicate that management for frosted elfins should aim to increase both wild indigo density and native herbaceous cover and limit native tree and shrub cover in open sandplain habitats. Elimination of non-native shrub cover is also recommended because of the negative effects of even low non-native shrub cover on frosted elfin densities. The maintenance of patches of early successional sandplain habitat with the combination of low tree and shrub cover, high host plant densities, and the absence of non-native shrubs appears essential for frosted elfin persistence, but may also be beneficial for a number of other rare sandplain insects and plant species. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Albanese, G.; Vickery, P. D.; Sievert, P. R.

2007-01-01

189

Fatores relacionados à suscetibilidade da erosão em entressulcos sob condições de uso e manejo do solo / Factors influencing susceptibility to interrill soil erosion under different land use and management conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho foram avaliados fatores relacionados com a suscetibilidade a erosão em entressulcos de um Neossolo Litólico submetido a diferentes intensidades de uso e manejo do solo. O experimento foi realizado em condições de laboratório, utilizando-se amostras deformadas de solo colocadas em parc [...] elas experimentais (0,23 m2) e declividade de 0,09 m m-1. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, em que foram aplicadas chuvas simuladas com intensidade de 100 mm h-1 para os seguintes tratamentos: (I) solo cultivado com fumo sob preparo convencional (PC); (II) solo cultivado com fumo sob plantio direto (PD) e (III) solo sob mata nativa (MN). Para avaliar a suscetibilidade a erosão em entressulcos utilizaram-se índices referentes à relação energia cinética total (chuva e escoamento) sobre perda de solo, taxa média de desagregação e índice de estabilidade de agregados, cujos resultados mostraram que os fatores relacionados com a suscetibilidade a erosão em entressulcos estão associados não apenas com características e propriedades que conferem coesividade ao solo, mas, também, com condicionantes que afetam a hidráulica do escoamento e, consequentemente, a fase de transporte dos sedimentos. Abstract in english This study evaluated factors related to the suscetibility to the interrill soil erosion in an Entisol subjected to different degrees of soil use and management. The experiment was carried out under laboratory conditions using samples collected from tobacco fields and disturbed soil placed in erosion [...] pans measuring (0.23 m2) with a slope of 0.09 m m-1. The experimental design was in randomized blocks. Simulated rainfall intensity of 100 mm h-1 was applied to the following treatments: (I) conventionally tilled soil; (II) no-till soil; and (III) native forest soil. Total kinetic energy (rainfall and runoff) to soil loss, average rate of detachment, and aggregate stability indexes were used to assess susceptibility to interrill erosion. Results show that the factors related with the susceptibility to interrill erosion are associated not just to the characteristics and properties that confer cohesivity to soil, but also to those factors that affect runoff hydraulics and therefore the sediment transport phase as well.

Oliveira, Flávio P. de; Buarque, Diogo C.; Viero, Ana C.; Merten, Gustavo H.; Cassol, Elemar A.; Minella, Jean P. G..

190

Helicity Asymmetry in gamma p -> pi+ n with FROST  

CERN Document Server

The main objective of the FROST experiment at Jefferson Lab is the study of baryon resonances. The polarization observable E for the reaction gamma p to pi+n has been measured as part of this program. A circularly polarized tagged photon beam with energies from 0.35 to 2.35 GeV was incident on a longitudinally polarized frozen-spin butanol target. The final-state pions were detected with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer. Preliminary polarization data agree fairly well with present SAID and MAID partial-wave analyses at low photon energies. In most of the covered energy range, however, significant deviations are observed. These discrepancies underline the crucial importance of polarization observables to further constrain these analyses.

Strauch, Steffen

2011-01-01

191

Helicity Asymmetry in gamma p -> pi+ n with FROST  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main objective of the FROST experiment at Jefferson Lab is the study of baryon resonances. The polarization observable E for the reaction gamma p to pi+n has been measured as part of this program. A circularly polarized tagged photon beam with energies from 0.35 to 2.35 GeV was incident on a longitudinally polarized frozen-spin butanol target. The final-state pions were detected with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer. Preliminary polarization data agree fairly well with present SAID and MAID partial-wave analyses at low photon energies. In most of the covered energy range, however, significant deviations are observed. These discrepancies underline the crucial importance of polarization observables to further constrain these analyses.

Steffen Strauch

2012-04-01

192

Helicity Asymmetry in gamma p -> pi+ n with FROST  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective of the FROST experiment at Jefferson Lab is the study of baryon resonances. The polarization observable E for the reaction gamma p to pi+n has been measured as part of this program. A circularly polarized tagged photon beam with energies from 0.35 to 2.35 GeV was incident on a longitudinally polarized frozen-spin butanol target. The final-state pions were detected with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer. Preliminary polarization data agree fairly well with present SAID and MAID partial-wave analyses at low photon energies. In most of the covered energy range, however, significant deviations are observed. These discrepancies underline the crucial importance of polarization observables to further constrain these analyses.

2011-05-17

193

CFD analysis of tube-fin 'no-frost' evaporators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to assess some aspects of the design of evaporators for household refrigeration appliances using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. The evaporators under study are tube-fin 'no-frost' heat exchangers with forced convection on the air-side and a staggered tube configuration. The calculation methodology was verified against experimental data for the heat transfer rate, thermal conductance and pressure drop obtained for two evaporators with different geometries. The average errors of the heat transfer rate, thermal conductance and pressure drop were 10%, 3% and 11%, respectively. The CFD model was then used to assess the influence of geometric parameters such as the presence and position of the electrical heater coil relative to the tubes, the fin configuration and the width of the by-pass clearance between the outer edge of the fins and the tube bank for conditions typical of the design of household refrigeration appliances

Jader R Barbosa, Jr

2010-12-01

194

Mechanisms of salt frost scaling on portland cement-bound materials: studies and hypothesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A hypothesis regarding the mechanism causing salt frost scaling on Portland cement-bound materials is described. It is assumed that deterioration is due to osmotic micro ice body growth, as has been previously proposed for frost deterioration of moisture-isolated specimens of cement-bound materials. In moisture-isolated specimens, this ice body growth stops when the micro structure is drained to a certain extent. In a specimen ex-posed to salt frost attack, however, an outer liquid phase will...

Lindmark, Sture

1998-01-01

195

Winter climate controls soil carbon dynamics during summer in boreal forests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Boreal forests, characterized by distinct winter seasons, store a large proportion of the global terrestrial carbon (C) pool. We studied summer soil C-dynamics in a boreal forest in northern Sweden using a seven-year experimental manipulation of soil frost. We found that winter soil climate conditions play a major role in controlling the dissolution/mineralization of soil organic-C in the following summer season. Intensified soil frost led to significantly higher concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Intensified soil frost also led to higher rates of basal heterotrophic CO2 production in surface soil samples. However, frost-induced decline in the in situ soil CO2 concentrations in summer suggests a substantial decline in root and/or plant associated rhizosphere CO2 production, which overrides the effects of increased heterotrophic CO2 production. Thus, colder winter soils, as a result of reduced snow cover, can substantially alter C-dynamics in boreal forests by reducing summer soil CO2 efflux, and increasing DOC losses. (letter)

2013-01-01

196

Laboratory studies of the diffuse reflectance spectra of frosts and minerals occurring on astronomical objects  

Science.gov (United States)

A vacuum monochromator was integrated into the system and optics chosen to increase data collection in the infrared spectral region. Using a InSb detector, good reflectance data was obtained to 5.5 micron from a variety of samples including magnesium oxide, barium sulfate, water frost and Bloedite. Magnesium oxide was found to be a poorer reflector than the barium sulfate throughout the visible and near infrared region. The barium sulfate material was shown to be a Lambert reflector in the visible region and over an angular range of 60 deg. Several samples of water frost were prepared and in reflectance measured from 0.3 micron to 5.5 microm. The fine grained frosts were better reflectors than the coarse grained frosts, usually by 20 percent or more, over the entire spectral range. The minerals Bloedite and sulfur were also investigated further.

Glaser, F. M.

1978-01-01

197

Effects of frost on wildflowers: an unexpected consequence of climate change--image 19 of 22  

Science.gov (United States)

Example of a frost-killed ovary (on left) and a normally developing fruit (on right) of Erythonium grandiflorum, the glacier lily. The two plants were selected to show the difference, and weren't growing next to each other.

Inouye, David

2012-01-04

198

Effects of frost on wildflowers: an unexpected consequence of climate change--image 18 of 22  

Science.gov (United States)

A queen bumble bee (Bombus bifarius) foraging for nectar on a flower of Erythronium grandiflorum (glacier lily). This flower has frost-sensitive ovaries. Bumble bee queens and hummingbirds are common pollinators of Erythronium grandiflorum flowers.

Inouye, David

2012-01-04

199

Effects of frost on wildflowers: an unexpected consequence of climate change--image 16 of 22  

Science.gov (United States)

Buds of Delphinium barbeyi (tall larkspur, Ranunculaceae) killed by a late season frost. In those years, the larkspur suffers reproductive failure, affecting animal species that rely on them for food.

Inouye, David

2012-01-04

200

Effects of frost on wildflowers: an unexpected consequence of climate change--image 13 of 22  

Science.gov (United States)

Delphinium barbeyi, or tall larkspur, flowering in a year with no frost damage. Photographed (by David Inouye) in front of Gothic Mountain, at the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory. Altitude about 9,500 ft (2,900m).

Inouye, David

2012-01-04

 
 
 
 
201

Siim Nestor soovitab : Ben Frost ja Alexander Robotnik Eclectical / Siim Nestor  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Austraalia muusik ja helilooja Ben Frost projektiga "6 guitars" esinemas festivali Eclectica raames 6. sept. Tartu klubis Rock ja Roll ja itaalia diskor Alexander Robotnik 7. sept. klubis Trehv, esinejatest

Nestor, Siim, 1974-

2007-01-01

202

A Novel Approach to Study the Performance of Finned-Tube Heat Exchangers under Frosting Conditions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Frost accumulation due to moist air flowing on a refrigeration coil cold surface impacts negatively on performance. The frost layer growth has an insulating effect in terms of heat transfer and causes the increase of the air pressure drop by blocking the free flow area across the coil. In this paper a new modeling approach, accounting for heat and mass transfer as well as the hydrodynamics of the problem, is proposed. A related FORTRAN program was developed, allowing the s...

2011-01-01

203

Trends of spring time frost events and phenological dates in Central Europe  

Science.gov (United States)

Over large parts of the Northern Hemisphere's continents temperature has been increasing during the last century. Particularly minimum temperatures show a more pronounced increase than maximum temperatures. Not only the phenological seasons, but also the potentially plant damaging late frost events are governed by the atmosphere. In case of a rise of minimum temperatures one would expect phenological phases and spring late frost events to occur earlier. In this work the question is elucidated whether plant phenology shifts at a higher or lower rate towards earlier occurrences than potential plant damaging events, like spring late frost events. Frost events based on the last occurrence of daily minimum temperatures below a certain threshold have been moving faster to earlier occurrence dates than phenological phases during the last decades at 50 climate stations in Central Europe. Trend values of frost time series range around -0.2 days/year and of phenological time series are between -0.2 and 0.0 days/year over the period from 1951-1997. `Corylus avellana beginning of pollination' is the only one of the 13 phases considered here with a lower trend value of -0.28 days/year. Early phases are more adapted to below zero temperatures and therefore follow more closely the temperature variability. Later phases seem to have more reason to be concerned about possible late frost events and react more cautiously towards higher spring temperatures and earlier last frost dates. The risk of late frost damage for plants should have been lower during the last decade as compared to the previous decades.

Scheifinger, H.; Menzel, A.; Koch, E.; Peter, Ch.

204

Ensemble analysis of frost damage on vegetation caused by spring backlashes in a warmer Europe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tree dehardening and budburst will occur earlier in a warmer climate, and this could lead to an increased risk of frost damage caused by temperature backlashes. By using a spring backlash index and a cold hardiness model, we assessed different aspects of risk for frost damage in Norway spruce forests during the present climate and for one future emission scenario. Uncertainties associated with climate modelling were quantified by using temperature data from three climate dat...

Jo?nsson, A. M.; Ba?rring, L.

2011-01-01

205

Effects of frost on wildflowers: an unexpected consequence of climate change--image 07 of 22  

Science.gov (United States)

A meadow with thousands of plants of Helianthella quinquenervis (aspen sunflower, Asteraceae) at peak bloom. This species is a common long-lived perennial plant in meadows near the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory. This photo was taken during a year without frost damage. Compare the presence and density of sunflowers with the photograph of the same meadow in a year when frost damage killed all but a few flower buds.

Inouye, David

2012-01-04

206

Experimental study on frosting control of mobile air conditioning system with microchannel evaporator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, a newly developed frost control system is proposed. System bench tests and vehicle test in wind tunnel have been carried out to explore the anti-frosting performance of automotive air conditioning system with microchannel evaporator. The experimental results are compared with the baseline conventional laminated evaporator system. The test results show that the installation position of temperature sensor can dramatically affect the anti-frosting performance. The clutch switching on/off temperature range of the microchannel evaporator is also experimentally studied. The test results show that, with a proper installation position and on/off temperature range, the system COP can be improved, and meanwhile the panel vents' air off temperature can be reduced, and temperature swing can be reduced. - Highlights: ? The frost control systems were tested with microchannel and laminated evaporators separately. ? The installation position of temperature sensor affects the anti-frosting performance. ? Temperature control range affects the anti-frosting performance. ? The panel vents' air off temperature and swing can be reduced by proper control parameters. ? The system COP can be improved by proper control parameters.

2011-10-01

207

CFD analysis of tube-fin 'no-frost' evaporators  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The purpose of this paper is to assess some aspects of the design of evaporators for household refrigeration appliances using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The evaporators under study are tube-fin 'no-frost' heat exchangers with forced convection on the air-side and a staggered tube configurat [...] ion. The calculation methodology was verified against experimental data for the heat transfer rate, thermal conductance and pressure drop obtained for two evaporators with different geometries. The average errors of the heat transfer rate, thermal conductance and pressure drop were 10%, 3% and 11%, respectively. The CFD model was then used to assess the influence of geometric parameters such as the presence and position of the electrical heater coil relative to the tubes, the fin configuration and the width of the by-pass clearance between the outer edge of the fins and the tube bank for conditions typical of the design of household refrigeration appliances

Barbosa, Jr, Jader R; Hermes, Christian J. L; Melo, Cláudio.

208

Experimental Study on Frost Height of Round Plate Fin-Tube Heat Exchangers for Mobile Heat Pumps  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to provide experimental data that could be used to predict frost growth and frost performance of a round plate fin-tube heat exchanger for low temperature heat pumps used in zero emission vehicles under cold weather conditions. In this study, round plate fin-tube heat exchangers were tested with variation of the fin space, air flow rate, relative humidity, and inlet air temperature. Frost height was measured and considered with the boundary layer interruption b...

Moo-Yeon Lee; Yongchan Kim; Dong-Yeon Lee

2012-01-01

209

Genetic variability for frost resistance among Coffea accessions assessed in the field and in a cold chamber  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The genetic variability for frost resistance was evaluated in field conditions and cold chamber among Coffea accessions. Results showed that C. liberica var. dewevrei and C. racemosa, as well as hybrids obtained from these species were more resistant to frost. There was a great genetic variability for frost resistance among the evaluated sources (b² = 0,98). The correlation estimated between damages in the field and in the cold chamber was 0.933**, therefore, this methodology was efficient a...

Marcos Rafael Petek; Tumoru Sera; Marcos Zorzenon Alteia

2005-01-01

210

The effects of design and operating factors on the frost growth and thermal performance of a flat plate fin-tube heat exchanger under the frosting condition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experimental study of the effects of various factors(fin pitch, fin arrangement, air temperature, air humidity, and air velocity) on the frost growth and thermal performance of a fin-tube heat exchanger has been conducted under the frosting condition. It is found that the thermal performance of a heat exchanger is closely related to the blockage ratio of the air flow passages due to the frost growth. The maximum allowable blockage ratio is used to determine the criteria for the optimal operating conditions of a fin-tube heat exchanger. It is also shown that heat transfer rate of heat exchanger with staggered fin arrangement increases about 17% and the time required for heat transfer rate to reach a maximum value becomes longer, compared with those of an inline fin-tube heat exchanger under the frosting condition. The energy transfer resistance between the air and coolant decreases with the increase of inlet air temperature and velocity and with decreasing inlet air humidity

1999-12-01

211

The effects of design and operating factors on the frost growth and thermal performance of a flat plate fin-tube heat exchanger under the frosting condition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An experimental study of the effects of various factors(fin pitch, fin arrangement, air temperature, air humidity, and air velocity) on the frost growth and thermal performance of a fin-tube heat exchanger has been conducted under the frosting condition. It is found that the thermal performance of a heat exchanger is closely related to the blockage ratio of the air flow passages due to the frost growth. The maximum allowable blockage ratio is used to determine the criteria for the optimal operating conditions of a fin-tube heat exchanger. It is also shown that heat transfer rate of heat exchanger with staggered fin arrangement increases about 17% and the time required for heat transfer rate to reach a maximum value becomes longer, compared with those of an inline fin-tube heat exchanger under the frosting condition. The energy transfer resistance between the air and coolant decreases with the increase of inlet air temperature and velocity and with decreasing inlet air humidi0008.

Lee, Kwan Soo; Kim, Woo Seung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1999-12-01

212

The effect of surface contact angle on the behavior of frost formation in the fin-tube heat exchanger  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of surface contact angle on the behavior of frost formation in the fin-tube heat exchanger is investigated experimentally. It is shown that both heat exchangers with hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces appear to have a better thermal performance than bare aluminium heat exchanger, but the improvements are very small. There is a little increase in the amount of the frost deposited onto the heat exchanger with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface. However, the effect of contact angle on the frost density is observed : the frost with high density forms on the heat exchanger with hydrophilic surface : and the frost with low density is deposited onto the heat exchanger with hydrophobic surface when compared with the frost deposited onto the heat exchanger with bare aluminium surface. This may be attributed to the fact that the shape of water droplets which condense on the surface of heat exchanger at the early stage of frosting varies with contact angle, and thus makes a difference on the structure of frost formation. From the experiments with different relative humidity of inlet air, it is shown that the variations of operating parameter make no influence on the effect of surface contact angle on the frosting behavior in the heat exchanger. (author). 10 refs., 9 figs.

Lee, K.S. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea); Jhee, S.; Lee, D.W. [Hanyang University, Graduate School, Seoul (Korea)

1999-11-01

213

Increasing frost risk associated with advanced citrus flowering dates in Kerman and Shiraz, Iran: 1960-2010  

Science.gov (United States)

Flowering dates and the timing of late season frost are both driven by local ambient temperatures. However, under climatic warming observed over the past century, it remains uncertain how such impacts affect frost risk associated with plant phenophase shifts. Any increase in frost frequency or severity has the potential to damage flowers and their resultant yields and, in more extreme cases, the survival of the plant. An accurate assessment of the relationship between the timing of last frost events and phenological shifts associated with warmer climate is thus imperative. We investigate spring advances in citrus flowering dates (orange, tangerine, sweet lemon, sour lemon and sour orange) for Kerman and Shiraz, Iran from 1960 to 2010. These cities have experienced increases in both T max and T min, advances in peak flowering dates and changes in last frost dates over the study period. Based on daily instrumental climate records, the last frost dates for each year are compared with the peak flowering dates. For both cities, the rate of last frost advance lags behind the phenological advance, thus increasing frost risk. Increased frost risk will likely have considerable direct impacts on crop yields and on the associated capacity to adapt, given future climatic uncertainty.

Fitchett, Jennifer M.; Grab, Stefan W.; Thompson, Dave I.; Roshan, Gholamreza

2014-01-01

214

Frost-free season lengthening and its potential cause in the Tibetan Plateau from 1960 to 2010  

Science.gov (United States)

Frost-free season was an important index for extreme temperature, which was widely discussed in agriculture and applied meteorology research. The frost-free season changed, which was associated with global warming in the past few decades. In this study, the changes in three indices (the last frost day in spring, the first frost day in autumn, and the frost-free season length) of the frost-free season were investigated at 73 meteorological stations in the Tibetan Plateau from 1960 to 2010. Results showed that the last frost day in spring occurred earlier, significantly in 39 % of the 73 stations. For the regional average, the last frost day in spring occurred earlier, significantly at the rate of 1.9 days/decade during the last 50 years. The first frost day in autumn occurred later, significantly in 31 % of the stations, and the regional average rate was 1.5 days/decade from 1960 to 2010. The changing rate of the first frost day in autumn below 3,000 m was 1.8 times larger than the changing rate above 3,000 m. In addition, the first frost day in autumn above 3,000 m fluctuated dramatically before the early 1990s and then it was later sharply after the early 1990s. The frost-free season length increased significantly at almost all stations in the Tibetan Plateau from 1960 to 2010. For the regional average, the frost-free season lengthened at the rate of 3.1 days/decade. The changing rate of the frost-free season length below 3,000 m was more significant than the changing rate above 3,000 m. Eight indices of large-scale atmospheric circulation were employed to investigate the potential cause of the frost-free season length change in the Tibetan Plateau during the past 50 years. There was a significant relationship between the frost-free season length and the Northern Hemisphere Polar Vortex indices. The weakening cold atmospheric circulation might be an essential factor to the Tibetan Plateau warming since 1960.

Zhang, Dan; Xu, Wenhui; Li, Jiayun; Cai, Zhe; An, Di

2014-02-01

215

Satellite prediction of spring frost impacts on vegetation growth and productivity within the conterminous US  

Science.gov (United States)

Spring temperatures strongly influence land surface phenology, including budburst and growing season onset, flowering date, and crop planting period. Recent increases in spring temperatures coincide with earlier and longer non-frozen season trends over the conterminous US and coincide with generally earlier spring canopy onset and annual productivity increases. However, earlier spring onset increases risk of frost damage, with potential negative impacts to productivity. These effects are spatially and temporally heterogeneous, while the occurrence and regional impact of frost events are difficult to monitor from in situ station networks. To enhance regional risk assessment and monitoring capabilities we developed a satellite remote sensing based spring frost index (SFI) and spring frost damage index (SFDI) at moderate (~25-km) spatial resolution from 1980 to 2010. The indices were developed from satellite passive microwave retrievals of global daily landscape freeze-thaw (FT) status and optical-IR sensor derived vegetation start of season (SOS). The SFI is the proportion of the total number of classified frozen (AM and PM frozen) and transitional (AM thawed and PM frozen) frost days in spring (March to May), while the SFDI is the proportion of the total number of classified frozen and transitional frost days following the SOS. The SFI results are validated using surface air temperature records from regional weather stations and crop planting dates for corn and soybean. Our results show a decreasing SFI trend (-2% decade-1; pGPP and NDVI anomalies within the conterminous US. We find that respective SFI and SFDI levels below 10% and 14% have little impact on annual GPP. Reduced SFI and SFDI coincide with enhanced spring vegetation growth, but only the SFDI shows significant correlation with NDVI summer growth anomalies. The SFDI generally provides a better predictor of seasonal NDVI anomalies than the SFI, while vegetation sensitivity to the frost indices varies according to regional biome types and elevation zones. An increasing SFDI trend indicates potentially larger negative impacts on regional vegetation growth with continued warming.

Kim, Y.; Kimball, J. S.; Didan, K.

2013-12-01

216

Germination and seedling frost tolerance differ between the native and invasive range in common ragweed.  

Science.gov (United States)

Germination characteristics and frost tolerance of seedlings are crucial parameters for establishment and invasion success of plants. The characterization of differences between populations in native and invasive ranges may improve our understanding of range expansion and adaptation. Here, we investigated germination characteristics of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., a successful invader in Europe, under a temperature gradient between 5 and 25 °C. Besides rate and speed of germination we determined optimal, minimal and maximal temperature for germination of ten North American and 17 European populations that were sampled along major latitudinal and longitudinal gradients. We furthermore investigated the frost tolerance of seedlings. Germination rate was highest at 15 °C and germination speed was highest at 25 °C. Germination rate, germination speed, frost tolerance of seedlings, and the temperature niche width for germination were significantly higher and broader, respectively, for European populations. This was partly due to a higher seed mass of these populations. Germination traits lacked evidence for adaptation to climatic variables at the point of origin for both provenances. Instead, in the native range, seedling frost tolerance was positively correlated with the risk of frosts which supports the assumption of local adaptation. The increased frost tolerance of European populations may allow germination earlier in the year which may subsequently lead to higher biomass allocation--due to a longer growing period--and result in higher pollen and seed production. The increase in germination rates, germination speed and seedling frost tolerance might result in a higher fitness of the European populations which may facilitate further successful invasion and enhance the existing public health problems associated with this species. PMID:24197990

Leiblein-Wild, Marion Carmen; Kaviani, Rana; Tackenberg, Oliver

2014-03-01

217

A Novel Approach to Study the Performance of Finned-Tube Heat Exchangers under Frosting Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Frost accumulation due to moist air flowing on a refrigeration coil cold surface impacts negatively on performance. The frost layer growth has an insulating effect in terms of heat transfer and causes the increase of the air pressure drop by blocking the free flow area across the coil. In this paper a new modeling approach, accounting for heat and mass transfer as well as the hydrodynamics of the problem, is proposed. A related FORTRAN program was developed, allowing the study of a large range of complex refrigerant circuit configurations. This model predicts the dynamic behavior of a refrigeration coil under dry and frosting conditions. Comparisons were made based on the frost mass accumulation and pressure drop across the coil and the results were found to agree reasonably well with experimental results reported in the literature. The model was then applied to study an evaporator typically employed in supermarkets. In terms of refrigerant temperature glide, it was shown that the glide decrease with time because of the decrease of the refrigeration capacity of the coil during the frosting. Further, the air pressure drop is strongly affected by the variation of the free flow area.

A.L. Bendaoud

2011-01-01

218

Numerical analysis on the frosting performance of a fin-tube evaporator for a refrigerator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study is to provide numerical and experimental data that can be used to investigate the performance characteristics of a flat plate fin-tube evaporator in household and commercial refrigerators under frosting conditions. Computer simulations with variations of operating conditions such as air inlet temperature, relative humidity, and geometries were performed to find out optimal design parameters of a fin-tube evaporator for household and commercial refrigerators. The tube-by-tube method was used in the simulation and the frost growth model was considered under frosting conditions. The developed analytical model predicted the decreasing rates of heat transfer capacity and air flow rate ratio within ± 10% compared to the experimental results for a refrigerator under real operating conditions. As a result, the frost thickness at 3 .deg. C and 80% is increased 40% than that of -3 .deg. C and 80%, and the frost thickness at 3 .deg. C and 90% is increased 30% than that of 3 .deg. C and 60%. Accordingly, the operating time of the evaporator in the refrigerator was reduced with the increase of the decreasing rate of air flow rate ratio at each condition

2008-04-01

219

Frost flower aerosol effects on Arctic wintertime longwave cloud radiative forcing  

Science.gov (United States)

flowers are clusters of highly saline ice crystals growing on newly formed sea ice or frozen lakes. Based on observations of particles derived from frost flowers in the Arctic, we formulate an observation-based parameterization of salt aerosol source function from frost flowers. The particle flux from frost flowers in winter has the order of 106 m-2 s-1 at the wind speed of 10 m s-1, but the source flux is highly localized to new sea ice regions and strongly dependent on wind speed. We have implemented this parameterization into the regional Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry initialized for two wintertime scenarios. The addition of sea salt aerosol emissions from frost flowers increases averaged sea salt aerosol mass and number concentration and subsequent cloud droplet number. This change of cloud droplet number concentration increases downward longwave cloud radiative forcing through enhanced cloud optical depth and emissivity. The magnitude of this forcing of sea salt aerosols from frost flowers on clouds and radiation, however, contributes negligibly to surface warming in Barrow, Alaska, in the wintertime scenarios studied here.

Xu, Li; Russell, Lynn M.; Somerville, Richard C. J.; Quinn, Patricia K.

2013-12-01

220

Short communication. Harvest time in hedgerow Arbequina olive orchards in areas with early frosts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The shortening of harvest time attained in hedgerow olive (Olea europaea L.) orchards represents an advantage for the adoption of this cropping system in areas that are prone to suffer frost during the harvest period. To establish an optimal harvesting window, we carried out a study of the fruit ripening process on a hedgerow orchard of Arbequina olive trees, located in Zaragoza (Spain). From 2007 to 2009, oil accumulation on the fruit (% of dry weight) and oil yield (grams of oil per 100 fruits) were monitored, from early September to late November. Over the three years both variables peaked around November 15th, indicating that Arbequina reached full ripening earlier than has been reported previously for this variety. In two of the three seasons the orchard suffered several frosts during November. Long term climatic data from this area indicated that the risk of early frosts (< -2 degree centigrade) increases as November progresses with a high risk after November 20{sup t}h. In conclusion, the optimal harvesting period for Arbequina in this area should not extend beyond November 20{sup t}h. A rapid harvesting before this date is advisable to avoid the risk of damage caused by early frost in Zaragoza. Hedgerow planting provides an additional advantage in frost-prone areas, because mechanization of operations permits a short harvest period, easier to fit into the optimal harvesting window. (Author) 20 refs.

Gracia, P.; Sanchez-Gimeno, A. C.; Benito, M.; Oria, R.; Lasa, J. M.

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
221

Structural Analysis of the Redesigned Ice/Frost Ramp Bracket  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the interim structural analysis of a redesigned Ice/Frost Ramp bracket for the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET). The proposed redesigned bracket consists of mounts for attachment to the ET wall, supports for the electronic/instrument cables and propellant repressurization lines that run along the ET, an upper plate, a lower plate, and complex bolted connections. The eight nominal bolted connections are considered critical in the summarized structural analysis. Each bolted connection contains a bolt, a nut, four washers, and a non-metallic spacer and block that are designed for thermal insulation. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model of the bracket is developed using solid 10-node tetrahedral elements. The loading provided by the ET Project is used in the analysis. Because of the complexities associated with accurately modeling the bolted connections in the bracket, the analysis is performed using a global/local analysis procedure. The finite element analysis of the bracket identifies one of the eight bolted connections as having high stress concentrations. A local area of the bracket surrounding this bolted connection is extracted from the global model and used as a local model. Within the local model, the various components of the bolted connection are refined, and contact is introduced along the appropriate interfaces determined by the analysts. The deformations from the global model are applied as boundary conditions to the local model. The results from the global/local analysis show that while the stresses in the bolts are well within yield, the spacers fail due to compression. The primary objective of the interim structural analysis is to show concept viability for static thermal testing. The proposed design concept would undergo continued design optimization to address the identified analytical assumptions and concept shortcomings, assuming successful thermal testing.

Phillips, D. R.; Dawicke, D. S.; Gentz, S. J.; Roberts, P. W.; Raju, I. S.

2007-01-01

222

The barley Frost resistance-H2 locus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Frost resistance-H2 (Fr-H2) is a major QTL affecting freezing tolerance in barley, yet its molecular basis is still not clearly understood. To gain a better insight into the structural characterization of the locus, a high-resolution linkage map developed from the Nure × Tremois cross was initially implemented to map 13 loci which divided the 0.602 cM total genetic distance into ten recombination segments. A PCR-based screening was then applied to identify positive bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from two genomic libraries of the reference genotype Morex. Twenty-six overlapping BACs from the integrated physical-genetic map were 454 sequenced. Reads assembled in contigs were subsequently ordered, aligned and manually curated in 42 scaffolds. In a total of 1.47 Mbp, 58 protein-coding sequences were identified, 33 of which classified according to similarity with sequences in public databases. As three complete barley C-repeat Binding Factors (HvCBF) genes were newly identified, the locus contained13 full-length HvCBFs, four Related to AP2 Triticeae (RAPT) genes, and at least five CBF pseudogenes. The final overall assembly of Fr-H2 includes more than 90 % of target region: all genes were identified along the locus, and a general survey of Repetitive Elements obtained. We believe that this gold-standard sequence for the Morex Fr-H2 will be a useful genomic tool for structural and evolutionary comparisons with Fr-H2 in winter-hardy cultivars along with Fr-2 of other Triticeae crops. PMID:24442711

Pasquariello, Marianna; Barabaschi, Delfina; Himmelbach, Axel; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Ariyadasa, Ruvini; Stein, Nils; Gandolfi, Francesco; Tenedini, Elena; Bernardis, Isabella; Tagliafico, Enrico; Pecchioni, Nicola; Francia, Enrico

2014-03-01

223

Genetic susceptibility.  

Science.gov (United States)

Why only 20% of smokers develop clinically relevant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was a puzzle for many years. Now, epidemiologic studies point clearly toward a large heritable component. The combination of genome-wide association studies and candidate gene analysis is helping to identify those genetic variants responsible for an individual's susceptibility to developing COPD. In this review, the current data implicating specific loci and genes in the pathogenesis of COPD are examined. PMID:24507835

Marciniak, Stefan J; Lomas, David A

2014-03-01

224

Magnetic susceptibility in the prediction of soil attributes in two sugarcane harvesting management systems / Suscetibilidade magnética na predição de atributos do solo em dois sistemas de manejo na colheita de cana de açúcar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve como objetivo investigar o potencial de uso da suscetibilidade magnética (SM) como componente da função de pedotransferência para predição de atributos do solo, sob dois sistemas de manejo na colheita de cana-de-açúcar. Para cada uma das duas áreas de 1 ha (uma com colheita [...] mecanizada de cana crua e outra com colheita manual de cana queimada), foram coletadas 126 amostras de solo que foram submetidas às análises de laboratório, para determinação dos atributos físicos, químicos e mineralógicos do solo e para medição da SM. Os dados foram submetidos à estatística descritiva, calculando-se a média e o coeficiente de variação. Para comparar as médias nos diferentes sistemas de manejo, foi realizado o teste de Tukey, ao nível de significância de 5%. Foram realizados o teste de correlação simples para averiguar a correlação da SM com outros atributos do solo e a regressão múltipla linear a fim de avaliar o quanto a SM contribui para a predição de atributos complexos do solo. Os resultados demonstram que a SM apresentou, em ambos os sistemas de manejo de colheita da cana-de-açúcar, correlação estatística com atributos químicos, físicos e mineralógicos do solo e apresentou potencial para ser utilizada como componente da função de pedotransferência para predição de atributos do Latossolo estudado. Abstract in english This study aimed to investigate the potential use of magnetic susceptibility (MS) as pedotransfer function to predict soil attributes under two sugarcane harvesting management systems. For each area of 1 ha (one with green sugarcane mechanized harvesting and other one with burnt sugarcane manual har [...] vesting), 126 soil samples were collected and subjected to laboratory analysis to determine soil physical, chemical and mineralogical attributes and for measuring of MS. Data were submitted to descriptive statistics by calculating the mean and coefficient of variation. In order to compare the means in the different harvesting management systems it was carried out the Tukey test at a significance level of 5%. In order to investigate the correlation of the MS with other soil properties it was made the correlation test and aiming to assess how the MS contributes to the prediction of soil complex attributes it was made the multiple linear regressions. The results demonstrate that MS showed, in both sugarcane harvesting management systems, statistical correlation with chemical, physical and mineralogical soil attributes and it also showed potential to be used as pedotransfer function to predict attributes of the studied oxisol.

Rafael G., Peluco; José, Marques Júnior; Diego S., Siqueira; Lucas A., Cortez; Gener T., Pereira.

225

Void structure of concrete with superabsorbent polymers and its relation to frost resistance of concrete  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) can be used to control air void formation in concrete. However, due to surfactant left on suspension polymerized SAP particles during production, they may not only create SAP voids but also entrain extra air. In the present investigation, a method is tested to remove surfactant prior to concrete mixing. The method comprises rinsing of the SAP with ethanol. This effectively removes the surfactant. Freeze-thaw testing of concrete with rinsed and non-rinsed SAP shows that for equal dosages of SAP, the extra air entrained due to surfactant is considerable and can make the difference between poor and satisfactory frost-resistance. Furthermore, the results indicate that voids created directly by SAP protect concrete against frost deterioration just like other air voids; if the concrete contains enough SAP voids, these alone can provide sufficient frost resistance. © 2013 RILEM.

Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

2013-01-01

226

Effect of sodium monofluorophosphate treatment on microstructure and frost salt scaling durability of slag cement paste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sodium-monofluorophosphate (Na-MFP) is currently in use as a surface applied corrosion inhibitor in the concrete industry. Its basic mechanism is to protect the passive layer of the reinforcement steel against disruption due to carbonation. Carbonation is known as the most detrimental environmental effect on blast furnace slag cement (BFSC) concrete with respect to frost salt scaling. In this paper the effect of Na-MFP on the microstructure and frost salt scaling resistance of carbonated BFSC paste is presented. The results of electron microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are discussed. It is found that the treatment modifies the microstructure and improves the resistance of carbonated BFSC paste against frost salt attack

2006-08-01

227

Five second helium neutral beam injection using argon-frost cryopumping techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High power helium neutral beams for the heating of tokamak discharges can now be provided for 5 s by using argon cryopumping (of the helium gas) in the beamlines. A system has now been installed to deposit a layer of argon frost on the DIII-D neutral beam cryopanels, between tokamak injection pulses. The layer serves to trap helium on the cryopanels providing sufficient pumping speed for 5 s helium beam extraction. The argon frosting hardware is now present on two of four DIII-D neutral beamlines, allowing injection of up to 6 MW of helium neutral beams per discharge, with pulse lengths of up to 5 s. The argon frosting system is described, along with experimental results demonstrating its effectiveness as a method of economically extending the capabilities of cryogenic pumping panels to allow multi-second helium neutral beam injection

1995-10-01

228

Environmental controls of frost cracking revealed through in situ acoustic emission measurements in steep bedrock  

Science.gov (United States)

Frost cracking, the breakdown of rock by freezing, is one of the most important mechanical weathering processes acting on Earth's surface. Insights on the mechanisms driving frost cracking stem mainly from laboratory and theoretical studies. Transferring insights from such studies to natural conditions, involving jointed bedrock and heterogeneous thermal and hydrological properties, is a major challenge. We address this problem with simultaneous in situ measurements of acoustic emissions, used as proxy of rock damage, and rock temperature/moisture content. The 1 year data set acquired in an Alpine rock wall shows that (1) liquid water content has an important impact on freezing-induced rock damage, (2) sustained freezing can yield much stronger damage than repeated freeze-thaw cycling, and (3) that frost cracking occurs over the full range of temperatures measured extending from 0 down to -15°C. These new measurements yield a slightly different picture than previous field studies where ice segregation appears to play an important role.

Girard, Lucas; Gruber, Stephan; Weber, Samuel; Beutel, Jan

2013-05-01

229

Frost Growth CFD Model of an Integrated Active Desiccant Rooftop Unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A frost growth model is incorporated into a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of a heat pump by means of a user-defined function in FLUENT, a commercial CFD code. The transient model is applied to the outdoor section of an Integrated Active Desiccant Rooftop (IADR) unit in heating mode. IADR is a hybrid vapor compression and active desiccant unit capable of handling 100% outdoor air (dedicated outdoor air system) or as a total conditioning system, handling both outdoor air and space cooling or heating loads. The predicted increase in flow resistance and loss in heat transfer capacity due to frost build-up are compared to experimental pressure drop readings and thermal imaging. The purpose of this work is to develop a CFD model that is capable of predicting frost growth, an invaluable tool in evaluating the effectiveness of defrost-on-demand cycles.

Geoghegan, Patrick J [ORNL; Petrov, Andrei Y [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL; Zaltash, Abdolreza [ORNL; Linkous, Randall Lee [ORNL

2008-01-01

230

Delineation of frost characteristics on cold walls by using a new formula for psychrometrics demarcation boundary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, a direct formula that predicts either the frost formation on cold walls is correspondence to psychrometric-subsaturated or supersaturated regions is presented. The developed formula uses the data of the entering air dry-bulb temperature and absolute humidity, and the absolute humidity of the air at saturation corresponding to the coil surface temperature. Cases studies of demarcation criteria for frost formation on evaporator coil using experimental measured data, and on walls of cold storage freezer using measured data from literature are used to validate the formula and it is found that results are completely matches to the graphic plot of the data on the psychrometric chart. In case of cold storage freezers, the result clearly shows that a greater demarcation criteria value indicates frost formation under sever condition that is characterized as snow-like with low density and thermal conductivity.

2009-06-01

231

Heat transfer and frost growth on a wind convector based on a row of vertical cylindrical tubes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A wind convector is an alternative outdoor heat exchanger for air-source heat pumps which allows transfer of heat from the outdoor environment to an antifreeze solution without the use of a fan to move the outdoor air across the heat exchange surfaces. A study was carried out to experimentally investigate the effects of weather conditions on the overall heat transfer coefficient for and frost growth on a wind convector based on a row of vertical cylindrical tubes placed outdoor, and to mathematically model the frost growth and heat transfer through the frost layer. An automatic microcomputer-monitored outdoor test facility capable of continuous measurement of overall wind convector heat transfer coefficient to within an uncertainty of {plus minus}3% was built and tested. Weather conditions measured include air temperature and humidity, wind speed and direction, solar radiation and rainfall. Frost depth is measured by a computer vision system and frost mass with a weighing cell. Mathematical models of the diffusion dominated and meltback regimes of frost growth were developed and compared to experimental heat transfer, frost mass and depth results for a frosting single cylinder in a steady wind tunnel environment, and the outdoor unsteady environment tube row. Compared to the experimental results the model underpredicts steady environment results by 13% (Reynold's number 2720) to 28% (Reynold's number 10,630) and calculates outdoor tube row results to within {plus minus}25%. 132 refs., 73 figs., 9 tabs.

Monaghan, P.F.

1988-12-01

232

Influence of low temperature and frost duration on Phytophthora alni subsp. alni viability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Limits on the survival of P. alni subsp. alni (PAA) due to low temperature can be expected based on previously published laboratory and field studies. This study presents a laboratory experiment to test the influence of low temperature and frost duration on PAA viability. Ten PAA isolates were incubated at different temperatures (-0.1, -2.5, -5.0, -7.5, and -10.0 degree centigrade) and frost durations (0 - 7, 14, 21, and 28 days). A regression analysis confirmed the significant influence of both factors (low temperature and frost duration, and their interaction) on the survival of the pathogen under laboratory conditions. The survival and failure time analysis showed that the survival of the pathogen differs significantly after mild frost (all the isolates tested survived temperatures between -0.1 and -5.0 degree centigrade during the entire testing period) and heavy frost (the pathogen died after 21 days of incubation at -7.5 degree centigrade and after 2 days at -10.0 degree centigrade). Moreover, the viability of the pathogen decreased significantly if the temperature of -5.0 degree centigrade was maintained for at least 1 week and the temperature of -7.5 degree centigrade persisted in laboratory conditions for at least 4 days. The results of the study proved the pathogen to be very sensitive to heavy frost. The low-temperature limits for PAA occur regularly in Central Europe in January. It is probable that these temperatures can reduce PAA populations in diseased black alder stems. The climate change characterised by increases in the lowest minimum winter temperatures in Central Europe (as hypothesised by IPCC) may pose a significant risk for affected alder population in the area. (Author) 21 refs.

Cerny, K.; Filipova, N.; Strnadova, V.

2012-11-01

233

Fin spacing optimization of a fin-tube heat exchanger under frosting conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Optimal values of the design parameters for a fin-tube heat exchanger of a household refrigerator under frosting conditions are proposed to improve its thermal performance and extend its operating time. In the optimization procedure, fin spacings of the heat exchanger are selected as the design parameters, and the average heat transfer rate, frost mass, and operating time are considered to be objective functions. The response surface and Taguchi methods are employed to optimize the design parameters. As a result, the average heat transfer rate and operating time of the optimum models increases by up to 6.3% and 12.9% compared to that of the reference model, respectively. (author)

Yang, Dong-Keun; Lee, Kwan-Soo; Song, Simon [School of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Sungdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-15

234

A Novel Approach to Study the Performance of Finned-Tube Heat Exchangers under Frosting Conditions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Frost accumulation due to moist air flowing on a refrigeration coil cold surface impacts negatively on performance. The frost layer growth has an insulating effect in terms of heat transfer and causes the increase of the air pressure drop by blocking the free flow area across the coil. In this paper a new modeling approach, accounting for heat and mass transfer as well as the hydrodynamics of the problem, is proposed. A related FORTRAN program was developed, allowing the study of a large rang...

2011-01-01

235

David Sanders. A Divided Poet: Robert Frost, North of Boston, and the Drama of Disappearance.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available David Sanders in his monograph entitled A Divided Poet: Robert Frost, North of Boston, and the Drama of Disappearance (2011 sheds light on the dilemmas, doubts and personal conflicts Frost confronted while composing his poetic collection North of Boston in which some of his most well-known lyrics, such as “Mending Wall,” “After Apple-Picking,” and “The Wood-Pile,” are contained. This book should be considered alongside a number of other publications either in monograph or essay form that app...

Tatiani G. Rapatzikou

2012-03-01

236

The potential importance of frost flowers, recycling on snow, and open leads for Ozone Depletion Events  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present model studies with the one-dimensional model MISTRA to investigate the potential role of frost flowers, recycling on snow, and open leads in the depletion of tropospheric ozone in the Arctic spring. In our model, we assumed frost flower aerosols to be the major source of bromine. We show that a major ozone depletion event can be satisfactorily reproduced only if the recycling on snow of deposited bromine into gas phase bromine is assumed. In the model, this cycling is more efficien...

Piot, M.; Von Glasow, R.

2007-01-01

237

The potential importance of frost flowers, recycling on snow, and open leads for ozone depletion events  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present model studies with the one-dimensional model MISTRA to investigate the potential role of frost flowers, recycling on snow, and open leads in the depletion of tropospheric ozone in the Arctic spring. In our model, we assumed frost flower aerosols to be the major source of bromine. We show that a major ozone depletion event can be satisfactorily reproduced only if the recycling on snow of deposited bromine into gas phase bromine is assumed. In the model, this cycling is more efficien...

Piot, M.; Von Glasow, R.

2008-01-01

238

Evaluations on power ramp data of PWR fuels by FROST and THERMOST codes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An evaluation is presented of power ramp data of Mitsubishi's PWR fuel rods tested in R-2, Studsvik, which was analysed by FROST and THERMOST codes. The analyses give good predictions for measured diameter changes and on-power rod elongations. The work indicates that FROST is capable of analysing both radial and axial pellet-cladding mechanism interaction (PCMI) appropriately, and that predicted states of PCMI (i.e. stress and strain which cannot be measured directly) are considered to be reliable. The ramp data used in the present analyses were obtained in two joint programmes with five Japanese PWR utilities (KEPCO, KYEPCO, SEPCO, HEPCO, and JAPCO). (UK)

1987-01-01

239

Near infrared reflectance spectra and analysis of H2S frost as a function of temperature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reflection spectra of H2S frost in the near infrared region (1.6--4 ?m), as a function of temperature to 62 degreeK, were measured. Analyses of these spectra were made, and assignments for the most intense combinations attempted. Dramatic changes in spectra are observed from 62--143 degreeK, connected with a phase transition between a tetragonal, low-temperature phase and a cubic, high-temperature phase, occurring at 125 +- 5 degreeK. The data present evidence for only two phases being involved for H2S frost

1977-07-15

240

Radiative cooling and frost formation on surfaces with different thermal emittance: theoretical analysis and practical experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiative cooling power was computed as a function of the emittance c, of an exposed surface, air temperature, humidity, etc. from the LOWTRAN 5 code. Meteorological data were then used to make semiquantitative estimates on how often frost will form on a surface with given epsilon(s). Practical tests, using SnO(2)-covered glass with epsilon(s) approximately 0.2, demonstrated that a low-emittance coating can prevent frost formation and maintain transparency of a window exposed to the clear sky. PMID:20489833

Hamberg, I; Svensson, J S; Eriksson, T S; Granqvist, C G; Arrenius, P; Norin, F

1987-06-01

 
 
 
 
241

Susceptibility of the eggs of the field slug Deroceras reticulatum to contact with pesticides and substances of biological origin on artificial soil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The toxicity of 14 substances, including a number of pesticides, to the eggs of the pest slug Deroceras reticulatum was determined in laboratory experiments. Eggs were kept in contact with a precisely defined artificial soil to which a range of concentrations of the test substances had been applied. Mortality of the eggs was assessed every 24 h and the median lethal doses (LD50) were determined. The herbicides bromoxynil, ioxynil and pyridate + bromoxynil, the insecticides thiocyclam, diflube...

2002-01-01

242

Heat transfer and pressure drop amidst frost layer presence for the full geometry of fin-tube heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study numerically solves the flow and thermal fields in the full geometry of heat exchanger modeling with frost layer presence on the heat exchanger surface. The effects of air inlet velocity, air inlet temperature, frost layer thickness, fin pitch, fin thickness, and heat exchanger shape on the thermo-hydraulic performance of a fin-tube heat exchanger are investigated. Heat transfer rate rises with increasing air inlet velocity and temperature, and decreasing frost layer thickness and fin pitch. Pressure drop rises with increasing air inlet velocity and frost layer thickness, and decreasing fin pitch. The effect of fin thickness on heat transfer and pressure drop is negligible. Based on the present results, we derived the correlations, which express pressure drop and temperature difference between air inlet and outlet as a function of air inlet velocity and temperature, as well as frost layer thickness

2010-04-01

243

The Effects of Operating Factors on the Performance of Fin-Tube Heat Exchanger under Frosting Conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, the experiment with a 2-column, 2-row finned-tube heat exchanger under forced convection and frosting condition is performed. The influence of each operating condition(air temperature air humidity, air velocity, coolant temperature) on the growth of frost layer, air-side pressure drop, and characteristics of heat transfer is investigated. The experimental results show that the frost thickness increase rapidly at the early stage of frost formation and then increases linearly. The frost thickness increases with the increase in the inlet air velocity and with the decrease inlet air temperature and coolant temperature. It is also found that the total energy transfer rate increases with the increase in inlet air temperature and velocity and with the decrease in inlet air humidity and coolant temperature. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

Lee, Tae Hee; Lee, Kwan Soo; Ahn, Kang Ho [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee Nam Gyo [LG Electronics Co., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

1996-09-15

244

A Numerical Study on the Performance of the Fin-Tube Heat Exchanger Operated under the Frosting Condition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study is concerned with the numerical analysis on the performance of the finned-tube heat exchanger under the frosting conditions. A tube-by-tube method using LMED is employed in the analysis, and the present results are compared with O`Neal`s experimental and numerical results. The performance analysis has been done using a standard model with a 2-row;2-column heat exchanger. The effects of various parameters such as fin pitch, air flow velocity, and humidity, are examined. As the inlet air humidity becomes higher, the frost thickness and the amount of frost increase. It is also found that the amount of frost and heat transfer rate increase with increasing air velocity, but frost thickness is nearly constant over a certain velocity range. (author). 12 refs., 2 tabs., 17 figs.

Lee, Kwan Soo; Pak, Hi Yong [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Wook Yong [LG Electronics Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Tae Hee [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1996-09-15

245

Heat transfer and pressure drop amidst frost layer presence for the full geometry of fin-tube heat exchanger  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present study numerically solves the flow and thermal fields in the full geometry of heat exchanger modeling with frost layer presence on the heat exchanger surface. The effects of air inlet velocity, air inlet temperature, frost layer thickness, fin pitch, fin thickness, and heat exchanger shape on the thermo-hydraulic performance of a fin-tube heat exchanger are investigated. Heat transfer rate rises with increasing air inlet velocity and temperature, and decreasing frost layer thickness and fin pitch. Pressure drop rises with increasing air inlet velocity and frost layer thickness, and decreasing fin pitch. The effect of fin thickness on heat transfer and pressure drop is negligible. Based on the present results, we derived the correlations, which express pressure drop and temperature difference between air inlet and outlet as a function of air inlet velocity and temperature, as well as frost layer thickness

Kim, Sung Jool; Choi, Ho Jin; Ha, Man Yeong [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seok Ro; Bang, Seon Wook [Home Appliance Company, LG Electronics, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

2010-04-15

246

Carbon-Dioxide Frost Settling from Seasonal Outbursts on Mars (Movie)  

Science.gov (United States)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Frame #1 FRT00004959, Ls 195 Frame #2 FRT000049C2, Ls 196 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Frame #3 FRT00004B45, Ls 199 Frame #4 FRT000059E2, Ls 226 Mars' seasonal caps consist of frozen carbon dioxide mixed with smaller amounts of water ice frost and dust. The different composition of Mars' seasonal caps than Earth's seasonal caps (water-ice snow), plus the lower pressure of the Martian atmosphere, inevitably make springtime recession of the seasonal cap different than the snowmelt that characterizes retreat of Earth's seasonal cap. To monitor Mars' seasonal changes, CRISM repeatedly targets specific regions as Mars' seasons change. Results shown here are evidence that as warming carbon-dioxide ice vaporizes, some is trapped under the ice slab from which pressurized outbursts occur. The released gas expands, cools, and some of it refreezes and falls back to the surface as bright fans. The region shown in this movie, known informally as Manhattan, is located at 86.3 degrees south latitude, 99 degrees east longitude. To represent the content of the spectral images, two versions of the data are shown side-by-side. The left image was constructed from extended visible wavelengths, to look similar to color images from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera. The right image is infrared false-color, with red being the reflectance at 1.30 micrometers, green being depth of the water ice absorption centered at 1.5 micrometers, and blue being depth of the carbon dioxide ice absorption centered at 1.435 micrometers. In this color scheme, surfaces with higher water ice content will appear greenish, while bright carbon dioxide ice will appear magenta. Areas covered by dust will appear dark. In both images, north is to the right. The four time steps in the movie were taken at solar longitudes (Ls) ranging from 195 through 226. (Solar longitude is a measure of seasons, where 180 is southern spring equinox and 270 is southern summer solstice.) The first frame (image FRT00004959, Ls 195) shows a number of spots and dark fan-shaped features, with a higher concentration of spots on a slope in the middle of the scene. The dark fans show multiple directions, generally indicating wind coming out of the east. The second frame (image FRT000049C2, Ls 196) was taken just a few days after the prior one and starts to show color variations in the fans. The third frame (image FRT00004B45, Ls 199) records appearance of bright (bluish) fans in addition to the dark fans. The bright fans are slightly more bluish in the false-color image at right, indicating enrichment in carbon dioxide ice. The tails of the dark fans are more greenish, indicated a slight enhancement of water ice. The fourth and final frame (image FRT000059E2, Ls 226) shows distinct bright fans that appear magenta in the false-color image, indicating carbon dioxide ice with little evidence of water ice. However the surrounding surface is greenish, suggesting small amounts of water ice contamination. The tails of the dark fans appear to be more greenish in the infrared than the surrounding ice, suggesting a slight enhancement of the water ice contamination. The difference between the directions of dark and bright fans suggests changes in the wind direction, perhaps as part of a diurnal cycle or pattern. CRISM science team members working with these data believe that they are seeing evidence for a process first proposed based on data from the Thermal Imaging System (THEMIS) instrument on Mars Odyssey. In this hypothesis, sunlight penetrating the ice warms the underling soil and causes carbon dioxide frost to vaporize at its base. At first the gas is trapped under the frost; when it is released, the e

2007-01-01

247

Frost weathering: Climate control of regolith production and critical zone evolution  

Science.gov (United States)

Rock generally displays greater fracture density and reduced strength near the surface than at depth. Relatively few processes can explain this profile of mechanical damage seen in rock. Motivated by weathered rock profiles measured in Gordon Gulch in the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory (Colorado Front Range, USA), we focus on frost cracking as an important weathering process. We use our measurements to guide a model of frost cracking. Although the modern mean annual ground temperature is ~4°C, it was subzero during Pleistocene glacial times. Frost cracking is therefore a plausible mechanism of rock damage. Rock on north-facing slopes in this high elevation catchment (~2600 m a.s.l.) is more deeply weathered and displays lower tensile strength than rock on south-facing slopes. We present detailed subsurface temperature profile records at sites on both slopes, reaching depths up to 1.5 m, and therefore crossing the mobile regolith - saprolite interface. We augment existing frost cracking models by incorporating daily thermal cycles, snow cover, latent heat, variation in material properties with depth, and limitations imposed by long transport distances for water to the freezing front. The north- and south-facing hillslope asymmetries in critical zone architecture can be explained with differences in mean annual surface temperatures, although moisture differences may also play a role. A temperature-controlled model of rock weathering enables consideration of the effect of climate change on weathered profile development.

Anderson, S. P.; Anderson, R. S.; Kelly, P. J.; Tucker, G. E.; Wickert, A.

2012-04-01

248

Frost Resistance of Cover and Liner Materials for Landfills and Hazardous Waste Sites.  

Science.gov (United States)

The common method of preventing the contamination of groundwater by landfills and hazardous waste is to encapsulate the waste material in a compacted clay liner and cover system. The frost resistance of compacted clay in landfills has been the subject of ...

E. J. Chamberlain A. E. Erickson C. H. Benson

1997-01-01

249

A nano-frost array technique to prepare nanoporous PVDF membranes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Frost, the solid deposition of water vapor from humid air, forms on the surface of a solid substrate when its temperature drops below the freezing point of water. In this study, we demonstrate how this natural phenomenon can be applied to develop novel nanoporous materials. The solvent annealing of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) infiltrated into nanopores induced template-directed dewetting thus preparing nanoembossing films. Then, water nanodroplets formed on the cold polymer nanopatterned surfaces following the embossing patterns, similar to dew formation on the ground. Subsequently, the nanodroplets were frozen and then removed by freeze-drying. This nano-frost array technique produced nanoporous PVDF membranes with an average thickness of 250 (±48) nm. It was revealed that the nanopatterned surface formed by solvent annealing played an important role in achieving a nano-frost array with an adjustable size. Additionally, the freezing process led to significant changes of the PVDF crystallinity and polymorphism. Our results prove that the nano-frost array technique can be broadly used to design ordered nanoporous structures and provide new prospects in nanomaterial fields. PMID:24865989

Lee, Min Kyung; Lee, Jonghwi

2014-07-10

250

Spatial interpolation-based mapping of the spring frost hazard in the Champagne vineyards  

Science.gov (United States)

The Champagne vineyards, famous worldwide, are located at the northern limit of viticulture. Consequently, they are very sensitive to spring frosts that can occur after bud burst. These spring frosts occur mainly in radiative atmospheric situations (low speed wind, clear sky) where spatial variations in minimum temperatures are very important. The latter depend on several factors at different scales: from the macroclimatic scale, where the geographical location (latitude/longitude) has a strong influence, to the topoclimatic scale, where environmental and topographical factors play an important role. After a brief recall of the definition of these different factors extracted from a Digital Elevation Model and a land-use database, we propose a spatial interpolation of minimum temperatures in the Champagne vineyards based on multiple regression. From this interpolation, we can map the frost hazard for the whole vineyard from data measured over five spring seasons (1998 2003) and for about 20 weather stations. In this paper, we present this mapping technique and compare it with the data for spring 2003 when particularly strong frosts occurred.

Madelin, M.; Beltrando, G.

2005-03-01

251

Deformation and frost-resistant characteristics of desulfurization products. Afsvovlingsprodukters deformations- og frostegenskaber  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By-products from the desulfurization (using spray drying absorption) of emission from an American power station have been utilized in the production of synthetic gravel consisting of water and the aforementioned by-products merely. Tests showed that the elasticity of the gravel did not exceed 120 NM/mp2. The syntehtic gravel proved to be insensitive to frost. (AB).

Foged, N.; Joens, E. (eds.)

1989-02-15

252

Effects of frost on wildflowers: an unexpected consequence of climate change--Image 05 of 22  

Science.gov (United States)

A flowering plant of Helianthella quinquenervis (aspen sunflower, Asteraceae) at the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory. This species has flower buds that are frost-sensitive. The plants have a mutualism with ants, which are attracted by extrafloral nectar secreted by the bracts that cover flower buds.

Inouye, David

2012-01-04

253

Effects of frost on wildflowers: an unexpected consequence of climate change--image 15 of 22  

Science.gov (United States)

Photo of an early-stage inflorescence of tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi) after a mid-June snowstorm at the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory. The buds were killed by the cold temperature. Like Helianthella quinquenervis, D. barbeyi is a frost-sensitive species.

Inouye, David

2012-01-04

254

Cross-Cultural Validity of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale in Korea  

Science.gov (United States)

This study with 213 South Korean college students (113 men) examined the cross-cultural generalizability of (a) the factor structure of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (F-MPS) and (b) the existence of adaptive perfectionists, maladaptive perfectionists, and nonperfectionists. A confirmatory factor analysis did not support the…

Lee, Dong-gwi; Park, Hyun-joo

2011-01-01

255

Frost flower chemical signature in winter snow on Vestfonna ice cap, Nordaustlandet, Svalbard  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The chemistry of snow and ice cores from Svalbard is influenced by variations in local sea ice margin and distance to open water. Snow pits sampled at two summits of Vestfonna ice cap (Nordaustlandet, Svalbard, exhibit spatially heterogeneous soluble ions concentrations despite similar accumulation rates, reflecting the importance of small-scale weather patterns on this island ice cap. The snow pack on the western summit shows higher average values of marine ions and a winter snow layer that is relatively depleted in sulphate. One part of the winter snow pack exhibits a [SO42-/Na+] ratio reduced by two thirds compared with its ratio in sea water. This low sulphate content in winter snow is interpreted as the signature of frost flowers, which are formed on young sea ice when offshore winds predominate. Frost flowers have been described as the dominant source of sea salt to aerosol and precipitation in ice cores in coastal Antarctica but this is the first time their chemical signal has been described in the Arctic. The eastern summit does not show any frost flower signature and we interpret the unusually dynamic ice transport and rapid formation of thin ice on the Hinlopen Strait as the source of the frost flowers.

E. Beaudon

2009-07-01

256

Frost flower chemical signature in winter snow on Vestfonna ice cap (Nordaustlandet, Svalbard  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The chemistry of snow and ice cores from Svalbard is influenced by variations in local sea ice margin and distance to open water. Snow pits sampled at two summits of Vestfonna ice cap (Nordaustlandet, Svalbard, exhibit spatially heterogeneous soluble ions concentrations despite similar accumulation rates, reflecting the importance of small-scale weather patterns on this island ice cap. The snow pack on the western summit shows higher average values of marine species and a winter snow layer that is relatively depleted in sulphate. One part of the winter snow pack exhibits [SO42-/Na+] ratio reduced by two thirds compared with its ratio in sea water. This low sulphate content in winter snow is interpreted as the signature of frost flowers, which are formed on young sea ice when offshore winds predominate. Frost flowers have been described as the dominant source of sea salt to aerosol and precipitation in ice cores in coastal Antarctica but this is the first time their chemical signal has been described in the Arctic. The eastern summit does not show any frost flower signature and we interpret the unusually dynamic ice transport and rapid formation of thin ice on the Hinlopen Strait as the source of the frost flowers.

E. Beaudon

2009-02-01

257

Evaluation of frost damage in cement-based materials by a nonlinear elastic wave technique  

Science.gov (United States)

Frost resistance of concrete is a major concern in cold regions. RILEM (International union of laboratories and experts in construction materials, systems and structures) recommendations provide two alternatives for evaluating frost damage by nondestructive evaluation methods for concrete like materials. The first method is based on the ultrasonic pulse velocity measurement, while the second alternative technique is based on the resonant vibration test. In this study, we monitor the frost damage in Portland cement mortar samples with water to cement ratio of 0.5 and aggregate to cement ratio of 3. The samples are completely saturated by water and are frozen for 24 hours at -25°C. The frost damage is monitored after 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 freezing-thawing cycles by nonlinear impact resonance acoustic spectroscopy (NIRAS). The results obtained are compared with those obtained by resonant vibration tests, the second alternative technique recommended by RILEM. The obtained results show that NIRAS is more sensitive to early stages of damage than the standard resonant vibration tests.

Eiras, J. N.; Kundu, T.; Popovics, J. S.; Monzó, J.; Soriano, L.; Payá, J.

2014-03-01

258

Morning Frost in Trench Dug by Phoenix, Sol 113 (False Color)  

Science.gov (United States)

This image from the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows morning frost inside the 'Snow White' trench dug by the lander, in addition to subsurface ice exposed by use of a rasp on the floor of the trench. The camera took this image at about 9 a.m. local solar time during the 113th Martian day of the mission (Sept. 18, 2008). Bright material near and below the four-by-four set of rasp holes in the upper half of the image is water-ice exposed by rasping and scraping in the trench earlier the same morning. Other bright material especially around the edges of the trench, is frost. Earlier in the mission, when the sun stayed above the horizon all night, morning frost was not evident in the trench. This image is presented in false color that enhances the visibility of the frost. The trench is 4 to 5 centimeters (about 2 inches) deep, about 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide. Phoenix landed on a Martian arctic plain on May 25, 2008. The mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

259

Frost Damage Detection in Sugarcane Crop Using Modis Images and Srtm Data  

Science.gov (United States)

Brazil is the largest world producer of sugarcane which is used to produce almost equal proportions of either sugar (food) or ethanol (biofuel). In recent years sugarcane crop production has increased fast to meet the growing market demand for sugar and ethanol. This increase has been mainly due to expansion in crop area, but sugarcane production is also subjected to several factors that influence both the agricultural crop yield (tons of stalks/ha) and the industrial yield (kg of sugar/ton of stalks). Sugarcane is a semi-perennial crop that experiences major growth during spring and summer seasons with large demands for water and high temperatures to produce good stalk formation (crop yield). The harvest is performed mainly during fall and winter seasons when water availability and temperature should be low in order to accumulate sucrose in the stalks (industrial yield). These favorable climatic conditions for sugarcane crop are found in several regions in Brazil, particularly in São Paulo state, which is the major sugarcane producer in Brazil being responsible for almost 60% of its production. Despite the favorable climate in São Paulo state there is a certain probability of frost occurrence from time to time that has a negative impact on sugarcane crop, particularly on industrial yield, reducing the amount of sugar in the stalks; having consequences on price increase and product shortage. To evaluate the impact of frost on sugarcane crop, in the field, on a state level, is not a trivial task; however, this information is relevant due to its direct impact on the consumer market. Remote sensing images allow a synoptic view and present great potential to monitor large sugarcane plantations as has been done since 2003 in São Paulo state by the Canasat Project with Landsat type images (http://www.dsr.inpe.br/laf/canasat/en/). Images acquired from sensors with high temporal resolution such as MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) present the potential to detect the impact of climatic effects, such as frost, on crop growth, which is relevant information to evaluate the negative impact on sugarcane production. Thus, the objective of the present study is to detect the impact of the frost occurred on 28 June 2011 in the sugarcane production region of São Paulo state, using MODIS images acquired on board of Terra and Aqua satellites before and after the frost event. Also, Landsat type images were used to map the harvested sugarcane fields up to the frost event based on a sugarcane crop map for year 2011. The remaining sugarcane fields available for harvest in 2011 were monitored with the MODIS images acquired on 17, 19, 27, 28 June and 8 and 9 July, to detect frost damage. Field work was conducted shortly after frost occurrence to identify sugarcane fields with frost damage for training and validation purposes. MODIS images transformed to vegetation indices and morphometric variables extracted from SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) data are being analyzed to detect and quantify the damage of the frost from 28 July 2011 on sugarcane crop.

Rudorff, B.; Alves de Aguiar, D.; Adami, M.

2011-12-01

260

Laboratory evaluation of the effect of nitric acid uptake on frost point hygrometer performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chilled mirror hygrometers (CMH are widely used to measure water vapour in the troposphere and lower stratosphere from balloon-borne sondes. Systematic discrepancies among in situ water vapour instruments have been observed at low water vapour mixing ratios (<5 ppm in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS. Understanding the source of the measurement discrepancies is important for a more accurate and reliable determination of water vapour abundance in this region. We have conducted a laboratory study to investigate the potential interference of gas-phase nitric acid (HNO3 with the measurement of frost point temperature, and consequently the water vapour mixing ratio, determined by CMH under conditions representative of operation in the UT/LS. No detectable interference in the measured frost point temperature was found for HNO3 mixing ratios of up to 4 ppb for exposure times up to 150 min. HNO3 was observed to co-condense on the mirror frost, with the adsorbed mass increasing linearly with time at constant exposure levels. Over the duration of a typical balloon sonde ascent (90–120 min, the maximum accumulated HNO3 amounts were comparable to monolayer coverage of the geometric mirror surface area, which corresponds to only a small fraction of the actual frost layer surface area. This small amount of co-condensed HNO3 is consistent with the observed lack of HNO3 interference in the frost point measurement because the CMH utilizes significant reductions (>10% in surface reflectivity by the condensate to determine H2O.

T. Thornberry

2010-08-01

 
 
 
 
261

Laboratory evaluation of the effect of nitric acid uptake on frost point hygrometer performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chilled mirror hygrometers (CMH are widely used to measure water vapour in the troposphere and lower stratosphere from balloon-borne sondes. Systematic discrepancies among in situ water vapour instruments have been observed at low water vapour mixing ratios (<5 ppm in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS. Understanding the source of the measurement discrepancies is important for a more accurate and reliable determination of water vapour abundance in this region. We have conducted a laboratory study to investigate the potential interference of gas-phase nitric acid (HNO3 with the measurement of frost point temperature, and consequently the water vapour mixing ratio, determined by CMH under conditions representative of operation in the UT/LS. No detectable interference in the measured frost point temperature was found for HNO3 mixing ratios of up to 4 ppb for exposure times up to 150 min. HNO3 was observed to co-condense on the mirror frost, with the adsorbed mass increasing linearly with time at constant exposure levels. Over the duration of a typical balloon sonde ascent (90–120 min, the maximum accumulated HNO3 amounts were comparable to monolayer coverage of the geometric mirror surface area, which corresponds to only a small fraction of the actual frost layer surface area. This small amount of co-condensed HNO3 is consistent with the observed lack of HNO3 interference in the frost point measurement because the CMH utilizes significant reductions (>10% in surface reflectivity by the condensate to determine H2O.

T. Thornberry

2011-02-01

262

Developing a phenological model for grapevine to assess future frost risk in Luxembourg  

Science.gov (United States)

Late frost damage represents a significant hazard to grape production in cool climate viticulture regions such as Luxembourg. The main aim of our study is to analyze the frequency of these events for the Luxembourg's winegrowing region in the future. Spring frost injuries on grape may occur when young green parts are exposed to air temperature below 0°C. The potential risk is determined by: (i) minimum air temperature conditions and the (ii) the timing of bud burst. Therefore, we developed and validated a model for budburst of the grapevine (*Vitis vinifera)* cultivar Rivaner, the most grown local variety, based on multi-annual data from 7 different sites across Europe and the US. An advantage of this approach is, that it could be applied to a wide range of climate conditions. Higher spring temperatures were projected for the future and could lead to earlier dates of budburst as well as earlier dates of last frost events in the season. However, so far it is unknown if this will increase or decrease the risk of severe late frost damages for Luxembourg's winegrowing region. To address this question results of 10 regional climate change projections from the FP6 ENSEMBLES project (spatial resolution = 25km; A1B emission scenario) were combined with the new bud burst model. The use of a multi model ensemble of climate change projections allows for a better quantification of the uncertainties. A bias corrections scheme, based on local observations, was applied to the model output. Projected daily minimum air temperatures, up to 2098, were compared to the projected date of bud burst in order to quantify the future frost risk for Luxembourg.

Caffarra, A.; Molitor, D.; Pertot, I.; Sinigoy, P.; Junk, J.

2012-04-01

263

Erodibilidade e suscetibilidade à erosão dos solos de cerrado com plantio de Acacia mangium em Roraima.= Erodibility and susceptibility to erosion of the savannah (cerrado soils planted with Acacia mangium in the State of Roraima.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar erodibilidade e suscetibilidade à erosão de solos sob cerrados e plantios de Acácia mangium no estado de Roraima, foram realizadas visitas nas áreas objeto de estudo para identifi cação geomorfopedológica e feito coleta de solo representativo de 121 perfi s distribuídos nas áreas de plantio de Acacia mangium pertencentes ao projeto Ouro Verde Agrosilvopastoril Ltda. Os perfi s descritos e coletados foram georreferenciados através de GPS e plotados sobre mapas de declividades no software ARCMAPE 8.0 permitindo cruzar os valores de R com a declividade. Foi avaliada as relações do tipo de solo, sua posição na paisagem e suscetibilidade a erosão. Os resultados revelaram que as áreas de estudo estão inseridas em duas unidades geomorfopedológicas distintas: Jacitara/Mucajaí/Santa Cecília (JMSta e Serra da Lua (SL, apresentando suscetibilidade à erosão bem contrastantes; As unidades JMSta apresentam maiores valores de R, inseridas em relevo plano, com declividade entre 1% a 3%, os solos da unidade SL, apresentam menores valores de R e estão posicionados em relevo com declividade entre 3 a 13%, o que a torna mais vulneráveis a erosão; as classes de solos em ordem decrescente em valores de R são: Neossolos (RQo, Argissolos (PAd, Gleissolos (GXbd, Latossolos (LAd, LVd, LVAd, LVA Plintico, Plintossolos (FFCd, concluindo-se então, a necessidade da adoção de práticas simples de conservação de solos, tais como plantio em curva de nível e até terraceamento. = With the objective to evaluate the erodibility and susceptibility to erosion of the cerrado and plantations with Acacia mangium in the State of Roraima, visits to the areas were done for geomorfopedologic identifi cation and collection of soils representative of 121 profi les distributed in the areas pertaining to the plantation of Acacia mangium of the Ouro Verde Agrosilvopastoril Ltda project. The described and collected profiles were geo-referenced through GPS and located on maps of declivities by the software ARCMAPE 8,0 allowing to cross the values of R with the declivity. There were evaluate the relations of the type of soils, its position in the landscape and susceptibility the erosion. The results obtained indicated that the areas studiedy are inserted in two distinct geomorphopedologic units: Jacitara/Mucajai/Santa Cecilia (JMSta and Serra da Lua (SL, and demonstrated distinct susceptibility to erosion; The JMSta units presented the most elevated values of R, inserted in plain relief, with declivity between 1% and 3%. The ground of unit SL, presented small values of R and is located in terrain with declivity between 3% and 13%, which becomes it more vulnerable to erosion; The types of soils decreasing order of values of R are: Neossolos (RQo, Argissolos (PAd, Gleissolos (GXbd, Latossolos (LAd, LVd, LVAd, LVA Plintico, Plintossolos (FFCd. In conclusion, there is the necessity to adopt simple practices of ground conservation, varying from plantation on the curve of level to terracing.

José Frutuoso do Vale Júnior

2009-07-01

264

Susceptibility to shallow landslides of soil in the municipality of Temoaya, Mexico: multicriteria analysis / Susceptibilidad a deslizamientos superficiales de suelo en el Municipio de Temoaya, México: aplicación del análisis multicriterio  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Debido al carácter montañoso del espacio geográfico mexicano, así como del impacto ecológico generado por los cambios de uso de suelo, efectuados particularmente en las últimas décadas, y de la ocurrencia de fenómenos hidrometeorológicos de gran intensidad o frecuencia, la inestabilidad de laderas d [...] esencadenada por precipitación constituye uno de los peligros de mayor impacto en diversas regiones del país, entre ellas el municipio de Temoaya, Estado de México. En este municipio, donde el relieve montañoso formado por depósitos vulcanoclásticos poco consolidados y afallados favorece la inestabilidad, existen 33 procesos de remoción en masa activos, de los cuales treinta -los más importantes-, son deslizamientos de suelo superficiales de tipo traslacional (DSST), un deslizamiento de derrubios y dos caídas de rocas. La ocurrencia de los DSST está controlada por el carácter de los depósitos vulcanoclásticos, específicamente flujos piroclásticos de bloques, cenizas y pómez, los cuales al ser materiales permeables favorecen la infiltración, por lo que si el material subyacente es impermeable o de menor permeabilidad, se presenta una acumulación de agua sobre el contacto litológico subhorizontal que se transforma en un flujo que conduce a la inestabilidad del material sobreyacente. En este trabajo se presenta la aplicación del Método de Análisis Multicriterio para la generación de un mapa de susceptibilidad a deslizamientos de suelo superficiales de tipo traslacional para dicha zona. De acuerdo con el mapa elaborado, el 15% del territorio municipal presenta muy alta susceptibilidad a deslizamientos, mientras que la zona de alta susceptibilidad ocupa el 35% del área en cuestión. El nivel de susceptibilidad medio se concentra en el 30% del territorio, y en el restante 20% de la zona de interés, la susceptibilidad a deslizamientos es baja y muy baja. Abstract in english Owing to the mountainous character of the Mexican terrain, as well as the ecological effects of changes in land use, particularly in recent decades, and the occurrence of severe and frequent hydro-meteorological phenomena, the instability of slopes dislodged by precipitation constitutes a major haza [...] rd in various regions of the country, among them the municipality of Temoaya in the State of Mexico. In this municipality, where the mountainous relief formed by poorly consolidated and faulting volcaniclastic deposits favours instability, there are 33 active processes of mass movement, of which thirty -the most important- are shallow soil translational landslides (SSTL), one is a debris slide and two are rock falls. The occurrence of SSTLs is controlled by the character of the volcaniclastic deposits, specifically pyroclastic flows of blocks, ash and pumice; because these are permeable materials they favour infiltration; if the subjacent material is impermeable or of low permeability, water accumulates on the sub-horizontal lithological contact and transforms into a flow that leads to the instability of the overlying material. A map of susceptibility to SSTLs was generated by means of a multicriteria analysis. According to the map produced, 15% of the municipality is very highly susceptible to landslides, 35% is highly susceptible, 30% shows medium susceptibility, and the remaining 20% has low or very low susceptibility.

Patricia, Flores; Irasema, Alcántara Ayala.

265

Mineralogia e susceptibilidade magnética dos óxidos de ferro do horizonte B de solos do Estado do Paraná Mineralogy and magnetic susceptibility of iron oxides of B horizon of Paraná state soils  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os solos tropicais altamente intemperizados tendem a acumular residualmente óxidos de ferro e alumínio. Entre os óxidos e hidróxidos de ferro presentes na fração argila, a goethita (Gt e a hematita (Hm são os mais abundantes e estudados. No entanto, há poucos estudos acerca da identificação e quantificação da maghemita (Mh, um mineral ferrimagnético que está na fração argila dos solos, principalmente naqueles desenvolvidos de rochas máficas. A Mh e a magnetita (Mt são responsáveis pela magnetização espontânea dos solos. Esse atributo mineralógico pode ser medido nos solos e sedimentos pela susceptibilidade magnética por unidade de massa (?BF, cuja magnitude é proporcional à concentração dos minerais ferrimagnéticos e é objeto de estudos em todo mundo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar e quantificar, por ?BF, os minerais ferrimagnéticos de 32 amostras do horizonte B de solos do Estado do Paraná. As formas minerais presentes na fração argila concentrada de óxidos de ferro foram identificadas e semiquantificadas por difratometria de raios-X (DRX. Nessa fração, os minerais mais abundantes são a Gt e a Hm. A Mh foi detectada em 31 amostras por ?BF e em apenas 17 por DRX. Os valores de ?BF variaram de 16 a 8.077 na TFSA, de 12 a 7.953 na fração argila e de 0 a 18.737x10-8 m³ kg-1 na fração argila, após concentração dos óxidos de ferro. A Mh dos solos estudados apresentou valor médio de ?BF em 62.728x10-8m³ kg-1 e sua presença nos difratogramas de raios-X só foi verificada em amostras com valores de ?BF acima de 1.000x10-8m³ kg-1.Highly weathered tropical soils tend to accumulate iron and aluminum oxy-hydroxides. Among the iron oxy-hydroxides found in the clay fraction, goethite (Gt and hematite (Hm are the most abundant and studied. A smaller number of investigations have been publish to identify and to quantify maghemite (Mh, a ferrimagnetic mineral present in the clay size fraction of the soils, mainly in those developed from mafic rocks. Maghemite, along with magnetite (Mt is responsible for the spontaneous magnetic behavior of the soils. This mineralogical attribute can be easy measured, in soils and sediments by mass magnetic susceptibility (?LF, which magnitude is proportional to the concentration of ferrimagnetic minerals and it has been object of studies worldwide. The purpose of this research was to identify and quantify, by ?LF, the ferrimagnetic minerals of 32 samples from B-horizons of Paraná state soils. The mineral species present in the iron oxides concentrated clay size fractions were identified and semiquantified by x-rays diffraction (XRD. In this fraction the most abundant minerals are Gt and Hm. Maghemite was detected in 31 samples by ?LF and in only 17 samples by XRD. The ?LF values ranged from 16 to 8.077x10-8m³ kg-1 in the fine earth; from 12 to 7.953x10-8m³ kg-1 in clay fraction and from 0 to 18.737x10-8m³ kg-1 in clay fraction, after concentration of the iron oxides. The Mh of the soils presented an average value of 62.728x10-8m³ kg-1 and their presence in the X-rays diffractograms was only observed in samples with ?LF values above 1.000x10-8m³ kg-1.

Ivan Granemann de Souza Junior

2010-03-01

266

FROST - FReezing Of coated and uncoated duST particles  

Science.gov (United States)

In April 2008, the measurement campaign FROST (FReezing Of coated and uncoated duST particles) was conducted at the ACCENT (Atmospheric Composition Change - the European NeTwork of excellence) infrastructure site LACIS (Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator). During the campaign, size selected coated and uncoated Arizona Test Dust (ATD) particles were characterized with respect to shape, chemical composition, hygroscopic growth and activation, and their ability to act as IN (Ice Nuclei). The ATD particles were dispersed by means of a fluidized bed generator. Coatings were applied in different furnaces, operated at different temperatures. The coatings were either succinic acid, sulphuric acid, or ammonium sulphate. A DMA (Differential Mobility Analyzer) was used for selecting particles with a mobility diameter of 300 nm. The following measurements were done: Three AMS (Aerosol Mass Spectrometers, e.g. Schneider et al. (2005) and references therein) were used to determine particle composition. Particles were collected on grids for subsequent TEM (Transmission Electron Micoscropy) analysis. Hygroscopic growth factors were determined by means of a HH-TDMA (High Humidity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer) that measured up to relative humidities (RH) of 98% (Hennig et al. (2005)). The critical super-saturations needed for the activation of the investigated particles into cloud droplets were measured with a continuous flow CCNc (Cloud Condensation Nucleus counter) from DMT (Droplet Measurement Technologies, Roberts and Nenes (2005)). The LACIS flow tube was extended to a length of 8 m, so LACIS could be used to examine the immersion freezing behaviour of the coated and uncoated ATD particles. By a bulk analysis and by the AMS measurements, the ATD particles were found to contain water soluble material, however in small quantities. By means of the online AMS measurements, it was possible to distinguish between thin and thick H2SO4 coatings. For the thin coatings, the H2SO4 was found to have reacted with material contained in the ATD, so that almost no free H2SO4 was found. For the thick coatings, obtained at higher coating temperatures, H2SO4 was detected. In general, uncoated particles and those coated with thin coatings of H2SO4 or of succinic acid, showed almost no hygroscopic growth. Particles coated with thicker coatings of H2SO4 and of ammonium sulphate grew noticeably above 95% RH (growth factors of about 1.1 at 98% RH). Both, coated and uncoated ATD particles, were found to activate at atmospherically relevant super-saturations (0.35% for pure ATD, 0.2% for succinic acid and thin H2SO4 coatings, 0.15% for thick H2SO4 and for ammonium sulphate coatings). Combining measured hygroscopic growth with activation data, a dynamic shape factor of the ATD particles of about 1.8 was derived, corroborating the deviation of the particle shape from that of a sphere. Uncoated ATD particles and particles coated with succinic acid or thin coatings of H2SO4 nucleated ice at higher temperatures, i.e. were more efficient IN, than particles with thick H2SO4 or ammonium sulphate coatings. Although the latter two were similar in hygroscopic growth and activation behaviour, they differed in their ability to act as IN, with ATD particles coated with ammonium sulphate being the most ineffective IN. This finding suggests that the investigated particle's ability to act as IN might not be related to water activity for the immersion freezing processes investigated in this study. References: Hennig, T., A. Massling, F. Brechtel, and A. Wiedensohler (2005), A tandem DMA for highly temperature-stabilized hygroscopic particle growth measurements between 90% and 98% relative humidity, J. Aerosol Sci., 36, 10, 1210-1223. Roberts, G., and A. Nenes (2005), A continuous-flow streamwise thermal-gradient CCN chamber for atmospheric measurements, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 39, 206-221. Schneider, J., N. Hock, S. Weimer, S. Borrmann, U. Kirchner, R. Vogt, and V. Scheer (2005), Nucleation particles in Diesel exhaust: Composition inferred from in situ mass sp

Wex, H.

2009-04-01

267

Hydraulic properties in an operational model of frozen soil  

Science.gov (United States)

Many current models of heat and water flow in frozen soils overestimate the freezing-induced redistribution of water. These models also treat the soil physical properties as constant in time although they are strongly influenced by the frost itself. This study was conducted to determine possible methods to overcome these two problems in an operational hydraulic model. Winter measurements of soil temperature and water content were performed on a clay soil and on a layered loam soil. The data were compared with simulations made with a physically based, one-dimensional model of coupled heat and water flow. Two procedures were tested for the calculation of hydraulic conductivity of partially frozen soil: firstly, an interpolation procedure, taking into account the strong non-linearity of the hydraulic conductivity function close to the freezing front. Secondly, an impedance parameter was used to describe the effect of ice lenses. A spring time modification of the soil moisture characteristic curve was tested to account for the frost-induced changes of the soil structure. Simulated temperatures and water contents agreed well with measurements, both for the clay and the layered loam soil, after introduction of the impedance parameter. The alternative interpolation procedure did not only reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the frozen soil sufficiently to produce a realistic redistribution, but also enabled use of a lower value on the impedance parameter. Changes in water retention properties resulting from frost action during winter caused an overestimation of simulated water content of 15% by volume in the heavy clay soil during spring. This discrepancy was eliminated by increasing the frequency of pore diameters below 0.1mm in the model during spring.

Lundin, Lars-Christer

1990-10-01

268

Índice de riesgo sistémico de heladas (IRISH) / Sistemic frost risk index (SFRI)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo principal de este trabajo es la presentación de los fundamentos y metodología del IRiSH. Se utilizaron temperaturas horarias de cinco observatorios para el período 1991-2003 para calcular la duración de las heladas producidas en ese período y analizar su asociación con la temperatura mín [...] ima. Para el desarrollo del IRiSH se utilizaron las temperaturas mínimas diarias del período 1964-2003. Se asume que las heladas tardías serán tanto más peligrosas cuanto más se adelante la fenología del cultivo o se retrasen las heladas, cuanto mayor sea su intensidad, su duración y su frecuencia. El IRiSH integra todas estas variables directa o indirectamente. Se describen, a modo de ejemplo, las funciones empíricas desarrolladas para el cálculo del índice correspondiente al cultivo de trigo. El resultado es un índice de gran versatilidad, aplicable a distintos cultivos, que tiene en cuenta las principales variables determinantes de la peligrosidad de las heladas. Permite el monitoreo del riesgo de heladas durante el año, así como estudiar su variabilidad interanual, su tendencia temporal y su variación espacial. Con promedios anuales para una serie de años posibilita también la caracterización climática media del riesgo de heladas. Abstract in english The aim of this study is to present the fundamentals and methodology of the SFRi. Hourly temperatures of five observatories for the period 1991-2003 were used to calculate the duration of frosts and analyse their relationship with the minimum temperature. Daily minimum temperatures from the period 1 [...] 964-2003 were used for the development of the SFRi. We assume that late frosts will be more dangerous the sooner the phenology of the crop or the more delayed the frosts, also the greater their intensity, length and frequency. The IRiSH integrates all these variables directly or indirectly. We describe, as an example, the empirical functions developed for calculating the index for wheat cultivation. The result is a versatile index, applicable to different crops, which takes into account the main variables that determine the level of danger from frosts. It allows to monitor frosts risk during the year, and to examine their inter-annual variability, temporal trend and special distribution. With annual averages for many years it also allows for the climatic characterization of frosts risk.

María Elena, Fernández Long; Guillermo, Murphy; María Karina, Torterolo.

269

Black frost. Icing of wind turbine blades endangers stability and safety; Schwarzer Frost. Wenn Eis die Stand- und Verkehrssicherheit von Windkraftanlagen gefaehrdet  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sailors used to fear icing of sails and ropes from freezing mist and rain. They called it ''black frost'', and this is the same phenomenon that also endangers wind turbine safety. Weather conditions that cause rain to freeze have a characteristic temperature stratification, i.e. moist and warm air over cold ground level air. So far, icing has not caused significant damage in Germany, but this does not mean that it is not a problem. The contribution goes into the causes of icing and the prevention of ice formation. (orig.)

Lucks, Christoph [Windcomp GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

2010-02-15

270

Adaptação de espécies arbóreas nativas em um sistema agrossilvicultural, submetidas a extremos climáticos de geada na região de Florianópolis / Adaptation of native tree species submitted to extreme frost stress under an agrosilvicultural system in the Florianopolis region  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta de cinco espécies arbóreas nativas submetidas a extremos climáticos de geada em um sistema agroflorestal, na região de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina (latitude de 27º35' S , longitude 48º34' W e altitude de 1,84 m). O solo é do tipo Neossolo [...] quartzarênico hidromórfico distrófico, textura arenosa, com elevada flutuação do lençol freático. Foram tomadas sete parcelas de dez árvores, seguindo o delineamento estatístico inteiramente casualizado. Os parâmetros analisados foram altura total, número de folhas, incremento médio em altura total e número de folhas de cada árvore (quantificados a cada quatro meses), porcentagem de árvores com folhas danificadas pela geada e sobrevivência de cada planta após a geada. Os parâmetros estatísticos analisados foram a média e o desvio-padrão. Para analisar os resultados utilizou-se o teste de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. Os ingás (Inga uruguensis e Inga sessilis) apresentaram tolerância à geada e um alto potencial para implantação em SAFs nas condições edafoclimáticas em estudo. A espécie tucaneira (Citharexylium myrianthum) apresentou pouca tolerância à geada, porém mostrou alta taxa de rebrota. As espécies corticeira (Erythrina falcata), olandi (Calophyllum brasilienses) e licurana (Hieronyma alchorneoides) apresentaram alta mortalidade em razão da geada, não se mostrando indicadas para compor um SAF na região em estudo. Abstract in english This work aimed to evaluate the response of five indigenous arboreal species, submitted to extreme frost stress in an agroforest system (AFS) in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina (lat. 27º35' S, long. 48º34' W and alt. of 1,84 m). The soil is a distrophic Hydromorphic Quartzarenic Neosoil, with sandy te [...] xture, and high watertable flotation.The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete design, with seven plots of ten trees each. The analyzed parameters were: height, number of leaves, average height increase and number of leaves of each tree, measured every four months, percentage of burned leaves and rate of survival of the plants after frost. The statistical parameters analyzed were: average and standard deviation.The Tukey test at 5% probability was used to analyze the results. The ingás (Inga uruguensis and Inga sessilis) showed tolerance to frost and a high potential for AFS, under the edafo-climatic conditions studied. The species tucaneira (Citharexylum myrianthum) did not show good tolerance to frost but it did show a high resprouting rate. The species corticeira (Erythrina falcata), olandi (Calophyllum brasiliense) and licurana (Hieronyma alchorneoides) showed a high mortality rate under frost, but it did not show a good potential for AFS under the edafo-climatic conditions studied.

Ana Rita Rodrigues, Vieira; Diogo, Feistauer; Vanderley Porfírio da, Silva.

271

Efficient non-destructive method of control over the frost-resistance of concretes designated for hydraulic engineering structures ????????????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????? ???????????????? ??????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The author considers the problem of control over the frost resistance as the most important characteristic of concretes designated for hydraulic engineering structures. His method is based on the identification of correlation between the frost resistance and the Poisson ratio. The value of the Poisson ratio is measurable through the employment of the ultra-sound method. The proposed methodology contemplates the following sequence of acts. First, the value of the Poisson ratio of air-dried sam...

Popov Valeriy Petrovich

2012-01-01

272

Interactions between near-ground temperature and radiation, silvicultural treatments and frost damage to Norway spruce seedlings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several different silvicultural treatments were studied in two experiments. In the first, mechanical scarification, slash removal, vegetation control, clear-cut age and seedling types were investigated with respect to frost injury to Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings. Frost damage was also related to near-ground minimum temperature. In the other experiment, the effects of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris (L.)) shelterwood density gradients, ranging from dense, uncut forest to comp...

2000-01-01

273

Peripheral capillary nonperfusion and full-field electroretinographic changes in eyes with frosted branch-like appearance retinal vasculitis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report a patient with frosted branch-like appearance retinal vasculitis associated with peripheral capillary nonperfusion and full-field electroretinographic changes. A 62-year-old man presented with sudden bilateral decreased vision accompanied by headaches. His best-corrected visual acuity was 0.01 in both eyes. Fundus examination and fluorescein angiography showed bilateral frosted branch-like appearance retinal vasculitis, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography showed severe ...

Matsui, Yoshitsugu; Tsukitome, Hideyuki; Uchiyama, Eriko; Wada, Yuko; Yagi, Tatsuya; Matsubara, Hisashi; Kondo, Mineo

2013-01-01

274

The minimum temperatures in the winter 2006/07 in the slovenian frost hollows and cold basins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The members of Slovenian Meteorological Forum, Department of Geography at Universityof Ljubljana and Slovenian Forestry Institute started to measure temperatures in Slovenianfrost hollows and cold basins in 2004. The measurements, which improved during theperiod 2004?2006, continued also in the winter 2006?2007, all together, in more than 30frost hollows and cold basins Alpine, Dinaridic and even Submediterranean areas. Althoughthe winter 2006/2007 was very mild, minimum temperatures in frost hollow Hribarice fellbelow ? 35 ?C.

Matej Ogrin

2007-01-01

275

Analysis of heat transfer and frost layer formation on a cryogenic tank wall exposed to the humid atmospheric air  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper heat transfer characteristics and frost layer formation are investigated numerically on the surface of a cryogenic oxidizer tank for a liquid propulsion rocket, where a frost layer could be a significant factor in maintaining oxidizer temperature within a required range. Frost formation is modeled by considering mass diffusion of water vapor in the air into the frost layer and various heat transfer modes such as natural and forced convection, latent heat, solar radiation of short wavelength, and ambient radiation of long wavelength. Computational results are first compared with the available measurements and show favorable agreement on thickness and effective thermal conductivity of the frost layer. In the case of the cryogenic tank, a series of parametric studies is presented in order to examine the effects of important parameters such as temperature and wind speed of ambient air, air humidity, and tank wall temperature on the frost layer formation and the amount of heat transfer into the tank. It is found that the heat transfer by solar radiation is significant and also that heat transfer strongly depends on air humidity, ambient air temperature, and wind speed but not tank wall temperature.

2009-07-01

276

Calculation and Analysis of Frost Duration Times by Using Delphi Programming: A Case Study in Lorestan, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to calculate the duration times of frosts by Delphi programming. To do this, the data related to the daily minimum temperature of four meteorology stations of Lorestan Province, i.e., Khoram-Abad, Boroujerd, Doroud and Aligoudarz that enjoy a ten-year statistics (from 1993 to 2003 were obtained from the information bank of the National Meteorology Organization. After taking out the frost days in desired threshold (zero and less than zero during the statistical period, frost duration times of each station were calculated and extracted, using algorithm of the afore-mentioned program. Then, the duration times were selectively divided into eight (three-hour classes. Their frequency percent charts were drawn and all stations were compared to one another in three classes of 0 to 3 h, 9 to 12 h and 21 to 24 h. It was concluded that Boroujerd Station enjoys the most frost hours and, hence damages to crops were the highest in this station compared with other stations. It was further concluded that the vegetation is the most effective factor in frost duration times of the region and that the height factor has no effect on frost duration times.

Z. Hejazizadeh

2007-01-01

277

Heat transfer and frost growth on a wind convector based on a row of vertical cylindrical tubes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A wind convector is an alternative outdoor heat exchanger for air-source heat pumps which allows transfer of heat from the outdoor environment to an antifreeze solution (brine) without the use of a fan to move the outdoor air across the heat-exchange surfaces. The objectives of this study are to: (a) experimentally investigate the effects of weather conditions on the overall heat transfer coefficient for and frost growth on a wind convector based on a row of vertical cylindrical tubes placed outdoors; and (b) mathematically model the frost growth and heat transfer through the frost layer. An automatically-controlled, microcomputer-monitored outdoor test facility capable of continuous measurement of overall wind-convector heat transfer coefficient, U, to within a measurement uncertainty of {plus minus}3% was built and tested. At the site the following weather conditions are measured: air temperature and humidity, wind speed and direction, solar radiation and rainfall. Frost depth is measured by a computer vision system and frost mass is measured with a weighing cell. Tests of up to 24 hours duration in the unsteady outdoor environment were carried out. Mathematical models of the diffusion-dominated and meltback regimes of frost growth on circular cylinders were developed and compared to experimental measurements.

Monaghan, P.F.

1989-01-01

278

Comparison of predicted and observed responses of pipeline to differential frost heave  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A simplified Winkler model has been applied to simulate the observed time-dependent responses of a pipeline at the Caen (France) test facility subjected to differential frost heave. The numerical Winkler model developed for a semi-infinite beam embedded in a creeping medium was used to evaluate the response of the Caen pipeline. Despite is simplicity, the Winkler model is able to predict the overall response of deflections and stresses which compares satisfactorily with observed data. In a previous study, the same Winkler analysis was applied to small-scale model steel pipelines embedded in polycrystalline ice, and satisfactory comparisons between the predicted and observed responses were obtained. Consequently, the analyses presented serve to reconfirm that the Winkler model can also be applied to analyze large-diameter pipelines subjected to differential frost heave, such as those proposed to carry gas across permafrost regions. 25 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Rajani, B. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Morgenstern, N. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

1994-12-31

279

The potential importance of frost flowers, recycling on snow, and open leads for Ozone Depletion Events  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present model studies with the one-dimensional model MISTRA to investigate the potential role of frost flowers, recycling on snow, and open leads in the depletion of tropospheric ozone in the Arctic spring. In our model, we assumed frost flower aerosols to be the major source of bromine. We show that a major ozone depletion event can be satisfactorily reproduced only if the recycling on snow of deposited bromine into gas phase bromine is assumed. In the model, this cycling is more efficient than the bromine explosion process and maintains sufficiently high levels of bromine to deplete ozone down to few nmol mol?1 within four days. We assessed the influence of different surface combinations (open lead/frost flowers on the chemistry in the model. Results showed noticeable modifications affecting the composition of aerosols and the deposition velocities. A model run with a series of coupled frost flower fields and open leads, separated by large areas of snow, showed results comparable with field observations. In addition, we studied the effects of modified temperature of either the frost flower field or the ambient airmass. A warmer frost flower field increases the relative humidity and the aerosol deposition rate. The deposition/re-emission process gains in importance, inducing more reactive bromine in the gas phase, and a stronger ozone depletion. A decrease of 1 K in airmass temperature shows in our model that the aerosol uptake capacities of all gas phase species substantially increases, leading to enhanced uptake of acids from the gas phase. Consequently, the so-called bromine explosion accelerated and O3 mixing ratios decreased. In our model representation, variations in wind speed affected the aerosol source function and influenced the amount of bromine in the atmosphere and thus the ozone depletion strength. Recent studies have suggested the important role of the precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 out of the brine layer for the possible acidification of the liquid phase by acid uptake. Our investigation showed that this precipitation is a crucial process for the timing of the bromine explosion in aerosols. Nevertheless, model runs with either 50% precipitation or complete precipitation displayed a relatively weak difference in ozone mixing ratios after four simulated days. By considering conditions typical for "Arctic Haze" pollution events at the start of the run we obtained a low pH in frost flower aerosols due to a greater mixing ratio of SO2, and a strong recycling efficiency via large aerosol number concentration. The aerosol acidification during a haze event most likely intensifies the ozone depletion strength and occurrence. The comparison between our modeled deposition on snow and sampled snow at Barrow (Alaska shows that approximately 75% of deposited bromine may be re-emitted into the gas phase as Br2/BrCl. Among several non-halogen fluxes from the snow, model simulations showed that only HONO affects the chemistry. Finally, we investigated the release of Br2 potentially produced by heterogeneous reactions directly on frost flowers. In this case, we obtained unrealistic results of aerosol compositions and deposition rates on snow compared to observations in the Arctic.

M. Piot

2007-04-01

280

The potential importance of frost flowers, recycling on snow, and open leads for ozone depletion events  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present model studies with the one-dimensional model MISTRA to investigate the potential role of frost flowers, recycling on snow, and open leads in the depletion of tropospheric ozone in the Arctic spring. In our model, we assumed frost flower aerosols to be the major source of bromine. We show that a major ozone depletion event can be satisfactorily reproduced only if the recycling on snow of deposited bromine into gas phase bromine is assumed. In the model, this cycling is more efficient than the bromine explosion process and maintains sufficiently high levels of bromine to deplete ozone down to few nmol mol?1 within four days. We assessed the influence of different surface combinations (open lead/frost flowers on the chemistry in the model. Results showed noticeable modifications affecting the composition of aerosols and the deposition velocities. A model run with a series of coupled frost flower fields and open leads, separated by large areas of snow, showed results comparable with field observations. In addition, we studied the effects of modified temperature of either the frost flower field or the ambient airmass. A warmer frost flower field increases the relative humidity and the aerosol deposition rate. The deposition/re-emission process gains in importance, inducing more reactive bromine in the gas phase, and a stronger ozone depletion. A decrease of 1K in airmass temperature shows in our model that the aerosol uptake capacities of all gas phase species substantially increases, leading to enhanced uptake of acids from the gas phase. Consequently, the so-called bromine explosion accelerated and O3 mixing ratios decreased. In our model representation, variations in wind speed affected the aerosol source function and influenced the amount of bromine in the atmosphere and thus the ozone depletion strength. Recent studies have suggested the important role of the precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 out of the brine layer for the possible acidification of the liquid phase by acid uptake. Our investigation showed that this precipitation is a crucial process for the timing of the bromine explosion in aerosols. Nevertheless, model runs with either 50% precipitation or complete precipitation displayed a relatively weak difference in ozone mixing ratios after four simulated days. By considering conditions typical for "Arctic Haze" pollution events at the start of the run we obtained a low pH in frost flower aerosols due to a greater mixing ratio of SO2, and a strong recycling efficiency via large aerosol number concentration. The aerosol acidification during a haze event most likely intensifies the ozone depletion strength and occurrence. The comparison between our modeled deposition on snow and sampled snow at Barrow (Alaska shows that approximately 75% of deposited bromine may be re-emitted into the gas phase as Br2/BrCl. Among several non-halogen fluxes from the snow, model simulations showed that only HONO affects the chemistry. Finally, we investigated the release of Br2 potentially produced by heterogeneous reactions directly on frost flowers. In this case, we obtained unrealistic results of aerosol compositions and deposition rates on snow compared to observations in the Arctic.

M. Piot

2008-05-01

 
 
 
 
281

Genetic variation in frost tolerance, juvenile growth and timber production in Russian larches (Larix Mill.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Larch (Larix sp Mill.) is an important component in boreal montane and subalpine forests in the northern hemisphere. Macrofossils of larch in the Scandinavian mountains prove the existence of larch in Scandinavia after the last ice age, Siberian or Russian larch is now considered as an indigenous tree species of Sweden. The larches of Russia are of interest for their production potential and wood quality. The aim of this thesis was to determine frost resistance, juvenile growth, stem straight...

2010-01-01

282

Short communication. Harvest time in hedgerow ‘Arbequina’ olive orchards in areas with early frosts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

[EN] The shortening of harvest time attained in hedgerow olive (Olea europaea L.) orchards represents an advantage for the adoption of this cropping system in areas that are prone to suffer frost during the harvest period. To establish an optimal harvesting window, we carried out a study of the fruit ripening process on a hedgerow orchard of ’Arbequina’ olive trees, located in Zaragoza (Spain). From 2007 to 2009, oil accumulation on the fruit (% of dry weight) and oil yield (grams of oil ...

Gracia Gimeno, Mari?a Pilar; Sa?nchez-gimeno, A. C.; Benito, Marta; Oria, Rosa; Lasa Dolhagaray, Jose? Manuel

2012-01-01

283

Alternative Energy Test Method for Frost-Free Refrigerators and Freezers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper outlines an alternative test method to evaluate the energy consumption of frost-free refrigerators and freezers for residential applications. While the standardized methods require the refrigerating appliance to be kept running according to its onboard control system, which usually drives the refrigerator through an on-off cycling pattern, the proposed approach assesses the refrigerator energy performance in the steady-state regime, being therefore much faster and more reliable. In...

2012-01-01

284

Restoring sedges and mosses into frost heaving iron fens, San Juan Mountains, Colorado  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rare iron fens in the San Juan Mountains of Colorado are frequently in poor condition due to mining, roads and ditches, which have left much of the fen completely bare of vegetation. Natural revegetation is slow to occur in the bare areas because of severe frost heave in the cold mountain climate. Therefore, experimental revegetation plots were conducted in a factorial design with mulching and no mulching, crossed with moss diaspores, sedge transplants, and moss and sedge combined. Mulching i...

2011-01-01

285

Modeling and Forecasting the Onset and Duration of Severe Radiation Fog under Frost Conditions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A case of a severe radiation fog during frost conditions is analyzed as a benchmark for the development of a very high resolution NWP model. Results by the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and the High resolution limited area model (HIRLAM) are evaluated against detailed observations to determine the state of the art in fog forecasting and to derive requirements for further research and development. For this particular difficult case, WRF is unable to correctly simulate the fog fo...

Velde, I. R.; Steeneveld, G. J.; Wichers Schreur, B. G. J.; Holtslag, A. A. M.

2010-01-01

286

Effects of frost on wildflowers: an unexpected consequence of climate change--image 11 of 22  

Science.gov (United States)

Results of a demographic study of Helianthella quinquenervis (aspen sunflower, Asteraceae) within plots at 2,900m at the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory. Note that seedlings are not common in most years, and the overall population seems to be declining. The lack of seedlings in most years is a consequence of frost damage to flower buds the previous year (so no seeds were produced). The population decline is an apparent consequence of reduced seed production.

Inouye, David

2012-01-04

287

Effects of frost on wildflowers: an unexpected consequence of climate change--image 17 of 22  

Science.gov (United States)

The glacier lily (Erythronium grandiflorum) is one of the earliest wildflowers to bloom after snowmelt in the Rocky Mountains. Its ovaries and seeds are sensitive to late-season frosts. But because the species is a perennial, it can survive occasional years of reproductive failure by blooming the following year. By avoiding the cost of producing the relatively large fruit and seeds in one year, the plant may have better survivorship and be able to produce more flowers the next year.

Inouye, David

2012-01-04

288

Simulación del depósito de Escarcha en superficies frías Simulation of Frost Deposit in Cold Surfaces  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se presenta un código computacional que simula la formación y crecimiento de escarcha sobre una placa mantenida a baja temperatura, por ablimación del vapor de agua de una corriente de aire húmedo que fluye sobre ella. La modelación se basa en ecuaciones de conservación de masa, energía, cantidad de movimiento y especies aplicadas a la escarcha, mezcla aire-vapor e interfase aire-escarcha. El sistema de ecuaciones resulta no lineal acoplado por la fracción volumétrica del hielo, que es calculada iterativamente. El modelo es validado frente a datos experimentales, permitiendo reproducir la evolución de propiedades termofísicas de la escarcha formada y predecir comportamientos para otras condiciones de operación. Los resultados revelan mejor concordancia con datos experimentales que la obtenida por otros autores, y levemente inferior a la del modelo de sobresaturación.The development of a computational code that simulates the formation and frost growth on a cool plate, for the vapor-water ablimation of a humid air current that flows on it, is presented. The numeric modeling is based on the conservation equations of mass, energy, momentum and species applied to the frost, air-vapor mixtures and air-frost interface. The system of equations is not linear and is coupled by the ice volumetric fraction which is calculated by iteration. The model is validated by comparing the numerical results with experimental data, reproducing the thermophysical properties evolution of the frost formed and predicting the behavior for other operating conditions. The results reveal better agreement with experimental data that those obtained by other authors, and slightly inferior to that of the supersaturation model.

Jorge A Gatica

2009-01-01

289

Use of Gibberellins to Improve Fruit Set in Pears After Frost Damage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of applied bioregulators on fruit set after this frost in April 2002, growth, yield and the incidence of Pseudomonas syringae and the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of fruit set by applying bioregulators shortly after full bloom at the Klein-Altendorf experimental station near Bonn, Germany with the following results. The best fruit set was achieved with both GA3 and GA3 plus 0.5l GA4+7

George Ouma

2008-01-01

290

Effects of frost on wildflowers: an unexpected consequence of climate change--image 02 of 22  

Science.gov (United States)

An example of a late spring frost and snow event at the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory, at 9,500 feet in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. This photograph was taken on 13 June 2001, when the temperature went down to 21.5 F, (-5.8 C). This cold period killed flower buds of several wildflower species that had already produced leaves and buds.

Inouye, David

2012-01-04

291

On the Relation between Air void system parameters and Salt frost scaling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An attempt to develop a tool based on analysis of the air void system in concrete for an early assessment of salt frost scaling resistance of concrete is presented. Relations between the air void system parameters and scaling are discussed. A new technique based on the accumulated surface area of all air voids is presented. This is a short description of the project. The full report is available from our division and also includes a) a study of the rate of...

Lindmark, Sture

2010-01-01

292

Penetration of chlorides in hardened concrete during frost salt scaling cycles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sixty samples from three concrete mixes (same components) were prepared and subjected to frost salt scaling cycles. A set of 20 samples from the same mix was tested according to the French standard XP P18-420. Another set was exposed to different chloride concentrations. Different numbers of freeze/thaw cycles were applied to the last set. The mass of scaled-off particles follows a lognormal distribution. Despite high standard deviation, this scaling test enables to separate high resist...

Bouteille S.; Fen Chong T.; Dierkens M.; Dangla P.; Moral N.; Boulanger S.

2010-01-01

293

ASSESSMENT OF CERAMIC TILE FROST RESISTANCE BY MEANS OF THE FREQUENCY INSPECTION METHOD  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper presents some results of our experimental analysis of ceramic cladding element frost resistance, particular attention being paid to the application of the frequency inspection method. Three different sets of ceramic tiles of the Ia class to EN 14 411 B standard made by various manufacturers have been analyzed. The ceramic tiles under investigation have been subjected to freeze-thaw-cycle-based degradation in compliance with the relevant ?SN EN ISO 10545-12 standard. Furthermore, ac...

2011-01-01

294

Numerical heat transfer model for frost protection of citrus fruits by water from a spraying system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A simplified model is developed to simulate the conditions associated with the protection of fruits from frost damage using water from a spraying system. The model simulates the movement of the solidifying water front on a single fruit, and based on that determines the spray frequency needed for a water film to continuously surround the ice-coated fruit to prevent the fruit temperature from dropping below 0ºC. Simulations are presented for the frost protection of sweet oranges (citrus sinensis. The effect of environmental conditions such as air temperature, air velocity, surface radiation and water film evaporation on the development of the ice layer encasing is considered. Simulations show the effect the encasing ice sheet thickness has on the fruit temperature if water from a spraying system is turned off permanently. Experimental tests are also conducted to determine the change in the thermal properties of citrus sinensis for operating temperatures that range from above freezing to sub-freezing. The results of the experimental tests and the numerical simulations shall lead to a better understanding of fruit protection from frost damage by the application of water from a spraying system.

Issa Roy J.

2012-01-01

295

Decadal predictability of frost days in the MPI-ESM-LR model  

Science.gov (United States)

The number of frost days (days with minimum temperature below 0°C) is a typical index for cold temperature extremes defined by the Joint CCl/CLIVAR/JCOMM Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI). It's predictability on inter-annual to decadal time scales bears economic and societal relevance, e.g. as basis for energy or agricultural policy planning. As part of the MiKlip initiative for decadal prediction, annually initialised ensemble hindcast experiments with the Max-Planck-Institute Earth System Model in a low resolution configuration (MPI-ESM-LR, T63L47) have been carried out. For a period of 35 years (1961-1995) we analyze the number of frost days per season and grid point on a 5° x 5° longitude-latitude grid for the northern hemisphere stemming from ten/three ensemble member hindcasts produced with two different initialisation strategies. The ensembles are interpreted as probabilistic predictions of historically equiprobable three-category events (below normal, normal, above normal) and as such are compared to frost day counts from HadEx2 and the 20th Century Reanalysis. Prediction skill over climatological forecasts and uninitialised climate projections is assessed for various lead times using the Ranked Probability Skill Score (RPSS).

Kröner, Igor; Kruschke, Tim; Rust, Henning W.; Ulbrich, Uwe

2014-05-01

296

The risk of early and late frost behavior in central México under El Niño conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish El problema de la presencia irregular de bajas temperaturas (heladas) en el centro de México (~19-23° N) causa pérdidas elevadas en la producción agrícola año tras año, afectando principalmente a cultivos que son sensibles a las temperaturas bajas con importantes implicaciones socioeconómicas. En el [...] centro de México, existe carencia de estudios sobre las heladas en relación a su duración especialmente en respuesta al fenómeno de El Niño (EN). Debido a la accidentada orografía del terreno las estaciones climatológicas se agruparon en rangos de 300 m de altura, resultando cinco regiones: I, III, IV-VI con elevaciones de 875 a 2999 msnm, conformadas por 50 estaciones con datos de temperaturas mínimas diarias ( Abstract in english The irregular occurrence of cold temperatures (frost) in central México (~19-23° N) produces high agricultural losses each year; the greatest effect is on cold-sensitive crops, which has important socio-economic implications for the region. There is a lack of information on frost-related studies reg [...] arding the onset and duration of frosts in central México, especially in response to the El Niño (EN) phenomenon. Due to the land's irregular topography, the weather stations were grouped into 300 m range heights, resulting in five regions: I, III, and IV-VI with elevations from 875 to 2999 masl. Daily minimum temperatures (

A. R, PERALTA-HERNÁNDEZ; L. R, BARBA-MARTÍNEZ.

297

Effects of frost on wildflowers: an unexpected consequence of climate change--image 10 of 22  

Science.gov (United States)

The number of flowers produced by the aspen sunflower (Helianthella quinquenervis) in a particular year is affected by the date of the start of the growing season, which is in turn influenced by the date that the winter snowpack melts. Years with low winter snowfall and warm springs have more rapid snowmelt and an earlier start to the growing season than years with a heavy snowpack or a cool spring. But each year, the last hard frost occurs in early - mid June, regardless of the snowmelt date.In years having an early start to the growing season (shown in blue), aspen sunflower plants had relatively few unfrosted flowers. In such years, the early snowmelt allows plants to start their growth early. They develop many buds that are filled by the late season frost. Thus, plants produce few flowers in those years.In years having a late start to the growing season (shown in red), aspen sunflower plants had many unfrosted flowers. In those years, the late snowmelt delayed the growth of plants. Thus, frost events in June had little impact on flower production because the plants had not produced buds by that time.As seen in Image 09, years of early snowmelt have been especially common in the past decade. Thus, plant populations have experienced poorer reproductive success than in previous decades.

Inouye, David

2012-01-04

298

Five second helium neutral beam injection using argon-frost cryopumping techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High power helium neutral beams for the heating of tokamak discharges can now be provided for 5 s by using argon cryopumping (of the helium gas) in the beamlines. The DIII-D neutral beam system has routinely provided up to 20 MW of deuterium neutral beam heating in support of experiments on the DIII-D tokamak. Operation of neutral beams with helium has historically presented a problem in that pulse lengths have been limited to 500 ms due to reliance solely on volume pumping of the helium gas. Helium is not condensed on the cryopanels. A system has now been installed to deposit a layer of argon frost on the DIII-D neutral beam cryopanels, between tokamak injection pulses. The layer serves to trap helium on the cryopanels providing sufficient pumping speed for 5 s helium beam extraction. The argon frosting hardware is now present on two of four DIII-D neutral beamlines, allowing injection of up to 6 MW of helium neutral beams per discharge, with pulse lengths of up to 5 s. The argon frosting system is described, along with experimental results demonstrating its effectiveness as a method of economically extending the capabilities of cryogenic pumping panels to allow multi-second helium neutral beam injection

1995-10-01

299

EVALUATION OF FROST INCIDENCE IN SOME COMPONENTS OF CORN PRODUCTIVITY (Zea mays L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the objective of evaluating the effects of the July 13th to 17th, 2.000 frosts on the production components and on the total protein content in the corn grains, reached by different growth stages, two studies were carried out in Picadinha District, in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul. Data were obtained and analyzed considering a complete randomized experimental design, with treatments arranged in 3x5 factorial scheme, corresponding to three places with five collecting per place, resulting in 15 treatments with 4 replications, for the Tork hybrid; whereas for the C 901 hybrid, treatments were arranged in a 2x5 factorial scheme, which corresponded to two locations with five sampling times, resulting in 10 treatments with 4 replications. For comparison among averages, the Duncan test at 5% probability was used. To evaluate the effect of collection periods, the model of polynomial regression was used and it was concluded that plants affected by frosts accumulated dry matter in grains until they reached physiology maturity. Accumulation of dry matter in grains is directly proportional to the damages caused in the leaf area of plants and to the development of grains during frost periods.

ANGELO CESAR AJALA XIMENES

2004-08-01

300

Aclimatação ao frio e dano por geada em canola / Acclimatization to cold and frost-injury in canola  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da aclimatação ao frio sobre o dano causado pela geada em diferentes estádios fenológicos de genótipos de canola. Foram realizados cinco experimentos em ambiente controlado, em 2006, 2007 e 2008. Os fatores avaliados foram: genótipos, aclimatação (c [...] om; sem), intensidades de geada, estádios de desenvolvimento de plantas, regimes de aclimatação e regimes de geada. As variáveis avaliadas foram: queima de folhas, massa de matéria seca, estatura de plantas, duração de subperíodo, componentes de rendimento e rendimento de grãos. A aclimatação ao frio, antes da geada, resultou em menor queima de folhas e maior massa de matéria seca, em comparação a plantas não aclimatadas. As geadas foram prejudiciais a partir de -6°C no início do ciclo de desenvolvimento, principalmente em plantas não aclimatadas, e a partir de -4ºC na floração, com redução do número de síliquas e do número de grãos por síliqua. A aclimatação após as geadas não contribuiu para a tolerância da canola a esse evento. Geadas consecutivas não acarretaram maior prejuízo à canola. A aclimatação de plantas de canola antes da geada reduz os danos, principalmente quando a geada ocorre no início do desenvolvimento das plantas. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of cold acclimatization on frost damage at different phenological stages of canola genotypes. Five experiments were carried out under controlled conditions, in 2006, 2007, and 2008. The evaluated factors were: genotypes, acclimatization (with; [...] without), frost gradient, plant developmental stages, acclimatization regimes and frost regimes. The evaluated variables were: leaf scorching symptoms, dry weight, plant height, length of subperiod, yield components and grain yield. The acclimatization before frost resulted in lesser leaf scorching symptoms and higher dry matter in comparison to plants not acclimated. Frosts were harmful from -6°C in early plant development stage, mainly in nonacclimated plants, and from -4ºC at flowering, reducing the number of pods and the number of grains per pod. Acclimatization after frost did not contribute to the tolerance of canola to frost. Consecutive frosts caused no greater impairment to canola. The canola acclimatization before frost reduces damage caused by it, mainly when the frost occur in the initial plant development stages.

Genei Antonio, Dalmago; Gilberto Rocca da, Cunha; Anderson, Santi; João Leonardo Fernandes, Pires; Alexandre Luiz, Müller; Laise Maria, Bolis.

 
 
 
 
301

Aclimatação ao frio e dano por geada em canola Acclimatization to cold and frost-injury in canola  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da aclimatação ao frio sobre o dano causado pela geada em diferentes estádios fenológicos de genótipos de canola. Foram realizados cinco experimentos em ambiente controlado, em 2006, 2007 e 2008. Os fatores avaliados foram: genótipos, aclimatação (com; sem, intensidades de geada, estádios de desenvolvimento de plantas, regimes de aclimatação e regimes de geada. As variáveis avaliadas foram: queima de folhas, massa de matéria seca, estatura de plantas, duração de subperíodo, componentes de rendimento e rendimento de grãos. A aclimatação ao frio, antes da geada, resultou em menor queima de folhas e maior massa de matéria seca, em comparação a plantas não aclimatadas. As geadas foram prejudiciais a partir de -6°C no início do ciclo de desenvolvimento, principalmente em plantas não aclimatadas, e a partir de -4ºC na floração, com redução do número de síliquas e do número de grãos por síliqua. A aclimatação após as geadas não contribuiu para a tolerância da canola a esse evento. Geadas consecutivas não acarretaram maior prejuízo à canola. A aclimatação de plantas de canola antes da geada reduz os danos, principalmente quando a geada ocorre no início do desenvolvimento das plantas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of cold acclimatization on frost damage at different phenological stages of canola genotypes. Five experiments were carried out under controlled conditions, in 2006, 2007, and 2008. The evaluated factors were: genotypes, acclimatization (with; without, frost gradient, plant developmental stages, acclimatization regimes and frost regimes. The evaluated variables were: leaf scorching symptoms, dry weight, plant height, length of subperiod, yield components and grain yield. The acclimatization before frost resulted in lesser leaf scorching symptoms and higher dry matter in comparison to plants not acclimated. Frosts were harmful from -6°C in early plant development stage, mainly in nonacclimated plants, and from -4ºC at flowering, reducing the number of pods and the number of grains per pod. Acclimatization after frost did not contribute to the tolerance of canola to frost. Consecutive frosts caused no greater impairment to canola. The canola acclimatization before frost reduces damage caused by it, mainly when the frost occur in the initial plant development stages.

Genei Antonio Dalmago

2010-09-01

302

Agricultural losses related to frost events: use of the 850 hPa level temperature as an explanatory variable of the damage cost  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study is to analyze frost damaging events in agriculture, by examining the relationship between the daily minimum temperature at the lower atmosphere (at the pressure level of 850 hPa) and crop production losses. Furthermore, the study suggests a methodological approach for estimating agriculture risk due to frost events, with the aim to estimate the short-term probability and magnitude of frost-related financial losses for different levels of 850 hPa t...

Papagiannaki, K.; Lagouvardos, K.; Kotroni, V.; Papagiannakis, G.

2014-01-01

303

THE EFFECT OF CULTIVAR AND BEARING TREE ON BUD DIFFERENTIATION, FROST DAMAGE AND FRUIT SET IN APPLE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After severe winter frost, an examination was initiated of frost damage suffered by Idared and Golden Delicious clone B. The cultivars differed significantly in the differentiation intensity, the hare of damaged differentiated buds, but not in share of damaged undifferentiated buds. In both cultivars the bud damage was more intensive on long bearing wood than on spur, regardless differentiation grade. The interaction between the cultivar and the bearing wood was insignificant. The flower bud differentiation was better in Idared, but it also suffered more frost damage than the Golden Delicious clone B with differentiated buds, but not than that with undifferentiated buds. In both cultivars frost damage increases with increase of differentiated flower buds (R2=0.759; P?0.001. The fruit set was within the limits of expectation only on the spurs of the Golden Delicious clone B, which showed strong tendency towards fruit set on long bearing shoots. In 2000, the yield of the cultivars was almost equal, as the result of thinning due to the frost damage on Idared.

Nikola Pavi?i?

2004-06-01

304

Changes of Frost Damage and Treeline Advance for Swiss Stone Pine in the Calimani Mts. (Eastern Carpathians, Romania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Checking the tree-ring structure of 39 living and 9 crossdated dead samples of Swissstone pine (Pinus cembra L. collected from the upper timberline of the CalimaniMts. we haveidentified 59 frost rings over the past 250 years. We found concentrated occurrence of frost events inthree decades: in the 1790s, 1810s and 1910s. No frost ring was observed in two bidecadal periods:1750-1770 and 1850-1870. Out of the analysed interval 1963-2004 is the longest period without frostring occurrence. After 1920 both frequency and severity of frost events seem to decrease compared tothe prior 170 years. We determined the altitude of highest growing stone pine individuals in theBradului Ciont–Pietrosu region in June, 2006. Individuals were sorted into tree-form or bush-likemorphological groups. Mean elevation data of the groups were corrected by an estimated constant biasof GPS measurements (-30 m. Comparing the corrected values to early 20th century inventory data65 m and 95 m upward migration was determined for treeline and boundary of bush-like occurence,respectively. The parallel results suggest that the 20th century advance of the upper forest limit wasdue to the decrease of frost stress at the zone of timberline.

KERN, Zoltán

2008-01-01

305

Development of a Frost Risk Assessment Tool in Agriculture for a Mediterranean ecosystem Utilizing MODIS satellite observations Geomatics and Surface Data  

Science.gov (United States)

Frost risk in Mediterranean countries is a critical factor in agricultural planning and management. Nowadays, the rapid technological developments in Earth Observation (EO) technology have improved dramatically our ability to map the spatiotemporal distribution of frost conditions over a given area and evaluate its impacts on the environment and society. In this study, a frost risk model for agricultural crops cultivated in a Mediterranean environment has been developed, based primarily on Earth Observation (EO) data from MODIS sensor and ancillary spatial and point data. The ability of the model to predict frost conditions has been validated for selected days on which frost conditions had been observed for a region in Northwestern Greece according to ground observations obtained by the Agricultural Insurance Organization (ELGA). An extensive evaluation of the frost risk model predictions has been performed herein to evaluate objectively its ability to predict the spatio-temporal distribution of frost risk in the studied region, including comparisons against physiographical factors of the study area. The topographical characteristics that were taken under consideration were latitude, altitude, slope steepness, topographic convergence and the extend of the areas influenced by water bodies (such as lake and sea) existing in the study area. Additional data were also used concerning land use data and vegetation classification (type and density). Our results showed that the model was able to produce reasonably the spatio-temporal distribution of the frost conditions in our study area, following largely explainable patterns in respect to the study site and local weather conditions characteristics. All in all, the methodology implemented herein proved capable in obtaining rapidly and cost-effectively cartography of the frost risk in a Mediterranean environment, making it potentially a very useful tool for agricultural management and planning. The model presented here has also a potential to enhance conventional field-based surveying for monitoring frost changes over long timescales. KEYWORDS: Earth Observation, MODIS, frost, risk assessment, Greece

Louka, Panagiota; Papanikolaou, Ioannis; Petropoulos, George; Migiros, George; Tsiros, Ioannis

2014-05-01

306

Liquid-infused nanostructured surfaces with extreme anti-ice and anti-frost performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ice-repellent coatings can have significant impact on global energy savings and improving safety in many infrastructures, transportation, and cooling systems. Recent efforts for developing ice-phobic surfaces have been mostly devoted to utilizing lotus-leaf-inspired superhydrophobic surfaces, yet these surfaces fail in high-humidity conditions due to water condensation and frost formation and even lead to increased ice adhesion due to a large surface area. We report a radically different type of ice-repellent material based on slippery, liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS), where a stable, ultrasmooth, low-hysteresis lubricant overlayer is maintained by infusing a water-immiscible liquid into a nanostructured surface chemically functionalized to have a high affinity to the infiltrated liquid and lock it in place. We develop a direct fabrication method of SLIPS on industrially relevant metals, particularly aluminum, one of the most widely used lightweight structural materials. We demonstrate that SLIPS-coated Al surfaces not only suppress ice/frost accretion by effectively removing condensed moisture but also exhibit at least an order of magnitude lower ice adhesion than state-of-the-art materials. On the basis of a theoretical analysis followed by extensive icing/deicing experiments, we discuss special advantages of SLIPS as ice-repellent surfaces: highly reduced sliding droplet sizes resulting from the extremely low contact angle hysteresis. We show that our surfaces remain essentially frost-free in which any conventional materials accumulate ice. These results indicate that SLIPS is a promising candidate for developing robust anti-icing materials for broad applications, such as refrigeration, aviation, roofs, wires, outdoor signs, railings, and wind turbines. PMID:22680067

Kim, Philseok; Wong, Tak-Sing; Alvarenga, Jack; Kreder, Michael J; Adorno-Martinez, Wilmer E; Aizenberg, Joanna

2012-08-28

307

Further laboratory study of the diffuse reflectance spectra of frosts occurring on astronomical objects  

Science.gov (United States)

Oligoclase and bloedite, two mined samples, have been investigated, and the diffuse reflectance spectra are presented. These data are for powdered material, 50 microns to 5 microns size mixture, cooled to 160 K. The reflectivity of the oligoclase sample was also measured at room temperature, about 290 K, and the results at these two temperatures do indicate some tentative differences. A frost of ordinary water was prepared and its spectral reflectance is presented. This result compares reasonably well with measurements made by other investigators.

Glaser, F. M.

1976-01-01

308

(Method and means for preventing frost damage to crops): Final technical report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report covers the activities regarding the design, construction and testing of the REICH Heater for providing frost protection to crops. The report covers the following grant objectives: Redesign and fabrication of an improved version of the REICH Heater, modification of existing field test facilities at the University of Florida, testing an upgraded version of the REICH Heater under actual field conditions, and design of a production version of the REICH Heater. A statement is included covering the present status of the ''commercialization'' of the REICH Heater.

1987-01-01

309

Coagulation of particles in Saturn's rings - Measurements of the cohesive force of water frost  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experimental data are presented on the sticking force of water ice particles which are indicative of the role that the cohesive properties of such particles could play in the dynamics of Saturn ring particles. Sticking forces are dependent on particle impact velocities; a Velcro model is devised to describe the surface structure involved in sticking. The data indicate that below the critical impact velocity of about 0.03 cm/sec, particle cohesion always occurs. Due to the optical depth of micron-sized grains in the Saturn rings, particles are hypothesized to be coated with a layer of frost which will render cohesion an important ring-dynamics process. 14 refs

1991-01-01

310

Determination of E and G Observables in n Photoproduction on the CLAS Frozen Spin Target (FROST)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polarization observables are vital for disentangling overlapping resonances in the baryon spectrum. Extensive data have been collected at Jefferson Lab in Hall B with circularly and linearly polarized tagged photon beam incident on longitudinally polarized protons provided by the Frozen Spin Target (FROST). The focus of the described work is on ? photoproduction, which acts as an "isospin filter", isolating the N*(I = 1/2) resonances. Preliminary results for the double-polarization observables E and G are presented. There are currently no data on these in the world database for ? photoproduction.

Senderovich, Igor [University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Morrison, Brian T. [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Dugger, Michael R. [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Ritchie, Barry G. [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Tucker, Ross J. [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States)

2014-01-01

311

Determination of E and G Observables in ? Photoproduction on the Clas Frozen Spin Target (frost)  

Science.gov (United States)

Polarization observables are vital for disentangling overlapping resonances in the baryon spectrum. Extensive data have been collected at Jefferson Lab in Hall B with circularly and linearly polarized tagged photon beam incident on longitudinally polarized protons provided by the Frozen Spin Target (FROST). The focus of the described work is on ? photoproduction, which acts as an "isospin filter", isolating the N*(I = 1/2) resonances. Preliminary results for the double-polarization observables E and G are presented. There are currently no data on these in the world database for ? photoproduction.

Senderovich, Igor; Morrison, B. T.; Dugger, M.; Ritchie, B.; Tucker, R.

2014-01-01

312

CLAS+FROST: new generation of photoproduction experiments at Jefferson Lab  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A large part of the experimental program in Hall B of the Jefferson Lab is dedicated to baryon spectroscopy. Photoproduction experiments are essential part of this program. CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) and availability of circularly and linearly polarized tagged photon beams provide unique conditions for this type of experiments. Recent addition of the Frozen Spin Target (FROST) gives a remarkable opportunity to measure double and triple polarization observables for different pseudo-scalar meson photoproduction processes. For the first time, a complete or nearly complete experiment becomes possible and will allow model independent extraction of the reaction amplitude. An overview of the experiment and its current status is presented.

2009-04-19

313

Evaluations on power ramp data of PWR fuels by FROST and THERMOST codes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Power ramp data of Mitsubishi's PWR fuel rods tested in R-2, Studsvik were analyzed by FROST and THERMOST codes. The predictions of both codes show relatively good agreement with many measurements during or after irradiation. Especially detailed behaviours of the fuel related to axial PCMI, such as rod elongation-relaxation during ramp test, are predicted successfully. Axial and radial deformations of claddings are simulated so well that calculated stresses in claddings are considered to be reliable. The ramp data used in present analyses were obtained in two joint programs with five Japanese PWR utilities (KEPCO, KYEPCO, SEPCO, HEPCO, and JAPCO). (author)

1984-12-01

314

Free convection oxygen vaporizer heat transfer as a function of relative humidity and frost buildup  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of free convection heat transfer tests were made to simulate oxygen vaporizer fintube performance as a function of controlled levels of relative humidity. Test runs were made for relative humidity values set at 20, 40, 60 and 80%. Each test started with a bare fintube and continued until approximately steady state conditions were reached. Frost buildup on the aluminum fintubes was tracked by a continuous video of each test. Plots of heat transfer rates measured in these tests provide data for designing the two-phase portions of liquid oxygen vaporizers for varying ambient humidity conditions.

McIntosh, G. E.; Haaf, K. L.; Moyers, J. A.

2014-01-01

315

Alternative energy conservation technologies in industrial freezers operating under frosting conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of some alternative energy conservation technologies in industrial freezers and refrigerated facilities that are prone to coil frosting problems. This effort will particularly target three distinct techniques, namely the use of heat pipe assisted heat exchangers, employing dampered coils and operating freezer coils at excessively high face velocities. The feasibility of these technologies will be explored both experimentally and analytically. The results will be supported by visual observations and images taken inside the laboratory freezer under study. (author)

Mago, P.J. [Mississippi State University (United States). Department of Mechanical Engineering; Sherif, S.A. [University of Florida, Gainesville (United States). Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

2003-10-01

316

CLAS+FROST: new generation of photoproduction experiments at Jefferson Lab  

CERN Multimedia

A large part of the experimental program in Hall B of the Jefferson Lab is dedicated to baryon spectroscopy. Photoproduction experiments are essential part of this program. CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) and availability of circularly and linearly polarized tagged photon beams provide unique conditions for this type of experiments. Recent addition of the Frozen Spin Target (FROST) gives a remarkable opportunity to measure double and triple polarization observables for different pseudo-scalar meson photoproduction processes. For the first time, a complete or nearly complete experiment becomes possible and will allow model independent extraction of the reaction amplitude. An overview of the experiment and its current status is presented.

Pasyuk, Eugene

2009-01-01

317

Extreme values in the water rivers flow evolution, caused by extreme variations of precipitation, water frost or karst  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, there are presented special situations occurred in the evolution of the water rivers flow, caused by different factors: extreme variations of precipitation, important volumes of ice stored in thick ice layers, raising of large levels determined by the presence of the ice jams, infiltrations, strong exsurgence from the karstic area. For every situation are presented concrete examples met on some rivers of Romania. The studies led to the specification of the factors that determined these extreme situations. This specification was made quantitatively on the basis of the relations established between these extreme values of the flow and the characteristics of the factors that determined them. Thus, in the case of small rivers from the eastern part of Romania, with areas till 15-20 km2 is presented first the flow regime, characterized through long periods of drought, over 100-50 days per year, on which there are overlapped rare but very strong floods. There are also presented situations when in melt snow periods, of only 10-15 days, are realised water volumes, which represent 70-75% of the annual stock of the flow. This is the direct effect of the excessive continental climate specific to this area. The analysis was materialized through the establishment of the dependence of drought phenomenon moment and duration to the precipitation quantity, taking into consideration the soil humidity before the drought phenomenon occurrence. The characteristics of the maximum flow were determined on the basis of precipitation characteristics in the context of their torrential regime, especially in the framework of small hydrographic basins conditions. For illustrating the remarkable diminishing of the water discharge due to the freezing on some rivers from Transylvania and Northern Moldavia, there were first established the sectors the most affected by the frost. In this purpose, there were obtained relations between the maximum thickness of the ice layers and the characteristics of the air temperature. Depending on the thickness of these layers and the time intervals in which they were formed, there were established the water volumes and, implicitly, the water discharges stored in ices. The results demonstrate that the water volumes stored in ices could lead to decreases of the discharges till almost the total frost, even on some large rivers of the country. The ice jams represent a problem analysed in detail in the framework of this work, as well. First, there are presented the most favourable sectors of ice jams forming on some rivers and even on the Danube. The analysis results highlight the producing of levels rising of over 3m, in the case of some inland rivers and of more than 5 m on the Danube, as it has happened in some severe winters of years. Regarding the karst influence upon the surface flow variation, the analysis points out its radical role, namely the total disappearance of some rivers in the underground but also the appearance of some very strong rivers in this kind of areas. The used methods-discharges measurements in characteristic points, the marking with tracers or with hydrological methods-gave the possibility to establish the direction of the ground water flow and, on the whole, the quantitative influence of various karst areas upon the surface flow in some hydrographic basins.(Author)

2004-05-25

318

Effects of fin pitch and array of the frost layer growth on extended surface of a heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the effects of the fin array and pitch on the frost layer growth of a heat exchanger. The numerical results are compared with experimental data of a cold plate to validate the present model, and agree well with experimental data within a maximum error of 8%. The characteristics of the frost formation on staggered fin array are somewhat different from those of in-line array. For fin pitch below 10 mm, the frost layer growth of second fin in the staggered array is affected by that of first fin. The heat transfer of single fin deteriorate with decreasing fin pitch regardless of fin array, however, the thermal performance of a heat exchanger, considering increase of heat surface area, becomes better

2003-04-23

319

Effects of fin pitch and array of the frost layer growth on extended surface of a heat exchanger  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the effects of the fin array and pitch on the frost layer growth of a heat exchanger. The numerical results are compared with experimental data of a cold plate to validate the present model, and agree well with experimental data within a maximum error of 8%. The characteristics of the frost formation on staggered fin array are somewhat different from those of in-line array. For fin pitch below 10 mm, the frost layer growth of second fin in the staggered array is affected by that of first fin. The heat transfer of single fin deteriorate with decreasing fin pitch regardless of fin array, however, the thermal performance of a heat exchanger, considering increase of heat surface area, becomes better.

Yang, Dong Keun; Lee, Kwan Soo [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2003-07-01

320

First-year sea-ice contact predicts bromine monoxide (BrO) levels better than potential frost flower contact  

Science.gov (United States)

Reactive halogens are responsible for boundary-layer ozone depletion and mercury deposition in Polar Regions during springtime. To investigate the source of reactive halogens in the air arriving at Barrow, Alaska, we measured BrO, a marker of reactive halogen chemistry, and correlated its abundance with airmass histories derived from meteorological back trajectories and remotely sensed sea ice properties. The BrO is found to be positively correlated to first-year sea-ice contact (R2=0.55), and weakly negatively correlated to potential frost flower (PFF) contact (R2=0.04). These data indicate that snow contaminated with sea salts on first-year sea ice is a more probable bromine source than are frost flowers. Recent climate-driven changes in Arctic sea ice are likely to alter frost flower and first year sea ice prevalence, suggesting a significant change in reactive halogen abundance, which will alter the chemistry of the overlying Arctic atmosphere.

Simpson, W. R.; Carlson, D.; Hoenninger, G.; Douglas, T. A.; Sturm, M.; Perovich, D.; Platt, U.

2006-11-01

 
 
 
 
321

Evaluación de daños por heladas tardías en ensayos de procedencias de pino oregón introducidos en el norte de la Región Andino Patagónica Argentina / Evaluation of damage by late frosts in provenances trials of Douglas-fir introduced in Argentinian North Patagonia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La susceptibilidad a las heladas tardías de la fuente de semilla actualmente utilizada es una de las principales características adaptativas que limitan la ampliación del área de plantación de pino oregón (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) en la Región Norpatagónica de la Argentina. En dos ensay [...] os de procedencias de esta especie se registró el daño provocado por heladas de primavera de hasta -7º C de mínima absoluta. En ambos ensayos se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos. En el ensayo en el que se registraron mínimas más rigurosas pudieron establecerse correlaciones altamente significativas entre el porcentaje de daño por heladas con la longitud (r = 0,86) y altitud (r = - 0,75) del origen de la semilla, y una menor asociación con la altura media de las plantas en vivero (r = 0,55) y la latitud de origen (r = 0,44). Considerando que los orígenes costeros son los de mayor potencial de crecimiento, estos resultados indican que la selección en base a ese único criterio podría producir una selección indirecta de genotipos susceptibles. Finalmente se recomienda la evaluación simultánea de rendimiento y susceptibilidad para extender el cultivo de la especie hacia áreas de mayor riesgo de heladas. Abstract in english The susceptibility to late frost of the seed source used for afforestations at the moment it is one of the main adaptatives characteristic limiting the increase of the planted area of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in Argentinien North Patagonia Region. In two provenances trials [...] of this species we registered frost injury caused by absolute minimum temperature of -7º C during spring. In both sites we found significant differences among treatments. We found a strong correlation between the percentage of frost injury and seed source longitude (r = 0.86) and with seed source altitude (r = 0.75) in the trail that registered the most rigorous minimum. In this trial we found also a weaker association with nursery mean heights (r = 0.55) and the origin latitude (r = 0.44). Considering that coastal origins are those of better potential growth, selection based only growth criteria could produce an indirect selection of susceptible genotypes. Finally we recommend the simultaneous evaluation of yield and susceptibility to be able to extend the specie cultivation towards other areas with increased frost risks.

ALEJANDRO, MARTINEZ MEIER; VICTOR, MONDINO; LEONARDO, GALLO.

322

Evaluación de daños por heladas tardías en ensayos de procedencias de pino oregón introducidos en el norte de la Región Andino Patagónica Argentina Evaluation of damage by late frosts in provenances trials of Douglas-fir introduced in Argentinian North Patagonia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La susceptibilidad a las heladas tardías de la fuente de semilla actualmente utilizada es una de las principales características adaptativas que limitan la ampliación del área de plantación de pino oregón (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco en la Región Norpatagónica de la Argentina. En dos ensayos de procedencias de esta especie se registró el daño provocado por heladas de primavera de hasta -7º C de mínima absoluta. En ambos ensayos se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos. En el ensayo en el que se registraron mínimas más rigurosas pudieron establecerse correlaciones altamente significativas entre el porcentaje de daño por heladas con la longitud (r = 0,86 y altitud (r = - 0,75 del origen de la semilla, y una menor asociación con la altura media de las plantas en vivero (r = 0,55 y la latitud de origen (r = 0,44. Considerando que los orígenes costeros son los de mayor potencial de crecimiento, estos resultados indican que la selección en base a ese único criterio podría producir una selección indirecta de genotipos susceptibles. Finalmente se recomienda la evaluación simultánea de rendimiento y susceptibilidad para extender el cultivo de la especie hacia áreas de mayor riesgo de heladas.The susceptibility to late frost of the seed source used for afforestations at the moment it is one of the main adaptatives characteristic limiting the increase of the planted area of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco in Argentinien North Patagonia Region. In two provenances trials of this species we registered frost injury caused by absolute minimum temperature of -7º C during spring. In both sites we found significant differences among treatments. We found a strong correlation between the percentage of frost injury and seed source longitude (r = 0.86 and with seed source altitude (r = 0.75 in the trail that registered the most rigorous minimum. In this trial we found also a weaker association with nursery mean heights (r = 0.55 and the origin latitude (r = 0.44. Considering that coastal origins are those of better potential growth, selection based only growth criteria could produce an indirect selection of susceptible genotypes. Finally we recommend the simultaneous evaluation of yield and susceptibility to be able to extend the specie cultivation towards other areas with increased frost risks.

ALEJANDRO MARTINEZ MEIER

2005-12-01

323

Robert Frost's Chicken Feathers and Other Lectures from the 1968 Augustana College NDEA English Institute. Augustana College Press Monograph Series No. 1.  

Science.gov (United States)

The four lectures in this publication were composed with the common concern for making the study of high school English more effective and more delightful. Papers are (1) "Robert Frost's Chicken Feathers" by C. W. Geyer (discusses the influence of oral folklore and humor on Frost's poetry); (2) "Nature in Literature" by Gerhard T. Alexis; (3)…

Huseboe, Arthur R., Ed.

324

Association analysis of frost tolerance in rye (Secale cereale L.) using candidate gene polymorphisms and phenotypic data from controlled, semi-controlled, and field phenotyping platforms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Frost tolerance is an important breeding goal of cereal breeding in the temperate climate zone. Main emphasis of this study was to identify and characterize allelic diversity for frost tolerance in rye. Genetic variation of frost tolerance was investigated in 201 winter rye genotypes from different populations using a candidate gene-based association analysis based on three different phenotyping platforms. Significant associations between frost tolerance and DNA polymorphisms were identified ...

Li, Yongle

2012-01-01

325

Performance comparison of air source heat pump with R407C and R22 under frosting and defrosting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dynamic performance characteristics of the air source heat pump (ASHP) with refrigerants R22 and R407C during frosting and defrosting are studied. The results show that both refrigerant systems have similar performance characteristics, except that the performance of the R407C system deteriorated faster than that of the R22 system under frosting, and the performance of the R407C system attains its steady state faster than that of the R22 system after defrosting. R407C refrigerant can be used in either existing systems or in new systems that were originally designed for R22

2008-02-01

326

The FROST code for predicting in-reactor behaviours of LWR fuel rod  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

FROST (Fuel Rod Stress Analysis) is a computor code which analyzes irradiation behaviours - especially the stresses and strains - of a fuel rod for LWR. The handling of dynamics of the code is essentially based on well-known CYGRO code which deals with one axial segment of a rod. However, the capability of FROST has further been extended so that it could handle the axial variation effect such as axial power shape, fission gas pressure and axial PCI by applying the above one-segmental mechanics to all the axial segments of a rod. In addition, most of the models describing the phenomena were replaced by relatively recent LWR based correlations. In this code, a fuel rod is divided into desired number of axial segments and radial rings for both pellet and clad. Every phenomenon occurring in an elementary ring is reduced to the dimensional change of the ring, and the overall deformation of one axial segment is calculated by using the finite element method. Then all the segments are axially connected together with a plenum to calculate fission gas pressure and axial PCI. The latter is done by newly developed axial interaction model which can deal with the plenum spring and pellet-pellet axial gaps, in addition to the usual mechanisms of sticking and slipping. These procedures are repeated following the irradiation history, and in the course of them, the deformations, stresses, strains and the other phenomena are calculated. (orig.)

1979-08-21

327

Frost damage to eucalypts in a short-rotation forestry trial in Cumbria (England  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cold is the main climatic constraint to planting eucalypts in Britain and the winter of 2009-2010, the coldest in thirty years, proved particularly challenging for their survival. Damage to transplants planted in May 2009 of two species of eucalypts, Eucalyptus gunnii and Eucalyptus nitens, were assessed over the winter of 2009/2010 at a trial in Cumbria, northern England. Larger trees were found to have exhibited less cold damage by the end of January 2010, but by May there were no significant differences in survival due to tree size. By late January, there were statistically significant differences in damage between E. gunnii and E. nitens with the former being more cold tolerant. However, damage at the end of January, after minimum temperatures of -14 oC, did not appear serious, yet by May the survival of E. gunnii was 37% and for E. nitens was less than 1%. As larger trees exhibited relatively less frost damage it is recommended that intensive silviculture be practiced to ensure trees are between 1 and 1.5 m tall prior to their first winter to reduce the extent of damage through frost.

Leslie AD

2014-06-01

328

Frost Growth and Densification on a Flat Surface in Laminar Flow with Variable Humidity  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiments are performed concerning frost growth and densification in laminar flow over a flat surface under conditions of constant and variable humidity. The flat plate test specimen is made of aluminum-6031, and has dimensions of 0.3 mx0.3 mx6.35 mm. Results for the first variable humidity case are obtained for a plate temperature of 255.4 K, air velocity of 1.77 m/s, air temperature of 295.1 K, and a relative humidity continuously ranging from 81 to 54%. The second variable humidity test case corresponds to plate temperature of 255.4 K, air velocity of 2.44 m/s, air temperature of 291.8 K, and a relative humidity ranging from 66 to 59%. Results for the constant humidity case are obtained for a plate temperature of 263.7 K, air velocity of 1.7 m/s, air temperature of 295 K, and a relative humidity of 71.6 %. Comparisons of the data with the author's frost model extended to accommodate variable humidity suggest satisfactory agreement between the theory and the data for both constant and variable humidity.

Kandula, M.

2012-01-01

329

Frost-acclimation of photosynthesis in overwintering Mediterranean holm oak, grown in Central Europe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As a consequence of global change, forestry in Central Europe has to expect and be prepared for an increase of hot and dry summers in the near future. In two model plantations of the Mediterranean holm oak (Quercus ilex L. in Central Europe (Rhine-Main basin we tested its potential as a future forestry tree for drought-threatened stands by studying its overwintering strategy under harsh winter conditions. During prolonged frost periods, chronic photoinhibition was developed, which lasted until the end of the frost period. Nearly all plants survived minimum temperatures of - 16 to -18°C and their photosynthetic apparatus recovered completely during late winter. A detailed study of the temperature dependence of chlorophyll (chl fluorescence parameters of the OJIP test revealed statistically significant correlations between minimum temperature and maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (Fv/Fm, absorption rate/reaction centre (ABS/RC, dissipation rate/reaction centre (DI0/RC and electron transport rate/reaction centre (ET0/RC as well as with the deepoxidation state (DES of the xanthophyll pigments. The DES correlated with Fv/Fm, ABS/RC, DI0/RC and ET0/RC. It is concluded, that from the point of view of the winter hardiness of the photosynthetic apparatus, Q. ilex should be further investigated as a potential future forestry tree also for very dry and warm stands in Central Europe under the scenarios of climate change.

Ellen Pflug

2012-03-01

330

Elevated CO(sub 2) and development of frost hardiness in Norway spruce (picea abies (L.) Karst.).  

Science.gov (United States)

This thesis discusses controlled laboratory experiments carried out to study the effects of CO(sub 2) pollution on Norwegian spruce. It was found that elevated CO(sub 2) increased height growth and biomass production. It slightly increased frost hardiness...

L. S. Dalen

1998-01-01

331

Dimensionality and Typology of Perfectionism: The Use of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale with Chinese Gifted Students in Hong Kong  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the dimensionality and typology of perfectionism based on the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale with a sample of 380 Chinese gifted students in Hong Kong. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a five-dimensional model that includes constructs of personal standards, parental expectations, parental criticism,…

Chan, David W.

2009-01-01

332

Predicting spring phenology and frost damage risk of Betula spp. under climatic warming: a comparison of two models  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Uncertainties of phenological predictions and frost damage risk under climatic warming attributable to differences between two climatic model structures are discussed. Two existing models of phenological timing of boreal trees were used to forecast the timing and frost damage risk of newly unfolded leaves of birches in central Finland. The two models (the chilling-triggered and light-climate-triggered models) gave radically different estimates of frost damage in response to climatic warming. The chilling-triggered model forecast a significant and increasing risk with increased warming, the light-climate-triggered model predicted little or no risk. The different estimates of bud burst and frost damage risk in response to warming climate from the two models suggest that our knowledge of spring phenology is an insufficient basis upon which to make reliable forecasts. Although there is a suspicion that certain mechanisms are omitted or poorly represented in the models, nevertheless, experiments with exotic plants demonstrate the great acclimation capacity of many perennial plants. Based on this, it is possible to postulate that plants are more resilient that hitherto believed, that the effects of climatic warming are overestimated, and that acclimation and the adaptive capacity of plants may greatly reduce the harmful effects of climatic warming. 36 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

Linkosalo, T.; Hari, P. [Helsinki Univ., Dept. of Forest Ecology (Finland); Carter, T. R. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Hakkinen, R. [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

2000-11-01

333

Peripheral capillary nonperfusion and full-field electroretinographic changes in eyes with frosted branch-like appearance retinal vasculitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Yoshitsugu Matsui, Hideyuki Tsukitome, Eriko Uchiyama, Yuko Wada, Tatsuya Yagi, Hisashi Matsubara, Mineo KondoDepartment of Ophthalmology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, JapanAbstract: We report a patient with frosted branch-like appearance retinal vasculitis associated with peripheral capillary nonperfusion and full-field electroretinographic changes. A 62-year-old man presented with sudden bilateral decreased vision accompanied by headaches. His best-corrected visual acuity was 0.01 in both eyes. Fundus examination and fluorescein angiography showed bilateral frosted branch-like appearance retinal vasculitis, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography showed severe macular edema in both eyes. The cerebrospinal fluid analyses showed an increased lymphocyte count and protein levels. He was treated with systemic corticosteroid therapy, and his best-corrected visual acuity improved to 0.8 OD and 1.0 OS at 6 months after onset. However, fluorescein angiography showed a lack of capillary perfusion in the periphery, and the oscillatory potentials on full-field electroretinography were severely reduced in both eyes. These findings indicated extensive retinal ischemia and inner retinal dysfunction, and that fluorescein angiography and full-field electroretinograms can be useful during follow-up of eyes with frosted branch-like appearance retinal vasculitis.Keywords: frosted branch angiitis, aseptic meningitis, optical coherence tomography, electroretinogram, oscillatory potentials

Matsui Y

2013-01-01

334

Psychometric Properties of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale with Australian Adolescent Girls: Clarification of Multidimensionality and Perfectionist Typology  

Science.gov (United States)

The psychometric properties of the Frost, Marten, Lahart, and Rosenblate Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (1990) are investigated to determine its usefulness as a measurement of perfectionism with Australian secondary school girls and to find empirical support for the existence of both healthy and unhealthy types of perfectionist students.…

Hawkins, Colleen C.; Watt, Helen M. G.; Sinclair, Kenneth E.

2006-01-01

335

Effects of Condensate and Initial Formation of Thin Frost Layer on Evaporator Coil Performance of Room Air-Conditioners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated experimentally and theoretically, how condensate and initial formation of a thin frost layer on thesurface of the evaporator affects the evaporator performance of room air-conditioners compared to dry coil conditions. The theoretically obtained results were validated with the measured values in both wet and initial frost formation conditions and a good correlation was found. The results indicated that, at the same range of change in face velocity value, the total conductivity of a dry coil (UA dry is increased by 38.8%. However, when it is combined with an increase in latent heat to the evaporator total cooling capacity ratio value (Qlat/Q of 10.6%, the total conductivity of wet coil (UA wet is 45.4%. These results clearly indicate that the evaporator coil is characterized by higher performance under wet conditions compared to dry coil conditions. The results also show that the total conductivity after initial formation of a thin frost layer (UA Fr has a higher value by about 8.2% than the dry coil condition. Moreover, the degradation in the evaporator coil performance underthin frost with a thickness up to one mm is only about 6.7%.

Ahmed Hamza H. Ali

2007-12-01

336

Soil physical properties affecting soil erosion in tropical soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The total vegetated land area of the earth is about 11,500 hectare. Of this, about 12% is in South America. Of this, about 14% is degraded area. Water erosion, chemical degradation, wind erosion, and physical degradation have been reported as main types of degradation. In South America water erosion is a major process for soil degradation. Nevertheless, water erosion can be a consequence of degradation of the soil structure, especially the functional attributes of soil pores to transmit and retain water, and to facilitate root growth. Climate, soil and topographic characteristics determine runoff and erosion potential from agricultural lands. The main factors causing soil erosion can be divided into three groups: Energy factors: rainfall erosivity, runoff volume, wind strength, relief, slope angle, slope length; Protection factors: population density, plant cover, amenity value (pressure for use) and land management; and resistance factors: soil erodibility, infiltration capacity and soil management. The degree of soil erosion in a particular climatic zone, with particular soils, land use and socioeconomic conditions, will always result from a combination of the above mentioned factors. It is not easy to isolate a single factor. However, the soil physical properties that determine the soil erosion process, because the deterioration of soil physical properties is manifested through interrelated problems of surface sealing, crusting, soil compaction, poor drainage, impeded root growth, excessive runoff and accelerated erosion. When an unprotected soil surface is exposed to the direct impact of raindrops it can produce different responses: Production of smaller aggregates, dispersed particles, particles in suspension and translocation and deposition of particles. When this has occurred, the material is reorganized at the location into a surface seal. Aggregate breakdown under rainfall depends on soil strength and a certain threshold kinetic energy is needed to start detachment. Studies on necessary kinetic energy to detach one kilogram of sediments by raindrop impact have shown that the minimum energy is required for particles of 0.125 mm. Particles between 0.063 to 0.250 mm are the most vulnerable to detachment. This means that soils with high content of particles into vulnerable range, for example silty loam, loamy, fine sandy, and sandy loam are the most susceptible soils to detachment. Many aspects of soil behaviour in the field such as hydraulic conductivity water retention, soil crusting, soil compaction, and workability are influenced strongly by the primary particles. In tropical soils also a negative relation between structure stability and particles of silt, fine sand and very fine sand has been found, this is attributed to low cohesiveness of these particles. The ability of a structure to persist is known as its stability. There are two principal types of stability: the ability of the soil to retain its structure under the action of water, and the ability of the soil to retain its structure under the action of external mechanical stresses. (e.g. by wheels). Both types of stability are related with susceptibility to erosion

2004-05-01

337

REDES NEURONALES PARA MODELAR PREDICCIÓN DE HELADAS / Neural networks for modeling frost prediction  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se desarrollaron modelos basados en redes neuronales del tipo "backpropagation", para predecir la ocurrencia de heladas, a partir de datos meteorológicos de temperatura, humedad relativa, nubosidad, dirección y velocidad del viento. El entrenamiento y la validación de las redes se re [...] alizaron utilizando 24 años de datos meteorológicos correspondientes a la estación de Río Cuarto, Córdoba, Argentina, separados en 10 años como conjunto de datos de entrenamiento y 14 como conjunto de datos de validación. Se construyeron diferentes modelos para evaluar el comportamiento de las redes cuando se usan distintos números de variables de entrada y/o neuronas en la capa oculta y las probabilidades de aciertos en los resultados de predicción para los mismos, al considerar distintas variables de entrada. En los modelos realizados, el porcentaje de días con error de pronóstico fue de 2%, aproximadamente, para 14 años de aplicación; cuando se consideran días de heladas efectivas no pronosticadas los porcentajes oscilan entre un 10% y un 23%, para el mismo período. Los resultados de la simulación muestran el buen desempeño y la pertinencia general de esta metodología en la estimación de fenómenos de comportamiento no lineal como las heladas Abstract in english In this work models based on neural networks of the backpropagation type were developed in order to predict the occurrence of frosts from meteorological data such as temperature, relative humidity, cloudiness and wind direction and speed. The training and the validation of the networks were made on [...] the basis of 24 years of meteorological data corresponding to the Río Cuarto station, Córdoba, Argentina. These data were grouped as follows: 10 years for the training data set and 14 years for the validation data set. Different models were built to evaluate the performance of the networks when different numbers of input variables and/or neurons in the hidden layer are used, and the probabilities of success in the prediction results on considering different input variables. In the models used, the percentage of days with prediction error was 2%, approximately, for the 14 years of application; when effective frosts days are considered the percentage varies between 10 and 23%, for the same period. The simulation results demonstrated the good performance and the relevance of this methodology for the estimation of the behavior of non-linear phenomena like frosts.

Gustavo, Ovando; Mónica, Bocco; Silvina, Sayago.

338

An experimental study on the effects of design factors for the performance of fin-tube heat exchanger under frosting conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, the effects of design factors of finned-tube heat exchanger, such as fin spacing and fin array on the frost growth and heat exchanger performance are investigated under a frosting condition. The results show that the amount of frost, frost density and blockage ratio of air flow passage increase with decreasing fin spacing. Heat transfer rate increases momentarily at the initial stage of frosting and then decreases. After that heat transfer rate continues to increase again to reach a maximum value and then decreases dramatically. It is shown that the time required for heat transfer rate to reach a maximum value becomes shorter with decreasing fin spacing, and after a maximum value, heat transfer rate decreases very fast. The maximum allowable blockage ratio is introduced to determine the operation limit of a finned-tube heat exchanger operating under frosting condition and is obtained as a function of fin spacing. It is also shown that heat transfer rate of heat exchanger with staggered fin array increases about 17% and the amount of pressure drop of air increases about 1{approx}2 mmH{sub 2}O, compared with those of in-line type heat exchanger under frosting condition. (author). 13 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

Lee, K.S.; Kim, W.S. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, T.H. [Hanyang University Graduate School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1995-10-01

339

Experimental Method of Soil Classification According to Degree of Freezing (Methode Experimentale de Classement des Sols Selon leur degre de Galivite).  

Science.gov (United States)

On certain, so-called 'easily freezing soils,' the frost produces a major change in the structure which, during and after the thaw, brings about a decrease in their mechanical resistance. The report describes the installation which was developed and which...

A. Dupas J. Aguirre-Puente

1972-01-01

340

Research on frost formation in air source heat pump at cold-moist conditions in central-south China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ?A dynamic evaporator model is built up. ? The model involves the ratio of the latent heat to sensible heat of wet air. ?A correlation considering deq is shown below to predict frost accumulation: (Mfrv3)/(?deq2) =((Ta)/(Tw) )0.1((v?)/(deq) )0.7(l/(deq) )1.378Xa1.228. ?The changing ratio can characterize the early development of system performance. ?The changing ratio can characterize the early development of frost accumulation. -- Abstract: A dynamic evaporator model of air source heat pump (ASHP), considering the ratio of the latent heat to sensible heat of wet air, is presented to analyze the performance of ASHP under frosting. The performance parameters, such as the heating capacity, COP and the outlet temperature of compressor, are simulated with CYCLEPAD. Then a semi-empirical correlation that predicts frost accumulation on the air-side of fin-tube heat exchanger is developed with dimensionless analysis and also modified by a test conducted under cold-moist conditions in winter. In addition, eight influence factors are considered involving the ambient conditions and structures of heat exchanger, whose effects are analyzed as well. Among them, the equivalent diameter of air flow cross-section in fin-tube deq is especially proposed. Lastly, the relationships between the ratio, the performance parameters and the frost accumulation are discussed in this paper, followed by an evaluation of an optimal defrosting time interval to improve the ASHP’s energy efficiency and operational reliability at cold-moist conditions in central-south China.

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
341

The role of the observed tropical convection in the generation of frost events in the southern cone of South America  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on previous results obtained from observations and linear wave theory analysis, the hypothesis that large-scale patterns can generate extreme cold events in southeast South America through the propagation of remotely excited Rossby waves was already suggested. This work will confirm these findings and extend their analysis through a series of numerical experiments using a primitive equation model where waves are excited by a thermal forcing situated in positions chosen according to observed convection anomalies over the equatorial region. The basic state used for these experiments is a composite of austral winters with maximum and minimum frequency of occurrence of generalized frosts that can affect a large area known as the Wet Pampas located in the central and eastern part of Argentina.

The results suggest that stationary Rossby waves may be one important mechanism linking anomalous tropical convection with the extreme cold events in the Wet Pampas. The combination of tropical convection and a specific basic state can generate the right environment to guide the Rossby waves trigged by the tropical forcing towards South America. Depending on the phase of the waves entering the South American continent, they can favour the advection of anomalous wind at low levels from the south carrying cold and dry air over the whole southern extreme of the continent, producing a generalized frost in the Wet Pampa region. On the other hand, when a basic state based on the composites of minimum frosts is used, an anomalous anticyclone over the southern part of the continent generates a circulation with a south-southeast wind which brings maritime air and therefore humidity over the Wet Pampas region, creating negative temperature anomalies only over the northeastern part of the region. Under these conditions even if frosts occur they would not be generalized, as observed for the other basic state with maximum frequency of occurrence of generalized frosts.

G. V. Müller

2008-06-01

342

Influence of sulphur dioxide and frost on spruces (Picea-abies (L) Karst)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After fumigation with experimentally generated low concentration of sulphur dioxide and sublethal freezing during the winter season the following changes could be noted with young spruces in autumn, shortly before, and in spring, at the end of the growing season: as a consequence of immission stress a depression of the net photosynthesis occurred without the stomata regulation capability being impaired. In spring the starch content of young shoots of the last year increased much less than that of the control plants. There was an increase of the electrolyte content within the diffusate from last-year shoots and the carbohydrate exsudation from roots as well. Freezing generally enhanced the permeation of substances from young shoots and roots, especially with plants exposed to SO/sub 2/. It is supposed that the increased frost sensitivity of SO/sub 2/ - stressed plants is associated with a disturbance of controllability of the membrane permeability.

Michael, G.; Feiler, S.; Ranft, H.; Tesche, M.

1982-01-01

343

Results of the radiological survey at 5 Frost Place, Albany, New York (AL184)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A number of properties in the Albany/Colonie area have been identified as being potentially contaminated with uranium originating from the former National Lead Company's uranium forming plant in Colonie, New York. The property at 5 Frost Place in Albany, New York (AL184) was the subject of a radiological investigation initiated July 24, 1986. The residential property consists of a two-story frame house located on a rectangular lot. An asphalt driveway connects the house to the street. A diagram of the property showing the approximate boundaries and the 5-m grid network established for measurements outside the house is shown. The lot included in the radiological survey was /approximately/15 m wide by 31 m deep. A front view of the property is shown. 13 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

1988-01-01

344

Results of the radiological survey at 12 Frost Place, Albany, New York (AL178)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A number of properties in the Albany/Colonie area have been identified as being potentially contaminated with uranium originating from the former National Lead Company's uranium forming plant in Colonie, New York. Radiological surveys were performed at 27 properties by members of the Radiological Survey Activities (RASA) group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period July 13-July 26, 1986. The property at 12 Frost Place in Albany, New York was the subject of a radiological investigation initiated July 22, 1986. The residential property consists of a two-story frame house located on a rectangular lot. An asphalt driveway connects the house to the street. The lot included in the radiological survey was /approximately/13 m wide by 29 m deep. 13 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

1987-01-01

345

Results of the radiological survey at 15 Frost Place, Albany, New York  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A number of properties in the Albany/Colonie area have been identified as being potentially contaminated with uranium originating from the former National Lead Company's uranium forming plant in Colonie, New York. The property at 15 Frost Place in Albany, New York, was the subject of a radiological investigation initiated July 22, 1986. The residential property consists of a two-story frame house with a separate garage located on a rectangular lot. An asphalt driveway connects the garage to the street. A diagram of the property showing the approximate boundaries and the 5-m grid network established for measurements outside the house is shown. The lot included in the radiological survey was /approximately/ 16 m wide by 33 m deep. Front and rear views of the property are shown. 13 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

1987-01-01

346

Freezing and thawing hysteresis effects in experimental analysis of frost deicing salt resistance of cementitious material  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is generally believed that in the case of frost deicing salt resistance hysteresis effects between freezing and thawing is due to the difference in active pore diameter. This belief is challenged by the results of some recent experiments where special attention was focused on the initiation of ice nucleation. Calorimetric ultrasonic pulse velocity measurements show much smaller hysteresis effects, suggesting another mechanism at work, namely supercooling. The conclusion is based on a model of non-connected pore water, developed to explain the experimental differences. In expansion tests hysteresis effect can be attributed to progressive damage formation, induced either by hydraulic or hydrostatic pressure as well as by the thawing effects owing to ice dilatation, or a combination of these two damage mechanisms. This reinterpretation of hysteresis effects allows for an improved interpretation of expansion data. 27 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

Kaufmann, J. [EMPA, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

2000-07-01

347

Characterization of sound emitted by wind machines used for frost control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wind machines are used in Niagara-on-the-Lake to protect cold-sensitive crops against cold injury during winter's extreme cold temperatures,spring's late frosts and autumn's early frosts. The number of wind machines in Ontario has about doubled annually from only a few in the late 1990's, to more than 425 in 2006. They are not used for generating power. Noise complaints have multiplied as the number of wind machines has increased. The objective of this study was to characterize the sound produced by wind machines; learn why residents are annoyed by wind machine noise; and suggest ways to possibly reduce sound emissions. One part of the study explored acoustic emission characteristics, the sonic differences of units made by different manufacturers, sound propagation properties under typical use atmospheric conditions and low frequency noise impact potential. Tests were conducted with a calibrated Larson Davis 2900B portable spectrum analyzer. Sound was measured with a microphone whose frequency response covered the range 4 Hz to 20 kHz. The study examined and found several unique acoustic properties that are characteristic of wind machines. It was determined that noise from wind machines is due to both aerodynamic and mechanical effects, but aerodynamic sounds were found to be the most significant. It was concluded that full range or broadband sounds manifest themselves as noise components that extend throughout the audible frequency range from the bladepass frequency to upwards of 1000 Hz. The sound spectrum of a wind machine is full natural tones and impulses that give it a readily identifiable acoustic character. Atmospheric conditions including temperature, lapse rate, relative humidity, mild winds, gradients and atmospheric turbulence all play a significant role in the long range outdoor propagation of sound from wind machines. 6 refs., 6 figs.

Gambino, V.; Gambino, T. [Aercoustics Engineering Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); Fraser, H.W. [Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Vineland, ON (Canada)

2007-07-01

348

Chilling and frost tolerance in Miscanthus and Saccharum genotypes bred for cool temperate climates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Miscanthus hybrids are leading candidates for bioenergy feedstocks in mid to high latitudes of North America and Eurasia, due to high productivity associated with the C4 photosynthetic pathway and their tolerance of cooler conditions. However, as C4 plants, they may lack tolerance of chilling conditions (0-10 °C) and frost, particularly when compared with candidate C3 crops at high latitudes. In higher latitudes, cold tolerance is particularly important if the feedstock is to utilize fully the long, early-season days of May and June. Here, leaf gas exchange and fluorescence are used to assess chilling tolerance of photosynthesis in five Miscanthus hybrids bred for cold tolerance, a complex Saccharum hybrid (energycane), and an upland sugarcane variety with some chilling tolerance. The chilling treatment consisted of transferring warm-grown plants (25/20 °C day/night growth temperatures) to chilling (12/5 °C) conditions for 1 week, followed by assessing recovery after return to warm temperatures. Chilling tolerance was also evaluated in outdoor, spring-grown Miscanthus genotypes before and after a cold front that was punctuated by a frost event. Miscanthus×giganteus was found to be the most chilling-tolerant genotype based on its ability to maintain a high net CO2 assimilation rate (A) during chilling, and recover A to a greater degree following a return to warm conditions. This was associated with increasing its capacity for short-term dark-reversible photoprotective processes (?REG) and the proportion of open photosystem II reaction centres (qL) while minimizing photoinactivation (?NF). Similarly, in the field, M.×giganteus exhibited a significantly greater A and pre-dawn F v/F m after the cold front compared with the other chilling-sensitive Miscanthus hybrids. PMID:24642848

Friesen, Patrick C; Peixoto, Murilo M; Busch, Florian A; Johnson, Daniel C; Sage, Rowan F

2014-07-01

349

Winter climate change effects on soil C and N cycles in urban grasslands.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite growing recognition of the role that cities have in global biogeochemical cycles, urban systems are among the least understood of all ecosystems. Urban grasslands are expanding rapidly along with urbanization, which is expected to increase at unprecedented rates in upcoming decades. The large and increasing area of urban grasslands and their impact on water and air quality justify the need for a better understanding of their biogeochemical cycles. There is also great uncertainty about the effect that climate change, especially changes in winter snow cover, will have on nutrient cycles in urban grasslands. We aimed to evaluate how reduced snow accumulation directly affects winter soil frost dynamics, and indirectly greenhouse gas fluxes and the processing of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) during the subsequent growing season in northern urban grasslands. Both artificial and natural snow reduction increased winter soil frost, affecting winter microbial C and N processing, accelerating C and N cycles and increasing soil : atmosphere greenhouse gas exchange during the subsequent growing season. With lower snow accumulations that are predicted with climate change, we found decreases in N retention in these ecosystems, and increases in N2 O and CO2 flux to the atmosphere, significantly increasing the global warming potential of urban grasslands. Our results suggest that the environmental impacts of these rapidly expanding ecosystems are likely to increase as climate change brings milder winters and more extensive soil frost. PMID:23630015

Durán, Jorge; Rodríguez, Alexandra; Morse, Jennifer L; Groffman, Peter M

2013-09-01

350

Soil management practices for sustainable crop production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a sustainable system, the soil is viewed as a fragile and living medium that must be protected and nurtured to ensure its long-term productivity and stability. However, due to high demand for food brought about by high population as well as the decline in agricultural lands, the soil is being exploited beyond its limit thus, leading to poor or sick soils. Sound soil management practices in the Philippines is being reviewed. The technologies, including the advantages and disadvantages are hereby presented. This includes proper cropping systems, fertilizer program, soil erosion control and correcting soil acidity. Sound soil management practices which conserve organic matter for long-term sustainability includes addition of compost, maintaining soil cover, increasing aggregates stability, soil tilt and diversity of soil microbial life. A healthy soil is a key component to sustainability as a health soil produce healthy crop plants and have optimum vigor or less susceptible to pests. (author)

2004-06-07

351

The daily and annual effects of dew, frost, and snow on a non-ventilated net radiometer  

Science.gov (United States)

The formation of dew, deposition of frost and accumulation of snow mainly on the upper domes of a non-ventilated net radiometer seriously affect the measurement of available energy (net radiation). Net radiometers measure radiation, and energy balances and are widely used for estimation of evapotranspiration throughout the world. To study the effects of dew, frost, and snow on a non-ventilated net radiometer, a radiation station was set up which uses 2 CM21 Kipp & Zonen pyranometers (one inverted), 2 CG1 Kipp & Zonen pyrgeometers (one inverted), along with a Q*7.1 net radiometer (Radiation & Energy Balance Systems, Inc.; REBS) in a semi-arid mountainous valley in Logan, Utah, U.S.A. The pyranometers and pyrgeometers were ventilated using 4 CV2 Kipp & Zonen ventilation systems. The net radiometer was not ventilated. The ventilation of pyranometers and pyrgeometers prevents dew and frost deposition and snow accumulation which otherwise would disturb measurements. All sensors were installed at about 3.0 m above the ground, which was covered with natural vegetation during the growing season (May-September). The incoming and outgoing solar or shortwave radiation, the incoming (atmospheric) and outgoing (terrestrial) longwave radiation, and the net radiation have been continuously measured by pyranometers, pyrgeometers and a net radiometer, respectively, since 1995. These parameters have been measured every 2 s and averaged into 20 min. To evaluate the effects of dew, frost, and snow, three days were chosen: 26 April 2004 with early morning dew, 6 January 2005 with an early morning frost, and the snowy day of 24 February 2005. Dew formation, frost deposition, and snow accumulation occurred mainly on the upper dome of the non-ventilated Q*7.1 net radiometer on the related days, while the ventilated Kipp & Zonen system was free of dew, frost and snow. Net radiation measured by the non-ventilated net radiometer Rn,unvent. during dew and frost periods of the above-mentioned days was greater than ventilated ones Rn,vent. (- 0.2 MJ m - 2 vs. - 0.8 MJ m - 2 during almost 4 h on 26 April 2004, and - 0.2 MJ m - 2 vs. - 0.7 MJ m - 2 during almost 6.5 h on 6 January 2005). The reason for higher reading by the non-ventilated net radiometer during dew and frost periods was due to emission of additional longwave radiation from water and ice crystals formed mainly on the upper dome of the Q*7.1 net radiometer. In contrast, during the snowy day of 24 February 2005, the Rn,unvent. was less than Rn,vent. (- 4.00 MJ m - 2 vs. 0.77 MJ m - 2 , mainly from sunrise to sunset). The extremely low Rn,unvent. measured by the non-ventilated net radiometer on 24 February 2005 is due to blocking of the incoming solar radiation (mainly diffuse radiation) by the snow-covered upper dome.

Malek, Esmaiel

2008-08-01

352

Downscaling MODIS-derived maps using GIS boosted regression trees : the case of frost occurrence over the arid Andean highlands of Bolivia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Frost risk assessment is of critical importance in tropical highlands like the Andes where human activities thrives at altitudes up to 4200 m, and night frost may occur all the year round. In these semi-arid and cold regions with sparse meteorological networks, remote sensing and topographic modeling are of potential interest for understanding how physiography influences the local climate regime. After integrating night land surface temperature from the MODIS satellite, and physiographic desc...

Pouteau, Robin; Rambal, Serge; Ratte, Jean-pierre; Goge?, Fabien; Joffre, Richard; Winkel, Thierry

2011-01-01

353

Seasonally active frost-dust avalanches on a north polar scarp of Mars captured by HiRISE  

Science.gov (United States)

North-polar temporal monitoring by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) orbiting Mars has discovered new, dramatic examples that Mars1 CO2-dominated seasonal volatile cycle is not limited to quiet deposition and sublimation of frost. In early northern martian spring, 2008, HiRISE captured several cases of CO2 frost and dust cascading down a steep, polar scarp in discrete clouds. Analysis of morphology and process reveals these events to be similar to terrestrial powder avalanches, sluffs, and falls of loose, dry snow. Potential material sources and initiating mechanisms are discussed in the context of the Martian polar spring environment and of additional, active, aeolian processes observed on the plateau above the scarp. The scarp events are identified as a trigger for mass wasting of bright, fractured layers within the basal unit, and may indirectly influence the retreat rate of steep polar scarps in competing ways. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

Russell, P.; Thomas, N.; Byrne, S.; Herkenhoff, K.; Fishbaugh, K.; Bridges, N.; Okubo, C.; Milazzo, M.; Daubar, I.; Hansen, C.; McEwen, A.

2008-01-01

354

Role of Changes in Cell Fatty Acids Composition in the Increasing of Frost Resistance of Winter Wheat Suspension Culture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Influences of low temperatures (4 and 8 ° ? on the frost tolerance and fatty acid compositions of cells in a winter wheat suspension culture have been studied. It has been found that treatment of the culture with 4 °C (7 days did not protect cells from subsequent freezing temperature action (-8 °?, 6 h and was not accompanied significant changes in the fatty acid composition. On the contrary, the treatment of the culture with the temperature 8 °C (7 days prevented the death caused by freezing temperature and the content of saturated fatty acids decreased: pentadecanoic acid (by 35,0%, palmitic acid (by 19,9% and stearic acid (by 65,4%, and the content of ?-linolenic acid increased by 94%. That was the cause of the double bond index (DBI increase by 16%. The role of fatty acids composition changes in the process of increasing frost tolerance in plants are discussed.

I.V. Lyubushkina

2013-11-01

355

Magnetic susceptibility in QCD  

CERN Document Server

Magnetic susceptibility in the deconfined phase of QCD is calculated in a closed form using a recent general expression for the quark gas pressure in magnetic field. Quark selfenergies are entering the result via Polyakov line factors and ensure the total paramagnetic effect, increasing with temperature. A generalized form of magnetic susceptibility in nonzero magnetic field suitable for experimental and lattice measurements is derived, showing a good agreement with available lattice data.

Orlovsky, V D

2014-01-01

356

The characterisation, improvement and modelling aspects of Frost Salt Scaling of Cement-Based Materials with a High Slag Content:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Blast furnace slag cement concrete is used extensively in a number of countries. In comparison with OPC, it is particularly well known for its excellent performance in marine environments. One dis-advantage of slag cement is its vulnerability to scaling under the combined load of freezing-thawing and de-icing salts. The current investigation was triggered by positive observations regard-ing certain grinding agents used in slag cement production to improve frost salt scaling resistance. The in...

Copuroglu, O.

2006-01-01

357

Peripheral capillary nonperfusion and full-field electroretinographic changes in eyes with frosted branch-like appearance retinal vasculitis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Yoshitsugu Matsui, Hideyuki Tsukitome, Eriko Uchiyama, Yuko Wada, Tatsuya Yagi, Hisashi Matsubara, Mineo KondoDepartment of Ophthalmology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, JapanAbstract: We report a patient with frosted branch-like appearance retinal vasculitis associated with peripheral capillary nonperfusion and full-field electroretinographic changes. A 62-year-old man presented with sudden bilateral decreased vision accompanied by headaches. His best-corrected visual acuit...

Matsui Y; Tsukitome H; Uchiyama E; Wada Y; Yagi T; Matsubara H; Kondo M

2013-01-01

358

Efficient non-destructive method of control over the frost-resistance of concretes designated for hydraulic engineering structures ????????????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????? ???????????????? ??????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The author considers the problem of control over the frost resistance as the most important characteristic of concretes designated for hydraulic engineering structures. His method is based on the identification of correlation between the frost resistance and the Poisson ratio. The value of the Poisson ratio is measurable through the employment of the ultra-sound method. The proposed methodology contemplates the following sequence of acts. First, the value of the Poisson ratio of air-dried samples of concrete is identified through the employment of the ultrasound method. Thereafter, samples are exposed to cyclic freezing and thawing. Based on the testing results, correlation between the Poisson ratio values and the frost resistance of the concrete is identified. Further, the same ultrasound method is used to find out the values of the Poisson ratio of the hydraulic engineering structures on site to identify the value of the frost resistance of the concrete on the basis of the correlation identified earlier. Mass produced ultrasound testing devices are to be used for the above purposes. They must have screens, and their ultrasound range must fit concretes. Poisson ratio values are identified through the penetration of the ultrasound signal through the thickness of a concrete element under control. Sensors are to be positioned at the angle of 45°, and the time of travel of longitudinal and shear (lateral ultra-sound waves through the thickness of a concrete sample or a concrete element is measured. The time of travel of longitudinal waves is measured on the basis of the value of the first signal, while shear waves are measured on the basis of the phase transition of ultrasound waves. Thereafter, velocities of waves are calculated pursuant to the methodology proposed by the author. It is noteworthy that the accuracy of the proposed method is quite high, and the margin of error does not exceed 3 %.??????????? ???? ?? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ???????????????? ?????????? - ??? ???????????????. ????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ???????? ? ?? ???????????. ?????????? ????????????????? ??????????????? ? ???????????? ????????. ??????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????????????? ??????????.

Popov Valeriy Petrovich

2012-08-01

359

Using Synchrotron Radiation-Based Infrared Microspectroscopy to Reveal Microchemical Structure Characterization: Frost Damaged Wheat vs. Normal Wheat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare: (1 protein chemical characteristics, including the amide I and II region, as well as protein secondary structure; and (2 carbohydrate internal structure and functional groups spectral intensities between the frost damaged wheat and normal wheat using synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SR-FTIRM. Fingerprint regions of specific interest in our study involved protein and carbohydrate functional group band assignments, including protein amide I and II (ca. 1774–1475 cm?1, structural carbohydrates (SCHO, ca. 1498–1176 cm?1, cellulosic compounds (CELC, ca. 1295–1176 cm?1, total carbohydrates (CHO, ca. 1191–906 cm?1 and non-structural carbohydrates (NSCHO, ca. 954–809 cm?1. The results showed that frost did cause variations in spectral profiles in wheat grains. Compared with healthy wheat grains, frost damaged wheat had significantly lower (p < 0.05 spectral intensities in height and area ratios of amide I to II and almost all the spectral parameters of carbohydrate-related functional groups, including SCHO, CHO and NSCHO. Furthermore, the height ratio of protein amide I to the third peak of CHO and the area ratios of protein amide (amide I + II to carbohydrate compounds (CHO and SCHO were also changed (p < 0.05 in damaged wheat grains. It was concluded that the SR-FTIR microspectroscopic technique was able to examine inherent molecular structure features at an ultra-spatial resolution (10 × 10 ?m between different wheat grains samples. The structural characterization of wheat was influenced by climate conditions, such as frost damage, and these structural variations might be a major reason for the decreases in nutritive values, nutrients availability and milling and baking quality in wheat grains.

Xuewei Zhang

2013-08-01

360

Cryoprotectants are metabolic fuels during long term frost exposure in the earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ectothermic animals that live in the subarctic and temperate regions must have strategies to deal with periods of frost during winter. The earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra is a freeze tolerant species that accumulates large concentrations of the cryoprotectant glucose upon ice formation in the extracellular fluid. This study investigates if D. octaedra metabolizes its primary cryoprotectant as an energy source when frozen for longer periods. In this study D. octaedra were exposed to frost at 2 °C for 47 days. The results clearly demonstrate a gradual decrease in the level of glucose and simultaneously an accumulation of lactate, alanine and succinate as a result of the continuous anaerobic metabolism. Freeze mortality (~ 30%) did not increase with time suggesting that the accumulation of waste products were not toxic to the worms. Instead dead worms were always characterised by low glucose and glycogen levels indicating that depletion of fermentable resources was the primary cause of death. Calorimetric measurements of metabolic rate showed a 15-fold metabolic depression in frozen versus unfrozen worms and this reduction in metabolic rate is clearly of importance for long term survival of frozen worms. On the basis of metabolic rate measurements we calculated that the â??averageâ? worms would be able to survive for a total of 83 days before the glucose storage becomes exhausted. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the large accumulations of glucose during frost may be more important as anaerobic fuel source than as a cryoprotectant.

C. Jørgensen, Sofia; Overgaard, Johannes

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Side-effects of formulations of permethrin and fenvalerate insecticides on frost resistance and field performance of Picea abies seedlings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Side-effects of the permethrin formulations Gori 920 and Gori 920 L, the fenvalerate formulation Sumicidin 10 FW and the emulsifier of the Gori formulations were studied in seedlings of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.]. Whole plant treatment with the Gori formulations in early autumn resulted in a 5-10 deg C poorer frost tolerance (TDI) later in the autumn. Moreover, this treatment increased mortality by 30% within 2 yrs of testing in field trials. In contrast, a basal part treatment with the Gori formulations and whole plant treatment with Sumicidin 10 FW containing 10% fenvalerate had no negative effects during 2 yrs of field testing. Late autumn treatment with Gori 920 and Gori 920 L, followed by cold storage for 6 months, revealed poorer frost tolerance (3-4 deg C) in the spring than that in the control. These treatments also reduced leader shoot growth in the first year and increased the frequency of seedlings lacking a dominant leader after 2 yrs by 20-40%. The detrimental agent in Gori 920 L was found to be the emulsifier, ethoxylated nonylphenol, alone and in combination with the dispersal agent, linseed oil. The linseed oil had no significant additional negative effect on frost resistance and growth after the cold storage during the winter. The investigation demonstrates the necessity of testing for possible side-effects before practical use of any commercial pesticide formulation 12 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

Kohmann, Ketil [Norwegian Forest Research Inst., Aas (Norway)

1999-10-01

362

First-year sea-ice contact predicts bromine monoxide (BrO levels better than potential frost flower contact  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reactive halogens are responsible for boundary-layer ozone depletion and mercury deposition in Polar Regions during springtime. To investigate the source of reactive halogens in the air arriving at Barrow, Alaska, we measured BrO, a marker of reactive halogen chemistry, and correlated its abundance with airmass histories derived from meteorological back trajectories and remotely sensed sea ice properties. The BrO is found to be positively correlated to first-year sea-ice contact (R2=0.55, and weakly negatively correlated to potential frost flower (PFF contact (R2=0.04. These data indicate that snow contaminated with sea salts on first-year sea ice is a more probable bromine source than are frost flowers. Recent climate-driven changes in Arctic sea ice are likely to alter frost flower and first year sea ice prevalence, suggesting a significant change in reactive halogen abundance, which will alter the chemistry of the overlying Arctic atmosphere.

W. R. Simpson

2006-11-01

363

Changes in pick beginning date and frost damage risk of tea tree in Longjing tea-producing area  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyze the pick beginning date and frost damage risk trends of Jiukeng, Longjing-43, and Wuniuzao tea trees with time, using meteorological data from 12 station pairs over the period 1971-2010 in the Longjing tea-producing area. The pick beginning date of Jiukeng, Longjing-43, and Wuniuzao varieties had no statistically significant trends before 1990. The pick beginning date of Jiukeng variety had statistically significant decreasing trends after 1990, and there were no statistically significant trends in the start date after 1990 for Longjing-43 and Wuniuzao varieties. The average pick beginning dates of Longjing-43 and Wuniuzao varieties before 1990 are later than those after 1990 by 3.8-4.8 and 2.0-3.1 days, respectively. We used the trend of difference between beginning date of tea plucking (BDTP) and 0 °C terminal date to analyze frost damage risk trends. Eleven counties had no statistically significant frost damage risk trends for Jiukeng, Longjing-43, and Wuniuzao varieties, leaving only one county with statistically significant trends.

Lou, Weiping; Sun, Ke; Sun, Shanlei; Ma, Fenghua; Wang, Dongfang

2013-10-01

364

Genetic variability for frost resistance among Coffea accessions assessed in the field and in a cold chamber  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The genetic variability for frost resistance was evaluated in field conditions and cold chamber among Coffea accessions. Results showed that C. liberica var. dewevrei and C. racemosa, as well as hybrids obtained from these species were more resistant to frost. There was a great genetic variability for frost resistance among the evaluated sources (b² = 0,98. The correlation estimated between damages in the field and in the cold chamber was 0.933**, therefore, this methodology was efficient and feasible and could be potentially used in a breeding program.A variabilidade genética para resistência à geada foi avaliada em campo e em câmara fria entre acessos de Coffea. Os resultados mostraram que C. liberica var. dewevrei e C. racemosa e os híbridos derivados delas foram mais resistentes à geada. Existe grande variabilidade genética para resistência à geada entre estes materiais genéticos estudados (b² = 0,98. A correlação obtida entre as médias de dano foliar no campo e na câmara fria foi de 0,933**. Esta metodologia é eficiente e prática, com potencial de utilização em um programa de melhoramento para resistência à geada.

Marcos Rafael Petek

2005-01-01

365

Genetic variability for frost resistance among Coffea accessions assessed in the field and in a cold chamber  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A variabilidade genética para resistência à geada foi avaliada em campo e em câmara fria entre acessos de Coffea. Os resultados mostraram que C. liberica var. dewevrei e C. racemosa e os híbridos derivados delas foram mais resistentes à geada. Existe grande variabilidade genética para resistência à [...] geada entre estes materiais genéticos estudados (b² = 0,98). A correlação obtida entre as médias de dano foliar no campo e na câmara fria foi de 0,933**. Esta metodologia é eficiente e prática, com potencial de utilização em um programa de melhoramento para resistência à geada. Abstract in english The genetic variability for frost resistance was evaluated in field conditions and cold chamber among Coffea accessions. Results showed that C. liberica var. dewevrei and C. racemosa, as well as hybrids obtained from these species were more resistant to frost. There was a great genetic variability f [...] or frost resistance among the evaluated sources (b² = 0,98). The correlation estimated between damages in the field and in the cold chamber was 0.933**, therefore, this methodology was efficient and feasible and could be potentially used in a breeding program.

Marcos Rafael, Petek; Tumoru, Sera; Marcos Zorzenon, Alteia.

366

Estimating the soil-mixing rate induced by cryoturbation  

Science.gov (United States)

The physical mass-movement of soil induced by soil frost action, i.e. cryoturbation, is a fundamental process that characterizes high latitude soils. The motion of the fine fraction of the soil affects the trajectories of the large below ground carbon (BGC) stock stored in arctic soils and, thus, control whether decomposition processes will proceed in warmer surface soil layers or in colder deeper mineral soil layers (Bockheim, 2007). Therefore, it seems of crucial importance to assess soil mixing rates induced by cryoturbation and how these rates are dependent on climatic variables to be able predict the fate BGC pool stored in tundra soils. Traditionally, the rates of mass-movement within soil affected by cryoturbation has been estimated using inserted stakes or buried objects (peg columns). These methods have generated valuable information about soil creeping rates and up-freezing rates of rocks. However, these methods are unable to estimate at what rate the carbon-rich fine fraction of the soil is vertically moving within soil and the rate of this process remains poorly quantified. In this presentation we present estimations of the rates in which the fine fraction have moved due to seasonal cryoturbation in a bioclimatic gradient from the Abisko area, northern Sweden. The rates are inferred from the vertical distribution of radionuclides in the soil (mainly 210Pb but also 137Cs and 241Am) following a recently published mixing model that so far has only been applied to agricultural and forest soils (Yoo et al., 2010). We show that: i) that the vertical mixing rates may vary dramatically within a short spatial scale where mixing rates may range from being insignificant (soil mixing rates will respond to climatic changes when predicting the fate of carbon in high latitude soils.

Klaminder, J.; Becher, M.; Kobayashi, M.

2011-12-01

367

Arctic gas pipeline soon a reality. Pipeline construction in the Yukon Territory is expected to begin on January 1 of 1981, the culmination of a decade of northern gas pipeline R and D  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research on northern natural gas pipelines showed the need to chill natural gas (below 32/sup 0/F) totally in continuous and partially in discontinuous permafrost regions, to minimize frost heaving of pipe in unfrozen frost-susceptible soils, and to prevent unstable ductile crack propagation in the pipeline. Test facilities being planned for further studies (frost heave, burst) are described briefly. Pipeline construction in the Yorkon Territory is expected to begin Jan. 1, 1981. The Alaska Highway Project is also described. (DLC)

Mirosh, E.A.

1978-01-01

368

Effect of surface conditions on runoff and soil loss for chernozem soil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rainfall simulation tests were conducted to determine the effect of the initial water content and surface micro-relief changes on runoff, and soil loss for chernozem soil. The studies showed that soil loss by wash was mostly affected by the surface micro-relief, whereas soil loss by splash by the initial water content. Runoff amount was less dependent than the soil loss upon the initial surface conditions and was mostly affected by the seal formation. The highest amount of splash and wash suggest that the time of seal formation at the soil surface was most susceptible to soil erosion.

Dębicki R.

2001-03-01

369

Clay mineralogy and magnetic susceptibility of Oxisols in geomorphic surfaces  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Studies analyzing the variability of clay minerals and magnetic susceptibility provide data for the delineation of site-specific management areas since many of their attributes are important to agronomy and the environment. This study aimed to evaluate the spatial variability of clay minerals, magne [...] tic susceptibility, adsorbed phosphorus and physical attributes in Oxisols of sandstones in different geomorphic surfaces. For that purpose, soil samples were collected every 25 m along a transect located within the area where the geomorphic surfaces were identified and mapped. The transect occupied the central portion of 500 ha, where it was also sampled for density purposes with one sample per six hectares. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 0.0-0.2 m. The results of the physical, chemical, mineralogical and magnetic susceptibility analyses were subjected to statistical and geostatistical analyses. The nature of the clay minerals and magnetic susceptibility was dependent on the variation of the soil parent material. High values of magnetic susceptibility were associated with the presence of maghemite and magnetite of coarse size. The spatial variability of crystallinity and the content of Fe oxides, as well as magnetic susceptibility, were dependent on the age of the geomorphic surfaces. The youngest surface had greater spatial variability of these attributes. The iron (goethite and hematite) and aluminum (gibbsite) oxides in the youngest geomorphic surface influenced the low values of soil density and high values of total pore volume, micropores and P adsorption. The characterization of the spatial variability of Fe oxides and susceptibility allowed for the delineation of homogeneous areas.

Camargo, Livia Arantes; Marques Júnior, José; Pereira, Gener Tadeu; Bahia, Angélica Santos Rabelo de Souza.

370

Electro-thermal protection system design against atmospheric frost on turbine blades  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation discussed a research program developed to adapt de-icing thermal heating systems for use in wind turbines. The presence of ice on turbine blades can significantly deteriorate rotor performance. Accumulations of ice can increase the radial load on the turbine blades. The uneven formations of ice can lead to vibrations and the expulsion of pieces of ice into surrounding areas. Ice can also reduce the accuracy of various wind measuring devices. A recent study in Finland showed that turbine heating systems consume 3.6 per cent of annual wind production energy. De-icing systems include protective covers; air inlets; sealing systems; inflation tubes; elastomeric ply; and bond ply. The systems also include blade trailing and loading edges, and blade roots. The energy dissipated by the system's heating element is lost by conduction to the interior of the profile. The research program is now developing a system to improve electrothermal protection against frost that is suitable for turbine blades, as well as a thermal model for simulating its operation in a wind turbine. tabs., figs.

Noui, M.A.; Perron, J.; Fortin, G. [Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada). Anti-Icing Materials International Laboratory

2010-07-01

371

Frost-free North Polar Layers in the Good Old Summertime  

Science.gov (United States)

17 October 2006 The middle portion of the northern summer season is the ideal time of year to capture relatively dust- and haze-free views of martian north polar terrain. This year, much more of the north polar cap has sublimed away than has been evident in previous northern summers going back to 1999, when Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) began the Mapping Phase of the mission. This MGS Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a nearly ice-free view of layers exposed by erosion in the north polar region. The light-toned patches are remnants of water ice frost. The layers are generally considered by the Mars scientific community to be record of past depositions of ice and dust. This picture is located near 82.5oN, 118.6oW, and covers an area about 3 km by 10 km (1.9 by 6.2 miles). Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left; the image was acquired on 22 September 2006.

2006-01-01

372

Cryosorption of helium on argon frost in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor neutral beamlines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Helium pumping on argon frost has been investigated on Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) neutral beam injectors and shown to be viable for limited helium beam operation. Maximum pumping speeds are ?25% less than those measured for pumping of deuterium. Helium pumping efficiency is low, >20 argon atoms are required to pump each helium atom. Adsorption isotherms are exponential and exhibit a twofold increase in adsorption capacity as the cryopanel temperature is reduced from 4.3 K to 3.7 K. Pumping speed was found to be independent of cryopanel temperature over the temperature range studied. After pumping a total of 2000 Torr l of helium, the beamline base pressure rose to 2x10-5 Torr from an initial value of 10-8 Torr. Accompanying this three order of magnitude increase in pressure was a modest 40% decrease in pumping speed. The introduction of 168 Torr l of deuterium prior to helium injection reduced the pumping speed by a factor of two with no decrease in adsorption capacity

1990-01-01

373

Penetration of chlorides in hardened concrete during frost salt scaling cycles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sixty samples from three concrete mixes (same components were prepared and subjected to frost salt scaling cycles. A set of 20 samples from the same mix was tested according to the French standard XP P18-420. Another set was exposed to different chloride concentrations. Different numbers of freeze/thaw cycles were applied to the last set. The mass of scaled-off particles follows a lognormal distribution. Despite high standard deviation, this scaling test enables to separate high resistant from very low resistant concrete. A combined analysis reveals that the scaling and the chloride penetration front are independent from a phenomenological point of view and that the chloride concentration on the exposed surface directly influences the amount of scaled mass according to the typical pessimum effect. These results raise two main questions: is the amount of chloride on the surface solution a direct or indirect parameter and what happens to this pessimum effect if we take into account the scaling test dispersion?

Moral N.

2010-06-01

374

Cryosorption of helium on argon frost TFTR [Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor] neutral beamlines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Helium pumping on argon frost has been investigated on TFTR neutral beam injectors and shown to be viable for limited helium beam operation. Maximum pumping speeds are ? 25% less than those measured for pumping of deuterium. Helium pumping efficiency is low, > 20 argon atoms are required to pump each helium atom. Adsorption isotherms are exponential and exhibit a two-fold increase in adsorption capacity as the cryopanel temperature is reduced from 4.3 K to 3.7 K. Pumping speed was found to be independent of cryopanel temperature over the temperature range studied. After pumping a total of 2000 torr-l of helium, the beamline base pressure rose to 2x10"-"5 torr from an initial value of 10"-"8 torr. Accompanying this three order of magnitude increase in pressure was a modest 40% decrease in pumping speed. The introduction of 168 torr-l of deuterium prior to helium injection reduced the pumping speed by a factor of two with no decrease in adsorption capacity. 29 refs., 7 figs

1989-01-01

375

Shaping a dune with wind and frost in Matara crater, Mars  

Science.gov (United States)

Matara crater dune field exhibits a complex and fascinating geologic history. It first gained scientific attention when dune gullies (of alcove-channel-apron morphology, a few hundred meters to 3 km in length) were observed in MOC and HiRISE images to be actively evolving during the last Mars decade. Additionally, aeolian processes are clearly active within this field as the dune brinks are quite crisp in appearance, ripples on the surfaces of these dunes have been observed to migrate, and ripples have formed within sediment recently remobilized by dune-gully activity. This study seeks to understand how sediment has been redistributed/mobilized through both aeolian processes and seasonal processes leading to gully and ripple evolution. In particular, we focus on how ripples form and grow due to the wind, and are sometimes erased due to new deposition within the gully apron. We primarily focus on one very large dune-gully apron in Matara crater, where we have observed both dune-gully activity and new ripple formation over the last few Mars years. By mapping out regions with different ripple wavelengths - indicative of different ripple ages, we will examine how seasonal frost and aeolian processes have interacted over the last few decades to centuries.

Diniega, S.

2013-12-01

376

Study of polydiethylsiloxane-based ferrofluid with excellent frost resistance property  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The polydiethylsiloxane-based ferrofluid was prepared by dispersing finely divided magnetic Fe3O4 particles which are modified with oleoyl sarcosine and lauroyl sarcosine. The optimized experiment parameters including molar ratio of surfactant to Fe3O4 (1:5), temperature (80 deg. C), stirring rate (300 RPM), the surfactant content of lauroyl sarcosine (0 to 33 mol%) and the modification time (25 min) were obtained by the orthogonal test. The magnetic liquid was characterized by a transmission electron microscope (TEM), infrared (IR) spectrometer, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It is indicated that the surfactant is mainly bonded to the surface of Fe3O4 nanoparticles through covalent bond between carboxylate (COO-) and Fe atom. The modified magnetic particles are equally dispersed into the carrier and remain stable below -12 deg. C over 4 months. The ferrofluids exhibit excellent frost resistance property and distinctly reduced temperature coefficient of viscosity compared with polydimethylsiloxane-based ferrofluids and hydrocarbon-based ferrofluids, respectively. The saturation magnetization could reach up to 27.7 emu/g

2009-03-01

377

Use of Gibberellins to Improve Fruit Set in Pears After Frost Damage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of applied bioregulators on fruit set after this frost in April 2002, growth, yield and the incidence of Pseudomonas syringae and the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of fruit set by applying bioregulators shortly after full bloom at the Klein-Altendorf experimental station near Bonn, Germany with the following results. The best fruit set was achieved with both GA3 and GA3 plus 0.5l GA4+7 sprayed at 12 mL ha-1 which increased initial fruit set by 78 and 77%, respectively as compared to unsprayed control with 32% while it was GA3 (105% followed by the combination of GA3, Promalin and Azolon (100% after June drop. The second-best fruit set was in GA3 plus 0.25l of GA4+7 and Azolon sprayed at 12 mL ha-1. Azolon reduced fruit set before and after June drop. Repeat applications of the treatments did not generally improve the results of fruit set after June drop. It is concluded that GA3 or combined with GA4+7, successfully improved fruit set, shoot growth, reduced the incidence of Pseudomonas syringae and rescued the yield showing that the mechanism is via development of parthenocarpic fruit.

George Ouma

2008-01-01

378

Alternative test method to assess the energy performance of frost-free refrigerating appliances  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper outlines an alternative test method to evaluate the energy consumption of frost-free refrigerators and freezers for residential applications. While the standardized methods require the refrigerating appliance to be kept running according to its onboard control system, which usually drives the refrigerator through an on–off cycling pattern, the proposed approach assesses the refrigerator energy performance in the steady-state regime, being therefore much faster and more reliable. In this procedure, the cooling capacity is matched to the cooling loads by PID-controlled electrical heaters installed within the refrigerated compartments, so that the compartment temperatures are kept at the desired standardized levels. Comparisons between the experimental results obtained using the steady-state energy test and the standardized procedures showed that the former follows closely the trends observed for the latter. - Highlights: ? An alternative test method to assess the energy consumption of refrigerators is proposed. ? PID-controlled electrical heaters were installed within the compartments. ? Steady-state and ISO energy tests were performed and compared. ? Both proposed and standardized test procedures showed similar trends.

2013-01-10

379

The European landslide susceptibility map ELSUS 1000 Version 1  

Science.gov (United States)

With the increase in availability of environmental data sets at global and continental scale and the adoption of the Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection in 2006, small scale risk assessments of soil threats received increasing attention in Europe. We focus on landslides and present an approach for landslide susceptibility evaluation at the continental scale (1 km resolution) over the European territory covered by the EU member states and adjacent countries. Different to previous continental and global scale landslide susceptibility studies, we start with collecting more than 102,000 landslides in 22 European countries. These landslides are heterogeneously distributed over Europe, but are indispensable for the evaluation and classification of Pan-European datasets that can be used as spatial predictors for landslide susceptibility, and the validation of respective assessments. We further attempted a subdivision of the European territory into seven different climato-physiographic zones by combining morphometric and climatic data sets for terrain differentiation, and additionally defining coastal areas as a 1km inland from the coastline. Landslide susceptibility modelling was performed for the individual zones involving heuristic spatial multicriteria evaluations, and validated with the inventory data using receiver operating characteristics. The reliability of the resulting susceptibility map ELSUS 1000 Version 1 was examined on an administrative terrain unit level in areas with landslide information. ELSUS 1000 was further evaluated through comparisons with available national and regional landslide susceptibility maps. These evaluations suggest that although the first version of ELSUS 1000 is capable for a correct synoptic assessment of landslide susceptibility in the majority of the area, it needs further improvement in terms of data used. These should also consider differentiated susceptibility evaluations with respect to different landslide types. ELSUS 1000 Version 1 can be downloaded together with auxiliary data from the European Soil Data Centre (ESDAC) hosted at JRC.

Günther, Andreas; Van Den Eeckhaut, Miet; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Reichenbach, Paola; Hervás, Javier

2013-04-01

380

Contrasting denitrifier communities relate to contrasting N2O emission patterns from acidic peat soils in arctic tundra  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cryoturbated peat circles (that is, bare surface soil mixed by frost action; pH 3–4) in the Russian discontinuous permafrost tundra are nitrate-rich ‘hotspots' of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in arctic ecosystems, whereas adjacent unturbated peat areas are not. N2O was produced and subsequently consumed at pH 4 in unsupplemented anoxic microcosms with cryoturbated but not in those with unturbated peat soil. Nitrate, nitrite and acetylene stimulated net N2O production of both soils in ano...

Palmer, Katharina; Biasi, Christina; Horn, Marcus A.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Numerical analysis of the impact of charcoal production on soil hydrological behavior, runoff response and erosion susceptibility Investigação numérica/quantitativa sobre o impacto do processo de produção de carvão nas propriedades hidráulicas, resposta ao deflúvio e suscetibilidade do solo à erosão  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The impact of charcoal production on soil hydraulic properties, runoff response and erosion susceptibility were studied in both field and simulation experiments. Core and composite samples, from 12 randomly selected sites within the catchment of Kotokosu were taken from the 0-10 cm layer of a charcoal site soil (CSS and adjacent field