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1

Micrometeorological conditions under different soil frost depths  

Science.gov (United States)

Eastern Hokkaido, where is one of the largest agricultural production regions in Japan, is characterized by low air temperature and relatively thin snow covers resulting in soil frost over the winter. However, the soil frost depth has been significantly decreasing since late 1980's due to an insulation from the cold air by a thick snow cover developing in early winter. In the current study, soil water movement, soil temperature, and surface heat balance under different soil frost conditions were monitored to obtain a knowledge of changes in micrometeorological condition of the agricultural production systems in the Eastern Hokkaido associated with the decreasing soil frost depth in the region. A paired soil plot experiment was conducted from Nov. 2005 to May 2006, where the frost depth was artificially enhanced by removing snow for 24 days in the retreatment plot and the natural condition was maintained in the control plot. The soil in the experimental field was classified as Andisol with much porosity and high drainability. In each plot, water content and soil temperature were measured by TDR and thermocouple, respectively. The maximum soil-frost depth in the treatment and control plots resulted in 43.8 and 13.6?m, respectively. Changes in snow water equivalent volume SWE) and snow depth were manually recorded. The difference of SWE just before melting snow was same. The day of snow disappearing was 18th April 2006 for both plots. The control plot with a thin frozen layer allowed infiltration of snow melt water, and water content at the lower subsoil increased accordance in snowmelting, whereas a thick frozen layer in the treatment plot impeded the infiltration resulting in waterlogging being observed on the soil surface. These differences in profile of water content and in developing soil frost depth results in more delay in increasing soil temperature at the deeper depth. At the surface, however, the difference in soil temperature was quickly disappeared, and the differences in elements of heat balance in each plot were small. Consequently, the result suggests that the recent decreasing soil frost depth in the Eastern Hokkaido changes hydraulic and thermal soil conditions extensively below the surface, but has no feedback effect to the atmosphere after snow disappearing.

Nemoto, M.; Hirota, T.; Iwata, Y.; Suzuki, S.; Hasegawa, S.

2007-12-01

2

A Community Frost/Freeze Susceptibility Operational Guidance Tool  

Science.gov (United States)

In response to historical costly and damaging freeze events in the north-central United States, the Midwestern Regional Climate Center (MRCC) has teamed up with the National Weather Service (NWS), State Climatologists, and land grant university Extension agricultural and horticultural specialists to develop an operational online guidance tool to help monitor, assess, and mitigate these extreme weather phenomena. The Vegetation Impact Program (VIP), hosted by the MRCC, was established in spring 2013 to provide a partnership opportunity among these stakeholders of vegetation and climate monitoring and assessment. It offers an online portal to operational assessment tools, a means of communicating status of vegetative growth and climate conditions in the region, and multiple methods of communicating between sectors and stakeholders. The Frost/Freeze Project is the first impact monitoring project within VIP and was inspired by NWS forecasters requesting help attaining decision-making assistance and guidance tools both within the NWS community and the community of vegetation experts. Early accomplishments have included: (1) the development of daily, operational climate monitoring maps based upon in situ atmospheric observations from the cooperative network (Co-op), (2) development of online guidance and impact reporting forms for VIP subscribers to submit their observations from both the field and forecasting offices, and (3) an email listserv for the VIP community to share general information. Future plans include expanding the spatial domain of the project to the 48 states, incorporating hourly observations from both national and local/state mesonets, and integrating digital forecast data real-time to provide vegetation susceptibility and risk guidance tools.

Hall, B. L.; Curtis, A.; Timlin, M.; Woloszyn, M.; Zaloudek, Z.; Hilberg, S.; Guinan, P.; Andresen, J.; Longstroth, M.; Wolf, R.; Shanklin, R.; Spoden, P.

2013-12-01

3

Water content and matric potential of soil under different soil frost conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

Eastern Hokkaido, where is one of the largest agricultural production regions in Japan, is characterized by low air temperature and relatively thin snow covers resulting in soil frost over the winter. However, the soil frost depth has been significantly decreasing since late 1980's due to an insulation from the cold air by a thick snow cover developing in early winter. In the current study, soil water movement under different soil frost conditions were monitored to obtain a knowledge of changes in hydraulic-regime of the agricultural production systems in the Eastern Hokkaido associated with the decreasing soil frost depth in the region. A paired soil plot experiment was conducted from Nov. 2005 to May 2006, where the frost depth was artificially enhanced by removing snow in the treatment plot and the natural condition was maintained in the control plot. The soil in the experimental field was classified as Andisol with much porosity and high drainability. In each plot, water content and matric potential were measured by TDR and thermally-insulated tensiometer, respectively. Changes in snow water equivalent volume (SWE) and soil-frost depth were manually recorded. The maximum soil-frost depth in the treatment and control plots resulted in 47 and 19 cm, respectively. In both plots, soil water content and matric potential in underlying unfrozen soil decreased with the progress of freezing front, and the direction of soil water flow between 90 and 100 cm changed from downward to upward after the onset of the soil freezing. It is of note that the matric potential at 90 cm in the treatment plot decreased down to -480 cm, while the matric potential at the same depth in the control plot was -200 cm at minimum. When the underlying unfrozen soil was most driest the soil water volume stored in a depth interval from 50 to 100 cm for the treatment and control plots was 189 and 212 mm, respectively. Further, the magnitude of upward hydraulic gradient between 90 and 100 cm in the treatment plot was 17 times greater than that in the control plot at maximum. The control plot with a thin frozen layer allowed infiltration of snow melt water, water content at the lower subsoil increased, and the hydraulic gradient changed to downward immediately after snow melting occurred, whereas a thick frozen layer in the treatment plot impeded the infiltration resulting in waterlogging being observed on the soil surface, which may induce surface runoff. Consequently, the results suggest that the resent decreasing soil frost depth inhibits lower subsoil from drying and facilitates infiltration of snow melt water.

Suzuki, S.; Iwata, Y.; Hiirota, T.; Hasegawa, S.; Arima, J.

2006-12-01

4

The effect of seasonal soil frost on the alpine groundwater recharge including climate change aspects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In alpine areas, the snow cover plays an important role as a water reservoir. Water is stored as snow over the winter and released in spring, recharging mountain aquifers through infiltration. These aquifers are essential, especially for supplying water for human activities during dry seasons. Numerous studies have shown that locally soil frost can drastically reduce the water infiltration. However, we know much less about the hydrological impact of soil frost at a larger scale, in particular...

Bayard, Daniel

2003-01-01

5

The effect of seasonal soil frost on the alpine groundwater recharge including climate change aspects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In alpine areas, the snow cover plays an important role as a water reservoir. Water is stored as snow over the winter and released in spring, recharging mountain aquifers through infiltration. These aquifers are essential, especially for supplying water for human activities during dry seasons. Numerous studies have shown that locally soil frost can drastically reduce the water infiltration. However, we know much less about the hydrological impact of soil frost at a larger scale, in particular...

Bayard, Daniel; Parriaux, Aure?le

2008-01-01

6

Role on heave pressure dependency and soil creep in stress analysis for pipeline frost heave  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new computer program for pipeline stress analysis was described, and its application for predicting pipe deformation across differential frost heave and thaw settlement transitions was reviewed. The program solved the problem of an elastic-inelastic pipe, interacting with elastic-plastic soil springs. The program was used to solve some typical cases. Frost heave pressure dependency was included to determine the relative importance of this phenomenon in pipeline design. Seasonal variation in pipe uplift resistance was also included to observe the effects of seasonal relaxation in the uplift resistance on the pipeline accrued over several years. 16 figs., 11 refs.

Nixon, J.F.

1994-12-31

7

Lake and wetland variability in regions of seasonal and permanent soil frost  

Science.gov (United States)

Northern Eurasian plays an important role in global climate partially due to the potential for positive carbon-cycle feedbacks associated with the interaction between frozen soil, temperature, and moisture. In particular, this region is characterized by numerous wetlands and lakes in areas of both seasonal and permanent soil frost. Soil ice content has a large influence on the temporal and spatial variation of soil moisture in these wetlands, which have the potential to produce large amounts of methane under saturated conditions. As soil temperatures increase, ice melt may result in more drainage and less soil saturation in areas of seasonal frost and discontinuous permafrost. In permafrost areas, the ice layer may provide a barrier to restrict drainage and subsequently increase surface inundation. Simulation of such changes in wetland extent is limited by understanding of the spatial heterogeneity of surface saturation. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrologic model was modified to represent sub-grid variability in wetland distribution by integrating a modified topographic wetness index approach. In addition, simulation of changes in the extent of lake and wetland systems is improved by allowing the exchange of moisture content between lakes and adjacent wetlands. The modified VIC model is evaluated with respect to observations of water table depth and runoff obtained over a period of three decades from the Valdai research station located south of St. Petersburg, Russia. The variability in simulated wetland extent is then evaluated between 1930 and 2000 in the Upper Volga and Zapadnaya Dvina watersheds (seasonal soil frost) and the Yeloguy and Syum watersheds (discontinuous permafrost). The average wetland area determined from simulated hydrology is compared to landcover classifications derived from L-band satellite synthetic aperture radar imagery. This work was carried out at Purdue University, at the University of Washington, and at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Chiu, C.; Sathulur, K.; Bowling, L. C.; Bohnpodest, E.; Bohn, T.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; McDonald, K.

2007-12-01

8

Effect of latent heat on frost penetration in moist soil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Substantial differences have been found between measured and computed heat losses from a large in-ground thermal storage tank used for annual cycle heat storage. One suspected source of error in the computation was the neglect of the latent heat effects in the moist soil and efforts have been made to examine these. One of these effects, that was due to freezing and thawing of the soil moisture is discussed, and the results of some simulations of the effect in a numerical model are presented.

Hopper, F.C.; McClenahan, J.D.

1979-05-01

9

Orchard floor management utilizing soil-applied coal dust for frost protection. Part 1. Potential microclimate modification on radiation frost nights  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Little is known of the microclimate differences in orchards posed by different floor management systems. Comparisons were made of microclimatic factors on eight radiation frost nights in the spring of 1986 between two adjacent. 1.4 ha peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) plots in the Shenandoah Valley of West Virginia. The two plots were under different floor management systems; one plot with a complete grass cover (grass plot) and the other plot consisted of alternating 3-m-wide soil, 3-m-wide grass strips with coal dust applied to the soil strip of the tree row (coal dust plot). The net radiative flux (R/sub n/) on radiation frost nights from the coal dust plot was 10-15 W m/sup -2/ lower (greater radiative loss) than from the grass plot. Only 50% of this R/sub n/ difference in the early morning hours at the beginning of this study was accounted for by the soil heat flux (G) difference. However, G accounted for an increased percentage of the R/sub n/ difference in the early morning hours as the study progressed, reaching 100% at approximately 30 days from the commencement of this study. Because the differences in R/sub n/ and G were nearly equal during radiation frost nights, it is apparent that little of the energy liberated by the soil was intercepted by the canopy. Provided a means of trapping the energy from the soil in the canopy can be devised, a potential 2-3 degrees C difference in canopy temperature may be realized between these floor management systems for the site studied. These differences in canopy temperature, however would be site-specific due to the effect of aspect, slope, relative position on slope, and vegetation on solar energy partitioning. 12 refs.

Sharratt, B.S.; Glenn, D.M.

1988-06-01

10

Significance of frost action and surface soil characteristics to wind erosion at Rocky Flats, Colorado. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study of the potential links between soil freezing and wind erosion was conducted at Rocky Flats during 4 winters. Most of the study has involved the conditions leading to the growth of segregation ice in the surface soil and the ground heave which that produces. This occurs about 15 times in the average winter at Rocky Flats, always on a diurnal cycle. Such frost action is preferentially distributed in time and space and cannot be estimated from air temperatures alone. November and March are the months of most frequent frost heave, and then only in the days following precipitation or snowmelt. The most marked frost effects are found on exposed interfluve and hillcrest situations, where there are patches of bare soil. Almost no effects are found on the valley floors. Soil disturbance by segregation ice leads to a marked decrease in soil bulk density, and presumably in soil strength though this change has not been quantitatively defined. However, this does not lead to wind erosion of the soil at the study site because that surface is more influenced by the vegetation cover than by the soil characteristics.

Caine, N.

1978-09-01

11

Crusting susceptibility in some allic Colombian soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many lab methods were used: dry and water soil aggregates stability, instability index and erosion index and their results were related with soil characteristics like texture, Fe and Al oxides and organic matter. Soil samples collected within 0-2.5 and 2.5-5 cm of the soil surface came from terrains with many kinds of both forest and savanna intervened systems. Those results were analyzed like a completely randomized designed. It was found that significative changes in oxides content could increase soil-crusting susceptibility unless soil humus was up to was up to 4%. In this sense, pastures or its rotation with rice and leguminous offer a best alternative for intervening these natural systems. Intensive land husbandry or monocultures with low stubble soil incorporation caused an increase in physical instability at the top of soil. Dry soil stability test and instability index were most adequate for these soils

12

Water relation response to soil chilling of six olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars with different frost resistance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The relationship between the water relations of six olive cultivars exposed to different soil temperatures (14 0.1, 9.9 0.1 and 5.8 0.2 degree centigrade) and their inherent frost resistance (as determined by two different methods) was investigated. Soil chilling was achieved by introducing pots of olive plants into water baths. The water relations of these plants were compared to those of plants kept under conditions of room temperature. The cultivars Frantoio, Picual and Changlot Real began to show significant dehydration below 14 degree centigrade, while Cornicabra, Arbequina and Ascolana Tenera showed this below 10 degree centigrade. This response is probably due to delayed stomatal closure. Only Cornicabra and Picual showed a significant reduction in leaf conductance (below 10 degree centigrade and 6 degree centigrade respectively). This absence of stomatal control led to a significantly greater dehydration in Ascolana Tenera. These variations in response to the soil chilling temperature suggest that different mechanisms may be at work, and indicate that would be necessary to study the influence of rootstock in the frost resistance of olive plants. The variations recorded grouped the cultivars as either resistant (Cornicabra), tolerant (Picual, Ascolana Tenera and Arbequina), or sensitive (Frantoio and Changlot Real). This classification is in line with the frost resistance reported for these cultivars in the literature, and with the results obtained in the present work using the stomatal density and ion leakage methods of determining such resistance. (Author) 40 refs.

Perez-Lopez, D.; Gijon, M. C.; Marino, J.; Moriana, A.

2010-07-01

13

Fine-scale distribution of soil organic carbon associated with diapirs in the frost boils of a High Arctic polar desert.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polar deserts make up approximately a quarter of the ice-free Arctic region in Canada. Previous work on polar deserts suggests that carbon redistributed to depth via cryoturbation, leaching and root inputs may enrich subsurface soils with soil organic carbon (SOC). Given, arctic soils are sensitive to climate warming and contain nearly fifty percent of global terrestrial carbon stocks, understanding the SOC distribution in these landscapes is important. Diapirs are areas of uplifted parent material above the permafrost table that are associated with patterned ground such as frost boils. These diapirs might be an important feature in polar deserts as they are overlain with a Bhy soil horizon enriched in soil organic carbon (SOC) that may provide important resources for plants growing on the surface. We used a field-portable visible and near-infrared (vis-NIR) range spectrometer to detect SOC, indicative of the diapir Bhy horizon, in the subsurface soil profile of frost boils (n= 559). To better understand the fine-scale variability of SOC distribution, we collected spectra of the soil profile using a fine scale 3 x 3 sample grid on a subset of frost boils with (n= 12) and without (n= 12) diapirs detected. Profile spectra were analyzed for SOC using a calibration model developed in Unscrambler® X v.10.2 that was based on partial least squares regression and a calibration dataset for polar deserts. We found that SOC varied with depth between frost boils and enhanced SOC at depth indicative of diapirs occurred on approximately 17% of frost boils. The distribution of SOC within the fine scale grids was extremely variable and also differed between frost boils. These results provide a promising sign that better prediction of carbon distribution in frost boils can made using vis-NIR spectroscopy.

Guy, Amanda; Lamb, Eric; Siciliano, Steven

2014-05-01

14

Frost heaving of planted tree seedlings in the boreal forest of northern Sweden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Frost heaving can be a leading cause of tree seedling mortality in many places in the boreal forest of Northern Sweden. The aim of this investigation was to improve our understanding of frost heaving of planted tree seedlings as related to snow cover, scarification, planting methods and soil types. The thesis is based on a review paper, three field experiments and one laboratory experiment. The experiments focus on different methods to control frost heaving of forest tree seedlings and on a number of factors affecting the extent of frost heaving. The review paper identifies the many aspects of frost heaving of forest tree seedlings and agricultural crops based on an intensive review of the research contributions made during the last century. Even if many investigations have been carried out with the aim to decrease the extent of frost heaving, very little quantitative results are available for tree seedlings. In a field experiment, the choice of planting positions was effective in decreasing frost heaving of planted seedlings following mounding or disc-trenching. Seedlings planted in the depressions were largely affected by frost heaving with a maximal vertical displacement of 5.4 cm while frost heaving did not occur on the top of the mound. On the other hand, the planting time and planting depth had no influence on the extent of frost heaving. In another field experiment the size of the scarified patches was strongly correlated to frost heaving which reached between 7.6 and 11.5 cm in 4 and 8-dm patches compared to between 4.4 and 5.3 in non-scarified soil and in a 1-dm patch. Ground vegetation probably decreases the diurnal temperature variation and the number of freezing-thawing cycles. The duration and magnitude of frost temperatures, the frost hour sum, increased with patch size. The difference between the 8-dm and 1-dm patch increased to 2064 hour-degrees at the end of the winter. In larger patches, the planting depth seemed to be effective in reducing the maximum frost heaving of the seedlings. In the third field experiment snow cover also showed to be an important factor in regard to frost heaving of tree seedlings. In a snow-free treatment combined with soil scarification, an uplift of 14.6 cm was measured during a winter season. In contrast no vertical displacement was observed under a simulated snow cover. The strong influence of snow on the extent of frost heaving indicates that further investigation should be focused on the interaction between maximum frost heaving and snow depth. In the laboratory freezing chamber experiment it was demonstrated that soil from spodic B horizon is less susceptible to frost heaving than soil from E horizon. Needle ice did not grow at all on soil samples from E horizon during a 3-day test, neither on fresh, nor on oven dried samples. On fresh samples of soil from Bs horizon, needle ices reached a maximum height of 9.7 cm in average. The use of theodolite and wooden dowels to estimate the extent of frost heaving in this study allowed to follow the process during the frost heaving period. A vertical uplift in millimetres could be recorded. A development of reliable measuring methods which allow a continuous estimation of the extent of frost heaving damage during the whole process, would undoubtedly represent an important step towards a better understanding of frost heaving of tree seedlings

15

Frost heaving of planted tree seedlings in the boreal forest of northern Sweden  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Frost heaving can be a leading cause of tree seedling mortality in many places in the boreal forest of Northern Sweden. The aim of this investigation was to improve our understanding of frost heaving of planted tree seedlings as related to snow cover, scarification, planting methods and soil types. The thesis is based on a review paper, three field experiments and one laboratory experiment. The experiments focus on different methods to control frost heaving of forest tree seedlings and on a number of factors affecting the extent of frost heaving. The review paper identifies the many aspects of frost heaving of forest tree seedlings and agricultural crops based on an intensive review of the research contributions made during the last century. Even if many investigations have been carried out with the aim to decrease the extent of frost heaving, very little quantitative results are available for tree seedlings. In a field experiment, the choice of planting positions was effective in decreasing frost heaving of planted seedlings following mounding or disc-trenching. Seedlings planted in the depressions were largely affected by frost heaving with a maximal vertical displacement of 5.4 cm while frost heaving did not occur on the top of the mound. On the other hand, the planting time and planting depth had no influence on the extent of frost heaving. In another field experiment the size of the scarified patches was strongly correlated to frost heaving which reached between 7.6 and 11.5 cm in 4 and 8-dm patches compared to between 4.4 and 5.3 in non-scarified soil and in a 1-dm patch. Ground vegetation probably decreases the diurnal temperature variation and the number of freezing-thawing cycles. The duration and magnitude of frost temperatures, the frost hour sum, increased with patch size. The difference between the 8-dm and 1-dm patch increased to 2064 hour-degrees at the end of the winter. In larger patches, the planting depth seemed to be effective in reducing the maximum frost heaving of the seedlings. In the third field experiment snow cover also showed to be an important factor in regard to frost heaving of tree seedlings. In a snow-free treatment combined with soil scarification, an uplift of 14.6 cm was measured during a winter season. In contrast no vertical displacement was observed under a simulated snow cover. The strong influence of snow on the extent of frost heaving indicates that further investigation should be focused on the interaction between maximum frost heaving and snow depth. In the laboratory freezing chamber experiment it was demonstrated that soil from spodic B horizon is less susceptible to frost heaving than soil from E horizon. Needle ice did not grow at all on soil samples from E horizon during a 3-day test, neither on fresh, nor on oven dried samples. On fresh samples of soil from Bs horizon, needle ices reached a maximum height of 9.7 cm in average. The use of theodolite and wooden dowels to estimate the extent of frost heaving in this study allowed to follow the process during the frost heaving period. A vertical uplift in millimetres could be recorded. A development of reliable measuring methods which allow a continuous estimation of the extent of frost heaving damage during the whole process, would undoubtedly represent an important step towards a better understanding of frost heaving of tree seedlings.

Goulet, France

2000-07-01

16

Non-stationary temporal characterization of the temperature profile of a soil exposed to frost in south-eastern Canada  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare time and frequency fluctuations of air and soil temperatures (2-, 5-, 10-, 20- and 50-cm below the soil surface using the continuous wavelet transform, with a particular emphasis on the daily cycle. The analysis of wavelet power spectra and cross power spectra provided detailed non-stationary accounts with respect to frequencies (or periods and to time of the structure of the data and also of the relationships that exist between time series. For this particular application to the temperature profile of a soil exposed to frost, both the air temperature and the 2-cm depth soil temperature time series exhibited a dominant power peak at 1-d periodicity, prominent from spring to autumn. This feature was gradually damped as it propagated deeper into the soil and was weak for the 20-cm depth. Influence of the incoming solar radiation was also revealed in the wavelet power spectra analysis by a weaker intensity of the 1-d peak. The principal divergence between air and soil temperatures, besides damping, occurred in winter from the latent heat release associated to the freezing of the soil water and the insulation effect of snowpack that cease the dependence of the soil temperature to the air temperature. Attenuation and phase-shifting of the 1-d periodicity could be quantified through scale-averaged power spectra and time-lag estimations. Air temperature variance was only partly transferred to the 2-cm soil temperature time series and much less so to the 20-cm soil depth.

F. Anctil

2008-05-01

17

Frost evolution in tailings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review was carried out on the physical and thermal mechanisms of permafrost evaluation in soils and uranium tailings. The primary mechanism controlling permafrost evolution is conductive heat transfer with the latent heat of fusion of water being liberated as phase change occurs. Depending on the soil properties and freezing rate, pore water can be expelled from the frost front or pore water can migrate towards the frost front. Solute redistribution may occur as the frost front penetrates into the soil. The rate of frost penetration is a function of the thermal properties of the tailings and the climatic conditions. Computer modelling programmes capable of modelling permafrost evolution were reviewed. The GEOTHERM programme was selected as being the most appropriate for this study. The GEOTHERM programme uses the finite element method of thermal analysis. The ground surface temperature is determined by solving the energy balance equations a the ground surface. The GEOTHERM programme was used to simulate the permafrost evolution in the Key Lake Mine tailings located in north central Saskatchewan. The analyses indicated that the existing frozen zones in the tailing pond will eventually thaw if an average snow depth covers the tailings. Hundreds of years are required to thaw the tailings. If minimal snow cover is present the extent of the frozen zone in the tailings will increase

18

Magnetic Susceptibility Measurements for in Situ Characterization of Lunar Soil  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetic separation is a viable method for concentration of components of lunar soils and rocks for use as feedstocks for manufacture of metals, oxygen, and for recovery of volatiles such as He-3. Work with lunar materials indicates that immature soils are the best candidates for magnetic beneficiation. The magnetic susceptibility at which selected soil components such as anorthite, ilmenite, or metallic iron are separated is not affected by soil maturity, but the recovery of the concentrated components is. Increasing soil maturity lowers recovery. Mature soils contain significant amounts of glass-encased metallic iron. Magnetic susceptibility, which is sensitive to metallic iron content, can be used to measure soil maturity. The relationship between the ratio of magnetic susceptibility and iron oxide and the conventional maturity parameter, I(sub s)/FeO, ferromagnetic resonant intensity divided by iron oxide content is given. The magnetic susceptibilities were determined using apparatus designed for magnetic separation of the lunar soils.

Oder, R. R.

1992-01-01

19

Susceptibility of ectomycorrhizal fungi to soil heating.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi are an important biotic factor for successful tree recruitment because they enhance plant growth and alleviate drought stress of their hosts. Thus, EcM propagules are expected to be a key factor for forest regeneration after major disturbance events such as stand-replacing forest fires. Yet the susceptibility of soil-borne EcM fungi to heat is unclear. In this study, we investigated the heat tolerance of EcM fungi of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L., Pinaceae). Soil samples of three soil depths were heated to the temperature of 45, 60 and 70 °C, respectively, and surviving EcM fungi were assessed by a bioassay using Scots pine as an experimental host plant. EcM species were identified by a combination of morphotyping and sequencing of the ITS region. We found that mean number of species per sample was reduced by the 60 and 70 °C treatment, but not by the 45 °C treatment. Species composition changed due to heat. While some EcM fungi species did not survive heating, the majority of species was also found in the heated samples. The most frequent species in the heat treatment were Rhizopogon roseolus, Cenococcum geophilum and several unidentified species. PMID:20943157

Kipfer, Tabea; Egli, Simon; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Moser, Barbara; Wohlgemuth, Thomas

2010-01-01

20

Orchard floor management utilizing soil-applied coal dust for frost protection. Part II. Seasonal microclimate effect  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Orchard floor management has been found to affect the microclimate on radiation frost nights; however, long-term effects of management on the seasonal microclimate have not been studied. Comparisons were made of microclimatic factors in the spring of 1986 between two adjacent 1.4 ha peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) plots in the Shenandoah Valley of West Virginia. The orchard floor of one plot has grass maintained in both the 3-m-wide tree row and 3-m-wide grass alley (grass plot); the floor of the other plot was similar except that coal dust was applied to the soil surface of the tree row (coal dust plot). Net radiative (R/sub n/), soil heat (G), and sensible heat flux were greater during the daytime in the coal dust plot. Averaged over the 55-day period of this study, the daily R/sub n/ and G was 7 and 2 W m/sup -2/ greater in the coal dust plot, respectively. Thus, G accounted for 30% of R/sub n/ on a daily basis. Daily average tree-row air (to 195 cm) and soil (to 5 cm) temperatures were approx. 0.2 and 2.5 degrees C higher, respectively, in the coal dust plot. The cumulative differences found at the end of this study indicated that the coal dust plot absorbed 32 MJ more net radiant energy than the grass plot. Cumulative G differences accounted for 9 MJ (30%) of the R/sub n/ difference, with a greater heat flux into the soil in the coal dust plot. An approximate difference of 130 growing-degree-hours (GDH), which represented a 1% difference, was found at the end of the study. However, at the time of bloom, which required 4000 GDH, only a 40 GDH difference was found. These results indicate that microclimatic differences between management systems are cumulative and that differences for the site studied can develop by late spring. In years with greater cloud-free days, even larger microclimatic differences could develop than those reported in this study. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Sharratt, B.S.; Glenn, D.M.

1988-07-01

 
 
 
 
21

Investigation of effects of moisture on soil temperature regimes and frost depth in a laboratory model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Freezing depth is one the most important climatic parameters for indices applied in various fields such as agriculture and civil engineering. The parameter of freezing depth depends on different factors including astronomical, surface air temperature, humidity; soil characteristics such as texture, heat capacity, thermal conductivity and specific heat. This study investigated the effect of air temperature on freezing depth. Apparatus able to reach temperatures of -16 ?C was set up to test so...

Et Al, Rahnama Yami E.

2012-01-01

22

Soil susceptibility to acidification; 1 : 1 000 000  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The capacity of soils to resist to acidification depends on the content of carbonates, humus, clayey minerals, and salts. The least prone to acidification are the carbonate and alkaline soils where the pH does not significantly change (the carbonate controlling system). The soils pertaining to different soil units (carbonate Chernozems, Histi-Mollic Gleysols, Fluvisols, Rendzinas, Solonchals and Solonetzs) are in this group. On the other side, there are the very washed out (leached) soils of mountain areas where pH does not change significantly due to their extreme acidity (aluminium controlling system). Four classes of soils with different susceptibility to acidification depending on their buffer capacities controlled by the content of clay, humus and basic ions are classified into this group. Very sensitive (prone to acidification) are the light sandy soils with low content of humus and clay where pH in slightly acid to neutral areas is maintained by calcification and fertilisation. (author)

23

Assessment of soil erosion susceptibility using empirical modeling  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil erosion is one of the most serious land degradation problems all over the world, causing irreversible land quality reduction. In this paper, we modify the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model by replacing the factors of slope length and gradient with Sediment Transport Index (STI). The Digital Elevation Model, terrain parameters, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and rainfall data are used as inputs to the model. Along with the application of remote sensing techniques and ground survey measurements, erosion susceptibility maps are produced. The revised models are then used to obtain the optimal estimate of soil erosion susceptibility at Alianello of southern Italy, which is prone to soil erosion. The soil loss estimated from the modified RUSLE model shows a large spatial variance, ranging from 10 to as much as 7000 ton ha-1 yr-1. The high erosion susceptible area constitutes about 46.8% of the total erosion area, and when classified by land cover type, 33% is "mixed bare with shrubs and grass", followed by 5.29% of "mixture of shrubs and trees", with "shrubs" having the lowest percentage of 0.06%. In terms of slope types, very steep slope accounts for a total of 40.90% and belongs to high susceptibility, whereas flat slope accounts for only 0.12%, indicating that flat topography has little effect on the erosion hazard. As far as the geomorphologic types are concerned, the type of "moderate steep-steep slopes with moderate to severe erosion" is most favorable to high soil erosion, which comprises about 9.34%. Finally, we validate the soil erosion map from the adapted RUSLE model against the visual interpretation map, and find a similarity degree of 71.9%, reflecting the efficiency of the adapted RUSLE model in mapping the soil erosion in this study area.

Guo, Jianping; Niu, Tao; Rahimy, Pooyan; Wang, Fu; Zhao, Haiying; Zhang, Jiahua

2013-02-01

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Magnetic susceptibility for use in delineating hydric soils  

Science.gov (United States)

Field indicators are used to identify hydric soil boundaries and to delineate wetlands. The most common field indicators may not be seen in some soils with thick, dark, mollic epipedons, and do not form in Fe-poor soils. This study evaluated magnetic susceptibility (MS) meter as a field tool to determine hydric soil boundaries. Five Mollisoldominated sites formed in glacial deposits in Illinois were evaluated along with one Ultisol-dominated site formed in Coastal Plain sediments of North Carolina. Measurements of volumetric MS were made along transects at each site that extended from wetland into upland areas. One created wetland was evaluated. Field indicators were used to identify the hydric soils. Results showed that volumetric MS values were significantly (P 0.15) differences in MS were found for Coastal Plain hydric and nonhydric soils where MS values were low (<10 ?? 10-5 SI). Critical MS values that separated hydric and nonhydric soils varied between 20 ?? 10-5 and 30 ?? 10-5 SI for the loessal soils evaluated in Illinois. Such critical values will have to be determined on site using field indicators until specific values can be defined for hydric soils within a given parent material. With a critical MS value in hand, a wetland delineator can make MS measurements along transects perpendicular to the envisioned hydric soil boundary to quickly and quantitatively identify it.

Grimley, D.A.; Vepraskas, M.J.

2000-01-01

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Machine learning modelling for predicting soil liquefaction susceptibility  

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Full Text Available This study describes two machine learning techniques applied to predict liquefaction susceptibility of soil based on the standard penetration test (SPT data from the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake. The first machine learning technique which uses Artificial Neural Network (ANN based on multi-layer perceptions (MLP that are trained with Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation algorithm. The second machine learning technique uses the Support Vector machine (SVM that is firmly based on the theory of statistical learning theory, uses classification technique. ANN and SVM have been developed to predict liquefaction susceptibility using corrected SPT [(N160] and cyclic stress ratio (CSR. Further, an attempt has been made to simplify the models, requiring only the two parameters [(N160 and peck ground acceleration (amax/g], for the prediction of liquefaction susceptibility. The developed ANN and SVM models have also been applied to different case histories available globally. The paper also highlights the capability of the SVM over the ANN models.

P. Samui

2011-01-01

26

Machine learning modelling for predicting soil liquefaction susceptibility  

Science.gov (United States)

This study describes two machine learning techniques applied to predict liquefaction susceptibility of soil based on the standard penetration test (SPT) data from the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake. The first machine learning technique which uses Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based on multi-layer perceptions (MLP) that are trained with Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation algorithm. The second machine learning technique uses the Support Vector machine (SVM) that is firmly based on the theory of statistical learning theory, uses classification technique. ANN and SVM have been developed to predict liquefaction susceptibility using corrected SPT [(N1)60] and cyclic stress ratio (CSR). Further, an attempt has been made to simplify the models, requiring only the two parameters [(N1)60 and peck ground acceleration (amax/g)], for the prediction of liquefaction susceptibility. The developed ANN and SVM models have also been applied to different case histories available globally. The paper also highlights the capability of the SVM over the ANN models.

Samui, P.; Sitharam, T. G.

2011-01-01

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Soil magnetic susceptibility: A quantitative proxy of soil drainage for use in ecological restoration  

Science.gov (United States)

Flooded, saturated, or poorly drained soils are commonly anaerobic, leading to microbially induced magnetite/maghemite dissolution and decreased soil magnetic susceptibility (MS). Thus, MS is considerably higher in well-drained soils (MS typically 40-80 ?? 10-5 standard international [SI]) compared to poorly drained soils (MS typically 10-25 ?? 10-5 SI) in Illinois, other soil-forming factors being equal. Following calibration to standard soil probings, MS values can be used to rapidly and precisely delineate hydric from nonhydric soils in areas with relatively uniform parent material. Furthermore, soil MS has a moderate to strong association with individual tree species' distribution across soil moisture regimes, correlating inversely with independently reported rankings of a tree species' flood tolerance. Soil MS mapping can thus provide a simple, rapid, and quantitative means for precisely guiding reforestation with respect to plant species' adaptations to soil drainage classes. For instance, in native woodlands of east-central Illinois, Quercus alba , Prunus serotina, and Liriodendron tulipifera predominantly occur in moderately well-drained soils (MS 40-60 ?? 10-5 SI), whereas Acer saccharinum, Carya laciniosa, and Fraxinus pennsylvanica predominantly occur in poorly drained soils (MS <20 ?? 10-5 SI). Using a similar method, an MS contour map was used to guide restoration of mesic, wet mesic, and wet prairie species to pre-settlement distributions at Meadowbrook Park (Urbana, IL, U.S.A.). Through use of soil MS maps calibrated to soil drainage class and native vegetation occurrence, restoration efforts can be conducted more successfully and species distributions more accurately reconstructed at the microecosystem level. ?? 2008 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

Grimley, D.A.; Wang, J.-S.; Liebert, D.A.; Dawson, J.O.

2008-01-01

28

Soil magnetic susceptibility reflects soil moisture regimes and the adaptability of tree species to these regimes  

Science.gov (United States)

Flooded, saturated or poorly drained soils are frequently anaerobic, leading to dissolution of the strongly magnetic minerals, magnetite and maghemite, and a corresponding decrease in soil magnetic susceptibility (MS). In this study of five temperate deciduous forests in east-central Illinois, USA, mean surface soil MS was significantly higher adjacent to upland tree species (31 ?? 10-5 SI) than adjacent to floodplain or lowland tree species (17 ?? 10-5 SI), when comparing regional soils with similar parent material of loessal silt. Although the sites differ in average soil MS for each tree species, the relative order of soil MS means for associated tree species at different locations is similar. Lowland tree species, Celtis occidentalis L., Ulmus americana L., Acer saccharinum L., Carya laciniosa (Michx. f.) Loud., and Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. were associated with the lowest measured soil MS mean values overall and at each site. Tree species' flood tolerance rankings increased significantly, as soil MS values declined, the published rankings having significant correlations with soil MS values for the same species groups. The three published classifications of tree species' flood tolerance were significantly correlated with associated soil MS values at all sites, but most strongly at Allerton Park, the site with the widest range of soil drainage classes and MS values. Using soil MS measurements in forests with soil parent material containing similar initial levels of strongly magnetic minerals can provide a simple, rapid and quantitative method to classify soils according to hydric regimes, including dry conditions, and associated plant composition. Soil MS values thus have the capacity to quantify the continuum of hydric tolerances of tree species and guide tree species selection for reforestation. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Wang, J.-S.; Grimley, D.A.; Xu, C.; Dawson, J.O.

2008-01-01

29

Non-stationary temporal characterization of the temperature profile of a soil exposed to frost in south-eastern Canada  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this work was to compare time and frequency fluctuations of air and soil temperatures (2-, 5-, 10-, 20- and 50-cm below the soil surface) using the continuous wavelet transform, with a particular emphasis on the daily cycle. The analysis of wavelet power spectra and cross power spectra provided detailed non-stationary accounts with respect to frequencies (or periods) and to time of the structure of the data and also of the relationships that exist between time series. For thi...

Anctil, F.; Pratte, A.; Parent, L. E.; Bolinder, M. A.

2008-01-01

30

Frost/Nixon  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This project investigates power relations’ constitution through interaction in an institutionalised news interview setting. Two objects, The Nixon Interviews and Frost/Nixon, have been analysed to explore this. The objects are an interview with former President Richard Nixon, conducted by the British journalist David Frost and the film, adapted from a stage play, based on said interviews. Comparing these two concludes how participants in both the original and fictionalised interviews consti...

Hvid, Amanda Boie; Rasmussen, Lasse Duus; Birkemose, Liv; Myssen, Martin; Augoustakis, Louisa Dikea

2013-01-01

31

Effects of Parent Materials, Gypsum and Carbonates on the Magnetic Susceptibility of Soils in Southern Mashhad  

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Full Text Available Magnetic susceptibility measurement is a simple and quick technique for characterizing soils and sediments and describing soil-forming processes. The interpretation of soil magnetic susceptibility data needs sufficient knowledge about the factors affecting this parameter. To identify the effects of parent material, gypsum and calcium carbonate equivalent, 42 samples were taken from horizons of soils developed on loessial, alluvial, granitic and marly materials in southern Mashhad. Gypsum and carbonates of soil samples were removed by successive washing with distilled water and diluted HCl, respectively. Magnetic susceptibility of bulk samples (?lfbulk, gypsum free samples (?lfGf, gypsum and carbonates free samples (?lfGCf and gypsum, carbonates and sand free samples (?lfGCSf was measured. The results revealed a strong 1:1 correlation between the measured and calculated ?lfGf and ?lfGCf. Despite the high amounts of gypsum and carbonates in soils developed on marls, their ?lfbulk was much more than that of the other soils and reached up to 121.8×10-8m3 kg-1. In contrast, the ?lfbulk values of saprolitic granite were less than 10.4×10-8m3 kg-1. The ?lfbulk values of loessial and alluvial soils were less than those of marly soils but higher than those of soils developed on saprolitic granite. ?lfbulk values were negatively correlated with the amount of sand. However, reduction in magnetic susceptibility values of marly soils after removing sand reflects the different nature of this soil. The correlation between ?lfbulk and amount of silt and clay is positive, but the magnetic susceptibility values are more sensitive to clay percentage, indicating the more important contribution of clay to magnetic susceptibility values. The results of this study highlight the role of parent materials, gypsum and carbonates in the soil magnetic susceptibility values that should be considered.

A. Karimi

2012-10-01

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Soil magnetic susceptibility as indicator of radioactive contamination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurement of magnetic susceptibility is a method, which is used in many areas of research. The locality Ak-Tjuz is typical example of old ecological load. One of the negative effects represents radioactive contamination. This situation is caused by environmental disaster in 1964. For useful reparation it is really necessary to determinate the surface range of contamination. And measurement of the magnetic susceptibility could be the suitable method for that kind of monitoring. (author)

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Pinhole test for identifying susceptibility of soils to piping erosion: effect water quality and hydraulic head  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Piping has been observed in both natural and soils, as well as under different types of land uses and vegetation covers. Despite its importance, no standard widely-applied methodology exists to assess susceptibility of soils to piping. This study aims at evaluating the pinhole test for assessing the susceptibility of soils to piping under different conditions. More precisely, the effects of hydraulic head and water quality are being assessed. Topsoil samples (remoulded specimens) with a small range of water contents were taken in Central Belgium (Heverlee) and the susceptibility of these soil samples are investigated under standardized laboratory conditions with a pinhole test device. Three hydraulic heads (50,180 and 380 mm) and two water qualities (tap and distilled water) were used, reflecting dominant field conditions. (Author) 6 refs.

Nadal Romero, E.; Verachtert, E.; Poesen, J.

2009-07-01

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Relationship between Magnetic Susceptibility and Heavy Metals Concentration in Polluted Soils of Lenjanat Region, Isfahan  

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Full Text Available This study analyzed the relationship between soil magnetic susceptibility and the content of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Fe on 233 samples from polluted soils of Lenjanat Region in the Isfahan. The aim was to investigate the suitability of such measurements for indicating heavy metal pollution. Heavy metal contents were determined after extraction with nitric acid. Basic soil characteristics were determined using common methods. Geochemical analysis of soil samples showed close correlation between Cd, Ni and Fe. Cd concentration was the highest of all the elements studied. The correlation between the analyzed metals and magnetic susceptibility are positive and significant for Fe and Cu. Results suggests that magnetic susceptibility can be used as a guideline to find contaminated urban areas with Fe and Cu in this region.

Salehi M. H.

2013-04-01

35

Importance of winter climate and soil frost for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in boreal forest soils and streams : - implications for a changing climate  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a defining feature of surface waters in a large part of the world and it influences a variety of physical, chemical and biological processes in aquatic ecosystems. Riparian soils exert a major control on stream water chemistry in many northern latitude regions and provide a local source of DOC to adjacent streams. As the winter climate in northern regions is predicted to be particularly affected by climate change, it is important to investigate the sensitivit...

Haei, Mahsa

2011-01-01

36

Mapping soil erosion using magnetic susceptibility. A case study in Ukraine  

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Full Text Available The intrinsic element grouping of the magnetic susceptibility (MS values is conducted. The relation between MS values and erosion index is shown. The objective of the investigation is study of the information about magnetic susceptibility of soils as a diagnostic criterion to erodibility. The investigations were conducted in the limits of Tcherkascy Tishki territory, Kharkiv district. The soils of the territory are presented by catenary row of chernozems. The study area was used in the field crop rotation. The soil conservation technologies have not been applied. The data analyze confirmed high correlation of the MS, erosive index and humus content. The possibility of MS cartogram using at the soil erodibility map is presented. The magnetic methods can be extensively used at the soil erosion investigations thanks to the speed and low cost.

P. Nazarok

2014-03-01

37

Soil magnetic susceptibility and contamination of soils from kindergartens areas by potentially toxic elements in Bratislava (Slovakia  

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Full Text Available The aims of this study were to verify the utilization of magnetic susceptibility measurements for the determination of contamination by potentially toxic elements (PTEs of urban soils in kindergartens in the capital city of Slovakia, Bratislava, and to determine the concentrations of selected PTEs like As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn in the soils. The results showed that the urban soils were contaminated mainly by Pb, Zn, Hg, and Cu with the concentrations between 11–183 mg·kg-1, 33–551 mg·kg-1, 0.024–0.431 mg·kg-1, and 9–67 mg·kg-1, respectively. Generally, the highest concentrations of PTEs were found in the soils of kindergartens that are located very close to roads with heavy traffic and in the oldest part of the city (1st district, whereas the lowest levels of PTEs were in residential areas (4th and 5th district. Significant correlation existed between the magnetic susceptibility and the levels of PTEs in urban soils, and indicated that the measurement of magnetic susceptibility might be a useful tool for identification of trace metal contamination in urban soils of Bratislava.

Ondrej ?urža

2013-12-01

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Evaluation of Magnetic Susceptibility Source Using CBD Treatment and Micro CT-Scan Images in Some Soils of Fars Province  

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Full Text Available Magnetic susceptibility (? measurements are widely used for the evaluation of soil profile development. Fourteen soil profiles were studied in a relatively wide range of climatic conditions in Fars Province. Citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite (CBD extraction and micro CT-Scan images were used to evaluate the source of magnetic susceptibility. The results showed that soil samples lost 23 to 91 percent of their magnetic susceptibility after CBD extraction (?CBD, reflecting differences in the source (pedogenic or lithogenic of magnetic susceptibility. Greater values of the decrease were noticed mostly in well developed soil profiles as well as in soil surface. 22 to 89% of the decrease was observed in frequency dependence of magnetic susceptibility (?fd after CBD extraction. A significant positive correlation (P<0.01 was obtained between ?CBD and ?fd in the soil studied. Micro CT-Scan images with a spatial resolution of 33 µm showed lithogenic magnetic Fe oxide (magnetite grains.

H Owliaie

2009-01-01

39

Surveying the anthropogenic impact of the Moldau river sediments and nearby soils using magnetic susceptibility  

Science.gov (United States)

Measuring magnetic susceptibility is a method which is used to estimate the amount of magnetic particles in soils, sediments or dusts. Changes in magnetic susceptibility can be due to various reasons: input from different sources of sediments, e.g. from different soils or rocks, atmospheric fallout of anthropogenic dusts containing magnetic particles produced by fossil fuel combustion, steel production or road traffic. In the case of river sediments, input from the catchment is of primary significance. The main aim of this investigation was to test the potential of magnetic susceptibility screening in identifying the effect and significance of anthropogenic activities in an area with complex geological conditions. We investigated the magnetic susceptibility of riverbed sediments of the largest river of the Czech Republic, the Moldau river. Besides that, the magnetic signal of nearby topsoils as well as of outcropping bedrocks in the vicinity of the river was examined. In the upper 300 km of the river, the magnetic enhancement of the river sediments can be linked to anthropogenic activities. Positive correlations were found in the river sediments between the contents of Cu and Zn and magnetic susceptibility, while Fe, Mn and Ni did not show a correlation with magnetic susceptibility. However, the major geogenic magnetic anomaly in the area around the Slapy dam has made it impossible to unambiguously interpret the magnetic signal in terms of anthropogenic impact in the last 80 km downstream.

Knab, M.; Hoffmann, V.; Petrovský, E.; Kapi?ka, A.; Jordanova, N.; Appel, E.

2006-02-01

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Mineralogy, size, morphology and porosity of aggregates and their relationship with soil susceptibility to water erosion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Soil erosion has been considered as the main process related to losses of soil mass and decrease of productivity in cultivated lands as well as on e of the most important processes in landscape evolution. Attention has been paid to many pedological variables affecting intensity of erosion, but little to the influence of iron compounds on the type, size, shape and porosity of soil aggregates. In the present study, three lithopedodomains which were assumed to be closely related to the dominant lithology of the soil parent material, varying in the degree of water erosion intensity, were selected for further analysis which focused mainly on the influence of iron oxide mineralogy on the soil aggregation. Powder X-ray diffractometry, 80 K Moessbauer data and SEM images are used to correlate all these variables with observed erosion activity in the field. The present data indicate that the more the soil is rich in iron (hematite and/or goethite) or aluminium (gibbsite) (hydr)oxide, the smaller are its aggregates and is porous. Soils derived from metabasic rocks are much more susceptible to collapse under wetting than those from other lithologies. They have the highest iron and clay content. Schist-derived soil is richer in muscovite, has bigger aggregates and porous and are less prone to collapse, while the granite-derived soil presents relatively intermediate resistance, when humid

 
 
 
 
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Magnetic susceptibility and Heavy metals distribution from risk-cultivated soil around the iron-steel plant, China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magnetic susceptibility is a non-conventional way that can be used for evaluating proxy soil heavy metals pollution. The paper monitors available heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Zn, and Mn) present in cultivated soils around iron-steel plant by soil magnetic susceptibility. Our study was located in an area with high pollution with small grid density of 250 m in China. Results showed that low field magnetic susceptibility was significantly correlated with available Cu, Zn, and Mn. No clear association exists between magnetic susceptibility and available Fe, soil organic matter, pH. Frequency dependent susceptibility >5% suggests the possible presence of super-paramagnetic particles, fly ashes produced during coal combustion. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

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Managing potato biodiversity to cope with frost risk in the high Andes: a modeling perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Austral summer frosts in the Andean highlands are ubiquitous throughout the crop cycle, causing yield losses. In spite of the existing warming trend, climate change models forecast high variability, including freezing temperatures. As the potato center of origin, the region has a rich biodiversity which includes a set of frost resistant genotypes. Four contrasting potato genotypes--representing genetic variability--were considered in the present study: two species of frost resistant native potatoes (the bitter Solanum juzepczukii, var. Luki, and the non-bitter Solanum ajanhuiri, var. Ajanhuiri) and two commercial frost susceptible genotypes (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum var. Alpha and Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigenum var. Gendarme). The objective of the study was to conduct a comparative growth analysis of four genotypes and modeling their agronomic response under frost events. It included assessing their performance under Andean contrasting agroecological conditions. Independent subsets of data from four field experiments were used to parameterize, calibrate and validate a potato growth model. The validated model was used to ascertain the importance of biodiversity, represented by the four genotypes tested, as constituents of germplasm mixtures in single plots used by local farmers, a coping strategy in the face of climate variability. Also scenarios with a frost routine incorporated in the model were constructed. Luki and Ajanhuiri were the most frost resistant varieties whereas Alpha was the most susceptible. Luki and Ajanhuiri, as monoculture, outperformed the yield obtained with the mixtures under severe frosts. These results highlight the role played by local frost tolerant varieties, and featured the management importance--e.g. clean seed, strategic watering--to attain the yields reported in our experiments. The mixtures of local and introduced potatoes can thus not only provide the products demanded by the markets but also reduce the impact of frosts and thus the vulnerability of the system to abiotic stressors. PMID:24497912

Condori, Bruno; Hijmans, Robert J; Ledent, Jean Francois; Quiroz, Roberto

2014-01-01

43

Managing Potato Biodiversity to Cope with Frost Risk in the High Andes: A Modeling Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

Austral summer frosts in the Andean highlands are ubiquitous throughout the crop cycle, causing yield losses. In spite of the existing warming trend, climate change models forecast high variability, including freezing temperatures. As the potato center of origin, the region has a rich biodiversity which includes a set of frost resistant genotypes. Four contrasting potato genotypes –representing genetic variability- were considered in the present study: two species of frost resistant native potatoes (the bitter Solanum juzepczukii, var. Luki, and the non-bitter Solanum ajanhuiri, var. Ajanhuiri) and two commercial frost susceptible genotypes (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum var. Alpha and Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigenum var. Gendarme). The objective of the study was to conduct a comparative growth analysis of four genotypes and modeling their agronomic response under frost events. It included assessing their performance under Andean contrasting agroecological conditions. Independent subsets of data from four field experiments were used to parameterize, calibrate and validate a potato growth model. The validated model was used to ascertain the importance of biodiversity, represented by the four genotypes tested, as constituents of germplasm mixtures in single plots used by local farmers, a coping strategy in the face of climate variability. Also scenarios with a frost routine incorporated in the model were constructed. Luki and Ajanhuiri were the most frost resistant varieties whereas Alpha was the most susceptible. Luki and Ajanhuiri, as monoculture, outperformed the yield obtained with the mixtures under severe frosts. These results highlight the role played by local frost tolerant varieties, and featured the management importance –e.g. clean seed, strategic watering- to attain the yields reported in our experiments. The mixtures of local and introduced potatoes can thus not only provide the products demanded by the markets but also reduce the impact of frosts and thus the vulnerability of the system to abiotic stressors. PMID:24497912

Condori, Bruno; Hijmans, Robert J.; Ledent, Jean Francois; Quiroz, Roberto

2014-01-01

44

ISOLATION AND ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING OF RAPIDLY-GROWING MYCOBACTERIA FROM GRASSLAND SOILS  

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Full Text Available Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM are common soil saprophytes, but certain strains cause infections in human and animals. The infections due to RGM have been increasing in past decades and are often difficult to treat. The susceptibility to antibiotics is regularly evaluated in clinical isolates of RGM, but the data on soil RGM are missing. The objectives of this study was to isolate RGM from four grassland soils with different impact of manuring, and assess their resistance to antibiotics and the ability to grow at 37°C and 42°C. Since isolation of RGM from soil is a challenge, a conventional decontamination method (NaOH/malachite green/cycloheximide and a recent method based on olive oil/SDS demulsification were compared. The olive oil/SDS method was less efficient, mainly because of the emulsion instability and plate overgrowing with other bacteria. Altogether, 44 isolates were obtained and 23 representatives of different RGM genotypes were screened. The number of isolates per soil decreased with increasing soil pH, consistently with previous findings that mycobacteria were more abundant in low pH soils. Most of the isolates belonged to the Mycobacterium fortuitum group. The majority of isolates was resistant to 2-4 antibiotics. Multiresistant strains occurred also in a control soil that has a long history without the exposure to antibiotic-containing manure. Seven isolates grew at 37°C, including the species M. septicum and M. fortuitum known for infections in humans. This study shows that multiresistant RGM close to known human pathogens occur in grassland soils regardless the soil history of manuring.

Martina Kyselková

2013-08-01

45

Susceptibility of coarse-textured soils to soil erosion by water in the tropics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The application of soil physics for the evaluation of factors of soil erosion in the tropics received considerable attention in the last four decades. In Nigeria, physical characteristics of rainfall such as drop size and drop-size distribution, rainfall intensity at short intervals and kinetic energy of rainfall were evaluated using different methods. Thus, compound erosivity indices were evaluated which showed a similar trend in annual rainfall erosivity with annual rainfall amounts. Attempts have also been made to use geostatistical tools and fractal theory to describe temporal variability in rainfall erosivity. High erosivity aggravates the vulnerability of coarse-textured soils to erosion. These soils, high in sand content were poorly aggregated and structurally weak. Thus, they were easily detached and transported by runoff. Long-term data are needed to describe factors of soil erosion in the tropics but quite often, equipment are not available or poorly maintained where available such that useful data are not collected. A greater cooperation of pure physicists, soil physicists and engineers in the developing nations is needed to improve or design equipment and methods for the characterization of factors of soil erosion in the tropics. (author)

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Controlling factors for the spatial variability of soil magnetic susceptibility across England and Wales  

Science.gov (United States)

We review the nature and importance of soil factors implicated in the formation of secondary ferrimagnetic minerals in soils and palaeosols worldwide. The findings are examined with respect to temperate regions through a comprehensive analysis of over 5000 samples of surface soil from England and Wales taken from a 5 × 5 km grid. Over 30 soil and environmental attributes are considered for each sample as proxies for soil forming factors. Measurements of low field magnetic susceptibility (mass specific) and frequency dependent susceptibility (mass specific and percentage) on each sample provide estimates of the concentration and grain size of ferrimagnetic minerals. Maps of soil magnetism across England and Wales show non-random distributions and clusters. One subset of data is clearly linked to contamination from atmospheric pollution, and excluded from subsequent analyses. The concentration of ferrimagnetic minerals in the non-polluted set is broadly proportional to the concentration of minerals falling into the viscous superparamagnetic domain size range (~ 15-25 nm). This set shows clusters of high magnetic concentrations particularly over specific parent materials such as schists and slates, mudstones and limestones. Bivariate analyses and linear multiple regression models show that the main controlling factors are parent material and drainage, the latter represented by soil drainage classes and particle size. Together these two factors account for ~ 30% of the magnetic variability in the complete dataset. A second group of factors, including climate (mean annual rainfall), relief (slope and altitude), and organisms (land use, organic carbon and pH) have subordinate control. Climate, as represented by mean annual temperature, and also pedogenic time are deemed not relevant at these spatio-temporal scales. The findings are consistent with a largely abiotic system where the role of iron-reducing bacteria appears minor. At coarse spatial and temporal scales, secondary ferrimagnetic mineral formation is controlled by the weathering capacity to supply Fe to the surface soil. At finer scales, soluble Fe precipitates as ferrihydrite before transformation in response to periodically anaerobic conditions into other minerals including nanoscale magnetite.

Blundell, A.; Dearing, J. A.; Boyle, J. F.; Hannam, J. A.

2009-08-01

47

Tolerância de frutos de pessegueiro a geadas Fruit frost tolerance in peach  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a tolerância de frutos de pessegueiro aos danos ocasionados pela geada. A geada ocorreu no dia 5 de setembro de 2006, sendo que a temperatura mínima, a 1,5 m do solo, foi de - 1,06ºC. Foram avaliados 28 genótipos de pessegueiro em diferentes estádios fenológicos. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições (plantas de pessegueiro, procedendo-se à avaliação em seis ramos por planta. No dia em que ocorreu a geada, foram mensurados o número de frutos por ramo, diâmetro sutural médio dos frutos, número total de gemas vegetativas, percentual de brotação e percentual de brindilas formadas a partir das gemas brotadas. Uma segunda avaliação foi realizada 15 dias após a primeira, para avaliar o percentual de queda de frutos e o diâmetro sutural médio dos frutos remanescentes. Genótipos bem enfolhados e cujos frutos apresentavam endocarpo endurecido, no momento da ocorrência da geada, foram tolerantes ao dano ocasionado pelo frio; frutos com diâmetro sutural inferior a 20 mm foram suscetíveis à geada, enquanto frutos com diâmetro sutural superior a 30 mm apresentaram boa tolerância, independentemente do genótipo avaliado.The aim of this work was to evaluate the fruit damage tolerance in different peach tree genotypes after natural freeze. The frost happened on September 5, 2006, and the minimum temperature, 1.5 meters over soil, was -1.06ºC. Twenty- eight peach tree genotypes, in different stages of development, were evaluated, in a completely random design, in three replication (plants and six branches by plants. Immediately after frost, we measured the number of fruits per branches, average fruit suture diameter, percentage of sprouts and percentage of twigs in formation. A second evaluation was accomplished fifteen days after the first one in order to assess the percentage of fruit drop and the average remaining fruit suture diameter. Genotypes with good leafing and hard pit (endocarp during frost have freeze tolerance; fruits with suture diameter lass than 20 mm are susceptible to frost damage, while fruits with suture diameter superior to 30 mm are tolerant.

André Paulo Assmann

2008-12-01

48

Impact of organic carbon and iron bioavailability on the magnetic susceptibility of soils  

Science.gov (United States)

Microorganisms are known to couple the degradation of hydrocarbons to Fe(III) reduction leading to the dissolution and (trans)formation of Fe minerals including ferro(i)magnetic Fe minerals such as magnetite. The screening of soil magnetic properties, in particular magnetic susceptibility (MS), has the potential to assist in locating and assessing hydrocarbon (e.g. gasoline) contamination in the environment. In order to evaluate this, it must be understood how changes in soil geochemistry and hydrocarbon input impact MS. To this end, we incubated microcosms with soils from six different field sites anoxically and followed the changes in soil MS. In parallel we simulated hydrocarbon (i.e., gasoline) contamination in the same soils under anoxic conditions. We found that in microbially active microcosms both with or without added gasoline, average changes in MS of 6.9 ± 2.6% occurred, whereas in sterile controls the changes were less than 2.5% demonstrating that microbial metabolism played a major role in the (trans)formation of ferro(i)magnetic minerals. The microcosms reached stable MS values after a few weeks to months in four out of the six soils showing an increase in MS while in two soils the MS decreased over time. After stable MS values were reached, further addition of labile organic carbon (i.e., lactate/acetate) did not lead to further changes in MS, but the addition of Fe(III) oxyhydroxides (ferrihydrite) led to increases in MS suggesting that the changes in MS were limited by bioavailable Fe and not by bioavailable organic carbon. In the control experiments without carbon amendment, we observed that natural organic matter was mobilized from the soil matrix by water or microbial growth medium (0.33-0.47 mL/g field moist soil) added to the microcosms, and that this mobilized organic matter also stimulated microbial Fe metabolism and thus also led to a microbially driven change in MS. This study shows that changes in MS after an increase of the amount of bioavailable organic carbon can occur in a variety of soils. It also suggests that whether MS increases or decreases depends on the initial MS of the soil and the extent of the MS change seems to depend upon the amount of bioavailable Fe(III).

Porsch, Katharina; Rijal, Moti L.; Borch, Thomas; Troyer, Lyndsay D.; Behrens, Sebastian; Wehland, Florian; Appel, Erwin; Kappler, Andreas

2014-03-01

49

Identification of soil bacteria susceptible to TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because soil is expected to be a major sink for engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) released to the environment, the effects of ENPs on soil processes and the organisms that carry them out should be understood. DNA-based fingerprinting analyses have shown that ENPs alter soil bacterial communities, but specific taxon changes remain unknown. We used bar-coded pyrosequencing to explore the responses of diverse bacterial taxa to two widely used ENPs, nano-TiO(2) and nano-ZnO, at various doses (0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg g(-1) soil for TiO(2); 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 mg g(-1) soil for ZnO) in incubated soil microcosms. These ENPs significantly altered the bacterial communities in a dose-dependent manner, with some taxa increasing as a proportion of the community, but more taxa decreasing, indicating that effects mostly reduced diversity. Some of the declining taxa are known to be associated with nitrogen fixation (Rhizobiales, Bradyrhizobiaceae, and Bradyrhizobium) and methane oxidation (Methylobacteriaceae), while some positively impacted taxa are known to be associated with the decomposition of recalcitrant organic pollutants (Sphingomonadaceae) and biopolymers including protein (Streptomycetaceae and Streptomyces), indicating potential consequences to ecosystem-scale processes. The latter was suggested by a positive correlation between protease activity and the relative abundance of Streptomycetaceae (R = 0.49, P = 0.000) and Streptomyces (R = 0.47, P = 0.000). Our results demonstrate that some metal oxide nanoparticles could affect soil bacterial communities and associated processes through effects on susceptible, narrow-function bacterial taxa. PMID:22798374

Ge, Yuan; Schimel, Joshua P; Holden, Patricia A

2012-09-01

50

Morphometry and land cover based multi-criteria analysis for assessing the soil erosion susceptibility of the western Himalayan watershed.  

Science.gov (United States)

Complex mountainous environments such as Himalayas are highly susceptibility to natural hazards particular those that are triggered by the action of water such as floods, soil erosion, mass movements and siltation of the hydro-electric power dams. Among all the natural hazards, soil erosion is the most implicit and the devastating hazard affecting the life and property of the millions of people living in these regions. Hence to review and devise strategies to reduce the adverse impacts of soil erosion is of utmost importance to the planners of watershed management programs in these regions. This paper demonstrates the use of satellite based remote sensing data coupled with the observational field data in a multi-criteria analytical (MCA) framework to estimate the soil erosion susceptibility of the sub-watersheds of the Rembiara basin falling in the western Himalaya, using geographical information system (GIS). In this paper, watershed morphometry and land cover are used as an inputs to the MCA framework to prioritize the sub-watersheds of this basin on the basis of their different susceptibilities to soil erosion. Methodology included the derivation of a set of drainage and land cover parameters that act as the indicators of erosion susceptibility. Further the output from the MCA resulted in the categorization of the sub-watersheds into low, medium, high and very high erosion susceptibility classes. A detailed prioritization map for the susceptible sub-watersheds based on the combined role of land cover and morphometry is finally presented. Besides, maps identifying the susceptible sub-watersheds based on morphometry and land cover only are also presented. The results of this study are part of the watershed management program in the study area and are directed to instigate appropriate measures to alleviate the soil erosion in the study area. PMID:25154685

Altaf, Sadaff; Meraj, Gowhar; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad

2014-12-01

51

Mapping Statistical Characteristics of Frosts in Iran  

Science.gov (United States)

To model and map the statistical characteristics of frost in Iran, the data related to the minimum daily temperature for a 15-year period (1990-2005) was obtained from Iran Meteorological Organization. Then using multivariate regression models, the relationship among five statistical characteristics, i.e. the mean Julian day of the first frost, mean Julian day of the last frost, mean number of frost days per year, mean length of the frost period and mean length of growing season were modeled by three geo - climate factors: elevation, longitude and latitude. The precision of each model was explored using four hypotheses: linearity of the relationship between independent variables and the dependent variable, normality of errors, constancy of error variance and lake of correlation of errors were tested, and their precisions were confirmed. At the second stage, contour lines resulting from STRM were converted to the point features class. Altogether, 661 474 points were gathered from all over Iran. Then, the studied five frost characteristics were generalized to 661 474 points; then, the regionalization maps of statistical characteristics of frost were obtained for Iran using Kriging interpolation method. The results showed that the temperature of highland areas above 4200 m above sea level always was at least zero and below zero during the year, and also the coastal strip of southern Iran had no frost. Elevation was the most effective factor in the spatial arrangement for the frequency of occurrence of Julian day of the first frost. The most effective factors in spatial arrangement for the frequency of occurrence of Julian day of the last frost, length of frost period and length of growing season were elevation and latitude. Finally, spatial arrangement for the frequency of occurrence of the frost days was also a function of three factors of elevation, longitude and latitude. The dominant role of elevation in spatial arrangement for the occurrence of the first frost day in Iran showed that the occurrence of the first frost day in Iran could be of the type of radiation frosts and the dominant role of elevation and latitude demonstrated that late-winter frosts can be mostly of the type of advection frosts. Therefore, arrangement of statistical features of frost in Iran is both a function of geo - climate factors and the synoptic systems which have entered the country.

Mahmoudi, P.

2014-10-01

52

Heavy metal frost on Venus  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical equilibrium calculations of volatile metal geochemistry on Venus show that high dielectric constant compounds of lead and bismuth such as PbS (galena), Bi 2S 3 (bismuthite) or Pb-Bi sulfosalts condense in the venusian highlands and may be responsible for the low radar emissivities observed by Magellan and Pioneer Venus. Our calculations also show that elemental tellurium is unstable on Venus' surface and will not condense below 46.6 km. This is over 30 km higher than Maxwell Montes, the highest point on Venus' surface. Elemental analyses of Venus' highlands surface by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and/or X-ray fluorescence (XRF) can verify the identity of the heavy metal frost on Venus. The Pb-Pb age of Venus could be determined by mass spectrometric measurements of the Pb 207/Pb 204 and Pb 206/Pb 204 isotopic ratios in Pb-bearing frosts. All of these measurements are technologically feasible now.

Schaefer, Laura; Fegley, Bruce

2004-03-01

53

Soil and water pollution studies from a waste site deposit in Bantama, Kumasi, Ghana using magnetic susceptibility measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The magnetic susceptibility of soil and water samples from around the Uadara barracks waste site deposit in Bantama, a suburb of Kumasi was measured with the aim of investigating the potential threat of pollution to the soil, streams, fish ponds and other water sources at the site around Armed Forces Senior High School campus which shares the same premises with the barracks. The studied soil samples were picked from the near surface (?10 cm depth) along profiles taken from the waste site towards the stream and the ponds. Again, water samples were picked along the stream and from ten (10) ponds aligned along the stream. Laboratory measurements of the magnetic susceptibility were done using the Bartington MS2 metre and the MS2B dual frequency sensor for the soil samples, and the MS2G sensor for the water samples. The soil samples from the site registered an average magnetic susceptibility of 180. 04 x 10-5 SI whereas the water samples recorded an average of -2.3 x 10-6 SI showing a significant increment in comparison with the standard water magnetic susceptibility of -9.04 x 10-6 SI. Thus, not withstand the lithology of the area studied, the presence of heavy metals and other chemical waste materials form the Uadara barracks garbage deposit site were found to greatly pollute the soil and particularly the water bodies around the Armed Forces Senior High School. (au)

54

Soil characterization using patterns of magnetic susceptibility versus effective radium concentration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Low-field magnetic susceptibility ?m and effective radium concentration ECRa, obtained from radon emanation, have been measured in the laboratory with 129 soil samples from Nepal. Samples along horizontal profiles in slope debris or terrace scarps showed rather homogeneous values of both ?m and ECRa. One sample set, collected vertically on a lateritic terrace scarp, had homogeneous values of ECRa while ?m increased by a factor of 1 to 10 for residual soils and topsoils. However, for a set of samples collected on three imbricated river terraces, values of ECRa, homogeneous over a given terrace, displayed a gradual increase from younger to older terraces. By contrast, ?m showed more homogeneous mean values over the three terraces, with a larger dispersion, however, for the younger one. Similarly, Kathmandu sediments exhibited a large increase in ECRa from sand to clay layers, while ?m increased moderately. The combination of ?m and ECRa, thus, provides a novel tool to characterize quantitatively various soil groups and may be of interest to distinguish modes of alteration or deposition histories.

F. Girault

2011-08-01

55

Diversity and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of cultivable anaerobic bacteria from soil and sewage samples of India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil and sewage act as a reservoir of animal pathogens and their dissemination to animals profoundly affects the safety of our food supply. Moreover, acquisition and further spread of antibiotic resistance determinants among pathogenic bacterial populations is the most relevant problem for the treatment of infectious diseases. Bacterial strains from soil and sewage are a potential reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes. Accurate species determination for anaerobes from environmental samples has become increasingly important with the re-emergence of anaerobic bacteremia and prevalence of multiple-drug-resistant microorganisms. Soil samples were collected from various locations of planar India and the diversity of anaerobic bacteria was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Viable counts of anaerobic bacteria on anaerobic agar and SPS agar ranged from 1.0 × 10(2)cfu/g to 8.8 × 10(7)cfu/g and nil to 3.9 × 10(6)cfu/g, respectively. Among clostrdia, Clostridium bifermentans (35.9%) was the most dominant species followed by Clostridium perfringens (25.8%). Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of C. perfringens beta2 toxin gene (cpb2) fragment indicated specific phylogenetic affiliation with cluster Ia for 5 out of 6 strains. Antibiotic susceptibility for 30 antibiotics was tested for 74 isolates, revealing resistance for as high as 16-25 antibiotics for 35% of the strains tested. Understanding the diversity of the anaerobic bacteria from soil and sewage with respect to animal health and spread of zoonotic pathogen infections is crucial for improvements in animal and human health. PMID:20965279

Sengupta, Nabonita; Alam, Syed Imteyaz; Kumar, Ravi Bhushan; Singh, Lokendra

2011-01-01

56

Susceptibility of polysiloxane and colloidal silica to degradation by soil microorganisms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is a description of the laboratory study undertaken to determine the biodegradability of Colloidal Silica (CS) and PolySiloXane (PSX), a new generation of barrier liquids employed by the Viscous Liquid Barrier (VLB) technology in the containment of subsurface contaminants. Susceptibility of either material to microbial degradation would suggest that the effectiveness of a barrier in the subsurface may deteriorate over time. Degradation may result from several different biological events. Organisms may consume the material as a carbon and/or energy source, organisms may chemically change the material as a detoxification mechanism, or organisms may erode the material by their physical penetration of the material during growth. To determine if degradation occurs, physical interactions between soil microbes and the barrier materials were analyzed, and the metabolic activity of individual organisms in the presence of CS and PSX was measured.

Lundy, D.Z.; Hunter-Cevera, J.C.; Moridis, G.J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.

1997-11-01

57

Neural Network-Based Model for Landslide Susceptibility and Soil Longitudinal Profile Analyses : two case studies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this study was to create an empirical model for assessing the landslide risk potential at Savadkouh Azad University, which is located in the rural surroundings of Savadkouh, about 5 km from the city of Pol-Sefid in northern Iran. The soil longitudinal profile of the city of Babol, located 25 km from the Caspian Sea, also was predicted with an artificial neural network (ANN). A multilayer perceptron neural network model was applied to the landslide area and was used to analyze specific elements in the study area that contributed to previous landsliding events. The ANN models were trained with geotechnical data obtained from an investigation of the study area. The quality of the modeling was improved further by the application of some controlling techniques involved in ANN. The observed >90% overall accuracy produced by the ANN technique in both cases is promising for future studies in landslide susceptibility zonation.

Farrokhzad, F.; Barari, Amin

2011-01-01

58

Unilateral frosted branch angiitis with vitreous haemorrhage.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Idiopathic retinal frosted branch angiitis is a rare bilateral condition and presents with an acute reduction of vision. Unilateral affection is rare. We report an unusual case of unilateral frosted branch angiitis where the patient developed total vitreous haemorrhage.

Agrawal S

2001-01-01

59

A method for the integration of satellite vegetation activities observations and magnetic susceptibility measurements for monitoring heavy metals in soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a procedure for monitoring heavy metals in soil based on the integration of satellite and ground-based techniques, tested in an area affected by high anthropogenic pressure. High resolution multispectral satellite data were elaborated to obtain information on vegetation status. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of soils were collected as proxy variable for monitoring heavy metal presence. Chemical analyses of heavy metals were used for supporting and validating the integrated monitoring procedure. Magnetic and chemical measurements were organized in a GIS environment to be overlapped to satellite-based elaborations and to analyze the pattern distribution. Results show the presence of correlation between anomalies in vegetation activity and soil characteristics. The relationship between the distribution of normalized difference vegetation index anomalies and magnetic susceptibility values provides hints for adopting the integrated procedure as preliminary screening to minimize monitoring efforts and costs by supporting the planning activities of field campaigns. PMID:23044196

D'Emilio, Mariagrazia; Macchiato, Maria; Ragosta, Maria; Simoniello, Tiziana

2012-11-30

60

The frequency dependence of the viscous component of the magnetic susceptibility of lunar rock and soil samples  

Science.gov (United States)

The susceptibility of two lunar samples (a soil and a low metamorphic grade breccia) has been measured in a weak field - 0.001 Oe - and as a function of frequency from 0.032 to 1.0 Hz. The measurements were made using a superconducting magnetometer. The results show that the susceptibility decreases linearly with the log of frequency. This observation is in agreement with a theoretical model for viscous decay based on the Neel theory of single-domain and superparamagnetic grains. The relation derived agrees with a model in which there is a uniform distribution of relaxation times.

Hanneken, J. W.; Vant-Hull, L. L.; Carnes, J. G.

1976-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Restoring sedges and mosses into frost heaving iron fens, San Juan Mountains, Colorado  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rare iron fens in the San Juan Mountains of Colorado are frequently in poor condition due to mining, roads and ditches, which have left much of the fen completely bare of vegetation. Natural revegetation is slow to occur in the bare areas because of severe frost heave in the cold mountain climate. Therefore, experimental revegetation plots were conducted in a factorial design with mulching and no mulching, crossed with moss diaspores, sedge transplants, and moss and sedge combined. Mulching influenced surface soil temperatures by reducing the midday highs and increasing the night-time lows, which decreased the frequency and amount of frost heave. Peat moisture also modified frost heave, with the greatest frost heaving occurring near 75 % peat moisture content (water table 10–20 cm below the surface and the least when soils were either wetter or drier. Moss survival was dependent on mulch, with no moss surviving in plots without mulch. Mulching also increased sedge transplant survival. In summary, mulching significantly increased the success of vegetation restoration efforts for frost heave areas in mountain fens.

R.A. Chimner

2011-08-01

62

Frosting and defrosting on rigid superhydrohobic surface  

Science.gov (United States)

Lotus leaves, which have superhydrophobic surfaces, have been extensively studied as a result of their extreme water repellency. Lotus leaves are liable to lose their superhydrophobicity when water condenses or frost forms and then melts on their surfaces. We have performed experiments to investigate the frosting and defrosting phenomena on various surfaces having differing wetting properties, ranging from superhydrophobicity to superhydrophilicity and including two kinds of superhydrophobic surface. Both flexible and rigid superhydrophobic surface have advantage of anti-frosting. However, only on the rigid superhydrophobic surface is defrosting effective without any water droplets. Therefore, the rigid superhydrophobic surface is most effective in defrosting and against frosting. Our results widen the potential applications of superhydrophobic surfaces and increase our understanding of water behavior at surfaces.

Jing, Tengyue; Kim, Yeongae; Lee, Sangmin; Kim, Dongseob; Kim, Jinyul; Hwang, Woonbong

2013-07-01

63

Frost halos from supercooled water droplets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Water freezing on solid surfaces is ubiquitous in nature. Even though icing/frosting impairs the performance and safety in many processes, its mechanism remains inadequately understood. Changing atmospheric conditions, surface properties, the complexity of icing physics, and the unorthodox behavior of water are the primary factors that make icing and frost formation intriguing and difficult to predict. In addition to its unquestioned scientific and practical importance, unraveling the frostin...

Jung, Stefan; Tiwari, Manish K.; Poulikakos, Dimos

2012-01-01

64

Frequency-dependent susceptibility of rocks, soils and environmental materials: multi-frequency model relationship to magnetic granulometry  

Science.gov (United States)

In palaeoclimatology and environmental science, the frequency-dependent susceptibility of rocks, soils and environmental materials is traditionally interpreted as resulting from interplay between superparamagnetic (SP) and stable single domain (SSD) or even multidomain (MD) magnetic particles even though some other phenomena, such as eddy currents, may also play a role mainly at high operating frequencies. The models to investigate the frequency-dependent susceptibility, which were originally developed by Eyre (1997, GJI) and Worm (1998, GJI) for two operating frequencies (470 Hz and 4700 Hz possessed by the Bartington susceptibility meter), were extended to multiple operating frequencies (976 Hz, 3904 Hz, and 15616 Hz possessed by the KLY1-FA Kappabridge and 100000 Hz and 250000 Hz). The Xfd parameter, quantitatively characterizing the frequency-dependent susceptibility, is the higher the larger is the difference between the logarithms of the operating frequencies used in its determination. From the measuring point of view, it would be best to use very different frequencies. In this case, one can infer whether the SP grains are present or not, but nothing can be said of their size distribution. For this reason, it is better to work at more frequencies than two, because this enables us to decide whether the presumed log-normal distribution of magnetic grains is narrow or wide. The Xfd parameter measured on the whole rock (soil) may be much lower than that of the ferromagnetic fraction with frequency dependent susceptibility due to the effect of the fractions with frequency-independent susceptibility ( typically diamagnetic and paramagnetic fractions). Then, the low value of the Xfd parameter does not necessarily indicate low amount of the SP particles within the ferromagnetic fraction. A new Xr parameter is introduced that is not affected by fractions with frequency-independent susceptibility and indicates only the ferromagnetic fraction with frequency-dependent susceptibility; for determining it an instrument working at three operating frequencies is necessary. It can trace grain volume changes during progressive processes. Our modelling provides us at least with theoretical basis for comparing the data by the MFK1-FA Kappabridge and the Bartington MS2 instrument and, moreover, it enables us to investigate whether multiple frequencies have at least theoretical advantages compared to two frequencies approach used till now and helps us to answer the question whether spending energy in developing high frequency instruments is reasonable.

Hrouda, Frantisek

2010-05-01

65

Frost halos from supercooled water droplets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water freezing on solid surfaces is ubiquitous in nature. Even though icing/frosting impairs the performance and safety in many processes, its mechanism remains inadequately understood. Changing atmospheric conditions, surface properties, the complexity of icing physics, and the unorthodox behavior of water are the primary factors that make icing and frost formation intriguing and difficult to predict. In addition to its unquestioned scientific and practical importance, unraveling the frosting mechanism under different conditions is a prerequisite to develop "icephobic" surfaces, which may avoid ice formation and contamination. In this work we demonstrate that evaporation from a freezing supercooled sessile droplet, which starts explosively due to the sudden latent heat released upon recalescent freezing, generates a condensation halo around the droplet, which crystallizes and drastically affects the surface behavior. The process involves simultaneous multiple phase transitions and may also spread icing by initiating sequential freezing of neighboring droplets in the form of a domino effect and frost propagation. Experiments under controlled humidity conditions using substrates differing up to three orders of magnitude in thermal conductivity establish that a delicate balance between heat diffusion and vapor transport determines the final expanse of the frozen condensate halo, which, in turn, controls frost formation and propagation. PMID:23012410

Jung, Stefan; Tiwari, Manish K; Poulikakos, Dimos

2012-10-01

66

Using magnetic susceptibility to facilitate more rapid, reproducible and precise delineation of hydric soils in the midwestern USA  

Science.gov (United States)

Standard field indicators, currently used for hydric soil delineations [USDA-NRCS, 1998. Field indicators of hydric soils in the United States, Version 4.0. In: G.W. Hurt et al. (Ed.), United States Department of Agriculture-NRCS, Fort Worth, TX], are useful, but in some cases, they can be subjective, difficult to recognize, or time consuming to assess. Magnetic susceptibility (MS) measurements, acquired rapidly in the field with a portable meter, have great potential to help soil scientists delineate and map areas of hydric soils more precisely and objectively. At five sites in Illinois (from 5 to 15 ha in area) with contrasting soil types and glacial histories, the MS values of surface soils were measured along transects, and afterwards mapped and contoured. The MS values were found to be consistently higher in well-drained soils and lower in hydric soils, reflecting anaerobic deterioration of both detrital magnetite and soil-formed ferrimagnetics. At each site, volumetric MS values were statistically compared to field indicators to determine a critical MS value for hydric soil delineation. Such critical values range between 22??10-5 and 33??10-5 SI in silty loessal or alluvial soils in Illinois, but are as high as 61??10-5 SI at a site with fine sandy soil. A higher magnetite content and slower dissolution rate in sandy soils may explain the difference. Among sites with silty parent material, the lowest critical value (22??10-5 SI) occurs in soil with low pH (4.5-5.5) since acidic conditions are less favorable to ferrimagnetic mineral neoformation and enhance magnetite dissolution. Because of their sensitivity to parent material properties and soil pH, critical MS values must be determined on a site specific basis. The MS of studied soil samples (0-5 cm depth) is mainly controlled by neoformed ultrafine ferrimagnetics and detrital magnetite concentrations, with a minor contribution from anthropogenic fly ash. Neoformed ferrimagnetics are present in all samples but, based on high ??FD% (???5% to 10%), are most prevalent in high pH Mollisols of northeastern Illinois. Scanning electron microscope images display significantly more detrital magnetite alteration in hydric soils, substantiating that reductive dissolution of magnetite (aided by microorganisms) is a primary cause for lower MS. Fly ash comprises 8-50% of the >5 ??m strongly magnetic particles and typically accounts for 5-15% of the total MS signal. The proportion of fly ash in >5 ??m strongly magnetic fractions is greater in hydric soils because of lower natural magnetite contents, possibly combined with historical topsoil accumulation in lower landscapes. Magnetic fly ash particles are also more altered in low MS soils, implying that significant magnetite dissolution can occur in less than 150 years. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Grimley, D.A.; Arruda, N.K.; Bramstedt, M.W.

2004-01-01

67

Frost resistance of fibre reinforced concrete structures  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Frost resistance of fibre reinforced concrete with 2.5-4.2% air and 6-9% air (% by volume in fresh concrete) casted in the laboratory and in-situ is compared. Steel fibres with hooked ends (ZP, length 30 mm) and polypropylene fibres (PP, CS, length 12 mm) are applied. It is shown that· addition of 0.4-1% by volume of fibres cannot replace air entrainment in order to secure a frost resistant concrete; the minimum amount of air needed to make the concrete frost resistant is not changed when adding fibres· the amount of air entrainment must be increased when fibres are added to establish the same amount of air pores as in the corresponding concrete without fibres

Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place

1999-01-01

68

Evaluation of Cover Crops with Potential for Use in Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD) for Susceptibility to Three Species of Meloidogyne.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several cover crops with potential for use in tropical and subtropical regions were assessed for susceptibility to three common species of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica. Crops were selected based on potential use as organic amendments in anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) applications. Nematode juvenile (J2) numbers in soil and roots, egg production, and host plant root galling were evaluated on arugula (Eruca sativa, cv. Nemat), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, cv. Iron & Clay), jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis, cv. Comum), two commercial mixtures of Indian mustard and white mustard (Brassica juncea & Sinapis alba, mixtures Caliente 61 and Caliente 99), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum, cv. Tifleaf III), sorghum-sudangrass hybrid (Sorghum bicolor × S. bicolor var. sudanense, cv. Sugar Grazer II), and three cultivars of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, cvs. 545A, Nusun 660CL, and Nusun 5672). Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, cv. Rutgers) was included in all trials as a susceptible host to all three nematode species. The majority of cover crops tested were less susceptible than tomato to M. arenaria, with the exception of jack bean. Sunflower cv. Nusun 5672 had fewer M. arenaria J2 isolated from roots than the other sunflower cultivars, less galling than tomato, and fewer eggs than tomato and sunflower cv. 545A. Several cover crops did not support high populations of M. incognita in roots or exhibit significant galling, although high numbers of M. incognita J2 were isolated from the soil. Arugula, cowpea, and mustard mixture Caliente 99 did not support M. incognita in soil or roots. Jack bean and all three cultivars of sunflower were highly susceptible to M. javanica, and all sunflower cultivars had high numbers of eggs isolated from roots. Sunflower, jack bean, and both mustard mixtures exhibited significant galling in response to M. javanica. Arugula, cowpea, and sorghum-sudangrass consistently had low numbers of all three Meloidogyne species associated with roots and are good selections for use in ASD for root-knot nematode control. The remainder of crops tested had significant levels of galling, J2, and eggs associated with roots, which varied among the Meloidogyne species tested. PMID:24379486

Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy; Butler, David M; Rosskopf, Erin N

2013-12-01

69

Visualization of frosting phenomena by using neutron radiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study focuses on the frost formation on the fin-tube heat exchanger using neutron radiography. The visualization of the frost formation was estimated by the attenuation of the neutron beam through the water. The visualization image of the neutron radiography shows clearly the frost formation phenomena on the fin-tube heat exchanger. The rapid frost formation was observed at the fin and tube edges. Local mass transfer coefficient can be calculated from the differential images of the neutron radiography. (author)

70

A Gentle Frost: Poet Helen Frost Talks about the Healing Power of Poetry and Her Latest Novel  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents an interview with poet Helen Frost. Frost talked about how poetry can help at-risk children. She also related the challenges she faced when she wrote her latest book titled "The Braid."

Margolis, Rick

2006-01-01

71

Insulator (Heat and Frost). Occupational Analyses Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

This analysis covers tasks performed by an insulator, an occupational title some provinces and territories of Canada have also identified as heat and frost insulator. A guide to analysis discusses development, structure, and validation method; scope of the occupation; trends; and safety. To facilitate understanding the nature of the occupation,…

McRory, Aline; Ally, Mohamed

72

Fatores abióticos envolvidos na tolerância de trigo à geada / Abiotic factors involved in wheat tolerance to frost  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da aclimatação, da intensidade de geada e da disponibilidade hídrica sobre os danos causados pela geada em trigo. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em telados, com trigo cultivado em vasos. A aclimatação e a incidência de geada foram simuladas em câm [...] aras de crescimento. Os fatores abióticos avaliados foram: regimes de aclimatação (com e sem); gradiente de temperatura (2, -2, -4 e -7°C); e variação de disponibilidade hídrica no solo, antes da geada (9, 6, 3 e 1 dia sem irrigação). Todos os fatores foram avaliados no afilhamento, alongamento e espigamento das cultivares: BR-18 Terena, mais tolerante à geada; e BRS 194, menos tolerante. As variáveis avaliadas foram: grau de queima de folhas, sete dias após a geada; massa de matéria seca total; e massa de grãos. A aclimatação do trigo, antes da geada, diminuiu os danos provocados antes do espigamento, e resultou em menor queima de folhas e maior rendimento de grãos. A temperatura de -7°C, no espigamento, resultou em falha na produção de grãos de ambas as cultivares; e os prejuízos com geada foram menores nas plantas com nove dias sem irrigação. As condições anteriores à ocorrência de geada têm influência sobre os danos provocados por ela. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of acclimatization, frost intensity and soil water availability on damage caused by frost on wheat. The experiments were carried out in screen house conditions. The wheat plants were grown in pots. The acclimatization and frost incidence were [...] simulated in a growth chamber. The abiotic factors evaluated were: acclimatization regimes (with and without); temperature gradient (2, -2, -4 and -7°C) and variation of soil water availability prior to frost incidence (9, 6, 3 and 1 day without irrigation). All factors were evaluated at tillering, stem elongation and heading stage on wheat cultivars BR-18 Terena, more tolerant to frost, and BRS 194, less tolerant. The response variables were: degree of leaf scorching symptoms at 7 days after frost; total dry weight; and grain weight. The acclimatization, before frost, decreased the damage caused on wheat heading stage, which resulted in less leaf scorching symptoms and higher grain yield. Temperature of -7°C, at heading stage, resulted in grain set failure in both cultivars; and frost damage was lower in plants with nine days without irrigation. Prevailing conditions before frost influence frost damage.

Eunice Portela da, Silva; Gilberto Rocca da, Cunha; João Leonardo Fernandes, Pires; Genei Antonio, Dalmago; Aldemir, Pasinato.

1257-12-01

73

Fatores abióticos envolvidos na tolerância de trigo à geada Abiotic factors involved in wheat tolerance to frost  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da aclimatação, da intensidade de geada e da disponibilidade hídrica sobre os danos causados pela geada em trigo. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em telados, com trigo cultivado em vasos. A aclimatação e a incidência de geada foram simuladas em câmaras de crescimento. Os fatores abióticos avaliados foram: regimes de aclimatação (com e sem; gradiente de temperatura (2, -2, -4 e -7°C; e variação de disponibilidade hídrica no solo, antes da geada (9, 6, 3 e 1 dia sem irrigação. Todos os fatores foram avaliados no afilhamento, alongamento e espigamento das cultivares: BR-18 Terena, mais tolerante à geada; e BRS 194, menos tolerante. As variáveis avaliadas foram: grau de queima de folhas, sete dias após a geada; massa de matéria seca total; e massa de grãos. A aclimatação do trigo, antes da geada, diminuiu os danos provocados antes do espigamento, e resultou em menor queima de folhas e maior rendimento de grãos. A temperatura de -7°C, no espigamento, resultou em falha na produção de grãos de ambas as cultivares; e os prejuízos com geada foram menores nas plantas com nove dias sem irrigação. As condições anteriores à ocorrência de geada têm influência sobre os danos provocados por ela.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of acclimatization, frost intensity and soil water availability on damage caused by frost on wheat. The experiments were carried out in screen house conditions. The wheat plants were grown in pots. The acclimatization and frost incidence were simulated in a growth chamber. The abiotic factors evaluated were: acclimatization regimes (with and without; temperature gradient (2, -2, -4 and -7°C and variation of soil water availability prior to frost incidence (9, 6, 3 and 1 day without irrigation. All factors were evaluated at tillering, stem elongation and heading stage on wheat cultivars BR-18 Terena, more tolerant to frost, and BRS 194, less tolerant. The response variables were: degree of leaf scorching symptoms at 7 days after frost; total dry weight; and grain weight. The acclimatization, before frost, decreased the damage caused on wheat heading stage, which resulted in less leaf scorching symptoms and higher grain yield. Temperature of -7°C, at heading stage, resulted in grain set failure in both cultivars; and frost damage was lower in plants with nine days without irrigation. Prevailing conditions before frost influence frost damage.

Eunice Portela da Silva

2008-10-01

74

Soybean susceptibility to manufactured nanomaterials with evidence for food quality and soil fertility interruption.  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on previously published hydroponic plant, planktonic bacterial, and soil microbial community research, manufactured nanomaterial (MNM) environmental buildup could profoundly alter soil-based food crop quality and yield. However, thus far, no single study has at once examined the full implications, as no studies have involved growing plants to full maturity in MNM-contaminated field soil. We have done so for soybean, a major global commodity crop, using farm soil amended with two high-production metal oxide MNMs (nano-CeO(2) and -ZnO). The results provide a clear, but unfortunate, view of what could arise over the long term: (i) for nano-ZnO, component metal was taken up and distributed throughout edible plant tissues; (ii) for nano-CeO(2), plant growth and yield diminished, but also (iii) nitrogen fixation--a major ecosystem service of leguminous crops--was shut down at high nano-CeO(2) concentration. Juxtaposed against widespread land application of wastewater treatment biosolids to food crops, these findings forewarn of agriculturally associated human and environmental risks from the accelerating use of MNMs. PMID:22908279

Priester, John H; Ge, Yuan; Mielke, Randall E; Horst, Allison M; Moritz, Shelly Cole; Espinosa, Katherine; Gelb, Jeff; Walker, Sharon L; Nisbet, Roger M; An, Youn-Joo; Schimel, Joshua P; Palmer, Reid G; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Zhao, Lijuan; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L; Holden, Patricia A

2012-09-11

75

Development and application of a forecasting system to avoid spring frost damage in chiana valley  

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Full Text Available Late frost is one of the more serious adversity for Italian agriculture. Several methods have been developed to protect cultivations, but their application results particularly effective (also from an economic point of view only if supported by forecasting systems during the more susceptible period of the year. On these basis a forecasting system of late frost in Val di Chiana (an area in central Italy mainly cultivated with cereals and high quality fruits was developed. The system consists in an empirical model, based on a preventive agroclimatic analysis of the area to identify night cooling dynamics (for several meteorological conditions in the spring. A network of 10 thermohygrometric stations was installed in the area integrating the information obtained by a local agrometeorological station network. The final product was a forecasting bulletin emitted every three hours beginning from the 13:00 p.m. A validation of the system was performed for 2006 to verify the forecast skill.

Simone Orlandini

76

Winter Frosted Dunes in Kaiser Crater  

Science.gov (United States)

As the Mars Global Surveyor Primary Mission draws to an end, the southern hemisphere of Mars is in the depths of winter. At high latitudes, it is dark most, if not all, of the day. Even at middle latitudes, the sun shines only thinly through a veil of water and carbon dioxide ice clouds, and the ground is so cold that carbon dioxide frosts have formed. Kaiser Crater (47oS, 340oW) is one such place. At a latitude comparable to Seattle, Washington, Duluth, Minnesota, or Helena, Montana, Kaiser Crater is studied primarily because of the sand dune field found within the confines of its walls (lower center of the Mars Orbiter Camera image, above). The normally dark-gray or blue-black sand can be seen in this image to be shaded with light-toned frost. Other parts of the crater are also frosted. Kaiser Crater and its dunes were the subject of an earlier presentation of results. Close-up pictures of these and other dunes in the region show details of their snow-cover, including small avalanches. The two Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera images that comprise this color view (M23-01751 and M23-01752) were acquired on January 26, 2001.

2001-01-01

77

Evaluation and refinement of sprinkler application rate models used in frost protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two models of the sprinkled orchard which predict the application rates required for successful frost protection were evaluated. A Sprinkling Application Rate (SPAR79) model, used the heat budget approach to determine the rate of heat lost by the plant part through radiative, convective, and latent heat transfer processes at the actual plant part temperature and at the plant part's critical temperature. The difference between these two rates of heat loss is the rate at which heat must be added by the latent heat of fusion liberated as the applied water freezes. This model added consideration of humidity and ice accumulation to a refinement of the heat budget configuration of earlier models. It showed that humidity is not a contributing factor in the determination of application rates. Ice accumulation was shown to decrease the required application rate by 67% when it increased the characteristic plant part size from 0.2 to 2.0 cm. A distribution factor, a component of a factor previously only estimated, was shown to increase by 30% (from 1.0 to 1.3) as blossom and leaf development progressed. Pulsed sprinkling for frost protection was carried out during six frost nights. Blossom temperatures, application rate, pulsing cycle, wind speed and air temperature were simultaneously recorded. These observations illustrated that in order to provide adequate protection an appropriate application rate and pulsing cycle must be provided by the model. It was concluded that by varying the distribution factor through the growing season and varying the application rate through a single frost night by pulsing, according to atmospheric parameters and ice accumulation, a significant decrease in amount of water applied may be realized. This decrease in water applied will alleviate ice buildup, water cost, soil drainage and nutrient leaching problems associated with sprinkling for frost protection.

Perry, K.B.

1979-01-01

78

The characteristics of frost growth on parallel plates  

Science.gov (United States)

An experimental investigation was undertaken to characterize the effect of environmental conditions on frost growth on a vertical plate in a parallel flow geometry. Humid air was conditioned to have a dew point below 0°C and laminar flow prevailed. The test section was fabricated by using three cooling plates with individual insulators to minimize longitudinal conduction. It is known that frost formation on the heat exchanger surfaces seriously affects the performance of the system. The frost is dominantly formed in the inlet region of a heat exchanger. In order to understand the characteristics of frost growth in the entrance region, several experiments were carried out. The experimental parameters were plate temperature, air humidity, air temperature, air Reynolds number, location, and uncooled inlet length. The frosting conditions were limited to air temperatures from 5 to 15°C, air Reynolds numbers from 1600 to 2270, air humidity ratios from 0.00275 to 0.0037 kg w /kg a , and plate temperatures from -10 to -20°C. Frost growth toward the front of the plate was thicker and denser than toward the rear. In the low humidity conditions below 0°C dew point frost growth increased with decreasing plate temperature and increasing humidity. For laminar flow, the dew point below 0°C and non-cyclic frosting period, the frost thickness increased with increasing air temperature. This behavior can be explained by an increase of the transfer rate and a non-cyclic frosting without melting in a sublimation-ablimation process. The average growth thickness at three locations showed little dependence on the Reynolds numbers. However, there were only small differences in the front and rear plates. Frost thickness decreased with increasing uncooled inlet length. This result could be used to suppress frost growth in the plate finned tube heat exchanger.

Han, Heung Do; Ro, Sung Tack

79

Nutritional Status and Susceptibility of Advanced Chickpea Germplasm to Low Soil Zinc and Boron  

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Full Text Available Shoot samples at preflowering stage and grains at maturity from four replicated field trials on advanced germplasm of chickpea along with some of the commercial varieties were collected. Three trials consisted of Desi germplasm with 12, 12, and 8 entries while the fourth one had 11 entries of Kabuli material. The advanced lines appeared to be highly promising as they gave maximum increase over the old check varieties in grain yield upto 60 percent in first trial followed by 58 percent in second, 53 percent in third and 43 percent in the 4th one. On the overall basis, the whole germplasm under study contained sufficient B and Cu, while Zn and P (in grain were marginal if not deficient. Almost all the material had relatively higher B in the grain than that of cereals like wheat. After field survey, a followup soil pot culture study was conducted employing 5 varieties and 2 lines on a soil with marginal Zn and B. Variety 6153 responded to 5 mg kg -1 Zn application by 39, CM 72 by 26, NIFA 95 by 17 and mutant CM 1571-1-A by 11 percent, while remaining responded negligibly. Mutant CM 31-1 responded to 1 mg kg -1 B application by 30, CM 1571-1-A, C 44 and 6153 shared the response by 27 percent. Remaining three did not respond or responded negatively. All the entries in the four trials contained marginal Zn i.e.,<20 mg kg-1 and sufficient B i.e., >30 mg kg-1, yet some of them responded to the applications markedly indicating their high B and Zn requirement than reported in the literature.

M.A.Kausar

2000-01-01

80

Avaliação da susceptibilidade de solos gnaissicos à erosão subsuperficial / Evaluation of piping erosion susceptibility in gnaissic soils  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As áreas com rochas do embasamento cristalino da bacia do rio Maracujá apresentam grande incidência de voçorocas de grandes dimensões. O presente trabalho objetivou investigar a influência dos processos erosivos subsuperficiais na evolução destas formas de erosão, além de compreender quais os fatore [...] s mineralógicos e texturais que poderiam influenciar na erodibilidade dos solos da bacia, especialmente dos saprolitos. Para tanto, foram realizados ensaios de caracterização básica e de avaliação da erodibilidade em amostras representativas, sendo o principal destes o ensaio de pin-hole, que avalia a suscetibilidade dos solos à erosão por piping e, com modificações, também por erosão por carreamento. Foram construídos em laboratório modelos físicos a fim de se observar estes e outros possíveis mecanismos de erosão atuantes nos taludes das voçorocas, especialmente os escorregamentos. Os resultados mostram que as voçorocas da bacia não sofrem influência significativa dos pipings em seu avanço, tendo em vista que estes só ocorrem na parte não saturada dos taludes das voçorocas, quando são formados pela ação da concentração de águas superficiais. Isto se dá porque os saprolitos colapsam quando saturados em função de sua baixa coesão, fazendo com que os pipings não se preservem. Por outro lado, as experiências com modelagem física e os dados de campo evidenciam que os saprolitos, quando saturados, instabilizam-se por meio de escorregamentos rotacionais (slumps), mesmo em taludes baixos e pouco íngremes. Abstract in english The basement rock areas of the Maracujá hydrographic basin show great incidence of huge gullies. This work aims to investigate the influence of the underground erosive processes in the evolution of these features and to understand how the mineralogical and textural factors could affect soil erodibil [...] ity, specially of the saprolites, since the lateric soils of this basin are more resistant to erosion. So, basic characterization and erodibility essays were carried out in representative soil samples. Soil susceptibility to piping and seepage erosion were investigated through current and modified pin-hole-essays. Laboratory physical models were used in order to observe these and other possible underground erosion mechanisms, especially the slides. However, piping erosion only occurs in the unsaturated portion of gully slopes, provoked by the concentration of superficial water, since pipes are not stable under total saturation, when their roofs tend to collapse, because of the low cohesion of these saprolites. In the other hand, slumps are very common in the saturated portion of gullies, affecting saprolites even in small and low declivity slopes.

Fernando, Morais; Luis Almeida Prado, Bacellar; Frederico Garcia, Sobreira.

2007-12-01

 
 
 
 
81

Analysis and Simulation of Frost's Beamformer  

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Full Text Available Sensor arrays are often used for a signal separation from noisesusing the information about the direction of arrival. The aim of thispaper is to analyze Frost's beamformer with respect to the speechpreprocessing for the hearing impaired people. The frequency responseof the system including the background noise attenuation are derived asfunctions of the direction of arrival. The derivation supposes auniform linear array of sensors and plane waves. It is shown that thenumber of possible configurations can be decreased by using somesymmetries. The impact of the used algorithm constraint on thefrequency response and subsequently on the directional noisesuppression is derived analytically.

P. Sovka

2003-06-01

82

Suscetibilidade magnética do solo e estimação da capacidade de suporte à aplicação de vinhaça / Soil magnetic susceptibility for estimating the support capacity to vinasse application  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da suscetibilidade magnética do solo para estimar a capacidade de suporte de áreas à aplicação de vinhaça. Foram coletadas 241 amostras de solo, de uma área de 380 ha, nas quais foram determinados os atributos químicos, os teores de argila e a susce [...] tibilidade magnética do solo. Foram calculadas as doses de vinhaça recomendadas para cada amostra. Os dados foram submetidos à análise estatística descritiva, e foram desenvolvidos modelos de regressão entre a suscetibilidade magnética e os outros atributos avaliados. A análise da dependência espacial dos dados foi feita com uso da geoestatística. Foram construídos mapas de krigagem e variogramas cruzados, para averiguar a correlação espacial entre a suscetibilidade magnética e os atributos estudados. Com base no mapa de recomendação de vinhaça, nas classes de solo e nos mapas de krigagem, foram calculadas as doses médias de vinhaça e as capacidades de suporte médias, ponderadas pela área. A suscetibilidade magnética apresenta correlação espacial linear significativa com as doses de vinhaça recomendadas e com a capacidade de suporte do solo à aplicação desse efluente, e pode ser utilizada como componente da função de pedotransferência, na quantificação indireta da capacidade de suporte. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the magnetic susceptibility efficiency for estimating the support capacity of areas for vinasse application. Two hundred forty-one soil samples were collected from a 380-ha area, on which soil chemical properties, clay content, and magnetic susceptibility w [...] ere determined. Vinasse requirement was calculated for each sample. Data were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis, and regression models were developed between magnetic susceptibility and the other evaluated attributes. The analysis of data spatial dependence was performed using geostatistics. Kriging maps and cross variograms were built in order to investigate the spatial correlation between soil magnetic susceptibility and studied attributes. Based on the map of vinasse requirement, on the soil classes, and on the kriging map, calculations were done for average vinasse dose and average soil support capacity, weighted by the area. Magnetic susceptibility has significant linear spatial correlation with recommended vinasse doses and soil support capacity for the application of this effluent, and it can be used as a pedotransfer function for indirect quantification of soil support capacity.

Rafael Gonçalves, Peluco; José, Marques Júnior; Diego Silva, Siqueira; Gener Tadeu, Pereira; Ronny Sobreira, Barbosa; Daniel de Bortoli, Teixeira; Cássia Rita, Adame; Lucas Aguilar, Cortez.

2013-06-01

83

Mathematical modeling of heat transfer between the plant seedling and the environment during a radiation frost  

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Full Text Available The power of the internal heat source sufficient to maintain a positive temperature of plants during one of the possible form of cold stress - radiation frost was determined with the help of numerical simulation.The simulation of unsteady heat transfer in the soil-plant-air system in the conditions of radiation frost showed that the the ground part of plants is cooling most rapidly, and this process is partially slowed down by the natural-convection heat transfer with warmer air. If the frost is not continuous, the radiative cooling is the main danger for plant. The necessary power of heat-production inside plant that allows it to avoid hypothermia depends both on natural conditions and the size of the plant. For plants with a typical diameter of the stem about 2 mm this heat-production should be from 50 to 100 W / kg. Within 2 hours a total amount of heat about 0.5 MJ / kg in the plant should be allocated. Larger plants will have a smaller surface to mass ratio, and the maintaining of it's temperature will require a lower cost of nutrients per unit, accordingly. Modeling of the influence of plant surface trichomes presence on the process of its cooling showed that the role of trichomes in the protection of plants from hypothermia during radiation frost usually is negative due to the fact that the presence of trichomes increases the radiative heat transfer from the plant and the impediment in air movement near the plant reduces heat flux entering the plant from a warmer air. But in cases where the intensity of heat generation within the plant is sufficient for the maintenance of the plant temperature higher than the air temperature, the presence of trichomes impairs heat transfer from plant to air, and therefore contributes to a better heating of plants.

Finnikov K.A.

2010-11-01

84

Delayed frost growth on jumping-drop superhydrophobic surfaces.  

Science.gov (United States)

Self-propelled jumping drops are continuously removed from a condensing superhydrophobic surface to enable a micrometric steady-state drop size. Here, we report that subcooled condensate on a chilled superhydrophobic surface are able to repeatedly jump off the surface before heterogeneous ice nucleation occurs. Frost still forms on the superhydrophobic surface due to ice nucleation at neighboring edge defects, which eventually spreads over the entire surface via an interdrop frost wave. The growth of this interdrop frost front is shown to be up to 3 times slower on the superhydrophobic surface compared to a control hydrophobic surface, due to the jumping-drop effect dynamically minimizing the average drop size and surface coverage of the condensate. A simple scaling model is developed to relate the success and speed of interdrop ice bridging to the drop size distribution. While other reports of condensation frosting on superhydrophobic surfaces have focused exclusively on liquid-solid ice nucleation for isolated drops, these findings reveal that the growth of frost is an interdrop phenomenon that is strongly coupled to the wettability and drop size distribution of the surface. A jumping-drop superhydrophobic condenser minimized frost formation relative to a conventional dropwise condenser in two respects: preventing heterogeneous ice nucleation by continuously removing subcooled condensate, and delaying frost growth by limiting the success of interdrop ice bridge formation. PMID:23286736

Boreyko, Jonathan B; Collier, C Patrick

2013-02-26

85

Frost related dieback in Estonian energy plantations of willows in relation to fertilisation and pathogenic bacteria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two 9-year old Estonian Salix plantations suffering from dieback were studied: one situated on poor mineral soil and divided into fertilised and unfertilised plots (Saare plantation) and another growing on a well-decomposed and nitrogen-rich organic soil, without fertiliser application (Kambja plantation). Bacteria from internal tissues of visually damaged shoots from seven clones were isolated in spring and autumn. The strains were subsequently biochemically characterised and tested for ice nucleation activity and pathogenicity on Salix. Some strains were also analysed with 16S rRNA. High numbers of culturable bacteria were found, belonging mainly to Erwinia, Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas spp. Fertilised plots were significantly more colonised by bacteria than unfertilised plots and also more extensively damaged, showing a lower density of living plants after 7 years of culture. More ice nucleation active (INA) strains were found in Saare fertilised plots and at Kambja than in Saare unfertilised plots. Likewise, most pathogenic strains were isolated from Saare fertilised plots and from Kambja. For some of the willow clones studied, dieback appeared to be related to both clonal frost sensitivity and abundance of INA and pathogenic bacteria. The plantations probably suffered from the presence of high amounts of pathogens and from frost related injuries aggravated by INA bacteria. Most probably the fertilisation at Saare and the nitrogen-rich soil at Kambja created a favourable environment for bacterial development and led to high dieback levels after the first harvest. (author)

Cambours, M.A.; Nejad, P. [Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7026, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Heinsoo, K. [Institute of Zoology and Botany, Estonian Agricultural University, Riia 181, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Granhall, U. [Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7025, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

2006-03-15

86

Coupling of THALES and FROST using MPI Method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the coupling method between THALES and FROST and the simulation results with the coupled code system. In this study, subchannel analysis code THALES and transient fuel performance code FROST were coupled using MPI method as the first stage of the development of the multi-dimensional safety analysis methodology. As a part of the validation, the CEA ejection accident was simulated using the coupled THALES-FROST code and the results were compared with the ShinKori 3 and 4 FSAR. Comparison results revealed that CHASER using MPI method predicts fuel temperatures and heat flux quantitatively well. Thus it was confirmed that the THALES and FROST are properly coupled. In near future, ASTRA, multi-dimensional core neutron kinetics code, will be linked to THALESFROST code for the detailed three-dimensional CEA ejection analysis. The current safety analysis methodology for a CEA ejection accident based on numerous conservative assumptions with the point kinetics model results in quite adverse consequences. Thus, KNF is developing the multi-dimensional safety analysis methodology to enhance the consequences of the CEA ejection accident. For this purpose, three-dimensional core neutron kinetics code ASTRA, subchannel analysis code THALES, and transient fuel performance analysis code FROST are being coupled using message passing interface(MPI). For the first step, THALES and FROST are coupled and tested.

Park, Jin Woo; Ryu, Seok Hee; Jung, Chan Do; Jung, Jee Hoon; Um, Kil Sup; Lee, Jae Il [KEPCO Nuclear Fuel, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2013-10-15

87

Prediction of Frost Risks and Plagues using WRF model: a Port Wine region case study  

Science.gov (United States)

In viticulture where the quality of the wine, the selection of the grapevines or even the characteristics of the farming soil, also depending from local soil features like topography, proximity of a river or water body, will act locally on the weather. Frosts are of significant concern to growers of many cultures crops such as winegrapes. Because of their high latitude and some altitude, the vineyards of the Demarcated Douro Region (DDR) are subjected to the frost, which cause serious damages. But the hazards of vineyard don't confine to the incidents of the fortuitous and meteorological character. The illnesses and plagues affect frequently the vineyards of Demarcated Douro Region due, namely to the weather, to the high power of the regional stocks, to the dense vegetation badly drained and favourable to the setting of numberless fungi, viruses and/or poisonous insects. In the case of DDR it is worth noticing the meteorological conditions due to the weather characteristics. Although there are several illnesses and plagues the most important enemies for the vine in the DDR are the mildew, oidium, grey rottenness, grape moth,. . . , if the climatic conditions favour their appearance and development. For this study, we selected some months for different periods, at the 16 weather stations of the Region of Douro. We use the Weather Research and Forecast Model (WRF) to study and possibly predict the occurrence of risk and plagues (mildew) episodes. The model is first validated with the meteorological data obtained at the weather stations. The knowledge of frost and plagues occurrence allows one to decrease its risks not only by selecting the cultural species and varieties but also the places of growth and the planting and sowing dates.

Rodrigues, M. A.; Rocha, A.; Monteiro, A.; Quénol, H.; de Freitas, J. R.

2012-04-01

88

?Determination of Frost Free Season by Using Dates of First and Last Advection and Radiation Frosts in Zanjan, Gazvin and Tehran Regions  

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Full Text Available Dates of start and end of frost based on minimum shelter temperature equal to or less than 0°C were studied in Zanjan, Ghazvin and Tehran during 1961-2000. The cause of these frosts was determined by weather parameter values at observation hours and the aid of synoptic maps. Frost series based upon last spring or first fall advection are defined and found to be random and normally distributed. The "potential growing season", defined as the interval between spring last and first fall advection frosts, is found to be 29 days in Zanjan, 23 days in Ghazvin and 10 days in Tehran longer than the "growing season" defined by the interval from last spring to first fall occurrences of minimum shelter temperature of 0°C or less. The numbers of radiation frosts in the interval between first radiation frosts in fall or last radiation frost in spring and related advection frost were counted and found that this parameter is greater in Zanjan. Frostless days between the first two fall frosts and last two spring frosts show that the lengthening of spring season with one night protection is possible for 4 days in Zanjan, 6 in Gazvin and 4 in Tehran, providing that first fall and spring last frost is radiation. Results of this study permit estimating the practicality of frost protection for specialized crops in the area of study.

K Noohi

2009-01-01

89

Frost-related dieback of Swedish and Estonian Salix plantations due to pathogenic and ice nucleation-active bacteria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the past decade, important dieback has been observed in short-rotation forestry plantations of Salix viminalis and S. dasyclados in Sweden and Estonia, plantations from which the isolation of ice nucleation-active (INA) and pathogenic bacteria has also been reported. This thesis investigates the connection between bacterial infection and frost as a possible cause for such damage, and the role played by internal and external factors (e.g. plant frost sensitivity, fertilisation) in the dieback observed. Bacterial floras isolated from ten Salix clones growing on fertilised/unfertilised mineral soil or nitrogen-rich organic soil, were studied. Culturable bacterial communities present both in internal necrotic tissues and on the plant surface (i.e. epiphytes) were isolated on two occasions (spring and autumn). The strains were biochemically characterised (with gram, oxidase and fluorescence tests), and tested for ice nucleation-activity. Their pathogenic properties were studied with and without association to a freezing stress. Certain strains were eventually identified with BIOLOG plates and 16S rRNA analysis. A high number of culturable bacterial strains was found in the plant samplings, belonging mainly to Erwinia and Sphingomonas spp.; pathogenic and INA communities being mostly Erwinia-, Sphingomonas- and Xanthomonas-like. The generally higher plant dieback noted in the field on nutrient-rich soils and for frost sensitive clones was found connected to higher numbers of pathogenic and INA bacteria in the plants. We thus confirm Salix dieback to be related to a synergistic effect of frost and bacterial infection, possibly aggravated by fertilisation.

Cambours, M.A.

2004-07-01

90

Teor de carbono orgânico e a susceptibilidade à compactação de um Nitossolo e um Argissolo / Organic carbon content and susceptibility to compaction of Hapludalf and Hapludox soils  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O acúmulo de matéria orgânica pode aumentar a resistência do solo à compactação, diminuindo sua magnitude ou seus efeitos. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar as implicações do acúmulo de matéria orgânica no solo sobre sua susceptibilidade à compactação medida pelo coeficiente de compressão. [...] Buscou-se estabelecer relações entre o teor de carbono orgânico e o coeficiente de compressão do solo. Utilizaram-se amostras de solo coletadas em um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico arênico e de um Nitossolo Vermelho distrófico latossólico, ambos contendo ampla variação do teor de carbono orgânico (CO). As amostras, com umidade equilibrada em quatro tensões de água, foram submetidas ao ensaio de adensamento uniaxial confinado, mediante cargas normais de 12,5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 e 1600 kPa e se determinando o coeficiente de compressão plástica; definiram-se, também, o teor de carbono orgânico, a densidade do solo, a porosidade e o grau de saturação com água das amostras. O teor de carbono orgânico afeta o coeficiente de compressão do solo; no entanto, a magnitude e o tipo de efeito são dependentes da textura do solo e de seus efeitos sobre a retenção de água, a coesão e a densidade do solo. Abstract in english Organic matter accumulation can increase soil resistance to compaction, decreasing the compaction magnitude or its effects. The objective of this study was to establish the effect of soil organic matter accumulation on the compressibility index, which corresponds to soil susceptibility to compaction [...] . The study was performed using samples collected from a Hapludalf and a Hapludox soils in southern Brazil, both having a significant variation in soil organic carbon (SOC) content. Soil compressibility tests were performed under confined conditions, in a uniaxial apparatus by using normal loads of 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1600 kPa, and the compressibility index (Cc) was calculated. Soil organic carbon content, bulk density, porosity and water saturation degree were determined too. Results show that soil organic matter content affects the soil compressibility index, however the magnitude and type of effect are dependent upon soil texture and effects associated to soil water retention, cohesion, and bulk density.

João A., Braida; José M., Reichert; Dalvan J., Reinert; Milton da, Veiga.

2010-02-01

91

Suitability aero-geophysical methods for generating conceptual soil maps and their use in the modeling of process-related susceptibility maps  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past years, several times large-scale disasters occurred in Austria, which were characterized not only by flooding, but also by numerous shallow landslides and debris flows. Therefore, for the purpose of risk prevention, national and regional authorities also require more objective and realistic maps with information about spatially variable susceptibility of the geosphere for hazard-relevant gravitational mass movements. There are many and various proven methods and models (e.g. neural networks, logistic regression, heuristic methods) available to create such process-related (e.g. flat gravitational mass movements in soil) suszeptibility maps. But numerous national and international studies show a dependence of the suitability of a method on the quality of process data and parameter maps (f.e. Tilch & Schwarz 2011, Schwarz & Tilch 2011). In this case, it is important that also maps with detailed and process-oriented information on the process-relevant geosphere will be considered. One major disadvantage is that only occasionally area-wide process-relevant information exists. Similarly, in Austria often only soil maps for treeless areas are available. However, in almost all previous studies, randomly existing geological and geotechnical maps were used, which often have been specially adapted to the issues and objectives. This is one reason why very often conceptual soil maps must be derived from geological maps with only hard rock information, which often have a rather low quality. Based on these maps, for example, adjacent areas of different geological composition and process-relevant physical properties are razor sharp delineated, which in nature appears quite rarly. In order to obtain more realistic information about the spatial variability of the process-relevant geosphere (soil cover) and its physical properties, aerogeophysical measurements (electromagnetic, radiometric), carried out by helicopter, from different regions of Austria were interpreted. Previous studies show that, especially with radiometric measurements, the two-dimensional spatial variability of the nature of the process-relevant soil, close to the surface can be determined. In addition, the electromagnetic measurements are more important to obtain three-dimensional information of the deeper geological conditions and to improve the area-specific geological knowledge and understanding. The validation of these measurements is done with terrestrial geoelectrical measurements. So both aspects, radiometric and electromagnetic measurements, are important and subsequently, interpretation of the geophysical results can be used as the parameter maps in the modeling of more realistic susceptibility maps with respect to various processes. Within this presentation, results of geophysical measurements, the outcome and the derived parameter maps, as well as first process-oriented susceptibility maps in terms of gravitational soil mass movements will be presented. As an example results which were obtained with a heuristic method in an area in Vorarlberg (Western Austria) will be shown. References: Schwarz, L. & Tilch, N. (2011): Why are good process data so important for the modelling of landslide susceptibility maps?- EGU-Postersession "Landslide hazard and risk assessment, and landslide management" (NH 3.6), Vienna. [http://www.geologie.ac.at/fileadmin/user_upload/dokumente/pdf/poster/poster_2011_egu_schwarz_tilch_1.pdf] Tilch, N. & Schwarz, L. (2011): Spatial and scale-dependent variability in data quality and their influence on susceptibility maps for gravitational mass movements in soil, modelled by heuristic method.- EGU-Postersession "Landslide hazard and risk assessment, and landslide management" (NH 3.6); Vienna. [http://www.geologie.ac.at/fileadmin/user_upload/dokumente/pdf/poster/poster_2011_egu_tilch_schwarz.pdf

Tilch, Nils; Römer, Alexander; Jochum, Birgit; Schattauer, Ingrid

2014-05-01

92

Remote mapping of susceptible areas to soil salinity, based on hyperspectral data and geochemical, in the southern part of Tunisia  

Science.gov (United States)

We conducted a remote sensing analysis to discern features and patterns of areas affected by salt. Maximum likelihood classification (MLC), Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Minimum Distance (MD) with four classes (slightly, moderately, high and extreme saline soil) are applied to classify the salt affected areas. 102 samples, collected from the investigated region, are used as input data set . Soil properties, land use and ground water table are selected as the main parameters affecting soil salinity. These parameters are used to understand the spatial distribution of the different classes of soil salinity. Our approach was applied on hyperspectral data from the EO-1 Mission. The present study highlighted that gypsum soil is obviously fitting with class of extreme and high saline soil. Thus, high content of gypsum in soil is the most important parameter controlling the soil salinity in this region. Moreover, water logging is lightly affecting the soil salinity through the rising of the water table level by sea water seeping; especially in the irrigation areas located no more than 5 km from the coast line. Computed accuracy from the classification gave different but encouraging accuracy results varying between 46% and 75%. SVM is showing the best performance in extracting patterns and features of soil salinity classes (kappa coefficient of 63% and overall accuracy of 75%). Furthermore, this work reveals the high potential of hyperspectral data in discerning areas that are highly and extremely affected by salinity.

Bouaziz, Moncef; Gloaguen, Richard; Samir, Bouaziz

2011-11-01

93

Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale: the portuguese version / Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale: versão portuguesa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese CONTEXTO: A Escala Multidimensional de Perfeccionismo de Frost (FMPS) é uma das escalas mais usadas em todo o mundo para avaliar o perfeccionismo. OBJETIVO: Analisar as características psicométricas da versão portuguesa da FMPS. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi constituída por 217 estudantes do ensino superio [...] r (178 mulheres). Um subgrupo (n = 166) completou o reteste após quatro semanas. RESULTADOS: A consistência interna da escala mostrou ser elevada (alfa de Cronbach = ,857). As correlações item-total corrigido variaram entre ,019 e ,548. Os resultados também sugeriram uma boa estabilidade temporal da escala, sendo a correlação teste-reteste de ,765. Foi realizada a análise das componentes principais com rotação Varimax e com base no Scree plot foram extraídas duas soluções fatoriais robustas (quatro e seis fatores). A análise paralela (Monte Carlo PCA) confirmou a solução de seis fatores. A validade concorrente com a escala MPS de Hewitt e Flett foi elevada, assim como a sua capacidade discriminante dos afetos positivos e negativos (Perfil de Estados de Humor - POMS). CONCLUSÃO: As duas estruturas fatoriais (quatro e seis fatores) encontradas na versão portuguesa da Escala Multidimensional de Perfeccionismo de Frost replicam os resultados obtidos por diferentes autores, em diferentes amostras e culturas. Esse fato sugere que essa escala é um instrumento robusto para a avaliação do perfeccionismo em vários contextos, clínicos e de investigação, bem como em estudos transculturais. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: The Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale is one of the most world widely used measures of perfectionism. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale. METHODS: Two hundred and seventeen (178 females) s [...] tudents from two Portuguese Universities filled in the scale, and a subgroup (n = 166) completed a retest with a four weeks interval. RESULTS: The scale reliability was good (Cronbach alpha = .857). Corrected item-total correlations ranged from .019 to .548. The scale test-retest reliability suggested a good temporal stability with a test-retest correlation of .765. A principal component analysis with Varimax rotation was performed and based on the Scree plot, two robust factorial structures were found (four and six factors). The principal component analyses, using Monte Carlo PCA for parallel analyses confirmed the six factor solution. The concurrent validity with Hewitt and Flett MPS was high, as well as the discriminant validity of positive and negative affect (Profile of Mood Stats-POMS). DISCUSSION: The two factorial structures (of four and six dimensions) of the Portuguese version of Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale replicate the results from different authors, with different samples and cultures. This suggests this scale is a robust instrument to assess perfectionism, in several clinical and research settings as well as in transcultural studies.

Ana Paula Monteiro, Amaral; Maria João, Soares; Ana Telma, Pereira; Sandra Carvalho, Bos; Mariana, Marques; José, Valente; Vasco, Nogueira; Maria Helena, Azevedo; António, Macedo.

94

Identificación de suelos susceptibles a riesgos de erosión y con mayor capacidad de almacenamiento de agua Identification of soils susceptible to risk erosion and with hight capacity of water storage  

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Full Text Available La investigación se basó en el desarrollo de siete etapas metodológicas con criterios de integralidad, análisis holístico, secuencia lógica, participación y sencillez, destacándose los siguientes aspectos: Conceptualización y contextualización, muestreo de suelos, procesamiento de la información, espacialización de la información, identificación de zonas susceptibles a riesgos de erosión y con mayor capacidad de almacenamiento de agua, recomendaciones de manejo y socialización de la investigación. La propuesta metodológica se validó y ajustó mediante un caso de estudio en la vereda Chicoral, subcuenca del río Bitaco, municipio de La Cumbre, Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Mediante procesos de participación y concertación con los actores socioeconómicos del área de estudio se lograron diagnosticar las causas y consecuencias que intervienen en procesos de degradación física del suelo y a la vez se localizaron los sitios con mayor potencialidad de almacenamiento de agua, factores importantes para la planificación y uso racional de los recursos naturales en una cuenca hidrográfica.The investigation was carried out in seven methodological steps under integral approaches, holistic analysis, logical sequence, participation and simplicity. The following aspects were highlighted: Conceptualization and contextualizacion, soil sampling , data processing, data spacializatión of the information, identification of susceptible areas to risk erosion with higher capacity of water storage, management norms and socialization of the investigation. The methodological proposal was validated and adjusted by a case of study in the rural areas of Chicoral, watershed of the Bitaco river, Municipality of La Cumbre, Cauca Valley, Colombia. Using participation processes and agreement with the communities of the study area, the diagnostic of the causes and consequences that intervene in processes of physical soil degradation were reached. At the same time, the places with higher potentiality of water storage were localized. All of these factors are important for planning and rational use of the natural resources in a watershed.

Velásquez Valencia Henry

95

Identification of soils susceptible to risk erosion and with hight capacity of water storage Identificación de suelos susceptibles a riesgos de erosión y con mayor capacidad de almacenamiento de agua  

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Full Text Available The investigation was carried out in seven methodological steps under integral approaches, holistic analysis, logical sequence, participation and simplicity. The following aspects were highlighted: Conceptualization and contextualizacion, soil sampling , data processing, data spacializatión of the information, identification of susceptible areas to risk erosion with higher capacity of water storage, management norms and socialization of the investigation. The methodological proposal was validated and adjusted by a case of study in the rural areas of Chicoral, watershed of the Bitaco river, Municipality of La Cumbre, Cauca Valley , Colombia. Using participation processes and agreement with the communities of the study area, the diagnostic of the causes and consequences that intervene in processes of physical soil degradation were reached. At the same time, the places with higher potentiality of water storage were localized. All of these factors are important for planning and rational use of the natural resources in a watershed.La investigación se basó en el desarrollo de siete etapas metodológicas con criterios de integralidad, análisis holístico, secuencia lógica, participación y sencillez, destacándose los siguientes aspectos: Conceptualización y contextualización, muestreo de suelos, procesamiento de la información, espacialización de la información, identificación de zonas susceptibles a riesgos de erosión y con mayor capacidad de almacenamiento de agua, recomendaciones de manejo y socialización de la investigación. La propuesta metodológica se validó y ajustó mediante un caso de estudio en la vereda Chicoral, subcuenca del río Bitaco, municipio de La Cumbre, Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Mediante procesos de participación y concertación con los actores socioeconómicos del área de estudio se lograron diagnosticar las causas y consecuencias que intervienen en procesos de degradación física del suelo y a la vez se localizaron los sitios con mayor potencialidad de almacenamiento de agua, factores importantes para la planificación y uso racional de los recursos naturales en una cuenca hidrográfica.

Escobar Chalarca Carlos Alberto

2007-09-01

96

Identificación de suelos susceptibles a riesgos de erosión y con mayor capacidad de almacenamiento de agua / Identification of soils susceptible to risk erosion and with hight capacity of water storage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La investigación se basó en el desarrollo de siete etapas metodológicas con criterios de integralidad, análisis holístico, secuencia lógica, participación y sencillez, destacándose los siguientes aspectos: Conceptualización y contextualización, muestreo de suelos, procesamiento de la información, es [...] pacialización de la información, identificación de zonas susceptibles a riesgos de erosión y con mayor capacidad de almacenamiento de agua, recomendaciones de manejo y socialización de la investigación. La propuesta metodológica se validó y ajustó mediante un caso de estudio en la vereda Chicoral, subcuenca del río Bitaco, municipio de La Cumbre, Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Mediante procesos de participación y concertación con los actores socioeconómicos del área de estudio se lograron diagnosticar las causas y consecuencias que intervienen en procesos de degradación física del suelo y a la vez se localizaron los sitios con mayor potencialidad de almacenamiento de agua, factores importantes para la planificación y uso racional de los recursos naturales en una cuenca hidrográfica. Abstract in english The investigation was carried out in seven methodological steps under integral approaches, holistic analysis, logical sequence, participation and simplicity. The following aspects were highlighted: Conceptualization and contextualizacion, soil sampling , data processing, data spacializatión of the i [...] nformation, identification of susceptible areas to risk erosion with higher capacity of water storage, management norms and socialization of the investigation. The methodological proposal was validated and adjusted by a case of study in the rural areas of Chicoral, watershed of the Bitaco river, Municipality of La Cumbre, Cauca Valley, Colombia. Using participation processes and agreement with the communities of the study area, the diagnostic of the causes and consequences that intervene in processes of physical soil degradation were reached. At the same time, the places with higher potentiality of water storage were localized. All of these factors are important for planning and rational use of the natural resources in a watershed.

Velásquez Valencia, Henry; Juan Carlos, Menjivar; Carlos Alberto, Escobar.

2007-09-15

97

Topological whisker bundles of amphibole and frost column of quartz  

Science.gov (United States)

Amphibole whiskers showing topological forms and frost column of quartz were found in association with hedenbergite crystals in a druse of skarn at Kakino mine, Gifu Prefecture, Japan. Both selectively grow from thin layers formed on the surfaces of Fe-rich portion of early formed hedenbergite crystals. Most whiskers occur in bundles of straight, helical, coil, curl, ribbon and rope forms. Single whiskers constituting these bundles are sub-micron size in thickness and millimeter to centimeter size in length, with aspect ratio attaining more than 1000, and are twisted. Micro-area XRD analyses indicate that the whiskers are crystalline, and not in amorphous state, in spite of their topological forms. Quartz layers showing fibrous texture, closely resembling frost column in form and texture, also occur in association with hedenbergite crystals and amphibole whiskers. Both amphibole whiskers and quartz frost columns nucleated and grew in layers formed on Fe-rich portions of hedenbergite, which was selectively reacted with S, H 2O and SiO 2 containing vapor phase. Based on these observations, the growth mechanism and the genesis of such unusual morphology are discussed. Essentially similar mechanism as vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism is suggested for amphibole whiskers. The same mechanism as for the formation of ice frost column is applicable to the formation of quartz frost column.

Sunagawa, Ichiro; Takahashi, Yasushi; Imai, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Shigeo

2005-04-01

98

Frost sensor for use in defrost controls for refrigeration  

Science.gov (United States)

An apparatus and method for measuring the total thermal resistance to heat flow from the air to the evaporative cooler fins of a refrigeration system. The apparatus is a frost sensor that measures the reduction in heat flow due to the added thermal resistance of ice (reduced conduction) as well as the reduction in heat flow due to the blockage of airflow (reduced convection) from excessive ice formation. The sensor triggers a defrost cycle when needed, instead of on a timed interval. The invention is also a method for control of frost in a system that transfers heat from air to a refrigerant along a thermal path. The method involves measuring the thermal conductivity of the thermal path from the air to the refrigerant, recognizing a reduction in thermal conductivity due to the thermal insulation effect of the frost and due to the loss of airflow from excessive ice formation; and controlling the defrosting of the system.

French, Patrick D. (ADA Technologies, Inc. 8100 Shaffer Pkwy., Suite 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107); Butz, James R. (ADA Technologies, Inc. 8100 Shaffer Pkwy., Suite 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107); Veatch, Bradley D. (ADA Technologies, Inc. 8100 Shaffer Pkwy., Suite 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107); O'Connor, Michael W. (ADA Technologies, Inc. 8100 Shaffer Pkwy., Suite 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107)

2002-01-01

99

Statistical Examination of Frost Characterization: A Case of Global Warming Impact in Jordan  

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Full Text Available Radiation and advection frost are common in Jordan as well as other neighboring countries as they face several frost waves each year during the late months of winter. Recently, many frost episodes hit the valley and damaged the crops that were compensated by millions of dollars by the Jordanian Government. This manuscript addresses and characterizes frost, and assesses the role of global warming in impacting frost in terms of its frequency, severity, and total number of frost days per year. A comprehensive statistical approach was used. The paper indicates that frost waves will continue to hit in the near future regardless of the fact that Earth is moving towards warmer conditions. Agricultural and financial authorities should be urged to minimize frost damage by considering installing wind fans in Jordan valley as an active method in addition to implementing good farm practices (as a passive methods where deemed necessary.

Moshrik R Hamdi

2011-08-01

100

Correlation of Water Frost Porosity in Laminar Flow over Flat Surfaces  

Science.gov (United States)

A dimensionless correlation has been proposed for water frost porosity expressing its dependence on frost surface temperature and Reynolds number for laminar forced flow over a flat surface. The correlation is presented in terms of a dimensionless frost surface temperature scaled with the cold plate temperature, and the freezing temperature. The flow Reynolds number is scaled with reference to the critical Reynolds number for laminar-turbulent transition. The proposed correlation agrees satisfactorily with the simultaneous measurements of frost density and frost surface temperature covering a range of plate temperature, ambient air velocity, humidity, and temperature. It is revealed that the frost porosity depends primarily on the frost surface and the plate temperatures and the flow Reynolds number, and is only weakly dependent on the relative humidity. The results also point out the general character of frost porosity displaying a decrease with an increase in flow Reynolds number.

Kandula, Max

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Far-infrared spectra of CO2 clathrate hydrate frosts  

Science.gov (United States)

As a product of our interest in remote sensing of planetary ices, frost samples of CO2 clathrate hydrate were grown by depositing water vapor on a cooled surface and pressurizing the resulting water frost with CO2 gas. At pressures above the dissociation pressure of the clathrate, the samples exhibit an absorption peak at 75 cm (sup -1). At pressures below the dissociation pressure, the peak disappears. Since the free CO2 molecule does not have rotational or vibrational absorption in this region, the absorption is attributed to a CO2 rattling mode within a clathrate cage.

Landry, J. C.; England, A. W.

1993-01-01

102

Susceptibilidad del suelo a la degradación en parcelas con manejo agroforestal Quesungual en Nicaragua Susceptibility to soil degradation in plots under Quesungual agroforestry management in Nicaragua  

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Full Text Available Durante tres años se establecieron en un Andisol del municipio de Somotillo (Nicaragua los sistemas de usos de tierra: tradicional del productor (tala, quema, fertilización y siembra de maíz + fríjol; agroforestal Quesungual (SAQ (no quema, árboles nativos en regeneración natural y siembra de maíz + fríjol; residuos de cultivos (manejo de cobertura con residuos de cultivos; y testigo bosque secundario (tacotal de aproximadamente cinco años de edad no cultivado. Se hicieron muestreos de suelos a profundidades de 0-5, 5-10 y 10-20 cm para caracterización física y de fertilidad y estimación de la erosión hídrica por simulación. Los sistemas Quesungal y Residuos de Cultivo, mantuvieron la susceptibilidad del suelo a la erosión en niveles tan bajos como los del bosque natural secundario.In an andisol tt was placed for three years land uses systems like: farmer traditional (slash and burn, fertilization and sowing of bean and maiz; Quesungual Agroforestry System-SAQ (no burn, natural regeneration of native trees, bean and maiz sowing; crop residues as management cover, and a fi ve years secundary forest (tacotal as a control. It was considered soil samples at 0-5, 5-10 y 10-20 for physical and fertility characterization and field measurement of soil erosion by rain simulation. Quesungal and crop residues systems, remained soil erosión susceptibility at levels as low as the natural secondary forest.

Jellín del Carmen Pavón T

2010-01-01

103

Modelos de paisagem e susceptibilidade magnética na identificação e caracterização do solo / Landscape models and magnetic susceptibility on soil identification and characterization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O conhecimento detalhado do solo e de seus atributos, ao longo da paisagem, é uma demanda permanente dos sistemas urbanos e agroindustriais, para o planejamento sustentável de uso e ocupação. O presente trabalho objetivou estudar o potencial de modelos de paisagem e susceptibilidade magnética na ide [...] ntificação e caracterização de latossolos, em Guariba (SP). Foram coletadas 514 amostras de solo, em 110,0 ha, às profundidades de 0,0-0,20 m e 0,60-0,80 m. Foram identificados diferentes compartimentos de paisagem, com base no modelo de superfície geomórfica e segmento de vertente. Em cada compartimento de paisagem, foram abertas trincheiras, para classificação do solo. As amostras foram analisadas quanto à granulometria e atributos químicos, pH (água, CaCl2 e KCl), matéria orgânica, P extraível, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ e H+ + Al3+. Também foram determinados os teores de SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3 e óxidos de Fe livres (Fe d) e pouco cristalizados (Fe o), nas amostras das trincheiras, além da susceptibilidade magnética (SM). Solos taxonomicamente iguais, porém em diferentes compartimentos da paisagem, apresentaram valores distintos, para os atributos estudados, indicando que os modelos de paisagem e a susceptibilidade magnética podem ser viáveis, como técnica de campo, para auxiliar no detalhamento da variação dos atributos do solo. A susceptibilidade magnética demonstrou ter potencial para delimitação das superfícies geomórficas mapeadas no campo, o que indica o seu potencial de uso, na identificação e caracterização de áreas mais homogêneas. Abstract in english The detailed knowledge of soils and their attributes, across the landscape, is a permanent demand of urban and agro-industrial systems, for planning their sustainable use and occupation. This study aimed at evaluating the potential of landscape models and the magnetic susceptibility in the identific [...] ation and characterization of oxisols, in Guariba, São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 514 soil samples were collected in 110.0 ha, at the depths of 0.0-0.20 m and 0.60-0.80 m. Different landscape compartments, based on the geomorphic surface and segment slope models, were identified. In each landscape compartment, trenches were opened for soil classification. The samples were analyzed for particle size and chemical properties, pH (water, CaCl2 and KCl), organic matter, extractable P, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and H+ + Al3+. The contents of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3 and free (Fe d) and slightly crystallized (Fe o) Fe oxides were determined in samples from the trenches, as well as the magnetic susceptibility (MS). Taxonomically similar soils, but in different landscape compartments, presented different values for the attributes studied, indicating that the landscape models and magnetic susceptibility may be viable, as a field technique, to help detailing the variation of soil attributes. The magnetic susceptibility showed potential for delimiting geomorphic surfaces mapped in the field, emphasizing its potential use for identifying and characterizing homogeneous areas.

Sammy Sidney Rocha, Matias; José, Marques Júnior; Diego Silva, Siqueira; Gener Tadeu, Pereira.

2013-03-01

104

Genetic Architecture of Winter Hardiness and Frost Tolerance in Triticale  

Science.gov (United States)

Abiotic stress experienced by autumn-sown crops during winter is of great economic importance as it can have a severe negative impact on yield. In this study, we investigated the genetic architecture of winter hardiness and frost tolerance in triticale. To this end, we used a large mapping population of 647 DH lines phenotyped for both traits in combination with genome-wide marker data. Employing multiple-line cross QTL mapping, we identified nine main effect QTL for winter hardiness and frost tolerance of which six were overlapping between both traits. Three major QTL were identified on chromosomes 5A, 1B and 5R. In addition, an epistasis scan revealed the contribution of epistasis to the genetic architecture of winter hardiness and frost tolerance in triticale. Taken together, our results show that winter hardiness and frost tolerance are complex traits that can be improved by phenotypic selection, but also that genomic approaches hold potential for a knowledge-based improvement of these important traits in elite triticale germplasm. PMID:24927281

Liu, Wenxin; Maurer, Hans Peter; Li, Guoliang; Tucker, Matthew R.; Gowda, Manje; Weissmann, Elmar A.; Hahn, Volker; Wurschum, Tobias

2014-01-01

105

Suscetibilidade magnética do horizonte B de solos do Estado do Paraná / Magnetic susceptibility of B horizon of soils in the State of Paraná  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os minerais ferrimagnéticos maghemita (?Fe2O3) e magnetita (Fe3O4) possuem alta relação com a disponibilidade de cátions metálicos e com a capacidade do solo em adsorver ânions como o fosfato. Uma percentagem expressiva dos solos brasileiros apresenta magnetização espontânea. No Estado do Paraná ess [...] a área corresponde a aproximadamente 50 %. A determinação da suscetibilidade magnética por unidade de massa (?BF) é o método mais simples de identificar a presença e quantificar esses minerais nos solos. A BF é uma técnica rápida, barata, não destrutiva e de boa reprodutibilidade, que pode ser utilizada como critério nos estudos pedogenéticos em que os minerais ferrimagnéticos estão presentes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência do material de origem nos valores de ?BF da terra fina seca ao ar (TFSA) de amostras do horizonte B de solos do Paraná. As amostras foram coletadas em todo o Estado, num total de 45 pontos. Na TFSA foram determinados os valores de BF e da porcentagem da frequência dependente da suscetibilidade magnética (?FD). Os valores de suscetibilidade magnética dos solos formados sobre rochas eruptivas básicas foram significativamente maiores (1.000 a 7.800 x 10-8 m³ kg-1) que os encontrados em solos formados sobre rochas metamórficas e sedimentares (menores do que 500 x 10-8 m³ kg-1), demonstrando a influência do material de origem na presença de minerais ferrimagnéticos. Os valores de ?FD indicaram a presenca de partículas superparamagnéticas (maghemita) na maioria dos solos paranaenses. Abstract in english The ferrimagnetic minerals maghemite (?Fe2O3) are closely related with metal availability and P adsorption capacity. Magnetization is spontaneous in a significant percentage of Brazilian soils. In the State of Paraná (Brazil) this area represents up to 50 %. The determination of the mass-specific ma [...] gnetic susceptibility (?BF) is the simplest method of identification and quantification of ferrimagnetic minerals in soils. The ?LF is a quick, cheap, non-destructive technique, with satisfactory reproducibility, and can be used as a criterion in pedogenetic studies involving ferrimagnetic minerals. The aim of this paper was to verify the influence of parent rock material on ?LF values of air-dried fine earth of B horizon of soil samples from Paraná. The samples were collected at 45 sites across the entire State to determine the ?LF values and percentage of frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility (?FD). The values of mass-specific magnetic susceptibility of soils formed from basic eruptive rocks were significantly higher (1,000 to 7,800 x 10-8 m³ kg-1) than of those from sedimentary and metamorphic rocks (lower than 500 x 10-8 m³ kg-1). The data show the strong influence of the parent rock material on the presence of ferrimagnetic minerals. The ?FD values indicate the presence of superparamagnetic particles (maghemite) in the majority of the Paraná State soils.

Alceu Rodrigues da, Silva; Ivan Granemann de, Souza Junior; Antonio Carlos Saraiva da, Costa.

106

Suscetibilidade magnética do horizonte B de solos do Estado do Paraná / Magnetic susceptibility of B horizon of soils in the State of Paraná  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os minerais ferrimagnéticos maghemita (?Fe2O3) e magnetita (Fe3O4) possuem alta relação com a disponibilidade de cátions metálicos e com a capacidade do solo em adsorver ânions como o fosfato. Uma percentagem expressiva dos solos brasileiros apresenta magnetização espontânea. No Estado do Paraná ess [...] a área corresponde a aproximadamente 50 %. A determinação da suscetibilidade magnética por unidade de massa (?BF) é o método mais simples de identificar a presença e quantificar esses minerais nos solos. A BF é uma técnica rápida, barata, não destrutiva e de boa reprodutibilidade, que pode ser utilizada como critério nos estudos pedogenéticos em que os minerais ferrimagnéticos estão presentes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência do material de origem nos valores de ?BF da terra fina seca ao ar (TFSA) de amostras do horizonte B de solos do Paraná. As amostras foram coletadas em todo o Estado, num total de 45 pontos. Na TFSA foram determinados os valores de BF e da porcentagem da frequência dependente da suscetibilidade magnética (?FD). Os valores de suscetibilidade magnética dos solos formados sobre rochas eruptivas básicas foram significativamente maiores (1.000 a 7.800 x 10-8 m³ kg-1) que os encontrados em solos formados sobre rochas metamórficas e sedimentares (menores do que 500 x 10-8 m³ kg-1), demonstrando a influência do material de origem na presença de minerais ferrimagnéticos. Os valores de ?FD indicaram a presenca de partículas superparamagnéticas (maghemita) na maioria dos solos paranaenses. Abstract in english The ferrimagnetic minerals maghemite (?Fe2O3) are closely related with metal availability and P adsorption capacity. Magnetization is spontaneous in a significant percentage of Brazilian soils. In the State of Paraná (Brazil) this area represents up to 50 %. The determination of the mass-specific ma [...] gnetic susceptibility (?BF) is the simplest method of identification and quantification of ferrimagnetic minerals in soils. The ?LF is a quick, cheap, non-destructive technique, with satisfactory reproducibility, and can be used as a criterion in pedogenetic studies involving ferrimagnetic minerals. The aim of this paper was to verify the influence of parent rock material on ?LF values of air-dried fine earth of B horizon of soil samples from Paraná. The samples were collected at 45 sites across the entire State to determine the ?LF values and percentage of frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility (?FD). The values of mass-specific magnetic susceptibility of soils formed from basic eruptive rocks were significantly higher (1,000 to 7,800 x 10-8 m³ kg-1) than of those from sedimentary and metamorphic rocks (lower than 500 x 10-8 m³ kg-1). The data show the strong influence of the parent rock material on the presence of ferrimagnetic minerals. The ?FD values indicate the presence of superparamagnetic particles (maghemite) in the majority of the Paraná State soils.

Alceu Rodrigues da, Silva; Ivan Granemann de, Souza Junior; Antonio Carlos Saraiva da, Costa.

2010-04-01

107

Suscetibilidade magnética do horizonte B de solos do Estado do Paraná Magnetic susceptibility of B horizon of soils in the State of Paraná  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os minerais ferrimagnéticos maghemita (?Fe2O3 e magnetita (Fe3O4 possuem alta relação com a disponibilidade de cátions metálicos e com a capacidade do solo em adsorver ânions como o fosfato. Uma percentagem expressiva dos solos brasileiros apresenta magnetização espontânea. No Estado do Paraná essa área corresponde a aproximadamente 50 %. A determinação da suscetibilidade magnética por unidade de massa (?BF é o método mais simples de identificar a presença e quantificar esses minerais nos solos. A BF é uma técnica rápida, barata, não destrutiva e de boa reprodutibilidade, que pode ser utilizada como critério nos estudos pedogenéticos em que os minerais ferrimagnéticos estão presentes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência do material de origem nos valores de ?BF da terra fina seca ao ar (TFSA de amostras do horizonte B de solos do Paraná. As amostras foram coletadas em todo o Estado, num total de 45 pontos. Na TFSA foram determinados os valores de BF e da porcentagem da frequência dependente da suscetibilidade magnética (?FD. Os valores de suscetibilidade magnética dos solos formados sobre rochas eruptivas básicas foram significativamente maiores (1.000 a 7.800 x 10-8 m³ kg-1 que os encontrados em solos formados sobre rochas metamórficas e sedimentares (menores do que 500 x 10-8 m³ kg-1, demonstrando a influência do material de origem na presença de minerais ferrimagnéticos. Os valores de ?FD indicaram a presenca de partículas superparamagnéticas (maghemita na maioria dos solos paranaenses.The ferrimagnetic minerals maghemite (?Fe2O3 are closely related with metal availability and P adsorption capacity. Magnetization is spontaneous in a significant percentage of Brazilian soils. In the State of Paraná (Brazil this area represents up to 50 %. The determination of the mass-specific magnetic susceptibility (?BF is the simplest method of identification and quantification of ferrimagnetic minerals in soils. The ?LF is a quick, cheap, non-destructive technique, with satisfactory reproducibility, and can be used as a criterion in pedogenetic studies involving ferrimagnetic minerals. The aim of this paper was to verify the influence of parent rock material on ?LF values of air-dried fine earth of B horizon of soil samples from Paraná. The samples were collected at 45 sites across the entire State to determine the ?LF values and percentage of frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility (?FD. The values of mass-specific magnetic susceptibility of soils formed from basic eruptive rocks were significantly higher (1,000 to 7,800 x 10-8 m³ kg-1 than of those from sedimentary and metamorphic rocks (lower than 500 x 10-8 m³ kg-1. The data show the strong influence of the parent rock material on the presence of ferrimagnetic minerals. The ?FD values indicate the presence of superparamagnetic particles (maghemite in the majority of the Paraná State soils.

Alceu Rodrigues da Silva

2010-04-01

108

Frost flower chemical composition during growth and its implications for aerosol production and bromine activation  

Science.gov (United States)

Frost flowers have been proposed to be the major source of sea-salt aerosol to the atmosphere during polar winter and a source of reactive bromine during polar springtime. However little is known about their bulk chemical composition or microstructure, two important factors that may affect their ability to produce aerosols and provide chemically reactive surfaces for exchange with the atmosphere. Therefore, we chemically analyzed 28 samples of frost flowers and parts of frost flowers collected from sea ice off of northern Alaska. Our results support the proposed mechanism for frost flower growth that suggests water vapor deposition forms an ice skeleton that wicks brine present on newly grown sea ice. We measured a high variability in sulfate enrichment factors (with respect to chloride) in frost flowers and seawater from the vicinity of freezing sea ice. The variability in sulfate indicates that mirabilite precipitation (Na2SO4 · 10 H2O) occurs during frost flower growth. Brine wicked up by frost flowers is typically sulfate depleted, in agreement with the theory that frost flowers are related to sulfate-depleted aerosol observed in Antarctica. The bromide enrichment factors we measured in frost flowers are within error of seawater composition, constraining the direct reactive losses of bromide from frost flowers. We combined the chemical composition measurements with temperature observations to create a conceptual model of possible scenarios for frost flower microstructure development.

Alvarez-Aviles, Laura; Simpson, William R.; Douglas, Thomas A.; Sturm, Matthew; Perovich, Donald; Domine, Florent

2008-11-01

109

Modelling shallow landslide susceptibility by means of a subsurface flow path connectivity index and estimates of soil depth spatial distribution  

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Full Text Available Topographic index-based hydrological models have gained wide use to describe the hydrological control on the triggering of rainfall-induced shallow landslides at the catchment scale. A common assumption in these models is that a spatially continuous water table occurs simultaneously across the catchment. However, during a rainfall event isolated patches of subsurface saturation form above an impeding layer and their hydrological connectivity is a necessary condition for lateral flow initiation at a point on the hillslope.

Here, a new hydrological model is presented, which allows us to account for the concept of hydrological connectivity while keeping the simplicity of the topographic index approach. A dynamic topographic index is used to describe the transient lateral flow that is established at a hillslope element when the rainfall amount exceeds a threshold value allowing for (a development of a perched water table above an impeding layer, and (b hydrological connectivity between the hillslope element and its own upslope contributing area. A spatially variable soil depth is the main control of hydrological connectivity in the model. The hydrological model is coupled with the infinite slope stability model and with a scaling model for the rainfall frequency–duration relationship to determine the return period of the critical rainfall needed to cause instability on three catchments located in the Italian Alps, where a survey of soil depth spatial distribution is available. The model is compared with a quasi-dynamic model in which the dynamic nature of the hydrological connectivity is neglected. The results show a better performance of the new model in predicting observed shallow landslides, implying that soil depth spatial variability and connectivity bear a significant control on shallow landsliding.

C. Lanni

2012-11-01

110

Large quasi-circular features beneath frost on Triton  

Science.gov (United States)

Specially processed Voyager 2 images of Neptune's largest moon, Triton, reveal three large quasi-circular features ranging in diameter from 280 to 935 km within Triton's equatorial region. The largest of these features contains a central irregularly shaped area of comparatively low albedo about 380 km in diameter, surrounded by crudely concentric annuli of higher albedo materials. None of the features exhibit significant topographic expression, and all appear to be primarily albedo markings. The features are located within a broad equatorial band of anomalously transparent frost that renders them nearly invisible at the large phase angles (alpha greater than 90 deg) at which Voyager obtained its highest resolution coverage of Triton. The features can be discerned at smaller phase angles (alpha = 66 deg) at which the frost only partially masks underlying albedo contrasts. The origin of the features is uncertain but may have involved regional cryovolcanic activity.

Helfenstein, Paul; Veverka, Joseph; Mccarthy, Derek; Lee, Pascal; Hillier, John

1992-01-01

111

Study on Heat and Mass Transfer under Frosting Condition  

Science.gov (United States)

A set of boundary layer eqations - continuity, momentum, energy and diffusion equations - is solved numerically with satisfaction of a thermodynamic equilibrium between temperature and concentration of water vapor, when frost deposits on a flat plate under laminar forced convection. The effects of frost surface temperature and ambient air condition - temperature and humidity - on the coefficients of heat and mass transfers are investigated. The relationships between Nusselt number and Reynolds number, and between Sherwood number and Reynolds number are maintained the similar tendency respectively whether the thermodynamic equilibrium is satisfied or not. When the eqlli1ibrillm is satisfied, the mass transfer coefficients are lower and the heat transfer coefficients are higher than ones without satisfaction of the equilibrium.

Ishihara, Isao

112

Influence of coffee pruning on the severity of frost damage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Foram avaliados os danos causados pelas geadas ocorridas em 1990 e 1994 em cafeeiros de duas cultivares de Coffea arabica L., Catuaí e Mundo Novo, conduzidos em Londrina-PR. Os tipos e sistemas de podas aplicados foram o esqueletamento a 20-30 cm do tronco, decote a 1,5 m e 2,0 m de altura e recepa [...] a 0,80 m de altura. As podas foram feitas em área total e em linhas alternadas e em diferentes partes da planta. Os dados obtidos indicaram que os danos por geada podem ser intensificados em função do tipo e altura da poda. A poda do tipo esqueletamento e as podas altas são mais indicadas para o manejo das lavouras nas regiões mais sujeitas ao fenômeno de geada. No caso de geada severa, todos os cafeeiros foram afetados, independente do tipo de poda. Abstract in english Frost damages in a field experiment of pruning types and systems for the cultivars of Coffea arabica Catuaí and Mundo Novo, were evaluated at Londrina (23º22’S, 52º10´W), State of Parana, southern Brazil, during the winter of 1990 and 1994. Pruning types evaluated were ‘esqueletamento’ (cutting off [...] all plagiotropic branches at 20-30 cm from the orthotropic branch), ‘decote’ (cutting off the orthotropic branch at 1.5 m and 2.0 m above ground) and ‘recepa’ (cutting off the orthotropic branch at 0.8 m above ground), performed on all rows and on alternate rows, and on different sections of the plant. Results indicated that frost damage could increase according to the type and height of pruning. The pruning type ‘esqueletamento’ and prunings at higher levels were more suitable for regions with frost risk. Under severe frost condition, pruning type did not affect the damage in anyone of the treatments evaluated.

Armando, Androcioli Filho; Paulo Henrique, Caramori.

113

Influence of coffee pruning on the severity of frost damage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Frost damages in a field experiment of pruning types and systems for the cultivars of Coffea arabica Catuaí and Mundo Novo, were evaluated at Londrina (23º22’S, 52º10´W, State of Parana, southern Brazil, during the winter of 1990 and 1994. Pruning types evaluated were ‘esqueletamento’ (cutting off all plagiotropic branches at 20-30 cm from the orthotropic branch, ‘decote’ (cutting off the orthotropic branch at 1.5 m and 2.0 m above ground and ‘recepa’ (cutting off the orthotropic branch at 0.8 m above ground, performed on all rows and on alternate rows, and on different sections of the plant. Results indicated that frost damage could increase according to the type and height of pruning. The pruning type ‘esqueletamento’ and prunings at higher levels were more suitable for regions with frost risk. Under severe frost condition, pruning type did not affect the damage in anyone of the treatments evaluated.Foram avaliados os danos causados pelas geadas ocorridas em 1990 e 1994 em cafeeiros de duas cultivares de Coffea arabica L., Catuaí e Mundo Novo, conduzidos em Londrina-PR. Os tipos e sistemas de podas aplicados foram o esqueletamento a 20-30 cm do tronco, decote a 1,5 m e 2,0 m de altura e recepa a 0,80 m de altura. As podas foram feitas em área total e em linhas alternadas e em diferentes partes da planta. Os dados obtidos indicaram que os danos por geada podem ser intensificados em função do tipo e altura da poda. A poda do tipo esqueletamento e as podas altas são mais indicadas para o manejo das lavouras nas regiões mais sujeitas ao fenômeno de geada. No caso de geada severa, todos os cafeeiros foram afetados, independente do tipo de poda.

Armando Androcioli Filho

2000-01-01

114

The frost peat production; Routapalaturpeen tuotantoketjun tekniikka, talous ja ympaeristoevaikutukset  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The frost peat production means the cutting of frozen peat in the winter time. The aim of this study is to test the possibilities to prolong the peat production season and to produce peat pieces for the horticultural peat industry. In the frost peat production method the frozen peat field is sawed throughout the length and breadth of by a circle saw. The sawed peat pieces are loosened from the field by a so-called `splitter`. The circle saw is equipped with the five circle saw blades (diameter 90 cm). The distance of the blades is adjustable. The splitter is equipped with a horizontal position blade (width 35 cm). The dimensions of the peat pieces are changeable, but from the point of drying the upper limit of the side of the peat cube can be 15-20 cm. The frost peat production method is technically suitable for production of slightly decomposed (H1-5) energy and horticultural peat. The energy peat pieces are allowed to dry up 70-75 % moisture content on the cutting field and then the pieces can be ridged by the screening ridger. If necessary, the ridges can be turned over. In the frost peat production, the conventional sod peat winning machines can be used in the following stages of the working tasks: harrowing, ridging, loading, turning of ridges and stockpiling. The measured output of the circle saw was about 45-50 m{sup 3}/h of energy peat and 58-63 m{sup 3}/h of horticultural peat. The output of the splitter was 120-150 m{sup 3}/h. Theoretically, the output of circle saw and the splitter can easily be doubled. Thereafter the production costs will be about 19 FIM/MWh of energy peat and 18,6 FIM/m{sup 3} of horticultural peat

Nyroenen, T. [Vapo Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Leiviskae, V. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Thule Inst.

1997-12-01

115

Morning Frost in Trench Dug by Phoenix, Sol 113  

Science.gov (United States)

This image from the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows morning frost inside the 'Snow White' trench dug by the lander, in addition to subsurface ice exposed by use of a rasp on the floor of the trench. The camera took this image at about 9 a.m. local solar time during the 113th Martian day of the mission (Sept. 18, 2008). Bright material near and below the four-by-four set of rasp holes in the upper half of the image is water-ice exposed by rasping and scraping in the trench earlier the same morning. Other bright material especially around the edges of the trench, is frost. Earlier in the mission, when the sun stayed above the horizon all night, morning frost was not evident in the trench. This image is presented in approximately true color. The trench is 4 to 5 centimeters (about 2 inches) deep, about 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide. Phoenix landed on a Martian arctic plain on May 25, 2008. The mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

116

Soil macroaggregate dynamics in a mountain spatial climate gradient  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigated the response of soil macroaggregate dynamics to soil temperature modification along a spatial gradient located on a forested north-facing slope in the southern French Alps, simulating long-term adjustment of soil-plant interactions to absence or occurrence of soil frost. Soil macroaggregate (> 250 µm) content of Ah horizons was strongly depleted (72%) in colder plots affected by freeze-thaw events, compared to 96% in warmer and frost-free plots (p < 0.05). A visual assessment...

Ce?cillon, Lauric; Mello, Nilvania A.; Danieli, Se?bastien; Brun, Jean-jacques

2010-01-01

117

Soils  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the handout is to identify the three major types of soils: pedalfer, pedocal, and laterite, and to understand the soil profile. This is accomplished with brief descriptions of the soil horizons and the designation of common elements to pedalfers, pedocals, and laterite soils. The handout is concluded with a discussion of soil erosion. Links are provided to the online Physical Geology resources at Georgia Perimeter College.

Gore, Pamela

1995-08-29

118

A new model for predicting performance of fin-and-tube heat exchanger under frost condition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accurate prediction of frost characteristics has crucial influence on designing effective heat exchangers. In this paper, a new CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) model has been proposed to predict the frost behaviour. The initial period of frost formation can be predicted and the influence of surface structure can be considered. The numerical simulations have been carried out to investigate the performance of fin-and-tube heat exchanger under frost condition. The results have been validated by comparison of simulations with the data computed by empirical formulas. The transient local frost formation has been obtained. The average frost thickness, heat exchanger coefficient and pressure drop on air side has been analysed as well. In addition, the influence factors have also been discussed, such as fin pitch, relative humidity, air flow rate and evaporating temperature of refrigerant.

119

Proteins Involved in Distinct Phases of Cold Hardening Process in Frost Resistant Winter Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Luxor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Winter barley is an economically important cereal crop grown in higher latitudes and altitudes where low temperatures represent an important environmental constraint limiting crop productivity. In this study changes in proteome of leaves and crowns in a frost tolerant winter barley cv. Luxor in relation to short and long term periods of cold followed by a brief frost treatment were studied in order to disclose proteins responsible for the cold hardening process in distinct plant tissues. The mentioned changes have been monitored using two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE with subsequent peptide-mapping protein identification. Regarding approximately 600–700 distinct protein spots detected on 2D gels, there has been found at least a two-fold change after exposure to low temperatures in about 10% of proteins in leaves and 13% of proteins in crowns. Protein and nitrogen metabolic processes have been influenced by low temperature to a similar extent in both tissues while catabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and proteins involved in stress response have been more affected in crowns than in leaves. The range of changes in protein abundance was generally higher in leaves and chloroplast proteins were frequently affected which suggests a priority to protect photosynthetic apparatus. Overall, our data proved existence of slightly different response strategies to low temperature stress in crowns and leaves, i.e., tissues with different biological role. Moreover, there have been found several proteins with large increase in accumulation, e.g., 33 kDa oxygen evolving protein of photosystem II in leaves and “enhanced disease susceptibility 1” in crowns; these proteins might have potential to indicate an enhanced level of frost tolerance in barley.

Radovan Hynek

2013-04-01

120

Frosting and defrosting of air-coils - results from laboratory testing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Frosting of air-coils is an important factor in the design and operation of air-source heat pumps, heat recovery ventilators, cooling and refrigeration equipment etc. This report presents results from laboratory testing of two brine-cooled air-coils under frosting conditions. The coils have the same number of plane, continuous fins, 4 tube rows with 12 tubes in each row, tube spacing of 50 mm and fin spacing of 3 and 6 mm respectively. The original purpose of the test program was to compare various possible indicators of coil frosting and to analyze the possible effects of different control strategies on coil capacity and the COP of the system (the analysis will be presented in a separate report). Tests involved inlet air temperatures of -7 and +2 degC, variation of humidity between 70 and 100% RH (including simulated rain), velocities in the range 1 to 4 m/s, and specific cooling loads from 50 to 150 W/m{sup 2}. Test results include variations due to frosting of e.g. cooling capacity, COP, air flow and pressure drop, fan power, air outlet temperature and humidity, coil temperature, frost mass, and frosting time. Results also include the subsequently required defrost time, defrost energy and collected mass of defrost water. The frosting process was interrupted when the air flow had decreased to 30% of the original value with a non-frosted coil. The results clearly show the advantage of demand controlled defrosting with variations in frosting time between 2 h with high humidity/high specific cooling load up to, for practical purposes, infinite frosting times with low humidity/low specific cooling load. The accumulated frost mass during one frosting cycle varied from less than 0.02 kg/m{sup 2} up to approximately 0.4 kg/m{sup 2}. 23 refs, 93 figs, 89 tabs

Fahlen, P.

1996-12-31

 
 
 
 
121

Fall frost resistance in willows used for biomass production. I. Characterization of seasonal and genetic variation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fast-growing willow clones (six clones of Salix viminalis L. and one clone each of S. viminalis x S. schwerenii E. Wolf and S. dasyclados Wimm.) were compared with respect to growth rhythm and frost hardening in the fall. Frost resistance of stem tissues was assessed by controlled freezing followed by analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence and scoring of visible cambial discoloration. The fluorescence method proved superior to scoring based on visible cambial discoloration because it was more rapid and less subjective, but needed calibration against cambial damage. Frost hardening in mature parts of stems did not start until growth cessation was initiated in the shoot apices, irrespective of whether growth cessation occurred early or late in the fall. Frost resistance varied because of clonal variations in: (1) pre-hardening frost resistance; (2) timing of growth cessation and hence start of frost hardening; and (3) rate of frost hardening. Compared with coastal and southern clones, continental and northern clones started hardening earlier, and a continental clone proceeded through hardening more rapidly at a given temperature. A cross between a continental and coastal clone was intermediate in timing. The pre-hardening frost resistance, however, was unrelated to both growth and frost hardening characteristics. PMID:12651314

Ogren, Erling

1999-09-01

122

Experimental assessment on the frost sensitivity during leaf development of juvenile Fagus sylvatica L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Late frost events in spring shape species distribution as well as reduce productivity. Till now, it is still not clear if future warming will lead to more frequent / stronger / more harmful frost damages in forestry and agriculture or not. Since the variability of extremes is increasing it seems that the risk of late frost damages in many regions may not decrease, even if the mean air temperature in general is increasing. A late frost event is only harmful if plants have initiated their leaf / flower development. Closed buds are usually very frost tolerant. However, once leaves develop after mild and warm spring periods, the new tissue is especially sensitive to freezing temperatures. Therefore not only the date of the last frost but also the weather history of the late winter / early spring determines if a frost event might result in frost damage or not. Tissue sensitivity to frost varies among species, but even within species there might be differences in frost tolerance during the different stages in leaf development. We set up an experiment to identify the frost risk in connection with the developmental stage of the leaves of juvenile beech. In order to vary the timing of frost events, we placed 1-year old potted beech trees 7times overnight in a climate chamber, in which the air temperature was cooled down to - 3° for five hours. For each tree the phenological stages were observed before and after the frost, the percent of damage was estimated after two days; additionally phenology of the damaged plants was observed weekly to document the recovery of their damage till May 23, 2013. Only about 30% of the plants were damaged. In general it can be stated if damage occurred it was a severe damage, only very few plants sustained little damage. We observed dependence on the date of the freezing event, rather than on specific phenological phases - the later the frost was applied the more plants were damaged. Damaged plants recovered relatively rapidly from the frost damage; three to six weeks after the event most of the damage plants were foliated equally to non-damaged plants. Only a few plants did not recover at all from the frost event.

Estrella, Nicole; Menzel, Annette

2014-05-01

123

Relationship between frost hardiness of adults and seedlings of different tree species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between frost hardiness and the macroclimatic niche of adult individuals and seedlings of eight temperate tree species. Frost damage was investigated on winter buds and needles of adult individuals and on freshly germinated seedlings. We hypothesized that frost hardiness of adult individuals and seedlings is in accordance with their macroclimatic niche and that frost hardiness of seedlings increases with increasing plant age. Frost hardiness was tested in a climate chamber by exposing the plant material to different freezing temperatures and was assessed by LT50-values. In contrast to our expectations, we did not find any relationship between LT50-values and the macroclimatic niche variables, neither for adults nor for seedlings. There was a positive trend between seedlings development and frost hardiness, although average frost hardiness of all species differed only between -7.5 and -9 °C for one-week old and two- or four weeks old seedlings, respectively. We have to conclude that frost hardiness of adult individuals as well as seedlings at our study site does not reflect the species’ geographic distribution range, and therefore, it seems not be possible to predict the geographical distribution ranges of tree species from their frost tolerance.

Hofmann M

2014-04-01

124

Soils  

...Directive:Identification of areas at risk of soil erosion, organic matter decline, compaction, salinisation and landslides and for Member States to establish programmes of measuresMeasures to address soil contamination...

125

Resilient modulus of freeze-thaw affected granular soils for pavement design and evaluation. Part 3: Laboratory tests on soils from Albany County Airport  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the third in a series of four reports on the laboratory and field testing of a number of road and airfield subgrades, covering the laboratory repeated-load triaxial testing of five soils in the frozen and thawed states and analysis of the resulting resilient modulus measurements. The laboratory testing procedures allow simulation of the gradual increase in stiffness found in frost-susceptible soils after thawing. The resilient modulus is expressed in a nonlinear model in terms of the applied stresses, the soil moisture tension level (for unfrozen soil), the unfrozen water content (for frozen soil) and the dry density. The resilient modulus is about 10 GPa for the frozen material at temperatures in the range of -5 to -8 C. The decrease in modulus with increasing temperature was well-modeled in terms of the unfrozen water content. Upon thaw, the modulus dropped to about 100 MPa and generally increased with increasing confining stress and decreased with increasing principal stress ratio. The modulus also increased with the soil moisture tension level. The resilient Poisson's ratio did not appear to be a systematic function of any of the test variables.

Cole, D. M.; Bentley, D. L.; Durell, G. D.; Johnson, T. C.

1987-02-01

126

Genetic effects in callose content in root apex of inbred resistant and susceptible corn lines to acid soils Efectos genéticos de la formación de calosa en ápices radicales de líneas de maíz resistentes y susceptibles a suelos ácidos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

The main objective of this work was to identify genetic parameters that are related to callose accumulation using tropical inbreeds corn. Fourteen inbreed lines selected for different levels of tolerance to acid soils were chosen and a diallel among them was generated. The seeds were grown under controlled environmental conditions in a growth chamber and transferred to a nutrient solution at pH 4.3. After 12 hours of 25 µM Al (AlCl3 treatment was applied, callose contents of 1 cm root apex were determined with fluorescence spectrophotometer. Significant differences were found for parents, crosses and parents vs crosses. Average callose content varied from 0.746 to 2.035 (µg PE/cm root apex. Heterosis varied from –21.2% to 276.3%. General combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA were highly significant indicating that both, additive and non–additive gene effects were important for callose inheritance. SCA and GCA sum of squares accounted for 54% and 46%, respectively of crosses of squares sum. Correlation coefficient between callose content and corn grain yield in the field was negative but not significant (r = –0.38.

Key words: Zea mays; callose; inheritance; diallel; heterosis; acid soils.

El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la herencia de la producción de calosa utilizando líneas endogámicas de maíz. Seleccionando 14 líneas (7 tolerantes y 7 susceptibles a suelos ácidos se formó un dialelo que fue probado en campo y en invernadero. Se determinó el contenido de calosa en los 91 cruzamientos resultantes y los 14 progenitores. Para ello se colocaron las semillas en cámara de crecimiento en condiciones controladas. Después de 4–5 días las plántulas fueron transferidas a cubetas que contenían solución nutritiva con aireación constante. Luego de 48 horas se adicionaron 25 µM de aluminio (AlCl3 a cada una de las cubetas y se mantuvieron por 12 horas. Se cortaron tres ápices radicales de cada genotipo y se mantuvieron en etanol 96%. Para medir el contenido de calosa se utilizó Methyl blue como colorante, este forma un complejo con la calosa llamado Siruflúor–calosa, que es medido con el espectrofotómetro de fluorescencia. Se encontraron diferencias significativas para los progenitores, los cruzamientos y los progenitores Vs cruzamientos. El contenido de calosa de los progenitores varió de 0.746 a 2.035 µg PE/cm ápice de raíz. La heterosis varió desde –21.2% a 276.3%. La Habilidad Combinatoria General (HCG y la Habilidad Combinatoria Específica (HCE fueron altamente significativas, lo que indica que tanto los efectos genéticos aditivos y no aditivos fueron importantes en la herencia de calosa. El 46% de SC entre cruzamientos correspondió a la HCG y el 54% a la HCE. El coeficiente de correlación entre el contenido de calosa y la producción de grano del maíz en el campo fue negativo aunque no significativo (r = –0.38.

Palabras claves: Zea mays; calosa; heredabilidad; dialelo; heterosis; suelos ácidos.

Arcos Alba Lucía

2007-12-01

127

Susceptibility of provenances and families of Pinus maximinoi and Pinus tecunumanii to frost in South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The future of South Africa’s most important pine species, Pinus patula, is threatened by the pitch canker fungus, Fusarium circinatum. Pinus maximinoi and P. tecunumanii represent two subtropical species that provide an alternative to planting P. patula on the warmer sites of South Africa. Extending the planting range of P. tecunumanii and P. maximinoi to include higher and colder altitude sites will reduce the area planted to P. patula and the risk of F. circinatum. During 2...

Mitchell, R. G.; Wingfield, Michael J.; Hodge, G. R.; Dvorak, W. S.; Coutinho, Teresa A.

2012-01-01

128

Early Spring, Severe Frost Events, and Drought Induce Rapid Carbon Loss in High Elevation Meadows  

Science.gov (United States)

By the end of the 20th century, the onset of spring in the Sierra Nevada mountain range of California has been occurring on average three weeks earlier than historic records. Superimposed on this trend is an increase in the presence of highly anomalous “extreme” years, where spring arrives either significantly late or early. The timing of the onset of continuous snowpack coupled to the date at which the snowmelt season is initiated play an important role in the development and sustainability of mountain ecosystems. In this study, we assess the impact of extreme winter precipitation variation on aboveground net primary productivity and soil respiration over three years (2011 to 2013). We found that the duration of snow cover, particularly the timing of the onset of a continuous snowpack and presence of early spring frost events contributed to a dramatic change in ecosystem processes. We found an average 100% increase in soil respiration in 2012 and 2103, compared to 2011, and an average 39% decline in aboveground net primary productivity observed over the same time period. The overall growing season length increased by 57 days in 2012 and 61 days in 2013. These results demonstrate the dependency of these keystone ecosystems on a stable climate and indicate that even small changes in climate can potentially alter their resiliency. PMID:25207640

Arnold, Chelsea; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.; Berhe, Asmeret Asefaw

2014-01-01

129

An Albedo Map and Frost Model of Pluto.  

Science.gov (United States)

The once-per-century set of occultations of Pluto by its satellite Charon enable the construction of an albedo map of Pluto's sub-Charon hemisphere, which in turn provides a basis for models of volatile transport on Pluto. Photometric observations of the Pluto-Charon mutual events were obtained at the University of Texas McDonald Observatory from 1985 through 1990. We use three least squares models to find the surface albedo distributions that best match the observed lightcurves. All of the least squares fits use a singular value decomposition (SVD) implementation. The three models produce similar albedo maps. Features of the maps include a large, very bright region over the south pole, a dark band over the mid-southern latitudes, a bright band over the mid-northern latitudes. The average normal reflectance of the higher northern latitudes is about the same as Pluto's global average of 0.5. We do not find compelling evidence of a bright cap over the north polar region. We model Pluto's atmosphere and albedo for the period from 1990 to 2040. Pluto's surface temperature drops by about six degrees during this period, resulting in over 97% of its current atmosphere condensing onto the surface. As Pluto's atmosphere thins, the winds arising from sublimation-driven pressure gradients increase beyond Mach 1. Our model predicts that the crossover to supersonic winds occurs around 2070. Our current frost migration model is valid only for the subsonic regime, but a supersonic frost transport model may help to explain the polar asymmetry of Pluto's albedo distribution. In the short term, the bulk of the new frost is deposited on the south pole. The change in albedo distribution is sensitive to the manner in which new frost reflectances are modeled, but the sheer volume of material (over 40 g/cm^2) deposited mandates the formation a bright cap on the south pole. The north pole may develop a smaller polar cap during this period. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.).

Young, Eliot Fisher

1993-01-01

130

GIVRE: A Protection Against Frost Deposit on Polar Instruments  

Science.gov (United States)

The CEA, in coordination with IPEV and LUAN, will prepare an experiment to study frost formation on surfaces in radiative cooling in the winter. This experiment has been shipped to be installed at Concordia before the 2007 winter period. It will be controlled from Concordia winterover personal, through PC server that will locally archive data from WEBcams and several local heat regulators. This experiment will be used to give recipes on the way to compensate with heaters the radiative cooling from the sky and maintain instrument surfaces at temperature just above icing conditions. The individual regulators proposed in this experiment will be usable as standalone ice protection systems for existing and future telescopes.

Durand, G.; Cadelis, L.; Minier, V.; Veyssière, C.; Walter, C.; Pierre, A.; Agabi, A.; Fossat, E.; Jeanneaux, F.

131

Nowcasting in the FROST-2014 Sochi Olympic project  

Science.gov (United States)

FROST (Forecast and Research: the Olympic Sochi Testbed) 2014 is a WMO WWRP international project aimed at development, implementation, and demonstration of capabilities of short-range numerical weather prediction and nowcasting technologies for mountainous terrain in winter season. Sharp weather contrasts and high spatial and temporal variability are typical for the region of the Sochi-2014 Olympics. Steep mountainous terrain and an intricate mixture of maritime sub-tropical and Alpine environments make weather forecasting in this region extremely challenging. Goals of the FROST-2014 project: • To develop a comprehensive information resource of Alpine winter weather observations; • To improve and exploit: o Nowcasting systems of high impact weather phenomena (precipitation type and intensity, snow levels, visibility, wind speed, direction and gusts) in complex terrain; o High-resolution deterministic and ensemble mesoscale forecasts in winter complex terrain environment; • To improve the understanding of physics of high impact weather phenomena in the region; • To deliver forecasts (Nowcasts) to Olympic weather forecasters and decision makers and assess benefits of forecast improvement. 46 Automatic Meteorological Stations (AMS) were installed in the Olympic region by Roshydromet, by owners of sport venues and by the Megafon corporation, provider of mobile communication services. The time resolution of AMS observations does not exceed 10 minutes. For a subset of the stations it is even equal to 1 min. Data flow from the new dual polarization Doppler weather radar WRM200 in Sochi was organized at the end of 2012. Temperature/humidity and wind profilers and two Micro Rain Radars (MRR) will supplement the network. Nowcasting potential of NWP models participating in the project (COSMO, GEM, WRF, AROME, HARMONIE) is to be assessed for direct and post-processed (e.g. Kalman filter, 1-D model, MOS) model forecasts. Besides the meso-scale models, the specialized nowcasting systems are expected to be used in the project - ABOM, CARDS, INCA, INTW, STEPS, MeteoExpert. FROST-2014 is intended as an 'end-to-end' project. Its products will be used by local forecasters for meteorological support of the Olympics and preceding test sport events. The project is open for new interested participants. Additional information is available at http://frost2014.meteoinfo.ru.

Bica, Benedikt; Wang, Yong; Joe, Paul; Isaac, George; Kiktev, Dmitry; Bocharnikov, Nikolai

2013-04-01

132

Numerical analysis of the impact of charcoal production on soil hydrological behavior, runoff response and erosion susceptibility Investigação numérica/quantitativa sobre o impacto do processo de produção de carvão nas propriedades hidráulicas, resposta ao deflúvio e suscetibilidade do solo à erosão  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The impact of charcoal production on soil hydraulic properties, runoff response and erosion susceptibility were studied in both field and simulation experiments. Core and composite samples, from 12 randomly selected sites within the catchment of Kotokosu were taken from the 0-10 cm layer of a charcoal site soil (CSS) and adjacent field soils (AFS). These samples were used to determine saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat), bulk density, total porosity, soil texture and color. Infiltration, ...

Ajayi Ayodele; Philip Oguntunde; Abiodun Joseph; Moacir de Souza Dias Junior

2009-01-01

133

Soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental soil surveys in each province of Austria have been performed, soils of about 5,000 sites were described and analyzed for nutrients and pollutants, the majority of these data are recorded in the soil information system of Austria (BORIS) soil database, http://www.ubavie.gv.at/umweltsituation/boden/boris), which also contains a soil map of Austria, data from 30 specific investigations mainly in areas with industry and results from the Austria - wide cesium investigation. With respect to the environmental state of soils a short discussion is given, including two geographical charts, one showing which sites have soil data (2001) and the other the cadmium distribution in top soils according land use (forest, grassland, arable land, others). Information related to the soil erosion, Corine land cover (Europe-wide land cover database), evaluation of pollutants in soils (reference values of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, Pb, Tl, Va, Zn, AOX, PAH, PCB, PCDD/pcdf, dioxin), and relevant Austrian and European standards and regulations is provided. Figs. 2, Tables 4. (nevyjel)

134

Air-cooler with frosting and defrosting; Luftkylare med paafrysning och avfrostning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes experience from SP research and assignments in the field of frosted air-coolers. It presents the fundamentals of frost growth and describes the pros and cons of alternative methods of defrosting and its control. The material has been compiled for educational purposes in the Masters program at Chalmers Technical University.

Fahlen, Per

2000-07-01

135

Frost as a first wall for the ICF Laboratory Microfusion Facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We introduce the concept of using frost as the first wall of the ICF Laboratory Microfusion Facility being designed to produce 200--1000 MJ of thermonuclear yield. We present one design incorporating 2 cm of frost deposited at 0.1 g/cm3 on an LN-cooled fiber-reinforced polymer substrate. We calculate that such a frost layer will protect the substrate from ablation by target x rays and debris, and from shock-induced spallation. Postshot washdown with water should permit low-activation operation, and should preserve the original wall properties. We expect the impact of the frost on laser optics to be minimal, and expect the preshot lifetime of thermally unprotected cryogenic targets to be extended by operating the wall at 100-150 K. Moreover, we believe that such a frost first wall will involve little technical risk, and will be inexpensive to construct and operate. 4 refs., 1 fig

136

Soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For Austria there exists a comprehensive soil data collection, integrated in a GIS (geographical information system). The content values of pollutants (cadmium, mercury, lead, copper, mercury, radio-cesium) are given in geographical charts and in tables by regions and by type of soil (forests, agriculture, greenland, others) for the whole area of Austria. Erosion effects are studied for the Austrian region. Legal regulations and measures for an effective soil protection, reduction of soil degradation and sustainable development in Austria and the European Union are discussed. (a.n.)

137

Efectos genéticos de la formación de calosa en ápices radicales de líneas de maíz resistentes y susceptibles a suelos ácidos / Genetic effects in callose content in root apex of inbred resistant and susceptible corn lines to acid soils  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la herencia de la producción de calosa utilizando líneas endogámicas de maíz. Seleccionando 14 líneas (7 tolerantes y 7 susceptibles a suelos ácidos) se formó un dialelo que fue probado en campo y en invernadero. Se determinó el contenido de calosa en los 91 [...] cruzamientos resultantes y los 14 progenitores. Para ello se colocaron las semillas en cámara de crecimiento en condiciones controladas. Después de 4-5 días las plántulas fueron transferidas a cubetas que contenían solución nutritiva con aireación constante. Luego de 48 horas se adicionaron 25 µM de aluminio (AlCl3) a cada una de las cubetas y se mantuvieron por 12 horas. Se cortaron tres ápices radicales de cada genotipo y se mantuvieron en etanol 96%. Para medir el contenido de calosa se utilizó Methyl blue como colorante, este forma un complejo con la calosa llamado Siruflúor-calosa, que es medido con el espectrofotómetro de fluorescencia. Se encontraron diferencias significativas para los progenitores, los cruzamientos y los progenitores Vs cruzamientos. El contenido de calosa de los progenitores varió de 0.746 a 2.035 µg PE/cm ápice de raíz. La heterosis varió desde -21.2% a 276.3%. La Habilidad Combinatoria General (HCG) y la Habilidad Combinatoria Específica (HCE) fueron altamente significativas, lo que indica que tanto los efectos genéticos aditivos y no aditivos fueron importantes en la herencia de calosa. El 46% de SC entre cruzamientos correspondió a la HCG y el 54% a la HCE. El coeficiente de correlación entre el contenido de calosa y la producción de grano del maíz en el campo fue negativo aunque no significativo (r = -0.38). Abstract in english The main objective of this work was to identify genetic parameters that are related to callose accumulation using tropical inbreeds corn. Fourteen inbreed lines selected for different levels of tolerance to acid soils were chosen and a diallel among them was generated. The seeds were grown under con [...] trolled environmental conditions in a growth chamber and transferred to a nutrient solution at pH 4.3. After 12 hours of 25 µM Al (AlCl3) treatment was applied, callose contents of 1 cm root apex were determined with fluorescence spectrophotometer. Significant differences were found for parents, crosses and parents vs crosses. Average callose content varied from 0.746 to 2.035 (µg PE/cm root apex). Heterosis varied from -21.2% to 276.3%. General combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) were highly significant indicating that both, additive and non-additive gene effects were important for callose inheritance. SCA and GCA sum of squares accounted for 54% and 46%, respectively of crosses of squares sum. Correlation coefficient between callose content and corn grain yield in the field was negative but not significant (r = -0.38).

Alba Lucía, Arcos; Luis Alberto, Narro; Fredy, Salazar; Creuci, Caetano.

138

Efectos genéticos de la formación de calosa en ápices radicales de líneas de maíz resistentes y susceptibles a suelos ácidos Genetic effects in callose content in root apex of inbred resistant and susceptible corn lines to acid soils  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la herencia de la producción de calosa utilizando líneas endogámicas de maíz. Seleccionando 14 líneas (7 tolerantes y 7 susceptibles a suelos ácidos se formó un dialelo que fue probado en campo y en invernadero. Se determinó el contenido de calosa en los 91 cruzamientos resultantes y los 14 progenitores. Para ello se colocaron las semillas en cámara de crecimiento en condiciones controladas. Después de 4-5 días las plántulas fueron transferidas a cubetas que contenían solución nutritiva con aireación constante. Luego de 48 horas se adicionaron 25 µM de aluminio (AlCl3 a cada una de las cubetas y se mantuvieron por 12 horas. Se cortaron tres ápices radicales de cada genotipo y se mantuvieron en etanol 96%. Para medir el contenido de calosa se utilizó Methyl blue como colorante, este forma un complejo con la calosa llamado Siruflúor-calosa, que es medido con el espectrofotómetro de fluorescencia. Se encontraron diferencias significativas para los progenitores, los cruzamientos y los progenitores Vs cruzamientos. El contenido de calosa de los progenitores varió de 0.746 a 2.035 µg PE/cm ápice de raíz. La heterosis varió desde -21.2% a 276.3%. La Habilidad Combinatoria General (HCG y la Habilidad Combinatoria Específica (HCE fueron altamente significativas, lo que indica que tanto los efectos genéticos aditivos y no aditivos fueron importantes en la herencia de calosa. El 46% de SC entre cruzamientos correspondió a la HCG y el 54% a la HCE. El coeficiente de correlación entre el contenido de calosa y la producción de grano del maíz en el campo fue negativo aunque no significativo (r = -0.38.The main objective of this work was to identify genetic parameters that are related to callose accumulation using tropical inbreeds corn. Fourteen inbreed lines selected for different levels of tolerance to acid soils were chosen and a diallel among them was generated. The seeds were grown under controlled environmental conditions in a growth chamber and transferred to a nutrient solution at pH 4.3. After 12 hours of 25 µM Al (AlCl3 treatment was applied, callose contents of 1 cm root apex were determined with fluorescence spectrophotometer. Significant differences were found for parents, crosses and parents vs crosses. Average callose content varied from 0.746 to 2.035 (µg PE/cm root apex. Heterosis varied from -21.2% to 276.3%. General combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA were highly significant indicating that both, additive and non-additive gene effects were important for callose inheritance. SCA and GCA sum of squares accounted for 54% and 46%, respectively of crosses of squares sum. Correlation coefficient between callose content and corn grain yield in the field was negative but not significant (r = -0.38.

Alba Lucía Arcos

2007-01-01

139

Simulating transmission and control of Taenia solium infections using a reed-frost stochastic model  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The transmission dynamics of the human-pig zoonotic cestode Taenia solium are explored with both deterministic and stochastic versions of a modified Reed-Frost model. This model, originally developed for microparasitic infections (i.e. bacteria, viruses and protozoa), assumes that random contacts occur between hosts and that hosts can be either susceptible, infected or ‘recovered and presumed immune'. Transmission between humans and pigs is modelled as susceptible roaming pigs scavenging on human faeces infected with T. solium eggs. Transmission from pigs to humans is modelled as susceptible humans eating under-cooked pork meat harbouring T. solium metacestodes. Deterministic models of each scenario were first run, followed by stochastic versions of the models to assess the likelihood of infection elimination in the small population modelled. The effects of three groups of interventions were investigated using the model: (i) interventions affecting the transmission parameters such as use of latrines, meat inspection, and cooking habits; (ii) routine interventions including rapid detection and treatment of human carriers or pig vaccination; and (iii) treatment interventions of either humans or pigs. It is concluded that mass-treatment can result in a short term dramatic reduction in prevalence, whereas interventions targeting interruption of the life cycle lead to long-term reduction in prevalence.

Kyvsgaard, Niels Chr.; Johansen, Maria Vang

2007-01-01

140

CFD analysis of tube-fin 'no-frost' evaporators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to assess some aspects of the design of evaporators for household refrigeration appliances using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. The evaporators under study are tube-fin 'no-frost' heat exchangers with forced convection on the air-side and a staggered tube configuration. The calculation methodology was verified against experimental data for the heat transfer rate, thermal conductance and pressure drop obtained for two evaporators with different geometries. The average errors of the heat transfer rate, thermal conductance and pressure drop were 10%, 3% and 11%, respectively. The CFD model was then used to assess the influence of geometric parameters such as the presence and position of the electrical heater coil relative to the tubes, the fin configuration and the width of the by-pass clearance between the outer edge of the fins and the tube bank for conditions typical of the design of household refrigeration appliances

Jader R Barbosa, Jr

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
141

Helicity Asymmetry in gamma p -> pi+ n with FROST  

CERN Document Server

The main objective of the FROST experiment at Jefferson Lab is the study of baryon resonances. The polarization observable E for the reaction gamma p to pi+n has been measured as part of this program. A circularly polarized tagged photon beam with energies from 0.35 to 2.35 GeV was incident on a longitudinally polarized frozen-spin butanol target. The final-state pions were detected with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer. Preliminary polarization data agree fairly well with present SAID and MAID partial-wave analyses at low photon energies. In most of the covered energy range, however, significant deviations are observed. These discrepancies underline the crucial importance of polarization observables to further constrain these analyses.

Strauch, Steffen

2011-01-01

142

Micrometeorological and thermal control of frost flower growth on young sea ice  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Frost flowers are transient crystal structures that form on new and young sea ice surfaces. They have been implicated in a variety of biological, chemical and physical processes and interactions with the atmosphere at the sea ice surface. We describe the atmospheric and radiative conditions and the physical and thermal properties of the sea ice and atmosphere that form, decay and destroy frost flowers on young sea ice. Frost flower formation occurred during a high-pressure system that caused air temperatures to drop to -30°C, with relative humidity of 70% (an under saturated atmosphere), and very calm wind conditions. The sea ice surface temperature at the time of frost flower initiation was 10-13°C warmer than the air temperature. Frost flowers grew on nodules raised above the mean surface height by 5 mm, which were 4-6°C colder than the bare, brine-wetted, highly saline sea ice surface that provided the necessary moisture. The cold nodules created potential water vapour super saturation zones abovethem with respect to air over the brine skim. Frost flowers formed and grew overnight in the absence of shortwave radiation, while the net long wave radiation was negative and dominated the net all-wave radiation balance at the surface. The observed crystal habits of the frost flowers were long needles, betraying their origin from the vapour phase at temperatures between -20°C and -30°C. After a night of growth, frost flowers decayed associated with increased solar radiation, a net surface radiation balance of 0 W m-2, increased air and surface temperatures, increased wind speed, and decreased relative humidity. We hypothesize that these conditions increased vertical mixing, which eroded near-surface water vapour saturation and initiated sublimation. The frost flowers were finally rapidly destroyed by snowfall.

Galley, R.J.; Else, B.G.T.

2015-01-01

143

Stability of polar frosts in spherical bowl-shaped craters on the moon, Mercury, and Mars  

Science.gov (United States)

A model of spherical bowl-shaped craters is described and applied to the moon, Mercury, and Mars. The maximum temperature of permanently shadowed areas are calculated using estimates of the depth/diameter ratios of typical lunar bowl-shaped craters and assuming a saturated surface in which the craters are completely overlapping. For Mars, two cases are considered: water frost in radiative equilibrium and subliming CO2 frost in vapor equilibrium. Energy budgets and temperatures are used to determine whether a craterlike depression loses mass faster or slower than a flat horizontal surface. This reveals qualitatively whether the frost surface becomes rougher or smoother as it sublimes.

Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Svitek, Tomas; Murray, Bruce C.

1992-01-01

144

The geochemical composition of frost flowers in the Alaskan Arctic and their role in mercury deposition  

Science.gov (United States)

Frost flowers are small (centimeters long) intricate crystals that form on newly formed sea ice. They grow from a combination of water vapor deposition and wicking of brine upward from the sea ice surface. Frost flowers are generally two to three times the salinity of seawater and they have a depleted sulfate to sodium ratio that is believed to be caused by the precipitation of mirabilite during their growth. They are a link between the lower atmosphere and sea ice and thus may play a role in the physical and chemical processes that deposit mercury to the Arctic. Reactive halogen radicals oxidize gaseous elemental mercury to reactive gaseous mercury in the lower atmosphere of the Arctic. The resulting reactive gaseous mercury is deposited to snow and ice during spring time Atmospheric Mercury Deposition events (AMDEs). Since frost flowers are halogen rich they are implicated in AMDE chemistry. We collected frost flowers, brine, snow and seawater from the Arctic Ocean north of Barrow, Alaska during three field seasons. Most recently, we participated in the sea ice component of the Ocean-Atmosphere-Sea Ice-Snow (OASIS) campaign in Barrow in 2009. All of our frost flowers yield sulfate to sodium ratios of less than 0.15 which is roughly half that of seawater (0.24). Brine collected from the sea ice surface yields sulfate to sodium ratios close to seawater values. Over an 11 day period all major elements but sulfate decreased in the frost flowers. This suggests that: 1) vapor phase deposition of ice to frost flowers continues long after they initially form, and 2) mirabilite precipitation continues after initial flower growth. Stable oxygen isotope values of the frost flowers became increasingly lower over time with ?18O values evolving from roughly -3‰ to -10‰ over the 11 day period. This further suggests vapor phase deposition onto exposed frost flower surfaces is a continual process following initial flower growth. Brine yielded ?18O values ranging between -0.1‰ and +4‰ suggesting oxygen-18 is preferentially fractionated out of the sea ice crystal lattice more than oxygen-16. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations were below 15 mg/L for all brine and frost flower samples but DOC was detected in seawater (10-11 mg/L). Mercury concentrations in frost flowers range between 25 and 200 ng/L. Some frost flowers were less than eight hours old which suggests that mercury deposition chemistry occurs on the timescale of hours. This geochemical information will be presented in reference to arctic atmospheric chemical processes that promote AMDEs.

Douglas, T. A.; Sturm, M.; Blum, J. D.; Sherman, L. S.; Steffen, A.; Simpson, W. R.

2009-12-01

145

Fatores relacionados à suscetibilidade da erosão em entressulcos sob condições de uso e manejo do solo / Factors influencing susceptibility to interrill soil erosion under different land use and management conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho foram avaliados fatores relacionados com a suscetibilidade a erosão em entressulcos de um Neossolo Litólico submetido a diferentes intensidades de uso e manejo do solo. O experimento foi realizado em condições de laboratório, utilizando-se amostras deformadas de solo colocadas em parc [...] elas experimentais (0,23 m2) e declividade de 0,09 m m-1. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, em que foram aplicadas chuvas simuladas com intensidade de 100 mm h-1 para os seguintes tratamentos: (I) solo cultivado com fumo sob preparo convencional (PC); (II) solo cultivado com fumo sob plantio direto (PD) e (III) solo sob mata nativa (MN). Para avaliar a suscetibilidade a erosão em entressulcos utilizaram-se índices referentes à relação energia cinética total (chuva e escoamento) sobre perda de solo, taxa média de desagregação e índice de estabilidade de agregados, cujos resultados mostraram que os fatores relacionados com a suscetibilidade a erosão em entressulcos estão associados não apenas com características e propriedades que conferem coesividade ao solo, mas, também, com condicionantes que afetam a hidráulica do escoamento e, consequentemente, a fase de transporte dos sedimentos. Abstract in english This study evaluated factors related to the suscetibility to the interrill soil erosion in an Entisol subjected to different degrees of soil use and management. The experiment was carried out under laboratory conditions using samples collected from tobacco fields and disturbed soil placed in erosion [...] pans measuring (0.23 m2) with a slope of 0.09 m m-1. The experimental design was in randomized blocks. Simulated rainfall intensity of 100 mm h-1 was applied to the following treatments: (I) conventionally tilled soil; (II) no-till soil; and (III) native forest soil. Total kinetic energy (rainfall and runoff) to soil loss, average rate of detachment, and aggregate stability indexes were used to assess susceptibility to interrill erosion. Results show that the factors related with the susceptibility to interrill erosion are associated not just to the characteristics and properties that confer cohesivity to soil, but also to those factors that affect runoff hydraulics and therefore the sediment transport phase as well.

Flávio P. de, Oliveira; Diogo C., Buarque; Ana C., Viero; Gustavo H., Merten; Elemar A., Cassol; Jean P. G., Minella.

2012-04-01

146

Fatores relacionados à suscetibilidade da erosão em entressulcos sob condições de uso e manejo do solo / Factors influencing susceptibility to interrill soil erosion under different land use and management conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho foram avaliados fatores relacionados com a suscetibilidade a erosão em entressulcos de um Neossolo Litólico submetido a diferentes intensidades de uso e manejo do solo. O experimento foi realizado em condições de laboratório, utilizando-se amostras deformadas de solo colocadas em parc [...] elas experimentais (0,23 m2) e declividade de 0,09 m m-1. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, em que foram aplicadas chuvas simuladas com intensidade de 100 mm h-1 para os seguintes tratamentos: (I) solo cultivado com fumo sob preparo convencional (PC); (II) solo cultivado com fumo sob plantio direto (PD) e (III) solo sob mata nativa (MN). Para avaliar a suscetibilidade a erosão em entressulcos utilizaram-se índices referentes à relação energia cinética total (chuva e escoamento) sobre perda de solo, taxa média de desagregação e índice de estabilidade de agregados, cujos resultados mostraram que os fatores relacionados com a suscetibilidade a erosão em entressulcos estão associados não apenas com características e propriedades que conferem coesividade ao solo, mas, também, com condicionantes que afetam a hidráulica do escoamento e, consequentemente, a fase de transporte dos sedimentos. Abstract in english This study evaluated factors related to the suscetibility to the interrill soil erosion in an Entisol subjected to different degrees of soil use and management. The experiment was carried out under laboratory conditions using samples collected from tobacco fields and disturbed soil placed in erosion [...] pans measuring (0.23 m2) with a slope of 0.09 m m-1. The experimental design was in randomized blocks. Simulated rainfall intensity of 100 mm h-1 was applied to the following treatments: (I) conventionally tilled soil; (II) no-till soil; and (III) native forest soil. Total kinetic energy (rainfall and runoff) to soil loss, average rate of detachment, and aggregate stability indexes were used to assess susceptibility to interrill erosion. Results show that the factors related with the susceptibility to interrill erosion are associated not just to the characteristics and properties that confer cohesivity to soil, but also to those factors that affect runoff hydraulics and therefore the sediment transport phase as well.

Flávio P. de, Oliveira; Diogo C., Buarque; Ana C., Viero; Gustavo H., Merten; Elemar A., Cassol; Jean P. G., Minella.

147

Varietal and chromosome 2H locus-specific frost tolerance in reproductive tissues of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) detected using a frost simulation chamber.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure of flowering cereal crops to frost can cause sterility and grain damage, resulting in significant losses. However, efforts to breed for improved low temperature tolerance in reproductive tissues (LTR tolerance) has been hampered by the variable nature of natural frost events and the confounding effects of heading time on frost-induced damage in these tissues. Here, we establish conditions for detection of LTR tolerance in barley under reproducible simulated frost conditions in a custom-built frost chamber. An ice nucleator spray was used to minimize potential effects arising from variation in naturally occurring extrinsic nucleation factors. Barley genotypes differing in their field tolerance could be distinguished. Additionally, an LTR tolerance quantitative trait locus (QTL) on the long arm of barley chromosome 2H could be detected in segregating families. In a recombinant family, the QTL was shown to be separable from the effects of the nearby flowering time locus Flt-2L. At a minimum temperature of -3.5 degrees C for 2 h, detection of the LTR tolerance locus was dependent on the presence of the nucleator spray, suggesting that the tolerance relates to freezing rather than chilling, and that it is not the result of plant-encoded variation in ice-nucleating properties of the tiller surface. PMID:19484216

Chen, Andrew; Gusta, Lawrence V; Brûlé-Babel, Anita; Leach, Richard; Baumann, Ute; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Collins, Nicholas C

2009-08-01

148

Dissecting the genetic architecture of frost tolerance in Central European winter wheat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abiotic stress tolerance in plants is pivotal to increase yield stability, but its genetic basis is still poorly understood. To gain insight into the genetic architecture of frost tolerance, this work evaluated a large mapping population of 1739 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) lines and hybrids adapted to Central Europe in field trials in Germany and fingerprinted the lines with a 9000 single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Additive effects prevailed over dominance effects. A two-dimensional genome scan revealed the presence of epistatic effects. Genome-wide association mapping in combination with a robust cross-validation strategy identified one frost tolerance locus with a major effect located on chromosome 5B. This locus was not in linkage disequilibrium with the known frost loci Fr-B1 and Fr-B2. The use of the detected diagnostic markers on chromosome 5B, however, does not allow prediction of frost tolerance with high accuracy. Application of genome-wide selection approaches that take into account also loci with small effect sizes considerably improved prediction of the genetic variation of frost tolerance in wheat. The developed prediction model is valuable for improving frost tolerance because this trait displays a wide variation in occurrence across years and is therefore a difficult target for conventional phenotypic selection. PMID:24006418

Zhao, Yusheng; Gowda, Manje; Würschum, Tobias; Longin, C Friedrich H; Korzun, Viktor; Kollers, Sonja; Schachschneider, Ralf; Zeng, Jian; Fernando, Rohan; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Reif, Jochen C

2013-11-01

149

Frost flowers in the laboratory: Growth, characteristics, aerosol, and the underlying sea ice  

Science.gov (United States)

In the laboratory, we have investigated the growth and composition of frost flowers. Their ionic composition has shown little difference from those of field measurements. Young frost flowers grown on sea ice are saline, leading us to speculate that wicking occurs continually during their growth on sea ice. The surface area of frost flowers is only a little larger than the area of ice underneath, consistent with recent field measurements from the Arctic. Time-lapse photography has allowed us to observe the extreme mobility of freshly forming sea ice, at the stage at which the mush has become rather solid, and continuing while the flowers grow. This mobility results in new brine being expelled to the surface, which therefore remains wet. During various stages of frost flower growth, we observed their freshly formed dendritic parts rapidly diminishing in size after contacting the surface, consistent with repeated wicking. Frost flowers proved to be very stable in the presence of wind, such that no aerosol was observed when wind was blown across them in the laboratory chamber. This is consistent with recent field observations of frost flowers coexisting with wind-blown snow.

Roscoe, H. K.; Brooks, B.; Jackson, A. V.; Smith, M. H.; Walker, S. J.; Obbard, R. W.; Wolff, E. W.

2011-06-01

150

Decreased frost hardiness of Vaccinium vitis-idaea in reponse to UV-A radiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate plant frost hardiness responses to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, since the few results reported are largely contradictory. It was hypothesized that functional adaptation of life forms could explain these contradictions. Dwarf shrubs and tree seedlings, representing both evergreen and deciduous forms, were tested (Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Vaccinium myrtillus, Pinus sylvestris, Betula pubescens and its red form f. rubra). The research was performed in Sodankylä, Northern Finland (67°N), with enhanced UV-B- and UV-A-radiation treatments between 2002 and 2009. Plant frost hardiness was determined using the freeze-induced electrolyte leakage method in early autumn, during the onset of the frost hardening process. Additional physiological variables (malondialdehyde, glutathione, total phenols, C and N contents) were analyzed in V. vitis-idaea to explain the possible responses. These variables did not respond significantly to UV-radiation treatments, but explained the frost hardiness well (r² = 0.678). The main finding was that frost hardiness decreased in the evergreen shrub V. vitis-idaea, particularly with enhanced UV-A radiation. No significant responses were observed with the other plants. Therefore, this study does not support the idea that enhanced UV radiation could increase plant frost hardiness. PMID:22182287

Taulavuori, Kari; Keränen, Johanna; Suokanerva, Hanne; Lakkala, Kaisa; Huttunen, Satu; Laine, Kari; Taulavuori, Erja

2012-08-01

151

Metal stress consequences on frost hardiness of plants at northern high latitudes: a review and hypothesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reviews the potential of trace/heavy metal-induced stress to reduce plant frost hardiness at northern high latitudes. The scientific questions are first outlined prior to a brief summary of heavy metal tolerance. The concepts of plant capacity and survival adaptation were used to formulate a hypothesis, according to which heavy metal stress may reduce plant frost hardiness for the following reasons: (1) Heavy metals change membrane properties through impaired resource acquisition and subsequent diminution of the cryoprotectant pool. (2) Heavy metals change membrane properties directly through oxidative stress, i.e. an increase of active oxygen species. (3) The involved co-stress may further increase oxidative stress. (4) The risk of frost injury increases due to membrane alterations. An opposite perspective was also discussed: could metal stress result in enhanced plant frost hardiness? This phenomenon could be based on the metabolism (i.e. glutathione, polyamines, proline, heat shock proteins) underlying a possible general adaptation syndrome of stress (GAS). As a result of the review it was suggested that metal-induced stress seems to reduce rather than increase plant frost hardiness. - Metal stress may reduce plant frost hardiness

152

Growth Rate of Frost Heave in Helium and Mass Transport in Solid 4He  

Science.gov (United States)

Frost heave phenomena have been studied in 4He on porous vycor glass, in which 4He in the pores remained supercooled fluid below the bulk melting temperature, T m . When we cool a bulk solid at T below T m on the vycor, the bulk solid sucks the supercooled liquid in the pores and grows. We measured the maximum frost heave pressure over bulk melting pressure, P m , as a function of ? T= T m - T. When temperature was suddenly lowered, the frost heave pressure increased in time to a next equilibrium pressure and we measured the time constant and derived the frost heave rate. The frost heave rate was measured as a function of temperature and decreased very rapidly as temperature was lowered. We propose models to explain the mass transport in solid either by vacancy or by amorphous solid between bulk solid 4He and vycor. From measured temperature dependence of the rate in comparison with our model, we conclude the frost heave rate is determined by mass flow in solid 4He due to thermally-activated vacancy diffusion.

Mizusaki, Takao; Nomura, Ryuji; Hiroi, Masahiko

2007-11-01

153

Experimental study on frosting control of mobile air conditioning system with microchannel evaporator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, a newly developed frost control system is proposed. System bench tests and vehicle test in wind tunnel have been carried out to explore the anti-frosting performance of automotive air conditioning system with microchannel evaporator. The experimental results are compared with the baseline conventional laminated evaporator system. The test results show that the installation position of temperature sensor can dramatically affect the anti-frosting performance. The clutch switching on/off temperature range of the microchannel evaporator is also experimentally studied. The test results show that, with a proper installation position and on/off temperature range, the system COP can be improved, and meanwhile the panel vents' air off temperature can be reduced, and temperature swing can be reduced. - Highlights: ? The frost control systems were tested with microchannel and laminated evaporators separately. ? The installation position of temperature sensor affects the anti-frosting performance. ? Temperature control range affects the anti-frosting performance. ? The panel vents' air off temperature and swing can be reduced by proper control parameters. ? The system COP can be improved by proper control parameters.

154

CFD analysis of tube-fin 'no-frost' evaporators  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The purpose of this paper is to assess some aspects of the design of evaporators for household refrigeration appliances using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The evaporators under study are tube-fin 'no-frost' heat exchangers with forced convection on the air-side and a staggered tube configurat [...] ion. The calculation methodology was verified against experimental data for the heat transfer rate, thermal conductance and pressure drop obtained for two evaporators with different geometries. The average errors of the heat transfer rate, thermal conductance and pressure drop were 10%, 3% and 11%, respectively. The CFD model was then used to assess the influence of geometric parameters such as the presence and position of the electrical heater coil relative to the tubes, the fin configuration and the width of the by-pass clearance between the outer edge of the fins and the tube bank for conditions typical of the design of household refrigeration appliances

Jader R, Barbosa, Jr; Christian J. L, Hermes; Cláudio, Melo.

155

CFD analysis of tube-fin 'no-frost' evaporators  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The purpose of this paper is to assess some aspects of the design of evaporators for household refrigeration appliances using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The evaporators under study are tube-fin 'no-frost' heat exchangers with forced convection on the air-side and a staggered tube configurat [...] ion. The calculation methodology was verified against experimental data for the heat transfer rate, thermal conductance and pressure drop obtained for two evaporators with different geometries. The average errors of the heat transfer rate, thermal conductance and pressure drop were 10%, 3% and 11%, respectively. The CFD model was then used to assess the influence of geometric parameters such as the presence and position of the electrical heater coil relative to the tubes, the fin configuration and the width of the by-pass clearance between the outer edge of the fins and the tube bank for conditions typical of the design of household refrigeration appliances

Jader R, Barbosa, Jr; Christian J. L, Hermes; Cláudio, Melo.

2010-12-01

156

Evaluación de la susceptibilidad a la compactación en cuatro series de suelo bajo uso agrícola en Venezuela / Evaluation of the compaction susceptibility in four series of soil under agricultural use in Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La compactación de suelos es uno de los procesos de degradación física más común en suelos agrícolas altamente productivos y una de las causas de la reducción de la productividad. Bajo esta perspectiva, se justifica el desarrollo de metodologías que permitan estimar los riesgos de compactación de lo [...] s suelos, para así prevenir o mitigar sus efectos adversos. En el presente estudio se construyeron las curvas de compactación de suelos representativos de cuatro series bajo uso agrícola en Venezuela: Valle Lindo y Valle de Quíbor (Lara), Turén (Portuguesa) y El Patillal (Falcón), utilizando la metodología del Proctor estándar, con el propósito de estimar el grado de susceptibilidad de los suelos a compactarse, estimando los contenidos de humedad en los cuales presentan mayores riesgos de compactación. Asimismo, se estimaron las relaciones de las variables de la curva de compactación, humedad crítica y densidad aparente máxima, con las propiedades del suelo, distribución de tamaño de partículas y materia orgánica, y se encontró que mayores contenidos de partículas gruesas y bajos contenidos de materia orgánica originaron mayores niveles de densidad a menores contenidos de humedad, mientras que el predominio de partículas finas y altos contenidos de materia orgánica produjeron menores niveles de densidad a mayores contenidos de humedad. Los suelos FL de la serie Quíbor presentaron mayor susceptibilidad a la compactación que los suelos de similar granulometría de la serie Turén. Por otra parte, los suelos arenosos de la serie El Patillal presentaron mayor susceptibilidad que los suelos del mismo grupo textural de Quíbor y Valle Lindo. Abstract in english Soil compaction is one of the most common physic degradation processes in highly productive agricultural lands and one of the reasons of productivity reduction. In this situation it is justified the development of methodologies that allows estimating the soil compaction risk, and so, prevent or miti [...] gate its adverse effects. In this study, the compaction representative curves of the soil series Valle Lindo and Valle de Quíbor (Lara State), Turén (Portuguesa State), and El Patillal (Falcón State), Venezuela, were developed, using the standard Proctor methodology, with the purpose of using it as a tool to estimate the susceptibility degree of the soil to get compaction, estimating the humidity contents in which the soil present greatest risks of compaction. There were also estimated the relationship of the variables of the compaction curve (critic moisture and maximum bulk density) with the soil properties (particles size distribution and organic matter) and it was found that greatest contents of thick particles and low organic matter content originated largest densities at lowest humidity contents, while the prevalence of fine particles and high organic matter content produced lower densities at higher humidity content. The FL soils of Quíbor presented greater susceptibility to compaction that soils with similar texture of Turén. On the other hand, the sandy soils of the El Patillal presented greater risks of compaction than the soils of same textural group of Quíbor and Valle Lindo.

Willians J, Reyes R.

157

The effects of design and operating factors on the frost growth and thermal performance of a flat plate fin-tube heat exchanger under the frosting condition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experimental study of the effects of various factors(fin pitch, fin arrangement, air temperature, air humidity, and air velocity) on the frost growth and thermal performance of a fin-tube heat exchanger has been conducted under the frosting condition. It is found that the thermal performance of a heat exchanger is closely related to the blockage ratio of the air flow passages due to the frost growth. The maximum allowable blockage ratio is used to determine the criteria for the optimal operating conditions of a fin-tube heat exchanger. It is also shown that heat transfer rate of heat exchanger with staggered fin arrangement increases about 17% and the time required for heat transfer rate to reach a maximum value becomes longer, compared with those of an inline fin-tube heat exchanger under the frosting condition. The energy transfer resistance between the air and coolant decreases with the increase of inlet air temperature and velocity and with decreasing inlet air humidity

158

Increasing frost risk associated with advanced citrus flowering dates in Kerman and Shiraz, Iran: 1960-2010  

Science.gov (United States)

Flowering dates and the timing of late season frost are both driven by local ambient temperatures. However, under climatic warming observed over the past century, it remains uncertain how such impacts affect frost risk associated with plant phenophase shifts. Any increase in frost frequency or severity has the potential to damage flowers and their resultant yields and, in more extreme cases, the survival of the plant. An accurate assessment of the relationship between the timing of last frost events and phenological shifts associated with warmer climate is thus imperative. We investigate spring advances in citrus flowering dates (orange, tangerine, sweet lemon, sour lemon and sour orange) for Kerman and Shiraz, Iran from 1960 to 2010. These cities have experienced increases in both T max and T min, advances in peak flowering dates and changes in last frost dates over the study period. Based on daily instrumental climate records, the last frost dates for each year are compared with the peak flowering dates. For both cities, the rate of last frost advance lags behind the phenological advance, thus increasing frost risk. Increased frost risk will likely have considerable direct impacts on crop yields and on the associated capacity to adapt, given future climatic uncertainty.

Fitchett, Jennifer M.; Grab, Stefan W.; Thompson, Dave I.; Roshan, Gholamreza

2014-10-01

159

TuBaFrost: European virtual tumor tissue banking.  

Science.gov (United States)

TuBaFrost is a consortium responsible for the task to create a virtual European human frozen tumor tissue bank, composed of high quality frozen tumor tissue collections with corresponding accurate diagnosis stored in European cancer centers and universities, searchable on the Internet, providing rules for access and use and a code of conduct to comply with the various legal and ethical regulations in European countries. Such infrastructure would enlarge tissue availability and accessibility in large amounts of specified or even rare tumor samples. Design of an infrastructure for European residual tissue banking with the described characteristics, clear focus points emerge that can be broken down in dedicated subjects: (1) standardization and quality assurance (QA) to avoid inter-institute quality variation; (2) law and ethics enabling exchange of tissue samples possible between institutes in the different European countries, where law and ethics are characterized by a strong variability; (3) rules for access, with sufficient incentives for collectors; (4) central database application containing innovations on search and selection procedures; (5) support when needed with histology images; and (6) Internet access to search and upload, with in addition a solid website giving proper information on the procedures, intentions and activities not only to the scientific community, but also to the general public. One consortium decision, part of the incentives for collectors, had major impact on the infrastructure; custodianship over the tissues as well as the tissues stay with the collector institute. Resulting in specimens that are not given to an organization, taking decisions on participation of requests, but instead the local collected tissues stay very easy to access by the collector and allows autonomous negotiation between collector and requestor on cooperation, coauthorship in publication or compensation in costs. Thereby, improving availability of large amounts of high quality samples of a highly specified or rare tumor types and contact opportunities for cooperation with other institutes. PMID:17163156

Riegman, P H J; Oomen, M H A; Dinjens, W N M; Oosterhuis, J W; Lam, K H; Spatz, A; Ratcliffe, C; Knox, K; Mager, R; Kerr, D; Pezzella, F; Van Damme, B; Van De Vijver, M; Van Boven, H; Morente, M M; Alonso, S; Kerjaschki, D; Pammer, J; López-Guerrero, J A; Llombart-Bosch, A; Carbone, A; Gloghini, A; Teodorovic, I; Isabelle, M; Passioukov, A; Lejeune, S; Therasse, P; Van Veen, E B

2006-01-01

160

Winter climate controls soil carbon dynamics during summer in boreal forests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Boreal forests, characterized by distinct winter seasons, store a large proportion of the global terrestrial carbon (C) pool. We studied summer soil C-dynamics in a boreal forest in northern Sweden using a seven-year experimental manipulation of soil frost. We found that winter soil climate conditions play a major role in controlling the dissolution/mineralization of soil organic-C in the following summer season. Intensified soil frost led to significantly higher concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Intensified soil frost also led to higher rates of basal heterotrophic CO2 production in surface soil samples. However, frost-induced decline in the in situ soil CO2 concentrations in summer suggests a substantial decline in root and/or plant associated rhizosphere CO2 production, which overrides the effects of increased heterotrophic CO2 production. Thus, colder winter soils, as a result of reduced snow cover, can substantially alter C-dynamics in boreal forests by reducing summer soil CO2 efflux, and increasing DOC losses. (letter)

 
 
 
 
161

Short communication. Harvest time in hedgerow Arbequina olive orchards in areas with early frosts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The shortening of harvest time attained in hedgerow olive (Olea europaea L.) orchards represents an advantage for the adoption of this cropping system in areas that are prone to suffer frost during the harvest period. To establish an optimal harvesting window, we carried out a study of the fruit ripening process on a hedgerow orchard of Arbequina olive trees, located in Zaragoza (Spain). From 2007 to 2009, oil accumulation on the fruit (% of dry weight) and oil yield (grams of oil per 100 fruits) were monitored, from early September to late November. Over the three years both variables peaked around November 15th, indicating that Arbequina reached full ripening earlier than has been reported previously for this variety. In two of the three seasons the orchard suffered several frosts during November. Long term climatic data from this area indicated that the risk of early frosts (< -2 degree centigrade) increases as November progresses with a high risk after November 20{sup t}h. In conclusion, the optimal harvesting period for Arbequina in this area should not extend beyond November 20{sup t}h. A rapid harvesting before this date is advisable to avoid the risk of damage caused by early frost in Zaragoza. Hedgerow planting provides an additional advantage in frost-prone areas, because mechanization of operations permits a short harvest period, easier to fit into the optimal harvesting window. (Author) 20 refs.

Gracia, P.; Sanchez-Gimeno, A. C.; Benito, M.; Oria, R.; Lasa, J. M.

2012-11-01

162

Numerical analysis on the frosting performance of a fin-tube evaporator for a refrigerator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study is to provide numerical and experimental data that can be used to investigate the performance characteristics of a flat plate fin-tube evaporator in household and commercial refrigerators under frosting conditions. Computer simulations with variations of operating conditions such as air inlet temperature, relative humidity, and geometries were performed to find out optimal design parameters of a fin-tube evaporator for household and commercial refrigerators. The tube-by-tube method was used in the simulation and the frost growth model was considered under frosting conditions. The developed analytical model predicted the decreasing rates of heat transfer capacity and air flow rate ratio within {+-} 10% compared to the experimental results for a refrigerator under real operating conditions. As a result, the frost thickness at 3 .deg. C and 80% is increased 40% than that of -3 .deg. C and 80%, and the frost thickness at 3 .deg. C and 90% is increased 30% than that of 3 .deg. C and 60%. Accordingly, the operating time of the evaporator in the refrigerator was reduced with the increase of the decreasing rate of air flow rate ratio at each condition.

Lee, Moo Yeon; Jang, Yong Hee; Kim, Yong Chan [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho Sung [Korea Automotive Technology Institute, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

2008-04-15

163

Void structure of concrete with superabsorbent polymers and its relation to frost resistance of concrete  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) can be used to control air void formation in concrete. However, due to surfactant left on suspension polymerized SAP particles during production, they may not only create SAP voids but also entrain extra air. In the present investigation, a method is tested to remove surfactant prior to concrete mixing. The method comprises rinsing of the SAP with ethanol. This effectively removes the surfactant. Freeze-thaw testing of concrete with rinsed and non-rinsed SAP shows that for equal dosages of SAP, the extra air entrained due to surfactant is considerable and can make the difference between poor and satisfactory frost-resistance. Furthermore, the results indicate that voids created directly by SAP protect concrete against frost deterioration just like other air voids; if the concrete contains enough SAP voids, these alone can provide sufficient frost resistance. © 2013 RILEM.

Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

2013-01-01

164

Magnetic susceptibility in the prediction of soil attributes in two sugarcane harvesting management systems / Suscetibilidade magnética na predição de atributos do solo em dois sistemas de manejo na colheita de cana de açúcar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve como objetivo investigar o potencial de uso da suscetibilidade magnética (SM) como componente da função de pedotransferência para predição de atributos do solo, sob dois sistemas de manejo na colheita de cana-de-açúcar. Para cada uma das duas áreas de 1 ha (uma com colheita [...] mecanizada de cana crua e outra com colheita manual de cana queimada), foram coletadas 126 amostras de solo que foram submetidas às análises de laboratório, para determinação dos atributos físicos, químicos e mineralógicos do solo e para medição da SM. Os dados foram submetidos à estatística descritiva, calculando-se a média e o coeficiente de variação. Para comparar as médias nos diferentes sistemas de manejo, foi realizado o teste de Tukey, ao nível de significância de 5%. Foram realizados o teste de correlação simples para averiguar a correlação da SM com outros atributos do solo e a regressão múltipla linear a fim de avaliar o quanto a SM contribui para a predição de atributos complexos do solo. Os resultados demonstram que a SM apresentou, em ambos os sistemas de manejo de colheita da cana-de-açúcar, correlação estatística com atributos químicos, físicos e mineralógicos do solo e apresentou potencial para ser utilizada como componente da função de pedotransferência para predição de atributos do Latossolo estudado. Abstract in english This study aimed to investigate the potential use of magnetic susceptibility (MS) as pedotransfer function to predict soil attributes under two sugarcane harvesting management systems. For each area of 1 ha (one with green sugarcane mechanized harvesting and other one with burnt sugarcane manual har [...] vesting), 126 soil samples were collected and subjected to laboratory analysis to determine soil physical, chemical and mineralogical attributes and for measuring of MS. Data were submitted to descriptive statistics by calculating the mean and coefficient of variation. In order to compare the means in the different harvesting management systems it was carried out the Tukey test at a significance level of 5%. In order to investigate the correlation of the MS with other soil properties it was made the correlation test and aiming to assess how the MS contributes to the prediction of soil complex attributes it was made the multiple linear regressions. The results demonstrate that MS showed, in both sugarcane harvesting management systems, statistical correlation with chemical, physical and mineralogical soil attributes and it also showed potential to be used as pedotransfer function to predict attributes of the studied oxisol.

Rafael G., Peluco; José, Marques Júnior; Diego S., Siqueira; Lucas A., Cortez; Gener T., Pereira.

165

Magnetic susceptibility in the prediction of soil attributes in two sugarcane harvesting management systems / Suscetibilidade magnética na predição de atributos do solo em dois sistemas de manejo na colheita de cana de açúcar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve como objetivo investigar o potencial de uso da suscetibilidade magnética (SM) como componente da função de pedotransferência para predição de atributos do solo, sob dois sistemas de manejo na colheita de cana-de-açúcar. Para cada uma das duas áreas de 1 ha (uma com colheita [...] mecanizada de cana crua e outra com colheita manual de cana queimada), foram coletadas 126 amostras de solo que foram submetidas às análises de laboratório, para determinação dos atributos físicos, químicos e mineralógicos do solo e para medição da SM. Os dados foram submetidos à estatística descritiva, calculando-se a média e o coeficiente de variação. Para comparar as médias nos diferentes sistemas de manejo, foi realizado o teste de Tukey, ao nível de significância de 5%. Foram realizados o teste de correlação simples para averiguar a correlação da SM com outros atributos do solo e a regressão múltipla linear a fim de avaliar o quanto a SM contribui para a predição de atributos complexos do solo. Os resultados demonstram que a SM apresentou, em ambos os sistemas de manejo de colheita da cana-de-açúcar, correlação estatística com atributos químicos, físicos e mineralógicos do solo e apresentou potencial para ser utilizada como componente da função de pedotransferência para predição de atributos do Latossolo estudado. Abstract in english This study aimed to investigate the potential use of magnetic susceptibility (MS) as pedotransfer function to predict soil attributes under two sugarcane harvesting management systems. For each area of 1 ha (one with green sugarcane mechanized harvesting and other one with burnt sugarcane manual har [...] vesting), 126 soil samples were collected and subjected to laboratory analysis to determine soil physical, chemical and mineralogical attributes and for measuring of MS. Data were submitted to descriptive statistics by calculating the mean and coefficient of variation. In order to compare the means in the different harvesting management systems it was carried out the Tukey test at a significance level of 5%. In order to investigate the correlation of the MS with other soil properties it was made the correlation test and aiming to assess how the MS contributes to the prediction of soil complex attributes it was made the multiple linear regressions. The results demonstrate that MS showed, in both sugarcane harvesting management systems, statistical correlation with chemical, physical and mineralogical soil attributes and it also showed potential to be used as pedotransfer function to predict attributes of the studied oxisol.

Rafael G., Peluco; José, Marques Júnior; Diego S., Siqueira; Lucas A., Cortez; Gener T., Pereira.

1134-11-01

166

Exogenous application of molybdenum affects the expression of CBF14 and the development of frost tolerance in wheat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wheat is able to cold acclimate in response to low temperatures and thereby increase its frost tolerance and the extent of this acclimation is greater in winter genotypes compared to spring genotypes. Such up-regulation of frost tolerance is controlled by Cbf transcription factors. Molybdenum (Mo) application has been shown to enhance frost tolerance of wheat and this study aimed to investigate the effect of Mo on the development of frost tolerance in winter and spring wheat. Results showed that Mo treatment increased the expression of Cbf14 in wheat under non-acclimating condition but did not alter frost tolerance. However, when Mo was applied in conjunction with exposure of plants to low temperature, Mo increased the expression of Cbf14 and enhanced frost tolerance in both spring and winter genotypes but the effect was more pronounced in the winter genotype. It was concluded that the application of Mo could be useful in situations where enhanced frost resistance is required. Further studies are proposed to elucidate the effect of exogenous of applications of Mo on frost resistance in spring and winter wheat at different growth stages. PMID:23246916

Al-Issawi, Mohammed; Rihan, Hail Z; Woldie, Wondwossen Abate; Burchett, Stephen; Fuller, Michael P

2013-02-01

167

The influence of thermal inertia on temperatures and frost stability on Triton  

Science.gov (United States)

It is presently argued, in view of (1) a thermal inertia model for the surface of Triton which (like previous ones) predicts a monotonic recession of permanent N2 deposits toward the poles and very little seasonal N2 frost in the southern hemisphere, and (2) new spectroscopic evidence for nonvolatile CO2 on Triton's bright southern hemisphere, that much of that bright southern material is not N2. Such bright southern hemisphere volatiles may allow the formation of seasonal frosts, thereby helping to explain the observed spectroscopic changes of Triton during the last decade.

Spencer, John R.; Moore, Jeffrey M.

1992-01-01

168

David Sanders. A Divided Poet: Robert Frost, North of Boston, and the Drama of Disappearance.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available David Sanders in his monograph entitled A Divided Poet: Robert Frost, North of Boston, and the Drama of Disappearance (2011 sheds light on the dilemmas, doubts and personal conflicts Frost confronted while composing his poetic collection North of Boston in which some of his most well-known lyrics, such as “Mending Wall,” “After Apple-Picking,” and “The Wood-Pile,” are contained. This book should be considered alongside a number of other publications either in monograph or essay form that app...

Tatiani G. Rapatzikou

2012-03-01

169

Preliminary Thickness Measurements of the Seasonal Polar Carbon Dioxide Frost on Mars  

Science.gov (United States)

The exchange of carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the polar caps on Mars creates a seasonal cycle of growth and retreat of the polar caps. CO2, the major component of the Martian atmosphere, condenses in the polar regions of the planet during the winter seasons, precipitating as CO2 frost. It then sublimates during the spring and summer seasons in response to solar radiation. The concentration of an element within the top few tens of centimeters of the surface is proportional to the flux of the gamma-rays emitted at the element's characteristic energy. Variations in the thickness of the carbon dioxide frost over time can be approximated by observing the attenuation of this signal caused by increases and decreases in CO2 coverage throughout the Martian seasons. We have attempted here to quantize the time-dependence, spatial extent, and thickness of the polar carbon dioxide frost through the use of gamma-ray data measured by the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) instrument suite on Mars Odyssey. Both the north and south poles are studied using the hydrogen neutron-capture gamma-ray line at 2.223 MeV. CO2 thickness versus latitude plots are created by incorporating this gamma-ray flux data binned over 5° by 360° latitude bands. Depths are given in terms of the mass abundance of the column of CO2 (g/cm2) above the surface to avoid assumptions regarding the density of the column. As sublimation of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere occurs on one pole, the growth of the CO2 cap can be seen on the opposite pole. Retreat/growth takes place at a fairly constant rate as the seasons progress. As expected, greater frost depth is observed at increasingly poleward latitudes for both hemispheres. The growth and retreat of the seasonal carbon dioxide frost can also be plotted at specific latitudes as a function of LS. CO2 thickness will be plotted for latitudes poleward of approximately +/-62.5° . In addition to the increase of frost depth as we move toward the poles, the CO2 cap coverage continually decreases (increases) over time for any specific latitude band from approximately LS = 0° to 180° in the north (south), at which point the frost begins again to condense (sublimate). Polar maps of the seasonal CO2 frost can be produced from 5° by 5° gridded gamma-ray data using IDL analysis software and incorporating smoothing techniques. For all calculations, the H gamma-ray signal is basically completely attenuated above 80 g/cm2, so accurate CO2 thickness measurements are not possible.

Kelly, N. J.; Boynton, W. V.; Kerry, K.; Hamara, D.; Janes, D.; Feldman, W. C.; Prettyman, T. H.

2003-12-01

170

A nano-frost array technique to prepare nanoporous PVDF membranes  

Science.gov (United States)

Frost, the solid deposition of water vapor from humid air, forms on the surface of a solid substrate when its temperature drops below the freezing point of water. In this study, we demonstrate how this natural phenomenon can be applied to develop novel nanoporous materials. The solvent annealing of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) infiltrated into nanopores induced template-directed dewetting thus preparing nanoembossing films. Then, water nanodroplets formed on the cold polymer nanopatterned surfaces following the embossing patterns, similar to dew formation on the ground. Subsequently, the nanodroplets were frozen and then removed by freeze-drying. This nano-frost array technique produced nanoporous PVDF membranes with an average thickness of 250 (+/-48) nm. It was revealed that the nanopatterned surface formed by solvent annealing played an important role in achieving a nano-frost array with an adjustable size. Additionally, the freezing process led to significant changes of the PVDF crystallinity and polymorphism. Our results prove that the nano-frost array technique can be broadly used to design ordered nanoporous structures and provide new prospects in nanomaterial fields.Frost, the solid deposition of water vapor from humid air, forms on the surface of a solid substrate when its temperature drops below the freezing point of water. In this study, we demonstrate how this natural phenomenon can be applied to develop novel nanoporous materials. The solvent annealing of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) infiltrated into nanopores induced template-directed dewetting thus preparing nanoembossing films. Then, water nanodroplets formed on the cold polymer nanopatterned surfaces following the embossing patterns, similar to dew formation on the ground. Subsequently, the nanodroplets were frozen and then removed by freeze-drying. This nano-frost array technique produced nanoporous PVDF membranes with an average thickness of 250 (+/-48) nm. It was revealed that the nanopatterned surface formed by solvent annealing played an important role in achieving a nano-frost array with an adjustable size. Additionally, the freezing process led to significant changes of the PVDF crystallinity and polymorphism. Our results prove that the nano-frost array technique can be broadly used to design ordered nanoporous structures and provide new prospects in nanomaterial fields. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00951g

Lee, Min Kyung; Lee, Jonghwi

2014-07-01

171

Study of frost growth on heat exchangers used as outdoor coils in air source heat pump systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Scope and method of study. During winter heating operation, the outdoor coil of a heat pump acts as an evaporator and when the ambient temperature is near freezing, the moisture in the atmospheric air freezes on the coil surface. The frost growth affects the air flow and also adds resistance to heat transfer thus reducing the capacity and the efficiency of the heat pump. An experimental facility is designed and built to test a small scale heat exchanger working in frosting conditions. Tests are carried out using small scale fin-tube and microchannel heat exchanger over a range of glycol inlet temperatures, air velocities and ambient air RH. A semi-empirical frost model based on a scaling approach is developed and applied to both fin-tube heat and microchannel heat exchangers. The model is developed to handle non-uniformities in both refrigerant and air side. The frost model is integrated with a segment-by-segment heat exchanger calculation algorithm and is validated against experimental data. Frost growth model is also incorporated in a quasi-steady state system simulation algorithm. Findings and conclusions. From the experimental study it was observed that the temperature of the surface and air RH affected the rate of frost growth significantly while the air velocity did not have a great influence. It is demonstrated that a dry heat transfer correlation can be used during frost growth period by correctly accounting for frost thickness in the hydraulic diameter calculations. Ignoring the phenomenon of air redistribution was found to result in errors in the range of 20% to 50% in predicted frost thickness. Frost thickness predicted by the frost model is within 5% of the measured values for most of the cases. Frost mass accumulation predicted by the simple model is higher than the measured values due to a uniform thickness assumption in the model. An improved frost model based on 1-D finite volume discretization is also presented which improved the frost mass prediction to within 13% of measured values. The system simulation is validated against experimental results and found to match reasonable well. The discrepancy between simulation and experiments were due to the effects of system transience in the initial stages.

K P, Sankaranarayanan

172

Frost flowers on young Arctic sea ice: The climatic, chemical, and microbial significance of an emerging ice type  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ongoing changes in Arctic sea ice are increasing the spatial and temporal range of young sea ice types over which frost flowers can occur, yet the significance of frost flowers to ocean-sea ice-atmosphere exchange processes remains poorly understood. Frost flowers form when moisture from seawater becomes available to a cold atmosphere and surface winds are low, allowing for supersaturation of the near-surface boundary layer. Ice grown in a pond cut in young ice at the mouth of Young Sound, NE Greenland, in March 2012, showed that expanding frost flower clusters began forming as soon as the ice formed. The new ice and frost flowers dramatically changed the radiative and thermal environment. The frost flowers were about 5°C colder than the brine surface, with an approximately linear temperature gradient from their base to their upper tips. Salinity and ?18O values indicated that frost flowers primarily originated from the surface brine skim. Ikaite crystals were observed to form within an hour in both frost flowers and the thin pond ice. Average ikaite concentrations were 1013?µmol?kg?1 in frost flowers and 1061?µmol?kg?1 in the surface slush layer. Chamber flux measurements confirmed an efflux of CO2 at the brine-wetted sea ice surface, in line with expectations from the brine chemistry. Bacteria concentrations generally increased with salinity in frost flowers and the surface slush layer. Bacterial densities and taxa indicated that a selective process occurred at the ice surface and confirmed the general pattern of primary oceanic origin versus negligible atmospheric deposition.

Barber, D.; Ehn, J.

2014-01-01

173

Parámetros cuantitativos para la evaluación de la suscepti­bilidad a la erosión de suelos tropicales dominicanos / Quantitative parameters for assessing susceptibility to erosion in tropical Dominican soils  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La capa superficial de los suelos de dife­rentes tipos de bosques tropicales húmedos y secos presentes en la provincia de Peder­nales (República Dominicana), ha sido eva­luada mediante diferentes parámetros rela­cionados con el proceso de erosión: tamaño de partículas, cociente limo/arcilla y un es­ [...] timador de la posibilidad de pérdida de sue-lo. Algunos de los ecosistemas más valiosos están amenazados por talas y quemas y por la implantación de cafetales, de ahí el interés y objetivo de este trabajo, para ver como es­tos usos y manejos afectan a los suelos. Los resultados se presentan comparando los pa­rámetros estudiados en 79 muestras analiza­das según las unidades paisajísticas (bos­ques con y sin usos agropascícolas), así co­mo según las litologías predominantes en las mismas: calizas cristalinas, calizas car­bonatadas sobre alteritas y calizas coralinas. El trabajo muestra por vez primera para esta región, parámetros cuantitativos respecto a procesos edáficos vinculados a la erosión en dicho territorio. Otro dato relativamente no­vedoso es el utilizar la metodología láser para los análisis del tamaño de partículas. Abstract in english The topsoil layers (0-20 cm) of different types of wet and dry tropical forests of the Pedernales province (Dominican Republic), both natural and cultivated, were assessed in terms of different parameters related to the erosion processes: particle size, silt/clay ra­tio, and an estimate of the possi [...] ble soil loss. Some of the soils of the most valuable eco­systems are threatened by the introduction of coffee and hence the interest and objec­tive of this work. We present these data for 79 soil samples according to the corresponding landscape units (forests) along with their dominant lithologies (crystalline limestones, carbon­ated limestones on alterites and coral lime­stones). The novelty of this study is that it uses quantitative variables to describe ed­aphic processes linked to erosion in this re­gion, that had never been quantitatively studied the soils. Another relatively new fact is the methodology uses of the laser for par­ticle size analysis.

A. J., Hernández; C., Vizcayno; S., Alexis; J., Pastor.

2010-01-01

174

On the need for data for the verification of service life models for frost damage  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this paper is to draw the attention to the need for the verification of service life models for frost attack on concrete and the collection of relevant data. To illustrate the type of data needed the paper presents models for internal freeze/thaw damage (internal cracking including de-lamination) and surface scaling.

Geiker, Mette Rica

1999-01-01

175

Morning Frost in Trench Dug by Phoenix, Sol 113 (False Color)  

Science.gov (United States)

This image from the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows morning frost inside the 'Snow White' trench dug by the lander, in addition to subsurface ice exposed by use of a rasp on the floor of the trench. The camera took this image at about 9 a.m. local solar time during the 113th Martian day of the mission (Sept. 18, 2008). Bright material near and below the four-by-four set of rasp holes in the upper half of the image is water-ice exposed by rasping and scraping in the trench earlier the same morning. Other bright material especially around the edges of the trench, is frost. Earlier in the mission, when the sun stayed above the horizon all night, morning frost was not evident in the trench. This image is presented in false color that enhances the visibility of the frost. The trench is 4 to 5 centimeters (about 2 inches) deep, about 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide. Phoenix landed on a Martian arctic plain on May 25, 2008. The mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

176

Fiktionen, der var ude af sig selv : Lars Frosts romanessayistik og Theodor W. Adornos æstetik  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

På baggrund af en analyse af Lars Frosts roman Smukke biler efter krigen (2004) reflekterer jeg over fiktionen som på én gang selvberoende og selvnedbrydende størrelse, og der henvises til Adornos æstetik som en mulig teoretisk ramme for begribelsen af dette tilsyneladende paradoks.

Hansen, Kim Toft

2007-01-01

177

Laboratory evaluation of the effect of nitric acid uptake on frost point hygrometer performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chilled mirror hygrometers (CMH are widely used to measure water vapour in the troposphere and lower stratosphere from balloon-borne sondes. Systematic discrepancies among in situ water vapour instruments have been observed at low water vapour mixing ratios (<5 ppm in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS. Understanding the source of the measurement discrepancies is important for a more accurate and reliable determination of water vapour abundance in this region. We have conducted a laboratory study to investigate the potential interference of gas-phase nitric acid (HNO3 with the measurement of frost point temperature, and consequently the water vapour mixing ratio, determined by CMH under conditions representative of operation in the UT/LS. No detectable interference in the measured frost point temperature was found for HNO3 mixing ratios of up to 4 ppb for exposure times up to 150 min. HNO3 was observed to co-condense on the mirror frost, with the adsorbed mass increasing linearly with time at constant exposure levels. Over the duration of a typical balloon sonde ascent (90–120 min, the maximum accumulated HNO3 amounts were comparable to monolayer coverage of the geometric mirror surface area, which corresponds to only a small fraction of the actual frost layer surface area. This small amount of co-condensed HNO3 is consistent with the observed lack of HNO3 interference in the frost point measurement because the CMH utilizes significant reductions (>10% in surface reflectivity by the condensate to determine H2O.

T. Thornberry

2011-02-01

178

Laboratory evaluation of the effect of nitric acid uptake on frost point hygrometer performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chilled mirror hygrometers (CMH are widely used to measure water vapour in the troposphere and lower stratosphere from balloon-borne sondes. Systematic discrepancies among in situ water vapour instruments have been observed at low water vapour mixing ratios (<5 ppm in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS. Understanding the source of the measurement discrepancies is important for a more accurate and reliable determination of water vapour abundance in this region. We have conducted a laboratory study to investigate the potential interference of gas-phase nitric acid (HNO3 with the measurement of frost point temperature, and consequently the water vapour mixing ratio, determined by CMH under conditions representative of operation in the UT/LS. No detectable interference in the measured frost point temperature was found for HNO3 mixing ratios of up to 4 ppb for exposure times up to 150 min. HNO3 was observed to co-condense on the mirror frost, with the adsorbed mass increasing linearly with time at constant exposure levels. Over the duration of a typical balloon sonde ascent (90–120 min, the maximum accumulated HNO3 amounts were comparable to monolayer coverage of the geometric mirror surface area, which corresponds to only a small fraction of the actual frost layer surface area. This small amount of co-condensed HNO3 is consistent with the observed lack of HNO3 interference in the frost point measurement because the CMH utilizes significant reductions (>10% in surface reflectivity by the condensate to determine H2O.

T. Thornberry

2010-08-01

179

Erodibilidade e suscetibilidade à erosão dos solos de cerrado com plantio de Acacia mangium em Roraima.= Erodibility and susceptibility to erosion of the savannah (cerrado soils planted with Acacia mangium in the State of Roraima.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar erodibilidade e suscetibilidade à erosão de solos sob cerrados e plantios de Acácia mangium no estado de Roraima, foram realizadas visitas nas áreas objeto de estudo para identifi cação geomorfopedológica e feito coleta de solo representativo de 121 perfi s distribuídos nas áreas de plantio de Acacia mangium pertencentes ao projeto Ouro Verde Agrosilvopastoril Ltda. Os perfi s descritos e coletados foram georreferenciados através de GPS e plotados sobre mapas de declividades no software ARCMAPE 8.0 permitindo cruzar os valores de R com a declividade. Foi avaliada as relações do tipo de solo, sua posição na paisagem e suscetibilidade a erosão. Os resultados revelaram que as áreas de estudo estão inseridas em duas unidades geomorfopedológicas distintas: Jacitara/Mucajaí/Santa Cecília (JMSta e Serra da Lua (SL, apresentando suscetibilidade à erosão bem contrastantes; As unidades JMSta apresentam maiores valores de R, inseridas em relevo plano, com declividade entre 1% a 3%, os solos da unidade SL, apresentam menores valores de R e estão posicionados em relevo com declividade entre 3 a 13%, o que a torna mais vulneráveis a erosão; as classes de solos em ordem decrescente em valores de R são: Neossolos (RQo, Argissolos (PAd, Gleissolos (GXbd, Latossolos (LAd, LVd, LVAd, LVA Plintico, Plintossolos (FFCd, concluindo-se então, a necessidade da adoção de práticas simples de conservação de solos, tais como plantio em curva de nível e até terraceamento. = With the objective to evaluate the erodibility and susceptibility to erosion of the cerrado and plantations with Acacia mangium in the State of Roraima, visits to the areas were done for geomorfopedologic identifi cation and collection of soils representative of 121 profi les distributed in the areas pertaining to the plantation of Acacia mangium of the Ouro Verde Agrosilvopastoril Ltda project. The described and collected profiles were geo-referenced through GPS and located on maps of declivities by the software ARCMAPE 8,0 allowing to cross the values of R with the declivity. There were evaluate the relations of the type of soils, its position in the landscape and susceptibility the erosion. The results obtained indicated that the areas studiedy are inserted in two distinct geomorphopedologic units: Jacitara/Mucajai/Santa Cecilia (JMSta and Serra da Lua (SL, and demonstrated distinct susceptibility to erosion; The JMSta units presented the most elevated values of R, inserted in plain relief, with declivity between 1% and 3%. The ground of unit SL, presented small values of R and is located in terrain with declivity between 3% and 13%, which becomes it more vulnerable to erosion; The types of soils decreasing order of values of R are: Neossolos (RQo, Argissolos (PAd, Gleissolos (GXbd, Latossolos (LAd, LVd, LVAd, LVA Plintico, Plintossolos (FFCd. In conclusion, there is the necessity to adopt simple practices of ground conservation, varying from plantation on the curve of level to terracing.

José Frutuoso do Vale Júnior

2009-07-01

180

Susceptibility to shallow landslides of soil in the municipality of Temoaya, Mexico: multicriteria analysis / Susceptibilidad a deslizamientos superficiales de suelo en el Municipio de Temoaya, México: aplicación del análisis multicriterio  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Debido al carácter montañoso del espacio geográfico mexicano, así como del impacto ecológico generado por los cambios de uso de suelo, efectuados particularmente en las últimas décadas, y de la ocurrencia de fenómenos hidrometeorológicos de gran intensidad o frecuencia, la inestabilidad de laderas d [...] esencadenada por precipitación constituye uno de los peligros de mayor impacto en diversas regiones del país, entre ellas el municipio de Temoaya, Estado de México. En este municipio, donde el relieve montañoso formado por depósitos vulcanoclásticos poco consolidados y afallados favorece la inestabilidad, existen 33 procesos de remoción en masa activos, de los cuales treinta -los más importantes-, son deslizamientos de suelo superficiales de tipo traslacional (DSST), un deslizamiento de derrubios y dos caídas de rocas. La ocurrencia de los DSST está controlada por el carácter de los depósitos vulcanoclásticos, específicamente flujos piroclásticos de bloques, cenizas y pómez, los cuales al ser materiales permeables favorecen la infiltración, por lo que si el material subyacente es impermeable o de menor permeabilidad, se presenta una acumulación de agua sobre el contacto litológico subhorizontal que se transforma en un flujo que conduce a la inestabilidad del material sobreyacente. En este trabajo se presenta la aplicación del Método de Análisis Multicriterio para la generación de un mapa de susceptibilidad a deslizamientos de suelo superficiales de tipo traslacional para dicha zona. De acuerdo con el mapa elaborado, el 15% del territorio municipal presenta muy alta susceptibilidad a deslizamientos, mientras que la zona de alta susceptibilidad ocupa el 35% del área en cuestión. El nivel de susceptibilidad medio se concentra en el 30% del territorio, y en el restante 20% de la zona de interés, la susceptibilidad a deslizamientos es baja y muy baja. Abstract in english Owing to the mountainous character of the Mexican terrain, as well as the ecological effects of changes in land use, particularly in recent decades, and the occurrence of severe and frequent hydro-meteorological phenomena, the instability of slopes dislodged by precipitation constitutes a major haza [...] rd in various regions of the country, among them the municipality of Temoaya in the State of Mexico. In this municipality, where the mountainous relief formed by poorly consolidated and faulting volcaniclastic deposits favours instability, there are 33 active processes of mass movement, of which thirty -the most important- are shallow soil translational landslides (SSTL), one is a debris slide and two are rock falls. The occurrence of SSTLs is controlled by the character of the volcaniclastic deposits, specifically pyroclastic flows of blocks, ash and pumice; because these are permeable materials they favour infiltration; if the subjacent material is impermeable or of low permeability, water accumulates on the sub-horizontal lithological contact and transforms into a flow that leads to the instability of the overlying material. A map of susceptibility to SSTLs was generated by means of a multicriteria analysis. According to the map produced, 15% of the municipality is very highly susceptible to landslides, 35% is highly susceptible, 30% shows medium susceptibility, and the remaining 20% has low or very low susceptibility.

Patricia, Flores; Irasema, Alcántara Ayala.

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
181

Additional requirements for protective filtering materials of closed drainage laying in the seasonal soil frost zone  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper considers the problem of preserving the filtration properties of the drainage material in the zone of seasonal freezing. Studies have shown that drainage can lay in the zone of seasonal freezing, but the pores in the filter should not be completely filled with ice. The drainage filter may include a geotextile.The article introduces the filtration model, taking into account the freezing of water in the geotextile. The model analysis allows obtaining conclusions about changes in the p...

Ponomarev, A. B.; Shtykov, V. I.

2012-01-01

182

Mineralogia e susceptibilidade magnética dos óxidos de ferro do horizonte B de solos do Estado do Paraná Mineralogy and magnetic susceptibility of iron oxides of B horizon of Paraná state soils  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os solos tropicais altamente intemperizados tendem a acumular residualmente óxidos de ferro e alumínio. Entre os óxidos e hidróxidos de ferro presentes na fração argila, a goethita (Gt e a hematita (Hm são os mais abundantes e estudados. No entanto, há poucos estudos acerca da identificação e quantificação da maghemita (Mh, um mineral ferrimagnético que está na fração argila dos solos, principalmente naqueles desenvolvidos de rochas máficas. A Mh e a magnetita (Mt são responsáveis pela magnetização espontânea dos solos. Esse atributo mineralógico pode ser medido nos solos e sedimentos pela susceptibilidade magnética por unidade de massa (?BF, cuja magnitude é proporcional à concentração dos minerais ferrimagnéticos e é objeto de estudos em todo mundo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar e quantificar, por ?BF, os minerais ferrimagnéticos de 32 amostras do horizonte B de solos do Estado do Paraná. As formas minerais presentes na fração argila concentrada de óxidos de ferro foram identificadas e semiquantificadas por difratometria de raios-X (DRX. Nessa fração, os minerais mais abundantes são a Gt e a Hm. A Mh foi detectada em 31 amostras por ?BF e em apenas 17 por DRX. Os valores de ?BF variaram de 16 a 8.077 na TFSA, de 12 a 7.953 na fração argila e de 0 a 18.737x10-8 m³ kg-1 na fração argila, após concentração dos óxidos de ferro. A Mh dos solos estudados apresentou valor médio de ?BF em 62.728x10-8m³ kg-1 e sua presença nos difratogramas de raios-X só foi verificada em amostras com valores de ?BF acima de 1.000x10-8m³ kg-1.Highly weathered tropical soils tend to accumulate iron and aluminum oxy-hydroxides. Among the iron oxy-hydroxides found in the clay fraction, goethite (Gt and hematite (Hm are the most abundant and studied. A smaller number of investigations have been publish to identify and to quantify maghemite (Mh, a ferrimagnetic mineral present in the clay size fraction of the soils, mainly in those developed from mafic rocks. Maghemite, along with magnetite (Mt is responsible for the spontaneous magnetic behavior of the soils. This mineralogical attribute can be easy measured, in soils and sediments by mass magnetic susceptibility (?LF, which magnitude is proportional to the concentration of ferrimagnetic minerals and it has been object of studies worldwide. The purpose of this research was to identify and quantify, by ?LF, the ferrimagnetic minerals of 32 samples from B-horizons of Paraná state soils. The mineral species present in the iron oxides concentrated clay size fractions were identified and semiquantified by x-rays diffraction (XRD. In this fraction the most abundant minerals are Gt and Hm. Maghemite was detected in 31 samples by ?LF and in only 17 samples by XRD. The ?LF values ranged from 16 to 8.077x10-8m³ kg-1 in the fine earth; from 12 to 7.953x10-8m³ kg-1 in clay fraction and from 0 to 18.737x10-8m³ kg-1 in clay fraction, after concentration of the iron oxides. The Mh of the soils presented an average value of 62.728x10-8m³ kg-1 and their presence in the X-rays diffractograms was only observed in samples with ?LF values above 1.000x10-8m³ kg-1.

Ivan Granemann de Souza Junior

2010-03-01

183

Mineralogia e susceptibilidade magnética dos óxidos de ferro do horizonte B de solos do Estado do Paraná / Mineralogy and magnetic susceptibility of iron oxides of B horizon of Paraná state soils  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os solos tropicais altamente intemperizados tendem a acumular residualmente óxidos de ferro e alumínio. Entre os óxidos e hidróxidos de ferro presentes na fração argila, a goethita (Gt) e a hematita (Hm) são os mais abundantes e estudados. No entanto, há poucos estudos acerca da identificação e quan [...] tificação da maghemita (Mh), um mineral ferrimagnético que está na fração argila dos solos, principalmente naqueles desenvolvidos de rochas máficas. A Mh e a magnetita (Mt) são responsáveis pela magnetização espontânea dos solos. Esse atributo mineralógico pode ser medido nos solos e sedimentos pela susceptibilidade magnética por unidade de massa (?BF), cuja magnitude é proporcional à concentração dos minerais ferrimagnéticos e é objeto de estudos em todo mundo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar e quantificar, por ?BF, os minerais ferrimagnéticos de 32 amostras do horizonte B de solos do Estado do Paraná. As formas minerais presentes na fração argila concentrada de óxidos de ferro foram identificadas e semiquantificadas por difratometria de raios-X (DRX). Nessa fração, os minerais mais abundantes são a Gt e a Hm. A Mh foi detectada em 31 amostras por ?BF e em apenas 17 por DRX. Os valores de ?BF variaram de 16 a 8.077 na TFSA, de 12 a 7.953 na fração argila e de 0 a 18.737x10-8 m³ kg-1 na fração argila, após concentração dos óxidos de ferro. A Mh dos solos estudados apresentou valor médio de ?BF em 62.728x10-8m³ kg-1 e sua presença nos difratogramas de raios-X só foi verificada em amostras com valores de ?BF acima de 1.000x10-8m³ kg-1. Abstract in english Highly weathered tropical soils tend to accumulate iron and aluminum oxy-hydroxides. Among the iron oxy-hydroxides found in the clay fraction, goethite (Gt) and hematite (Hm) are the most abundant and studied. A smaller number of investigations have been publish to identify and to quantify maghemite [...] (Mh), a ferrimagnetic mineral present in the clay size fraction of the soils, mainly in those developed from mafic rocks. Maghemite, along with magnetite (Mt) is responsible for the spontaneous magnetic behavior of the soils. This mineralogical attribute can be easy measured, in soils and sediments by mass magnetic susceptibility (?LF), which magnitude is proportional to the concentration of ferrimagnetic minerals and it has been object of studies worldwide. The purpose of this research was to identify and quantify, by ?LF, the ferrimagnetic minerals of 32 samples from B-horizons of Paraná state soils. The mineral species present in the iron oxides concentrated clay size fractions were identified and semiquantified by x-rays diffraction (XRD). In this fraction the most abundant minerals are Gt and Hm. Maghemite was detected in 31 samples by ?LF and in only 17 samples by XRD. The ?LF values ranged from 16 to 8.077x10-8m³ kg-1 in the fine earth; from 12 to 7.953x10-8m³ kg-1 in clay fraction and from 0 to 18.737x10-8m³ kg-1 in clay fraction, after concentration of the iron oxides. The Mh of the soils presented an average value of 62.728x10-8m³ kg-1 and their presence in the X-rays diffractograms was only observed in samples with ?LF values above 1.000x10-8m³ kg-1.

Ivan Granemann de, Souza Junior; Antonio Carlos Saraiva da, Costa; Cesar Crispim, Vilar; Allan, Hoepers.

2010-03-01

184

Mineralogia e susceptibilidade magnética dos óxidos de ferro do horizonte B de solos do Estado do Paraná / Mineralogy and magnetic susceptibility of iron oxides of B horizon of Paraná state soils  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os solos tropicais altamente intemperizados tendem a acumular residualmente óxidos de ferro e alumínio. Entre os óxidos e hidróxidos de ferro presentes na fração argila, a goethita (Gt) e a hematita (Hm) são os mais abundantes e estudados. No entanto, há poucos estudos acerca da identificação e quan [...] tificação da maghemita (Mh), um mineral ferrimagnético que está na fração argila dos solos, principalmente naqueles desenvolvidos de rochas máficas. A Mh e a magnetita (Mt) são responsáveis pela magnetização espontânea dos solos. Esse atributo mineralógico pode ser medido nos solos e sedimentos pela susceptibilidade magnética por unidade de massa (?BF), cuja magnitude é proporcional à concentração dos minerais ferrimagnéticos e é objeto de estudos em todo mundo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar e quantificar, por ?BF, os minerais ferrimagnéticos de 32 amostras do horizonte B de solos do Estado do Paraná. As formas minerais presentes na fração argila concentrada de óxidos de ferro foram identificadas e semiquantificadas por difratometria de raios-X (DRX). Nessa fração, os minerais mais abundantes são a Gt e a Hm. A Mh foi detectada em 31 amostras por ?BF e em apenas 17 por DRX. Os valores de ?BF variaram de 16 a 8.077 na TFSA, de 12 a 7.953 na fração argila e de 0 a 18.737x10-8 m³ kg-1 na fração argila, após concentração dos óxidos de ferro. A Mh dos solos estudados apresentou valor médio de ?BF em 62.728x10-8m³ kg-1 e sua presença nos difratogramas de raios-X só foi verificada em amostras com valores de ?BF acima de 1.000x10-8m³ kg-1. Abstract in english Highly weathered tropical soils tend to accumulate iron and aluminum oxy-hydroxides. Among the iron oxy-hydroxides found in the clay fraction, goethite (Gt) and hematite (Hm) are the most abundant and studied. A smaller number of investigations have been publish to identify and to quantify maghemite [...] (Mh), a ferrimagnetic mineral present in the clay size fraction of the soils, mainly in those developed from mafic rocks. Maghemite, along with magnetite (Mt) is responsible for the spontaneous magnetic behavior of the soils. This mineralogical attribute can be easy measured, in soils and sediments by mass magnetic susceptibility (?LF), which magnitude is proportional to the concentration of ferrimagnetic minerals and it has been object of studies worldwide. The purpose of this research was to identify and quantify, by ?LF, the ferrimagnetic minerals of 32 samples from B-horizons of Paraná state soils. The mineral species present in the iron oxides concentrated clay size fractions were identified and semiquantified by x-rays diffraction (XRD). In this fraction the most abundant minerals are Gt and Hm. Maghemite was detected in 31 samples by ?LF and in only 17 samples by XRD. The ?LF values ranged from 16 to 8.077x10-8m³ kg-1 in the fine earth; from 12 to 7.953x10-8m³ kg-1 in clay fraction and from 0 to 18.737x10-8m³ kg-1 in clay fraction, after concentration of the iron oxides. The Mh of the soils presented an average value of 62.728x10-8m³ kg-1 and their presence in the X-rays diffractograms was only observed in samples with ?LF values above 1.000x10-8m³ kg-1.

Ivan Granemann de, Souza Junior; Antonio Carlos Saraiva da, Costa; Cesar Crispim, Vilar; Allan, Hoepers.

185

Black frost. Icing of wind turbine blades endangers stability and safety; Schwarzer Frost. Wenn Eis die Stand- und Verkehrssicherheit von Windkraftanlagen gefaehrdet  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sailors used to fear icing of sails and ropes from freezing mist and rain. They called it ''black frost'', and this is the same phenomenon that also endangers wind turbine safety. Weather conditions that cause rain to freeze have a characteristic temperature stratification, i.e. moist and warm air over cold ground level air. So far, icing has not caused significant damage in Germany, but this does not mean that it is not a problem. The contribution goes into the causes of icing and the prevention of ice formation. (orig.)

Lucks, Christoph [Windcomp GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

2010-02-15

186

Índice de riesgo sistémico de heladas (IRISH) / Sistemic frost risk index (SFRI)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo principal de este trabajo es la presentación de los fundamentos y metodología del IRiSH. Se utilizaron temperaturas horarias de cinco observatorios para el período 1991-2003 para calcular la duración de las heladas producidas en ese período y analizar su asociación con la temperatura mín [...] ima. Para el desarrollo del IRiSH se utilizaron las temperaturas mínimas diarias del período 1964-2003. Se asume que las heladas tardías serán tanto más peligrosas cuanto más se adelante la fenología del cultivo o se retrasen las heladas, cuanto mayor sea su intensidad, su duración y su frecuencia. El IRiSH integra todas estas variables directa o indirectamente. Se describen, a modo de ejemplo, las funciones empíricas desarrolladas para el cálculo del índice correspondiente al cultivo de trigo. El resultado es un índice de gran versatilidad, aplicable a distintos cultivos, que tiene en cuenta las principales variables determinantes de la peligrosidad de las heladas. Permite el monitoreo del riesgo de heladas durante el año, así como estudiar su variabilidad interanual, su tendencia temporal y su variación espacial. Con promedios anuales para una serie de años posibilita también la caracterización climática media del riesgo de heladas. Abstract in english The aim of this study is to present the fundamentals and methodology of the SFRi. Hourly temperatures of five observatories for the period 1991-2003 were used to calculate the duration of frosts and analyse their relationship with the minimum temperature. Daily minimum temperatures from the period 1 [...] 964-2003 were used for the development of the SFRi. We assume that late frosts will be more dangerous the sooner the phenology of the crop or the more delayed the frosts, also the greater their intensity, length and frequency. The IRiSH integrates all these variables directly or indirectly. We describe, as an example, the empirical functions developed for calculating the index for wheat cultivation. The result is a versatile index, applicable to different crops, which takes into account the main variables that determine the level of danger from frosts. It allows to monitor frosts risk during the year, and to examine their inter-annual variability, temporal trend and special distribution. With annual averages for many years it also allows for the climatic characterization of frosts risk.

María Elena, Fernández Long; Guillermo, Murphy; María Karina, Torterolo.

2008-03-01

187

Continuous monitoring of surface CO2 flux and soil gas concentrations in an agricultural soil under the snow cover manipulation experiment in Hokkaido, northern Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

In the eastern part of Hokkaido, northern Japan, a timing of snow fall has been getting earlier and soil-frost depth has been decreasing in agricultural land year by year since late 1980. It is reported that the significant decrease in frost depths was due to the early development of snow cover that insulates ground from cold. Agricultural land is usually managed by human operations and so there is a possibility of controlling greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It is therefore important how snow and soil frost influence the dynamics of GHGs. CO2 is one of the main GHGs. We continuously and automatically observed CO2 flux above soil or snow surface and CO2 concentration in soil at 10 cm depth, using automatically controlled chambers and CO2 sensors over agricultural land at Sapporo site (141°25’E, 43°05’N) in northern Japan. Observations were conducted from 25 September 2009 to 31 May 2010, with occasional manual observations. We prepared two experimental plots, an untreated control and a snow cover removal plot, to evaluate the influence of soil-frost and snow depth on CO2 dynamics. Acquired automatic data in CO2 flux and soil gas CO2 concentration generally have diurnal variations which had a positive peak in the daytime as affected by soil temperature, except winter period. Rainfall increased CO2 flux and soil gas CO2 concentration. During soil freezing and snow covered period, few CO2 flux was observed. Soil gas CO2 concentration had been increasing during soil freezing period. After soil thawing, CO2 flux had increased and CO2 concentration had decreased temporarily. These phenomena being seen regardless of soil temperature, supportred that snow and soil-frost layer prevent gas diffusion to the air. The gas diffusion coefficient calculated from CO2 flux and soil gas CO2 concentration during soil gas CO2 concentration had been increasing during soil freezing period, was less than about one order of magnitudes of those in other periods. Temperature response function for evaluating CO2 flux could not be applied in soil freezing, snow covered and soil thawing periods. Seasonal variations of automatic data were similar to those of manual data, although some gap had seen in certain periods.

Ohkubo, S.; Yanai, Y.; Nagata, O.; Iwata, Y.; Hirota, T.

2010-12-01

188

Mars' Dynamic Albedo: Evidence for Widespread Seasonal Water Frost in the Northern Hemisphere from TES, HiRISE and THEMIS  

Science.gov (United States)

Using multi-year TES bolometric albedo and temperature data, we identify the presence of seasonal water frost on Mars. Our findings show a stark hemispherical asymmetry, consistent with our understanding of atmospheric water transport.

Bapst, J.; Bandfield, J. L.; Wood, S. E.

2014-07-01

189

The potential importance of frost flowers, recycling on snow, and open leads for ozone depletion events  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present model studies with the one-dimensional model MISTRA to investigate the potential role of frost flowers, recycling on snow, and open leads in the depletion of tropospheric ozone in the Arctic spring. In our model, we assumed frost flower aerosols to be the major source of bromine. We show that a major ozone depletion event can be satisfactorily reproduced only if the recycling on snow of deposited bromine into gas phase bromine is assumed. In the model, this cycling is more efficient than the bromine explosion process and maintains sufficiently high levels of bromine to deplete ozone down to few nmol mol?1 within four days. We assessed the influence of different surface combinations (open lead/frost flowers on the chemistry in the model. Results showed noticeable modifications affecting the composition of aerosols and the deposition velocities. A model run with a series of coupled frost flower fields and open leads, separated by large areas of snow, showed results comparable with field observations. In addition, we studied the effects of modified temperature of either the frost flower field or the ambient airmass. A warmer frost flower field increases the relative humidity and the aerosol deposition rate. The deposition/re-emission process gains in importance, inducing more reactive bromine in the gas phase, and a stronger ozone depletion. A decrease of 1K in airmass temperature shows in our model that the aerosol uptake capacities of all gas phase species substantially increases, leading to enhanced uptake of acids from the gas phase. Consequently, the so-called bromine explosion accelerated and O3 mixing ratios decreased. In our model representation, variations in wind speed affected the aerosol source function and influenced the amount of bromine in the atmosphere and thus the ozone depletion strength. Recent studies have suggested the important role of the precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 out of the brine layer for the possible acidification of the liquid phase by acid uptake. Our investigation showed that this precipitation is a crucial process for the timing of the bromine explosion in aerosols. Nevertheless, model runs with either 50% precipitation or complete precipitation displayed a relatively weak difference in ozone mixing ratios after four simulated days. By considering conditions typical for "Arctic Haze" pollution events at the start of the run we obtained a low pH in frost flower aerosols due to a greater mixing ratio of SO2, and a strong recycling efficiency via large aerosol number concentration. The aerosol acidification during a haze event most likely intensifies the ozone depletion strength and occurrence. The comparison between our modeled deposition on snow and sampled snow at Barrow (Alaska shows that approximately 75% of deposited bromine may be re-emitted into the gas phase as Br2/BrCl. Among several non-halogen fluxes from the snow, model simulations showed that only HONO affects the chemistry. Finally, we investigated the release of Br2 potentially produced by heterogeneous reactions directly on frost flowers. In this case, we obtained unrealistic results of aerosol compositions and deposition rates on snow compared to observations in the Arctic.

M. Piot

2008-05-01

190

The potential importance of frost flowers, recycling on snow, and open leads for Ozone Depletion Events  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present model studies with the one-dimensional model MISTRA to investigate the potential role of frost flowers, recycling on snow, and open leads in the depletion of tropospheric ozone in the Arctic spring. In our model, we assumed frost flower aerosols to be the major source of bromine. We show that a major ozone depletion event can be satisfactorily reproduced only if the recycling on snow of deposited bromine into gas phase bromine is assumed. In the model, this cycling is more efficient than the bromine explosion process and maintains sufficiently high levels of bromine to deplete ozone down to few nmol mol?1 within four days. We assessed the influence of different surface combinations (open lead/frost flowers on the chemistry in the model. Results showed noticeable modifications affecting the composition of aerosols and the deposition velocities. A model run with a series of coupled frost flower fields and open leads, separated by large areas of snow, showed results comparable with field observations. In addition, we studied the effects of modified temperature of either the frost flower field or the ambient airmass. A warmer frost flower field increases the relative humidity and the aerosol deposition rate. The deposition/re-emission process gains in importance, inducing more reactive bromine in the gas phase, and a stronger ozone depletion. A decrease of 1 K in airmass temperature shows in our model that the aerosol uptake capacities of all gas phase species substantially increases, leading to enhanced uptake of acids from the gas phase. Consequently, the so-called bromine explosion accelerated and O3 mixing ratios decreased. In our model representation, variations in wind speed affected the aerosol source function and influenced the amount of bromine in the atmosphere and thus the ozone depletion strength. Recent studies have suggested the important role of the precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 out of the brine layer for the possible acidification of the liquid phase by acid uptake. Our investigation showed that this precipitation is a crucial process for the timing of the bromine explosion in aerosols. Nevertheless, model runs with either 50% precipitation or complete precipitation displayed a relatively weak difference in ozone mixing ratios after four simulated days. By considering conditions typical for "Arctic Haze" pollution events at the start of the run we obtained a low pH in frost flower aerosols due to a greater mixing ratio of SO2, and a strong recycling efficiency via large aerosol number concentration. The aerosol acidification during a haze event most likely intensifies the ozone depletion strength and occurrence. The comparison between our modeled deposition on snow and sampled snow at Barrow (Alaska shows that approximately 75% of deposited bromine may be re-emitted into the gas phase as Br2/BrCl. Among several non-halogen fluxes from the snow, model simulations showed that only HONO affects the chemistry. Finally, we investigated the release of Br2 potentially produced by heterogeneous reactions directly on frost flowers. In this case, we obtained unrealistic results of aerosol compositions and deposition rates on snow compared to observations in the Arctic.

M. Piot

2007-04-01

191

Restoring sedges and mosses into frost heaving iron fens, San Juan Mountains, Colorado  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rare iron fens in the San Juan Mountains of Colorado are frequently in poor condition due to mining, roads and ditches, which have left much of the fen completely bare of vegetation. Natural revegetation is slow to occur in the bare areas because of severe frost heave in the cold mountain climate. Therefore, experimental revegetation plots were conducted in a factorial design with mulching and no mulching, crossed with moss diaspores, sedge transplants, and moss and sedge combined. Mulching i...

Chimner, R. A.

2011-01-01

192

Frost formation and defrost control parameters for open multideck refrigerated food display cabinets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to achieve the required air and product temperatures in refrigerated food display cabinets, the evaporator coils, which are normally located in the base of the cabinets, operate at temperatures below the freezing point of water. The air which is circulated over the evaporator coil is cooled below its dew point and water vapour present in the air condenses and eventually freezes on the coil surface. With continuous operation of the coil, frost will accumulate on the coil surface leading to a decrease both in the air flowrate and in the overall heat transfer coefficient. In order to maintain satisfactory performance, evaporator coils are defrosted periodically. Although different defrost control strategies can be employed, for simplicity and cost considerations, defrosting in supermarket refrigeration systems is usually controlled by a pre-set time cycle. It is widely acknowledge, however, that time-based defrost may cause a number of unnecessary defrost cycles and this reduces the energy efficiency of the refrigeration systems as well as the accuracy of temperature control of the cabinets. Implementing defrost only when it is needed or on 'demand' should reduce the number of defrost cycles and lead to savings in energy and improved product quality. This paper reports on field and experimental investigations on the processes of frosting and defrosting of medium-temperature display cabinet evaporator coils. The results show that for medium-temperature refrigeration applications where the environment temperature is kept reasonably constant, the store humidity is the primary parameter influencing the rate of frost formation. Using relative humidity as a control parameter the defrost frequency can be reduced considerably without affecting cabinet performance and product integrity. Alongside the effect of relative humidity, the paper also considers the effects of other performance parameters on the processes of frosting and defrosting such as cooling time and length of previous defrost cycle, and discusses ways in which some of these parameters may be used to implement defrost on demand. (Author)

Tassou, S.A.; Datta, D. [Brunel Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Uxbridge (United Kingdom); Marriott, D. [Safeway Stores plc, Hayes (United Kingdom)

2001-04-03

193

Frosted granular flow: A new hypothesis for mass wasting in martian gullies  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent gully deposits on Mars have been attributed to both wet and dry mass wasting processes. In this paper frosted granular flow (FGF) is presented as a new hypothesis for recent mass wasting activity in martian gullies. FGF is a rare type of granular flow observed on a talus slope in the Province of Québec, Canada [Hétu, B., van Steijn, H., Vandelac, P., 1994. Géogr. Phys. Quat. 48, 3-22]. Frost reduces dynamic inter-particle friction, enabling flows to mobilize onto relatively low slope gradients (25-30°) compared to those involving dry granular flow of the same material (35-41°). Resulting erosional and depositional features include straight to sinuous channels, levees and digitate to branching arrangements of terminal deposits. Similar features are commonly found in association with geologically-young gully systems on Mars. Based on terrestrial observations of FGF processes the minimum criteria required for their occurrence on Mars include: (i) readily mobilized, unconsolidated sediment at the surface; (ii) an upper slope gradient at or near the angle of repose; (iii) frost accumulation at the surface; and (iv) triggering by rock fall. All four conditions appear to be met in many areas on present-day Mars though triggering mechanisms may vary. Compared to terrestrial FGFs, which are lubricated by thin liquid films at inter-particle contacts, those occurring on Mars are more likely lubricated by vaporization of CO 2 and small amounts of H 2O frost that becomes incorporated in the translating mass. Some recent mass wasting activity in martian gullies, therefore, could be interpreted as the product of FGF.

Hugenholtz, Chris H.

2008-09-01

194

Air void structure and frost resistance : A challenge to Powers’ spacing factor  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article compiles results from 4 independent laboratory studies. In each study, the same type of concrete is tested at least 10 times, the air void structure being the only variable. For each concrete mix both air void analysis of the hardened concrete and a salt frost scaling test are conducted. Results were not originally presented in a way, which made comparison possible. Here the amount of scaled material is depicted as function of air voids parameters: total air content, specific surface, spacing factor, and total surface area of air voids. The total surface area of air voids is proportional to the product of total air content and specific surface. In all 4 cases, the conclusion is concurrent that the parameter of total surface area of air voids performs equally well or better than the spacing factor when linking air void characteristics to frost resistance (salt frost scaling). This observation is interesting as the parameter of total surface area of air voids normally is not included in air void analysis. The following reason for the finding is suggested: In the air voids conditions are favourable for ice nucleation. When a capillary pore is connected to an air void, ice formation will take place in the air void, being feed from the capillary, but without pressure build-up in the capillary. If the capillary is not connected to an air void, ice formation will take place in the capillary pore, where it can generate substantial pressure. Like this, frost resistance depends on that capillary pores are connected to air voids. The chance that a capillary pore is connected to an air void depends on the total surface area of air voids in the system, not the spacing factor.

Hasholt, Marianne Tange

2014-01-01

195

Risk of spring frost to apple production under future climate scenarios: the role of phenological acclimation  

Science.gov (United States)

In the context of global warming, the general trend towards earlier flowering dates of many temperate tree species is likely to result in an increased risk of damage from exposure to frost. To test this hypothesis, a phenological model of apple flowering was applied to a temperature series from two locations in an important area for apple production in Europe (Trentino, Italy). Two simulated 50-year climatic projections (A2 and B2 of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change - Special Report on Emission Scenarios) from the HadCM3 general circulation model were statistically downscaled to the two sites. Hourly temperature records over a 40-year period were used as the reference for past climate. In the phenological model, the heat requirement (degree hours) for flowering was parameterized using two approaches; static (constant over time) and dynamic (climate dependent). Parameterisation took into account the trees’ adaptation to changing temperatures based on either past instrumental records or the downscaled outputs from the climatic simulations. Flowering dates for the past 40 years and simulated flowering dates for the next 50 years were used in the model. A significant trend towards earlier flowering was clearly detected in the past. This negative trend was also apparent in the simulated data. However, the significance was less apparent when the “dynamic” setting for the degree hours requirement was used in the model. The number of frost episodes and flowering dates, on an annual basis, were graphed to assess the risk of spring frost. Risk analysis confirmed a lower risk of exposure to frost at present than in the past, and probably either constant or a slightly lower risk in future, especially given that physiological processes are expected to acclimate to higher temperatures.

Eccel, Emanuele; Rea, Roberto; Caffarra, Amelia; Crisci, Alfonso

2009-05-01

196

ASSESSMENT OF CERAMIC TILE FROST RESISTANCE BY MEANS OF THE FREQUENCY INSPECTION METHOD  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper presents some results of our experimental analysis of ceramic cladding element frost resistance, particular attention being paid to the application of the frequency inspection method. Three different sets of ceramic tiles of the Ia class to EN 14 411 B standard made by various manufacturers have been analyzed. The ceramic tiles under investigation have been subjected to freeze-thaw-cycle-based degradation in compliance with the relevant ?SN EN ISO 10545-12 standard. Furthermore, ac...

MICHAL MATYSÍK; ZDEN?K CHOBOLA; IVETA PLŠKOVÁ

2011-01-01

197

Simulación del depósito de Escarcha en superficies frías / Simulation of Frost Deposit in Cold Surfaces  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta un código computacional que simula la formación y crecimiento de escarcha sobre una placa mantenida a baja temperatura, por ablimación del vapor de agua de una corriente de aire húmedo que fluye sobre ella. La modelación se basa en ecuaciones de conservación de masa, energía, cantidad de [...] movimiento y especies aplicadas a la escarcha, mezcla aire-vapor e interfase aire-escarcha. El sistema de ecuaciones resulta no lineal acoplado por la fracción volumétrica del hielo, que es calculada iterativamente. El modelo es validado frente a datos experimentales, permitiendo reproducir la evolución de propiedades termofísicas de la escarcha formada y predecir comportamientos para otras condiciones de operación. Los resultados revelan mejor concordancia con datos experimentales que la obtenida por otros autores, y levemente inferior a la del modelo de sobresaturación. Abstract in english The development of a computational code that simulates the formation and frost growth on a cool plate, for the vapor-water ablimation of a humid air current that flows on it, is presented. The numeric modeling is based on the conservation equations of mass, energy, momentum and species applied to th [...] e frost, air-vapor mixtures and air-frost interface. The system of equations is not linear and is coupled by the ice volumetric fraction which is calculated by iteration. The model is validated by comparing the numerical results with experimental data, reproducing the thermophysical properties evolution of the frost formed and predicting the behavior for other operating conditions. The results reveal better agreement with experimental data that those obtained by other authors, and slightly inferior to that of the supersaturation model.

Jorge A, Gatica; Vicente A, Pita; Nisio de C, Lobo.

198

Fall frost resistance in willows used for biomass production. II. Predictive relationships with sugar concentration and dry matter content.  

Science.gov (United States)

The accumulation of sugars and dry matter in stems in fall was examined in relation to frost hardening in eight willow clones (six clones of Salix viminalis L. and one clone each of S. viminalis x S. schwerenii E. Wolf and S. dasyclados Wimm.). Evidence is presented that three sources of variation in fall frost resistance among the eight clones could be assessed from an analysis of stem composition. First, the pre-hardening value of frost resistance could be assessed from the total sugar concentration. Second, the start of induction of apical growth cessation and hence frost hardening could be distinguished by a stepwise increase in sucrose-to-glucose ratio. Third, the progress of frost hardening during its first phase could be followed from a proportional rise in total sugar concentration and, even more accurately, from a proportional rise in dry-to-fresh weight ratio. In contrast, the second phase of frost hardening was largely uncoupled from sugar and dry matter accumulation. Raffinose and sucrose accumulation seemed to be under differential environmental controls. Sucrose accumulation started with the initiation of growth cessation controlled by photoperiod, whereas raffinose accumulation started with falling temperatures later on. Starch reserves that built up in stems in early fall were partially mobilized later on to support sugar accumulation. In contrast to stems, leaves did not exhibit a preferential accumulation of sucrose in fall. PMID:12651315

Ogren, Erling

1999-09-01

199

Calculation and Analysis of Frost Duration Times by Using Delphi Programming: A Case Study in Lorestan, Iran  

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Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to calculate the duration times of frosts by Delphi programming. To do this, the data related to the daily minimum temperature of four meteorology stations of Lorestan Province, i.e., Khoram-Abad, Boroujerd, Doroud and Aligoudarz that enjoy a ten-year statistics (from 1993 to 2003 were obtained from the information bank of the National Meteorology Organization. After taking out the frost days in desired threshold (zero and less than zero during the statistical period, frost duration times of each station were calculated and extracted, using algorithm of the afore-mentioned program. Then, the duration times were selectively divided into eight (three-hour classes. Their frequency percent charts were drawn and all stations were compared to one another in three classes of 0 to 3 h, 9 to 12 h and 21 to 24 h. It was concluded that Boroujerd Station enjoys the most frost hours and, hence damages to crops were the highest in this station compared with other stations. It was further concluded that the vegetation is the most effective factor in frost duration times of the region and that the height factor has no effect on frost duration times.

Z. Hejazizadeh

2007-01-01

200

Analysis of heat transfer and frost layer formation on a cryogenic tank wall exposed to the humid atmospheric air  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper heat transfer characteristics and frost layer formation are investigated numerically on the surface of a cryogenic oxidizer tank for a liquid propulsion rocket, where a frost layer could be a significant factor in maintaining oxidizer temperature within a required range. Frost formation is modeled by considering mass diffusion of water vapor in the air into the frost layer and various heat transfer modes such as natural and forced convection, latent heat, solar radiation of short wavelength, and ambient radiation of long wavelength. Computational results are first compared with the available measurements and show favorable agreement on thickness and effective thermal conductivity of the frost layer. In the case of the cryogenic tank, a series of parametric studies is presented in order to examine the effects of important parameters such as temperature and wind speed of ambient air, air humidity, and tank wall temperature on the frost layer formation and the amount of heat transfer into the tank. It is found that the heat transfer by solar radiation is significant and also that heat transfer strongly depends on air humidity, ambient air temperature, and wind speed but not tank wall temperature.

 
 
 
 
201

Decadal predictability of frost days in the MPI-ESM-LR model  

Science.gov (United States)

The number of frost days (days with minimum temperature below 0°C) is a typical index for cold temperature extremes defined by the Joint CCl/CLIVAR/JCOMM Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI). It's predictability on inter-annual to decadal time scales bears economic and societal relevance, e.g. as basis for energy or agricultural policy planning. As part of the MiKlip initiative for decadal prediction, annually initialised ensemble hindcast experiments with the Max-Planck-Institute Earth System Model in a low resolution configuration (MPI-ESM-LR, T63L47) have been carried out. For a period of 35 years (1961-1995) we analyze the number of frost days per season and grid point on a 5° x 5° longitude-latitude grid for the northern hemisphere stemming from ten/three ensemble member hindcasts produced with two different initialisation strategies. The ensembles are interpreted as probabilistic predictions of historically equiprobable three-category events (below normal, normal, above normal) and as such are compared to frost day counts from HadEx2 and the 20th Century Reanalysis. Prediction skill over climatological forecasts and uninitialised climate projections is assessed for various lead times using the Ranked Probability Skill Score (RPSS).

Kröner, Igor; Kruschke, Tim; Rust, Henning W.; Ulbrich, Uwe

2014-05-01

202

Numerical heat transfer model for frost protection of citrus fruits by water from a spraying system  

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Full Text Available A simplified model is developed to simulate the conditions associated with the protection of fruits from frost damage using water from a spraying system. The model simulates the movement of the solidifying water front on a single fruit, and based on that determines the spray frequency needed for a water film to continuously surround the ice-coated fruit to prevent the fruit temperature from dropping below 0ºC. Simulations are presented for the frost protection of sweet oranges (citrus sinensis. The effect of environmental conditions such as air temperature, air velocity, surface radiation and water film evaporation on the development of the ice layer encasing is considered. Simulations show the effect the encasing ice sheet thickness has on the fruit temperature if water from a spraying system is turned off permanently. Experimental tests are also conducted to determine the change in the thermal properties of citrus sinensis for operating temperatures that range from above freezing to sub-freezing. The results of the experimental tests and the numerical simulations shall lead to a better understanding of fruit protection from frost damage by the application of water from a spraying system.

Issa Roy J.

2012-01-01

203

Adaptação de espécies arbóreas nativas em um sistema agrossilvicultural, submetidas a extremos climáticos de geada na região de Florianópolis / Adaptation of native tree species submitted to extreme frost stress under an agrosilvicultural system in the Florianopolis region  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta de cinco espécies arbóreas nativas submetidas a extremos climáticos de geada em um sistema agroflorestal, na região de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina (latitude de 27º35' S , longitude 48º34' W e altitude de 1,84 m). O solo é do tipo Neossolo [...] quartzarênico hidromórfico distrófico, textura arenosa, com elevada flutuação do lençol freático. Foram tomadas sete parcelas de dez árvores, seguindo o delineamento estatístico inteiramente casualizado. Os parâmetros analisados foram altura total, número de folhas, incremento médio em altura total e número de folhas de cada árvore (quantificados a cada quatro meses), porcentagem de árvores com folhas danificadas pela geada e sobrevivência de cada planta após a geada. Os parâmetros estatísticos analisados foram a média e o desvio-padrão. Para analisar os resultados utilizou-se o teste de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. Os ingás (Inga uruguensis e Inga sessilis) apresentaram tolerância à geada e um alto potencial para implantação em SAFs nas condições edafoclimáticas em estudo. A espécie tucaneira (Citharexylium myrianthum) apresentou pouca tolerância à geada, porém mostrou alta taxa de rebrota. As espécies corticeira (Erythrina falcata), olandi (Calophyllum brasilienses) e licurana (Hieronyma alchorneoides) apresentaram alta mortalidade em razão da geada, não se mostrando indicadas para compor um SAF na região em estudo. Abstract in english This work aimed to evaluate the response of five indigenous arboreal species, submitted to extreme frost stress in an agroforest system (AFS) in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina (lat. 27º35' S, long. 48º34' W and alt. of 1,84 m). The soil is a distrophic Hydromorphic Quartzarenic Neosoil, with sandy te [...] xture, and high watertable flotation.The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete design, with seven plots of ten trees each. The analyzed parameters were: height, number of leaves, average height increase and number of leaves of each tree, measured every four months, percentage of burned leaves and rate of survival of the plants after frost. The statistical parameters analyzed were: average and standard deviation.The Tukey test at 5% probability was used to analyze the results. The ingás (Inga uruguensis and Inga sessilis) showed tolerance to frost and a high potential for AFS, under the edafo-climatic conditions studied. The species tucaneira (Citharexylum myrianthum) did not show good tolerance to frost but it did show a high resprouting rate. The species corticeira (Erythrina falcata), olandi (Calophyllum brasiliense) and licurana (Hieronyma alchorneoides) showed a high mortality rate under frost, but it did not show a good potential for AFS under the edafo-climatic conditions studied.

Ana Rita Rodrigues, Vieira; Diogo, Feistauer; Vanderley Porfírio da, Silva.

204

Adaptação de espécies arbóreas nativas em um sistema agrossilvicultural, submetidas a extremos climáticos de geada na região de Florianópolis / Adaptation of native tree species submitted to extreme frost stress under an agrosilvicultural system in the Florianopolis region  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta de cinco espécies arbóreas nativas submetidas a extremos climáticos de geada em um sistema agroflorestal, na região de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina (latitude de 27º35' S , longitude 48º34' W e altitude de 1,84 m). O solo é do tipo Neossolo [...] quartzarênico hidromórfico distrófico, textura arenosa, com elevada flutuação do lençol freático. Foram tomadas sete parcelas de dez árvores, seguindo o delineamento estatístico inteiramente casualizado. Os parâmetros analisados foram altura total, número de folhas, incremento médio em altura total e número de folhas de cada árvore (quantificados a cada quatro meses), porcentagem de árvores com folhas danificadas pela geada e sobrevivência de cada planta após a geada. Os parâmetros estatísticos analisados foram a média e o desvio-padrão. Para analisar os resultados utilizou-se o teste de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. Os ingás (Inga uruguensis e Inga sessilis) apresentaram tolerância à geada e um alto potencial para implantação em SAFs nas condições edafoclimáticas em estudo. A espécie tucaneira (Citharexylium myrianthum) apresentou pouca tolerância à geada, porém mostrou alta taxa de rebrota. As espécies corticeira (Erythrina falcata), olandi (Calophyllum brasilienses) e licurana (Hieronyma alchorneoides) apresentaram alta mortalidade em razão da geada, não se mostrando indicadas para compor um SAF na região em estudo. Abstract in english This work aimed to evaluate the response of five indigenous arboreal species, submitted to extreme frost stress in an agroforest system (AFS) in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina (lat. 27º35' S, long. 48º34' W and alt. of 1,84 m). The soil is a distrophic Hydromorphic Quartzarenic Neosoil, with sandy te [...] xture, and high watertable flotation.The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete design, with seven plots of ten trees each. The analyzed parameters were: height, number of leaves, average height increase and number of leaves of each tree, measured every four months, percentage of burned leaves and rate of survival of the plants after frost. The statistical parameters analyzed were: average and standard deviation.The Tukey test at 5% probability was used to analyze the results. The ingás (Inga uruguensis and Inga sessilis) showed tolerance to frost and a high potential for AFS, under the edafo-climatic conditions studied. The species tucaneira (Citharexylum myrianthum) did not show good tolerance to frost but it did show a high resprouting rate. The species corticeira (Erythrina falcata), olandi (Calophyllum brasiliense) and licurana (Hieronyma alchorneoides) showed a high mortality rate under frost, but it did not show a good potential for AFS under the edafo-climatic conditions studied.

Ana Rita Rodrigues, Vieira; Diogo, Feistauer; Vanderley Porfírio da, Silva.

2003-10-01

205

Effects of complete deep-soil cultivation on initial forest stand development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Long-term effects of complete deep-soil cultivation on forest growth and yield were evaluated in an experiment initiated in 1988 on six different sites in Sweden. Complete deep-soil cultivation was compared with less intensive site preparation. Ten years after the start. growth. stand structure. damage and survival were evaluated. Conifer seedling growth and survival on sandy sites, frost-prone sites or both. generally increased following deep-soil cultivation compared to patch scarification....

O?rlander, Go?ran; Nordborg, Fredrik; Gemmel, Per

2002-01-01

206

Aclimatação ao frio e dano por geada em canola / Acclimatization to cold and frost-injury in canola  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da aclimatação ao frio sobre o dano causado pela geada em diferentes estádios fenológicos de genótipos de canola. Foram realizados cinco experimentos em ambiente controlado, em 2006, 2007 e 2008. Os fatores avaliados foram: genótipos, aclimatação (c [...] om; sem), intensidades de geada, estádios de desenvolvimento de plantas, regimes de aclimatação e regimes de geada. As variáveis avaliadas foram: queima de folhas, massa de matéria seca, estatura de plantas, duração de subperíodo, componentes de rendimento e rendimento de grãos. A aclimatação ao frio, antes da geada, resultou em menor queima de folhas e maior massa de matéria seca, em comparação a plantas não aclimatadas. As geadas foram prejudiciais a partir de -6°C no início do ciclo de desenvolvimento, principalmente em plantas não aclimatadas, e a partir de -4ºC na floração, com redução do número de síliquas e do número de grãos por síliqua. A aclimatação após as geadas não contribuiu para a tolerância da canola a esse evento. Geadas consecutivas não acarretaram maior prejuízo à canola. A aclimatação de plantas de canola antes da geada reduz os danos, principalmente quando a geada ocorre no início do desenvolvimento das plantas. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of cold acclimatization on frost damage at different phenological stages of canola genotypes. Five experiments were carried out under controlled conditions, in 2006, 2007, and 2008. The evaluated factors were: genotypes, acclimatization (with; [...] without), frost gradient, plant developmental stages, acclimatization regimes and frost regimes. The evaluated variables were: leaf scorching symptoms, dry weight, plant height, length of subperiod, yield components and grain yield. The acclimatization before frost resulted in lesser leaf scorching symptoms and higher dry matter in comparison to plants not acclimated. Frosts were harmful from -6°C in early plant development stage, mainly in nonacclimated plants, and from -4ºC at flowering, reducing the number of pods and the number of grains per pod. Acclimatization after frost did not contribute to the tolerance of canola to frost. Consecutive frosts caused no greater impairment to canola. The canola acclimatization before frost reduces damage caused by it, mainly when the frost occur in the initial plant development stages.

Genei Antonio, Dalmago; Gilberto Rocca da, Cunha; Anderson, Santi; João Leonardo Fernandes, Pires; Alexandre Luiz, Müller; Laise Maria, Bolis.

2010-09-01

207

Aclimatação ao frio e dano por geada em canola Acclimatization to cold and frost-injury in canola  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da aclimatação ao frio sobre o dano causado pela geada em diferentes estádios fenológicos de genótipos de canola. Foram realizados cinco experimentos em ambiente controlado, em 2006, 2007 e 2008. Os fatores avaliados foram: genótipos, aclimatação (com; sem, intensidades de geada, estádios de desenvolvimento de plantas, regimes de aclimatação e regimes de geada. As variáveis avaliadas foram: queima de folhas, massa de matéria seca, estatura de plantas, duração de subperíodo, componentes de rendimento e rendimento de grãos. A aclimatação ao frio, antes da geada, resultou em menor queima de folhas e maior massa de matéria seca, em comparação a plantas não aclimatadas. As geadas foram prejudiciais a partir de -6°C no início do ciclo de desenvolvimento, principalmente em plantas não aclimatadas, e a partir de -4ºC na floração, com redução do número de síliquas e do número de grãos por síliqua. A aclimatação após as geadas não contribuiu para a tolerância da canola a esse evento. Geadas consecutivas não acarretaram maior prejuízo à canola. A aclimatação de plantas de canola antes da geada reduz os danos, principalmente quando a geada ocorre no início do desenvolvimento das plantas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of cold acclimatization on frost damage at different phenological stages of canola genotypes. Five experiments were carried out under controlled conditions, in 2006, 2007, and 2008. The evaluated factors were: genotypes, acclimatization (with; without, frost gradient, plant developmental stages, acclimatization regimes and frost regimes. The evaluated variables were: leaf scorching symptoms, dry weight, plant height, length of subperiod, yield components and grain yield. The acclimatization before frost resulted in lesser leaf scorching symptoms and higher dry matter in comparison to plants not acclimated. Frosts were harmful from -6°C in early plant development stage, mainly in nonacclimated plants, and from -4ºC at flowering, reducing the number of pods and the number of grains per pod. Acclimatization after frost did not contribute to the tolerance of canola to frost. Consecutive frosts caused no greater impairment to canola. The canola acclimatization before frost reduces damage caused by it, mainly when the frost occur in the initial plant development stages.

Genei Antonio Dalmago

2010-09-01

208

Association analysis of frost tolerance in rye using candidate genes and phenotypic data from controlled, semi-controlled, and field phenotyping platforms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Frost is an important abiotic stress that limits cereal production in the temperate zone. As the most frost tolerant small grain cereal, rye (Secale cereale L.) is an ideal cereal model for investigating the genetic basis of frost tolerance (FT), a complex trait with polygenic inheritance. Using 201 genotypes from five Eastern and Middle European winter rye populations, this study reports a multi-platform candidate gene-based association analysis ...

Li Yongle; Böck Andreas; Haseneyer Grit; Korzun Viktor; Wilde Peer; Schön Chris-Carolin; Ankerst Donna P; Bauer Eva

2011-01-01

209

Metals in urban playground soils  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Urban soils generally have elevated metal contents originating from both point and diffuse pollution sources. Urban areas designated for children, who are most susceptible to any negative health effects of soil metals, may therefore have elevated soil metal contents. Children ingest soil both directly and by putting dirty hands and objects in their mouths. The soil ingested involuntarily mainly comprise very fine particles that have a larger surface area for sorption and may therefore hold hi...

Ljung, Karin

2006-01-01

210

Experimental Study on Frost Height of Round Plate Fin-Tube Heat Exchangers for Mobile Heat Pumps  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to provide experimental data that could be used to predict frost growth and frost performance of a round plate fin-tube heat exchanger for low temperature heat pumps used in zero emission vehicles under cold weather conditions. In this study, round plate fin-tube heat exchangers were tested with variation of the fin space, air flow rate, relative humidity, and inlet air temperature. Frost height was measured and considered with the boundary layer interruption between fins. Frost height for 8.0 mm of fin space was increased by approximately 91.9% with an increase of relative humidity from 50.0% to 80.0%. The growth rate of frost height at 1.2 m3/min was observed to be 13.0% greater than that at 0.8 m3/min. Finally, the variation of the blockage ratio with fin space would be an important reference for designing advanced heat exchangers that operate under cold weather conditions.

Dong-Yeon Lee

2012-09-01

211

Numerical simulation of moisture migration depending on the rate of soil freezing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the geomechanics challenges is the quantitative assessment of deformation of soils associated with frost heaving and thawing. The main difficulty in solving this problem is the need to consider changing the state of soil freezing and thawing ground and thermophysical characteristics of the medium in a transient state. The main process in frozen soil is the redistribution of moisture in them due to water migration during freezing. When water freezes, the soil characteristics, its physical and mechanical properties change.This paper includes description of a numerical simulation method and study about humidity changing in frozen soils, depending on the rate of soil freezing. The influence of soil humidity changing on the values of strength characteristics during the process of thawing is evaluated.The developed technique of numerical simulation of the freezing and thawing process allows assessing the impact of frost heaving forces, decreasing the strength of buildings foundations and structures during freezing and thawing at the design stage. This allows the effective implementing of modern structures for soils and foundations reinforcement using geosynthetics to reduce or eliminate frost heave processes and thawing.

A.V. Kazharskiy

2012-06-01

212

Liquid-infused nanostructured surfaces with extreme anti-ice and anti-frost performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ice-repellent coatings can have significant impact on global energy savings and improving safety in many infrastructures, transportation, and cooling systems. Recent efforts for developing ice-phobic surfaces have been mostly devoted to utilizing lotus-leaf-inspired superhydrophobic surfaces, yet these surfaces fail in high-humidity conditions due to water condensation and frost formation and even lead to increased ice adhesion due to a large surface area. We report a radically different type of ice-repellent material based on slippery, liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS), where a stable, ultrasmooth, low-hysteresis lubricant overlayer is maintained by infusing a water-immiscible liquid into a nanostructured surface chemically functionalized to have a high affinity to the infiltrated liquid and lock it in place. We develop a direct fabrication method of SLIPS on industrially relevant metals, particularly aluminum, one of the most widely used lightweight structural materials. We demonstrate that SLIPS-coated Al surfaces not only suppress ice/frost accretion by effectively removing condensed moisture but also exhibit at least an order of magnitude lower ice adhesion than state-of-the-art materials. On the basis of a theoretical analysis followed by extensive icing/deicing experiments, we discuss special advantages of SLIPS as ice-repellent surfaces: highly reduced sliding droplet sizes resulting from the extremely low contact angle hysteresis. We show that our surfaces remain essentially frost-free in which any conventional materials accumulate ice. These results indicate that SLIPS is a promising candidate for developing robust anti-icing materials for broad applications, such as refrigeration, aviation, roofs, wires, outdoor signs, railings, and wind turbines. PMID:22680067

Kim, Philseok; Wong, Tak-Sing; Alvarenga, Jack; Kreder, Michael J; Adorno-Martinez, Wilmer E; Aizenberg, Joanna

2012-08-28

213

CLAS+FROST: new generation of photoproduction experiments at Jefferson Lab  

CERN Document Server

A large part of the experimental program in Hall B of the Jefferson Lab is dedicated to baryon spectroscopy. Photoproduction experiments are essential part of this program. CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) and availability of circularly and linearly polarized tagged photon beams provide unique conditions for this type of experiments. Recent addition of the Frozen Spin Target (FROST) gives a remarkable opportunity to measure double and triple polarization observables for different pseudo-scalar meson photoproduction processes. For the first time, a complete or nearly complete experiment becomes possible and will allow model independent extraction of the reaction amplitude. An overview of the experiment and its current status is presented.

Pasyuk, Eugene

2009-01-01

214

Determination of E and G Observables in n Photoproduction on the CLAS Frozen Spin Target (FROST)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polarization observables are vital for disentangling overlapping resonances in the baryon spectrum. Extensive data have been collected at Jefferson Lab in Hall B with circularly and linearly polarized tagged photon beam incident on longitudinally polarized protons provided by the Frozen Spin Target (FROST). The focus of the described work is on ? photoproduction, which acts as an "isospin filter", isolating the N*(I = 1/2) resonances. Preliminary results for the double-polarization observables E and G are presented. There are currently no data on these in the world database for ? photoproduction.

Senderovich, Igor [University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Morrison, Brian T. [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Dugger, Michael R. [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Ritchie, Barry G. [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Tucker, Ross J. [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States)

2014-01-01

215

Determination of E and G Observables in n Photoproduction on the CLAS Frozen Spin Target (FROST)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polarization observables are vital for disentangling overlapping resonances in the baryon spectrum. Extensive data have been collected at Jefferson Lab in Hall B with circularly and linearly polarized tagged photon beam incident on longitudinally polarized protons provided by the Frozen Spin Target (FROST). The focus of the described work is on I photoproduction, which acts as an 'isospin filter', isolating the N*(I = 1/2) resonances. Preliminary results for the double-polarization observables E and G are presented. There are currently no data on these in the world database for ? photoproduction

216

Development of a Frost Risk Assessment Tool in Agriculture for a Mediterranean ecosystem Utilizing MODIS satellite observations Geomatics and Surface Data  

Science.gov (United States)

Frost risk in Mediterranean countries is a critical factor in agricultural planning and management. Nowadays, the rapid technological developments in Earth Observation (EO) technology have improved dramatically our ability to map the spatiotemporal distribution of frost conditions over a given area and evaluate its impacts on the environment and society. In this study, a frost risk model for agricultural crops cultivated in a Mediterranean environment has been developed, based primarily on Earth Observation (EO) data from MODIS sensor and ancillary spatial and point data. The ability of the model to predict frost conditions has been validated for selected days on which frost conditions had been observed for a region in Northwestern Greece according to ground observations obtained by the Agricultural Insurance Organization (ELGA). An extensive evaluation of the frost risk model predictions has been performed herein to evaluate objectively its ability to predict the spatio-temporal distribution of frost risk in the studied region, including comparisons against physiographical factors of the study area. The topographical characteristics that were taken under consideration were latitude, altitude, slope steepness, topographic convergence and the extend of the areas influenced by water bodies (such as lake and sea) existing in the study area. Additional data were also used concerning land use data and vegetation classification (type and density). Our results showed that the model was able to produce reasonably the spatio-temporal distribution of the frost conditions in our study area, following largely explainable patterns in respect to the study site and local weather conditions characteristics. All in all, the methodology implemented herein proved capable in obtaining rapidly and cost-effectively cartography of the frost risk in a Mediterranean environment, making it potentially a very useful tool for agricultural management and planning. The model presented here has also a potential to enhance conventional field-based surveying for monitoring frost changes over long timescales. KEYWORDS: Earth Observation, MODIS, frost, risk assessment, Greece

Louka, Panagiota; Papanikolaou, Ioannis; Petropoulos, George; Migiros, George; Tsiros, Ioannis

2014-05-01

217

Effects of fin pitch and array of the frost layer growth on extended surface of a heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the effects of the fin array and pitch on the frost layer growth of a heat exchanger. The numerical results are compared with experimental data of a cold plate to validate the present model, and agree well with experimental data within a maximum error of 8%. The characteristics of the frost formation on staggered fin array are somewhat different from those of in-line array. For fin pitch below 10 mm, the frost layer growth of second fin in the staggered array is affected by that of first fin. The heat transfer of single fin deteriorate with decreasing fin pitch regardless of fin array, however, the thermal performance of a heat exchanger, considering increase of heat surface area, becomes better

218

Robert Frost's Chicken Feathers and Other Lectures from the 1968 Augustana College NDEA English Institute. Augustana College Press Monograph Series No. 1.  

Science.gov (United States)

The four lectures in this publication were composed with the common concern for making the study of high school English more effective and more delightful. Papers are (1) "Robert Frost's Chicken Feathers" by C. W. Geyer (discusses the influence of oral folklore and humor on Frost's poetry); (2) "Nature in Literature" by Gerhard T. Alexis; (3)…

Huseboe, Arthur R., Ed.

219

ASSESSMENT OF CERAMIC TILE FROST RESISTANCE BY MEANS OF THE FREQUENCY INSPECTION METHOD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents some results of our experimental analysis of ceramic cladding element frost resistance, particular attention being paid to the application of the frequency inspection method. Three different sets of ceramic tiles of the Ia class to EN 14 411 B standard made by various manufacturers have been analyzed. The ceramic tiles under investigation have been subjected to freeze-thaw-cycle-based degradation in compliance with the relevant ?SN EN ISO 10545-12 standard. Furthermore, accelerated degradation procedure has been applied to selected test specimens, consisting in reducing the temperature of water soaked ceramic tiles in the course of the degradation cycles down –70°C. To verify the correctness of the frequency inspection results, additional physical properties of the ceramic tiles under test have been measured, such as, the ceramic tile strength limit, modulus of elasticity and modulus of deformability, resulting from the flexural tensile strength tests, integrity defect and surface micro-geometry tracking. It has been proved that the acoustic method of frequency inspection is a sensitive indicator of the structure condition and can be applied to the ceramic cladding element frost resistance and service life prediction assessment.

MICHAL MATYSÍK

2011-06-01

220

Experimental study of no-frost refrigerator. Part 1: heat transfer through the walls; Estudo experimental de um refrigerador no-frost. Parte 1: transferencia de calor atraves das paredes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper approaches the heat transfer in permanent regimen trough the walls of a no-frost refrigerator with two compartments with forced internal ventilation. The presented methodology allows the determination of thermal resistances of the walls externally. Also, the heating effect due to the compressor, the condenser and the air distribution between the compartments are investigated.

Goncalves, Joaquim Manoel [Escola Tecnica Federal de Santa Catarina, Sao Jose, SC (Brazil)]. E-mail: joaquim@nrva.ufsc.br; Melo, Claudio; Vieira, Luis Antonio Torquato [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

2000-07-01

 
 
 
 
221

Soil magnetic susceptibility and surface topographic characteristics in cultivated soils  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

[ES] La distribución espacial de la concentración de los minerales magnéticos en el suelo se puede evaluar a partir de las características de los atributos topográficos. La topografía de la superficie del terreno controla los patrones de la escorrentía y la redistribución del suelo, estos procesos afectan a la variabilidad espacial de los minerales magnéticos presentes en el suelo. En este estudio la susceptibilidad magnética se ha relacionado con diferentes atributos topográficos ...

Quijano Gaudes, Laura; Gaspar Ferrer, Leticia; Lo?pez-vicente, Manuel; Chaparro, Marcos A. E.; Machi?n Gayarre, Javier; Navas Izquierdo, Ana

2011-01-01

222

Effects of Condensate and Initial Formation of Thin Frost Layer on Evaporator Coil Performance of Room Air-Conditioners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated experimentally and theoretically, how condensate and initial formation of a thin frost layer on thesurface of the evaporator affects the evaporator performance of room air-conditioners compared to dry coil conditions. The theoretically obtained results were validated with the measured values in both wet and initial frost formation conditions and a good correlation was found. The results indicated that, at the same range of change in face velocity value, the total conductivity of a dry coil (UA dry is increased by 38.8%. However, when it is combined with an increase in latent heat to the evaporator total cooling capacity ratio value (Qlat/Q of 10.6%, the total conductivity of wet coil (UA wet is 45.4%. These results clearly indicate that the evaporator coil is characterized by higher performance under wet conditions compared to dry coil conditions. The results also show that the total conductivity after initial formation of a thin frost layer (UA Fr has a higher value by about 8.2% than the dry coil condition. Moreover, the degradation in the evaporator coil performance underthin frost with a thickness up to one mm is only about 6.7%.

Ahmed Hamza H. Ali

2007-12-01

223

The role of the observed tropical convection in the generation of frost events in the southern cone of South America  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on previous results obtained from observations and linear wave theory analysis, the hypothesis that large-scale patterns can generate extreme cold events in southeast South America through the propagation of remotely excited Rossby waves was already suggested. This work will confirm these findings and extend their analysis through a series of numerical experiments using a primitive equation model where waves are excited by a thermal forcing situated in positions chosen according to observed convection anomalies over the equatorial region. The basic state used for these experiments is a composite of austral winters with maximum and minimum frequency of occurrence of generalized frosts that can affect a large area known as the Wet Pampas located in the central and eastern part of Argentina.

The results suggest that stationary Rossby waves may be one important mechanism linking anomalous tropical convection with the extreme cold events in the Wet Pampas. The combination of tropical convection and a specific basic state can generate the right environment to guide the Rossby waves trigged by the tropical forcing towards South America. Depending on the phase of the waves entering the South American continent, they can favour the advection of anomalous wind at low levels from the south carrying cold and dry air over the whole southern extreme of the continent, producing a generalized frost in the Wet Pampa region. On the other hand, when a basic state based on the composites of minimum frosts is used, an anomalous anticyclone over the southern part of the continent generates a circulation with a south-southeast wind which brings maritime air and therefore humidity over the Wet Pampas region, creating negative temperature anomalies only over the northeastern part of the region. Under these conditions even if frosts occur they would not be generalized, as observed for the other basic state with maximum frequency of occurrence of generalized frosts.

G. V. Müller

2008-06-01

224

Climatic significance of the bristlecone pine latewood frost-ring record at Almagre Mountain, Colorado, U.S.A.  

Science.gov (United States)

From 1900 to 1993, latewood frost rings occurred in 1903, 1912, 1941, 1961, and 1965 in 10 to 21% of the sampled bristlecone pines at Almagre Mountain, Colorado. In early to mid September in each of those years, a severe outbreak of unseasonably cold air from higher latitudes produced a memorable or historic late-summer snowstorm in the western United States. Record subfreezing temperatures during these snowstorms probably caused the latewood frost rings, shortened (by about 1 mo in 1912) already colder than normal growing seasons, and caused crop damage in parts of the Western United States. Latewood frost rings recorded in relatively high percentages of the sampled trees (such as the 1805 event in 61% of sampled trees) were probably caused by multiple severe outbreaks of unseasonably cold air from higher latitudes that occurred from early September (possibly as early as mid- or late August) to mid-September. Analyses of 1900-1992 temperature data for two widely separated Colorado stations, Fort Collins and Colorado Springs, show that average summer (June-September) temperatures during latewood frost-ring years in this century were 1.5 and 2.0??C cooler than normal, respectively. Mountain snowpack probably persisted through these cool summers and was subsequently buried by the earlier than normal snowfall in September. Latewood frost-ring, ring-width, historical, and other data suggest that severe to cataclysmic volcanic eruptions from 1812 to 1835 triggered (1) an extended period of climatic cooling from as early as 1816 or 1817 through the early 1850s in the Southern Rocky Mountains, (2) catastrophic winters in Colorado and Wyoming in 1842-43 and 1844-45, and in the Great Salt Lake Basin in 1836-37, that caused large-scale destruction of bison and other large plains animals, and (3) Little Ice Age alpine glacial advances in about 1850-60 in the western United States.

Craig, Brunstein F.

1996-01-01

225

The role of the observed tropical convection in the generation of frost events in the southern cone of South America  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on previous results obtained from observations and linear wave theory analysis, the hypothesis that large-scale patterns can generate extreme cold events in southeast South America through the propagation of remotely excited Rossby waves was already suggested. This work will confirm these findings and extend their analysis through a series of numerical experiments using a primitive equation model where waves are excited by a thermal forcing situated in positions chosen according to observed convection anomalies over the equatorial region. The basic state used for these experiments is a composite of austral winters with maximum and minimum frequency of occurrence of generalized frosts that can affect a large area known as the Wet Pampas located in the central and eastern part of Argentina. The results suggest that stationary Rossby waves may be one important mechanism linking anomalous tropical convection with the extreme cold events in the Wet Pampas. The combination of tropical convection and a specific basic state can generate the right environment to guide the Rossby waves trigged by the tropical forcing towards South America. Depending on the phase of the waves entering the South American continent, they can favour the advection of anomalous wind at low levels from the south carrying cold and dry air over the whole southern extreme of the continent, producing a generalized frost in the Wet Pampa region. On the other hand, when a basic state based on the composites of minimum frosts is used, an anomalous anticyclone over the southern part of the continent generates a circulation with a south-southeast wind which brings maritime air and therefore humidity over the Wet Pampas region, creating negative temperature anomalies only over the northeastern part of the region. Under these conditions even if frosts occur they would not be generalized, as observed for the other basic state with maximum frequency of occurrence of generalized frosts. (orig.)

Mueller, G.V. [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Transferencia Tecnologica a la Produccion (CICYTTP/CONICET), Diamante (Argentina); Ambrizzi, T. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Atmosfericas; Ferraz, S.E. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria/CRSPE-INPE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

2008-07-01

226

Identification of leaf proteins differentially accumulated during cold acclimation between Festuca pratensis plants with distinct levels of frost tolerance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Festuca pratensis (meadow fescue) as the most frost-tolerant species within the Lolium-Festuca complex was used as a model for research aimed at identifying the cellular components involved in the cold acclimation (CA) of forage grasses. The work presented here also comprises the first comprehensive proteomic research on CA in a group of monocotyledonous species which are able to withstand winter conditions. Individual F. pratensis plants with contrasting levels of frost tolerance, high frost tolerant (HFT) and low frost tolerant (LFT) plants, were selected for comparative proteomic research. The work focused on the analysis of leaf protein accumulation before and after 2, 8, and 26 h, and 3, 5, 7, 14, and 21 d of CA, using high-throughput two-dimensional electrophoresis, and on the identification of proteins which were accumulated differentially between the selected plants by the application of mass spectrometry. The analyses of approximately 800 protein profiles revealed a total of 41 (5.1%) proteins that showed a minimum of a 1.5-fold difference in abundance, at a minimum of one time point of CA for HFT and LFT genotypes. It was shown that significant differences in profiles of protein accumulation between the analysed plants appeared relatively early during cold acclimation, most often after 26 h (on the 2nd day) of CA and one-half of the differentially accumulated proteins were all parts of the photosynthetic apparatus. Several proteins identified here have been reported to be differentially accumulated during cold conditions for the first time in this paper. The functions of the selected proteins in plant cells and their probable influence on the level of frost tolerance in F. pratensis, are discussed. PMID:19553368

Kosmala, Arkadiusz; Bocian, Aleksandra; Rapacz, Marcin; Jurczyk, Barbara; Zwierzykowski, Zbigniew

2009-01-01

227

Frost resistance of building materials : Modelling of critical degrees of saturation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this thesis it is shown that the critical degree of saturation is suitable as parameter for the frost resistance of porous building materials. A numerical model for prediction of critical degrees of saturation based on fracture mechanics and phase geometry of two-phase materials, e.g. porous materials, has been developed.The importance of the pore structure on the development of stresses in the material during freezing is emphasized. To verify the model, experimental investigations are made on various concretes without air-entrainment and brick tiles with different porosities.Calculations of critical degrees of saturation are compared with experimentally determined values and results from standardised freeze-thaw tests. Based on these results, the model, its mode of operation and the conditions of the model is analysed and discussed.Appendices and description of supplementary tests are placed in separate volumes.

Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place

1996-01-01

228

Frost protection for wind energy installations; Frostschutz fuer Windenergieanlagen. Eisfreie Oberflaechen der Natur abgeschaut  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article discusses how naidered intural materials can be used to prevent wind energy installations in exposed alpine locations from icing up. The problems encountered with wind turbines in Scandinavia and in the Swiss Alps due to icing-up are discussed. The mechanisms involved in the formation of hoar frost and clear ice on the rotors of the wind turbines are discussed. Techniques and materials for fighting the icing-up of the rotors are examined. Various special 'ice-phobic' coatings for the rotor blades are listed and discussed. These must adhere to the rotor blades but be repellent to ice. Teflon is quoted as being the most tested material. So-called 'anti-freeze' proteins that can be found in fish and insects are also being examined as a possible coating for the rotors.

Siegmann, K.; Meola, G.; Hirayama, M.

2009-07-01

229

Results of the radiological survey at 15 Frost Place, Albany, New York  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A number of properties in the Albany/Colonie area have been identified as being potentially contaminated with uranium originating from the former National Lead Company's uranium forming plant in Colonie, New York. The property at 15 Frost Place in Albany, New York, was the subject of a radiological investigation initiated July 22, 1986. The residential property consists of a two-story frame house with a separate garage located on a rectangular lot. An asphalt driveway connects the garage to the street. A diagram of the property showing the approximate boundaries and the 5-m grid network established for measurements outside the house is shown. The lot included in the radiological survey was /approximately/ 16 m wide by 33 m deep. Front and rear views of the property are shown. 13 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

230

Jet impingement heat transfer in a frost-free refrigerator: The influence of confinement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat transfer characteristics of a slot air jet (width w) impinging on a circular cylinder (diameter d = w) located 5d from the jet exit in a confined space have been studied for Reynolds number (based on cylinder diameter and mean jet velocity) in the range of 1000-12,000. This situation is found in a frost-free refrigerator, amongst other rapid food refrigeration applications. The results reveal that the slot jet impinging on a circular cylinder in a confined space yields heat transfer rates that are between those for the corresponding uniform cross-flow (lower limit) and slot jet impingement on a non-confined cylinder (upper limit) cases. A dimensionless confinement spacing H/d = 10 was found at which the heat transfer rate was a minimum. CFD analysis revealed that this was due to periodic jet flapping and generation of large flow structures between the cylinder and the confining wall. (author)

Imraan, M.; Sharma, R.N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Auckland, 20 Symonds Street, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand)

2009-05-15

231

Electrical heating tapes for hot water piping and frost protection; Elektrische Heizbaender fuer Warmwasserleitungen und Frostschutz  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This leaflet issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy and professional plumbing and installation associations presents information and recommendations on the use of electrical heating tapes in sanitary installations and rainwater piping. The considerable amount of electrical power needed for the operation of these heating tapes is discussed and methods of reducing consumption by the use efficient controllers are described. It is further mentioned that the correct design and planning of sanitary installations can help reduce the necessity for the use of heating tapes. Cost comparisons are made between heat-tape and circulation-based solutions for different heat sources. Tips are provided on installation details. Frost protection for piping in unheated rooms and for rainwater down-pipes is also discussed.

Nipkow, J.

2003-07-01

232

Results of the radiological survey at 5 Frost Place, Albany, New York (AL184)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A number of properties in the Albany/Colonie area have been identified as being potentially contaminated with uranium originating from the former National Lead Company's uranium forming plant in Colonie, New York. The property at 5 Frost Place in Albany, New York (AL184) was the subject of a radiological investigation initiated July 24, 1986. The residential property consists of a two-story frame house located on a rectangular lot. An asphalt driveway connects the house to the street. A diagram of the property showing the approximate boundaries and the 5-m grid network established for measurements outside the house is shown. The lot included in the radiological survey was /approximately/15 m wide by 31 m deep. A front view of the property is shown. 13 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

233

MR susceptibility imaging.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work reviews recent developments in the use of magnetic susceptibility contrast for human MRI, with a focus on the study of brain anatomy. The increase in susceptibility contrast with modern high field scanners has led to novel applications and insights into the sources and mechanism contributing to this contrast in brain tissues. Dedicated experiments have demonstrated that in most of healthy brain, iron and myelin dominate tissue susceptibility variations, although their relative contribution varies substantially. Local variations in these compounds can affect both amplitude and frequency of the MRI signal. In white matter, the myelin sheath introduces an anisotropic susceptibility that has distinct effects on the water compartments inside the axons, between the myelin sheath, and the axonal space, and renders their signals dependent on the angle between the axon and the magnetic field. This offers opportunities to derive tissue properties specific to these cellular compartments. PMID:23273840

Duyn, Jeff

2013-04-01

234

Chilling and frost tolerance in Miscanthus and Saccharum genotypes bred for cool temperate climates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Miscanthus hybrids are leading candidates for bioenergy feedstocks in mid to high latitudes of North America and Eurasia, due to high productivity associated with the C4 photosynthetic pathway and their tolerance of cooler conditions. However, as C4 plants, they may lack tolerance of chilling conditions (0-10 °C) and frost, particularly when compared with candidate C3 crops at high latitudes. In higher latitudes, cold tolerance is particularly important if the feedstock is to utilize fully the long, early-season days of May and June. Here, leaf gas exchange and fluorescence are used to assess chilling tolerance of photosynthesis in five Miscanthus hybrids bred for cold tolerance, a complex Saccharum hybrid (energycane), and an upland sugarcane variety with some chilling tolerance. The chilling treatment consisted of transferring warm-grown plants (25/20 °C day/night growth temperatures) to chilling (12/5 °C) conditions for 1 week, followed by assessing recovery after return to warm temperatures. Chilling tolerance was also evaluated in outdoor, spring-grown Miscanthus genotypes before and after a cold front that was punctuated by a frost event. Miscanthus×giganteus was found to be the most chilling-tolerant genotype based on its ability to maintain a high net CO2 assimilation rate (A) during chilling, and recover A to a greater degree following a return to warm conditions. This was associated with increasing its capacity for short-term dark-reversible photoprotective processes (?REG) and the proportion of open photosystem II reaction centres (qL) while minimizing photoinactivation (?NF). Similarly, in the field, M.×giganteus exhibited a significantly greater A and pre-dawn F v/F m after the cold front compared with the other chilling-sensitive Miscanthus hybrids. PMID:24642848

Friesen, Patrick C; Peixoto, Murilo M; Busch, Florian A; Johnson, Daniel C; Sage, Rowan F

2014-07-01

235

Physical Properties of CO2 Frost Formed by Radiative Cooling in a Mars Simulation Chamber  

Science.gov (United States)

We have performed realistic laboratory simulations of the thermal and radiative environment at the surface of Mars to produce the first samples of carbon dioxide ice formed as it does on Mars, by radiative cooling from a near-pure CO2 gas. It is important to determine the physical characteristics of Mars' seasonal CO2 polar ice caps because these determine their radiative properties which, in turn, control the polar energy balance and the seasonal variation in global surface pressure. It is not known whether they form as fluffy fine-grained deposits, dense solid ice, or something in between. Previous simulations have used conductive cooling, condensing CO2 onto a substrate cooled by liquid nitrogen (Kieffer 1968, Ditteon and Kieffer 1979). This technique favors the growth of grains having the best thermal contact with the surface, resulting in large grain sizes and a coarse texture. On Mars, however, the latent heat released by condensation must be lost radiatively to space. For this experiment, we have constructed a Mars simulation chamber containing low thermal conductivity analog regolith and low pressure CO2 gas. To grow radiation frost in the laboratory requires simultaneous containment of the atmosphere/vapor while allowing infrared radiation to escape (to balance the latent heat of condensation). Planets accomplish this using gravity to hold down the atmosphere. The key to our simulation is the use of a thin polypropylene film that is largely transparent in the thermal infrared yet strong enough to maintain the required pressure differential between our Mars-like "atmosphere" and the vacuum-enclosed space simulator (a liquid-nitrogen cooled plate). We use internal and external light sources to briefly illuminate the frost and obtain high resolution images of its physical morphology and texture using an in situ fiberscope with an articulated tip. Initial results will be presented.

Wood, Stephen; Bruckner, A.; Hansen, G.; Cornwall, C.; Kimber, N.; Alvarez, F.

2013-10-01

236

Magnetic susceptibility in QCD  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Magnetic susceptibility in the deconfined phase of QCD is calculated in a closed form using a recent general expression for the quark gas pressure in magnetic field. Quark selfenergies are entering the result via Polyakov line factors and ensure the total paramagnetic effect, increasing with temperature. A generalized form of magnetic susceptibility in nonzero magnetic field suitable for experimental and lattice measurements is derived, showing a good agreement with availabl...

Orlovsky, V. D.; Simonov, Yu A.

2014-01-01

237

Magnetic susceptibility in QCD  

CERN Document Server

Magnetic susceptibility in the deconfined phase of QCD is calculated in a closed form using a recent general expression for the quark gas pressure in magnetic field. Quark selfenergies are entering the result via Polyakov line factors and ensure the total paramagnetic effect, increasing with temperature. A generalized form of magnetic susceptibility in nonzero magnetic field suitable for experimental and lattice measurements is derived, showing a good agreement with available lattice data.

Orlovsky, V D

2014-01-01

238

An Innovative Application for SMOS: Characterization of Seasonal Soil Freezing  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil freezing and thawing, including the winter-time evolution of soil frost, are important characteristics influencing hydrological and climate processes at the regions of seasonal frost and permafrost, which include major land areas of North America and northern Eurasia. Changes in the seasonal behaviour of soil frost have a major effect on the surface energy balance, as well as on the intensity of CO2 and CH4 fluxes. The monitoring of seasonal frost and the permafrost active layer is currently based mostly on sparse in-situ observations. Some research using satellite observations for global and continuous coverage has been conducted in the past using active and passive microwave data. The European Space Agency's (ESA) SMOS satellite (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) is the first passive instrument using a low microwave frequency band (1.403 - 1.424 GHz) for Earth remote sensing. The output signal of the SMOS payload instrument MIRAS (Microwave Imaging Radiometer with Aperture Synthesis) is highly sensitive to changes in soil permittivity (i.e. soil liquid water content), with relatively low influence of surface vegetation. Due to the instrument's low operating frequency, information on the soil processes can be achieved from deeper layers than from previously available satellite instruments. SMOS sensitivity to changes in soil permittivity and the deeper soil layer monitoring capabilities ensure new possibilities for soil freeze/thaw cycle monitoring. Within the frame of SMOS programme, ESA has initialized several innovation projects to extend the applicability of SMOS data. One such project is SMOS+ Innovation Permafrost, coordinated by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) with GAMMA Remote Sensing as a Swiss partner. The main objectives of the project are (1) to develop methods and algorithms for detection and monitoring of soil freezing/thawing processes using L-band passive microwave data and (2) to demonstrate the developed methods with soil frost maps derived from SMOS observations representing the whole Northern Hemisphere. To meet these objectives we have applied data from an experimental three-year campaign using the SMOS reference radiometer, ELBARA-II, for monitoring the seasonal behaviour of the L-band emission signature of boreal soil. In addition, we have developed emission models for various soil systems, and collected in situ data from various locations in Finland, Canada and Siberia for use as reference to SMOS observations. The main regional test site is located in Sodankylä, Northern Finland. The site supports numerous in situ observations of soil, snow and atmosphere properties. Results indicate that the event and development of soil freezing can be monitored with SMOS. However, vegetation, land cover and soil type have a significant effect on the soil freezing processes and need to be taken into account. More future work is needed to improve the algorithms from the present experimental demonstration to an operational product.

Rautiainen, Kimmo; Lemmetyinen, Juha; Schwank, Mike; Pulliainen, Jouni; Mätzler, Christian; Kontu, Anna; Wiesmann, Andreas

2013-04-01

239

The daily and annual effects of dew, frost, and snow on a non-ventilated net radiometer  

Science.gov (United States)

The formation of dew, deposition of frost and accumulation of snow mainly on the upper domes of a non-ventilated net radiometer seriously affect the measurement of available energy (net radiation). Net radiometers measure radiation, and energy balances and are widely used for estimation of evapotranspiration throughout the world. To study the effects of dew, frost, and snow on a non-ventilated net radiometer, a radiation station was set up which uses 2 CM21 Kipp & Zonen pyranometers (one inverted), 2 CG1 Kipp & Zonen pyrgeometers (one inverted), along with a Q*7.1 net radiometer (Radiation & Energy Balance Systems, Inc.; REBS) in a semi-arid mountainous valley in Logan, Utah, U.S.A. The pyranometers and pyrgeometers were ventilated using 4 CV2 Kipp & Zonen ventilation systems. The net radiometer was not ventilated. The ventilation of pyranometers and pyrgeometers prevents dew and frost deposition and snow accumulation which otherwise would disturb measurements. All sensors were installed at about 3.0 m above the ground, which was covered with natural vegetation during the growing season (May-September). The incoming and outgoing solar or shortwave radiation, the incoming (atmospheric) and outgoing (terrestrial) longwave radiation, and the net radiation have been continuously measured by pyranometers, pyrgeometers and a net radiometer, respectively, since 1995. These parameters have been measured every 2 s and averaged into 20 min. To evaluate the effects of dew, frost, and snow, three days were chosen: 26 April 2004 with early morning dew, 6 January 2005 with an early morning frost, and the snowy day of 24 February 2005. Dew formation, frost deposition, and snow accumulation occurred mainly on the upper dome of the non-ventilated Q*7.1 net radiometer on the related days, while the ventilated Kipp & Zonen system was free of dew, frost and snow. Net radiation measured by the non-ventilated net radiometer Rn,unvent. during dew and frost periods of the above-mentioned days was greater than ventilated ones Rn,vent. (- 0.2 MJ m - 2 vs. - 0.8 MJ m - 2 during almost 4 h on 26 April 2004, and - 0.2 MJ m - 2 vs. - 0.7 MJ m - 2 during almost 6.5 h on 6 January 2005). The reason for higher reading by the non-ventilated net radiometer during dew and frost periods was due to emission of additional longwave radiation from water and ice crystals formed mainly on the upper dome of the Q*7.1 net radiometer. In contrast, during the snowy day of 24 February 2005, the Rn,unvent. was less than Rn,vent. (- 4.00 MJ m - 2 vs. 0.77 MJ m - 2 , mainly from sunrise to sunset). The extremely low Rn,unvent. measured by the non-ventilated net radiometer on 24 February 2005 is due to blocking of the incoming solar radiation (mainly diffuse radiation) by the snow-covered upper dome.

Malek, Esmaiel

2008-08-01

240

Local adaptations to frost in marginal and central populations of the dominant forest tree Fagus sylvatica L. as affected by temperature and extreme drought in common garden experiments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Local adaptations to environmental conditions are of high ecological importance as they determine distribution ranges and likely affect species responses to climate change. Increased environmental stress (warming, extreme drought) due to climate change in combination with decreased genetic mixing due to isolation may lead to stronger local adaptations of geographically marginal than central populations. We experimentally observed local adaptations of three marginal and four central populations of Fagus sylvaticaL., the dominant native forest tree, to frost over winter and in spring (late frost). We determined frost hardiness of buds and roots by the relative electrolyte leakage in two common garden experiments. The experiment at the cold site included a continuous warming treatment; the experiment at the warm site included a preceding summer drought manipulation. In both experiments, we found evidence for local adaptation to frost, with stronger signs of local adaptation in marginal populations. Winter frost killed many of the potted individuals at the cold site, with higher survival in the warming treatment and in those populations originating from colder environments. However, we found no difference in winter frost tolerance of buds among populations, implying that bud survival was not the main cue for mortality. Bud late frost tolerance in April differed between populations at the warm site, mainly because of phenological differences in bud break. Increased spring frost tolerance of plants which had experienced drought stress in the preceding summer could also be explained by shifts in phenology. Stronger local adaptations to climate in geographically marginal than central populations imply the potential for adaptation to climate at range edges. In times of climate change, however, it needs to be tested whether locally adapted populations at range margins can successfully adapt further to changing conditions. PMID:25035801

Kreyling, Juergen; Buhk, Constanze; Backhaus, Sabrina; Hallinger, Martin; Huber, Gerhard; Huber, Lukas; Jentsch, Anke; Konnert, Monika; Thiel, Daniel; Wilmking, Martin; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

2014-03-01

 
 
 
 
241

Soil physical properties affecting soil erosion in tropical soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The total vegetated land area of the earth is about 11,500 hectare. Of this, about 12% is in South America. Of this, about 14% is degraded area. Water erosion, chemical degradation, wind erosion, and physical degradation have been reported as main types of degradation. In South America water erosion is a major process for soil degradation. Nevertheless, water erosion can be a consequence of degradation of the soil structure, especially the functional attributes of soil pores to transmit and retain water, and to facilitate root growth. Climate, soil and topographic characteristics determine runoff and erosion potential from agricultural lands. The main factors causing soil erosion can be divided into three groups: Energy factors: rainfall erosivity, runoff volume, wind strength, relief, slope angle, slope length; Protection factors: population density, plant cover, amenity value (pressure for use) and land management; and resistance factors: soil erodibility, infiltration capacity and soil management. The degree of soil erosion in a particular climatic zone, with particular soils, land use and socioeconomic conditions, will always result from a combination of the above mentioned factors. It is not easy to isolate a single factor. However, the soil physical properties that determine the soil erosion process, because the deterioration of soil physical properties is manifested through interrelated problems of surface sealing, crusting, soil compaction, poor drainage, impeded root growth, excessive runoff and accelerated erosion. When an unprotected soil surface is exposed to the direct impact of raindrops it can produce different responses: Production of smaller aggregates, dispersed particles, particles in suspension and translocation and deposition of particles. When this has occurred, the material is reorganized at the location into a surface seal. Aggregate breakdown under rainfall depends on soil strength and a certain threshold kinetic energy is needed to start detachment. Studies on necessary kinetic energy to detach one kilogram of sediments by raindrop impact have shown that the minimum energy is required for particles of 0.125 mm. Particles between 0.063 to 0.250 mm are the most vulnerable to detachment. This means that soils with high content of particles into vulnerable range, for example silty loam, loamy, fine sandy, and sandy loam are the most susceptible soils to detachment. Many aspects of soil behaviour in the field such as hydraulic conductivity water retention, soil crusting, soil compaction, and workability are influenced strongly by the primary particles. In tropical soils also a negative relation between structure stability and particles of silt, fine sand and very fine sand has been found, this is attributed to low cohesiveness of these particles. The ability of a structure to persist is known as its stability. There are two principal types of stability: the ability of the soil to retain its structure under the action of water, and the ability of the soil to retain its structure under the action of external mechanical stresses. (e.g. by wheels). Both types of stability are related with susceptibility to erosion

242

Clay mineralogy and magnetic susceptibility of Oxisols in geomorphic surfaces  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Studies analyzing the variability of clay minerals and magnetic susceptibility provide data for the delineation of site-specific management areas since many of their attributes are important to agronomy and the environment. This study aimed to evaluate the spatial variability of clay minerals, magne [...] tic susceptibility, adsorbed phosphorus and physical attributes in Oxisols of sandstones in different geomorphic surfaces. For that purpose, soil samples were collected every 25 m along a transect located within the area where the geomorphic surfaces were identified and mapped. The transect occupied the central portion of 500 ha, where it was also sampled for density purposes with one sample per six hectares. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 0.0-0.2 m. The results of the physical, chemical, mineralogical and magnetic susceptibility analyses were subjected to statistical and geostatistical analyses. The nature of the clay minerals and magnetic susceptibility was dependent on the variation of the soil parent material. High values of magnetic susceptibility were associated with the presence of maghemite and magnetite of coarse size. The spatial variability of crystallinity and the content of Fe oxides, as well as magnetic susceptibility, were dependent on the age of the geomorphic surfaces. The youngest surface had greater spatial variability of these attributes. The iron (goethite and hematite) and aluminum (gibbsite) oxides in the youngest geomorphic surface influenced the low values of soil density and high values of total pore volume, micropores and P adsorption. The characterization of the spatial variability of Fe oxides and susceptibility allowed for the delineation of homogeneous areas.

Livia Arantes, Camargo; José, Marques Júnior; Gener Tadeu, Pereira; Angélica Santos Rabelo de Souza, Bahia.

2014-06-01

243

Simulation of spring snowmelt runoff by considering micro-topography and phase changes in soil layer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The NICE model was extended to include the effect of the micro-topography in slope and shading characteristics and the phase changes in soil moisture on snow/frost depths and snowmelt runoff by combining the land-surface, the multi-layer runoff, and the groundwater flow models (NICE-SNOW. The model was applied to the upstream regions of shrinking Kushiro Mire in the invasion of alder, where the spring runoff affects greatly the annual sediment and nutrient transports because the spring flood continues in longer time than that in typhoon seasons. The simulation reproduced excellently the observed values of annual river discharge including snowmelt runoff with the greater time-to-peak of runoff than in snow-free period, in addition to snow depth, frost depth, soil temperature, soil moisture, and groundwater level, by conducting the quantitative assessment of goodness-of-fit and parameter sensitivity analysis. We quantified that the mechanism of spring snowmelt runoff is related to changes in micro-topography, soil structure, soil temperature, soil moisture, and groundwater flow. The model shows that the local effect of snow depth and the frost depth disappears in the snowmelt runoff discharge of catchment in the same way as some previous researches though they are very important as water resources of catchment. After the frozen soil restricts the infiltration in the coldest part of winter, the thawed soil increases the pore size in the early spring. The NICE-SNOW could explain the snowmelt flood continues a longer time than that in the typhoon period because some part of meltwater flows as an intermediate flow in the partially-thawed hillslope soil layer. This is also related to the simulation result that more than half of total soil moisture stays unfrozen at some places even in winter periods, which indicates that there is a high degree of spatial heterogeneity of frozen ground.

T. Nakayama

2006-08-01

244

Efficient non-destructive method of control over the frost-resistance of concretes designated for hydraulic engineering structures ????????????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????? ???????????????? ??????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The author considers the problem of control over the frost resistance as the most important characteristic of concretes designated for hydraulic engineering structures. His method is based on the identification of correlation between the frost resistance and the Poisson ratio. The value of the Poisson ratio is measurable through the employment of the ultra-sound method. The proposed methodology contemplates the following sequence of acts. First, the value of the Poisson ratio of air-dried samples of concrete is identified through the employment of the ultrasound method. Thereafter, samples are exposed to cyclic freezing and thawing. Based on the testing results, correlation between the Poisson ratio values and the frost resistance of the concrete is identified. Further, the same ultrasound method is used to find out the values of the Poisson ratio of the hydraulic engineering structures on site to identify the value of the frost resistance of the concrete on the basis of the correlation identified earlier. Mass produced ultrasound testing devices are to be used for the above purposes. They must have screens, and their ultrasound range must fit concretes. Poisson ratio values are identified through the penetration of the ultrasound signal through the thickness of a concrete element under control. Sensors are to be positioned at the angle of 45°, and the time of travel of longitudinal and shear (lateral ultra-sound waves through the thickness of a concrete sample or a concrete element is measured. The time of travel of longitudinal waves is measured on the basis of the value of the first signal, while shear waves are measured on the basis of the phase transition of ultrasound waves. Thereafter, velocities of waves are calculated pursuant to the methodology proposed by the author. It is noteworthy that the accuracy of the proposed method is quite high, and the margin of error does not exceed 3 %.??????????? ???? ?? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ???????????????? ?????????? - ??? ???????????????. ????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ???????? ? ?? ???????????. ?????????? ????????????????? ??????????????? ? ???????????? ????????. ??????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????????????? ??????????.

Popov Valeriy Petrovich

2012-08-01

245

Using Synchrotron Radiation-Based Infrared Microspectroscopy to Reveal Microchemical Structure Characterization: Frost Damaged Wheat vs. Normal Wheat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare: (1 protein chemical characteristics, including the amide I and II region, as well as protein secondary structure; and (2 carbohydrate internal structure and functional groups spectral intensities between the frost damaged wheat and normal wheat using synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SR-FTIRM. Fingerprint regions of specific interest in our study involved protein and carbohydrate functional group band assignments, including protein amide I and II (ca. 1774–1475 cm?1, structural carbohydrates (SCHO, ca. 1498–1176 cm?1, cellulosic compounds (CELC, ca. 1295–1176 cm?1, total carbohydrates (CHO, ca. 1191–906 cm?1 and non-structural carbohydrates (NSCHO, ca. 954–809 cm?1. The results showed that frost did cause variations in spectral profiles in wheat grains. Compared with healthy wheat grains, frost damaged wheat had significantly lower (p < 0.05 spectral intensities in height and area ratios of amide I to II and almost all the spectral parameters of carbohydrate-related functional groups, including SCHO, CHO and NSCHO. Furthermore, the height ratio of protein amide I to the third peak of CHO and the area ratios of protein amide (amide I + II to carbohydrate compounds (CHO and SCHO were also changed (p < 0.05 in damaged wheat grains. It was concluded that the SR-FTIR microspectroscopic technique was able to examine inherent molecular structure features at an ultra-spatial resolution (10 × 10 ?m between different wheat grains samples. The structural characterization of wheat was influenced by climate conditions, such as frost damage, and these structural variations might be a major reason for the decreases in nutritive values, nutrients availability and milling and baking quality in wheat grains.

Xuewei Zhang

2013-08-01

246

Peripheral capillary nonperfusion and full-field electroretinographic changes in eyes with frosted branch-like appearance retinal vasculitis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Yoshitsugu Matsui, Hideyuki Tsukitome, Eriko Uchiyama, Yuko Wada, Tatsuya Yagi, Hisashi Matsubara, Mineo KondoDepartment of Ophthalmology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, JapanAbstract: We report a patient with frosted branch-like appearance retinal vasculitis associated with peripheral capillary nonperfusion and full-field electroretinographic changes. A 62-year-old man presented with sudden bilateral decreased vision accompanied by headaches. His best-corrected visual acuit...

Matsui Y; Tsukitome H; Uchiyama E; Wada Y; Yagi T; Matsubara H; Kondo M.

2013-01-01

247

Autumn frost hardiness in Norway spruce plus tree progeny and trees of the local and transferred provenances in central Sweden.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reforestation with provenances from locations remote from the planting site (transferred provenances) or the progeny of trees of local provenances selected for superior form and vigor (plus trees) offer alternative means to increase yield over that obtained by the use of seed from unselected trees of the local provenance. Under Swedish conditions, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) of certain transferred provenances generally has an advantage in productivity relative to the local provenance comparable to that of progeny of plus trees. The aim of this study was to explore the extent to which productivity gains achieved by provenance transfer or the use of plus tree progeny are associated with reductions in autumn frost hardiness, relative to that of trees of the local provenance. In a field trial with 19-year-old trees in central Sweden, bud hardiness was tested on four occasions during the autumn of 2002. Trees of the local provenance were compared with trees of a south Swedish provenance originating 3 degrees of latitude to the south, a Belarusian provenance and the progeny of plus trees of local origin. The Belarusian provenance was the least hardy and the local provenance the most hardy, with plus tree progeny and the south Swedish provenance being intermediate in hardiness. Both the Belarusian provenance and the plus tree progeny were significantly taller than trees of the other populations. Within provenances, tree height was negatively correlated with autumn frost hardiness. Among the plus tree progeny, however, no such correlation between tree height and autumn frost hardiness was found. It is concluded that although the gain in productivity achieved by provenance transfer from Belarus was comparable to that achieved by using the progeny of plus trees of the local provenance, the use of trees of the Belarus provenance involved an increased risk of autumn frost damage because of later hardening. PMID:15996961

Hannerz, Mats; Westin, Johan

2005-09-01

248

Peripheral capillary nonperfusion and full-field electroretinographic changes in eyes with frosted branch-like appearance retinal vasculitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a patient with frosted branch-like appearance retinal vasculitis associated with peripheral capillary nonperfusion and full-field electroretinographic changes. A 62-year-old man presented with sudden bilateral decreased vision accompanied by headaches. His best-corrected visual acuity was 0.01 in both eyes. Fundus examination and fluorescein angiography showed bilateral frosted branch-like appearance retinal vasculitis, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography showed severe macular edema in both eyes. The cerebrospinal fluid analyses showed an increased lymphocyte count and protein levels. He was treated with systemic corticosteroid therapy, and his best-corrected visual acuity improved to 0.8 OD and 1.0 OS at 6 months after onset. However, fluorescein angiography showed a lack of capillary perfusion in the periphery, and the oscillatory potentials on full-field electroretinography were severely reduced in both eyes. These findings indicated extensive retinal ischemia and inner retinal dysfunction, and that fluorescein angiography and full-field electroretinograms can be useful during follow-up of eyes with frosted branch-like appearance retinal vasculitis. PMID:23355770

Matsui, Yoshitsugu; Tsukitome, Hideyuki; Uchiyama, Eriko; Wada, Yuko; Yagi, Tatsuya; Matsubara, Hisashi; Kondo, Mineo

2013-01-01

249

Cryoprotectants are metabolic fuels during long term frost exposure in the earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ectothermic animals that live in the subarctic and temperate regions must have strategies to deal with periods of frost during winter. The earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra is a freeze tolerant species that accumulates large concentrations of the cryoprotectant glucose upon ice formation in the extracellular fluid. This study investigates if D. octaedra metabolizes its primary cryoprotectant as an energy source when frozen for longer periods. In this study D. octaedra were exposed to frost at 2 °C for 47 days. The results clearly demonstrate a gradual decrease in the level of glucose and simultaneously an accumulation of lactate, alanine and succinate as a result of the continuous anaerobic metabolism. Freeze mortality (~ 30%) did not increase with time suggesting that the accumulation of waste products were not toxic to the worms. Instead dead worms were always characterised by low glucose and glycogen levels indicating that depletion of fermentable resources was the primary cause of death. Calorimetric measurements of metabolic rate showed a 15-fold metabolic depression in frozen versus unfrozen worms and this reduction in metabolic rate is clearly of importance for long term survival of frozen worms. On the basis of metabolic rate measurements we calculated that the “average” worms would be able to survive for a total of 83 days before the glucose storage becomes exhausted. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the large accumulations of glucose during frost may be more important as anaerobic fuel source than as a cryoprotectant.

C. JØrgensen, Sofia; Overgaard, Johannes

2008-01-01

250

Development of Fractal Ultra-Hydrophobic Coating Films to Prevent Water Vapor Dewing and to Delay Frosting  

Science.gov (United States)

Superhydrophobic films fabricated on copper and aluminum surfaces have potential applications to solve water condensation and frosting problems on chilled ceiling system. The rough surfaces of copper foils obtained by solution immersion method exhibit the existence of fractal structures. The hydrophobicity of copper surfaces is enhanced with fractal structures. The relationship between contact angles (CAs) and the fractal dimensions (FDs) for surface roughness of Cu samples with different etching time is investigated. Moisture condensation and frosting experiments on the two kinds of surfaces are conducted in natural environment under different chilling temperatures. During condensation, micro water condensate droplets drift down the surface like dust floating in the air. Several larger condensate droplets about 1-2 mm appear on the substrates after 3 h condensation. This continuous jumping motion of the condensate will be beneficial in delaying frosting. The results demonstrate that dense nanostructures on copper surfaces are superior to loose lattice-like microstructures on aluminum surfaces for preventing the formation of large droplets condensate and in delaying the icing. The large water droplets of 2-3 mm in diameter that would form on a common metal foil are sharply decreased to dozens of microns and small droplets are formed on a modified surface, which will then drift down like a fog.

Quan, Yun-Yun; Jiang, Pei-Guo; Zhang, Li-Zhi

2014-09-01

251

Cryosorption of helium on argon frost TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) neutral beamlines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Helium pumping on argon frost has been investigated on TFTR neutral beam injectors and shown to be viable for limited helium beam operation. Maximum pumping speeds are {approximately} 25% less than those measured for pumping of deuterium. Helium pumping efficiency is low, > 20 argon atoms are required to pump each helium atom. Adsorption isotherms are exponential and exhibit a two-fold increase in adsorption capacity as the cryopanel temperature is reduced from 4.3 K to 3.7 K. Pumping speed was found to be independent of cryopanel temperature over the temperature range studied. After pumping a total of 2000 torr-l of helium, the beamline base pressure rose to 2{times}10{sup -5} torr from an initial value of 10{sup -8} torr. Accompanying this three order of magnitude increase in pressure was a modest 40% decrease in pumping speed. The introduction of 168 torr-l of deuterium prior to helium injection reduced the pumping speed by a factor of two with no decrease in adsorption capacity. 29 refs., 7 figs.

Kamperschroer, J.H.; Cropper, M.B.; Dylla, H.F.; Garzotto, V.; Dudek, L.E.; Grisham, L.R.; Martin, G.D.; O' Connor, T.E.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.)

1989-11-01

252

Cryosorption of helium on argon frost TFTR [Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor] neutral beamlines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Helium pumping on argon frost has been investigated on TFTR neutral beam injectors and shown to be viable for limited helium beam operation. Maximum pumping speeds are ? 25% less than those measured for pumping of deuterium. Helium pumping efficiency is low, > 20 argon atoms are required to pump each helium atom. Adsorption isotherms are exponential and exhibit a two-fold increase in adsorption capacity as the cryopanel temperature is reduced from 4.3 K to 3.7 K. Pumping speed was found to be independent of cryopanel temperature over the temperature range studied. After pumping a total of 2000 torr-l of helium, the beamline base pressure rose to 2x10-5 torr from an initial value of 10-8 torr. Accompanying this three order of magnitude increase in pressure was a modest 40% decrease in pumping speed. The introduction of 168 torr-l of deuterium prior to helium injection reduced the pumping speed by a factor of two with no decrease in adsorption capacity. 29 refs., 7 figs

253

Alternative test method to assess the energy performance of frost-free refrigerating appliances  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper outlines an alternative test method to evaluate the energy consumption of frost-free refrigerators and freezers for residential applications. While the standardized methods require the refrigerating appliance to be kept running according to its onboard control system, which usually drives the refrigerator through an on–off cycling pattern, the proposed approach assesses the refrigerator energy performance in the steady-state regime, being therefore much faster and more reliable. In this procedure, the cooling capacity is matched to the cooling loads by PID-controlled electrical heaters installed within the refrigerated compartments, so that the compartment temperatures are kept at the desired standardized levels. Comparisons between the experimental results obtained using the steady-state energy test and the standardized procedures showed that the former follows closely the trends observed for the latter. - Highlights: ? An alternative test method to assess the energy consumption of refrigerators is proposed. ? PID-controlled electrical heaters were installed within the compartments. ? Steady-state and ISO energy tests were performed and compared. ? Both proposed and standardized test procedures showed similar trends.

254

Electro-thermal protection system design against atmospheric frost on turbine blades  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation discussed a research program developed to adapt de-icing thermal heating systems for use in wind turbines. The presence of ice on turbine blades can significantly deteriorate rotor performance. Accumulations of ice can increase the radial load on the turbine blades. The uneven formations of ice can lead to vibrations and the expulsion of pieces of ice into surrounding areas. Ice can also reduce the accuracy of various wind measuring devices. A recent study in Finland showed that turbine heating systems consume 3.6 per cent of annual wind production energy. De-icing systems include protective covers; air inlets; sealing systems; inflation tubes; elastomeric ply; and bond ply. The systems also include blade trailing and loading edges, and blade roots. The energy dissipated by the system's heating element is lost by conduction to the interior of the profile. The research program is now developing a system to improve electrothermal protection against frost that is suitable for turbine blades, as well as a thermal model for simulating its operation in a wind turbine. tabs., figs.

Noui, M.A.; Perron, J.; Fortin, G. [Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada). Anti-Icing Materials International Laboratory

2010-07-01

255

Soil management practices for sustainable crop production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a sustainable system, the soil is viewed as a fragile and living medium that must be protected and nurtured to ensure its long-term productivity and stability. However, due to high demand for food brought about by high population as well as the decline in agricultural lands, the soil is being exploited beyond its limit thus, leading to poor or sick soils. Sound soil management practices in the Philippines is being reviewed. The technologies, including the advantages and disadvantages are hereby presented. This includes proper cropping systems, fertilizer program, soil erosion control and correcting soil acidity. Sound soil management practices which conserve organic matter for long-term sustainability includes addition of compost, maintaining soil cover, increasing aggregates stability, soil tilt and diversity of soil microbial life. A healthy soil is a key component to sustainability as a health soil produce healthy crop plants and have optimum vigor or less susceptible to pests. (author)

256

Biomass production of Salix viminalis in Southern Finland and the effect of soil properties and climate conditions on its production and survival  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ten Salix viminalis clones were cultivated in 35 experimental plantations situated on privately-owned farms in southern and central Finland. Management instructions were given to the farmers who established and tended the study plots. The biomass production and survival of the clones were recorded by inventory every year during the first rotation period, which consisted of the established year and three following growing seasons. The greatest amount of biomass production exceeded 30 above-ground tone of dry matter/3 years, but amounts varied greatly between the experimental plantations. The main reasons causing this variation were the low frost hardiness of most of the S. viminalis clones and unsuccessful weed control during the year the plantations were established. Early autumn frosts in particular caused severe damage. S. viminalis grew well on a wide variety of soil types. Sufficient amounts of nitrogen, potassium and organic matter seem to be the properties which most clearly have an effect on the biomass production and survival of S. viminalis in mineral soils. A relatively small amount of manganese in wet and low oxygenic soils is recommended, because a high content may cause toxic effects. In this study S. viminalis clones only succeeded well in southernmost Finland, where properly managed plantations produced rather high biomass yields. In other parts of southern and central Finland more research work on frost resistance and the breeding of new clones is needed. To conclude, in the climatic conditions of Finland energy willow husbandry is a compromise between high biomass yield and frost hardiness. (author)

Tahvanainen, L.; Rytkoenen, V.-M. [University of Joensuu (Finland). Faculty of Forestry

1999-11-01

257

Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder stratospheric water vapor measurements by the NOAA frost point hygrometer  

Science.gov (United States)

between stratospheric water vapor measurements by NOAA frost point hygrometers (FPHs) and the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) are evaluated for the period August 2004 through December 2012 at Boulder, Colorado, Hilo, Hawaii, and Lauder, New Zealand. Two groups of MLS profiles coincident with the FPH soundings at each site are identified using unique sets of spatiotemporal criteria. Before evaluating the differences between coincident FPH and MLS profiles, each FPH profile is convolved with the MLS averaging kernels for eight pressure levels from 100 to 26 hPa (~16 to 25 km) to reduce its vertical resolution to that of the MLS water vapor retrievals. The mean FPH - MLS differences at every pressure level (100 to 26 hPa) are well within the combined measurement uncertainties of the two instruments. However, the mean differences at 100 and 83 hPa are statistically significant and negative, ranging from -0.46 ± 0.22 ppmv (-10.3 ± 4.8%) to -0.10 ± 0.05 ppmv (-2.2 ± 1.2%). Mean differences at the six pressure levels from 68 to 26 hPa are on average 0.8% (0.04 ppmv), and only a few are statistically significant. The FPH - MLS differences at each site are examined for temporal trends using weighted linear regression analyses. The vast majority of trends determined here are not statistically significant, and most are smaller than the minimum trends detectable in this analysis. Except at 100 and 83 hPa, the average agreement between MLS retrievals and FPH measurements of stratospheric water vapor is better than 1%.

Hurst, Dale F.; Lambert, Alyn; Read, William G.; Davis, Sean M.; Rosenlof, Karen H.; Hall, Emrys G.; Jordan, Allen F.; Oltmans, Samuel J.

2014-02-01

258

Frost hardiness in walnut trees (Juglans regia L.): how to link physiology and modelling?  

Science.gov (United States)

In the literature, frost hardiness (FH) studies in trees have often been restricted to one organ (buds, leaves, needles or twigs). To extend our knowledge and gain a unified view, FH differences between organs and tissues or throughout the life of the tree have to be characterized in relation to physiological changes. In this study, different organs and tissues of young potted and mature orchard walnut trees (Juglans regia L.) were compared for seasonal changes in FH during different years. FH was assessed using the electrolyte leakage method. Physiological parameters were concomitantly monitored focusing on two significant traits: water content (WC) and carbohydrate content (glucose + fructose + sucrose, GFS). No seasonal variation in FH was observed in the root system, but acclimation and deacclimation were observed aboveground. Among organs and tissues, cold sensitivity levels were different in deep winter, with buds most sensitive and bark most resistant, but acclimation/deacclimation dynamics followed similar patterns. Physiological variation was also similar among organs: FH increased when WC decreased and/or soluble carbohydrates increased. Based on these results, relations between soluble carbohydrate content, WC and FH were calculated independently or in interaction. The key results were that: (i) the relationship between FH and physiological parameters (GFS and WC), which had previously been shown for branches only, could be generalized to all aboveground organs; (ii) lower WC increased the cryoprotective effect of GFS, showing a synergic effect of the two factors; (iii) the best fit was a non-linear function of WC and GFS, yielding a predictive model with an root mean square error of 5.07 °C on an independent dataset and 2.59 °C for the most sensitive stages; and (iv) the same parameters used for all organs yielded a unified model of FH depending on physiology, although the variability of GFS or WC was wide. The model should be of value for predicting FH in walnut independently of previous growing conditions (i.e., after sublethal stress accumulation). PMID:24271086

Charrier, Guillaume; Poirier, Magalie; Bonhomme, Marc; Lacointe, André; Améglio, Thierry

2013-11-01

259

Numerical analysis of the impact of charcoal production on soil hydrological behavior, runoff response and erosion susceptibility / Investigação numérica/quantitativa sobre o impacto do processo de produção de carvão nas propriedades hidráulicas, resposta ao deflúvio e suscetibilidade do solo à erosão  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O impacto do processo de produção de carvão nas propriedades hidráulicas, a resposta ao deflúvio e a suscetibilidade do solo à erosão foram estudados em experimentos de campo e de simulação. Amostras indeformadas e compostas de 12 locais aleatoriamente selecionados dentro do reservatório de Kotokosu [...] foram coletadas na camada de 0-10 cm no solo sob carvão (CSS) e no solo adjacente (AFS). Essas amostras foram usadas para determinar a condutividade hidráuli7ca saturada (Ksat), densidade do solo, porosidade total, textura e cor do solo. A infiltração, o albedo de superfície e a temperatura de superfície do solo também foram medidos no CSS e AFS. Os parâmetros medidos foram usados como entrada nos experimentos de simulação de deflúvio em uma parcela uniforme (5 % de declividade) de 25 x 25 m, com grides de 10 cm de resolução. Altas, moderadas e baixas intensidades de chuva, típicas da bacia em estudo, foram aplicadas em cinco diferentes combinações de Ksat, que poderiam ser esperadas nessa paisagem. Os resultados mostraram que as características do fluxo do solo sob carvão aumentaram significativamente (p Abstract in english The impact of charcoal production on soil hydraulic properties, runoff response and erosion susceptibility were studied in both field and simulation experiments. Core and composite samples, from 12 randomly selected sites within the catchment of Kotokosu were taken from the 0-10 cm layer of a charco [...] al site soil (CSS) and adjacent field soils (AFS). These samples were used to determine saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat), bulk density, total porosity, soil texture and color. Infiltration, surface albedo and soil surface temperature were also measured in both CSS and AFS. Measured properties were used as entries in a rainfall runoff simulation experiment on a smooth (5 % slope) plot of 25 x 25 m grids with 10 cm resolutions. Typical rainfall intensities of the study watershed (high, moderate and low) were applied to five different combinations of Ks distributions that could be expected in this landscape. The results showed significantly (p

Ajayi, Ayodele; Philip, Oguntunde; Abiodun, Joseph; Moacir de Souza, Dias Junior.

260

Numerical analysis of the impact of charcoal production on soil hydrological behavior, runoff response and erosion susceptibility Investigação numérica/quantitativa sobre o impacto do processo de produção de carvão nas propriedades hidráulicas, resposta ao deflúvio e suscetibilidade do solo à erosão  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The impact of charcoal production on soil hydraulic properties, runoff response and erosion susceptibility were studied in both field and simulation experiments. Core and composite samples, from 12 randomly selected sites within the catchment of Kotokosu were taken from the 0-10 cm layer of a charcoal site soil (CSS and adjacent field soils (AFS. These samples were used to determine saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat, bulk density, total porosity, soil texture and color. Infiltration, surface albedo and soil surface temperature were also measured in both CSS and AFS. Measured properties were used as entries in a rainfall runoff simulation experiment on a smooth (5 % slope plot of 25 x 25 m grids with 10 cm resolutions. Typical rainfall intensities of the study watershed (high, moderate and low were applied to five different combinations of Ks distributions that could be expected in this landscape. The results showed significantly (p O impacto do processo de produção de carvão nas propriedades hidráulicas, a resposta ao deflúvio e a suscetibilidade do solo à erosão foram estudados em experimentos de campo e de simulação. Amostras indeformadas e compostas de 12 locais aleatoriamente selecionados dentro do reservatório de Kotokosu foram coletadas na camada de 0-10 cm no solo sob carvão (CSS e no solo adjacente (AFS. Essas amostras foram usadas para determinar a condutividade hidráuli7ca saturada (Ksat, densidade do solo, porosidade total, textura e cor do solo. A infiltração, o albedo de superfície e a temperatura de superfície do solo também foram medidos no CSS e AFS. Os parâmetros medidos foram usados como entrada nos experimentos de simulação de deflúvio em uma parcela uniforme (5 % de declividade de 25 x 25 m, com grides de 10 cm de resolução. Altas, moderadas e baixas intensidades de chuva, típicas da bacia em estudo, foram aplicadas em cinco diferentes combinações de Ksat, que poderiam ser esperadas nessa paisagem. Os resultados mostraram que as características do fluxo do solo sob carvão aumentaram significativamente (p < 0,01 em 88 %. A infiltração foi aumentada e o volume de deflúvio reduzido significativamente. Houve redução no deflúvio em torno de 37 e 18 %, e o coeficiente de deflúvio variou de 0,47-0,75 e 0,04 a 0,39 para a simulação de chuvas de alta (200 mm h-1 e moderada (100 mm h-1 intensidades nas condições CSS e AFS, respectivamente. Outros impactos em potencial da produção de carvão na bacia hidrológica foram observados. Espera-se que, com os resultados aqui apresentados, além dos determinados na bacia, quando disponíveis, haja uma compreensão melhor das respostas hidrológicas do ecossistema de fabricação indiscriminada de carvão e de outras atividades relacionadas nessa região.

Ajayi Ayodele

2009-02-01

 
 
 
 
261

Numerical analysis of the impact of charcoal production on soil hydrological behavior, runoff response and erosion susceptibility / Investigação numérica/quantitativa sobre o impacto do processo de produção de carvão nas propriedades hidráulicas, resposta ao deflúvio e suscetibilidade do solo à erosão  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O impacto do processo de produção de carvão nas propriedades hidráulicas, a resposta ao deflúvio e a suscetibilidade do solo à erosão foram estudados em experimentos de campo e de simulação. Amostras indeformadas e compostas de 12 locais aleatoriamente selecionados dentro do reservatório de Kotokosu [...] foram coletadas na camada de 0-10 cm no solo sob carvão (CSS) e no solo adjacente (AFS). Essas amostras foram usadas para determinar a condutividade hidráuli7ca saturada (Ksat), densidade do solo, porosidade total, textura e cor do solo. A infiltração, o albedo de superfície e a temperatura de superfície do solo também foram medidos no CSS e AFS. Os parâmetros medidos foram usados como entrada nos experimentos de simulação de deflúvio em uma parcela uniforme (5 % de declividade) de 25 x 25 m, com grides de 10 cm de resolução. Altas, moderadas e baixas intensidades de chuva, típicas da bacia em estudo, foram aplicadas em cinco diferentes combinações de Ksat, que poderiam ser esperadas nessa paisagem. Os resultados mostraram que as características do fluxo do solo sob carvão aumentaram significativamente (p Abstract in english The impact of charcoal production on soil hydraulic properties, runoff response and erosion susceptibility were studied in both field and simulation experiments. Core and composite samples, from 12 randomly selected sites within the catchment of Kotokosu were taken from the 0-10 cm layer of a charco [...] al site soil (CSS) and adjacent field soils (AFS). These samples were used to determine saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat), bulk density, total porosity, soil texture and color. Infiltration, surface albedo and soil surface temperature were also measured in both CSS and AFS. Measured properties were used as entries in a rainfall runoff simulation experiment on a smooth (5 % slope) plot of 25 x 25 m grids with 10 cm resolutions. Typical rainfall intensities of the study watershed (high, moderate and low) were applied to five different combinations of Ks distributions that could be expected in this landscape. The results showed significantly (p

Ajayi, Ayodele; Philip, Oguntunde; Abiodun, Joseph; Moacir de Souza, Dias Junior.

2009-02-01

262

Agricultural losses related to frost events: use of the 850 hPa level temperature as an explanatory variable of the damage cost  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study is the analysis of damaging frost events in agriculture, by examining the relationship between the daily minimum temperature in the lower atmosphere (at an isobaric level of 850 hPa) and crop production losses. Furthermore, the study suggests a methodological approach for estimating agriculture risk due to frost events, with the aim of estimating the short-term probability and magnitude of frost-related financial losses for different levels of 850 hPa temperature. Compared with near-surface temperature forecasts, temperature forecasts at the level of 850 hPa are less influenced by varying weather conditions or by local topographical features; thus, they constitute a more consistent indicator of the forthcoming weather conditions. The analysis of the daily monetary compensations for insured crop losses caused by weather events in Greece shows that, during the period 1999-2011, frost caused more damage to crop production than any other meteorological phenomenon. Two regions of different geographical latitudes are examined further, to account for the differences in the temperature ranges developed within their ecological environment. Using a series of linear and logistic regressions, we found that minimum temperature (at an 850 hPa level), grouped into three categories according to its magnitude, and seasonality, are significant variables when trying to explain crop damage costs, as well as to predict and quantify the likelihood and magnitude of damaging frost events.

Papagiannaki, K.; Lagouvardos, K.; Kotroni, V.; Papagiannakis, G.

2014-09-01

263

Soil surface changes during winter and snow melt  

Science.gov (United States)

Microtopography is an important driver for runoff and erosion and deposition processes. The morphology of agricultural soil surfaces changes throughout the year. During the growing season, this is mainly due to tillage operations. Little is known about the changes that occur during winter and immediately after that when the snow pack has molten. In this trial, a terrestrial laser scanner was used on a 100 m² run off plot in south-western Norway to compare the soil surface before and after snow cover. The obtained point clouds were filtered and used to construct Digital Terrain Models of a resolution of 0.02 m. Terrain analysis of the multi-temporal dataset showed that three processes could be distinguished and quantified: roughness reduction, frost heave and erosion/deposition. Terrain indices were used to find correlations between the observed surface changes and the processes presumed to be connected to these changes. The indices used were slope, curvature, aspect, relative hill slope position, stream flow convergence and a sedimentation index (based on slope and curvature). Good correlations were found between surface elevation change and curvature and the sedimentation and convergence indices, respectively. Similarly a good correlation was found between roughness reduction and slope. After correcting the surface elevation change for frost heave, calculated net soil loss from the plot was 20% under average annual soil loss that is reported for the plot.

Barneveld, Robert; van der Zee, Sjoerd E. A. T. M.

2014-05-01

264

Comparisons of temperature, pressure and humidity measurements by balloon-borne radiosondes and frost point hygrometers during MOHAVE 2009  

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Full Text Available We compare coincident, balloon-borne, in situ measurements of temperature and pressure by two radiosondes (Vaisala RS92, Intermet iMet-1-RSB and measurements of relative humidity (RH by Vaisala RS92 sondes and frost point hygrometers. Data from a total of 28 balloon flights with mixed payloads are analyzed in 1-km altitude bins to quantify measurement biases between sensors and how they vary with altitude. The disparities between sensors determined here are compared to measurement uncertainties quoted by the two radiosonde manufacturers. Our comparisons expose several flight profiles with anomalously large measurement differences. Excluding these anomalous profiles, 33 % of RS92-iMet median temperature differences exceed the uncertainty limits calculated from manufacturer-quoted uncertainties. A statistically significant, altitude-independent bias of about 0.5 ± 0.2 °C is revealed for the RS92-iMet temperature differences. Similarly, 23 % of RS92-iMet median pressure differences exceed the quoted uncertainty limits, with 83 % of these excessive differences above 16 km altitude. The pressure differences are altitude dependent, increasing from ?0.6 ± 0.9 hPa at the surface to 0.7 ± 0.1 hPa above 15 km. Temperature and pressure differences between redundant RS92 sondes on the same balloon exceed manufacturer-quoted reproducibility limits 20 % and 2 % of the time, respectively, with most of the excessive differences belonging to anomalous difference profiles. Relative humidity measurements by RS92 sondes are compared to other RS92 sondes and to RH values calculated using frost point hygrometer measurements and coincident radiosonde temperature measurements. For some flights the RH differences are anomalously large, but in general are within the ±5 % RH measurement uncertainty limits quoted for the RS92. The quantitative effects of RS92 and iMet pressure and temperature differences on frost point-based water vapor mixing ratios and RH values, respectively, are also presented.

D. F. Hurst

2011-07-01

265

Physico-Chemical Properties and CO2 fluxes at a frost-flower station in the Bellingshausen Sea, Antarctica (SIMBA)  

Science.gov (United States)

This study documents the physico-chemical properties of newly formed sea ice at a frost flower site of the Ice Station ‘Belgica’. in the Bellingshausen Sea, (Sept-Oct 2007). Frost flower formation on sea ice is of interest, both for paleoclimatic reconstructions in deep ice cores and for potential impacts on atmospheric chemistry. The site has been surveyed for thickness at 3 occasions and samples were collected for multiparametric analyses on days 277 and 290 of 2007. CO2 fluxes were measured on day 290 along a 15 meters transect across the rim of the recently ice covered lead (8-27 cm). Ice samples were collected at 5 regularly spaced locations. Snow cover regularly decreased from the rim (10 cm) to the inner part of the lead (0 cm) We will present texture, temperature, bulk salinity, brine volume, ?18O, chl a, major cations and anions data and accumulation chamber-type CO2 fluxes and discuss the effect of the varying snow cover on salt fractionation and CO2 fluxes. The large contrasts in the snow cover along the transect resulted in contrasting snow-ice interface temperatures and therefore permeability, which in turn was clearly driving the gas fluxes and processes of salt concentration at the ice surface. This study provides the first field evidence that newly forming ice temporarily acts as a source for CO2 to the atmosphere, thereby confirming recent results from experimental work. It also brings new insights to the role of ice texture in controlling CO2 fluxes and suggests the potential need for revisiting the validity domain of the “law of fives”. Finally, it demonstrates that the processes responsible for frost flower formation are clearly inhibited by the snow cover build up.

Tison, J.; Geilfus, N.; Brabant, F.; Ackley, S. F.; Golden, K. M.; Worby, A. P.; Fritsen, C. H.; Delille, B.

2009-12-01

266

Cryogenic Features Of Tundra Soils Along A Bioclimate Gradient In Arctic Alaska And Canada  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous field research describing Polar Desert soils of High Arctic, Canada, have emphasized the soils as having minimal development. However, based on recent field studies we found that cryogenesis plays a controlling role in soil formation in the High Arctic, just as in the Middle and Low Arctic. Cryoturbation is one kind of cryogenic process in that soil horizons are mixed, warped, broken or mixed due to frost heave, frost churning and frost cracking. However, in most recent sediments or young soils, cryoturbation is none to minimal and soil horizons are relatively flat. As the cryogenic process proceeds with time, cryoturbated features become dominant through most of the profile. The landscape of the High Arctic (Isechsen, Subzone A) is dominated by small contraction-crack polygons, cryogenesis results in strong cryogenic structures but cryoturbated features are more prominent at the surface horizons. Massive ground ice, including ice wedge, is common. In Middle Arctic (Mould Bay, Subzone B; and Green Cabin, Subzone C) the landscape is dominated by nonsorted circles (frost boils), small nonsorted polygons, earth hummocks and turf hummocks. In Subzone C, nonsorted circles, small nonsorted polygons and turf hummocks formed in loamy and sandy soils. Throughout the bioclimate transect, the depth of the active layer does not decrease with increasing latitude but responds primarily to the insulating effects of vegetation cover where present. The depth of active layers ranges from 40 to 60 cm. Due to the presence of permafrost, downward drainage is restricted; reducing condition often appear at the lower active layer and upper permafrost due to a saturated zone on top of the upper permafrost. The most common reduced metals are Fe and Mn. Soils in the center of the nonsorted circle and small polygons are subjected to alternate reduction and oxidation which result in redoximorphic features. Whereas soils between the circles are mostly reduced due to thicker organic horizon and shallow active layer. Freeze-thaw cycles often result in cryogenic soil structures. Cryptogamic crust commonly occur on the surface of frost boils and crumb structures are commonly associated with crusts in soils of Subzone C through D but are less common in Subzone A and B. Hard crusts form in frost boils of Subzone A through C due to the drier climate with salt accumulations on the surface. Granular structures form around the edge of earth hummocks and nonsorted circles. Platy and lenticular structures form in the upper active layers and reticulate and ataxitic structures form on top of the permafrost table. These structures provide for passage of air and water and result in a surface for biogeochemical reactions after thawing. Cryogenic processes, mainly cryoturbation also plays a controlling role in carbon sequestration across the bioclimate transect from Subzone A to D in Arctic Canada and Alaska. The forms of cryogenic features/patterns that are expressed at the soil surface result in differing carbon-distributions throughout the soil profile. The soils of hummock features tend to store more C in the upper permafrost than in the active layer whereas carbon sequestered in nonsorted circles is more evenly divided between the upper permafrost and the surface active-layer. This could result in differing impacts and feedbacks to the carbon balance of these ecosystems under changing climate conditions.

Ping, C.; Michaelson, G. J.; Tarnocai, C.; Walker, D. A.

2005-12-01

267

The interplay between inner and outer frost damage and its implication for accelerated freeze-thaw testing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the present project salt frost scaling was registered during an accelerated freeze-thaw test (CEN/TS 12390-9). After the test, inner damage was evaluated by observing the crack patterns on fluorescence impregnated plane sections. The results indicate that the developments of inner and outer damage are linked processes. The link is related to the moisture transport in the concrete, as both inner cracking and scaling change if a moisture barrier is implemented parallel to the test surface, 25 mm below the test surface.

Hasholt, Marianne Tange

2014-01-01

268

The diagonal Ising susceptibility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We use the recently derived form factor expansions of the diagonal two-point correlation function of the square Ising model to study the susceptibility for a magnetic field applied only to one diagonal of the square lattice, for the isotropic Ising model. We exactly evaluate the one and two particle contributions ?(1)d and ?(2)d of the corresponding susceptibility, and obtain linear differential equations for the three and four particle contributions, as well as the five particle contribution ?(5)d, but only modulo a given prime. We use these exact linear differential equations to show that not only the Russian-doll structure but also the direct sum structure on the linear differential operators for the n-particle contributions ?(n)d are quite directly inherited from the direct sum structure on the form factors f(n). We show that the nth particle contributions ?(n)d have their singularities at roots of unity. These singularities become dense on the unit circle |sinh 2Ev/kTsinh 2Eh/kT| = 1 as n ? ?

269

Spatial distribution and temporal variation of the winter wheat late frost disaster in Henan, China  

Science.gov (United States)

The winter wheat late frost disaster (WFD) occurs mainly in the Yellow and Huaihe River area, of which Henan Province covers the most part. Henan is the major area of wheat production in China, but it is severely hit by the WFD. In this study, we construct a WFD index based on the minimum temperature and the winter wheat development period (WDP). The WFD degrees and days at 30 agrometeorological stations in Henan Province during the period of 1981-2004 are calculated. For the large-scale temporal variation analysis of WFD, the 24-yr WDP observation series is relatively short, so it is expanded by using the relation between the turning green date of winter wheat and the 5-day running mean temperature and that between the stem elongation phase and the effective cumulative temperature above a critical value of 2.5°C. The WFD data are also expanded for the last 50 years and are analyzed by using the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) and the Morlet wavelet methods. Characteristics in the spatial distribution and temporal variation of WFD are revealed. The results show that the frequency of WFD is generally high, exceeding 40% in parts of Henan, and exhibits a rising trend in the period of 1970-1990. The variation trend of WFD degrees is similar to that of WFD days, and the areas with higher WFD degrees coincide the areas with more WFD days. Moreover, the WFD degree has a greater impact on the winter wheat yield than the WFD days. The areas with high WFD degrees lie in the southeast and southwest of Henan, and the areas with low WFD degrees lie in the south of the Huaihe River and parts of western Henan. Temporal variations of the first and second EOF modes of the WFD degree display 16- and quasi-22-yr periodicities, respectively. The areas of high (low) WFD frequency are distributed in the northern Henan and the southwest border of Henan (the northeast Henan and the middle part of southwest Henan). The temporal variation of the first (second) EOF mode of WFD days exhibits a periodicity (periodicities) of quasi-4 yr (quasi-3 and quasi-6-7 yr).

Zhang, Xuefen; Zheng, Youfei; Wang, Chunyi; Chen, Huailiang; Ren, Zhenhe; Zou, Chunhui

2011-04-01

270

Ground Water and Frost Induced Seismic Velocity Changes in Ketzin (Germany)  

Science.gov (United States)

The principle of Seismic Interferometry (SI) is that the correlation of a random wave field like seismic noise recorded by distant receivers can be used to infer the Green function (or at least part of it) of the medium between the receivers. Beside tomographic inversion for the subsurface velocity it can also be used to detect small temporal changes in the propagation of the seismic wave field. As these changes can be related to changes of elastic properties in the propagation medium, SI can characterize dynamic processes in the earth's crust. This technique was successfully applied, inter alia, to monitor seasonal variations in response to environmental influences, shaking caused by earthquakes or material changes due to the eruption of volcanoes. We work with data acquired with a seismic network in Ketzin (Brandenburg, Germany), where CO2 is injected into a saline aquifer at a depth of about 650 m. We calculated daily cross-correlation functions (CCFs) of the ambient noise field for a time period of about 4 years from the beginning of the injection. Spectra showed that the frequency band between 1 and 3.5 Hz does neither show an annual periodicity (like for microseism) nor temporal shifts of peak frequencies. For this frequency band we estimated the noise propagation direction over two years and found a predominant direction from north-east. This direction matches with the location of a large wind park a few km away from the array. The direction of the noise wave field shows a good stability, which excludes variations of the noise source distribution as a cause of spurious velocity variations. To analyze possible velocity changes for each day, we computed stretched versions of a reference CCF and calculated correlation values between different time windows in the coda part of the stretched traces and the reference trace. We can observe velocity variations with a period of approx. one year that are not caused by the CO2 injection. Due to the almost continuous injection of CO2 we would expect a monotonic decrease of the seismic velocities if caused by the CO2. Based on an amplitude decrease when using time windows in the later part of the coda, we show that the variations must be generated in the shallow subsurface. A comparison to ground water level data reveals a direct correlation between the depth of the ground water level and the seismic velocity. The influence of ground frost on the seismic velocities is documented in a sharp increase of velocity when the maximum daily temperature does not exceed 0°C.

Gassenmeier, Martina; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph; Korn, Michael

2014-05-01

271

Assessing Heterodera glycines-Resistant and Susceptible Cultivar Yield Response.  

Science.gov (United States)

The soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines (SCN) is of major economic importance and widely distributed throughout soybean production regions of the United States where different maturity groups with the same sources of SCN resistance are grown. The objective of this study was to assess SCN-resistant and -susceptible soybean yield responses in infested soils across the north-central region. In 1994 and 1995, eight SCN-resistant and eight SCN-susceptible public soybean cultivars representing maturity groups (MG) I to IV were planted in 63 fields, either infested or noninfested, in 10 states in the north-central United States. Soil samples were taken to determine initial SCN population density and race, and soil classification. Data were grouped for analysis by adaptation based on MG zones. Soybean yields were 658 to 3,840 kg/ha across the sites. Soybean cyst nematode-resistant cultivars yielded better at SCN-infested sites but lost this superiority to susceptible soybean cultivars at noninfested sites. Interactions were observed among initial SCN population density, cultivar, and location. This study showed that no region-wide predictive equations could be developed for yield loss based on initial nematode populations in the soil and that yield loss due to SCN in our region was greatly confounded by other stress factors, which included temperature and moisture extremes. PMID:19259433

Donald, P A; Pierson, P E; St Martin, S K; Sellers, P R; Noel, G R; Macguidwin, A E; Faghihi, J; Ferris, V R; Grau, C R; Jardine, D J; Melakeberhan, H; Niblack, T L; Stienstra, W C; Tylka, G L; Wheeler, T A; Wysong, D S

2006-03-01

272

Magnetic susceptibility: a proxy method of estimating increased pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A need for rapid and inexpensive (proxy) methods of outlining areas exposed to increased pollution by atmospheric particulates of industrial origin caused scientists in various fields to use and validate different non-traditional (or non-chemical) techniques. Among them, soil magnetometry seems to be a suitable tool. This method is based on the knowledge that ferrimagnetic particles, namely magnetite, are produced from pyrite during combustion of fossil fuel. Besides the combustion processes, magnetic particles can also originate from road traffic, for example, or can be included in various waste-water outlets. In our study we examine the magnetic susceptibility as a convenient measure of determining the concentration of (ferri) magnetic minerals by rapid and non-destructive means. We used for measure KLY-2 Kappabridge. Concentration of ferrimagnetic minerals in different soils is linked to pollution sources. Higher ? values were observed in soils on the territory in Istebne (47383x10-6 SI ). The susceptibility anomaly may be caused by particular geological circumstances and can be related to high content of ferromagnetic minerals in the host rocks. Positive correlation of magnetic susceptibility are conditioned by industrial contamination mainly by metal working factories and by traffic. The proposed method can be successfully applied in determining heavy metal pollution of soils on the city territories. (authors)

273

Soil freezing and thawing processes affected by the different landscapes in the middle reaches of Heihe River Basin, Gansu, China  

Science.gov (United States)

An understanding of soil freezing and thawing processes in seasonally frozen soil is important for many agricultural and environmental issues, especially under different landscapes in terms of land use and climate change. In this study, sandy soil behavior under soil freezing and thawing cycles were investigated under three typical landscapes (i.e., farmland, forest, and desert) in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China, from December 2011 to May 2012. Both Neutron Moisture Meter and Time Domain Reflectometry techniques were used to investigate the total soil water content (TSWC) and liquid soil water content (LSWC), respectively, and further based on to calculate soil ice content (SIC) and ice ratio (IR). The partition TSWC into LSWC and SIC at different depths is shown to be corresponded well with soil temperature, frost depth and groundwater dynamics, provided a vigorous basis for augmenting the limited data on soil water redistribution in seasonally frozen soils under natural conditions of different landscapes. The greatest freezing cycles were observed for the farmland, characterized with the deepest frost depths (106 cm), the highest IR (>0.9), and the largest upward heat fluxes (120 W m-2), followed by the forest, and then the desert. These differences were primarily attributed to landscape-dependent initial soil water content, soil surface cover and groundwater levels, with marginal effect being attributed to soil physical properties. Profiled water redistribution upon soil freezing and thawing was obviously observed in the moist forest, but neither in the wettest farmland or in the driest desert. The soil frozen processes had a beneficial effect on soil water conservation with reduced evaporation and seepage, and high water content maintained, which could be useful for plant germination in the following spring.

Yi, Jun; Zhao, Ying; Shao, Ming'an; Zhang, Jianguo; Cui, Lele; Si, Bingcheng

2014-11-01

274

Susceptibility to anchoring effects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Previous research on anchoring has shown this heuristic to be a very robust psychological phenomenon ubiquitous across many domains of human judgment and decision-making. Despite the prevalence of anchoring effects, researchers have only recently begun to investigate the underlying factors responsible for how and in what ways a person is susceptible to them. This paper examines how one such factor, the Big-Five personality trait of openness-to-experience, influences the effect of previously presented anchors on participants' judgments. Our findings indicate that participants high in openness-to-experience were significantly more influenced by anchoring cues relative to participants low in this trait. These findings were consistent across two different types of anchoring tasks providing convergent evidence for our hypothesis.

Todd McElroy

2007-02-01

275

The genetic potential for key biogeochemical processes in Arctic frost flowers and young sea ice revealed by metagenomic analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Newly formed sea ice is a vast and biogeochemically active environment. Recently, we reported an unusual microbial community dominated by members of the Rhizobiales in frost flowers at the surface of Arctic young sea ice based on the presence of 16S gene sequences related to these strains. Here, we use metagenomic analysis of two samples, from a field of frost flowers and the underlying young sea ice, to explore the metabolic potential of this surface ice community. The analysis links genes for key biogeochemical processes to the Rhizobiales, including dimethylsulfide uptake, betaine glycine turnover, and halocarbon production. Nodulation and nitrogen fixation genes characteristic of terrestrial root-nodulating Rhizobiales were generally lacking from these metagenomes. Non-Rhizobiales clades at the ice surface had genes that would enable additional biogeochemical processes, including mercury reduction and dimethylsulfoniopropionate catabolism. Although the ultimate source of the observed microbial community is not known, considerations of the possible role of eolian deposition or transport with particles entrained during ice formation favor a suspended particle source for this microbial community. PMID:24673287

Bowman, Jeff S; Berthiaume, Chris T; Armbrust, E Virginia; Deming, Jody W

2014-08-01

276

The rice Osmyb4 gene enhances tolerance to frost and improves germination under unfavourable conditions in transgenic barley plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Osmyb4 rice gene, coding for a transcription factor, proved to be efficient against different abiotic stresses as a trans(cis)gene in several plant species, although the effectiveness was dependent on the host genomic background. Eight barley transgenic lines carrying the rice Osmyb4 gene under the control of the Arabidopsis cold inducible promoter cor15a were produced to test the efficiency of this gene in barley. After a preliminary test, the best performing lines were subjected to freezing at -11°C and -12°C. Frost tolerance was assessed measured the F(v)/F(m) parameter widely used to indicate the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II photochemistry in the dark adapted state. Three transgenic lines showed significantly increased tolerance. These selected lines were further studied under a complex stress applying cold and hypoxia at germinating stage. In these conditions the three selected transgenic lines outperformed the wild type barley in terms of germination vigour. The transgenic plants also showed a significant modification of their metabolism under cold/hypoxia conditions as demonstrated through the assessment of the activity of key enzymes involved in anoxic stress response. None of the transgenic lines showed dwarfism, just a slight retarded growth. These results provide evidence that the cold dependent expression of Osmyb4 can efficiently improved frost tolerance and germination vigour at low temperature without deleterious effect on plant growth. PMID:22246661

Soltész, Alexandra; Vágújfalvi, Attila; Rizza, Fulvia; Kerepesi, Ildikó; Galiba, Gábor; Cattivelli, Luigi; Coraggio, Immacolata; Crosatti, Cristina

2012-05-01

277

Effects of thawing procedure on frost hardiness, carbohydrate content and timing of bud break in Picea abies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of different thawing procedures on seedling quality in Norway spruce (Picea abies) was evaluated. Freezer-stored seedlings were thawed rapidly for 20 h by immersion in water with an initial water temperature of 8 deg C or thawed more slowly by gradually increasing the temperature in storage over a period of 8 weeks. Seedlings from these treatments were also compared with seedlings thawed rapidly overnight at 15 deg C. Frost tolerance, carbohydrate content and the time of bud break were used as indicators of the vitality of the seedlings. Seedlings thawed rapidly in water or air showed significantly better frost tolerance after storage than slowly thawed seedlings. The contents of sucrose and raffinose in seedlings thawed rapidly were also significantly higher than in seedlings thawed more slowly. Bud break occurred later in seedlings thawed rapidly than in slowly thawed seedlings. Rapid thawing in water may be a good method to ensure the delivery of high-quality thawed seedlings throughout the planting season.

Sundheim Floeistad, Inger; Kohmann, Ketil [Norwegian Forest Research Inst., Aas (Norway)

2001-07-01

278

A PEDOTRANSFER FUNCTION FOR ESTIMATING THE SOIL ERODIBILITY FACTOR IN SICILY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The soil erodibility factor, K, of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is a simple descriptor of the soil susceptibility to rill and interrill erosion. The original procedure for determining K needs a knowledge of soil particle size distribution (PSD), soil organic matter, OM, content, and soil structure and permeability characteristics. However, OM data are often missing and soil structure and permeability are not easily evaluated in regional analyses. The objective of this investigation...

Massimo Iovino; Giordano Giuseppe; Costanza Di Stefano; Vito Ferro; Vincenzo Bagarello

2009-01-01

279

Magnetic susceptibility from electron holes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A recent theory of magnetic field amplification in electron holes is extended to derive the magnetic susceptibility of an electron-hole gas propagating in a magnetic flux tube along the ambient magnetic field. It is shown that the hole gas behaves diamagnetic adding some small amount to the well-known Landau susceptibility in the hole-carrying volume.

Treumann, R. A.; Baumjohann, W.

2013-01-01

280

Magnetic susceptibility from electron holes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A recent theory of magnetic field amplification in electron holes is extended to derive the magnetic susceptibility of an electron-hole gas propagating in a magnetic flux tube along the ambient magnetic field. It is shown that the hole gas behaves diamagnetic adding some small amount to the well-known Landau susceptibility in the hole-carrying volume.

R. A. Treumann

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
281

An Antimicrobial Susceptibility Management System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A computerized system is described which is used to store, manipulate and retrieve antimicrobial susceptibility data in the clinical microbiology lab. Features include facilitated input of susceptibility data, rapid generation of reports, realtime access to data, and enhanced retrieval of information for Infection Control.

Farmer, James J.; O Donnell, Edward D.

1981-01-01

282

Comparisons of temperature, pressure and humidity measurements by balloon-borne radiosondes and frost point hygrometers during MOHAVE-2009  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We compare coincident, in situ, balloon-borne measurements of temperature (T and pressure (P by two radiosondes (Vaisala RS92, Intermet iMet-1-RSB and similar measurements of relative humidity (RH by RS92 sondes and frost point hygrometers. Data from a total of 28 balloon flights with at least one pair of radiosondes are analyzed in 1-km altitude bins to quantify measurement differences between the sonde sensors and how they vary with altitude. Each comparison (T, P, RH exposes several profiles of anomalously large measurement differences. Measurement difference statistics, calculated with and without the anomalous profiles, are compared to uncertainties quoted by the radiosonde manufacturers. Excluding seven anomalous profiles, T differences between 19 pairs of RS92 and iMet sondes exceed their measurement uncertainty limits (2 ? 31% of the time and reveal a statistically significant, altitude-independent bias of 0.5 ± 0.2 °C. Similarly, RS92-iMet P differences in 22 non-anomalous profiles exceed their uncertainty limits 23% of the time, with a disproportionate 83% of the excessive P differences at altitudes >16 km. The RS92-iMet pressure differences increase smoothly from ?0.6 hPa near the surface to 0.8 hPa above 25 km. Temperature and P differences between all 14 pairs of RS92 sondes exceed manufacturer-quoted, reproducibility limits (? 28% and 11% of the time, respectively. About 95% of the excessive T differences are eliminated when 5 anomalous RS92-RS92 profiles are excluded. Only 5% of RH measurement differences between 14 pairs of RS92 sondes exceed the manufacturer's measurement reproducibility limit (?. RH measurements by RS92 sondes are also compared to RH values calculated from frost point hygrometer measurements and coincident T measurements by the radiosondes. The influences of RS92-iMet Tand P differences on RH values and water vapor mixing ratios calculated from frost point hygrometer measurements are examined.

D. F. Hurst

2011-12-01

283

Impact of climate change, seedling type and provenance on the risk of damage to Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings in Sweden due to early summer frosts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A model including site-specific microclimate-affecting properties of a forest regeneration area together with seedling characteristics was used to evaluate the accumulated risk of frost damage to Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings. Climate change in Sweden was simulated on the basis of the regional climate model RCA3. The daily average temperature, the driving factor for bud burst in the model, was adjusted using the difference between the mean of the climate model data for the years 1961-1990 and 2036-2065. The model was run for a highly frost prone, clear-cut site in which bare-rooted Norway spruce seedlings of mid-Swedish provenance were planted. Alternate runs were conducted with data for containerized seedlings and seedlings of Belarusian origin. The study showed that bud burst will occur at earlier dates throughout Sweden in the period 2036-2065 if the climate changes according to either of the climate scenarios examined, compared to the reference period 1961-1990. Furthermore, the risk of damage to Norway spruce seedlings as a result of frost events during summer will increase in southern Sweden and be unaffected or decrease in northern Sweden. The risk of frost damage was exacerbated in containerized seedlings, while the risk was lower for the seedlings of Belarusian provenance when compared with bare-rooted seedlings or seedlings of mid-Swedish origin

Langvall, Ola (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Unit for Field-based Forest Research, Asa Forest Research Station, Lammhult (Sweden))

2011-04-15

284

Selective occurrence of Rhizobiales in frost flowers on the surface of young sea ice near Barrow, Alaska and distribution in the polar marine rare biosphere.  

Science.gov (United States)

Frost flowers are highly saline ice structures that grow on the surface of young sea ice, a spatially extensive environment of increasing importance in the Arctic Ocean. In a previous study, we reported organic components of frost flowers in the form of elevated levels of bacteria and exopolymers relative to underlying ice. Here, DNA was extracted from frost flowers and young sea ice, collected in springtime from a frozen lead offshore of Barrow, Alaska, to identify bacteria in these understudied environments. Evaluation of the distribution of 16S rRNA genes via four methods (microarray analysis, T-RFLP, clone library and shotgun metagenomic sequencing) indicated distinctive bacterial assemblages between the two environments, with frost flowers appearing to select for Rhizobiales. A phylogenetic placement approach, used to evaluate the distribution of similar Rhizobiales sequences in other polar marine studies, indicated that some of the observed strains represent widely distributed members of the marine rare biosphere in both the Arctic and Antarctic. PMID:23864572

Bowman, J S; Larose, C; Vogel, T M; Deming, J W

2013-08-01

285

Cement mortar-degraded spinney waste composite as a matrix for immobilizing some low and intermediate level radioactive wastes: Consistency under frost attack  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Spinney fiber is one of the wastes generated from spinning of cotton raw materials. ? Cement mortar composite was hydrated by using the degraded slurry of spinney wastes. ? Frost resistance was assessed for the mortar-degraded spinney waste composite specimens. ? SEM image, FT-IR and XRD patterns were performed for samples subjected to frost attack. - Abstract: The increasing amounts of spinning waste fibers generated from cotton fabrication are problematic subject. Simultaneous shortage in the landfill disposal space is also the most problem associated with dumping of these wastes. Cement mortar composite was developed by hydrating mortar components using the waste slurry obtained from wet oxidative degradation of these spinney wastes. The consistency of obtained composite was determined under freeze–thaw events. Frost resistance was assessed for the mortar composite specimens by evaluating its compressive strength, apparent porosity and mass loss at the end of each period of freeze–thaw up to 45 cycles. Scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses were performed for samples subjected to frost attack aiming at evaluating the cement mortar in the presence of degraded spinney waste. The cement mortar composite exhibits acceptable resistance and durability against the freeze–thaw treatment that could be chosen in radioactive waste management as immobilizing agent for some low and intermediate level radioand intermediate level radioactive wastes.

286

Susceptibility of Shallow Landslide in Fraser Hill Catchment, Pahang Malaysia  

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In tropical areas especially during monsoon seasons intense precipitation is the main caused that trigger the natural shallow landslide phenomena. This phenomenon can be disastrous and widespread in occurrence even in undisturbed forested catchment. In this paper, an attempt has been made to evaluate the susceptibility of natural hill slopes to failure for a popular hill resort area, the Fraser Hill Catchment under different rainfall regimes and soil thickness. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM)...

Wan Nor Azmin Sulaiman

2010-01-01

287

Ice barriers promote supercooling and prevent frost injury in reproductive buds, flowers and fruits of alpine dwarf shrubs throughout the summer?  

Science.gov (United States)

Over-wintering reproductive buds of many woody plants survive frost by supercooling. The bud tissues are isolated from acropetally advancing ice by the presence of ice barriers that restrict ice growth. Plants living in alpine environments also face the risk of ice formation in summer months. Little knowledge exists, how reproductive structures of woody alpine plants are protected from frost injury during episodic summer frosts. In order to address this question, frost resistance of three common dwarf shrubs, Calluna vulgaris, Empetrum hermaphroditum and Loiseleuria procumbens was measured and ice formation and propagation were monitored in twigs bearing reproductive shoots during various stages of reproductive development (bud, anthesis, and fruit) throughout the alpine summer. Results indicated that, in the investigated species, ice barriers were present at all reproductive stages, isolating the reproductive shoots from ice advancing from the subtending vegetative shoot. Additionally, in the reproductive stems ice nucleating agents that are active at warm, sub-zero temperatures, were absent. The ice barriers were 100% effective, with the exception of L. procumbens, where in 13% of the total observations, the ice barrier failed. The ice barriers were localized at the base of the pedicel, at the anatomical junction of the vegetative and reproductive shoot. There, structural aspects of the tissue impede or prevent ice from advancing from the frozen stem into the pedicel of the reproductive shoot. Under the experimental conditions used in this study, ice nucleation initially occurred in the stem of the vegetative shoot at species-specific mean temperatures in the range of ?4.7 to ?5.8 °C. Reproductive shoots, however, remained supercooled and ice free down to a range of ?7.2 to ?18.2 °C or even below ?22 °C, the lowest temperature applied in the study. This level of supercooling is sufficient to prevent freezing of reproductive structures at the lowest air temperature occurring at the altitude of the upper distribution boundary of the natural habitat of the investigated species which is between ?8 and ?10 °C in summer. Frost resistance assays indicated that reproductive shoots are much less frost resistant than vegetative stems, and in contrast to vegetative shoots, are not ice tolerant. Supercooling of reproductive shoots in alpine, woody plant species is an effective mechanism that protects developing offspring from potential frost damage resulting from episodic summer freezing events. PMID:25284910

Kuprian, Edith; Briceno, Veronica F.; Wagner, Johanna; Neuner, Gilbert

2014-01-01

288

Soil enzyme activities, bacterial biomass and bacterial community structure. Changes through soil profile due to different managements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dry climate regions are particularly susceptible to impacts from soil-degradation. In these areas, deteriorating soil quality is mainly related to inappropriate farming techniques, but the use of environmental friendly agriculture practices has proven to be effective in restoring or improving soil quality. (Author)

289

Transgenic barley lines prove the involvement of TaCBF14 and TaCBF15 in the cold acclimation process and in frost tolerance.  

Science.gov (United States)

The enhancement of winter hardiness is one of the most important tasks facing breeders of winter cereals. For this reason, the examination of those regulatory genes involved in the cold acclimation processes is of central importance. The aim of the present work was the functional analysis of two wheat CBF transcription factors, namely TaCBF14 and TaCBF15, shown by previous experiments to play a role in the development of frost tolerance. These genes were isolated from winter wheat and then transformed into spring barley, after which the effect of the transgenes on low temperature stress tolerance was examined. Two different types of frost tests were applied; plants were hardened at low temperature before freezing, or plants were subjected to frost without a hardening period. The analysis showed that TaCBF14 and TaCBF15 transgenes improve the frost tolerance to such an extent that the transgenic lines were able to survive freezing temperatures several degrees lower than that which proved lethal for the wild-type spring barley. After freezing, lower ion leakage was measured in transgenic leaves, showing that these plants were less damaged by the frost. Additionally, a higher Fv/Fm parameter was determined, indicating that photosystem II worked more efficiently in the transgenics. Gene expression studies showed that HvCOR14b, HvDHN5, and HvDHN8 genes were up-regulated by TaCBF14 and TaCBF15. Beyond that, transgenic lines exhibited moderate retarded development, slower growth, and minor late flowering compared with the wild type, with enhanced transcript level of the gibberellin catabolic HvGA2ox5 gene. PMID:23567863

Soltész, Alexandra; Smedley, Mark; Vashegyi, Ildikó; Galiba, Gábor; Harwood, Wendy; Vágújfalvi, Attila

2013-04-01

290

Numerical study of the pressure drop in a plain fin-and-circular tube heat exchanger under frost condition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are carried out to study the pressure drop behavior in a plain fin-and-four staggered layout and circular tube rows for different fin pitches under frost conditions using FLUENT 6.3 CFD code. Models geometry is created and meshed using GAMBIT 2.3. Fluid flow and heat transfer are simulated and results calculated using (Transitional SST k-omega) turbulence model, with steady-state solver. Model validation is carried out by comparing the pressure drop of a simulated case with experimental results from the literature. It was found that Fluent 6.3 software has been sufficient for simulating the flow characteristics in tube-fin heat exchangers. (author)

291

Efficacy of cervicothoracic sympathectomy versus conservative management in patients suffering from incapacitating raynaud,s syndrome after frost bite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Raynaud's syndrome is a known complication of cold injuries. Stress, smoking and metabolic diseases may further aggravate the disease course. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of Cervico-thoracic sympathectomy as compared to conservative management in severe Raynaud's syndrome after frostbite. This non-randomized controlled trial was conducted at Railway Hospital, Rawalpindi and Islamic International Medical Complex, Islamabad between January 1999 and June 2006. All patients sustained severe cold trauma in the mountain ridges of Himalayas in Kashmir. In all cases, an informed consent was obtained from patients and families. All operations performed were free of charges. Out of the total 48 patients who developed incapacitating Raynaud's syndrome of the upper limbs after frost bite, 17 patients underwent thoracic sympathectomy through anterior supraclavicular route. Remaining 31 patients were treated conservatively and were placed in the control group. Data was collected on pre-designed proforma and assessed using SPSS (version 11). Chi-square test was applied to assess the effectiveness of the two treatment modalities. All operated cases initially showed improvement in symptoms and incapacitation. Among sympathectomised patients, 11 patients became symptom free and 3 patients showed mild but improved symptoms. Two patients after initial transient improvement developed incapacitating symptoms requiring further treatment, one patient developed gangther treatment, one patient developed gangrene of distal phalanx nine month after sympathectomy requiring amputation of the finger. Frequency of attacks and duration between the attacks reduced in all operated patients of cervical sympathectomy (p<0.05) as compared to conservative management. Cervical sympathectomy is a very effective modality of treatment in patients having severe Raynaud's disease of upper limbs secondary to frost bite. (author)

292

The MVACS Soil Temperature Probe  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) payload on Mars Polar Lander, currently on its way to a Dec. 3, 1999 landing on the south polar layered deposits, the Soil Temperature Probe (STP) will make direct measurements of the temperatures and thermophysical properties of soils and/or ices accessible by the Robotic Arm (RA). The STP consists of a thin, rigid fiberglass tube 15 cm long containing 2 platinum resistance temperature sensors; one in the metal tip which can be heated (PRT-1), and another inside the tube (PRT-2). It is mounted on the side of the scoop at the end of the RA. To make measurements, the RA places the STP in the desired location on or beneath the surface, and Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) image(s) are taken to verify its position, using ruler markings on the STP to measure its depth. The temperatures of both PRT's are recorded every 3 seconds. Data and commanding are handled through the meteorology instruments (MET) electronics package. Measurement of thermophysical properties can be done actively or passively. In active mode, PRT-1 is heated at a constant rate ( 10 mW). The thermal conductivity of the surrounding soil can be derived from the asymptotic temperature rise. The thermal diffusivity (alpha ) can be derived from the transient response. In passive mode alpha can also be determined by measuring the change in the amplitude and phase of the diurnal thermal wave at different depths. The temperature and thermophysical property measurements obtained with the STP will be very useful for interpreting other MVACS observations including air temperature and humidity, the presence or absence of subsurface ice, the identity of any surface frosts (CO_2 or H_2O), and Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer soil sample analysis. These STP measurements will also provide invaluable "ground truth" for comparison with data from orbiting spacecraft such as Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Climate Orbiter.

Wood, S. E.; Paige, D. A.; Nguyen, A.; Crisp, D.; Alleruzzo, R.; Labaw, C.; Mahoney, C.; Vargas, R.; Gunderson, H.; Braun, D.; Slostad, J.; Manvi, R.; Brown, K.; Oakes, E.

1999-09-01

293

Seasonally Frozen Soil Monitoring Using Passive Microwave Satellite Data and Simulation Modeling  

Science.gov (United States)

Satellite data and simulation modeling were used to assess seasonally frozen soils in the central US - Canada borders area (46-53 degrees N and 96-108 degrees). We used Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) satellite data to delineate the top layer of frozen soils. SMMR is a passive microwave sensor having five channels (6.6, 10, 18, 21 and 37 GHz) with a horizontal and vertical polarization. SMRR data are available between 1978-1987 with noon and midnight overpass and footprint sizes between 25 km and 150 km. SMMR data were processed from resampled 1/4 degree grid cells during fall freeze-up and spring thaw (fall 1985 - spring 1987). The dielectric properties of a target may directly affect the satellite signal. The dielectric value is an order of magnitude smaller for frozen soil water. There are other significant changes to the emitted microwave signal from changes to the surface physical temperature, attenuation of the soil signal from plant water and soil moisture. We further characterized the temporal and spatial dynamic of frozen soils using the FroST (Frozen Soil Temperature) simulation model. The FroST model was used to further predict soil water and ice content, and soil temperature. SMMR results were compared versus 5-cm soil temperature data from available weather stations (14 in Canada and 11 for available months in the US). SMMR data were analyzed as a function of frequency, polarization, polarization difference, and "frequency gradient". In addition, vegetation density, physical temperature and snow depth were also considered. Preliminary analysis of SMMR derived frozen soil/thaw classification using a simple threshold classification indicates a mean overall classification accuracy by season of 85 percent. A sensitivity analysis for different soils with varying amounts of snow was conducted with FroST, which showed that the amount of snow, and the time of snow fall and melt affected the ice and water content, and depth of thaw. These results indicate a potential source of flooding and erosion under conditions when melting snow and spring rains provide a source of infiltrating water.

Toll, D. L.; Owe, M.; Levine, E.

1998-01-01

294

Tundra Soil-Water Content and Temperature Behavior and Implications for Winter Tundra Travel  

Science.gov (United States)

Unfrozen soil-water content was monitored in the upper meter of tundra soils, using TDR sensors at several locations on the North Slope of Alaska and in the Brooks Range foothills. In addition, soil temperature was monitored to a depth of 1.5 m at these locations using thermistors. Particular attention was paid to soil water and temperature behavior during freezing and thawing conditions. The upper organic layer of soil often exhibited very wet conditions and showed much greater temporal variability than the lower mineral soil layers. Permafrost acts as a barrier to water flow, so the soils usually are wet as they thaw in the spring. Boundaries between soil layers usually are very irregular and the soil materials are mixed due to churning from frost heaving. Soil-water content sensors integrate soil-water content over a relatively large volume compared to the essentially point measurements of the thermistors used to measure soil temperature. Anyone who has worked in the field knows how difficult it is to place sensors at an exact depth. Soil-surface roughness and vegetation under tundra conditions make accurate placement almost impossible. Minor discrepancies between soil-water freezing and thawing behavior should be expected. However, an overall picture of the annual soil-freezing processes still can be described by these matched sets of sensor observations. In addition to this data, general meteorological and snow depth data is collected. Results of this study may be useful in improving tundra travel guidelines. Currently, tundra travel is allowed if the soil temperature in the upper 30 cm of soil is colder than -5C. Soil water content and resulting ice bonding in the soil matrix does impact soil properties and the resulting impacts of tundra travel.

Lilly, M. R.; Paetzold, R.; Kane, D. L.

2007-12-01

295

Magnetic Susceptibility of Multiorbital Systems  

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Effects of orbital degeneracy on magnetic susceptibility in paramagnetic phases are investigated within a mean-field theory. Under certain crystalline electric fields, the magnetic moment consists of two independent moments, e.g., spin and orbital moments. In such a case, the magnetic susceptibility is given by the sum of two different Curie-Weiss relations, leading to deviation from the Curie-Weiss law. Such behavior may be observed in d- and f-electron systems with t_{2g} ...

Kubo, Katsunori; Hotta, Takashi

2005-01-01

296

Antimicrobial susceptibility of Ureaplasma urealyticum.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An antimicrobial susceptibility test, a tow-tube broth dilution and disk elution method for Ureaplasma urealyticum, was modified to incorporate some of the standard procedures followed in traditional antimicrobial testing. The susceptibility pattern of the species was reevaluated by determining the effect of various antimicrobial agents on 21 vaginal isolates. All isolates were inhibited by tetracycline congeners (1 to 6 micrograms/ml) and killed by methenamine mandelate (0.6 mg/ml). All but ...

Davis, J. W.; Hanna, B. A.

1981-01-01

297

Correlation between magnetic susceptibility and heavy metals in urban topsoil: a case study from the city of Xuzhou, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Anthropogenic influence, mainly due to urban and industrial activities and traffic exhaust, may affect urban topsoil via atmospheric contamination and solid waste. Magnetic susceptibility measurements were conducted on 21 urban topsoil samples from the city of Xuzhou, China. High intensities of magnetic susceptibility were detected in the majority of the samples. SEM analysis shows that magnetic minerals are in the form of spherules and mainly due to anthropogenic inputs. The heavy metals Pb, Cu, Zn, Se, Sc, Mo, Fe, and Bi show strong correlations with magnetic susceptibility, and Ag, Ba, Cd, Ni, Cr, Sb, and Sn, on the other hand, show a weak correlation with magnetic susceptibility. Whereas, of these metals studied, only Hg has no significant correlation with the susceptibility. The Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) also shows significant correlation with the susceptibility (?). The present study shows that magnetic susceptibility is a fast, inexpensive, and non-destructive method for the detection and mapping of contaminated soils.

Wang, Xue Song; Qin, Yong

2005-11-01

298

Ice Lens Formation and Frost Heave at the Phoenix Landing Site  

Science.gov (United States)

Several lines of evidence indicate that the volume of shallow ground ice in the martian high latitudes exceeds the pore volume of the host regolith. Boynton et al. found an optimal fit to the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) data at the Phoenix landing site by modeling a buried layer of 50-75% ice by mass (up to 90% ice by volume). Thermal and optical observations of recent impact craters in the northern hemisphere have revealed nearly pure ice. Ice deposits containing only 1-2% soil by volume were excavated by Phoenix. The leading hypothesis for the origin of this excess ice is that it developed in situ by a mechanism analogous to the formation of terrestrial ice lenses and needle ice. Problematically, terrestrial soil-ice segregation is driven by freeze/thaw cycling and the movement of bulk water, neither of which are expected to have occurred in the geologically recent past on Mars. If however ice lens formation is possible at temperatures less than 273 K, there are possible implications for the habitability of Mars permafrost, since the same thin films of unfrozen water that lead to ice segregation are used by terrestrial psychrophiles to metabolize and grow down to temperatures of at least 258 K.

Zent, A. P.; Sizemore, H. G.; Remple, A. W.

2011-01-01

299

Soil Composition  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil is essential for life on Earth. It is needed for food, air, clothing and so much more. Discussion topics include the terms 'soil', 'dirt', and 'sediment', factors affecting the formation of soils, soil horizons, and the twelve orders of soils. In a hands-on activity, students will collect soil samples from three different locations, use online resources to determine texture and particle makeup, and record their observations.

Fox, Chris; Pratte, John

300

Landslide susceptibility analysis using Probabilistic Certainty Factor Approach: A case study on Tevankarai stream watershed, India  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports the use of a GIS based Probabilistic Certainty Factor method to assess the geo-environmental factors that contribute to landslide susceptibility in Tevankarai Ar sub-watershed, Kodaikkanal. Landslide occurrences are a common phenomenon in the Tevankarai Ar sub-watershed, Kodaikkanal owing to rugged terrain at high altitude, high frequency of intense rainfall and rapidly expanding urban growth. The spatial database of the factors influencing landslides are compiled primarily from topographical maps, aerial photographs and satellite images. They are relief, slope, aspect, curvature, weathering, soil, land use, proximity to road and proximity to drainage. Certainty Factor Approach is used to study the interaction between the factors and the landslide, highlighting the importance of each factor in causing landslide. The results show that slope, aspect, soil and proximity to roads play important role in landslide susceptibility. The landslide susceptibility map is classified into five susceptible classes - low, very low, uncertain, high and very high - 93.32% of the study area falls under the stable category and 6.34% falls under the highly and very highly unstable category. The relative landslide density index (R index) is used to validate the landslide susceptibility map. R index increases with the increase in the susceptibility class. This shows that the factors selected for the study and susceptibility mapping using certainty factor are appropriate for the study area. Highly unstable zones show intense anthropogenic activities like high density settlement areas, and busy roads connecting the hill town and the plains.

Sujatha, Evangelin Ramani; Rajamanickam, G. Victor; Kumaravel, P.

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
301

Inherited susceptibility and radiation exposure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is continuing concern that some people in the general population may have genetic makeups that place them at particularly high risk for radiation-induced cancer. The existence of such a susceptible subpopulation would have obvious implications for the estimation of risks of radiation exposure. Although it has been long known that familial aggregations of cancer do sometimes occur, recent evidence suggests that a general genetic predisposition to cancer does not exist; most cancers occur sporadically. On the other hand, nearly 10% of the known Mendelian genetic disorders are associated with cancer. A number of these involve a familial predisposition to cancer, and some are characterized by an enhanced susceptibility to the induction of cancer by various physical and chemical carcinogens, including ionizing radiation. Such increased susceptibility will depend on several factors including the frequency of the susceptibility gene in the population and its penetrance, the strength of the predisposition, and the degree to which the cancer incidence in susceptible individuals may be increased by the carcinogen. It is now known that these cancer-predisposing genes may be responsible not only for rare familial cancer syndromes, but also for a proportion of the common cancers. Although the currently known disorders can account for only a small fraction of all cancers, they serve as models for genetic predisposition to carcinogen-induced cancer in the general population. In the present report, the author describes current knowledge of those specific disorders that are associated with an enhanced predisposition to radiation-induced cancer, and discusses how this knowledge may bear on the susceptibility to radiation-induced cancer in the general population and estimates of the risk of radiation exposure.

Little, J.B. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)

1997-03-01

302

Inherited susceptibility and radiation exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is continuing concern that some people in the general population may have genetic makeups that place them at particularly high risk for radiation-induced cancer. The existence of such a susceptible subpopulation would have obvious implications for the estimation of risks of radiation exposure. Although it has been long known that familial aggregations of cancer do sometimes occur, recent evidence suggests that a general genetic predisposition to cancer does not exist; most cancers occur sporadically. On the other hand, nearly 10% of the known Mendelian genetic disorders are associated with cancer. A number of these involve a familial predisposition to cancer, and some are characterized by an enhanced susceptibility to the induction of cancer by various physical and chemical carcinogens, including ionizing radiation. Such increased susceptibility will depend on several factors including the frequency of the susceptibility gene in the population and its penetrance, the strength of the predisposition, and the degree to which the cancer incidence in susceptible individuals may be increased by the carcinogen. It is now known that these cancer-predisposing genes may be responsible not only for rare familial cancer syndromes, but also for a proportion of the common cancers. Although the currently known disorders can account for only a small fraction of all cancers, they serve as models for genetic predisposition to carcinogen-induced cancer in the general population. In the present report, the author describes current knowledge of those specific disorders that are associated with an enhanced predisposition to radiation-induced cancer, and discusses how this knowledge may bear on the susceptibility to radiation-induced cancer in the general population and estimates of the risk of radiation exposure

303

Bilateral key comparison SIM.T-K6.2 on humidity standards in the dew/frost-point temperature range from -20 °c to 20 °c  

Science.gov (United States)

A Regional Metrology Organization (RMO) Key Comparison of dew/frost point temperatures was carried out by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA) and the Centro Nacional de Metrologia (CENAM, Mexico) between July 2008 and December 2008. The results of this comparison are reported here, along with descriptions of the humidity laboratory standards for NIST and CENAM and the uncertainty budget for these standards. This report also describes the protocol for the comparison and presents the data acquired. The results are analyzed, determining degree of equivalence between the dew/frost-point standards of NIST and CENAM. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCT, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

Huang, P. H.; Meyer, C. W.; Martines-López, E.; Dávila Pacheco, J. A.; Méndez-Lango, E.

2014-01-01

304

Susceptibility of Aeromonas Hydophila Isolates to Antimicrobial Drugs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is a microorganism widely distributed in nature: in water, soil, food. It is also part of the normal bacterial flora of many animals. As an opportune microorganism it is a secondary biological agent that contributes to the occurrence of a fish disease and its deterioration. Frequently, its presence is an indication of bad zoohygiene and zootechnical conditions in fish ponds. Reduced quality and quantity of feed, mechanical injuries, parasitosis, seasonal oscillation in temperature present some of the factors that produce favorable conditions for bacterial proliferation of aeromonas in fish ponds, so clinical symptoms of the disease occur. Aeromonas is almost always present in clinical isolates and may be unjustly accused for bad health of fish. Antibiotic therapy is applied even when the clinical findings are clear, what certainly effects the susceptibility to chemotherapeutics. The subject of our work was bacteriological examination of the material obtained from the carps with the observed skin changes and the carps without these changes. Also, antimicrobial susceptibility of Aeromonas hydrophila was tested. The aim of this research was to determined the presence of Aeromonas hydrophilia in the carp ponds and to test antibiotic susceptibility. The material consisted of the samples from the fish ponds where the carps were with and without changed skin. The method the isolation of Aeromonas hydrophila was used. The diffusion disk technique was used for testing antibiotic susceptibility. The isolates were tested for their susceptibility to Florephenikol, Flumequine, Olaqindox and Oxitetracycline. The obtained results point that antimicrobial susceptibility was the same regardless of the origin of the samples, i.e. the resistance was the same for both groups of samples (the strains isolated from the fish with skin changes and the strains from fish without changes on skin. The strains were highly resistant: 35% were resistant to flumequine and 40% to Oxitetracycline.

Igor Stojanov

2010-05-01

305

NUEVOS REGISTROS DE PLANTAS HOSPEDERAS Y DISTRIBUCIÓN GEOGRÁFICA DE MELANAGROMYZA FLORIS SPENCER, M. TOMATERAE STEYSKAL, M. VIRIDIS (FROST) Y OPHIOMYIA LANTANAE (FROGGATT) (DIPTERA: AGROMYZIDAE) EN MÉXICO  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

El objetivo de este estudio fue documentar información sobre nuevas plantas hospederas y nuevos registros de distribución geográfica de Melanagromyza floris Spencer, M. tomaterae Steyskal, M. viridis (Frost) y Ophiomyia lantanae (Froggatt). Se realizaron colectas de puparios de agosto de 2007 a agosto de 2008 sobre Tithonia sp. en Tonatico, Estado de México, sobre Physalis nicandroides Schltdl en Atotonilco el Grande, sobre Tagetes erecta L. y Lantana camara L. en Huautla, ambos municipio...

Nava-di?az, Cristian; Castan?eda-vildozola, A?lvaro; Mari?n-sa?nchez, Jose?; Vega-mun?oz, Ricardo; Valdez-carrasco, Jorge Manuel; E?tienne, Jean; Palacios-torres, Rogelio Enrique

2010-01-01

306

Association analysis of frost tolerance in rye using candidate genes and phenotypic data from controlled, semi-controlled, and field phenotyping platforms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Frost is an important abiotic stress that limits cereal production in the temperate zone. As the most frost tolerant small grain cereal, rye (Secale cereale L. is an ideal cereal model for investigating the genetic basis of frost tolerance (FT, a complex trait with polygenic inheritance. Using 201 genotypes from five Eastern and Middle European winter rye populations, this study reports a multi-platform candidate gene-based association analysis in rye using 161 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and nine insertion-deletion (Indel polymorphisms previously identified from twelve candidate genes with a putative role in the frost responsive network. Results Phenotypic data analyses of FT in three different phenotyping platforms, controlled, semi-controlled and field, revealed significant genetic variations in the plant material under study. Statistically significant (P ScCbf15 and one in ScCbf12, all leading to amino acid exchanges, were significantly associated with FT over all three phenotyping platforms. Distribution of SNP effect sizes expressed as percentage of the genetic variance explained by individual SNPs was highly skewed towards zero with a few SNPs obtaining large effects. Two-way epistasis was found between 14 pairs of candidate genes. Relatively low to medium empirical correlations of SNP-FT associations were observed across the three platforms underlining the need for multi-level experimentation for dissecting complex associations between genotypes and FT in rye. Conclusions Candidate gene based-association studies are a powerful tool for investigating the genetic basis of FT in rye. Results of this study support the findings of bi-parental linkage mapping and expression studies that the Cbf gene family plays an essential role in FT.

Li Yongle

2011-10-01

307

Comparison of estimation methods of soil strength in five soils Aplicação de diferentes métodos para estimar a resistência de cinco solos  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In agriculture, the soil strength is used to describe the susceptibility to deformation by pressure caused by agricultural machine. The purpose of this study was to compare different methods for estimating the inherent soil strength and to identify their suitability for the evaluation of load support capacity, compaction susceptibility and root growth. The physical, chemical, mineralogical and intrinsic strength properties of seven soil samples, collected from five sampling pits at different ...

Ayodele Ebenezer Ajayi; Moacir de Souza Dias Junior; Nilton Curi; Cezar Francisco Araujo Junior; Olanike Olaiya Aladenola; Thiago Tadeu Teixeira Souza; Alberto Vasconcellos Inda Junior

2009-01-01

308

Mediterranean soils  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mediterranean soils are soils which form under a Mediterranean climate. They are variously called Terra Rossa (on hard limestone) and Red Mediterranean Soils. Not all soils in a Mediterranean environment are, however, qualified as such because normal pedogenetic development may be hampered by erosion (rejuvenation of the profile), lack of time, lack of water or unfavorable parent material characteristics.

Verheyen, Willy; La Rosa, Diego

2005-01-01

309

Soil: Threats  

Sep 1, 2005 ... Climate change is likely to modify the key soil processes that ... In turn this affects \\soil structure, water regimes, and plant growth. ... Common soil contaminants \\include heavy metals, hydrocarbons, biological pathogens and substances ... the \\development of robust indicators and soil management guidelines ...

310

The Ising Susceptibility Scaling Function  

CERN Document Server

We have dramatically extended the zero field susceptibility series at both high and low temperature of the Ising model on the square, triangular and honeycomb lattices, and used these data to calculate a number of terms in the scaling function expansion around both the ferromagnetic and, for the square and honeycomb lattices, the antiferromagnetic critical point.

Chan, Y; Nickel, B G; Perk, J H H

2011-01-01

311

Magnetic Susceptibility of Quark Matter  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Magnetic properties of quark matter is discussed by evaluating the spin susceptibility within Fermi-liquid theory. We take into account the dynamical and static screening effects. At finite temperature, an anomalous T^2 ln T term for susceptibity is shown as a non-Fermi-liquid effect due to the dynamical screening of transverse gluons.

Sato, K.; Tatsumi, T.

2008-01-01

312

Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The in vitro susceptibilities of 10 isolates of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae to 16 antimicrobial agents were determined. Penicillin and imipenem were the most active agents, followed by piperacillin, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, pefloxacin, and clindamycin. Some resistance was observed with erythromycin, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol. Activity was poor or absent with vancomycin, teicoplanin, daptomycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, and netilmicin.

Venditti, M.; Gelfusa, V.; Tarasi, A.; Brandimarte, C.; Serra, P.

1990-01-01

313

State Soils  

Science.gov (United States)

Developed by the US Department of Agriculture\\'s Soil Survey Division (SSD), this website describes state soils and their significance. All states have chosen a state soil, which share the same level of distinction as state flowers or birds. Information includes a photo of each official soil, a description of major characteristics and formation, and a map showing the coverage of the soil within the state. There are also links to additional information about that soil series, including more specific characteristics, other locations, related soil types, and more.

2007-02-14

314

CFD Assessment of Forward Booster Separation Motor Ignition Overpressure on ET XT 718 Ice/Frost Ramp  

Science.gov (United States)

Computational fluid dynamics assessment of the forward booster separation motor ignition over-pressure was performed on the space shuttle external tank X(sub T) 718 ice/frost ramp using the flow solver OVERFLOW. The main objective of this study was the investigation of the over-pressure during solid rocket booster separation and its affect on the local pressure and air-load environments. Delta pressure and plume impingement were investigated as a possible contributing factor to the cause of the debris loss on shuttle missions STS-125 and STS-127. A simplified computational model of the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle was developed consisting of just the external tank and the solid rocket boosters with separation motor nozzles and plumes. The simplified model was validated by comparison to full fidelity computational model of the Space Shuttle without the separation motors. Quasi steady-state plume solutions were used to calibrate the thrust of the separation motors. Time-accurate simulations of the firing of the booster-separation motors were performed. Parametric studies of the time-step size and the number of sub-iterations were used to find the best converged solution. The computed solutions were compared to previous OVERFLOW steady-state runs of the separation motors with reaction control system jets and to ground test data. The results indicated that delta pressure from the overpressure was small and within design limits, and thus was unlikely to have contributed to the foam losses.

Tejnil, Edward; Rogers, Stuart E.

2012-01-01

315

Stone circles: form and soil kinematics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Distinct surface patterns are ubiquitous and diverse in soils of polar and alpine regions, where the ground temperature oscillates about 0 degrees C. They constitute some of the most striking examples of clearly visible, abiotic self-organization in nature. This paper outlines the interplay of frost-related physical processes that produce these patterns spontaneously and presents unique data documenting subsurface soil rotational motion and surface displacement spanning 20 years in well-developed circles of soil outlined by gravel ridges. These sorted circles are particularly attractive research targets for a number of reasons that provide focus for this paper: (i) their exceptional geometric regularity captures the attention of any observer; (ii) they are currently forming and evolving, hence the underlying processes can be monitored readily, especially because they are localized near the ground surface on a scale of metres, which facilitates comprehensive characterization; and (iii) a recent, highly successful numerical model of sorted circle development helps to draw attention to particular field observations that can be used to assess the model, its assumptions and parameter choices, and to the considerable potential for synergetic field and modelling studies. PMID:24471269

Hallet, Bernard

2013-12-13

316

Resistência inicial de quatro espécies arbóreas em diferentes espaçamentos após ocorrência de geada / Initial resistance of four arboreal species in different spacing after frost occurrence  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A ocorrência de geada, dependendo do grau de dano, pode se tornar um fator limitante para a condução de florestas de curta rotação. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o comportamento após ocorrências de geadas das espécies florestais Acacia mearnsii De Wild, Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex [...] Maiden, Mimosa scabrella Benth e Ateleia glazioveana Baill submetidas a níveis de espaçamento de 2,0x1,0m; 2,0x1,5m; 3,0x1,0 e 3,0x1,5m um ano após o plantio, na região Norte do Rio Grande do Sul. Os danos (resistência a geada) foram avaliados segundo o sistema de notas de 0 a 10, conforme a intensidade do dano na planta. Os graus de resistência à geada foram determinados em função da intensidade do dano na planta. Os níveis de espaçamento estudados não afetaram respostas das espécies em relação ao dano ocasionado por geada. A espécie Mimosa scabrella apresentou ser resistente, enquanto que Eucalyptus grandis e Ateleia glazioveana, tolerantes. Já a Acacia mearnsii apresentou ser moderadamente tolerante a tolerante. Abstract in english The frost occurrence depending on the damage degree, can become a limit factor for the transport of forests of short rotation. The present research has as objective evaluate the behavior after occurrences of frosts of the species forest Acacia mearnsii De Wild, Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, [...] Mimosa scabrella Benth and Ateleia glazioveana Baill were submitted to levels of spacing of 2.0 x 1.0m; 2.0x1.5m; 3.0x1.0m and 3.0x1.5m one year after the planting, in the North of Rio Grande do Sul. The damages (resistance to frost) were appraised according to scale 0 to 10 according to the intensity of the damage in the plant. The frost resistance degrees were certain in function of the intensity of the damage in the plant. The spacing levels studied didn't affect the species answers in relation to the damage caused by frost. The species Mimosa scabrella presented to be resistant, while Eucalyptus grandis and Ateleia glazioveana tolerant. Already the Acacia mearnsii was moderately tolerant to tolerant.

Braulio Otomar, Caron; Velci Queiróz de, Souza; Elder, Eloy; Alexandre, Behling; Denise, Schmidt; Rômulo, Trevisan.

2011-05-01

317

Resistência inicial de quatro espécies arbóreas em diferentes espaçamentos após ocorrência de geada / Initial resistance of four arboreal species in different spacing after frost occurrence  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A ocorrência de geada, dependendo do grau de dano, pode se tornar um fator limitante para a condução de florestas de curta rotação. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o comportamento após ocorrências de geadas das espécies florestais Acacia mearnsii De Wild, Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex [...] Maiden, Mimosa scabrella Benth e Ateleia glazioveana Baill submetidas a níveis de espaçamento de 2,0x1,0m; 2,0x1,5m; 3,0x1,0 e 3,0x1,5m um ano após o plantio, na região Norte do Rio Grande do Sul. Os danos (resistência a geada) foram avaliados segundo o sistema de notas de 0 a 10, conforme a intensidade do dano na planta. Os graus de resistência à geada foram determinados em função da intensidade do dano na planta. Os níveis de espaçamento estudados não afetaram respostas das espécies em relação ao dano ocasionado por geada. A espécie Mimosa scabrella apresentou ser resistente, enquanto que Eucalyptus grandis e Ateleia glazioveana, tolerantes. Já a Acacia mearnsii apresentou ser moderadamente tolerante a tolerante. Abstract in english The frost occurrence depending on the damage degree, can become a limit factor for the transport of forests of short rotation. The present research has as objective evaluate the behavior after occurrences of frosts of the species forest Acacia mearnsii De Wild, Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, [...] Mimosa scabrella Benth and Ateleia glazioveana Baill were submitted to levels of spacing of 2.0 x 1.0m; 2.0x1.5m; 3.0x1.0m and 3.0x1.5m one year after the planting, in the North of Rio Grande do Sul. The damages (resistance to frost) were appraised according to scale 0 to 10 according to the intensity of the damage in the plant. The frost resistance degrees were certain in function of the intensity of the damage in the plant. The spacing levels studied didn't affect the species answers in relation to the damage caused by frost. The species Mimosa scabrella presented to be resistant, while Eucalyptus grandis and Ateleia glazioveana tolerant. Already the Acacia mearnsii was moderately tolerant to tolerant.

Braulio Otomar, Caron; Velci Queiróz de, Souza; Elder, Eloy; Alexandre, Behling; Denise, Schmidt; Rômulo, Trevisan.

318

Susceptibility to levofloxacin predicted from in vitro susceptibility testing results obtained with ciprofloxacin and with ofloxacin.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A test battery of bacterial strains with a high incidence of resistance to fluoroquinolones was studied to determine the extent to which susceptibility to levofloxacin could be predicted from susceptibility tests performed with ciprofloxacin or ofloxacin as reagents. Isolates susceptible or intermediately susceptible to ofloxacin (MICs < or = 4 micrograms/ml) may be regarded as susceptible to levofloxacin, with the exception of Enterococcus faecium. Ciprofloxacin-susceptible isolates (MICs < ...

Cormican, M. G.; Jones, R. N.

1995-01-01

319

Perturbative solution to susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemics on networks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herein we provide a closed form perturbative solution to a general M-node network susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) model using the transport rates between nodes as a perturbation parameter. We separate the dynamics into a short-time regime and a medium-to-long-time regime. We solve the short-time dynamics of the system and provide a limit before which our explicit, analytical result of the first-order perturbation for the medium-to-long-time regime is to be employed. These stitched calculations provide an approximation to the full temporal dynamics for rather general initial conditions. To further corroborate our results, we solve the mean-field equations numerically for an infectious SIS outbreak in New Zealand (NZ, Aotearoa) recomposed into 23 subpopulations where the virus is spread to different subpopulations via (documented) air traffic data, and the country is internationally quarantined. We demonstrate that our analytical predictions compare well to the numerical solution. PMID:24125300

Sanders, Lloyd P; Söderberg, Bo; Brockmann, Dirk; Ambjörnsson, Tobias

2013-09-01

320

Perturbative solution to susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemics on networks  

Science.gov (United States)

Herein we provide a closed form perturbative solution to a general M-node network susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) model using the transport rates between nodes as a perturbation parameter. We separate the dynamics into a short-time regime and a medium-to-long-time regime. We solve the short-time dynamics of the system and provide a limit before which our explicit, analytical result of the first-order perturbation for the medium-to-long-time regime is to be employed. These stitched calculations provide an approximation to the full temporal dynamics for rather general initial conditions. To further corroborate our results, we solve the mean-field equations numerically for an infectious SIS outbreak in New Zealand (NZ, Aotearoa) recomposed into 23 subpopulations where the virus is spread to different subpopulations via (documented) air traffic data, and the country is internationally quarantined. We demonstrate that our analytical predictions compare well to the numerical solution.

Sanders, Lloyd P.; Söderberg, Bo; Brockmann, Dirk; Ambjörnsson, Tobias

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
321

Genetic susceptibility to Candida infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

Candida spp. are medically important fungi causing severe mucosal and life-threatening invasive infections, especially in immunocompromised hosts. However, not all individuals at risk develop Candida infections, and it is believed that genetic variation plays an important role in host susceptibility. On the one hand, severe fungal infections are associated with monogenic primary immunodeficiencies such as defects in STAT1, STAT3 or CARD9, recently discovered as novel clinical entities. On the other hand, more common polymorphisms in genes of the immune system have also been associated with fungal infections such as recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and candidemia. The discovery of the genetic susceptibility to Candida infections can lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, as well as to the design of novel immunotherapeutic strategies. This review is part of the review series on host-pathogen interactions. See more reviews from this series. PMID:23629947

Smeekens, Sanne P; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Kullberg, Bart Jan; Netea, Mihai G

2013-06-01

322

Genetic susceptibility to childhood leukaemia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aetiology of leukaemias among children is believed to be distinct from that of adults, mainly due to the clearer role for early life exposures, including those in utero. However, few risk factors have been established, because of the challenge of studying a disease with relatively low incidence. Identified risk factors, including ionizing radiation, chemotherapeutic agents and specific genetic abnormalities, explain <10% of incidence. Although the causes for the remaining 90% are unknown, it is possible that genetic susceptibility factors, either alone or in conjunction with environmental factors, may be involved. In this paper, the authors (a) review the evidence surrounding genetic susceptibility factors, with emphasis on the genes' main effects; (b) review some recent developments in the Northern California Childhood Leukaemia Study (NCCLS) as a case study of design and practical considerations in genetic epidemiology research and (c) highlight both challenges and future directions in this exciting research area. (authors)

323

Magnetic susceptibility in tetrahedral semiconductors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experimental and theoretic study on semiconductor materials used in devices converting the solar energy into other form of energy has been carried out. The theoretical analysis is based on the correlation between the magnetic susceptibility of tetrahedral semiconductors (with extension in ionic and intermediate ionic materials) and this chemical bond properties (electronic structure). The behaviour of Si crystals as photoelectrodes in photoelectrochemical cells has also been studied. (author)

324

Magnetic Susceptibility as a Biosignature  

Science.gov (United States)

Stromatolites, laminated sedimentary structures generally thought to have been produced by the activity of microorganisms, have long been studied in the geobiologic community. However, abiotic processes such as mineral growth can mimic stromatolite morphology and diagenesis commonly obscures other potentially diagnostic features (microstructure, isotopes, etc.). Here, we report a new biosignature based on the detrital magnetic mineral component present in nearly all sedimentary rocks. Magnetic grains in an abiotic structure should obey the laws of gravity/angle of repose and be swept off peaks/concentrated in lows, whereas magnetic grains should adhere to a biofilm and be more evenly distributed around the structure, even at steep angles, versus the abiotic scenario. Laboratory experiments were preformed in which small (2 ?m) particles of magnetite were introduced into a tank that contained glass slides on which carbonate had abiotically precipitated. The slides were inclined at a variety of angles, ranging from 0 (horizontal) to 90 degrees (vertical). Samples were taken from the slides, dried, and their magnetic susceptibility was measured. In these experiments, no magnetic signature was found on the slides inclined at angles higher than 45 degrees, even though carbonate had precipitated onto the slides. A parallel biotic laboratory experiment was performed using cyanobacterial mats inclined at a variety of angles. In this experiment, all mats had over an order of magnitude more magnetic susceptibility than their abiotic counterparts, and even mats inclined at 90 degrees (vertical) held significant amounts of magnetic particles. Lastly, using the results of the laboratory experiments as a framework, several stromatolites of both known and strongly suspected biogenicity (biotic and abiotic) were tested by microdrilling and measuring the magnetic susceptibility at different depositional angles along individual lamina. The results of these experiments suggest that magnetic susceptibility has promise as a biosignature.

Petryshyn, V.; Corsetti, F. A.; Lund, S.; Berelson, W.

2011-12-01

325

Antimycotics susceptibility testing of dermatophytes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dermatophytes are moulds that produce infections of the skin, hair and nails of humans and animals. The most common forms among these infections are onychomycosis and tinea pedis affecting 20% of world population. These infections are usually chronic. The treatment of dermatophytoses tends to be prolonged partly because available treatments are not very effective. Antifungal drug consumption and public health expenditure are high worldwide, as well as in Serbia. For adequate therapy, it is necessary to prove infection by isolation of dermatophytes and to test the antifungal susceptibility of isolates. Susceptibility testing is important for the resistance monitoring, epidemiological research and to compare in vitro activities of new antifungal agents. The diffusion and dilution methods of susceptibility tests are used, and technical issues of importance for the proper performance and interpretation of test results are published in the document E.DEF 9.1 (EUCAST and M38-A2 (CLSI. The aim of our paper is to promptly inform the public about technical achievements in this area, as well as the new organization of laboratory for medical mycology in our country. The formation of laboratory networks coordinated by the National Reference Laboratory for the cause of mycosis need to enable interlaboratory studies and further standardization of methods for antifungal susceptibility testing of dermatophytes, reproducibility of tests and clinical correlation monitoring (MIK values and clinical outcome of dermatophytosis. The importance of the new organization is expected efficient improvement in the dermatophytosis therapy at home, better quality of patient's life and the reduction of the cost of treatment.

Arsi?-Arsenijevi? Valentina

2010-01-01

326

Heat susceptibility of aquatic mycobacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

An investigation was carried out to measure the heat susceptibility of opportunistic mycobacteria frequently isolated from domestic water supply systems. The study was conducted under standardized conditions designed to resemble those found in oligotrophic aquatic habitats. Strains of the following species were tested: Mycobacterium avium, M. chelonae, M. fortuitum, M. intracellulare, M. kansasii (two strains), M. marinum, M. phlei, M. scrofulaceum, and M. xenopi. Suspensions of the test strains were exposed to temperatures of 50, 55, 60, and 70 degrees C; samples were taken at defined intervals to determine the concentration of survivors. From these data, the decimal reduction times were calculated for each test strain and test temperature. The results indicate that M. kansasii is more susceptible to heat than Legionella pneumophila, whereas the heat susceptibilities of M. fortuitum, M. intracellulare, and M. marinum lie in the same order of magnitude as that of L. pneumophila. The strains of M. avium, M. chelonae, M. phlei, M. scrofulaceum, and M. xenopi were found to be more thermoresistant than L. pneumophila, with the highest resistance being found in M. xenopi. Thermal measures to control L. pneumophila may therefore not be sufficient to control the last five mycobacterial species in contaminated water systems. PMID:1622262

Schulze-Röbbecke, R; Buchholtz, K

1992-06-01

327

Specific features of the dynamics of epiphytic and soil yeast communities in the thickets of Indian balsam on mucky gley soil  

Science.gov (United States)

The annual dynamics of the number and taxonomic composition of yeast communities were studied in the phyllosphere, on the flowers, and on the roots of Indian balsam ( Impatiens glandulifera Royle) and in the mucky gley soil under the thickets of this plant. It was shown that typical phyllosphere yeast communities with a predominance of the red-pigmented species Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Rhodotorula glutinis and the typical epiphyte Cryptococcus magnus are formed on the leaves of this annual hygrophyte. However, yeast groups with a predominance of the ascosporous species Saccharomyces paradoxus, Kazachstania barnettii, and Torulaspora delbrueckii, which are not typical of soils at all, were found in the mucky gley soil under the thickets of Indian balsam. Thus, the epiphytic and soil yeast complexes under the thickets of Indian balsam are represented by two entirely discrete communities without common species. In other biogeocenoses of the forest zone, the rearrangement of the structure of yeast communities in passing from the aboveground substrates to the soil proceeds gradually, and most of the species can be isolated both from the aboveground parts of plants and from the soil. The strong difference between the yeast communities in the phyllosphere of Indian balsam and in the soil under its thickets is apparently related to the fact that the annual hygrophytes are decomposed very quickly (during several days after the first frosts). Because of this, an intermediate layer between the phyllosphere and the soil (the litter layer), in which epiphytic microorganisms can develop, is not formed under these plants.

Glushakova, A. M.; Kachalkin, A. V.; Chernov, I. Yu.

2011-08-01

328

Use of engineered soils beneath low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current regulations are oriented toward locating low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities on sites that have a substantial natural soil barrier and are above the groundwater table. In some of the northern states, like Maine, the overburden soils are glacially derived and in most places provide a thin cover over bedrock with a high groundwater table. Thus, the orientation of current regulations can severely limit the availability of suitable sites. A common characteristic of many locations in glaciated regions is the rapid change of soil types that may occur and the heterogeneity within a given soil type. In addition, the bedrock may be fractured, providing avenues for water movement. A reliable characterization of these sites can be difficult, even with a detailed subsurface exploration program. Moreover, fluctuating groundwater and frost as well as the natural deposition processes have introduced macro features such as cracks, fissures, sand and silt seams, and root holes. The significant effect that these macro features have on the permeability and adsorptive capacity of a large mass is often ignored or poorly accounted for in the analyses. This paper will examine an alternate approach, which is to use engineered soils as a substitute for some or all of the natural soil and to treat the fractures in the underlying bedrock. The site selection would no longer be primarily determined by the natural soil and rock and could even be placed in locations with no existing soils. Engineered soils can be used for below- or aboveground facilities.

Sandford, T.C.; Humphrey, D.N.; DeMascio, F.A. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1993-03-01

329

Susceptibility of Shallow Landslide in Fraser Hill Catchment, Pahang Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In tropical areas especially during monsoon seasons intense precipitation is the main caused that trigger the natural shallow landslide phenomena. This phenomenon can be disastrous and widespread in occurrence even in undisturbed forested catchment. In this paper, an attempt has been made to evaluate the susceptibility of natural hill slopes to failure for a popular hill resort area, the Fraser Hill Catchment under different rainfall regimes and soil thickness. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM was prepared for the 8.2 km2 catchment. A GIS based deterministic model was then applied to predict the spatial landslide occurrence within catchment. Model input parameters include bulk density, friction angle, cohesion and hydraulic conductivity were gathered through in situ and lab analysis as well as from previous soil analysis records. Landslides locations were recorded using GPS as well as previous air photos and satellite imagery to establish landslide source areas inventory. The landslide susceptibility map was produced under different precipitation event’s simulation to see the effects of precipitation to stability of the hill slopes of the catchment. The results were categorized into naturally unstable (Defended, Upper Threshold, Lower Threshold, marginal instability (Quasi Stable and stable area (Moderately Stable and Stable. Results of the simulation indicated notable change in precipitation effect on Defended area is between 10mm to 40mm range in a single storm event. However, when storm event is exceeded 120mm, the result on Defended area produced by the model tends to be constant further on. For area categorized as naturally unstable (Factor of Safety, SF<1, with 110 mm of precipitation in a single storm event and soil depth at 2 meters and 4 meters could affect 69.51% and 69.88% respectively of the catchment area fall under that class. In addition, the model was able to detect 4% more of the landslide inventory under shallower soil depth of 2 meters.

Wan Nor Azmin Sulaiman

2010-01-01

330

Solarization soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solar energy could be used in pest control, in soil sterilization technology. The technique consists of covering humid soils by plastic films steadily fixed to the soil. Timing must be in summer during 4-8 weeks, where soil temperature increases to degrees high enough to control pests or to produce biological and chemical changes. The technique could be applied on many pests soil, mainly fungi, bacteria, nematods, weeds and pest insects. The technique could be used in greenhouses as well as in plastic film covers or in orchards where plastic films present double benefits: soil sterilization and production of black mulch. Mechanism of soil solarization is explained. Results show that soil solarization can be used in pest control after fruit crops cultivation and could be a method for an integrated pest control. 9 refs

331

21 CFR 866.1640 - Antimicrobial susceptibility test powder.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Antimicrobial susceptibility test powder. 866...Devices § 866.1640 Antimicrobial susceptibility test powder. (a) Identification. An antimicrobial susceptibility test powder is a...

2010-04-01

332

Soil Erosion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One element of the CIVCAL project Web-based resources containing images, tables, texts and associated data of the Soil Erosion. The word "erosion" is derived from the Latin "erosio", meaning to "to gnaw away". In general terms soil erosion implies the physical removal of topsoil by various agents, including rain, water flowing over and through the soil profile, wind, ice or gravitational pull. This part of the CIVCAL project introduces the processes and control of soil erosion, includi...

Kumaraswamy, Mohan

2002-01-01

333

Environmental factors influencing soil testate amoebae in herbaceous and shrubby vegetation along an altitudinal gradient in subarctic tundra (Abisko, Sweden).  

Science.gov (United States)

Shifts in community composition of soil protozoa in response to climate change may substantially influence microbial activity and thereby decomposition processes. However, effects of climate and vegetation on soil protozoa remain poorly understood. We studied the distribution of soil testate amoebae in herbaceous and shrubby vegetation along an altitudinal gradient (from below the treeline at 500 m to the mid-alpine region at 900 m a.s.l.) in subarctic tundra. To explain patterns in abundance, species diversity and assemblage composition of testate amoebae, a data set of microclimate and soil chemical characteristics was collected. Both elevation and vegetation influenced the assemblage composition of testate amoebae. The variation was regulated by interactive effects of summer soil moisture, winter soil temperature, soil pH and nitrate ion concentrations. Besides, soil moisture regulated non-linear patterns in species richness across the gradient. This is the first study showing the effects of winter soil temperatures on species composition of soil protozoa. The effects could be explained by specific adaptations of testate amoebae such as frost-resistant cysts allowing them to survive low winter temperatures. We conclude that the microclimate and soil chemical characteristics are the main drivers of changes in protozoan assemblage composition in response to elevation and vegetation. PMID:23022310

Tsyganov, Andrey N; Milbau, Ann; Beyens, Louis

2013-05-01

334

Frost ring distribution in Araucaria araucana trees from the xeric forests of Patagonia, Argentina / Distribución de anillos de heladas en árboles de Araucaria araucana en bosques xéricos de la Patagonia argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Las lesiones de heladas en los anillos de crecimiento de árboles son definidas como estructuras anatómicamente anómalas y ecofisiológicamente patológicas. En este trabajo se estudiaron estos anillos de heladas en árboles de Araucaria araucana creciendo al límite norte de su distribución natural. Se [...] registraron 121 marcas de heladas para los dos sitios estudiados. En ambos sitios el mayor porcentaje de heladas se ubicaron en la mitad del anillo. Estos resultados representan un primer intento de informar y describir la ocurrencia de marcas de heladas en anillos de crecimiento para esta especie y la región. Registros de esta naturaleza representan importantes indicadores de eventos extremos en la temperatura. Abstract in english Frost rings are defined as anatomically abnormal and ecophysiologically pathological structures. We studied frost injuries in tree-rings of Araucaria araucana trees growing at the northern limit of its natural distribution. We recorded 121 frost injuries at two sites in the northern xeric distributi [...] on of A. Araucana forests. Frost rings at both sites were primarily restricted to the middle frost ring section of the rings. These results represent the first attempt to report and describe the occurrence of these events for this species and region. These proxy records represent important indicators of extreme temperature conditions.

Martín Ariel, Hadad; Mariano Martín, Amoroso; Fidel Alejandro, Roig Juñent.

335

Contribution to the edaphic components definition in the desertification susceptibility index  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many of the biophysical processes involved in the scope of desertification depend on the hydric characteristics of the soils the impact on vegetation cover. To protect soils against desertification, it is necessary to understand how some of these characteristics (such as water storage) interact in a complex and integrated chain of degradation processes. Several works have been developed to contribute to the definition of a Index of Desertification Susceptibility (DSI) expressed as a function of several components, climatic, edaphic, vegetative and slope. However, the various built-in edaphic components already defined, leave aside the water retention in soil. Furthermore, these components only focus on the characteristics of the uppermost surface soil layer (A-layer). In fact, desertification is simultaneously cause and consequence of the depleted soil water retention with a positive feedback of the plant life and on the hydrological cycle. (Author) 10 refs.

336

Plant survival of barbados cherry genotypes after frost injury in northern Parana State/ Recuperação de plantas de genótipos de aceroleira afetadas por geada no norte do Paraná  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Barbados cherry is a tropical fruit that when cultivated in subtropical areas is exposed to frosts which cause considerable damages to the leaves and can kill plants. The frosts of July 2000 in Northern Paraná State made possible the evaluation of 19 Barbados cherry genotypes propagated through cuttings. A minimum air temperature of –1,3°C was recorded on 17 July at the meteorological station; the minimum ground temperature was around –5,4°C. All plants were severely injured in 100% of leaves. The evaluation was made the following year to the frost, through sprouts status. It was observed that Barbados cherry genotypes present differences in cold hardiness. Some genotypes were killed and others survived, with good vegetation on the next year. The following genotypes presented the best recovery: ‘Cícero’, ‘Roseli’, ‘Carolina’ and ‘Lígia.’ The findings are discussed in relation to temperature limits reported in the literature.A aceroleira é uma planta de clima tropical que também tem sido cultivada em áreas subtropicais, ficando com isso sujeita à ocorrência de geadas, que causam danos consideráveis à folhagem e podem levar as plantas à morte. As geadas de julho de 2000 no Norte do Paraná possibilitaram a avaliação de 19 genótipos de acerola, propagados vegetativamente. A temperatura mínima foi de –1,3° C no abrigo meteorológico em 17 de julho, que corresponde a – 5,4 °C na relva. Todas as plantas tiveram danos em 100% das folhas. No ano seguinte à geada, avaliou-se a recuperação das plantas com base na brotação apresentada. Com os resultados obtidos, conclui-se que os genótipos de aceroleira apresentam respostas diferentes à geada, sendo que alguns são levados à morte e outros conseguem se recuperar na estação de crescimento seguinte. Os genótipos que apresentaram melhor recuperação foram: ‘Cícero’, ‘Roseli’, ‘Carolina’ e ‘Lígia’. Os resultados são discutidos em relação às temperaturas-limite relatadas na literatura.

Inês Cristina de Batista Fonseca

2002-05-01

337

Comparing Soils  

Science.gov (United States)

Students compare soils sampled from d