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76 FR 69648 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...trifloxystrobin in or on alfalfa, forage and alfalfa, hay. Bayer...following activities: Crop production (NAICS code 111...in or on alfalfa, forage at 0.01 parts...trifloxystrobin in or on alfalfa forage or alfalfa hay....

2011-11-09

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77 FR 42654 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerance  

Science.gov (United States)

...tests in rats, the liver is the target organ for trifloxystrobin...trifloxystrobin. iii. Cancer. Based on the data...chemical directly targets the immune system...cPAD). For linear cancer [[Page 42657...probability of acquiring cancer given the...

2012-07-20

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77 FR 65827 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...tests in rats, the liver is the target organ for trifloxystrobin...trifloxystrobin. iii. Cancer. Based on the data...chemical directly targets the immune system...cPAD). For linear cancer risks, EPA calculates...probability of acquiring cancer given the...

2012-10-31

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77 FR 12727 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...number is (703) 305-5805. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Rosemary Kearns, Registration Division (7505P), Office of Pesticide...telephone number: (703) 305-5611; email address: kearns.rosemary@epa.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. General...

2012-03-02

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Photoisomerization kinetics of trifloxystrobin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The photoisomerization kinetics of trifloxystrobin (TFS) in acetone under artificial sunlight is reported. HPLC analysis showed the TFS, a strobilurine fungicide of EE conformation, was converted into an equilibrium mixture of four isomers after illumination for 7 h. The isomers were identified as EZ, EE, ZZ, and ZE and were separated in the crystalline form by preparative HPLC and characterized by use of a variety of spectroscopic techniques. The quantum yield and reaction constants for the isomerization reactions were determined. The detailed spectral features of the individual isomers measured by UV, IR, Raman, NMR and mass spectroscopy are presented and compared. The spectra of the isomers were found to be very characteristic, with good analytical significance. PMID:16021425

Banerjee, Kaushik; Ligon, Axel Patrick; Spiteller, Michael

2005-08-01

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40 CFR 180.555 - Trifloxystrobin; tolerances for residues.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trifloxystrobin; tolerances for residues. 180...Specific Tolerances § 180.555 Trifloxystrobin; tolerances for residues. (a...Tolerances are established for residues of trifloxystrobin, including its metabolites...

2010-07-01

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Residue evaluation of famoxadone and trifloxystrobin in cultivated mushrooms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dissipation of the fungicides famoxadone and trifloxystrobin in basidiocarps of Agaricus bisporus was studied in mushroom growing rooms. The mushroom samples taken at all three consecutive production flushes following single or split applications of the fungicides were extracted with solvents and the residues were determined by using a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Recoveries from the fortified control samples ranged from 87 to 105%. Following drench applications at 0.1-1 g/m2 of culture bed area, the highest famoxadone residue determined in basidiocarps was 0.1447 mg/kg. Analysis of trifloxystrobin revealed a quantitative relationship between the application rate (0.8-1.8 g/m2) and the residue levels of both the parent compound and its acid metabolite. The maximal combined residues of trifloxystrobin and its metabolite were 0.1313 mg/kg. Short- and long-term dietary risk assessment for both fungicides was carried out using consumption data from World Health Organization and the UK Pesticide Safety Directorate's Ten Consumer Model. The potential acute and chronic residue intakes via mushroom consumption were below toxicologically significant indicators. PMID:16785167

Chrysayi-Tokousbalides, Maria; Kastanias, Michael A; Coward, Susan; Philippoussis, Antonios; Diamantopoulou, Panagiota

2006-01-01

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75 FR 33190 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...decrease may indicate a decrease of red blood cell turnover; but it is not...adequacy of the existing tolerances for meat, fat and meat byproduct of cattle, goats, horses...paragraph (a): cattle, fat; cattle, meat; cattle, meat byproducts;...

2010-06-11

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Reasoned Opinion on the review of the existing maximum residue levels (MRLs) for trifloxystrobin according to Article 12 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

According to Article 12 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has reviewed the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) currently established at European level for the pesticide active substance trifloxystrobin. In order to assess the occurrence of trifloxystrobin residues in plants, processed commodities, rotational crops and livestock, EFSA considered the conclusions derived in the framework of Directive 91/414/EEC, the MRLs established by the Codex Alimentarius Com...

European Food Safety Authority

2014-01-01

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Comparative study on disappearance trends of captan and trifloxystrobin residues on fruit and apple tree leaves using internal normalisation method.  

Science.gov (United States)

Supervised field trials were carried out in a commercial orchard in 2011. The purpose of the study was to assess the usefulness of the comparative method to examine the mechanism of disappearance of pesticide residues. Captan and trifloxystrobin residues were determined with the use of gas chromatograph equipped with a micro-electron capture detector. Disappearance trends of captan and trifloxystrobin residues in fruit and leaves were estimated using the method of internal normalisation, and based on that, the courses of concentration changes of these substances on fruit and leaves and the amount of these substances in one apple were established. The initial deposits of trifloxystrobin on leaves and fruits dropped by 50% within 8 and 4 days after treatment, respectively, in both varieties, whereas captan residues dropped by 50% within 29 days in leaves and 7 days in apples of the Olive Yellow varieties. PMID:23710563

Sad?o, Stanis?aw; Duda, Magdalena; Piechowicz, Bartosz; Ja?wa, Agnieszka

2013-01-01

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Hapten synthesis and monoclonal antibody-based immunoassay development for detection of the fungicide trifloxystrobin.  

Science.gov (United States)

High-affinity and selective monoclonal antibodies have been produced against the strobilurin fungicide trifloxystrobin. A battery of functionalized haptens has been synthesized, and conjugate-coated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays following different procedures have been developed. On the one hand, a two-step conjugate-coated immunoassay was optimized using extended or short incubation times, with limits of detection of 0.10 ng/mL for the extended assay and 0.17 ng/mL for the rapid assay. On the other hand, an immunoassay in the conjugate-coated format was optimized following a procedure consisting of just one incubation step. This one-step assay had a limit of detection of 0.21 ng/mL. All of these assays showed detection limits for trifloxystrobin in the low parts per billion range, well below the common maximum residue limits for this pesticide in foodstuffs (50 microg/kg). PMID:18373349

Mercader, Josep V; Suárez-Pantaleón, Celia; Agulló, Consuelo; Abad-Somovilla, Antonio; Abad-Fuentes, Antonio

2008-04-23

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Sensitivity of Venturia inaequalis to trifloxystrobin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The sensitivity of Venturia inaequalis to trifloxystrobin was monitored by both in vitro (spore germination) and in vivo tests (on apple seedlings). There was good correlation between the in vitro and in vivo results. Baseline sensitivity was established with 95 bulk isolates from Europe between 1995 and 1998 which showed a narrow sensitivity range-factor of up to 17 between the least and most sensitive isolates. Monitoring of populations originating from trifloxystrobin-treated and untreated orchards between 1995 and 1999 showed only sensitive isolates and no performance deficiencies were reported. Data also show that trifloxystrobin is not cross-resistant to anilinopyrimidines and triazoles, but is cross-resistant to kresoxim-methyl, another strobilurin which also inhibits the cytochrome bc1 enzyme complex at the Qo-site in the respiration chain of fungal mitochondria (QoI inhibitors). Under experimental conditions from a specific trial site in Switzerland, where trifloxystrobin has been tested since 1994, isolates containing conidia resistant to Qo inhibitors were detected in 1997 and 1999. However no obvious performance deficiencies were reported. Nevertheless these results demonstrate a risk for the development of practical resistance in V inaequalis to Qo inhibitors and therefore a need to apply resistance management principles strictly. PMID:11975172

Färber, Ruth B Küng; Chin, Khoon Min; Leadbitter, Neil

2002-03-01

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Pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

... yourself and your family from pesticides on non-organic fruits and vegetables, remove the outer leaves of leafy vegetables and ... mixed with salt and lemon juice or vinegar. Organic growers do ... vegetables. HOME SAFETY AND PESTICIDES When using pesticides at ...

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Dissipation kinetics of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole on chili and soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dissipation of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole were studied following two applications of a combination formulation of Nativo 75 WG (trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50%) @ 250 and 500 g ha(-1) at 10 days interval. Samples of chili were collected at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 days after the last application. Red chili and soil samples were collected after 20 days of last application. Half-life period for trifloxystrobin were found to be 1.81 and 1.58 days and for tebuconazole these values were observed to be 1.37 and 1.41 days, respectively, at single and double the application rates. Trifloxystrobin residues dissipated below its limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.01 mg kg(-1) after 5 and 7 days, respectively, at single and double the application dosages whereas tebuconazole residues took 7 and 10 days, respectively. Red chili & soil samples collected after 20 days did not reveal the presence of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole at their determination limit of 0.01 mg kg(-1). PMID:22080327

Sahoo, S K; Jyot, Gagan; Battu, R S; Singh, Balwinder

2012-03-01

15

Residues and dissipation of trifloxystrobin and its metabolite in tomatoes and soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple residue analytical method using the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) procedure for the determination of trifloxystrobin and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid (CGA321113) in tomato and soil was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The limits of detection were 0.0005 mg/kg for trifloxystrobin and 0.001 mg/kg for trifloxystrobin acid, respectively. The average recoveries in tomato and soil ranged from 73-99 % for trifloxystrobin and 75-109 % for trifloxystrobin acid, with relative standard deviations below 15 %. The method was then used to study the dissipation and residues in tomato and soil. The dissipation half-lives of trifloxystrobin in tomato were 2.9 days (Beijing) and 5.4 days (Shandong), while in soil were 1.9 days (Beijing) and 3.0 days (Shandong), respectively. The final results showed that the major residue compound was trifloxystrobin in tomato whereas it was its metabolite, trifloxystrobin acid, in soil. The final residues of total trifloxystrobin (including trifloxystrobin acid) were below the EU maximum residue limit of 0.5 mg kg(-1) in tomato 3 days after the treatment. PMID:25086714

Wang, Lin; Li, Wenming; Li, Puyu; Li, Minghui; Chen, Shuo; Han, Lijun

2014-11-01

16

Reasoned Opinion on the review of the existing maximum residue levels (MRLs for trifloxystrobin according to Article 12 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to Article 12 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA has reviewed the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs currently established at European level for the pesticide active substance trifloxystrobin. In order to assess the occurrence of trifloxystrobin residues in plants, processed commodities, rotational crops and livestock, EFSA considered the conclusions derived in the framework of Directive 91/414/EEC, the MRLs established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission as well as the import tolerances and European authorisations reported by Member States (incl. the supporting residues data. Based on the assessment of the available data, MRL proposals were derived and a consumer risk assessment was carried out. Although no apparent risk to consumers was identified, some information required by the regulatory framework was found to be missing. Hence, the consumer risk assessment is considered indicative only and some MRL proposals derived by EFSA still require further consideration by risk managers.

European Food Safety Authority

2014-02-01

17

40 CFR 180.555 - Trifloxystrobin; tolerances for residues.  

Science.gov (United States)

...trifloxystrobin, benzeneacetic acid, (E,E ...phenyl]ethylidene] amino]oxy]methyl]-, methyl ester, and the free form of its acid metabolite CGA-321113...phenyl]acetic acid, calculated as the...Radish, tops 10 Rice, grain 3.5...

2010-07-01

18

Three years of trials with trifloxystrobine fungicides in cereals in Belgium  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Trifloxystrobine-based fungicides were tested for two years in winter barley and three years in winter wheat in Belgium. One or two applications were compared with other strobilurine based fungicides. The efficacy of the combinations of trifloxystrobine (125 g/ha) + propiconazole (125 g/ha) and trifloxystrobine (125 g/ha) + cyproconazole (80 g/ha) for disease control in winter barley and winter wheat, respectivvely, was confirmed. They allowed yield increases comparable to those obtained w...

Moreau, Jean-marc; Vancutsem, Franc?oise; Bodson, Bernard; Meeus, Patrick

2000-01-01

19

Risk assessment of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole residues on Allium cepa l.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A supervised field trial was conducted to study the persistence and therefore to evaluate the risk assessment of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole residues on onion. A combined formulation of trifloxystrobin 25 % + tebuconazole 50% (Nativo 75WG) was applied on onion crop @ 300 and 600 g ha-1, which resulted in active application @ 75.0 and 150.0 g.a.ha-1 with respect to trifloxystrobin and @ 150.0 and 300 g.a.ha-1 with respect to tebuconazole. The average initial deposits of trifloxystrobin ...

Gurmail Singh; Reenu Takker; Gurminder Singh Chahil; Gaganjyot; Sanjay Kumar Sahoo; Balwinder Singh

2014-01-01

20

Risk assessment of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole residues on Allium cepa l.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A supervised field trial was conducted to study the persistence and therefore to evaluate the risk assessment of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole residues on onion. A combined formulation of trifloxystrobin 25 % + tebuconazole 50% (Nativo 75WG was applied on onion crop @ 300 and 600 g ha-1, which resulted in active application @ 75.0 and 150.0 g.a.ha-1 with respect to trifloxystrobin and @ 150.0 and 300 g.a.ha-1 with respect to tebuconazole. The average initial deposits of trifloxystrobin on onion were 0.52 and 0.82 mg kg-1 following three applications of Nativo 75 WG at the recommended and the double of the recommended dose, respectively. Similarly, the average initial deposits of tebuconazole were 0.76 and 1.32 mg kg-1 at the two dosages, respectively. The residues dissipated more than 60% at both dosages after 3 days. The half-life (t1/2 of trifloxystrobin was 1.86 and 1.18 days, while for tebuconazole 2.13 and 1.98 days, for single and double dosages, respectively. Mature onion collected at harvest did not reveal the presence of trifloxystrobin or its metabolite, CGA 32113, at a detection limit of 0.05 mg kg-1. An assessment of the intake of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole, resulting from the consumption of onion, and its comparison with acceptable daily intake revealed that recommended application of Nativo 75WG (trifloxystrobin 25%+ tebuconazole 50% is quite safe from the consumer point of view.

Gurmail Singh

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
21

Persistence of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole on grape leaves, grape berries and soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following four foliar applications of Nativo 75 WG (trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50%) on grapes @ 175 and 350 g/ha, resulting in active applications of trifloxystrobin @ 43.75 and 87.5 g a.i./ha and that of tebuconazole @ 87.5 and 175 g a.i./ha, the average initial deposits of trifloxystrobin were observed to be 7.76 and 15.53 mg/kg, respectively, at single and double the application rates. These residue levels dissipated to >85% after 10 days of its application at both the dosages. Similarly, the average initial deposits of tebuconazole were observed to be 13.84 and 26.55 mg/kg at single and double the application rate, respectively. These residue levels dissipated to >90% after 10 days of application at both the dosages. The half-life (t(1/2)) periods of trifloxystrobin on grape leaves were observed to be 2.92 and 3.48 days at single and double application rates, respectively, whereas these values were 2.68 and 3.96 days for tebuconazole. Ripe grape berries and soil samples collected at harvest which happened to be 34 days after the last application, did not show the presence of residues of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole at their determination limit of 0.01 and 0.02 mg/kg, respectively. PMID:20039018

Jyot, Gagan; Arora, Parshotam Kumar; Sahoo, Sanjay Kumar; Singh, Balwinder; Battu, Raminderjit Singh

2010-03-01

22

Determination of trifloxystrobin and its metabolites in Hawaii soils by ASE-LC-MS/MS.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analytical methods for the determination of trifloxystrobin and four of its metabolites were developed in a leaching study conducted in Hawaii. To duplicate plots at each of five locations representing various agricultural areas in Hawaii, trifloxystrobin was applied at label rates and allowed to leach under normal rain and irrigation conditions. Soil samples were collected at weekly to monthly intervals and the residual concentrations of trifloxystrobin and metabolites measured. A quantitative analytical method for their determination in various soil samples was developed using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Extraction solvent with various ratios of methanol to water, addition of EDTANa2 to the extract solvent, and ASE cell temperature were adjusted to improve recovery. Deuterated (E, E)-trifloxystrobin was chosen as the internal standard of the analytical method. The limit of quantitation was 2.5 ppb in the soil for trifloxystrobin and its metabolites. Laboratory aerobic degradation studies with the soils from the five sites were also conducted to measure the same compounds. PMID:18284206

Chen, Jingyu; Loo, Binh; Ray, Chittaranjan

2008-03-26

23

Residue levels and dissipation behaviors for trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole in mango fruit and soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

An evaluation of residue levels of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole was carried out on mango fruits after treatments with the combined formulation, trifloxystrobin (25 % w/w) and tebuconazole (50 % w/w), at standard and double doses of 250?+?500 and 500?+?1000 g a.i. ha(-1), respectively. Extraction and purification of the mango fruit samples were carried out by the QuEChERS method after validating the analytical parameters. Determination of the fungicides was carried out by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) for both fungicides were 0.015 ?g mL(-1) and 0.05 mg kg(-1), respectively. The residue levels of trifloxystrobin for standard and double-dose treatments were 0.492 and 0.901 mg kg(-1) and for tebuconazole were 0.535 and 1.124 mg kg(-1), respectively. A faster dissipation of tebuconazole in mango fruit was observed compared with that for tebuconazole. Dissipation of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole in mango followed first-order kinetics, and the half-lives were 9 and 6 days, respectively. The preharvest intervals (PHI), the time taken for the combined residues of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole to dissipate to their permissible levels (maximum residue limits), were 14 and 20 days for standard and double doses, respectively. At harvest, mature mango fruit and soil were free from fungicide residues. PMID:25663402

Mohapatra, Soudamini

2015-03-01

24

Acute toxicity of pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin to Hyalella azteca.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungicide application rates on row crop agriculture have increased across the United States, and subsequently, contamination of adjacent wetlands can occur through spray drift or field runoff. To investigate fungicide toxicity, Hyalella azteca amphipods were exposed to 2 fungicide formulations, Headline and Stratego, and their active strobilurin ingredients, pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin. Water-only exposures resulted in similar median lethal concentration (LC50; 20-25?µg/L) values for formulations and strobilurin ingredients, suggesting that toxicity is due to strobilurin ingredients. These values were below concentrations that could occur following spray drift over embedded cropland wetlands. When fungicides were added to overlying water of sediment-water microcosms, toxicity was reduced by 500% for Headline and 160% for Stratego, compared with water-only exposures, based on the total amount of fungicide added to the systems. In addition, when fungicides were added to sediment prior to the addition of water, the reduction in toxicity was even greater, with no toxicity occurring at environmentally relevant levels. Differences in toxicity among exposure groups were explained by dissipation from water as toxicity values based on measured water concentrations were within 20% between all systems. The present study reinforces previous studies that Headline and Stratego are toxic to nontarget aquatic organisms. However, the presence of sediment is likely to ameliorate some toxicity of fungicide formulations, especially if spraying occurs prior to wetland inundation. PMID:23554042

Morrison, Shane A; McMurry, Scott T; Smith, Loren M; Belden, Jason B

2013-07-01

25

Immunoassays for trifloxystrobin analysis. Part II. Assay development and application to residue determination in food.  

Science.gov (United States)

Immunochemical assays constitute complementary analytical methods for small organic molecule determination. We herein describe the characterisation and optimisation of two competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in different formats using monoclonal antibodies to the Quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicide trifloxystrobin. Antibody selectivity was evaluated using a variety of agrochemicals and the main trifloxystrobin metabolite. Acceptable tolerance of the immunoassay to methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile was observed in all cases, whereas a dissimilar influence of buffer pH and ionic strength was found. Moreover, the influence of Tween 20 over the analytical parameters was studied. The limits of detection of the optimised assays were below 0.1 ?g L(-1). Excellent recoveries, even at 10 ?g kg(-1), were obtained when strawberry, tomato, and cucumber samples spiked with trifloxystrobin were analysed. Finally, statistical agreement was found between immunoassay and reference chromatographic results using blind-spiked and in-field treated samples. PMID:24874355

Mercader, Josep V; López-Moreno, Rosario; Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A; Abad-Somovilla, Antonio; Abad-Fuentes, Antonio

2014-11-01

26

Immunoassays for trifloxystrobin analysis. Part I. Rational design of regioisomeric haptens and production of monoclonal antibodies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trifloxystrobin is one of the main active principles belonging to the strobilurin family of crop protection compounds. In this article, the synthesis of a battery of regioisomeric functionalized derivatives of trifloxystrobin is described. The same aliphatic linear carboxylated chain was introduced as spacer arm in all of the synthesized haptens, but it was located at different positions of the parent molecule. N,N'-Disuccinimidyl carbonate was employed for hapten activation, so the resulting N-hydroxysuccinimyl ester could be readily purified and efficiently coupled to proteins. After immunization and hybridoma generation, a collection of 20 mouse monoclonal antibodies from different immunizing haptens was obtained. The analytical performance of these immunoreagents was evaluated in terms of affinity and selectivity with the aim to develop rapid and practical immunochemical procedures for trifloxystrobin determination. PMID:24444931

López-Moreno, Rosario; Mercader, Josep V; Agulló, Consuelo; Abad-Somovilla, Antonio; Abad-Fuentes, Antonio

2014-01-01

27

Dissipation and residues of trifloxystrobin and its metabolite in rice under field conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Residue analysis of trifloxystrobin and its metabolite (CGA 321113) in rice matrices, paddy water, and soil was developed using the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method was used to evaluate the dissipation rate of trifloxystrobin and CGA 321113 in rice seedling, soil, and paddy water as well as the residual level in harvest rice (grain, hull, straw) and soil. The results demonstrated that the dissipation half-lives of trifloxystrobin in rice seedling, soil, and water were 1.9 d to 4.7 d, 0.35 d to 0.54 d, and 0.28 d to 0.51 d, respectively. The final total residue of trifloxystrobin and CGA 321113 was highest in rice hull and lowest in paddy soil. The highest total residues in husked rice, rice hull, straw, and paddy soil at 28 d after spraying were 0.39 mg kg(-1), 3.82 mg kg(-1), 0.29 mg kg(-1), and 0.15 mg kg(-1), respectively. According to the final residue data and the maximum residue limits of trifloxystrobin in rice grain and straw (Codex Alimentarius) and in rice hull (US Environmental Protection Agency), 28 d could be recommended as the preharvest interval for trifloxystrobin application in the rice field. The data show that CGA 321113 constitutes a small amount of the final total residues in rice matrices, whereas it is much higher than its parent compound in soil samples. PMID:25158269

Li, Puyu; Wang, Lin; Hao, Xianghong; Han, Lijun

2014-12-01

28

Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRL for trifloxystrobin in beans with pods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, Germany, hereafter referred to as the Evaluating Member State (EMS), received an application from the Landwirtschaftskammer Nordrhein-Westfalen to modify the existing MRL for trifloxystrobin in beans with pods. In order to accommodate for the intended use of trifloxystrobin Germany proposed to raise the existing MRL on beans (with pods) from the value of 0.5 mg/kg to 1 mg/kg. Germany drafted an evaluation report in accordance with A...

European Food Safety Authority

2013-01-01

29

Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRL for trifloxystrobin in cane fruit  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, Germany, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS), received an application from Bayer CropScience Deutschland GmbH to modify the existing MRL for the active substance trifloxystrobin in cane fruit. In order to accommodate for the intended use of trifloxystrobin Germany proposed to raise the existing MRLfrom the limit of quantification of 0.02* mg/kg to 3 mg/kg. Germany drafted an evaluation report in accordance wit...

European Food Safety Authority

2014-01-01

30

Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for trifloxystrobin in spring onions and globe artichokes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Italy, hereafter referred to as the Evaluating Member State Italy (EMS Italy, received an application from Bayer CropScience to modify the existing MRL for trifloxystrobin in globe artichokes. Belgium, hereafter referred to as the Evaluating Member State Belgium (EMS Belgium, compiled an application to modify the existing MRL for trifloxystrobin in spring onions. In order to accommodate the intended uses of trifloxystrobin on these crops, the Evaluating Member States proposed to raise the existing MRLs for trifloxystrobin from the limit of quantification (LOQ of 0.02 mg/kg to 0.2 mg/kg in globe artichokes and to 0.1 mg/kg in spring onions. The evaluation reports were drafted in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005 and were submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. The available residue trials data confirm the MRL proposals for trifloxystrobin in spring onions and globe artichokes as derived by the Evaluating Member States. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of trifloxystrobin in the commodities under consideration. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the intended use of trifloxystrobin on spring onions and globe artichokes will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

European Food Safety Authority

2012-09-01

31

Proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in cereals  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in wheat was organised in 2008. The test material was grown in 2007 and treated in the field with 14 pesticides formulations containing the active substances, alpha-cypermethrin, bifentrin, carbendazim, chlormequat, chlorpyrifos-methyl, difenconazole, epoxiconazole, glyphosate, iprodione, malathion, pirimicarb, prochloraz, spiroxamin and trifloxystrobin. After harvest, the test material was additionally spiked in the laboratory with three pesticides, that where the residues were too low, and axozystrobin. In total, 72 laboratories submitted results and z-scores were calculated for all laboratories and pesticides, except for glyphosate where only five laboratories submitted results and summed weighted z-scores were calculated for the laboratories with a sufficient scope. For several pesticides, the submitted results were strongly depending on the extraction procedure and consequently the assigned values were calculated based on part of the results. Acceptable z-scores were obtained by 56-97% of the participants.

Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Christensen, Hanne Bjerre

2009-01-01

32

Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRL for trifloxystrobin in beans with pods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Germany, hereafter referred to as the Evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from the Landwirtschaftskammer Nordrhein-Westfalen to modify the existing MRL for trifloxystrobin in beans with pods. In order to accommodate for the intended use of trifloxystrobin Germany proposed to raise the existing MRL on beans (with pods from the value of 0.5 mg/kg to 1 mg/kg. Germany drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005 which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive a MRL proposal of 1.0 mg/kg for the intended use on beans with pods. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of trifloxystrobin in the commodity under consideration. Based on the provisional risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the intended use of trifloxystrobin on beans with pods will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

European Food Safety Authority

2013-04-01

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Potential toxic effect of trifloxystrobin on cellular microstructure, mRNA expression and antioxidant enzymes in Chlorella vulgaris.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the effects of trifloxystrobin that one strobilurin used widely in the world as an effective fungicidal agent to control Asian soybean rust on aquatic unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris. We determined the potential toxic effect of trifloxystrobin on C. vulgaris, and found median inhibition concentration (IC(50)) value 255.58 (95% confidence interval, 207.81-330.29)?gL(-1). In addition, the algal cells were obviously depressed or shrunk at different concentrations by electron microscopy. In the study, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay showed changes in transcript abundances of three photosynthetic genes, psaB, psbC, and rbcL, and one energy gene, ATPs. The results showed that trifloxystrobin reduced the transcript abundances of the three genes and enhanced expression of ATPs after 48 and 96 h. The lowest abundances of psaB, psbC and rbcL transcripts in response to trifloxystrobin exposure were 58%, 79% and 60% of those of the control, respectively. For the potential toxic influences, trifloxystrobin could decrease the soluble protein and total antioxidant contents (T-AOC), and increase superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activity with a gradual concentration-response relationship. Overall, the present study demonstrated that trifloxystrobin could affect the activities of antioxidant enzymes, disrupts photosynthesis in C. vulgaris, and damage cellular structure. PMID:24762415

Shen, Yu-Feng; Liu, Lei; Gong, Yu-Xin; Zhu, Bin; Liu, Guang-Lu; Wang, Gao-Xue

2014-05-01

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Dissipation kinetics of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole on wheat leaves and their harvest time residues in wheat grains and soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following single application of Nativo 75 WG (trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50%) on wheat crop @ 300 and 600 g ha(-1), resulting in active application of trifloxystrobin @ 75.0 and 150.0 g a.i. ha(-1) and tebuconazole @ 150 and 300 g a.i. ha(-1), the average initial deposits of trifloxystrobin on wheat leaves were 5.54 and 8.30 mg kg(-1), and that of tebuconazole were 14.66 and 27.94 mg kg(-1), respectively. Half-life values for trifloxystrobin were observed to be 2.80 and 2.51 days whereas those for tebuconazole were found to be 2.46 and 1.85 days at recommended and double the recommended dosages, respectively. The residues of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole dissipated to the extent of >89% at both the dosages after 7 days. Wheat grain samples at harvest having pre harvest interval of 140 days did not show the presence of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole at their determination limit of 0.01 mg kg(-1). PMID:22885543

Kaur, Sarabjit; Takkar, Reenu; Bhardwaj, Urvashi; Kumar, Rajinder; Battu, R S; Singh, Balwinder

2012-09-01

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Determination of tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin and its metabolite in fruit and vegetables by a Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method using gas chromatography with a nitrogen-phosphorus detector and ion trap mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new analytical method using QuEChERS procedure by gas chromatography with a nitrogen-phosphorus detector (GC-NPD) and ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-IT-MS) for the quantitative determination of tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid has been developed and validated. The analytes were extracted from five fruit and vegetable matrices using acetonitrile and subsequently cleaned up using primary secondary amine (PSA) or octadecylsilane (C18) as sorbent prior to GC analysis. The present methods provided sufficient sensitivity as reflected by the values of limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.4-7 and 1.2-20 µg/kg for GC-IT-MS/MS and GC-NPD. The recoveries were, on average, 68-117 and 68-121%, respectively, for three compounds by GC-NPD and GC-IT-MS/MS with intra-day precision achieved with an RSD of 2.7-19.1%. The inter-day precision was better than 15.1% as determined by GC-NPD. The QuEChERS procedure, by using two sorbents (PSA and C18) and the matrix-matched standards, gave satisfactory recoveries and RSD values in different matrices. IT-MS acquisition provided higher specificity and selectivity for pesticides and better limit of detection and quantification. However, the repeatability and precision of NPD method were better compared with IT-MS. PMID:21381063

Liu, Xingang; Wang, Xu; Xu, Jun; Dong, Fengshou; Song, Wencheng; Zheng, Yongquan

2011-10-01

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Removal of famoxadone, fluquinconazole and trifloxystrobin residues in red wines: effects of clarification and filtration processes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of six clarification agents [egg albumin, blood albumin, bentonite + gelatine, charcoal, polyvinylpolypyrrolidine (PVPP) and silica gel] on the removal of residues of three fungicides (famoxadone, fluquinconazole and trifloxystrobin) applied directly to a racked red wine, elaborated from Monastrell variety grapes from the D.O. Region of Jumilla (Murcia, Spain) were studied. The clarified wines were filtered with 0.45 microm nylon filters to determine the influence of this winemaking process in the disappearance of fungicide residues. Analytical determination of fluquinconazole and trifloxystrobin was performed by gas chromatography with electron captor detector (ECD), while that of famoxadone using an HPLC equipped with a diode array detector (DAD). Generally, trifloxystrobin is the fungicide that is the lowest persistent one in wines, except in the egg albumin study whereas, the most persistent one is fluquinconazole. The elimination depends on the nature of the active ingredient, though the water stability in the presence of light within it has more influence than the solubility and polarity of the product itself. The most effective clarifying agents were the charcoal and PVPP. The silica gel and bentonite plus gelatine were not enough to reduce considerably the residual contents in the wine clarified with them. In general terms, filtration is not an effective step in the elimination of wine residues. The greatest removal after filtration is obtained in wines clarified with egg albumine and bentonite plus gelatine, and the lowest in those clarified with PVPP. PMID:17763033

Oliva, Jose; Payá, Paula; Cámara, Miguel Angel; Barba, Alberto

2007-01-01

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Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRL for trifloxystrobin in cane fruit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Germany, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Bayer CropScience Deutschland GmbH to modify the existing MRL for the active substance trifloxystrobin in cane fruit. In order to accommodate for the intended use of trifloxystrobin Germany proposed to raise the existing MRLfrom the limit of quantification of 0.02* mg/kg to 3 mg/kg. Germany drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive an MRL proposal of 3 mg/kg for the proposed use on cane fruit. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of trifloxystrobin on cane fruit will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

European Food Safety Authority

2014-07-01

38

Simultaneous determination of trifloxystrobin and trifloxystrobin acid residue in rice and soil by a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method using ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

A sensitive analytical method for the simultaneous determination of trifloxystrobin and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid in rice including straw, bran, brown rice and soil was developed by using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The fungicide trifloxystrobin and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid were extracted using acetonitrile with 1% formic acid v/v and subsequently cleaned up by primary secondary amine, octadecylsilane or graphitized carbon black prior to ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The determination of two target compounds was achieved in less than 3 min using an electrospray ionization source in positive mode. The limits of detection were below 0.22 ?g/kg and the limits of quantification did not exceed 0.74 ?g/kg in all matrices, which were much lower than the maximum residue levels established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. The overall average recoveries in four matrix at three levels (0.1, 1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg) ranged from 74.2 to 107.4% with a relative standard deviations of less than 7.8% (n = 5) for both analytes. The method was demonstrated to be convenient and reliable for the routine monitoring of trifloxystrobin and its metabolite. The developed method was validated and applied for the analysis of degradation study samples. PMID:24737683

Chen, Xixi; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xingang; Tao, Yan; Pan, Xinglu; Zheng, Yongquan; Dong, Fengshou

2014-07-01

39

The Landau Stream Mesocosm Facility: pesticide mitigation in vegetated flow-through streams.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vegetated treatment systems have the ability to reduce the risk of adverse effects of nonpoint source pesticide pollution in agricultural surface waters, however, flow-through systems have rarely been evaluated. Peak concentrations of a mixture of two insecticides and two fungicides (Indoxacarb, Tebuconazole, Thiacloprid and Trifloxystrobin) were reduced by more than 90% in 45 m experimental stream mesocosms. Plant density and solubility had the highest explanatory power for the response variable reduction of peak concentration (R² = 0.70, p < 0.001). Optimized vegetated streams can be highly effective in reduction of runoff related pesticide peak concentrations. PMID:23397373

Elsaesser, David; Stang, Christoph; Bakanov, Nikita; Schulz, Ralf

2013-06-01

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Effect of trifloxystrobin on hatching, survival, and gene expression of endocrine biomarkers in early life stages of medaka (Oryzias latipes).  

Science.gov (United States)

Trifloxystrobin is a systemic broad-spectrum foliar strobilurin fungicides that enters the aquatic environment during agricultural application. It is highly toxic and poses a potential risk to aquatic organisms, whereas the effect on the development of early life stages of fish are unclear. In this study, hatchability, time to hatching, and larval mortality were measured. Additionally, the expression of biomarker genes, including those involved in sex hormone pathways (er, vtg, cyp17, and cyp19a), thyroid hormone pathways (tr? and dio2), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathways (ahr and cyp1a), was determined after embryos of medaka (Oryzias latipes) were exposed to different levels of trifloxystrobin (0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 ?g/L) for 28 days. The results showed that there were significant differences between controls and the 100 ?g/L treatment group in both hatchability and time to hatching of fertilized eggs (p?trifloxystrobin exposure. Moreover, the mRNA levels of the er gene were significantly up-regulated at levels of trifloxystrobin above 1 ?g/L treatment groups. Up-regulation of vtg, cyp17, and cyp19a mRNA levels was observed in the larvae at the lower concentration treatment groups. The mRNA levels of cyp1a genes were significantly up-regulated at all of the treatment groups. These results suggest that trifloxystrobin is a potential endocrine disruptor through effects on the sex hormone pathway and xenobiotic metabolism. The changes in cyp1a expression can be used as a highly sensitive biomarker to assess trifloxystrobin contamination in the early life stages of fish. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2013. PMID:24376129

Zhu, Lifei; Wang, Huili; Liu, Huijun; Li, Wei

2013-12-23

 
 
 
 
41

Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for trifloxystrobin in horseradish, parsley root and purslane  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, Belgium, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS Belgium), compiled an application to modify the existing MRLs for trifloxystrobin in horseradish, parsley root and purslane. In order to accommodate for the intended uses of trifloxystrobin, Belgium proposed to raise the existing MRLs from the limit of quantification of 0.02* mg/kg to 0.08 mg/kg for horseradish, from 0.04 mg/kg to 0.08 mg/kg for parsley root and from...

European Food Safety Authority

2013-01-01

42

Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for trifloxystrobin in horseradish, parsley root and purslane  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Belgium, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS Belgium, compiled an application to modify the existing MRLs for trifloxystrobin in horseradish, parsley root and purslane. In order to accommodate for the intended uses of trifloxystrobin, Belgium proposed to raise the existing MRLs from the limit of quantification of 0.02* mg/kg to 0.08 mg/kg for horseradish, from 0.04 mg/kg to 0.08 mg/kg for parsley root and from 0.02* mg/kg to 10 mg/kg for purslane. The EMS drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive MRL proposals for the NEU intended uses on horseradish and parsley root, while for purslane the data were found to be insufficient to derive a robust MRL proposal. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of trifloxystrobin in the commodities under consideration. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of trifloxystrobin on horseradish and parsley root will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

European Food Safety Authority

2013-08-01

43

Monitoring pesticide residues in greenhouse tomato by combining acetonitrile-based extraction with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

A multiclass and multiresidue method for pesticide analysis in tomato was validated. Extraction and pre-concentration of the pesticide residues from acetonitrile extracts was performed by using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) technique, followed by gas chromatography-mass detection. DLLME was performed using carbon tetrachloride as extractive solvent and acetonitrile extract as dispersive solvent, in order to increase enrichment factor of the extraction procedure. Validation parameters indicated the suitability of the method for routine analyses of thirty pesticides in a large number of samples. In general, pesticide recoveries ranged between 70% and 110% and repeatability ranged between 1% and 20%. The proposed method was applied to the monitoring of pesticides in tomatoes grown during winter in greenhouses. Among the compounds considered in this work, cyprodinil was found in tomato at concentrations of 0.33mg/kg, other pesticides like azoxystrobin, fenhexanid, tolyfluanid, ?-cyhalothrin and trifloxystrobin were also detected, but, not quantified. PMID:22953826

Melo, Armindo; Cunha, Sara C; Mansilha, Catarina; Aguiar, Ana; Pinho, Olívia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

2012-12-01

44

Simultaneous detection and degradation patterns of kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin residues in citrus fruits by HPLC combined with QuEChERS.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to investigate the residues, kinetics and dissipation patterns of kresoxim-methyl, (E)-methoxyimino[?-(o-tolyloxy)-o-tolyl]acetate, and trifloxystrobin, methyl(E)-methoxyimino-{(E)-?[1-(?,?,?-trifluoro-m-tolyl)ethylideneaminooxy]-o-tolyl}acetate". A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (LC-UV) method combined with the 'Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe' (QuEChERS) protocol was developed to quantify the levels of kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin residues in citrus. More than 97% of the kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin deposists gradually dissipated from the citrus peels within 15 days. The half-lives of kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin in the peels were in the ranges of 2.63-2.66 d and 3.12-3.15 d, respectively, and the pattern of decline in the peels followed first-order kinetics. The kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin residues in the pulp dissipated below the detectable level of 0.01 mg kg(-1) after 9 days. Kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin were easily decomposed (T1/2 < 30 d), and the observed dissipation patterns could support the application of these two fungicides in the postharvest storage of citrus fruits. PMID:23452212

Zhu, Jie; Dai, Xian J; Fang, Jian J; Zhu, Hua M

2013-01-01

45

Spectral elucidation of the acid metabolites of the four geometric isomers of trifloxystrobin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four geometric isomers of trifloxystrobin (TFS)--namely EE, EZ, ZE, and ZZ--were hydrolyzed by 0.05 M NaOH, resulting in four corresponding acid metabolites. These compounds--namely EE-, EZ-, ZE-, and ZZ-acids--were purified by preparative HPLC and authentically characterized by a combination of infrared, Raman, GC-MS, LC-MS/MS, and NMR spectroscopies. The spectra were found to be very characteristic of the individual isomers, and so they could be used to distinguish the isomers from each other. The detailed spectral features of the individual isomers are presented and compared. EE-acid was identified as being the major metabolite of TFS in soil, which indicates that hydrolysis is the principal route of degradation of TFS. This finding further justifies the importance of the present study in relation to assessing the risk associated with the release of TFS into the environment. PMID:17579846

Banerjee, Kaushik; Ligon, Axel Patrick; Spiteller, Michael

2007-08-01

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DETERMINATION OF KRESOXIM-METHYL AND TRIFLOXYSTROBIN IN WATER SAMPLES BY SINGLE DROP MICROEXTRACTION AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A method for determination of trace amounts of the fungicides kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin in water samples, previous single-drop microextraction, was developed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The effects of organic solvent, stirring speed , drop volume, ionic strength, sample volume, extraction time as well as the extraction temperature were studied. Both fungicides were extracted using 2 µL of n-heptane. The linear concentration range of application was 0.2–10.0 µg/...

Lilia Araujo; Gizelle Sánchez; Dalia Cubillán; Jair Mercado; María Troconis; Avismelsi Prieto

2012-01-01

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Emerging pesticide metabolites in groundwater and surface water as determined by the application of a multimethod for 150 pesticide metabolites.  

Science.gov (United States)

A recently developed multimethod for the determination of 150 pesticide metabolites was exemplarily applied to 58 samples of groundwater and surface water. 37 of these metabolites were detected in at least two samples with a concentration ?0.025 ?g/L. The detected metabolites were ranked according to their concentration and frequency of detection. Findings are clearly dominated by metabolites of chloroacetanilide herbicides, but metabolites of sulfonylurea and thiocarbamate herbicides and other herbicides (dichlobenil) together with metabolites of some fungicides (tolylfluanid, chlorothalonil, trifloxystrobin) were also prominent. A number of 17 of the ranked metabolites are denoted as emerging metabolites because no reports on their previous detection in groundwater or surface water were found. Most of them, however, were correctly predicted to occur in the summary reports of the European pesticide approval process. Median total concentrations of the analysed pesticide metabolites summed up to 0.62 ?g/L in groundwater and 0.33 ?g/L in surface waters. While the concentration of the individual metabolites is usually low (<0.1 ?g/L) the diversity of metabolites found in one sample can be large; between two and six metabolites were detected most frequently (maximum of 12 metabolites). Runoff from urban surfaces was investigated in this study and also here previously undetected pesticide (biocide) metabolites were detected. The emerging pesticide metabolites detected in environmental water samples in this study require more extended monitoring. PMID:23863396

Reemtsma, Thorsten; Alder, Lutz; Banasiak, Ursula

2013-10-01

48

Environmental fate of trifloxystrobin in soils of different geographical origins and photolytic degradation in water.  

Science.gov (United States)

In vitro biodegradation of trifloxystrobin (TFS) under darkness could best be explained by two-compartment first + first-order rate kinetics with half-lives ranging between 1.8 and 2.3 days. Hydrolysis was found to be the major pathway of degradation resulting in the formation of the acid metabolite, TFS-acid, with an EE conformation. The adsorption rate kinetics of both TFS and TFS-acid followed linear and Freundlich isotherms. The extent of adsorption was directly correlated with organic matter and clay contents, whereas desorption had a negative correlation. The high partition coefficients (KD) indicate strong adsorption of TFS on all of the test soils without any appreciable risk of groundwater contamination. In case of the TFS-acid, however, the adsorption was weaker; hence, if its further degradation is slow, it may contaminate lower soil horizons under worst case conditions. TFS did not cause any adverse effect on the soil microbial population. TFS was susceptible to aquatic photolysis in summer with an environmental half-life of 0.7-1.3 days irrespective of the latitudes. PMID:17147436

Banerjee, Kaushik; Ligon, Axel Patrick; Spiteller, Michael

2006-12-13

49

Toxicity of the fungicide trifloxystrobin on tadpoles and its effect on fish-tadpole interaction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contamination of aquatic systems is a major environmental stress that can interfere with predator-prey interactions, altering prey or predator behavior differentially. We determined toxicity parameters of the fungicide trifloxystrobin (TFS) and examined its effects on predation rate, using a fish predator (Synbranchus marmoratus) and four anuran tadpole species as prey (Rhinella arenarum, Physalaemus santafecinus, Leptodactylus latrans, and Elachistocleis bicolor). TFS was not equally toxic to the four tadpole species, E. bicolor being the most sensitive species, followed by P. santafecinus, R. arenarum, and L. latrans. Predation rates were evaluated using different treatments that combined predator and prey exposed or not to this fungicide. TFS would alter the outcome of eel-tadpole interaction by reducing prey movements; thus, prey detection would decrease and therefore tadpole survival would increase. In addition, eels preyed selectively upon non-exposed tadpoles avoiding the exposed ones almost all throughout the period evaluated. Predation rate differed among prey species; such differences were not due to TFS exposure, but to interspecific differences in behavior. The mechanism that would explain TFS-induced reduction in predation rates remains unclear; however, what is clear is that sublethal TFS concentrations have the potential to alter prey behavior, thereby indirectly altering predator-prey interactions. In addition, we consider that predator-prey relationships are measurable responses of toxicant exposure and provide ecological insight into how contaminants modify predator-prey interactions. PMID:22386454

Junges, C M; Peltzer, P M; Lajmanovich, R C; Attademo, A M; Cabagna Zenklusen, M C; Basso, A

2012-06-01

50

The evaluation of trifloxystrobin in protection of Calendula officinalis (Pot marigold) against Erysiphe cichoracearum DC.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the two-years field's examinations was the evaluation of the fungicide Zato 50 WG (biologically active substances BAS--trifloxystrobin 50%) in protection of Calendula officinalis (Pot marigold) against Erysiphe cichoracearum. Mentioned fungicide was applied at three concentrations: 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2%. As the standard fungicide Amistar 250 SC (biologically active substances BAS - azoxystrobin 250 g/dm3) was used. In every year of research work the four protective treatments were carried out. The estimation of infestation degree of Calendula officinalis leafs by the Erysiphe cichoracearum was made 5 times. Before each treatment four analysis were done, whereas the last analysis--the fifth one was executed after 10 days from the last protective spraying. According to the results, it was found that investigated preparations significant reduced the mean infestation degree of Calendula officinalis leafs by the Erysiphe cichoracearum compared to the control. The results pointed, that in protection of the mentioned plant by the powdery mildew the 0.2% dose of Zato 50WG showed the best suitability. PMID:17390856

Kurzawi?ska, H; Duda-Surman, J

2006-01-01

51

Assessment of trifloxystrobin uptake kinetics, developmental toxicity and mRNA expression in rare minnow embryos.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trifloxystrobin (TFS) is the widely used strobilurin fungicide. However, little information is so far available regarding the uptake kinetics and developmental toxicity of TFS to fish. The present study was conducted to investigate the uptake kinetics, potential environment risk and toxicity of TFS on Gobiocypris rarus embryos. Results revealed that increased malformation, decreased body length and heart rate, affected spontaneous movement and swimming speed provide a gradual concentration-dependent manner; values of 144 h LC50 (median lethal concentration) and EC50 (median effective concentration) were 1.11 and 0.86 ?g L(-1). Continuous exposure to TFS resulted in a steady accumulation with no evidence of elimination. Enzyme activities were significantly changed; reactive oxygen species and DNA damage were significantly induced after TFS treatment. Certain genes related to cell apoptosis (p53), metabolism (cyp1a), stress response (hsp70) and blood vessels (vezf1) development were all significantly up-regulated. This is the first study to define uptake kinetics and to focus on behavioral consequences, physiological changes and mRNA expression following TFS exposure in the early life stages of fish. Our results suggest that TFS is highly toxic to fish embryos. PMID:25240160

Zhu, Bin; Liu, Guang-Lu; Liu, Lei; Ling, Fei; Wang, Gao-Xue

2015-02-01

52

Pesticides chief: '  

... Pesticides chief: 'We were not really listening to societal concerns' | EurActiv Intensive farming,pesticides,water policy EU news & policy ... Pesticides: Striking the right balance? Agriculture: In brief Fertilisers: Feeding agriculture's growing needs Eating green? Food, drinks ... VIDEOS Home › Greening the CAP › Interview Pesticides chief: 'We were not really listening to societal concerns' -A + A Published 30 ...Tags specialreport-agriculture specialreport-greening-the-cap specialreport-prods-green-planet cap climate-environment health sustainability Chemicals (REACH) Intensive farming pesticides water policy After years of trying to persuade consumers that their ...

53

Dissipation kinetics of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole on apple (Malus domestica) and soil--a multi location study from north western Himalayan region.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new combinational fungicide formulation trifloxystrobin 25%+tebuconazole 50% (Nativo 75WG), introduced as a part of resistance management strategy, was studied for dissipation behaviour on apple fruits. Nativo 75WG was sprayed twice at the rate of 400 g and 800 g a.i. ha(-1) equal to trifloxystrobin application rate of 100 and 200 g a.i. ha(-1) and tebuconazole at application rate of 200 and 400 g a.i. ha(-1) at four different locations in the Northwest Himalayan region of India. The fruit samples collected at 10d interval and soil samples taken at harvest time were analyzed after second spray. The residual concentrations of trifloxystrobin, its acid metabolite CGA 321113 and tebuconazole were measured. Residues of both fungicides were determined by using gas chromatograph, Agilent 6890N having electron capture detector. The mean initial deposits of trifloxystrobin at four locations were found to be in the range of 0.333-0.387 mg kg(-1) and 0.512-0.714 mg kg(-1) at the application rate of 100 and 200 g a.i. ha(-1), and half-life were found between 19.38-24.93 d and 19.84-28.86 d at the respective doses. The ?-trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole residues were below determination limit in 40 d apple fruits and soil samples. Initial deposits of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole were below their Codex MRLs at the respective single doses. The half life value of the tebuconazole deposits ranged between 19.38-25.99 d and 19.84-28.86 d at the respective single and double dose. The study thus suggests 1d pre harvest interval for safe consumption of apple fruit after the application of Nativo 75 WG at single dose. PMID:23545189

Patyal, S K; Sharma, I D; Chandel, R S; Dubey, J K

2013-08-01

54

Heteroplasmy of the cytochrome b gene in Venturia inaequalis and its involvement in quantitative and practical resistance to trifloxystrobin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantitative (partial) and qualitative (complete) resistance responses to quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicides have been documented for the apple scab pathogen Venturia inaequalis. Resistance monitoring efforts have traditionally focused on the detection of qualitative resistance based on a single point mutation, G143A, within the cytochrome b (cyt b) gene. In order to better understand the role of heteroplasmy of the cyt b gene in the QoI resistance response for isolates and populations of V. inaequalis, an allele-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction was developed to quantify the relative abundance of the A143 (resistant) allele in 45 isolates of V. inaequalis with differing in vitro resistance responses to the QoI fungicide trifloxystrobin. Although a high relative abundance of the A143 allele (>62%) was associated with isolates with high resistance responses (50 to 100% relative growth on trifloxystrobin-amended medium), heteroplasmy of the cyt b gene was not the primary factor involved in isolates with moderate resistance responses (29 to 49% relative growth). The relative abundance of the A143 allele in isolates with moderate resistance to trifloxystrobin rarely exceeded 8%, suggesting that other resistance mechanisms are involved in moderate resistance and, therefore, that the Qol resistance response is polygenic. In research orchards where QoI fungicides failed to control apple scab (practical resistance), field trials were conducted to demonstrate the link between practical resistance and the abundance of the A143 allele. Relative abundance of the A143 allele in these orchard populations exceeded 20% in 2011 and 2012. Similarly, of the eight additional commercial orchards screened in 2011, the relative abundance of the A143 allele always exceeded 20% in those with QoI practical resistance. Although heteroplasmy of the cyt b gene did not entirely explain the response of isolates with moderate resistance to QoIs, the relative abundance of A143 in orchard populations of V. inaequalis helps to explain the point of emergence for practical resistance to trifloxystrobin across several orchard populations with differing production histories. PMID:24624954

Villani, Sara M; Cox, Kerik D

2014-09-01

55

Organic Pesticide Ingredients  

Science.gov (United States)

... NPIC Home Page —> Pesticide Ingredients —> Organic Pesticide Ingredients Organic Pesticide Ingredients Organic foods are not necessarily pesticide- ... at npic@ace.orst.edu . Additional Resources on Organic Pesticide Ingredients Understand Organic Labeling - USDA National Organic ...

56

Rapid gas chromatographic method for the determination of famoxadone, trifloxystrobin and fenhexamid residues in tomato, grape and wine samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trifloxystrobin, fenhexamid and famoxadone belong to the generation of fungicides acting against a broad spectrum of fungi and widely used in Integrated Pest Management strategies in different agricultural crops but mainly in viticulture. In the present work, a gas chromatographic (GC) method for their determination was developed and validated on tomato, grape and wine matrices. The method was based on a simple one step liquid-liquid microextraction with cyclohexane/dichloromethane (9+1, v/v) and determination of fungicides by gas chromatography with nitrogen phosphorous (NP-) and electron capture (EC-) detection, and ion trap mass spectrometry (ITMS) for confirmation. The method was validated by recovery experiments, assessment of matrix effect and calculation of the associated uncertainty. Recoveries for GC-NPD and GC-ECD were found in the range of 81-102% with RSD trifloxystrobin being the most sensitive. The expanded uncertainty, calculated for a sample concentration of 0.10 mg/kg, ranged from 4.8 to 13% for the GC-ECD and from 5.4 to 29% for the GC-NPD. The concentration levels for famoxadone residues found in tomato and grape samples from field experiments were clearly below the EU established MRL values, thus causing no problems in terms of food safety. PMID:16950327

Likas, D T; Tsiropoulos, N G; Miliadis, G E

2007-05-25

57

Obsolete pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

Several hundred tons of obsolete pesticide stocks worldwide will pose a threat to humans and the environment until the year 2030 in some regions, unless funding for waste disposal is significantly increased, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) said in a message directed to donor governments and industry on May 24.“Deadly chemicals are contaminating the soils, groundwater, irrigation, and drinking water,” said Amemayehu Wodageneh, senior expert on obsolete pesticides for FAO. “These ‘forgotten’ stocks are a serious risk, [and] they could cause an environmental tragedy in rural areas and big cities. There is hardly any developing country that is not affected by the hazards of obsolete pesticides.”

Showstack, Randy

58

Influence of pesticides on yeasts colonizing leaves.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of nine different pesticides on the growth of yeasts isolated from the leaves of fruit and forest trees was investigated. Four insecticides (with the active ingredients: thiacloprid, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, and thiamethoxam) and five fungicides (with the effective substances: bitertanol, kresoxim-methyl, mancozeb, trifloxystrobin, and cupric oxychloride) were tested. The concentrations of chemicals were those recommended by the manufacturers for the spraying of trees. The yeast strains isolated from the leaves of fruit trees were not sensitive to any of the insecticides. The majority of yeast strains isolated from the leaves of forest trees were either not sensitive or only to a small extent. While Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Pichia anomala were not affected by any insecticide, the strains of Cryptococcus laurentii and Rhodotorula glutinis showed the highest sensitivity. The effects of fungicides on the growth of isolated yeasts were more substantial. The fungicide Dithane DG (mancozeb) completely inhibited the growth of all yeasts. All strains isolated from fruit tree leaves were more resistant to the tested fungicides than those isolated from the leaves of forest trees. The most resistant strains from the leaves of fruit trees belonged to the species Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia anomala, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas Cryptococcus albidus and C. laurentii, originating from the leaves of forest trees, showed the highest sensitivity to fungicides. PMID:22351984

Vadkertiová, Renata; Sláviková, Elena

2011-01-01

59

Pesticide Poisoning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed that examining the socio-demographic characteristics of the pesticide poisoning cases in Samsun region where the economy mainly relies on agriculture and comparing it to similar studies; thus contributing the country?s data and the possible measures. 60 pesticide poisoning cases consulted OMU Faculty of Medicine between 01.01.2004 and 31.12.2004 are examined and achieved data are analyzed and presented. Of the 60 cases, 35 (58.3% are females and 25 (41.7 are males and the average age is 21.93 ±17.56 (1-63 years. Pesticide poisoning is most common in summer (55.0% and spring (25.0%. It is stated either by the person himself/herself or by his/her relatives that the intake of the toxic substance is accidental in 36 cases (60.0% and suicidal in 24 cases (40.0%. 25 cases (41.7% are poisoned with organic phosphorus pesticides and 12 cases (20.0% with carbamat-pesticides. Consequently, in order to prevent accidental pesticide poisoning, it is necessary to be very careful with pesticide application especially in rural areas. Substances that are least toxic to human and environment, and are licenced and most effective to pests must be used, spraying period must be short, sensitive people, especially children, must be kept away, personal precautions must be taken for the spraying person and pesticides must be kept away from the reach of children and people at risk. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(3: 169-174

Neva Sataloglu

2007-06-01

60

Pesticide Poisoning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed that examining the socio-demographic characteristics of the pesticide poisoning cases in Samsun region where the economy mainly relies on agriculture and comparing it to similar studies; thus contributing the country?s data and the possible measures. 60 pesticide poisoning cases consulted OMU Faculty of Medicine between 01.01.2004 and 31.12.2004 are examined and achieved data are analyzed and presented. Of the 60 cases, 35 (58.3% are females and 25 (41.7 are males and the average age is 21.93 ±17.56 (1-63 years. Pesticide poisoning is most common in summer (55.0% and spring (25.0%. It is stated either by the person himself/herself or by his/her relatives that the intake of the toxic substance is accidental in 36 cases (60.0% and suicidal in 24 cases (40.0%. 25 cases (41.7% are poisoned with organic phosphorus pesticides and 12 cases (20.0% with carbamat-pesticides. Consequently, in order to prevent accidental pesticide poisoning, it is necessary to be very careful with pesticide application especially in rural areas. Substances that are least toxic to human and environment, and are licenced and most effective to pests must be used, spraying period must be short, sensitive people, especially children, must be kept away, personal precautions must be taken for the spraying person and pesticides must be kept away from the reach of children and people at risk. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 169-174

Neva Sataloglu

2007-06-01

 
 
 
 
61

Pesticides in Groundwater  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticides in Groundwater Care to guess how many pounds of pesticides the Nation used in 1964? How about in 1993? If ... they may cause health problems. Pesticides can contaminate groundwater Pesticide contamination of groundwater is a subject of ...

62

Pesticide Safety Tips  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticide Safety Tips Resources Questions On Pesticides? National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) 1-800-858-7378 Although pesticides can be useful, they also can be dangerous if used carelessly ...

63

Screening of grapes and wine for azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin fungicides by HPLC with diode array detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Quinone outside Inhibitors (QoI) are one of the most important and recent fungicide groups used in viticulture and also allowed by Integrated Pest Management. Azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin are the main active ingredients for treating downy and powdery mildews that can be present in grapes and wines. In this paper, a method is reported for the analysis of these three QoI-fungicides in grapes and wine. After liquid-liquid extraction and a clean-up on commercial silica cartridges, analysis was by isocratic HPLC with diode array detection (DAD) with a run time of 13 min. Confirmation was by solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME), followed by GC/MS determination. The main validation parameters for the three compounds in grapes and wine were a limit of detection up to 0.073 mg kg(-1), a precision not exceeding 10.0% and an average recovery of 93% +/- 38. PMID:16019828

De Melo Abreu, Susana; Correia, Manuela; Herbert, Paulo; Santos, Lúcia; Alves, Arminda

2005-06-01

64

Residues of the quinone outside inhibitor fungicide trifloxystrobin after postharvest dip treatments to control Penicillium spp. on citrus fruit  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effectiveness of postharvest dip treatment with trifloxystrobin (TFX) or imazalil (IMZ) was compared for controlling green and blue mold (caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively) of citrus fruit. Residues retained by fruit were determined as a function of treatment time, dip temperature, and storage conditions. Trials on 'Avana apireno' mandarin oranges artificially inoculated with P. digitatum or P. italicum revealed that treatme...

Schirra, Mario; D Aquino, Salvatore; Palma, Amedeo; Angioni, Alberto; Cabras, Paolo; Migheli, Quirico

2006-01-01

65

Pesticide Poisoning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, it is aimed that examining the socio-demographic characteristics of the pesticide poisoning cases in Samsun region where the economy mainly relies on agriculture and comparing it to similar studies; thus contributing the country?s data and the possible measures. 60 pesticide poisoning cases consulted OMU Faculty of Medicine between 01.01.2004 and 31.12.2004 are examined and achieved data are analyzed and presented. Of the 60 cases, 35 (58.3%) are females and 25 (41.7) are ...

Neva Sataloglu; Berna Aydin; Ahmet Turla

2007-01-01

66

Aplicação da cromatografia gasosa bidimensional abrangente com microdetector de captura de elétrons para determinação de agrotóxicos em sedimentos Application of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detection for determination of pesticides in sediments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Analysis of seven pesticides in sediments was successfully achieved using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detection, as it provided higher sensitivity and less matrix interference. Repeatability and intermediate precision of peak areas and heights were less than 4% and the recovery percentage for the analytes ranged from 52 to 115%. Instrumental LOD and LOQ were in the range of 0.60 to 2.31 ?g L-1 and 1.83 to 5.62 ?g L-1, respectively. Concentrations of 3.34 ?g kg-1 (dry basis for trifloxystrobin and azoxystrobin (below the LOQ were found in a sediment sample.

Juliana Macedo da Silva

2011-01-01

67

Occurrence and distribution study of residues from pesticides applied under controlled conditions in the field during rice processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of an experiment to study the occurrence and distribution of pesticide residues during rice cropping and processing are reported. Four herbicides, nine fungicides, and two insecticides (azoxystrobin, byspiribac-sodium, carbendazim, clomazone, difenoconazole, epoxiconazole, isoprothiolane, kresoxim-methyl, propanil, quinclorac, tebuconazole, thiamethoxam, tricyclazole, trifloxystrobin, ?-cyhalotrin) were applied to an isolated rice-crop plot under controlled conditions, during the 2009-2010 cropping season in Uruguay. Paddy rice was harvested and industrially processed to brown rice, white rice, and rice bran, which were analyzed for pesticide residues using the original QuEChERS methodology and its citrate variation by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS. The distribution of pesticide residues was uneven among the different matrices. Ten different pesticide residues were found in paddy rice, seven in brown rice, and eight in rice bran. The highest concentrations were detected in paddy rice. These results provide information regarding the fate of pesticides in the rice food chain and its safety for consumers. PMID:22497619

Pareja, Lucía; Colazzo, Marcos; Pérez-Parada, Andrés; Besil, Natalia; Heinzen, Horacio; Böcking, Bernardo; Cesio, Verónica; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

2012-05-01

68

Illegal Pesticide Products  

Science.gov (United States)

Illegal Pesticide Products Esta página Web está disponible en español Quick Resources Protect your Business Counterfeit Flea and Tick ... Center (NPIC) 1-800-858-7378 Questions on Pesticides? National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) 1-800-858- ...

69

National Pesticide Information Center  

Science.gov (United States)

National Pesticide Information Center npic@ace.orst.edu 1.800.858.7378 Index A B C D E F ... Your Pest Control Your Pest Integrated Pest Management Pesticide Ingredients Active Ingredients Other/Inert Ingredients Pesticide Products ...

70

Agricultural pesticide residues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tracer techniques used in the elucidation of the pathways and fate of pesticides in agriculture are reviewed. Such studies include investigating the uptake of labelled pesticides into plants in lysimeter and micro-ecosystem experiments, the translocations of pesticides in the soil, the degradation of pesticides in the soil, the biological availability of soil-applied substances and the bound pesticide residues in the soil. The use of macro- and microautoradiography and double and triple labelling is also described. (U.K.)

71

Scientific support for preparing an EU position for the 45th Session of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In accordance with Article 43 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, EFSA received a request from the European Commission to provide support for the preparation of the EU position for the 45th session of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR. In 2012, JMPR evaluated 12 active substances regarding the setting of toxicological reference values to be used in consumer risk assessment, 7 new compounds (ametoctradin, chlorfenapyr, dinotefuran, fluxapyroxad, MCPA, picoxystrobin, sedaxane and 4 part of periodic reevaluation (benzoate, fenpropathrin, fenvalerate, glufosinate-ammonium. Regarding the setting of Maximum Residue Limits (CXLs, JMPR assessed 26 substances (ametoctradin, azoxystrobin, buprofezin, carbofuran, chlorfenapyr, chlorothalonil, cycloxydim, cyfluthrin, cyromazine, dichlorvos, dicofol, dinotefuran, fenvalerate, fludioxonil, fluopyram, fluxapyroxad, glufosinate-ammonium, imidacloprid, MCPA, methoxyfenozide, penthiopyrad, phorate, picoxystrobin, sedaxane, spinetoram and trifloxystrobin. EFSA derived comments on the JMPR evaluations regarding the acceptability of the proposed draft Codex MRLs and the toxicological reference values.

European Food Safety Authority

2013-07-01

72

Removal of pesticides from white wine by the use of fining agents and filtration.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of four clarification agents (bentonite, charcoal, PVPP and potassium caseinate) on the removal of residues of three fungicides (famoxadone, fluquinconazole and trifloxystrobin) applied directly to a racked white wine, elaborated from Airen variety grapes from the D.O. Region of Jumilla (Murcia, Spain) are studied. The clarified wines were filtered with 0.45 microm nylon filters to determine the influence of this winemaking process in the disappearance of fungicide residues. Hydro-alcoholic solutions with the three fungicides at concentrations of 1 and 2 ppm were then added through intense stirring to each of the containers. Two hours later, the corresponding clarifying agent was added with intense stirring for some minutes. The containers were then sealed and left to settle for five days. Once the clean wines had been racked, they were filtered through nylon 0.45 microm pore filters. All assays were performed three times. Analytical determination of fluquinconazole and trifloxystrobin was performed by gas chromatography with an electron captor detector (ECD), while that of famoxadone was made using an HPLC-DAD. For the three fungicides, the highest elimination is produced with the clarification by charcoal, reaching Levels of removal of 100% in all cases. For the four clarifying agents, the highest elimination is produced for the fluquinconazole residues. The fungicide which is retained most in the lees is famoxadone, since it has the lowest solubility of the three pesticides studied. The highest percentage of residues in the lees is obtained for the assay with charcoal. The filtration process of the clarified wines using the four agents studied is not effective, since the elimination percentage is generally lower than 10% of the initial residues in the non-clarified wines. PMID:18399438

Oliva, J; Payá, P; Cámara, M A; Barba, A

2007-01-01

73

pesticides workshop presentation niea jake gibson  

...Rosetta Mullan and Ray Thomas Pesticides monitoring 2004 –present Pesticides Workshop, Loughry College 15th March...5?g/l total pesticides) in potable water • DWD pesticide...pesticide failures from Derg WTW • Pesticides were MCPA and Mecoprop, widely...

74

Transporte de agrotóxicos em lavoura de arroz irrigado sob três manejos de irrigação Pesticide transport in rice field under three irrigation managements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O cultivo de arroz irrigado no Rio Grande do Sul caracteriza-se pela permanência de lâmina de irrigação sobre o solo, o que ocasiona perdas de agrotóxicos na ocorrência de chuvas; portanto, o adequado manejo de irrigação pode influenciar na redução do transporte destes para o ambiente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes manejos de irrigação no extravasamento da água e no transporte e persistência de clomazone, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, trifloxystrobin e propiconazol em lavoura de arroz irrigado. Os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial consistiram nos manejos de irrigação por inundação contínua, intermitente e por banhos (fator A e pelos agrotóxicos mencionados (fator B. Determinou-se o volume total de água extravasada e a taxa de dissipação e transporte desses agrotóxicos. Devido ao maior armazenamento de água da chuva, quando comparadas com a irrigação contínua, as irrigações intermitente e por banhos proporcionaram diminuição de 53 e 95% do volume de água perdida, resultando, respectivamente, em redução de 49 e 64% na massa total de agrotóxicos transportados para o ambiente, em relação ao total aplicado na lavoura. A massa de agrotóxico transportada não ultrapassou 3% do total aplicado, e as maiores concentrações de agrotóxicos em água ocorreram próximo à sua aplicação. Com base nesses resultados, salienta-se que os manejos de irrigação intermitente e por banhos minimizam o transporte de agrotóxicos para o ambiente.Rice crop in the state of Rio Grande do Sul is characterized by the presence of water layer on the soil, which can cause pesticide runoff during the occurrence of rainfall. Thus, proper irrigation management can reduce pesticide transport into the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different irrigation managements on water runoff, transport and dissipation of clomazone, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, trifloxystrobin, and propiconazol. The treatments were arranged in a factorial scheme and consisted of continuous flooding, intermittent flooding, and flushing irrigation (factor A and by the application of the pesticides listed above (factor B. Total water runoff, and pesticide transport and dissipation rate were evaluated. Due to the larger rainfall storage, compared with continuous flooding, intermittent flooding and flushing irrigation provided a reduction of 53 and 95% of water runoff, resulting, respectively, in a reduction of 49 and 64% of the total mass transported into the environment in relation to the total applied in the field. The pesticide mass transported was lower than 3% of the total amount applied. Based on these results, it could be concluded that intermittent flooding and flushing irrigation minimize pesticide transport into the environment.Since the highest pesticide concentrations occur close to application time, it is of fundamental importance to conduct proper irrigation management providing maximum permanence in the environment.

L.F.D. Martini

2012-12-01

75

Residues of the quinone outside inhibitor fungicide trifloxystrobin after postharvest dip treatments to control Penicillium spp. on citrus fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effectiveness of postharvest dip treatment with trifloxystrobin (TFX) or imazalil (IMZ) was compared for controlling green and blue mold (caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively) of citrus fruit. Residues retained by fruit were determined as a function of treatment time, dip temperature, and storage conditions. Trials on 'Avana apireno' mandarin oranges artificially inoculated with P. digitatum or P. italicum revealed that treatments with 200 to 600 mg/liter active ingredient TFX at 20 degrees C were less effective than 100 mg/liter TFX at 500C for controlling P. digitatum but equally effective for controlling P. italicum. IMZ treatments with 200 mg/liter IMZ at 20 degrees C or 25 mg/liter IMZ at 50 degrees C resulted in more than 98% reduction of P. digitatum and ca. 93% reduction of P. italicum compared with untreated fruit. Total suppression of pathogens was achieved when higher IMZ doses were applied. Studies on artificially wounded lemons, oranges, clementines, and mandarins revealed that treatment with 100 mg/liter TFX at 50 degrees C effectively controlled decay development (mainly due to P. digitatum) after 7 days of storage at 20 degrees C. These results were confirmed on nonwounded oranges of cv. Tarocco and on grapefruits of cvs. Marsh Seedless and Star Ruby during 3 weeks of simulated quarantine at 1 degrees C, storage (5 weeks at 8 degrees C for oranges and 8 weeks at 11degrees C for grapefruits), and an additional 1 week of simulated marketing conditions at 20 degrees C. IMZ at 50 degrees C was highly effective for controlling decay during storage and the simulated marketing period. TFX treatment at 50 degrees C was as effective as IMZ for controlling decay in most samples. After treatment with 100 mg/liter TFX at 20 degrees C, fungicide residues in 'Tarocco' oranges doubled from 0.15 mg/kg to 0.30 mg/kg when dip time increased from 0.5 to 3 min, whereas when treatments were performed at 50 degrees C TFX residues were not related to dipping time. Residues of TFX were significantly correlated with dip temperature. A 3-min dip treatment at 50 degrees C resulted in a deposition of TFX that was approximately twofold higher than that obtained when treatments were carried out at 20 degrees C. PMID:16865899

Schirra, Mario; D'Aquino, Salvatore; Palma, Amedeo; Angioni, Alberto; Cabras, Paolo; Migheli, Quirico

2006-07-01

76

Common Pesticide Questions  

Science.gov (United States)

... Y Z Home Health & Safety Human Health Animal Health Safe Use Practices Food Safety Pest Control Identify Your Pest Learn About Your Pest Control Your Pest Integrated Pest Management Pesticide Ingredients Active Ingredients Other/Inert Ingredients Pesticide Products ...

77

Pesticide exposure - Indian scene  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. India started pesticide production with manufacturing plant for DDT and benzene hexachloride (BHC) (HCH) in the year 1952. In 1958, India was producing over 5000 metric tonnes of pesticides. Currently, there are approximately 145 pesticides registered for use, and production has increased to approximately 85,000 metric tonnes. Rampant use of these chemicals has given rise to several short-term and long-term adverse effects of these chemicals. The first report of poisoning due to pesticides in India came from Kerala in 1958 where, over 100 people died after consuming wheat flour contaminated with parathion. Subsequently several cases of pesticide-poisoning including the Bhopal disaster have been reported. Despite the fact that the consumption of pesticides in India is still very low, about 0.5 kg/ha of pesticides against 6.60 and 12.0 kg/ha in Korea and Japan, respectively, there has been a widespread contamination of food commodities with pesticide residues, basically due to non-judicious use of pesticides. In India, 51% of food commodities are contaminated with pesticide residues and out of these, 20% have pesticides residues above the maximum residue level values on a worldwide basis. It has been observed that their long-term, low-dose exposure are increasingly linked to human health effects such as immune-suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intellion, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities, and cancer. In this light, problems of pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, use of biotechnology, and biopesticides, and use of pesticides obtained from natural plant sources such as neem extracts are some of the future strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides

78

Towards the field-scale experiments and numerical modeling of pesticides in tropical soils  

Science.gov (United States)

Intensive use of pesticides in agriculture inevitably poses an increased threat to groundwater. Recent findings of pesticide residues in selected drinking water wells in Hawaii brings further attention to this problem since the primary source for potable water in Hawaii is groundwater from basal or dike-confined aquifers. A challenging research project was carried out at the University of Hawaii to elucidate potential impacts of selected pesticides on groundwater and to understand pesticide behavior in tropical soils. The major outcome of the project will be a recommendation to the Hawaii Department of Agriculture whether to restrict or approve these pesticide products entering Hawaii's agricultural market. Three sites on Oahu, one on Maui, and one on Kauai were selected for field evaluation of leaching. The soil types on Oahu are Wahiawa Oxisol (Poamoho), Molokai Oxisol (Kunia), and Waialua Vertisol (Waimanalo). The soil at Kula, Maui is an andisol (loam of Kula series) and that at Mana, Kauai is a Vertisol of Malama series. Three herbicides (S-metolachlor, imazaquin, sulfometuron methyl), one fungicide (trifloxystrobin), and one insecticide (imidacloprid) were used in our study. In addition, a commonly used herbicide (atrazine) and potassium bromide tracer were applied as reference chemicals. After spraying, the plots were covered with straw to decrease evaporation from bare soil surface and irrigated with aerial sprinklers for a period of 16 weeks. Disturbed soil samples from various depths were taken at regular intervals for pesticide analysis. Water flow dynamics was monitored with TDR probes and tensiometers installed at three depths. Weather data were acquired simultaneously. In-situ measurements of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity were done using a tension disc infiltrometer. Laboratory experiments of soil-water retention, as well as degradation, sorption, and column displacement experiments for the selected pesticides were conducted. Hence, comprehensive a database for mathematical modeling of the pesticide transport was obtained. Results so far indicate that S-metolachlor showed its low leachability and short decay half-life. On the other hand, imidacloprid exhibited its low sorption ability with higher leaching potential and longer half-life. Likewise, transport of bromide seems to be controlled by soil hydrologic properties and water application rates.

Dusek, J.; Ray, C.; Sanda, M.; Vogel, T.; Green, R.; Loo, B.

2004-12-01

79

Safe apples for baby-food production: survey of pesticide treatment regimes leaving minimum residues.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 19 pesticide preparations were used according to agricultural practice in six trials in apple orchards. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), premature Golden Delicious apples collected 64, 50, 36 days before harvest and mature fruit were examined for residues of active ingredients. No residues of triflumuron, triazamate, chlorpyrifos, etofenprox, fenoxycarb, kresoxim-methyl, cyprodinyl, difenoconazole or thiram were detected in the first sampling. Also, the levels of chlorpyrifos-methyl, penconazole, tebuconazole and tolylfluanid dropped during the pre-harvest interval. Detectable residues of pyridaben, thiacloprid, trifloxystrobin and tetraconazole in harvested fruits were below 0.01 mg kg(-1), which is the maximum concentration of residues acceptable by baby-food producers in any raw material. The only residues exceeding this concentration were captan and teflubenzuron. Based on the data, farmers can choose pesticides for optimal treatment of plants, while enabling growth of a safe crop suitable for baby-food production. PMID:17487602

Ticha, Jana; Hajslova, Jana; Kovalczuk, Tomas; Jech, Martin; Honzicek, Jiri; Kocourek, Vladimir; Lansky, Miroslav; Kloutvorova, Jana; Falta, Vladan

2007-06-01

80

Pesticides halve bees'  

...Pesticides halve bees' pollen gathering ability, research shows | EurActiv source of protein that bees have, and it is vital for ... cap,bees,pesticides EU news & policy debates- across languages - en fr Click here for EU news »x Search this ... VIDEOS Home › Agriculture & Food › News Pesticides halve bees' pollen gathering ability, research shows [fr] -A + A Published 04 ...February 2014 1 comment Tags bees, pesticides Bumblebees exposed to controversial pesticides collect just half the pollen they would otherwise harvest, according to new ...

 
 
 
 
81

78 FR 72881 - Notice of Receipt of Requests to Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Titan FL............. Clothianidin, Thiram, Metalaxyl & Carboxin. 000264-01013...and Trifloxystrobin & Fungicide Seed Clothianidin. Treatment. 000264-01079...Three-Way VAP........ Clothianidin, Ipconazole & Metalaxyl....

2013-12-04

82

78 FR 63938 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...  

Science.gov (United States)

...trifloxystrobin (benzeneacetic acid, (E,E)-[alpha...phenyl] ethylidene]amino]oxy]methyl]-methyl ester) and the free form of its acid metabolite CGA-321113...except barley, rice and wheat straw...1H-pyrazol-4-carboxylic acid (M-3)...

2013-10-25

83

Assessing Health Risks from Pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

Assessing Health Risks from Pesticides Este Web page está disponible en español Questions on Pesticides? Contact the National Pesticide Information Center ( ... of Toxicity Tests EPA Requires for Human Health Risk Assessments EPA evaluates studies conducted over different periods ...

84

Ban of Neonicotinoid Pesticides  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

European Union (EU) has banned the use of three pesticides: clothianidin, thiamethoxam and imidacloprid in bee attractive crops. These pesticides all belong to a pesticide group called neonicotinoids, and they are believed to be a contributing factor in the declining bee population. The ban was enforced in EU the 1st of December 2013. Neonicotinoids (clothianidin and thiamethoxam) are an important part of the control of pests in oilseed rape production in Danish agriculture. The neonicotinoid...

Inthasen, Prapaporn

2014-01-01

85

Agricultural pesticide residues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The utilization of tracer techniques in the study of agricultural pesticide residues is reviewed under the following headings: lysimeter experiments, micro-ecosystems, translocation in soil, degradation of pesticides in soil, biological availability of soil-applied substances, bound residues in the soil, use of macro- and microautography, double and triple labelling, use of tracer labelling in animal experiments. (U.K.)

86

Application of liquid chromatography with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry to the determination of a new generation of pesticides in processed fruits and vegetables.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a method for the sensitive and selective determination of 24 new pesticide residues (azoxystrobin, trifloxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl, fenazaquin, indoxacarb, fenothiocarb, furathiocarb, benfuracarb, imidachloprid, dimethomorph, fenpyroximate, hexythiazox, tebufenpyrad, tebufenozide, difeconazole, fenbuconazole, flusilazole, paclobutrazol, tebuconazole, tetraconazole, bromuconazole, etofenprox, fenhexamid, pyridaben) in apple puree, concentrated lemon juice and tomato puree. A miniaturized extraction-partition procedure requiring small amounts of non-chlorinated solvents was used. The extracts are analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) without any further clean-up step. The pesticides are separated on a reversed-phase polar column using a gradient elution. Fifty-five simultaneous MS-MS transitions of precursor ions were monitored (two or three for each pesticide). Studies at fortification levels of 0.001-0.020 and 0.010-0.200 mg/kg gave mean recoveries ranging from 76 to 106% for all compounds, except for imidacloprid, with (R.S.D.s) < or = 15%. The excellent sensitivity and selectivity of LC-MS-MS method allowed quantitation and identification at low levels also in difficult matrices with a run time of 20 min. With the developed method almost 100 samples of commercial fruit products (nectars, juices, purees) were analyzed. None of samples contained residues higher than 0.010 mg/kg. PMID:15146917

Sannino, Anna; Bolzoni, Luciana; Bandini, Mirella

2004-05-21

87

Watershed scale influence of pesticide reduction practices on pesticides and fishes within channelized agricultural headwater streams  

Science.gov (United States)

Implementation of pesticide reduction practices to reduce pesticide usage within agricultural watersheds has the potential to reduce pesticide concentrations within agricultural streams. The watershed scale influence of pesticide reduction practices on pesticides and the biota within agricultural he...

88

Health effects of pesticides  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tea industry is one of the most important agro-industry of the country. Wide scale use of pesticides in tea cultivation to protect the crops from insect and fungus has led to buildup of their residues in several parts of tea plant, and around the area. Some of the pesticides are toxic and injurious to health and affect the environment. In India, a large member of pesticides have been registered for use in tea cultivation. But only few are being used currently and for which maximum residue lev...

Seth, P. K.

2003-01-01

89

Bioefficacy, residue dynamics and safety assessment of the combination fungicide trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50%-75 WG in managing early blight of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports the in vitro and in vivo bioefficacy of a combination fungicide trifloxystrobin (25%) + tebuconazole (50%) against early blight disease of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) caused by Alternaria solani and their corresponding pre-harvest intervals (PHI) with reference to the maximum residue limits (European Union). Bioefficacy of the test fungicide combination revealed that in vitro conditions manifested the best control (75.1%) at 350 mg kg(-1) against 76.2% control under field conditions. A sample preparation method based on ethyl acetate extraction and estimation by LC-MS multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was validated in tomato fruits at 0.01 mg/kg and dissipation studies were conducted in field at single and double doses. The residues of both the compounds on all the sampling days were below the European Union maximum residue limits (EU-MRLs) and the maximum permissible intakes (MPIs) were calculated on the basis of prescribed acceptable daily intake (ADI). The combined bioefficacy and residue dynamics information will support label-claim of this fungicide combination for the management of early blight in tomato. PMID:24328546

Saha, Sujoy; Purath, Ahammed Shabeer Thekkum; Jadhav, Manjusha R; Loganathan, M; Banerjee, Kaushik; Rai, A B

2014-01-01

90

Toxic effects of three strobilurins (trifloxystrobin, azoxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl) on mRNA expression and antioxidant enzymes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) juveniles.  

Science.gov (United States)

The strobilurins are used widely in the world as effective fungicidal agents to control Asian soybean rust. In this study, the early life stage of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), which is one of the most important aquaculture species in China, was chosen to measure the acute toxicity of three common strobilurin-derived fungicides (trifloxystrobin (TFS), azoxystrobin (AZ) and kresoxim-methyl (KM)). As endpoints, normal developmental parameters (lethal concentration (LC??) and average heart rate), expression of relative genes, and three antioxidant enzyme activities in the developing juveniles were recorded during a 48 h exposure. The results revealed that values of LC?? were TFS 0.051 (0.046-0.058) mg L?¹, AZ 0.549 (0.419-0.771) mg L?¹ and KM 0.338 (0.284-0.407) mg L?¹ for juveniles. For the potential toxicity mechanisms, these three fungicides increased catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activity and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, significantly inhibited expressions of three growth-related genes (IGF-1, IGF-2 and GHR) and two energy-related-genes (CCK and PYY), and caused pronounced up-regulation a stress-gene (HSP70). The present study demonstrated potential toxic effects of TFS, AZ and KM on the early development of C. idella. Overall, three strobilurins (TFS, AZ and KM) might cause serious damages to the aquatic species; therefore, their pollution supervision in water ecological environment should be strengthened. PMID:24210350

Liu, Lei; Jiang, Chao; Wu, Zhuo-Qi; Gong, Yu-Xin; Wang, Gao-Xue

2013-12-01

91

Aplicação da cromatografia gasosa bidimensional abrangente com microdetector de captura de elétrons para determinação de agrotóxicos em sedimentos / Application of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detection for determination of pesticides in sediments  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Analysis of seven pesticides in sediments was successfully achieved using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detection, as it provided higher sensitivity and less matrix interference. Repeatability and intermediate precision of peak areas and heights were le [...] ss than 4% and the recovery percentage for the analytes ranged from 52 to 115%. Instrumental LOD and LOQ were in the range of 0.60 to 2.31 ?g L-1 and 1.83 to 5.62 ?g L-1, respectively. Concentrations of 3.34 ?g kg-1 (dry basis) for trifloxystrobin and azoxystrobin (below the LOQ) were found in a sediment sample.

Juliana Macedo da, Silva; Cláudia Alcaraz, Zini; Elina Bastos, Caramão.

92

What Is a Pesticide?  

Science.gov (United States)

... insects, mice and other animals, unwanted plants (weeds), fungi, microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses, and prions . (578 kb, 8 pgs, PDF) Do household products contain pesticides? Many household products ...

93

Pesticide-Exposure Matrix  

Science.gov (United States)

The "Pesticide-exposure Matrix" was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years.

94

Genotoxicity of chlororganic pesticides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Kazakhstan there are the warehouses of the obsolete pesticides and their container which should be buried in special burial grounds or neutralized to minimize dangerous genetic and ecological risks. The results of two yr of research were identification of substances stored in 64 former warehouses of pesticides. 64 former warehouses (in the 10 areas of Almaty oblast) are on distance of 250 km from a large city of Almaty (the former capital of Kazakhstan). A total of 352,6 ton of obsolete pesticides and 250 ton of their container were disposed. We determined the residues of DDT metabolites (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and HCH isomers (hexachlorocyclohexane) in soil around pesticides warehouses where their concentrations exceed MAC (maximum concentration limit) in tens - hundreds times. To analyze a genotoxicity of chlororganic pesticides we used their concentrations that were found in soil from former warehouses. The analysis of structural mutations of chromosomes was carried out by metaphase method in I mitoses meristem cells of barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.). It was ascertained that HCH isomers and DDT metabolites have genotoxic effect exceeding spontaneous mutation in 5-7 times. High contaminations by pesticides on soil around of warehouses and their ability to induce chromosome aberrations in plant cells indicate that warehouses are a new centre of contamination by POP's (proof organic pollutants). (author)

95

Pesticide Movement in Response to Furrow Irrigation and Pesticide Parameters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Production of adequate supplies of food and fiber currently requires that pesticides be used to limit crop losses from insects, pathogens, weeds and other pests. The term pesticide refers to a large number ofchemical compounds. Pesticides include acaricides, fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, nematicides, algicides, arboricides, zoocides, and many more.

Ranjha, A. Y.; Peralta, R. C.; Hill, R. W.; Deer, H. M.

1991-01-01

96

Pesticide use in periurban areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Public concern about pesticide use is very high, although it varies with social, ethical and political factors. In periurban regions, farmers live close to people with other occupations. Thus farming activities such as pesticide spraying may cause tensions. Pesticide use may also cause changes in pest abundances outside the treated field, on plants in neighbouring gardens. The first part of this thesis compared perceptions of pesticide use by farmers and their neighbours in two periurban r...

Ahmed, Nur

2012-01-01

97

Pesticide Action Network UK  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pesticide Action Network UK (PAN UK) is a nonprofit organization that "promotes healthy food, agriculture and an environment which will provide food and meet public health needs without dependence on toxic chemicals, and without harm to food producers and agricultural workers.ïÿý Through its website, PAN UK offers a number of downloadable publications including briefings; fact sheets for active ingredients like aldicarb, cypermethrin, methyl parathion, and paraquat; monthly gardening tips, and annual reviews. Site visitors can also search for pesticide-related images and numerous publication listings through the website's Photographic Database and Research Database. The site also contains pesticide-related news, press releases, and information about PAN UK activities in the United Kingdom, Europe, and around the world. Many related links are included as well in such categories as Conferences, Consumer Links, Databases & Resources, Integrated Pest Management, and more.

98

On the paradox of pesticides  

CERN Document Server

The paradox of pesticides was observed experimentally, which says that pesticides may dramatically increase the population of a pest when the pest has a natural predator. Here we use a mathematical model to study the paradox. We find that the timing for the application of pesticides is crucial for the resurgence or non-resurgence of the pests. In particular, regularly applying pesticides is not a good idea as also observed in experiments. In fact, the best time to apply pesticides is when the pest population is reasonably high.

Li, Y Charles

2013-01-01

99

A Test House Study of Pesticides and PesticideDegradation Products Following an Indoor Application  

Science.gov (United States)

Preexisting pesticide degradates are a concern for pesticide biomonitoring studies as exposure to them may result in overestimation of pesticide exposure. The purpose of this research was to determine whether there was significant formation and movement, of pesticide degradates o...

100

PESTICIDE ROOT ZONE MODEL  

Science.gov (United States)

PRZM3 is a modeling system that links two subordinate models - PRZM and VADOFT to predict pesticide transport and transformation down through the crop root and unsaturated zone. PRZM3 includes modeling capabilities for such phenomena as soil temperature simulation, vo...

 
 
 
 
101

Epigenetics and pesticides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticides, a wide class of environmental contaminants, may cause both acute and delayed health effects in exposed subjects. These effects can range from simple irritation of the skin and eyes to more severe effects such as affecting the nervous system, the reproductive system and cancer. The molecular mechanisms underlying such effects are still under investigation. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression that occur without a change in the DNA sequence. Several epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNA expression, can be triggered by environmental factors. We review current evidences indicating that epigenetic modifications may mediate pesticide effects on human health. In vitro, animal, and human investigations have identified several classes of pesticides that modify epigenetic marks, including endocrine disruptors, persistent organic pollutants, arsenic, several herbicides and insecticides. Several investigations have examined the effects of environmental exposures and epigenetic markers, and identified toxicants that modify epigenetic states. These modifications are similar to the ones found in pathological tissue samples. In spite of the current limitations, available evidence supports the concept that epigenetics holds substantial potential for furthering our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of pesticides health effects, as well as for predicting health-related risks due to conditions of environmental exposure and individual susceptibility. PMID:23380243

Collotta, M; Bertazzi, P A; Bollati, V

2013-05-10

102

Transporte de agrotóxicos em lavoura de arroz irrigado sob três manejos de irrigação / Pesticide transport in rice field under three irrigation managements  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O cultivo de arroz irrigado no Rio Grande do Sul caracteriza-se pela permanência de lâmina de irrigação sobre o solo, o que ocasiona perdas de agrotóxicos na ocorrência de chuvas; portanto, o adequado manejo de irrigação pode influenciar na redução do transporte destes para o ambiente. O objetivo de [...] ste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes manejos de irrigação no extravasamento da água e no transporte e persistência de clomazone, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, trifloxystrobin e propiconazol em lavoura de arroz irrigado. Os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial consistiram nos manejos de irrigação por inundação contínua, intermitente e por banhos (fator A) e pelos agrotóxicos mencionados (fator B). Determinou-se o volume total de água extravasada e a taxa de dissipação e transporte desses agrotóxicos. Devido ao maior armazenamento de água da chuva, quando comparadas com a irrigação contínua, as irrigações intermitente e por banhos proporcionaram diminuição de 53 e 95% do volume de água perdida, resultando, respectivamente, em redução de 49 e 64% na massa total de agrotóxicos transportados para o ambiente, em relação ao total aplicado na lavoura. A massa de agrotóxico transportada não ultrapassou 3% do total aplicado, e as maiores concentrações de agrotóxicos em água ocorreram próximo à sua aplicação. Com base nesses resultados, salienta-se que os manejos de irrigação intermitente e por banhos minimizam o transporte de agrotóxicos para o ambiente. Abstract in english Rice crop in the state of Rio Grande do Sul is characterized by the presence of water layer on the soil, which can cause pesticide runoff during the occurrence of rainfall. Thus, proper irrigation management can reduce pesticide transport into the environment. The objective of this study was to eval [...] uate the effect of different irrigation managements on water runoff, transport and dissipation of clomazone, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, trifloxystrobin, and propiconazol. The treatments were arranged in a factorial scheme and consisted of continuous flooding, intermittent flooding, and flushing irrigation (factor A) and by the application of the pesticides listed above (factor B). Total water runoff, and pesticide transport and dissipation rate were evaluated. Due to the larger rainfall storage, compared with continuous flooding, intermittent flooding and flushing irrigation provided a reduction of 53 and 95% of water runoff, resulting, respectively, in a reduction of 49 and 64% of the total mass transported into the environment in relation to the total applied in the field. The pesticide mass transported was lower than 3% of the total amount applied. Based on these results, it could be concluded that intermittent flooding and flushing irrigation minimize pesticide transport into the environment.Since the highest pesticide concentrations occur close to application time, it is of fundamental importance to conduct proper irrigation management providing maximum permanence in the environment.

L.F.D., Martini; L.A., Avila; G.V., Cassol; R., Zanella; S.L.O., Machado; M.S., Marques; M., De Vicari.

2012-12-01

103

Desenvolvimento de métodos analíticos para determinação de agrotóxicos em sedimentos por cromatografia gasosa monodimensional e bidimensional abrangente com micro detector de captura de elétrons Development of analytical methods for pesticides in sediments by monodimensional and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro electron-capture detection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of analytical methods for determination of eight pesticides of different chemical classes (trichlorfon, propanil, fipronil, propiconazole, trifloxystrobin, permethrin, difenoconazole and azoxystrobin in sediments with gas chromatography-micro-electron capture detector (GC/µECD and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detector (GCxGC/µECD is described. These methods were applied to real sediment samples, and the best results were obtained using a 5% diphenyl-methylpolysiloxane column for 1D-GC. For GCxGC the same column was employed in the first dimension and a 50%-phenyl-methylpolysiloxane stationary phase was placed in the second dimension. Due to the superior peak capacity and selectivity of GCxGC, interfering matrix peaks were separated from analytes, showing a better performance of GCxGC.

Juliana Macedo da Silva

2010-01-01

104

Desenvolvimento de métodos analíticos para determinação de agrotóxicos em sedimentos por cromatografia gasosa monodimensional e bidimensional abrangente com micro detector de captura de elétrons / Development of analytical methods for pesticides in sediments by monodimensional and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro electron-capture detection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english The development of analytical methods for determination of eight pesticides of different chemical classes (trichlorfon, propanil, fipronil, propiconazole, trifloxystrobin, permethrin, difenoconazole and azoxystrobin) in sediments with gas chromatography-micro-electron capture detector (GC/µECD) and [...] comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detector (GCxGC/µECD) is described. These methods were applied to real sediment samples, and the best results were obtained using a 5% diphenyl-methylpolysiloxane column for 1D-GC. For GCxGC the same column was employed in the first dimension and a 50%-phenyl-methylpolysiloxane stationary phase was placed in the second dimension. Due to the superior peak capacity and selectivity of GCxGC, interfering matrix peaks were separated from analytes, showing a better performance of GCxGC.

Juliana Macedo da, Silva; Cláudia Alcaraz, Zini; Elina Bastos, Caramão; Ewelin Monica Paturi Navarro, Canizares; Karen Alam, Leal.

105

Reducing the impact of pesticides on biological control in Australian vineyards: pesticide mortality and fecundity effects on an indicator species, the predatory mite Euseius victoriensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Laboratory bioassays on detached soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., leaves were used to test 23 fungicides, five insecticides, two acaricides, one herbicide, and two adjuvants on a key Australian predatory mite species Euseius victoriensis (Womersley) in "worst-case scenario" direct overspray assays. Zero- to 48-h-old juveniles, their initial food, and water supply were sprayed to runoff with a Potter tower; spinosad and wettable sulfur residues also were tested. Tests were standardized to deliver a pesticide dose comparable with commercial application of highest label rates at 1,000 liter/ha. Cumulative mortality was assessed 48 h, 4 d, and 7 d after spraying. Fecundity was assessed for 7 d from start of oviposition. No significant mortality or fecundity effects were detected for the following compounds at single-use application at 1,000 liter/ha: azoxystrobin, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subsp. kurstaki, captan, chlorothalonil, copper hydroxide, fenarimol, glyphosate, hexaconazole, indoxacarb, metalaxyl/copper hydroxide, myclobutanil, nonyl phenol ethylene oxide, phosphorous acid, potassium bicarbonate, pyraclostrobin, quinoxyfen, spiroxamine, synthetic latex, tebufenozide, triadimenol, and trifloxystrobin. Iprodione and penconazole had some detrimental effect on fecundity. Canola oil as acaricide (2 liter/100 liter) and wettable sulfur (200 g/100 liter) had some detrimental effect on survival and fecundity and cyprodinil/fludioxonil on survivor. The following compounds were highly toxic (high 48-h mortality): benomyl, carbendazim, emamectin benzoate, mancozeb, spinosad (direct overspray and residue), wettable sulfur (> or = 400 g/100 liter), and pyrimethanil; pyrimethanil had no significant effect on fecundity of surviving females. Indoxacarb safety to E. victoriensis contrasts with its toxicity to key parasitoids and chrysopid predators. Potential impact of findings is discussed. PMID:21309226

Bernard, Martina B; Cole, Peter; Kobelt, Amanda; Horne, Paul A; Altmann, James; Wratten, Stephen D; Yen, Alan L

2010-12-01

106

76 FR 12877 - Fomesafen; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...simulation model, the Pesticide Root Zone Model/ Exposure...water models used in pesticide exposure assessment...vulnerable North Carolina soil using a soybean cropping...effects of a particular pesticide's residues and...fomesafen primarily impacts the parameters of...

2011-03-09

107

33 CFR 274.4 - Pesticide management.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Personnel actions. Pesticide duties will...following established health and safety practices and...restricted-use pesticides. (g) Exposure...protection from pesticide hazards. Basic health and safety practices and...

2010-07-01

108

Soil column leaching of pesticides.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this review, I address the practical and theoretical aspects of pesticide soil mobility.I also address the methods used to measure mobility, and the factors that influence it, and I summarize the data that have been published on the column leaching of pesticides.Pesticides that enter the unsaturated soil profile are transported downwards by the water flux, and are adsorbed, desorbed, and/or degraded as they pass through the soil. The rate of passage of a pesticide through the soil depends on the properties of the pesticide, the properties of the soil and the prevailing environmental conditions.Because large amounts of many different pesticides are used around the world, they and their degradates may sometimes contaminate groundwater at unacceptable levels.It is for this reason that assessing the transport behavior and soil mobility of pesticides before they are sold into commerce is important and is one indispensable element that regulators use to assess probable pesticide safety. Both elementary soil column leaching and sophisticated outdoor lysimeter studies are performed to measure the leaching potential for pesticides; the latter approach more reliably reflects probable field behavior, but the former is useful to initially profile a pesticide for soil mobility potential.Soil is physically heterogeneous. The structure of soil varies both vertically and laterally, and this variability affects the complex flow of water through the soil profile, making it difficult to predict with accuracy. In addition, macropores exist in soils and further add to the complexity of how water flow occurs. The degree to which soil is tilled, the density of vegetation on the surface, and the type and amounts of organic soil amendments that are added to soil further affect the movement rate of water through soil, the character of soil adsorption sites and the microbial populations that exist in the soil. Parameters that most influence the rate of pesticide mobility in soil are persistence (DT50) of the pesticide, and its sorption/desorption(Koc) characteristics. These parameters may vary for the same pesticide from geographic site-to-site and with soil depth. The interactions that normally occur between pesticides and dissolved organic matter (DOM) or WDC are yet other factors that may complicate pesticide leaching behavior.The soil mobility of pesticides is normally tested both in the laboratory and in the field. Lab studies are initially performed to give researchers a preliminary appraisal of the relative mobility of a pesticide. Later, field lysimeter studies can be performed to provide more natural leaching conditions that emulate the actual field use pattern. Lysimeter studies give the most reliable information on the leaching behavior of a pesticide under field conditions, but these studies are time-consuming and expensive and cannot be performed everywhere. It is for this reason that the laboratory soil column leaching approach is commonly utilized to profile the mobility of a pesticide,and appraise how it behaves in different soils, and relative to other pesticides.Because the soil structure is chemically and physically heterogenous, different pesticide tests may produce variable DT50 and Koc values; therefore, initial pesticide mobility testing is undertaken in homogeneously packed columns that contain two or more soils and are eluted at constant flow rates. Such studies are done in duplicate and utilize a conservative tracer element. By fitting an appropriate mathematical model to the breakthrough curve of the conservative tracer selected,researchers determine key mobility parameters, such as pore water velocity, the column-specific dispersion coefficient, and the contribution of non equilibrium transport processes. Such parameters form the basis for estimating the probable transport and degradation rates that will be characteristic of the tested pesticide. Researchers also examine how a pesticide interacts with soil DOM and WDC, and what contribution from facilitated transport to mobility is made as a result of the effects of

Katagi, Toshiyuki

2013-01-01

109

Pesticide exposure assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unintended, accidental, or unavoidable human exposures may result from pesticide use. Risk Characterization provides registrants, regulators, and the public a means to assess relative risks of pesticide use. Exposure Assessments are less standardized. Potential Dermal Exposure (PDE; mg/kg) is the amount of contact with the potential for dermal absorption (DA). Mixer/loader/applicator data developed using passive dosimetry and skin washing forms a Tier 1 Generic Database. If disqualifying estimates are obtained a more accurate estimate (Tier 2) may be developed from measurements of DA, clothing protection, and PDE under use conditions. Direct estimates of absorbed dose (Tier 3) require metabolic and kinetic data and biological monitoring. Harvesters and other persons who contact treated surfaces need reentry intervals to minimize acute and chronic exposure. Work tasks, dislodgeable foliar residue, and duration of exposure are the foundations for exposure-based, generic estimates of harvester PDE. PMID:8597123

Krieger, R I

1995-12-01

110

Radiation induced microbial pesticide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author)

111

Radiation induced microbial pesticide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author)

Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Sang Jae

2000-01-01

112

Curious about pesticide action.  

Science.gov (United States)

The safe and effective use of pesticides requires knowledge of their mode of action in pests and adverse effects in nontarget organisms coupled with an understanding of their metabolic activation and detoxification. The author and his laboratory colleagues were privileged to observe, participate in, and sometimes influence these developments for the past six decades. This review considers contributions of the Berkeley and Madison laboratories to understanding insecticides acting at voltage-gated sodium and GABA-gated chloride channels and the nicotinic receptor and at serine hydrolases and other targets as well as the action of insecticide synergists and selected herbicides and fungicides. Some of the discoveries gave new probes, radioligands, photoaffinity labeling reagents, and understanding of reactive intermediates that changed the course of pesticide investigations and related areas of science. The importance of coupling mode of action with metabolism and design with serendipity is illustrated with a wide variety of chemotypes. PMID:20698709

Casida, John E

2011-04-13

113

Pesticide residues in eagles  

Science.gov (United States)

Bald and golden eagles found sick or dead in 18 States and Canada during 1964-1965 were analyzed for pesticide residues. Residues in bald eagles were considerably higher than in golden eagles. Residues of DDE, DDD, and dieldrin were detected in all samples of bald eagle carcasses; other compounds found, less frequently were heptachlor epoxide, endrin, and DCBP, a metabolite of DDT. DDE was detected in all samples of golden eagle carcasses; DDD, DDT, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide were detected less frequently.

Reichel, W.L.; Cromartie, E.; Lamont, T.G.; Mulhern, B.M.; Prouty, R.M.

1969-01-01

114

Pesticides (Environmental Health Student Portal)  

Science.gov (United States)

... Lab (Johns Hopkins University Ecohealth) - An introduction to pesticides, their use by farmers, and their impact on crops, soil quality, beneficial organisms, ecosystems, and our health. Enviro- ...

115

76 FR 82238 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...  

Science.gov (United States)

...trifloxystrobin (benzeneacetic acid, (E,E)- [alpha...phenyl] ethylidene]amino]oxy]methyl]-methyl ester) and the free form of its acid metabolite CGA-321113...1-methylheptyl ((4-amino-3,5-dichloro-6-fluoro-2...grain at 0.02 ppm; rice and wild rice at...

2011-12-30

116

Validation and global uncertainty of a liquid chromatographic with diode array detection method for the screening of azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl, trifloxystrobin, famoxadone, pyraclostrobin and fenamidone in grapes and wine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl, trifloxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, famoxadone and fenamidone are permitted Q(o) Inhibitor (Q(o)I) fungicides applied to vine in some European countries for the treatment of downy and powdery mildews. In this work, a method is validated for the analysis of these fungicides in grapes and wine. This screening method consists in a simple one step liquid-liquid extraction followed by liquid chromatography (LC) fitted with a diode array detector (DAD). Limits of detection for grapes and wine were below 0.2 mg kg(-1) or mg l(-1), precision was not above 13%, and recoveries were, on average, 95+/-5% for grapes and 104+/-6% for wine. Global uncertainties evaluated in the concentration range from 0.25 to 2.50 mg l(-1) were below 20%. A confirmatory method by gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometry (MS) detection was used. PMID:17723536

de Melo Abreu, Susana; Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo; Garau, Vincenzo Luigi; Alves, Arminda

2006-07-28

117

Tag: pesticides | EurActiv  

... Study: Regulatory hurdles hinder use of green pesticides - 08 October 2008 - News The development of biological pest control agents is being held back by shortcomings in the current European regulatory system for pesticides, argues a UK study, which describes biopesticides as \\

118

Quality control of pesticide products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In light of an established need for more efficient analytical procedures, this publication, which documents the findings of an IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on “Quality Control of Pesticide Products”, simplifies the existing protocol for pesticide analysis while simultaneously upholding existing standards of quality. This publication includes both a report on the development work done in the CRP and a training manual for use by pesticide analysis laboratories. Based on peer reviewed and internationally recognized methods published by the Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC) and the Collaborative International Pesticides Analytical Council (CIPAC), this report provides laboratories with versatile tools to enhance the analysis of pesticide chemicals and to extend the scope of available analytical repertoires. Adoption of the proposed analytical methodologies promises to reduce laboratories’ use of solvents and the time spent on reconfiguration and set-up of analytical equipment

119

Sprinkler Irrigation-Pesticide Best Management Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The relative reduction in potential groundwater contamination due to pesticides at several sites in Utah was determined by comparing alternative irrigation system designs, water management practices, and pesticides. Alternative sprinkler irrigation distribution coefficients were used to estimate irrigation application depths. The movement of pesticides through soils following sprinkler irrigations was simulated with a one-dimensional model. Pesticide contamination of groundwater can be reduce...

Ranjha, A. Y.; Peralta, R. C.; Hill, R. W.; Requena, A. M.; Deer, H. M.; Ehteshami, M.

1991-01-01

120

77 FR 23713 - Pesticides; Final Guidance on Material Safety Data Sheets as Pesticide Labeling; Request for...  

Science.gov (United States)

...labels for pesticides registered...the Material Safety Data Sheet...Safety and Health Administration...part of the pesticide's labeling...accompany a pesticide product without...Occupational Safety and Health...

2012-04-20

 
 
 
 
121

Pesticide use and application: an Indian scenario.  

Science.gov (United States)

Agricultural development continues to remain the most important objective of Indian planning and policy. In the process of development of agriculture, pesticides have become an important tool as a plant protection agent for boosting food production. Further, pesticides play a significant role by keeping many dreadful diseases. However, exposure to pesticides both occupationally and environmentally causes a range of human health problems. It has been observed that the pesticides exposures are increasingly linked to immune suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities and cancer. Currently, India is the largest producer of pesticides in Asia and ranks twelfth in the world for the use of pesticides. A vast majority of the population in India is engaged in agriculture and is therefore exposed to the pesticides used in agriculture. Although Indian average consumption of pesticide is far lower than many other developed economies, the problem of pesticide residue is very high in India. Pesticide residue in several crops has also affected the export of agricultural commodities in the last few years. In this context, pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, proper application technologies, and integrated pest management are some of the key strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides. There is a dearth of studies related to these issues in India. Therefore, the thrust of this paper was to review the technology of application of pesticides in India and recommend future strategies for the rational use of pesticides and minimizing the problems related to health and environment. PMID:19081675

Abhilash, P C; Singh, Nandita

2009-06-15

122

Pesticide use and application: An Indian scenario  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Agricultural development continues to remain the most important objective of Indian planning and policy. In the process of development of agriculture, pesticides have become an important tool as a plant protection agent for boosting food production. Further, pesticides play a significant role by keeping many dreadful diseases. However, exposure to pesticides both occupationally and environmentally causes a range of human health problems. It has been observed that the pesticides exposures are increasingly linked to immune suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities and cancer. Currently, India is the largest producer of pesticides in Asia and ranks twelfth in the world for the use of pesticides. A vast majority of the population in India is engaged in agriculture and is therefore exposed to the pesticides used in agriculture. Although Indian average consumption of pesticide is far lower than many other developed economies, the problem of pesticide residue is very high in India. Pesticide residue in several crops has also affected the export of agricultural commodities in the last few years. In this context, pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, proper application technologies, and integrated pest management are some of the key strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides. There is a dearth of studies related to these issues in India. Therefore, the thrust of this paper was to review the technology of applicati was to review the technology of application of pesticides in India and recommend future strategies for the rational use of pesticides and minimizing the problems related to health and environment.

123

Analytical methods for detecting pesticide switches with evolution of pesticide resistance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

After a pest develops resistance to a pesticide, switching between different unrelated pesticides is a common management option, but this raises the following questions: (1) What is the optimal frequency of pesticide use? (2) How do the frequencies of pesticide applications affect the evolution of pesticide resistance? (3) How can the time when the pest population reaches the economic injury level (EIL) be estimated and (4) how can the most ef?cient frequency of pesticide applications be de...

Liang, Juhua; Tang, Sanyi; Nieto, Juan J.; Cheke, Robert A.

2013-01-01

124

Evaluation of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detection for the analysis of seven pesticides in sediment samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

A GC-?ECD and a GC×GC-?ECD method were developed for the analysis of pesticides in sediments. For 1D-GC, instrumental LOD and LOQ were found in the range from 0.60 to 2.31?gL(-1) and 1.83 to 5.62?gL(-1), respectively. For GC×GC method development two sets of columns were tested (DB-5/DB-17ms, and HP-50+/DB-1ms), and the best results were obtained with the set of columns DB-5/DB-17ms. Instrumental LOD and LOQ were found in the range from 0.08 to 1.07?gL(-1) and 0.25 to 3.23?gL(-1), respectively. The LOD for the GC×GC was about 36% lower than those obtained for the 1D-GC. Concentrations of 21.18?gkg(-1) through 1D-GC method and 3.34?gkg(-1) for GC×GC for trifloxystrobin were found in a sediment sample which was collected close to an area of rice plantation. PMID:21216402

da Silva, Juliana Macedo; Zini, Cláudia Alcaraz; Caramão, Elina Bastos

2011-05-27

125

Radiation induced pesticidal microbes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants.

Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, D. S

2001-01-01

126

Radiation induced pesticidal microbes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants

127

Pesticide movement and water management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Agricultural chemicals are essential components of agricultural production systems in the United states. Pesticides control weeds, insects, and have had an important role in increasing agricultural productivity in the last 50 years, despite diminishing crop land acreage. The benefits of chemicals use options in agriculture must be balanced against potential contamination of surface water and ground water resources. This study shows the effect of water management practices on pesticide movemen...

Ehteshami, M.; Peralta, R. C.

1989-01-01

128

Canadian pesticide air sampling campaign  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although pesticides are widely used in Canada, little is known about the presence, distribution, and fate of currently used pesticides (CUPs) in the Canadian atmosphere. This paper provided details of a campaign conducted in 2003 to provide information on air and precipitation levels of CUPs. The objective of the campaign was to create pesticide emission inventories and to identify important pesticide issues related to environmental fate, exposure, and risk assessment in order to develop effective pesticide policies. A Canadian atmospheric network for currently used pesticides was established, which was then followed by an intensive field study in the Canadian prairies. Air samples were collected weekly using high volume PS-1 samplers with polyurethane foam (PUF) XAD sandwiches and glass fibre filters. Precipitation samples were collected each month using MIC samplers equipped with XAD columns. Passive air samplers were deployed at many of the sites for periods of 1 to 3 months. Results of the study showed relatively high concentrations of endosulfan at all sites. High levels of chloropyrifos, malathion, and carbofurans were also detected from air samples. High concentrations of lindane were also observed. Alachlor, metochlor, and trifluralin concentrations were detected in most Ontario and Quebec air and rainfall samples. Eleven target pesticides were detected from air samples during the prairie study. High concentrations of triallate were observed, and good correlations between air concentration trends and dry deposition trends were seen for triallate, 2,4-D, MCPA, dicamba, and bromoxynil. Results of the campaign are now being modelled using a simplified gridded pesticide emission and residue model. 4 refs., 7 figs.

Yao, Y.; Harner, T.; Blanchard, P.; Li, Y.F.; Aulagnier, F. [Environment Canada, Gatineau, PQ (Canada). Meteorological Service of Canada; Tuduri, L. [Laboratoire de Physico Toxicochimie des Systemes Naturels, Talence (France). Equipe Perigourdine de Chimie Appliquee; Waite, D.; Belzer, W. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environmental Conservation Branch; Murphy, C. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environmental Protection Service

2005-07-01

129

40 CFR 170.230 - Pesticide safety training for handlers.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticide safety training for handlers. 170...Pesticide Handlers § 170.230 Pesticide safety training for handlers. ...certification or licensing is pesticide safety training that includes all...

2010-07-01

130

Pesticides' influence on wine fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wine quality strongly depends on the grape quality. To obtain high-quality wines, it is necessary to process healthy grapes at the correct ripeness stage and for this reason the farmer has to be especially careful in the prevention of parasite attacks on the grapevine. The most common fungal diseases affecting grape quality are downy and powdery mildew (Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator), and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea). On the other hand, the most dangerous insects are the grape moth (Lobesia botrana), vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus), and the citrus mealybug (Planococcus citri). Farmers fight grape diseases and insects applying pesticides that can be found at harvest time on grapes. The persistence of pesticides depends on the chemical characteristic of the active ingredients as well as on photodegradation, thermodegradation, codistillation, and enzymatic degradation. The pesticide residues on grapes can be transferred to the must and this can influence the selection and development of yeast strains. Moreover, yeasts can also influence the levels of the pesticides in the wine by reducing or adsorbing them on lees. During the fermentative process, yeasts can cause the disappearance of pesticide residues by degradation or absorption at the end of the fermentation when yeasts are deposited as lees. In this chapter, we reviewed the effect of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides on yeasts. We also studied the effect of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation on pesticide residues. PMID:20610173

Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo

2010-01-01

131

75 FR 60452 - Notice of Filing of Several Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Several Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...establishment of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...regulations in 40 CFR part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on...

2010-09-30

132

78 FR 1798 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...regulations in 40 CFR part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on...

2013-01-09

133

76 FR 3885 - Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...CFR part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on...

2011-01-21

134

76 FR 33183 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...CFR part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on...

2011-06-08

135

78 FR 6274 - Withdrawal of Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various Commodities  

Science.gov (United States)

...of Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...regulations in 40 CFR part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on...

2013-01-30

136

76 FR 2110 - Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...CFR part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on...

2011-01-12

137

78 FR 70906 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...regulations in 40 CFR part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on...

2013-11-27

138

76 FR 20667 - Notice of Withdrawal of Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...  

Science.gov (United States)

...of Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...regulations in 40 CFR part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on...

2011-04-13

139

Pesticides and the Third World.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many developing countries are importing industrial processes that make use of toxic chemicals. By the same token, pesticides, which are toxic by design, are also used increasingly in agriculture and in public health programs to control pests and vector-borne diseases. Recent estimates suggest that pesticides account for more than 20,000 fatalities yearly, and that most of these will have occurred in developing countries. This may actually be a gross underreporting. Although organophosphate and carbamate insecticides are still responsible for many of those poisoning cases, herbicides such as paraquat are also increasingly being implicated in fatal poisoning cases. Newer pesticides such as the synthetic derivatives of pyrethrin, which were believed to be relatively safe to humans, now appear to be implicated in some serious cases of intoxication. Community-based pest control using locally available botanical pesticides could have severe consequences unless the toxicity of these compounds is carefully assessed relative to nontarget organisms. A high proportion of pesticide intoxications appear to be due to lack of knowledge, unsafe attitudes, and dangerous practices. The technology available to small farmers for pesticide application is often inappropriate: faulty sprayers, lack of protective equipment adapted to tropical conditions, nonexistent first-aid provisions. Agricultural extension is often not oriented to the transfer of information relative to the dangers inherent in the use of pesticides. The lack of information at all levels may be one of the most important causative factors of chemical intoxication in developing countries. Research should at this time concentrate on behaviors leading to chemical intoxication. This should be done concurrently with proper prospective and retrospective surveys of poisonings in developing country communities. More information should be sought relative to the decision processes of import, legislation, and licensing. Research and development efforts in appropriate technology and safety devices are also critically needed. PMID:1987360

Forget, G

1991-01-01

140

Challenges in Regulating Pesticide Mixtures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper introduces the field of mixture toxicity and the challenges in regulating pesticide mixtures. Even though pesticides are unique chemical stressors designed to have biological activity that can affect a number of nontarget species, they are intentionally placed into the environment in large quantities. Currently, methods and terminology for evaluating mixture toxicity are poorly established. The most common approach used is the assumption of additive concentration, with the concentrations adjusted for potency to a reference toxicant. Using this approach, the joint action of pesticides that have similar chemical structures and modes of toxic action can be predicted. However, this approach and other modeling techniques often provide little insight into the observed toxicity produced by mixtures of pesticides from different classes. Particularly difficult to model are mixtures that involve a secondary toxicant that changes the toxicokinetics of a primary toxicant. This may result in increased activation or a change in the persistence of the primary toxicant within the organism and may be responsible for a several-fold increase or decrease in toxicity. At present, the ecological effects caused by mixtures of pesticides are given little consideration in the regulatory process. However, mixtures are being considered in relation to human health in the pesticide registration process, setting a precedent that could be followed for ecological protection. Additionally, pesticide mixtures may be regulated through toxicity testing of surface water under the Clean Water Act. The limits of our basic knowledge of how mixtures interact are compromising both these avenues for regulating mixtures. We face many challenges to adequately protecting the environment from mixture toxicity; these challenges include understanding the interactions of toxicants within an organism, identifying the mixtures that most commonly occur and cause adverse effects, and developing a regulatory structure capable of minimizing environmental impacts.

Debra Denton

2004-12-01

 
 
 
 
141

76 FR 82157 - Difenoconazole; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...www.epa.gov/pesticides/trac/science/trac6a05.pdf. 4. Cumulative effects from substances with a common mechanism...of pesticides. Although conazoles act similarly in plants (fungi) by inhibiting ergosterol biosynthesis, there is not...

2011-12-30

142

Effects of Urbanization on Water Quality: Pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

... A Teachers Contact Back to previous page The effects of urbanization on water quality: Pesticides Pesticides are chemical and ... in the United States home page. Related topics: Effects of urbanization Ground-water quality Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and ...

143

Effects of fertilizer and pesticide use  

Science.gov (United States)

When used properly, fertilizer and pesticide application can help protect crops and encourage their growth. However, fertilizers and pesticides can run off into bodies of water and contaminate water sources.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

2008-06-25

144

Nuclear applications for pesticide residue studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiotracer techniques offer a powerful tool in understanding the fate of pesticides in soil, plant or food and can be utilised to take suitable corrective procedures to minimise the environmental effects of pesticides. 9 refs

145

77 FR 18710 - Acetamiprid; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...pesticide's residues and ``other substances that have a common mechanism of toxicity.'' Acetamiprid is a member of the neonicotinoid class of pesticides which also includes thiamethoxam, clothianidin, imidacloprid and several other active...

2012-03-28

146

Pesticide risks around the home (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticides are substances which kill or deter unwanted pests, such as insects or rodents. These substances can ... avoid an accidental ingestion is to keep all pesticides out of the reach of children.

147

33 CFR 274.4 - Pesticide management.  

Science.gov (United States)

...include information presented in the “Pesticide Applicator Training Manual”, § 274.3(e) or (2) a B.S. degree in agronomy, entomology, forestry or horticulture from an accredited college or university. (e) Restricted-use pesticide...

2010-07-01

148

Organochlorine Pesticides in the Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

Each year for nearly 20 years, thousands of pounds of persistent organochlorine pesticides have been applied to outdoor areas in many countries. These compounds may last for a very long time in the environment, and be carried by wind, water, and animals to places far distant from where they are used. As a result, most living organisms now contain organochlorine residues. This paper constitutes a selective review of the literature concerning the occurrence, distribution, and effects of organochlorines in the environment. Highest concentrations generally occur in carnivorous species. Thus predatory and fish-eating birds ordinarily have higher residues than do herbivores; quantities are similar in birds of similar habits in different countries. Any segment of the ecosystem - marshland, pond, forest, or field - receives various amounts and kinds of pesticides at irregular intervals. The different animals absorb, detoxify, store, and excrete pesticides at different rates. Different degrees of magnification of pesticide residues by living organisms in an environment are the practical result of many interactions that are far more complex than implied by the statement of magnification up the food chain. These magnifications may be millions of times from water to mud or only a few times from food to first consumer. Direct mortality of wild animals as an aftermath of recommended pesticide treatments has been recorded in the literature of numerous countries. However, accidents and carelessness also accompany pesticide use on a percentage basis and are a part of the problem. More subtle effects on the size and species composition of populations are more difficult to perceive in time to effect remedies. The possibility of ecological effects being mediated through changes in physiology and behavior has received some attention and has resulted in some disquieting findings. These include discovery of the activity of organochlorines in stimulating the breakdown of hormones or in acting directly as estrogens, their involvement in embryonic and early post-embryonic toxicity, interferences with antibody formation, effects on behavior, and interactions with stress such as nutritional deficiencies or food deprivation. Delayed mortality long after dosage ceased has shown the serious effects of storage of organochlorines in fat. DDT has been suggested as the indirect cause of a reduction of egg-shell thickness that occurred in the midforties in association with failing reproduction and population decline of certain predatory birds. The impact of these new components of the environment has appeared as death, reproductive impairment, disruption of species balance, and behavioral alteration, but the overall effects on the environment have not been determined. Research should be aimed at interpretation of the significance of pesticide residues to survival and reproduction, to assessment of levels of pesticides in critical environments, and to the kinetics of pesticides in individuals and the ecosystem.

Stickel, L.F.

1968-01-01

149

Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occup...

Ming Ye; Jeremy Beach; Martin, Jonathan W.; Ambikaipakan Senthilselvan

2013-01-01

150

Pesticide regulations and farm worker safety: the need to improve pesticide regulations in Viet Nam  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Agricultural pesticide use in Viet Nam has more than tripled since 1990. However, pesticide legislation and regulations have not been developed in response to this large increase in usage, as a result of which pesticides pose a serious threat to human health and the environment. This paper identifies the need to improve pesticide regulations in Viet Nam through a comparative analysis of pesticide regulations in Viet Nam and the United States of America, where the rate of acute poisoning am...

Phung, Dung Tri; Connell, Des; Miller, Greg; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

2012-01-01

151

75 FR 66084 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Pesticide...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency...Title: Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program...by the Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program...pesticides through use of integrated pest management (IPM). IPM...

2010-10-27

152

Pesticide Residues in Food: Your Daily Dose.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extensive use of pesticides during food production has created concerns for certain involuntary risks. Examines these concerns: government role in control and monitoring pesticide use, proposals for reform, and how consumer awareness might be an effective pressure for finding remedies. A table listing produce and pesticide residues is included.…

Mott, Lawrie

1985-01-01

153

Pesticides: Food and environmental implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pesticides are an integral part of modern agriculture, also in most developing countries. Although the annual average consumption of active ingredients in agriculture may be below 0.1 kg a.i./ha, most countries now consume more than 2 kg a.i./ha; some of the intensively cropped regions in South-East Asia are exposed to even higher amounts. Inherent contamination of the environment follows if rules and regulations are not strictly adhered to. The search for safer, less persistent and more specific pesticides and examination of the fate of applied pesticides in various regions of the world were the main themes of the symposium. Special emphasis was placed on the use of nuclear techniques, especially on labelled compounds in research. The Proceedings include all the papers and posters that were presented. Refs, figs and tabs

154

Pesticide bioconcentration modelling for fruit trees.  

Science.gov (United States)

The model presented allows simulating the pesticide concentration evolution in fruit trees and estimating the pesticide bioconcentration factor in fruits. Pesticides are non-ionic organic compounds that are degraded in soils cropped with woody species, fruit trees and other perennials. The model allows estimating the pesticide uptake by plants through the water transpiration stream and also the time in which maximum pesticide concentration occur in the fruits. The equation proposed presents the relationships between bioconcentration factor (BCF) and the following variables: plant water transpiration volume (Q), pesticide transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF), pesticide stem-water partition coefficient (K(Wood,W)), stem dry biomass (M) and pesticide dissipation rate in the soil-plant system (k(EGS)). The modeling started and was developed from a previous model "Fruit Tree Model" (FTM), reported by Trapp and collaborators in 2003, to which was added the hypothesis that the pesticide degradation in the soil follows a first order kinetic equation. The FTM model for pesticides (FTM-p) was applied to a hypothetic mango plant cropping (Mangifera indica) treated with paclobutrazol (growth regulator) added to the soil. The model fitness was evaluated through the sensitivity analysis of the pesticide BCF values in fruits with respect to the model entry data variability. PMID:17092536

Paraíba, Lourival Costa

2007-01-01

155

ABIOTIC HYDROLYSIS OF SORBED PESTICIDES  

Science.gov (United States)

The hydrolysis of pesticides that are sorbed to sterilized natural sediments has been investigated in aqueous systems at acid, neutral and alkaline pH's. The results show that the rate constants of pH independent ('neutral') hydrolyses are the same within experimental uncertainti...

156

COMMUNICATING THE RISKS OF PESTICIDE EXPOSURE TO AGRICULTURAL WORKERS  

Science.gov (United States)

The goals of the USEPA pesticide worker safety program are to protect human health and the environment by ensuring the competency of pesticide applicators to minimize pesticide exposure to occupational pesticide users and agricultural field workers, to assure use of pesticides, a...

157

The use and disposal of household pesticides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most pesticides are synthetic chemicals manufactured specifically for their toxic properties to the target species, and widely used globally. Several epidemiological studies in the United States have suggested health concerns arising from the chronic exposure of young children to pesticides in the domestic environment. In the UK very little is currently known about how nonoccupational pesticides are being used or disposed of. Any use of pesticides is a potential risk factor for children's exposure, and any potential exposure is likely to be reduced by the parents' adopting precautionary behaviour when using these pesticide products. This was investigated using a sample of 147 parents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort in and around Bristol, through an in-depth interview between August and November 2001. The results of this study add to the understanding of the underlying behaviour of parents applying pesticide products in the home environment in the UK. Pesticides are readily available, and are normally purchased in do-it-yourself shops and supermarkets and mostly disposed of in domestic waste. Safety was stated by 45% of parents to be the most important factor to consider when buying a pesticide. When buying pesticide products, labels were stated to be the most important source of information about pesticides. However, a third of parents stated they would not follow the product label exactly when using a product, just under half felt labeusing a product, just under half felt labels were both inadequate and hard to understand, and about 10% of parents would not take notice of warnings on the pesticide label. Less than half of parents would use gloves when applying a pesticide, although the use of protective equipment such as gloves during the application of pesticides could greatly reduce the exposure. It is a public health concern that the instructions on the labels of products may not always be understood or followed, and further understanding of user behaviour is needed

158

Lifetime Pesticide Use and Telomere Shortening among Male Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Telomere length (TL) in surrogate tissues may be influenced by environmental exposures. Objective: We aimed to determine whether lifetime pesticides use is associated with buccal cell TL. Methods: We examined buccal cell TL in relation to lifetime use of 48 pesticides for 1,234 cancer-free white male pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of 57,310 licensed pesticide applicators. Participants provided detailed information on lifeti...

Hou, Lifang; Andreotti, Gabriella; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Savage, Sharon; Hoppin, Jane A.; Sandler, Dale P.; Barker, Joseph; Zhu, Zhong-zheng; Hoxha, Mirjam; Dioni, Laura; Zhang, Xiao; Koutros, Stella; Freeman, Laura E. Beane; Alavanja, Michael C.

2013-01-01

159

Pattern of pesticide storage before pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Deliberate self-poisoning with agricultural pesticides is the commonest means of suicide in rural Asia. It is mostly impulsive and facilitated by easy access to pesticides. The aim of this large observational study was to investigate the immediate source of pesticides used for self-harm to help inform suicide prevention strategies such as reducing domestic access to pesticides. Methods The study was conducted in a district hospital serving an...

Eddleston Michael; Azher Shifa; Gunnell David; Manuweera Gamini; Mohamed Fahim; Dawson Andrew; Konradsen Flemming

2009-01-01

160

Managing Pesticide Risks for Non-Target Ecosystems with Pesticide Risk Indicators: a Multicriteria Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the search for effective pesticide risk management tools, the design of pesticide risk indicators is nowadays receiving increasing attention as a complement to more established regulatory strategies. In the present paper, we apply some recently developed pesticide risk indices and test their potential for management purposes. A pilot approach is proposed, which explores pesticide worst-case hazard scenarios at different space-time scales by means of a set of 5 ecotoxicological risk indices...

Travisi, Chiara Maria; Nijkamp, Peter; Vighi, Marco; Giacomelli, Paolo

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

40 CFR 170.230 - Pesticide safety training for handlers.  

Science.gov (United States)

...4) The pesticide safety training materials...information contained on pesticide labels and in labeling, including safety information such as...statements about human health hazards. (ii) Hazards of pesticides resulting from...

2010-07-01

162

77 FR 76979 - Pesticides; Revisions to Minimum Risk Exemption  

Science.gov (United States)

...2070-AJ79 Pesticides; Revisions to Minimum Risk Exemption AGENCY: Environmental...for the exemption from regulation for minimum risk pesticides. EPA is proposing to...inspectors which ingredients are permitted in minimum risk pesticide products. EPA is...

2012-12-31

163

40 CFR 170.135 - Posted pesticide safety information.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Posted pesticide safety information. 170.135 ...Workers § 170.135 Posted pesticide safety information. (a) Requirement...accordance with this section, pesticide safety information. (b)...

2010-07-01

164

42 CFR 84.1156 - Pesticide respirators; performance requirements; general.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-10-01 false Pesticide respirators; performance...HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED... Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying...Gas Masks § 84.1156 Pesticide respirators;...

2010-10-01

165

40 CFR 170.235 - Posted pesticide safety information.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Posted pesticide safety information. 170.235 ...Handlers § 170.235 Posted pesticide safety information. (a) Requirement...accordance with this section, pesticide safety information. (b)...

2010-07-01

166

40 CFR 170.130 - Pesticide safety training for workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticide safety training for workers. 170...for Workers § 170.130 Pesticide safety training for workers. ...worker has been provided the pesticide safety information specified...

2010-07-01

167

Chiral pesticides: identification, description, and environmental implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Of the 1,693 pesticides considered in this review, 1,594 are organic chemicals, 47 are inorganic chemicals, 53 are of biological origin (largely non chemical; insect,fungus, bacteria, virus, etc.), and 2 have an undetermined structure. Considering that the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs found 1,252 pesticide active ingredients(EPA Pesticides Customer Service 2011), we consider this dataset to be comprehensive; however, no direct comparison of the compound lists was undertaken. Of all pesticides reviewed, 482 (28%) are chiral; 30% are chiral when considering only the organic chemical pesticides. A graph of this distribution is shown in Fig. 7a. Each pesticide is classified with up to three pesticidal utilities (e.g., fungicide, plant growth regulator, rodenticide, etc.), taken first from the Pesticide Manual as a primary source, and the Compendium of Common Pesticide Names website as a secondary source. Of the chiral pesticides, 195 (34%) are insecticides (including attractants, pheromones, and repellents), 150 (27%) are herbicides (including plant growth regulators and herbicide safeners), 104 (18%) are fungicides, and 55 (10%)are acaricides. The distribution of chiral pesticides by utility is shown in Fig. 7b,including categories of pesticides that make up 3%t or less of the usage categories.Figure 7c shows a similar distribution of non chiral pesticide usage categories. Of the chiral pesticides, 270 (56%) have one chiral feature, 105 (22%) have two chiral features, 30 (6.2%) have three chiral features, and 29 (6.0%) have ten or more chiral features.Chiral chemicals pose many difficulties in stereospecific synthesis, characterization, and analysis. When these compounds are purposely put into the environment,even more interesting complications arise in tracking, monitoring, and predicting their fate and risks. More than 475 pesticides are chiral, as are other chiral contaminants such as pharmaceuticals, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, synthetic musks, and their degradates (Kallenborn and Hiihnerfuss 2001;Heeb et al. 2007; Hihnerfuss and Shah 2009). The stereoisomers of pesticides can have widely different efficacy, toxicity to nontarget organisms, and metabolic rates in biota. For these reasons, it is important to first be aware of likely fate and effect differences, to incorporate molecular asymmetry insights into research projects, and to study the individual stereoisomers of the applied pesticide material.With the advent of enantioselective chromatography techniques, the chirality of pesticides has been increasingly studied. While the ChirBase (Advanced ChemistryDevelopment 1997-2010) database does not include all published chiral analytical separations, it does contain more than 3,500 records for 146 of the 482 chiral pesticides (30%). The majority of the records are found in the liquid chromatography database (2,677 or 76%), followed by the gas chromatography database (652 or 18%),and the capillary electrophoresis database (203 or 6%). The finding that only 30% of the chiral pesticides covered in this review have entries in ChirBase highlights the need for expanded efforts to develop additional enantioselective chromatographic methods. Other techniques (e.g., nuclear magnetic resonance and other spectroscopy)are available for investigation of chiral compounds, but often are not utilized because of cost, complexity, or simply not recognizing that a pesticide is chiral.In this review, we have listed and have briefly described the general nature of chiral fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, and other miscellaneous classes. A data-set generated for this review contains 1,693 pesticides, the number of enantioselective separation records in ChirBase, pesticide usage class, SMILES structure string and counts of stereogenic centers. This dataset is publically available for download at the following website: http://www.epa.gov/heasd/products/products.html. With the information herein coupled to the publically accessible dataset, we can begin to develop the tools to handle molecular asymmetry as

Ulrich, Elin M; Morrison, Candice N; Goldsmith, Michael R; Foreman, William T

2012-01-01

168

Pesticides in groundwater - two examples from Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To produce cash crops, pesticides are needed to a much higher degree in the tropics than in the temperate zones. When this need to use pesticides is coupled with low education among the users it's a perfect basis for environmental problems. However, the highest risk of pesticide contamination of water resources, including groundwater, is often not the direct use in agricultural fields, but point sources and "old sins". An additional problem is that substances that have been phased out in indu...

Kylin, Henrik; Meinhardt, Ralph; Kishimba, Michael; Bouwman, Henk

2005-01-01

169

Biomarkers of human exposure to pesticides.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For centuries, several hundred pesticides have been used to control insects. These pesticides differ greatly in their mode of action, uptake by the body, metabolism, elimination from the body, and toxicity to humans. Potential exposure from the environment can be estimated by environmental monitoring. Actual exposure (uptake) is measured by the biological monitoring of human tissues and body fluids. Biomarkers are used to detect the effects of pesticides before adverse clinical health effects...

Anwar, W. A.

1997-01-01

170

Determination of Pesticide Residues in Cannabis Smoke  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study was conducted in order to quantify to what extent cannabis consumers may be exposed to pesticide and other chemical residues through inhaled mainstream cannabis smoke. Three different smoking devices were evaluated in order to provide a generalized data set representative of pesticide exposures possible for medical cannabis users. Three different pesticides, bifenthrin, diazinon, and permethrin, along with the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol, which are readily available...

Nicholas Sullivan; Sytze Elzinga; Raber, Jeffrey C.

2013-01-01

171

Vulnerability assessments of pesticide leaching to groundwater  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pesticides may have adverse environmental effects if they are transported to groundwater and surface waters. The vulnerability of water resources to contamination of pesticides must therefore be evaluated. Different stakeholders, with different objectives and requirements, are interested in such vulnerability assessments. Various assessment methods have been developed in the past. For example, the vulnerability of groundwater to pesticide leaching may be evaluated by indices and overlay-based...

Stenemo, Fredrik

2007-01-01

172

Neonatal outcome following exposure to organophosphorous pesticides  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of our study was to determine the neonatal outcome in mothers and children exposed to organophosphorous pesticides (OP). We found that 22.4% pregnant women were exposed to organophosphorous pesticides. OP pesticide concentration was higher in breast milk, newborn sera than maternal sera. Newborn parameters such as birth weight, birth length, head circumference, Apgar score and presence of meconium, as well as gestational age of delivery, showed no significant difference between the tw...

?or?evi? M.; Vuji? Ana; Jovanovi? B; ?or?evi? Gordana; Sazdanovi? Maja; Sazdanovi? P.

2010-01-01

173

The enzymatic basis for pesticide bioremediation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Enzymes are central to the biology of many pesticides, influencing their modes of action, environmental fates and mechanisms of target species resistance. Since the introduction of synthetic xenobiotic pesticides, enzymes responsible for pesticide turnover have evolved rapidly, in both the target organisms and incidentally exposed biota. Such enzymes are a source of significant biotechnological potential and form the basis of several bioremediation strategies intended to reduce the environmen...

Scott, Colin; Pandey, Gunjan; Hartley, Carol J.; Jackson, Colin J.; Cheesman, Matthew J.; Taylor, Matthew C.; Pandey, Rinku; Khurana, Jeevan L.; Teese, Mark; Coppin, Chris W.; Weir, Kahli M.; Jain, Rakesh K.; Lal, Rup; Russell, Robyn J.; Oakeshott, John G.

2008-01-01

174

Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air). For several yea...

Benoit Roig; Olivier Thomas; Aghleb Bartegi; Wissem Mnif; Aicha Bouaziz; Aziza Ibn Hadj Hassine

2011-01-01

175

Monitoring of pesticides in human milk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After establishing proper analytical methodology for multiple pesticide residues, cotton-growing areas of Multan Division of Pakistan were surveyed and 40 samples of human milk from cotton pickers were collected during two crop seasons. Screening of these samples showed 72.5% contamination with 19 different pesticides/metabolites. The most frequently occurring pesticides were DDT and its metabolites, dimethoate, cyhalothrin, monocrotophos, profenofos and quinalphos. (author)

176

Analytical methods for detecting pesticide switches with evolution of pesticide resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

After a pest develops resistance to a pesticide, switching between different unrelated pesticides is a common management option, but this raises the following questions: (1) What is the optimal frequency of pesticide use? (2) How do the frequencies of pesticide applications affect the evolution of pesticide resistance? (3) How can the time when the pest population reaches the economic injury level (EIL) be estimated and (4) how can the most efficient frequency of pesticide applications be determined? To address these questions, we have developed a novel pest population growth model incorporating the evolution of pesticide resistance and pulse spraying of pesticides. Moreover, three pesticide switching methods, threshold condition-guided, density-guided and EIL-guided, are modelled, to determine the best choice under different conditions with the overall aim of eradicating the pest or maintaining its population density below the EIL. Furthermore, the pest control outcomes based on those three pesticide switching methods are discussed. Our results suggest that either the density-guided or EIL-guided method is the optimal pesticide switching strategy, depending on the frequency (or period) of pesticide applications. PMID:23891583

Liang, Juhua; Tang, Sanyi; Nieto, Juan J; Cheke, Robert A

2013-10-01

177

Proper pesticide use [videorecording] : monitoring the impact of pesticides with nuclear techniques.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food safety experts from the IAEA are conducting research using nuclear techniques to evaluate the impact of pesticide use on the environment, in food products and surface waters. The project aims to improve agricultural management practices, raise awareness on pesticide monitoring and ultimately develop a simple, "rapid-alert" test for measuring potential contamination from pesticides.

178

77 FR 59577 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...  

Science.gov (United States)

...FRL-9364-3] Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...July 25, 2012, concerning Pesticide Petition (PP) 2F8026...establish tolerances for residues of the herbicide...

2012-09-28

179

77 FR 15012 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...  

Science.gov (United States)

...311). [emsp14]Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS...listed at the end of the pesticide petition summary of...adverse human health impacts or environmental effects from exposure to the pesticides discussed in this document...cottonseed, apples, soil, and oranges...

2012-03-14

180

Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. Better control of pesticide uses and enforcement of safety behaviors, such as using personal protection equipment (PPE in the workplace, are critical for reducing the risk of developing pesticide-related symptoms and diseases. Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting.

Ming Ye

2013-11-01

 
 
 
 
181

Residential exposures to pesticides and childhood leukaemia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Like many chemicals, carcinogenicity of pesticides is poorly characterised in humans, especially in children, so that the present knowledge about childhood leukaemia risk derives primarily from epidemiological studies. Overall, case-control studies published in the last decade have reported positive associations with home use of insecticides, mostly before the child's birth, while findings for herbicides are mixed. Previous studies relied solely on self-reports, therefore lacking information on active ingredients and effects of potential recall bias. Few series to date have examined the influence of children's genetic susceptibility related to transport and metabolism of pesticides. To overcome these limitations, investigators of the Northern California Childhood Leukaemia Study (NCCLS) have undertaken, in collaboration with a multidisciplinary team, a comprehensive assessment of residential pesticide exposure, including: (1) quality control of self-reports; (2) home pesticide inventory and linkage to the Environmental Protection Agency to obtain data on active ingredients; (3) collection and laboratory analyses of ?600 home dust samples for over 60 pesticides and (4) geographic information studies using California environmental databases to assess exposure to agricultural pesticides. The NCCLS is also conducting large-scale geno-typing to evaluate the role of genes in xenobiotic pathways relevant to the transport and metabolism of pesticides. A better quantificatiosm of pesticides. A better quantification of children's exposures to pesticides at home is critical to the evaluation of childhood leukaemia risk, especially for future gene-environment interaction studies. (authors)

182

Pesticide degradation in a 'biobed' composting substrate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticides play an important role in the success of modern farming and food production. However, the release of pesticides to the environment arising from non-approved use, poor practice, illegal operations or misuse is increasingly recognised as contributing to water contamination. Biobeds appear to offer a cost-effective method for treating pesticide-contaminated waste. This study was performed to determine whether biobeds can degrade relatively complex pesticide mixtures when applied repeatedly. A pesticide mixture containing isoproturon, pendimethalin, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, epoxiconazole and dimethoate was incubated in biomix and topsoil at concentrations to simulate pesticide disposal. Although the data suggest that interactions between pesticides are possible, the effects were of less significance in biomix than in topsoil. The same mixture was applied on three occasions at 30-day intervals. Degradation was significantly quicker in biomix than in topsoil. The rate of degradation, however, decreased with each additional treatment, possibly due to the toxicity of the pesticide mixture to the microbial community. Incubations with chlorothalonil and pendimethalin carried out in sterile and non-sterile biomix indicated that degradation, rather than irreversible adsorption to the matrix, was the main mechanism responsible for the reduction in recovered residues. Results from these experiments suggest that biobeds offer a viable means of treating pesticide waste. PMID:12741520

Fogg, Paul; Boxall, Alistair B A; Walker, Allan; Jukes, Andrew A

2003-05-01

183

Sorption of pesticides to aquifer minerals  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper summarizes results from a work were the sorption of five pesticides on seven minerals were studied in order to quantify the adsorption to different mineral surfaces. Investigated mineral phases are: quartz, calcite, kaolinite, a-alumina, and three iron oxides (2-line ferrihydrite, goethite, lepidocrocite). Selected pesticides are: atrazine, isoproturon, mecoprop, 2,4-D, and bentazone. The results demonstrate that pesticides adsorb to pure mineral surfaces. However, the size of the adsorption depends on the type of pesticide and the type of mineral.

Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

2000-01-01

184

Agricultural pesticide use in California: pesticide prioritization, use densities, and population distributions for a childhood cancer study.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several studies have suggested an association between childhood cancer and pesticide exposure. California leads the nation in agricultural pesticide use. A mandatory reporting system for all agricultural pesticide use in the state provides information on the active ingredient, amount used, and location. We calculated pesticide use density to quantify agricultural pesticide use in California block groups for a childhood cancer study. Pesticides with similar toxicologic properties (probable car...

Gunier, R. B.; Harnly, M. E.; Reynolds, P.; Hertz, A.; Von Behren, J.

2001-01-01

185

Global pesticide consumption and pollution: with China as a focus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Varieties and consumption of pesticides worldwide have been increasing dramatically as increased human population and crop production. In this process pesticide misuses become more and more serious, which has resulted in heavy environmental pollution and health risk of humans. In order to safeguard human health, threatened species and ecosystems from pesticide pollution, the consumption and pollution of pesticides worldwide especially China were reviewed and documented in present study. Meanwhile, the development trend of pesticide varieties and consumption was also prospected and discussed. It was found that worldwide consumption structure of pesticides has undergone significant changes since 1960s. The proportion of herbicides in pesticide consumption increased rapidly and the consumption of insecticides and fungicides/bactericides declined. China has become the largest pesticide producer and exporter in the world. Pesticide pollution of air, water bodies and soils, and pesticide-induced deaths in China has been serious in past years. Bio-pesticides should be further developed in the future.

WenJun Zhang

2011-08-01

186

PESTICIDES: THEIR IMPACT ON THE ESTUARINE ENVIRONMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

Published research factors influencing the use of pesticides are discussed. One section reviews recent research on the effects of new pesticides that include insect growth regulators, including Permethrin(R), Altosid(R), and Dimilin(R). In life-cycle toxicity tests with the mysid...

187

Neurobehavioural and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective and neurodevelopmental outcomes amongst occupational (both adolescent and adult workers) and non-occupational populations (children). The symposium discussion highlighted many challenges for researche...

London, Leslie; Beseler, Cheryl; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Bellinger, David C.; Colosio, Claudio; Grandjean, Philippe; Harari, Raul; Kootbodien, Tahira; Kromhout, Hans; Little, Francesca; Meijster, Tim; Moretto, Angelo; Rohlman, Diane S.; Stallones, Lorann

2012-01-01

188

Studies on Potential Pesticides Part-XII  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fifteen N/sup 1/-(4-NitrophenoxyacetylN/sup 4/-aryl/cryclohexyl-3-thiosemicarbazide, eleven 3-(4-Nitrophenoxymethyl-4-aryl/cyclohexyl-5-mercapto1,2,4-triazoles and four 2-Arylamino-5-(4-Nitrophenoxymethyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives were prepared and tested for their pesticidal properties. All compounds exhibited significant pesticidal activity.

Anil K. Sen

2014-03-01

189

75 FR 4279 - Pendimethalin; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...htm. Based on the Pesticide Root Zone Model/Exposure...the tight sorption to soil, pendimethalin is not...hand-to-mouth, and soil ingestion, for children...effects of a particular pesticide's residues and...conducted to evaluate the impact of pendimethalin...

2010-01-27

190

Carbamate pesticide induced toxic epidermal necrolysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 36-year-old male alleged to have consumed carbamate pesticide liquid (Baygon@ developed toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN within twenty-four hours of intake. Though drugs have been commonly incriminated as offending agents for TEN, carbamate pesticide was found to be the causative agent in our case.

Rajendran N

2001-09-01

191

Carbamate pesticide induced toxic epidermal necrolysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A 36-year-old male alleged to have consumed carbamate pesticide liquid (Baygon@) developed toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) within twenty-four hours of intake. Though drugs have been commonly incriminated as offending agents for TEN, carbamate pesticide was found to be the causative agent in our case.

Rajendran N.; Chitfambalam P; Jayaraman A.

2001-01-01

192

NATIONAL PESTICIDE INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (NPIRS)  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Pesticide Information Retrieval System (NPIRS) is a collection of pesticide-related databases available through subscription to the Center for Environmental and Regulatory Information Systems, CERIS. The following is a summary of data found in the databases, data sou...

193

Investigation of pesticide degradation in surface waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The degradation of organophosphorus and thiocarbamate pesticides was investigated using isotope tracer methods. The hydrolysis (degradation) of ester-type pesticides was studied by radiometric enzyme inhibition method in aqueous medium with 14C as tracer. The hydrolysis of S-ethyl-N,N-dipropylthiocarbamate prerequired the oxidation of the parent compound. (Sz.J.)

194

Using Pesticides Safely. Special Circular 296.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of pesticides is necessary to aid in the production of food, feed and fiber, and is equally important in the control of home garden and household pests, but correct use is critical in preventing injury to persons, animals, and plants. This circular contains information on State of Pennsylvania and federal pesticide laws; different types of…

Hock, W. K.

195

THE EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES IN WATER RESOURCES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Environmental pollution is concerned problem all around world due to rapid increase of industrialization and urbanization. Especially, the intensive pesticide use has caused some environmental problems in many countries. The major problem occurred in water resources. Therefore, these resources need to be protected from the contamination of pesticides for future sustainable use.

CUMHUR AYDINALP

2004-07-01

196

Biosensors for Pesticide Detection: New Trends  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the large amounts of pesticides commonly used and their impact on health, prompt and accurate pesticide analysis is important. This review gives an overview of recent advances and new trends in biosensors for pesticide detection. Optical, electrochemical and piezoelectric biosensors have been reported based on the detection method. In this review biosensors have been classified according to the immobilized biorecognition element: enzymes, cells, antibodies and, more rarely, DNA. The use of tailor-designed biomolecules, such as aptamers and molecularly imprinted polymers, is reviewed. Artificial Neural Networks, that allow the analysis of pesticide mixtures are also presented. Recent advances in the field of nanomaterials merit special mention. The incorporation of nanomaterials provides highly sensitive sensing devices allowing the efficient detection of pesticides.

Jean-Louis Marty

2012-03-01

197

Toxicity of pesticides on photosynthesis of diatoms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pakistan being an agricultural country, a large amount of pesticides are used, including organophosphates and synthetic pyrethroids. These pesticides are released through rivers and other tributeries into the coastal environment, thus posing a contiguous threat to marine organisms. In the present study two species of diatoms Amphora and Navicula were selected for the assessment of impact of organ phosphate and pyrethroid toxicity on these primary producers. The study shows that rate of photosynthesis was inhibited in both Amphora and Navicula species exposed to pesticide. The acute toxicity of pesticide was determined by measuring IC50 of the test organisms. IC50 calculated for diatom species depicts that different pesticides had variable effects on the photosynthesis of microalgae. High sensitivity of marine organisms is alarming as it may have implications on the marine ecosystem and fisheries. The results are also useful in setting control limits for the release of these chemicals in nature. (author)

198

Agricultural pesticides and biocides - OECD  

... such as disinfectants, wood preservatives and rodenticides. The OECD Biocide Programme aims to attain a harmonised approach in the regulation of biocides. OECD Strategic Approach to Pesticide Risk Reduction Countries list A-C D-I J-M N-R S-T U-Z Afghanistan Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China (Peoplersquo;s Republic ...

199

Losses of pesticides from agriculture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Leaching of the phenoxy acid herbicides dichlorprop, 2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)propionic acid, and MCPA, (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid, through natural field soils with drainage water was examined after spraying two soil types (sand and clay) in late autumn and early summer. Phenoxy acids were detected in drainage water after all four spray treatments. The highest concentrations (15 to 23 ?g/L) were found in drainage water from the sandy soil when sprayed under unfavourable conditions for microbial degradation. Despite more favourable conditions for degradation during the summer, small amounts of phenoxy acids were also detected in drainage water shortly after spraying (4 to 9 days); from the clay soil, dichlorprop was detectable for 2 weeks. Between June 1985 and September 1987 a total of 258 water samples were taken in streams from May to September and analysed for 90 pesticides. Seventeen compounds were identified, including ten herbicides, two fungicides and five insecticides. The most frequently found pesticides were the phenoxy acids dichlorprop and MCPA, with the highest concentrations at the time of spraying (May to June), but detectable amounts were still found in the off-spraying season. Throughout the 3 years, positive samples of one or several compounds of phenoxy acids occurred in 37% of the water samples taken in May, 78% in June, 57% in July, 24% in August and 18% in September. The maximum measured concentration of total content of phenoxy acids iation of total content of phenoxy acids in one single stream was 25 ?g/L in June 1985. Along with the phenoxy acids, the herbicide atrazine was found in some streams over the whole sampling season. In watersheds where only smaller parts of the area are devoted to agricultural production, no pesticides were found, or only small amounts were detected on single occasions. These investigations indicate that under certain conditions pesticide residues arising from normal agricultural use may contribute to diffuse (non-point) pollution of the aquatic environment. (author). 27 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

200

76 FR 69692 - Withdrawal of a Pesticide Petition for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various Commodities  

Science.gov (United States)

...of a Pesticide Petition for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...CFR part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on...

2011-11-09

 
 
 
 
201

PESTLCI – A PESTICIDE DISTRIBUTION MODEL FOR LCA  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the presented work is to develop a model for distribution of pesticides into the environment following application to the field. Based on input of required substance characteristics and applied quantities for the pesticides, the model will estimate the emissions to the air, water, soil and groundwater compartments for use in life cycle inventory analysis of agricultural product systems. The model is called PESTLCI and it builds on an already existing model by Hauschild, 2000 /2/ to which a number of amendments are introduced inspired by existing work on hazard and risk characterisation and assessment of pesticide applications. The report therefore starts with a review of the work reported by the CAPER project as described in / / in order to locate new methods amenable for: 1. Handling of pesticide screening in LCA 2. Distribution modelling of pesticides in LCA 3. Evaluation of human exposure in LCA Following the review of existing methods, a number of modifications and new modules are developed and integrated into the existing method for pesticide distribution modelling to arrive at PESTLCI. Finally, PESTLCI is tested on three pesticide applications and the results compared to the results obtained with the old model. PESTLCI is available as a Excel© spreadsheet (Danish Xp version) model.

Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

2003-01-01

202

Chlorination of organophosphorus pesticides in natural waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Unknown second-order rate constants for the reactions of three organophosphorus pesticides (chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon) with chlorine were determined in the present study, and the influence of pH and temperature was established. It was found that an increase in the pH provides a negative effect on the pesticides degradation rates. Apparent second-order rate constants at 20 oC and pH 7 were determined to be 110.9, 0.004 and 191.6 M-1 s-1 for chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon, respectively. A higher reactivity of chlorine with the phosphorothioate group (chlorpyrifos and diazinon) than with the phosphate moiety (chlorfenvinfos) could explain these results. Intrinsic rate constant for the elementary reactions of chlorine species with chlorpyrifos and diazinon were also calculated, leading to the conclusion that the reaction between hypochlorous acid and the pesticide is predominant at neutral pH. The elimination of these pesticides in surface waters was also investigated. A chlorine dose of 2.5 mg L-1 was enough to oxidize chlorpyrifos and diazinon almost completely, with a formation of trihalomethanes below the EU standard for drinking water. However, the removal of chlorfenvinfos was not appreciable. Therefore, chlorination is a feasible option for the removal of organophosphorus pesticides with phosphorothioate group during oxidation and disinfection processes, but not for the elimination of pesticides but not for the elimination of pesticides with phosphate moiety

203

Processing factor for a selected group of pesticides in a wine-making process: distribution of pesticides during grape processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The processing factors (the pesticide concentration found in the wine/pesticide concentration found in grapes) of acetamiprid, azoxistrobin, carbaril, carbendazime, cyprodinil, dimethoate, dimethormorf, imazalil, imidacloprid, kresoxim methyl, penconazole, procymidone and thiabendazole were determined in a wine-making process. Pesticide analysis was performed using a multi-residue method for the determination of different pesticides both in wine and in grapes by extraction with acetonitrile followed by LC/MS. The pesticide distribution was studied for each step of the process, and the pesticide processing factors were calculated and found to vary among the different pesticides studied. pKow was found to affect a pesticide's processing factor; a linear correlation was obtained for all pesticide processing factors, except for dimethoate, which was the most water soluble. However, no correlation was found between the processing factor and the water solubility of pesticides. PMID:23875669

Pazzirota, T; Martin, L; Mezcua, M; Ferrer, C; Fernandez-Alba, A R

2013-01-01

204

Neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective and neurodevelopmental outcomes among occupational (both adolescent and adult workers) and non-occupational populations (children). The symposium discussion highlighted many challenges for researchers concerned with the prevention of neurotoxic illness due to pesticides and generated a number of directions for further research and policy interventions for the protection of human health, highlighting the importance of examining potential long-term effects across the lifespan arising from early adolescent, childhood or prenatal exposure.

London, Leslie; Beseler, Cheryl

2012-01-01

205

Neurobehavioural and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures  

Science.gov (United States)

The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective and neurodevelopmental outcomes amongst occupational (both adolescent and adult workers) and non-occupational populations (children). The symposium discussion highlighted many challenges for researchers concerned with the prevention of neurotoxic illness due to pesticides and generated a number of directions for further research and policy interventions for the protection of human health, highlighting the importance of examining potential long-term effects across the lifespan arising from early adolescent, childhood or pre-natal exposure. PMID:22269431

London, Leslie; Beseler, Cheryl; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Bellinger, David C.; Colosio, Claudio; Grandjean, Philippe; Harari, Raul; Kootbodien, Tahira; Kromhout, Hans; Little, Francesca; Meijster, Tim; Moretto, Angelo; Rohlman, Diane S.; Stallones, Lorann

2012-01-01

206

The research of Organophosphorus pesticide biosensor characteristic  

Science.gov (United States)

To study the fiber-sensor film applied in detecting Organophosphorus pesticide, methyltriethoxysilane was used as precursor, which was doped by FITC- AchE. Consequently, the excellent Acetylcholinesterase biology sensitivity film was prepared. Physics characteristic of the film and sensitivity of Organophosphorus pesticide were researched. In organophosphorus pesticide residue testing, the experimental results indicated that the linear measurement range could reach 10-7{10-6 mol/L, moreover the detection limit is 10-8 mol/L. The sensor could be applied in biological / chemical research, clinical medicine, environmental protection, food inspection, biochemical preventive war field and so on.

Peng, Yong; Luo, Xixian; Cheng, Yi

2010-10-01

207

Airborne pesticide residues along the Mississippi River  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence, concentration, and geographical distribution of agricultural pesticides were determined in air over the Mississippi River from New Orleans, LA, to St. Paul, MN, during the first 10 days of June 1994. Air samples were collected from a research vessel by pulling air through polyurethane foam plugs at about 100 L/min for up to 24 h. Each sample was analyzed for 42 pesticides and 3 pesticide transformation products. Twenty- five compounds-15 herbicides, 7 insecticides, and 3 pesticide transformation products-were detected in one or more samples with concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 80 ng/m3. Alachlor, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, fonofos, malathion, methyl parathion, metolachlor, metribuzin, pendimethalin, and trifluralin were detected in 80% or more of the samples. The highest concentrations for chlorpyrifos (1.6 ng/m3), diazinon (0.36 ng/m3), and malathion (4.6 ng/m3) all occurred near major metropolitan areas. These samples represent a 'snapshot in time', a spatial and temporal integration of which pesticides were present in the air during each sampling period. The occurrence and atmospheric concentrations of the observed pesticides were most closely related to their use on cropland within 40 km of the river.The occurrence, concentration, and geographical distribution of agricultural pesticides were determined in air over the Mississippi River from New Orleans, LA, to St. Paul, MN, during the first 10 days of June 1994. Air samples were collected from a research vessel by pulling air through polyurethane foam plugs at about 100 L/min for up to 24 h. Each sample was analyzed for 42 pesticides and 3 pesticide transformation products. Twenty-five compounds-15 herbicides, 7 insecticides, and 3 pesticide transformation products-were detected in one or more samples with concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 80 ng/m3. Alachlor, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, fonofos, malathion, methyl parathion, metolachlor, metribuzin, pendimethalin, and trifluralin were detected in 80% or more of the samples. The highest concentrations for chlorpyrifos (1.6 ng/m3), diazinon (0.36 ng/m3), and malathion (4.6 ng/m3) all occurred near major metropolitan areas. These samples represent a 'snapshot in time', a spatial and temporal integration of which pesticides were present in the air during each sampling period. The occurrence and atmospheric concentrations of the observed pesticides were most closely related to their use on cropland within 40 km of the river.

Majewski, M.S.; Foreman, W.T.; Goolsbys, D.A.; Nakagaki, N.

1998-01-01

208

Effects of Pesticides on Biological Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of pesticid both in Turkey and other contries is widespread in order to combat against many pests which cause economical damages. However, pesticides in human pass through skin, respiratory or digestive systems and is metabolized by monooxygenase system dependent upon cytocrome P450 in liver. They also give rise to severe decreases cytochrome P450 and amount of "hem" enzyme activites of glucose-6-phosphatase, pyrophosphatase by stimulating lipid peroxidation on hepatic microsomes. In this study effects of pesticides on biological systems will be presented in genaral terms. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(3.000: 215-228

Ergul Belge Kurutas

2003-06-01

209

Rhinitis Associated with Pesticide Use Among Private Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Farmers commonly experience rhinitis but the risk factors are not well-characterized. The aim of this study was to analyze cross-sectional data on rhinitis in the past year and pesticide use from 21,958 Iowa and North Carolina farmers in the Agricultural Health Study, enrolled 1993–7, to evaluate pesticide predictors of rhinitis. Polytomous and logistic regression models were used to assess association between pesticide use and rhinitis while controlling for demographics and farm-related ex...

Slager, Rebecca E.; Simpson, Sean L.; Levan, Tricia D.; Poole, Jill A.; Sandler, Dale P.; Hoppin, Jane A.

2010-01-01

210

Organophosphate Pesticide Exposure and Work in Pome Fruit: Evidence for the Take-Home Pesticide Pathway  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are commonly used in the United States, and farmworkers are at risk for chronic exposure. Using a sample of 218 farmworkers in 24 communities and labor camps in eastern Washington State, we examined the association between agricultural crop and OP pesticide metabolite concentrations in urine samples of adult farmworkers and their children and OP pesticide residues in house and vehicle dust samples. Commonly reported crops were apples (71.6%), ...

Coronado, Gloria D.; Vigoren, Eric M.; Thompson, Beti; Griffith, William C.; Faustman, Elaine M.

2006-01-01

211

The Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory: A Quantitative Instrument for the Assessment of Beliefs about Pesticide Risks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent media attention has focused on the risks that agricultural pesticides pose to the environment and human health; thus, these topics provide focal areas for scientists and science educators to enhance public understanding of basic toxicology concepts. This study details the development of a quantitative inventory to gauge pesticide risk beliefs. The goal of the inventory was to characterize misconceptions and knowledge gaps, as well as expert-like beliefs, concerning pesticide risk. This...

Gregory Cope, W.; Blanchard, Margaret R.; Leprevost, Catherine E.

2011-01-01

212

The role of private pesticide vendors in preventing access to pesticides for self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In 15% to 20% of self-poisoning cases, the pesticides used are purchased from shops just prior to ingestion. We explored how pesticide vendors interacted with customers at risk of self-poisoning to identify interventions to prevent such poisonings. Two strategies were specifically discussed: selling pesticides only to farmers bearing identity cards or customers bearing pesticide ‘prescriptions’. Vendors reported refusing to sell pesticides to people thought to be at risk of self-poisoning...

Weerasinghe, Manjula; Pearson, Melissa; Peiris, Ravi; Dawson, Andrew H.; Eddleston, Michael; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Agampodi, Suneth; Konradsen, Flemming

2013-01-01

213

Pesticide Environmental Accounting: A method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts. - A method to estimate the external costs of a pesticide application based on the ecotoxicology, environmental behaviour and application rate of an active ingredient

214

The Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory: A Quantitative Instrument for the Assessment of Beliefs about Pesticide Risks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent media attention has focused on the risks that agricultural pesticides pose to the environment and human health; thus, these topics provide focal areas for scientists and science educators to enhance public understanding of basic toxicology concepts. This study details the development of a quantitative inventory to gauge pesticide risk beliefs. The goal of the inventory was to characterize misconceptions and knowledge gaps, as well as expert-like beliefs, concerning pesticide risk. This study describes the development and field testing of the Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory with an important target audience: pesticide educators in a southeastern U.S. state. The 19-item, Likert-type inventory was found to be psychometrically sound with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.780 and to be a valuable tool in capturing pesticide educators’ beliefs about pesticide risk, assessing beliefs in four key categories. The Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory could be useful in exploring beliefs about pesticide risks and in guiding efforts to address misconceptions held by a variety of formal and informal science learners, educators, practitioners, the agricultural labor force, and the general public.

W. Gregory Cope

2011-06-01

215

Re-usable biosensor for organophosphate pesticides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An enzyme sensor for the detection of organophosphate pesticides in water was fabricated. Acetylcholinesterase and cholineoxidase were co-immobilized on a Pt electrode by crosslinking. Enzymatic activity was measured amperometrically by the generation of H2O2. Dichlorvos (DDVP, dimethyl 2,2-dichlorovynyl phosphate) was chosen as a model pesticide and its inhibition characteristics were utilized for the pesticide detection. A good linear correlation was observed between the Relative Inhibition (RI) and pesticide concentrations with high sensitivity. The re-activation characteristics of inhibited enzyme by 2-pyridinealdoxime methochloride (PAM) were investigated in detail. It has been found that the enzyme electrode may be used several times for the inhibition detection if proper recovery procedure is enforced. The excessive treatment by PAM, however, deteriorates the immobilized enzyme. The result indicates that the sensor is highly promising for the continuous monitoring of organophosphates. 11 refs., 7 figs.

Okazaki, S.; Nakagawa, H.; Asakura, S.; Fukuda, K. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kiuchi, H.; Takahashi, S.; Shigemori, T. [New Cosmos Electric Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

1998-06-05

216

PESTICIDE POISONINGS REPORTED BY FLORIDA CITRUS FIELDWORKERS  

Science.gov (United States)

In a 1981 survey of 1811 Florida citrus fieldworkers, 25 pesticide related poisoning incidents involving 29 fieldworkers were reported. Suspected poisonings were categorized into possible and confirmed poisonings, and from these reports it was possible to project an estimated 438...

217

NEUROENDOCRINE AND REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuroendocrine and Reproductive Effects of Pesticides 1Stoker, TE, Goldman 2, JM and Cooper 2, RL. 1Gamete and Early Embryogenesis Biology Branch and 2 Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laborat...

218

75 FR 17571 - Pendimethalin; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0673; FRL-8817-4] Pendimethalin; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...current tolerance for combined residues of pendimethalin and its metabolite, expressed as pendimethalin equivalents, in or on alfalfa...

2010-04-07

219

78 FR 78738 - Pendimethalin; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2013-0071; FRL-9904-04] Pendimethalin; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...current tolerance for combined residues of pendimethalin and its metabolite, expressed as pendimethalin equivalents in or on almond,...

2013-12-27

220

PESTICIDE RESIDUE RECOVERIES FROM SURFACE WIPES  

Science.gov (United States)

Human exposure is a consequence of pesticide use indoors with a primary source resulting from residue deposition on household surfaces. Accurate measurements of surface residues is essential for estimating exposure from different routes. Various procedures have been developed ...

 
 
 
 
221

77 FR 12731 - Thiamethoxam; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...that have a common mechanism of toxicity.'' Thiamethoxam is a member of the neonicotinoid class of pesticides and produces, as a metabolite, another neonicotinoid, clothianidin. Structural similarities or common effects do not...

2012-03-02

222

77 FR 70908 - Dinotefuran; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...dinotefuran is complete. ii. The neurotoxic potential of dinotefuran has been adequately considered. Dinotefuran is a neonicotinoid and has a neurotoxic mode of pesticidal action. Consistent with the mode of action, changes in motor activity were...

2012-11-28

223

77 FR 56133 - Dinotefuran; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...dinotefuran is complete. ii. The neurotoxic potential of dinotefuran has been adequately considered. Dinotefuran is a neonicotinoid and has a neurotoxic mode of pesticidal action. Consistent with the mode of action, changes in motor activity were...

2012-09-12

224

Neonatal outcome following exposure to organophosphorous pesticides  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine the neonatal outcome in mothers and children exposed to organophosphorous pesticides (OP. We found that 22.4% pregnant women were exposed to organophosphorous pesticides. OP pesticide concentration was higher in breast milk, newborn sera than maternal sera. Newborn parameters such as birth weight, birth length, head circumference, Apgar score and presence of meconium, as well as gestational age of delivery, showed no significant difference between the two groups. However, postpartum weight loss, hospitalization duration, levels of newborn bilirubin and glycaemia differed significantly between the two groups. Morbidity and presence of CNS disorders were six times and more than twelve times higher, respectively, in the OP-exposed than in the OP pesticide non-exposed group.

?or?evi? M.

2010-01-01

225

78 FR 17123 - Amitraz; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0051; FRL-9381-1] Amitraz; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...establishes tolerances for residues of amitraz in or on honey and honeycomb. Arysta...tolerances for residues of the insecticide, amitraz,...

2013-03-20

226

How Stereochemistry Considerations can Improve Pesticide Safety  

Science.gov (United States)

About 30% of pesticides are chiral molecules and therefore exist as two or more stereoisomers, which can differ significantly in their toxicity, biodegradation, and persistence. Such differences can impact their relative safety to humans and environmental species. Enantiomers, mi...

227

76 FR 17644 - Pesticide Product; Registration Application  

Science.gov (United States)

...13-Octadecdien-1-ol at 5.46% and 0.27%, respectively. Proposed classification/Use: Mating disruption of the dogwood borer (Synanthedon scitula) (G. Casciano). List of Subjects Environmental protection, Pesticides and pest. Dated: March 18,...

2011-03-30

228

Pesticides - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

Science.gov (United States)

... ????) Pesticides English ?? - ???? (Chinese - Traditional) PDF Chinese Community Health Resource Center Spanish (español) Pesticidas Return to top Date last updated: 27 September 2013 Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language ...

229

75 FR 71697 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

...Environmental Protection Agency, Rm...Environmental Protection Agency 1200 Pennsylvania...not limited to: Crop production (NAICS...use on non-food crops. File symbol...Applicant: Marrone Bio Innovations, Inc., 2121...Subjects Environmental protection, Pesticides...

2010-11-24

230

Types of pesticides and determination of their residues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pesticide is any material or component used to protect from pests. Its toxic effect is related to the chemical structure, which can be divided into 3 types : 1- Metal pesticides : Sulphur, cupper, zinc, mercury; 2- Vegetal pesticides : advanced and less toxic to the general health; 3- Synthetic organo pesticides : organo chlorine, organophosphorous, carbamate and pyrethroids. Pesticides in the soil undergo biological dissociation according to their concentration and chemical structure. High concentration of the pesticides in the soil may lead to fertility decrease due to destruction of micro-organisms by the pesticides. Many methods are used to analyze the residues of pesticides in plant or soil : 1- Chromatographic methods : Gas chromatography, gas liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography; 2- Spectroscopy methods : spectrophotometer and mass spectrometer; 3- Isotopic methods : based on tracers technique which is the most sensitive and accurate method and can estimate minor amounts of the pesticides. (author)

231

A greenhouse without pesticides : fact or fantasy ?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Crop protection in European greenhouses became strongly chemically oriented shortly after the Second World War in the 1950s. But an excellent climate for fast reproduction of pests and diseases demanded high spray frequencies and, thus, resulted in quick development of resistance against pesticides. This initiated a search for alternatives of chemical pesticides. The first natural enemies for control of pests in European greenhouse vegetables became available in the 1960s. A change from chemi...

Lenteren, J. C.

2000-01-01

232

Management of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Organophosphorus pesticide self-poisoning is an important clinical problem in rural regions of the developing world, and kills an estimated 200?000 people every year. Unintentional poisoning kills far fewer people but is a problem in places where highly toxic organophosphorus pesticides are available. Medical management is difficult, with case fatality generally more than 15%. We describe the limited evidence that can guide therapy and the factors that should be considered when designing fu...

Roberts, Darren M.; Aaron, Cynthia K.

2007-01-01

233

Pesticides, Microglial NOX2, and Parkinson's disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Accumulating evidence indicates that pesticide exposure is associated with an increased risk for developing Parkinson's disease (PD). Several pesticides known to damage dopaminergic (DA) neurons, such as paraquat, rotenone, lindane, and dieldrin also demonstrate the ability to activate microglia, the resident innate immune cell in the brain. While each of these environmental toxicants may impact microglia through unique mechanisms, they all appear to converge on a common final pathway of micr...

Taetzsch, Thomas; Block, Michelle L.

2013-01-01

234

Farmworkers and pesticides: community-based research.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we summarize the results of a workshop conducted to disseminate information about community-based research on the environmental health risks of exposure of farmworkers to pesticides. Community-based research is an approach that is advocated for addressing issues of environmental justice such as exposure of farmworkers to pesticides. This workshop brought together scientists, community organization members, and agency representatives to review and discuss the research methods and...

Arcury, T. A.; Quandt, S. A.; Mccauley, L.

2000-01-01

235

Dietary pesticides (99.99% all natural).  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The toxicological significance of exposures to synthetic chemicals is examined in the context of exposures to naturally occurring chemicals. We calculate that 99.99% (by weight) of the pesticides in the American diet are chemicals that plants produce to defend themselves. Only 52 natural pesticides have been tested in high-dose animal cancer tests, and about half (27) are rodent carcinogens; these 27 are shown to be present in many common foods. We conclude that natural and synthetic chemical...

Ames, B. N.; Profet, M.; Gold, L. S.

1990-01-01

236

High risk pesticides in sugar beet protection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

According to traits of pesticides permitted to use in sugar beet (oral percutaneus and inhalation toxicity, toxicity to wildlife, bees and aquatic organisms, re-entry interval, maximum number of treatments, effects on reproduction) do not present health risk in sugar production/technology. However, the danger exists for workers by chronic exposure during the application, especially from pesticide being potential endocrine disruptors (EDS) (fentin acetate, benomyl, endosulfan, methomyl, methid...

Šovljanski Radmila A.; Kloko?ar-Šmit Zlata D.; In?i? Dušanka V.

2006-01-01

237

Morbidity in newborns exposed to organophosphorus pesticides  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Insecticides are toxines by which we destroy harmful insects. The most frequent insecticides which are used today are organophosphorus pesticides. This group of compounds make substances whose activity mechanism is based on the inhibition of acetylcho­linesterase in nerve synapsis, thus producing holynergic syndrome, resulting from the accumulation of acetylcholine which developed due to the absence of decomposition under the influence of cholinesterase. In the clinical picture of acute toxication by cholinesterase inhibitors there is a clear difference between muscarinic and nicotine effects. The basic aim of the study was to establish the effects of organophosphorus pesticides present in blood and breast milk of mothers on newborns morbidity. Material and methods. The study group consisted of 18 newborns whose mothers had isolated organophosphorus pesticides in their blood and breast­milk on the third day after delivery, and the control group consisted of 84 newborns whose mothers did not have isolated organophosphorus pesticides in their blood and breastmilk. Results. Morbidity is three times greater, often in combination with some disorders of the central nervous system, and the relative risk for its appearance is eight time greater in newborns exposed to organophosphorus pesticides. Disscusion. Disorders that appear in newborns exposed to pesticides are mutagenic, cancerogenic and neurotoxic and some agenses could disturb the immune system which is reflected in morbidity increase, primarly of the central nervous system. Conclusion. The presence of organophosphorus pesticides in blood and breast milk has negative effects on newborns. In addition to acetylcho­linesterase inhibition, organophosphorus pesticides react by means of other mechanisms as well.

?or?evi? Mom?ilo

2010-01-01

238

Depression and Pesticide Exposures among Private Pesticide Applicators Enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background We evaluated the relationship between diagnosed depression and pesticide exposure using information from private pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study between 1993 and 1997 in Iowa and North Carolina. Methods There were 534 cases who self-reported a physician-diagnosed depression and 17,051 controls who reported never having been diagnosed with depression and did not feel depressed more than once a week in the past year. Lifetime pesticide exposure was categorized in three mutually exclusive groups: low ( 752 days). Two additional measures represented acute high-intensity pesticide exposures: an unusually high pesticide exposure event (HPEE) and physician-diagnosed pesticide poisoning. Logistic regression analyses were performed relating pesticide exposure to depression. Results After adjusting for state, age, education, marital status, doctor visits, alcohol use, smoking, solvent exposure, not currently having crops or animals, and ever working a job off the farm, pesticide poisoning was more strongly associated with depression [odds ratio (OR) = 2.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.74–3.79] than intermediate (OR = 1.07; 95% CI, 0.87–1.31) or high (OR = 1.11; 95% CI, 0.87–1.42) cumulative exposure or an HPEE (OR = 1.65; 95% CI, 1.33–2.05). In analysis of a subgroup without a history of acute poisoning, high cumulative exposure was significantly associated with depression (OR = 1.54; 95% CI, 1.16–2.04). Conclusion These findings suggest that both acute high-intensity and cumulative pesticide exposure may contribute to depression in pesticide applicators. Our study is unique in reporting that depression is also associated with chronic pesticide exposure in the absence of a physician-diagnosed poisoning. PMID:19079725

Beseler, Cheryl L.; Stallones, Lorann; Hoppin, Jane A.; Alavanja, Michael C.R.; Blair, Aaron; Keefe, Thomas; Kamel, Freya

2008-01-01

239

Understanding Pesticide Behaviour At The Catchment Scale  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticides in stream flow at the outlet of a 142ha catchment in Eastern England (Col- worth, Bedfordshire), have been monitored since October 1999. About 50% of the total catchment is directly controlled within one farm and a rotation of wheat, oil seed rape, grass, linseed, beans and peas is grown. The data from this catchment are being used to investigate the performance of the USDA SWAT contaminant transport pack- age at the catchment scale. Three years of stream flow and climate data are available with a useful set of pesticide application and detection data. Following calibration and validation of the hydrology of the catchment, pesticide modelling was carried out for tebuconazole, terbutryn, and terbuthylazine. This paper reports on the results of a sen- sitivity analysis of the model, and the final calibrated pesticide component. Analysis of the results obtained show that the timing and decay of predicted pesticide concen- trations are correct. It is therefore recommended that SWAT can be used as a tool to understand pesticide behaviour at the catchment scale.

Kannan, N.; White, S. M.; Worrall, F.; Pendlington, D.; Groves, S.

240

Chlorination of organophosphorus pesticides in natural waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Unknown second-order rate constants for the reactions of three organophosphorus pesticides (chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon) with chlorine were determined in the present study, and the influence of pH and temperature was established. It was found that an increase in the pH provides a negative effect on the pesticides degradation rates. Apparent second-order rate constants at 20 {sup o}C and pH 7 were determined to be 110.9, 0.004 and 191.6 M{sup -1} s{sup -1} for chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon, respectively. A higher reactivity of chlorine with the phosphorothioate group (chlorpyrifos and diazinon) than with the phosphate moiety (chlorfenvinfos) could explain these results. Intrinsic rate constant for the elementary reactions of chlorine species with chlorpyrifos and diazinon were also calculated, leading to the conclusion that the reaction between hypochlorous acid and the pesticide is predominant at neutral pH. The elimination of these pesticides in surface waters was also investigated. A chlorine dose of 2.5 mg L{sup -1} was enough to oxidize chlorpyrifos and diazinon almost completely, with a formation of trihalomethanes below the EU standard for drinking water. However, the removal of chlorfenvinfos was not appreciable. Therefore, chlorination is a feasible option for the removal of organophosphorus pesticides with phosphorothioate group during oxidation and disinfection processes, but not for the elimination of pesticides with phosphate moiety.

Acero, Juan L. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)], E-mail: jlacero@unex.es; Benitez, F. Javier; Real, Francisco J.; Gonzalez, Manuel [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)

2008-05-01

 
 
 
 
241

Mapping ecological risk of agricultural pesticide runoff.  

Science.gov (United States)

A screening approach for the EU-scale is introduced and validated that predicts pesticide runoff and related ecological risk for aquatic communities in small agricultural streams. The approach is based on the runoff potential (RP) of stream sites, by a spatially explicit calculation based on pesticide use, precipitation, topography, land use and soil characteristics in the near-stream environment. The underlying simplified model complies with the limited availability and resolution of data at larger scales. RP is transformed to ecological risk by means of a runoff-response relationship between RP and invertebrate community composition that results from a large-scale investigation and considers the influence of landscape-mediated recovery pools. Community composition is expressed as abundance of SPEcies At Risk (SPEAR) i.e. species that are potentially affected by pesticides because of physiological sensitivity to organic pollutants and ecological traits. The SPEAR concept was applied because it provides powerful community descriptors that are independent of habitat parameters and support comparison of pesticide effects between different geographical regions. Raster maps for the EU before the 2004 enlargement indicate that ecological risk from pesticide runoff is potentially low for streams in 34% of the grid cells with non-irrigated arable land (mostly northern countries, predicted effects at southern countries, predicted effects at >90% of the streams per cell). Field investigations showed that the screening approach produced appropriate estimates of ecological risk from pesticide runoff for selected regions in Finland, France and Germany. PMID:17689592

Schriever, Carola Alexandra; Liess, Matthias

2007-10-01

242

Pesticide risk assessment in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recognition of potential risks, all pesticides distributed and sold in the United States must fulfil extensive registration requirements for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Registration is a licensing procedure where industry must submit data to demonstrate the safety of pesticidal substances and products before they can be used commercially. The regulatory control of pesticides is unique among chemicals in the U.S. in that testing beyond initial registration may be imposed by the Agency throughout the commercial life of the chemical, as long as there is adequate justification. Registration requirements are gauged to the nature of potential exposures. For instance, more data are generally needed for food use registrations than for non-food uses because of direct consumption of treated foods by the whole U.S. population. Unlike pesticide practices in many countries and authorities, as in the European Community where agricultural pesticides, non-agricultural pesticides and genetically engineered microbial agents are handled by separate directives, all pesticide activities are covered in the U.S. by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. This statute covers pesticide uses on foods and animal feed and a number of non-food applications like forest and horticultural uses, residential lawn care, in-home applications, and disinfectants/sterilants. Traditional inorganic and organic chemicals are covered, as well as biological agents like pheromones. Naturally occurring and genetically altered microorganisms also come under the definition of pesticides, but multicellular animals are exempt from regulation as pesticides. Pesticide registration in the U.S. as in many other countries may be a long-term, resource intensive undertaking. Not uncommonly the process from beginning to complete registration may take 4 to 10 years and cost about $10 million. To meet the responsibilities of reviewing studies, overseeing 400 active ingredients and 35,000 products, and implementing other aspects of the statute, EPA employs about 900 people. Unlike the approval process and actions to cancel pesticides in some countries, in the U.S. they are generally much more transparent. The need for specific test guidelines and the nature of the protocols are debated in the scientific community. Test data adequacy is evaluated according to objective criteria, and study findings are reviewed using standard evaluation procedures and risk assessment guidelines that have been through public comment. Agency risk concerns for a registered pesticide are vetted at a meeting of its Scientific Advisory Panel, a group of technical experts outside of government, where the potential risk case is reviewed and discussed. The meeting is open to the public with opportunity for input from industry, public interest groups, and other parties. Formal Agency regulatory proposals to cancel registered pesticides are published for public review and comment, and there may be several rounds of public involvement before a final decision is reached. Even after a regulatory decision has been made, and unless a settlement has been reached, the Agency is often sued by an environmental group or industry that questions the EPA position; in such situations, the case is then transferred to the court for deliberation. Risks are evaluated for a host of different effects by the pesticide program: acute and chronic, human health and ecological

243

Male Reproduction and Pesticides. Work related and dietary exposure : Pesticides Research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We found no difference in semen quality and male fecundity between traditional and organic farmers. Pesticide use by Danish farmers did not influence the different semen parameters Ø a spraying season. The dietary pesticide intake in the study group did not entail a risk of measurable reduced semen quality. However, the exposure assessments used were based on the extrernal exposure.

Larsen, Solveig B.; Bonde, Jens Peter

1999-01-01

244

76 FR 18995 - Pesticides; Regulation to Clarify Labeling of Pesticides for Export  

Science.gov (United States)

...Labeling of Pesticides for Export AGENCY: Environmental Protection...pesticides and devices intended for export. Internal review of the regulations...products and devices intended for export that are produced after the...Order Reviews A. Regulatory Planning and Review This action is...

2011-04-06

245

75 FR 62323 - Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Change to...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2070-AJ74 Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards...Containers and Containment; Change to Labeling Compliance...important roles in the management of pesticide risks...review by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) as...Nor does it impose or change any information...

2010-10-08

246

Intoxicación por plaguicidas / Pesticide poisoning  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los plaguicidas son una de las familias de productos químicos más ampliamente empleadas por el hombre. Se han usado sobre todo para combatir plagas por su acción sobre las cosechas o como vectores de enfermedades transmisibles. Los plaguicidas pueden clasificarse en función de su empleo (insecticida [...] s, fungicidas, herbicidas, raticidas…) o de su familia química (organoclorados, organofosforados, carbamatos, piretoides, compuestos bipiridílicos, sales inorgánicas…). Todos ellos son biocidas lo que implica, habitualmente una alta toxicidad humana que ha sido motivo de preocupación desde mitad del siglo XX debido al amplio e indiscriminado empleo de estos productos. La exposición a los plaguicidas puede tener efectos agudos, crónicos y a largo plazo. Algunos compuestos organoclorados (como el DDT) fueron los primeros en ser empleado en fumigaciones masivas para combatir la malaria y han debido ser prohibidos debido a su capacidad de bioacumulación y persistencia medioambiental. El peligro representado por la generalizada presencia de estos agentes, se ha demostrado en los numerosos episodios de epidemias tóxicas humanas, productoras de alta morbi-mortalidad, descritas por casi todas las familias químicas: insecticidas y fungicidas organoclorados, insecticidas organofosforados y carbamatos, fungicidas organomercuriales y sales inorgánicas. Estos episodios se han producido sobre todo por vía alimentaria y en el terreno profesional. Otras causas de preocupación sanitaria son su capacidad carcinogénica y de ocasionar alteraciones reproductivas. Se presentan las principales características de algunas de las familias más relevantes. Abstract in english Pesticides are one of the families of chemical products most widely used by man. They have been used above all to combat pests because of their effect on harvests and as vectors of transmissible diseases. Pesticides can be classified according to their use (insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, rati [...] cides…) or by their chemical family (organochlorates, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, Bipyridilium compounds, inorganic salts…). All of them are biocides, which normally implies a high toxicity for humans, which has been a cause for concern since the mid-XX century due to the widespread and indiscriminate use of these products. Exposure to pesticides can have effects that are acute, chronic and long-term. Some organochlorate compounds (such as DDT) were the first to be used in massive fumigations to fight malaria and have had to be banned because of their capacity for bioaccumulation and environmental persistence. The danger represented by the widespread presence of these agents has been demonstrated in numerous episodes of human toxic epidemics, producers of a high morbidity/mortality, described for nearly all chemical families: organochlorate insecticides and fungicides, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, organomercurial fungicides and inorganic salts. These episodes have above all been caused through the ingestion of foodstuffs and in the occupational field. Other causes of health concern are their carcinogenic capacity and occasional reproductive alterations. The principal characteristics of some of the most relevant families are presented.

A., Ferrer.

247

Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) models for predicting stream concentrations of multiple pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

Watershed Regressions for Pesticides for multiple pesticides (WARP-MP) are statistical models developed to predict concentration statistics for a wide range of pesticides in unmonitored streams. The WARP-MP models use the national atrazine WARP models in conjunction with an adjustment factor for each additional pesticide. The WARP-MP models perform best for pesticides with application timing and methods similar to those used with atrazine. For other pesticides, WARP-MP models tend to overpredict concentration statistics for the model development sites. For WARP and WARP-MP, the less-than-ideal sampling frequency for the model development sites leads to underestimation of the shorter-duration concentration; hence, the WARP models tend to underpredict 4- and 21-d maximum moving-average concentrations, with median errors ranging from 9 to 38% As a result of this sampling bias, pesticides that performed well with the model development sites are expected to have predictions that are biased low for these shorter-duration concentration statistics. The overprediction by WARP-MP apparent for some of the pesticides is variably offset by underestimation of the model development concentration statistics. Of the 112 pesticides used in the WARP-MP application to stream segments nationwide, 25 were predicted to have concentration statistics with a 50% or greater probability of exceeding one or more aquatic life benchmarks in one or more stream segments. Geographically, many of the modeled streams in the Corn Belt Region were predicted to have one or more pesticides that exceeded an aquatic life benchmark during 2009, indicating the potential vulnerability of streams in this region.

Stone, Wesley W.; Crawford, Charles G.; Gilliom, Robert J.

2013-01-01

248

Selection of Worst-Case Pesticide Leaching Scenarios for Pesticide Registration  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of pesticides, fertilizers and manure in intensive agriculture may have a negative impact on the quality of ground- and surface water resources. Legislative action has been undertaken in many countries to protect surface and groundwater resources from contamination by surface applied agrochemicals. Of particular concern are pesticides. The registration procedure plays an important role in the regulation of pesticide use in the European Union. In order to register a certain pesticide use, the notifier needs to prove that the use does not entail a risk of groundwater contamination. Therefore, leaching concentrations of the pesticide need to be assessed using model simulations for so called worst-case scenarios. In the current procedure, a worst-case scenario represents a parameterized pesticide fate model for a certain soil and a certain time series of weather conditions that tries to represent all relevant processes such as transient water flow, root water uptake, pesticide transport, sorption, decay and volatilisation as accurate as possible. Since this model has been parameterized for only one soil and weather time series, it is uncertain whether it represents a worst-case condition for a certain pesticide use. We discuss an alternative approach that uses a simpler model that requires less detailed information about the soil and weather conditions but still represents the effect of soil and climate on pesticide leaching using information that is available for the entire European Union. A comparison between the two approaches demonstrates that the higher precision that the detailed model provides for the prediction of pesticide leaching at a certain site is counteracted by its smaller accuracy to represent a worst case condition. The simpler model predicts leaching concentrations less precise at a certain site but has a complete coverage of the area so that it selects a worst-case condition more accurately.

Vereecken, H.; Tiktak, A.; Boesten, J.; Vanderborght, J.

2010-12-01

249

Characterizing pesticide dissipation in food crops  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ingestion of residues via consumption of food crops is the predominant exposure route of the general population toward pesticides. However, pesticide dissipation in crops constitutes a main source of uncertainty in estimating residues in harvested crop parts and subsequent human exposure. Nevertheless, dissipation is a key mechanism in models assessing pesticide distribution in the cropenvironment and the magnitude of residues in harvest. We provide a consistent framework for characterizing pesticide dissipation in food crops for use in modeling approaches applied in health risk and impact assessment. We collected 4,482 unique dissipation half-lives for 341 substances applied to 182 different crop species and fully characterize these data by describing their variance, distribution and uncertainty as well as by identifying the influence of substance, crop and environmental characteristics. We obtain an overall geo-mean half-life over all data points of 3.9 days with 95% of all half-lives falling within the range between 0.6 and 29 days. Uncertainty in predicting a substance-specific geo-mean half-life varies with varying numbers of available data points with the highest uncertainty associated to pesticides with less than seven reported half-lives. Temperature in air was identified to have a significant influence on dissipation kinetics. We, hence, provide estimated half-lives for a default temperature of 20°C, while introducing a correction term for deviating temperature conditions. Diffusive exchange processes also have a significant influence on pesticide dissipation, wherever these processes dominate dissipation rates compared to degradation. In these cases, we recommend not to use measured dissipation half-lives as basis for estimating degradation, which is recommended in cases, where degradation is dominating. We are currently testing the regression to predict degradation half-lives in crops. By providing mean degradation half-lives at 20°C for more than 300 pesticides, we reduce uncertainty and improve assumptions in current practice of health risk and impact assessments.

Fantke, Peter; Juraske, R.

2013-01-01

250

Acute pesticide poisoning in England and Wales.  

Science.gov (United States)

Between 1979 and 1983 less than 1% of admissions from acute poisoning in the UK were due to pesticides and fewer than 4% of admissions in those under 5 years were from this cause. Organochlorine, organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides account for only 10% of the total in both children and adults. Suspected pesticide poisoning was the cause of fewer than 0.3% of home accidents in those under 10 years of age and less than 4% of suspected poisonings documented by the Home Accident Surveillance System. Rodenticides were thought to be involved in 62% of these cases. Of children who presented to hospital 42% were admitted and 93% of these were discharged home within 2 days. In the UK, the morbidity from acute pesticide poisoning in children is low and the mortality is nil and there is therefore no evidence to support the view that paediatric pesticide intoxication is a significant clinical problem. Though no fatalities were recorded in children, pesticides were responsible for 1.3% of all deaths due to poisoning in the UK between 1979 and 1983. In adults admitted to hospital, the mortality from pesticide poisoning is approximately 12% and three quarters of these deaths are due to the deliberate ingestion of paraquat. The general term pesticide refers to a group of products that are used as insecticides, acaricides, fungicides, herbicides, rodenticides, and plant growth agents. Chemically, the group includes bipyridilium compounds, carbamates, chloralose, chlorates, coumarins, dinitro compounds, dithiocarbamates, fluoroacetates, organochlorine organophosphorus and organotin compounds, pentachlorophenol, phenoxyacetates, phosphine (as magnesium and aluminium phosphides), pyrethrins, pyrethroids and triazines.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10281618

Vale, T J; Meredith, T J; Buckley, B M

1987-02-01

251

40 CFR 158.2110 - Microbial pesticides data requirements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...including all use patterns, food and nonfood uses for...requirements for genetically modified microbial pesticides...requirements for genetically modified microbial pesticides...are not limited to: genetic engineering techniques...expressed; tests to evaluate genetic stability and...

2010-07-01

252

Improving poisoning diagnosis and surveillance of street pesticides  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english An effective surveillance system is required to reduce pesticide exposures and poisonings, especially from street pesticides (illegal, unlabelled, and decanted agricultural pesticides used predominately for urban household purposes). Poisoning from any pesticide class, not only organophosphates, con [...] stitutes a medically notifiable condition in South Africa. Current practice, however, is to report only organophosphate cases, resulting in severe under-reporting. The lack of data concerning the link between poisonings and street pesticides has led to the mistaken assumption that urban populations are not at risk from significant pesticide exposures and poisonings. Without accurate statistics, healthcare professionals and policy makers are unaware of the contribution of street pesticide poisonings to the overall health burden. Accurate diagnosis is a prerequisite for notification and subsequent surveillance. An algorithm has been developed to enable healthcare professionals to improve the diagnosis and notification of pesticide poisonings.

Hanna-Andrea, Rother.

2012-06-01

253

Children's exposure to pesticides used in homes and farms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Commercial and residential use of pesticides is common in El Paso, Texas, especially in agricultural areas. Recently, concerns have arisen about the type of pesticides used by residents because of the ease with which methyl parathion can be obtained from the neighboring border city of Juarez in Chihuahua, Mexico. Survey data were collected regarding residents' perceptions about pesticide safety and use of pesticides, and their preferred source of health information. The authors assessed the number of respondents who were using the illegal pesticide methyl parathion, known locally as polvo de avion (airplane dust) as well as their beliefs concerning the safety and efficacy of pesticides. The study found that 88.7 percent (133 of 150) used some type of pesticide, and of these, 9.8 percent (13 of 133) reported using methyl parathion. Biological/environmental testing would be useful to assess use of methyl parathion and to determine the types of pesticides used by local farmers. PMID:17390899

Saller, Jeremy; Reyes, Priscilla; Maldonado, Pedro A; Gibbs, Shawn G; Byrd, Theresa L

2007-03-01

254

[A model study of pesticide biodegradation in soil].  

Science.gov (United States)

This study addresses the efficiency of microbial preparations to degrade pesticide residues in soil. A method to degrade pesticides DNOC and pendimethalin using Pseudomonas and Arthrobacter bacteria with a fertilizer is described. PMID:17352205

Bieganska, J

2007-01-01

255

42 CFR 84.1156 - Pesticide respirators; performance requirements; general.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Pesticide respirators; performance...1156 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED...Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint...

2010-10-01

256

SURFACTANT EFFECTS ON PESTICIDE PHOTOCHEMISTRY IN WATER AND SOIL  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of surfactants on the photochemical decomposition of selected pesticides are examined both in aqueous solution and on selected soil surfaces. Typical surfactants usually enhance the rate of pesticide photodecomposition. In solution, increased quantum efficiencies and ...

257

77 FR 72984 - Buprofezin Pesticide Tolerances; Technical Correction  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0759; FRL-9371-3] Buprofezin Pesticide Tolerances; Technical Correction...Wednesday, October 17, 2012, concerning buprofezin pesticide tolerances. This document...to read as follows: Sec. 180.511 Buprofezin; tolerances for residues....

2012-12-07

258

40 CFR 155.50 - Initiate a pesticide's registration review.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Initiate a pesticide's registration review. 155.50 Section 155.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...REGISTRATION REVIEW Registration Review Procedures § 155.50 Initiate a pesticide's registration...

2010-07-01

259

TRANSFER EFFICIENCES OF PESTICIDES FROM HOUSEHOLD CERAMIC TILE TO FOODS  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditional assessments of pesticide exposure through diet have focused on contamination during production (e.g., pesticides in agriculture). However, recent residential monitoring studies have demonstrated that a significant portion of total exposure to infants and children ...

260

Photochemical Attenuation of Pesticides in Prairie Potholes  

Science.gov (United States)

Prairie potholes are small, shallow, glacially-derived wetlands scattered across a vast region extending from Midwestern United States into south central Canada known as the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR). They constitute one of the largest inland wetland systems on Earth and play a prominent role in sustaining the regional biodiversity and productivity. Throughout the PPR, historic and contemporary conversion of native prairie for agriculture resulted in a pronounced loss of potholes. Remaining potholes have become interspersed within a matrix of agricultural landscape and trap nonpoint source pollutants such as pesticides from adjacent farmland, which has raised concerns regarding negative impacts on the water quality of downstream water bodies. The fate and persistence of pesticides in potholes, however, remains largely unexplored. Prairie potholes are typically characterized by shallow depth (i.e., large photic zone) and high levels of dissolved organic matter (DOM), making them ideal for photochemical reactions. In this context, we collected pothole water samples from North Dakota to investigate the rates and mechanisms of sunlight-induced attenuation of pesticides. The photodegradation kinetics and pathways of sixteen pesticides in the pothole water were monitored under both simulated and natural sunlight. For most pesticides, photolysis accelerated in the pothole water relative to the buffer control, which pointed to the importance of photosensitized processes (i.e., indirect photolysis). Upon solar irradiation, a mixture of photochemically produced reactive intermediates (PPRIs), such as carbonate radical, hydroxyl radical, singlet oxygen, and triplet-excited state DOM, formed in the pothole water. The major pathways through which pesticides degraded were inferred from the relative contribution attributable to specific PPRIs via quencher experiments. Different classes of pesticides exhibited contrasting photochemical behavior, but singlet oxygen and triplet DOM appeared to exert the largest effects on the overall photodegradation. Furthermore, a suite of second-order rate constants for reactions of pesticides with PPRIs were derived based on the quenching effect on observed reaction rate constants and measured steady-state concentrations of PPRIs. These rate constants may find practical utility for estimating DOM photochemical reaction rates in addition to data traditionally estimated from model compounds. Overall, our work contributed to a systematic evaluation of the potential for photochemical attenuation of pesticides in near-surface pothole water. Given recent incentives to expand agriculture in the PPR for production of organic crops and corn-based biofuels, this research also calls for the need to properly conserve prairie potholes and to develop regionally-specific, sustainable water resource management and land use strategies.

Zeng, T.; Arnold, W. A.

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
261

Compound specific isotope analysis of organophosphorus pesticides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) has been established as a tool to study the environmental fate of a wide range of contaminants. In this study, CSIA was developed to analyse the stable carbon isotope signatures of the widely used organophosphorus pesticides: dichlorvos, omethoate and dimethoate. The linearity of the GC-C-IRMS system was tested for target pesticides and led to an acceptable isotope composition within the uncertainty of the instrument. In order to assess the accuracy of the developed method, the effect of the evaporation procedure on measured carbon isotope composition (?(13)C) values was studied and showed that concentration by evaporation of solvents had no significant isotope effect. The CSIA was then applied to investigate isotope fractionation of the hydrolysis and photolysis of selected pesticides. The carbon isotope fractionation of tested pesticides was quantified by the Rayleigh model, which revealed a bulk enrichment factor (?) of -0.2±0.1‰ for hydrolysis of dichlorvos, -1.0±0.1‰ and -3.7±1.1‰ for hydrolysis and photolysis of dimethoate respectively. This study is a first step towards the application of CSIA to trace the transport and degradation of organophosphorus pesticides in the environment. PMID:24997952

Wu, Langping; Yao, Jun; Trebse, Polonca; Zhang, Ning; Richnow, Hans H

2014-09-01

262

Pesticide residues survey in citrus fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of pesticides is widespread in citrus fruits production for pre- and post-harvest protection and many chemical substances may be applied in order to control undesirable moulds or insects. A survey was carried out to evaluate levels of pesticide residues in citrus fruits. Two multiresidue analytical methods were used to screen samples for more than 200 different fungicides, insecticides and acaricides. A total of 240 samples of citrus fruits including lemon, orange, mandarin, grapefruit, lime, pomelo and kumquat were taken in various markets in the Geneva area during the year 2003. Ninety-five percent of the 164 samples issued from classical agriculture contained pesticides and 38 different compounds have been identified. This high percentage of positive samples was mainly due to the presence of two post-harvest fungicides, imazalil and thiabendazole, detected in 70% and 36% of samples respectively. Only three samples exceeded the Swiss maximum residue limits (MRLs). Fifty-three samples sold with the written indication "without post-harvest treatment" were also controlled. Among theses samples, three exceeded the Swiss MRLs for penconazole or chlorpyrifos and 18 (34%) did not respect the written indication since we found large amounts of post-harvest fungicides. Finally, 23 samples coming from certified organic production were analysed. Among theses samples, three contained small amounts of pesticides and the others were pesticides free. PMID:16019813

Ortelli, Didier; Edder, Patrick; Corvi, Claude

2005-05-01

263

Effects of alternative sprinkler irrigation parameters on pesticide movement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The relative reduction in potential ground-water contamination due to pesticides at several sites in Utah was determined by comparing alternative irrigation system designs, water management practices and pesticides. Alternative sprinkler irrigation distribution coefficients were used to estimate infiltration depths. The movement of pesticides through soils following sprinkler irrigations was simulated with one-dimensional model. Pesticide contamination of ground water can be reduced by carefu...

Ranjha, A. Y.; Peralta, R. C.; Hill, R. W.; Requena, A. M.; Deer, H. M.

1991-01-01

264

Zinc oxide based Acetylcholinesterase biosensor for organophosphorus pesticide detection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pesticide residues in food pose a major health risk to consumers and currently there is no commercially available on-site detection method. Acetylcholinesterase based amperometric biosensors have the potential to offer a cheap, sensitive, easy to use and portable detection method for a widely used class of pesticides i.e. organophosphorus pesticides. They work on the principle that the enzyme Acetylcholinesterase is inhibited by organophosphorus pesticides. The challenges in effectively makin...

Sinha, Ravi

2009-01-01

265

Assessing pesticide pollution risk: from field to watershed  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pesticides used for intensive agricultural production threaten the water resources of the French West Indies. For example, the pesticide chlordecone was used until the nineties in banana fields. Operational and simple tools are needed to assess the potential risk of pollution by pesticides. Here, we propose a method to assess the spatial variability of pollution risk on a watershed scale. This method proceeds in four steps: (1) surveying practices; (2) determining the pesticide load for each ...

Houdart, M.; Tixier, P.; Lassoudie?re, A.; Saudubray, F.

2009-01-01

266

Public Health Implications of Pesticide Residues in Meat  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. Since then various synthetic pesticides are used for protection of crops and public health. The persistence nature of some of these pesticides led to their accumulation in animal tissues and subsequently causes human dietary exposure to these pesticides through consumption of animal products viz. meat, milk, eggs and seafoods. Scientific evidence suggest that even such low dose but l...

Jadhav V.J. and Waskar V.S.

2011-01-01

267

A new crop of concerns: Congress investigates pesticide safety.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A March 2000 report by the General Accounting Office, Pesticides: Improvements Needed to Ensure the Safety of Farmworkers and Their Children, states that much remains unknown about the risks faced by children in agriculture, and that enforcement of pesticide protection standards for farmworkers is patchy and unsystematic. Many cases of farmworkers' pesticide-related illnesses go unreported, leaving health workers with an inadequate basis for tracking patterns and fine-tuning pesticide standar...

Taylor, D. A.

2000-01-01

268

DEPRESSION AND PESTICIDE EXPOSURES IN FEMALE SPOUSES OF LICENSED PESTICIDE APPLICATORS IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY COHORT  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective This nested case control study evaluated the association between depression and pesticide exposure among women. Methods The study population included 29,074 female spouses of private pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study between 1993–1997. Cases were women who had physician diagnosed depression requiring medication. Lifetime pesticide use was categorized as never mixed/applied pesticides, as low exposure (up to 225 days), high exposure (>225 days) and a history of diagnosed pesticide poisoning. Results After adjustment for state, age, race, off-farm work, alcohol, cigarette smoking, physician visits and solvent exposure, depression was significantly associated with a history of pesticide poisoning (OR 3.26; 95% CI 1.72, 6.19) but not low (OR 1.09; CI 0.91, 1.31) or high (OR 1.09; 95% CI 0.91, 1.31) cumulative pesticide exposure. Conclusion Pesticide poisoning may contribute to risk of depression. PMID:17033500

Beseler, Cheryl; Stallones, Lorann; Hoppin, Jane A.; Alavanja, Michael C.R.; Blair, Aaron; Keefe, Thomas; Kamel, Freya

2006-01-01

269

COMPARISON OF PESTICIDE ROOT ZONE MODEL PREDICTIONS WITH OBSERVED CONCENTRATIONS FOR THE TOBACCO PESTICIDE METALAXYL IN UNSATURATED ZONE SOILS  

Science.gov (United States)

The pesticide root zone model (PRZM) was developed to evaluate pesticide leaching threats to ground water for different crops under varying climatic conditions, soil characteristics, and cropping practices. In the study, PRZM was evaluated to establish its predictive capability b...

270

ANALYSIS OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES: A COMPILATION OF METHODS SELECTED FOR USE IN PESTICIDE MONITORING PROGRAMS  

Science.gov (United States)

This manual provides the pesticide chemist with methodology useful in determining human exposure to pesticides and related industrial chemicals. Methods are also presented for measuring the extent of environmental contamination with these compounds. This manual has been compiled ...

271

Ocular toxicity from pesticide exposure: A recent review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Toxic effects on eyes result from exposure to pesticides via inhalation, ingestion, dermal contact and ocular exposure. Exposure of unprotected eyes to pesticides results in the absorption in ocular tissue and potential ocular toxicity. Recent literature on the risks of ocular toxicity from pesticide exposure is limited.

Jaga, Kushik; Dharmani, Chandrabhan

2006-01-01

272

PESTICIDE SOURCES TO SOIL AND PRINCIPLES OF SPRAY PHYSICS  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past 50 years, organic pesticides have greatly enhanced the production and quality of food, feed, and fiber as well as the control of disease vectors and pests adversely affecting human health and welfare. n this review of the pesticides literature, the pesticide source te...

273

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: PESTICIDE MANUFACTURING AIR EMISSIONS--OVERVIEW AND PRIORITIZATION  

Science.gov (United States)

The report is an overview of the pesticide manufacturing industry and prioritizes 80 major pesticides based on their potential environmental burden from an air pollution standpoint. Production of synthetic organic pesticides was about 640,000 metric tons in 1974. Thirty-seven maj...

274

Pesticide leaching in macroporous clay soils: field experiment and modeling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Keywords : pesticide leaching, macropores, preferential flow, preferential transport, cracked clay soil, pesticide leaching models, groundwater contamination, inverse modeling, bentazone and imidacloprid. The presence of macropores (i.e. shrinkage cracks, earthworm and root channels) in the unsaturated zone can enhance pesticide leaching to groundwater and therefore increase the risk of groundwater contamination. In this thesis, experimental...

Scorza Ju?nior, R. P.

2002-01-01

275

Pesticide Use and Self-Reported Symptoms of Acute Pesticide Poisoning among Aquatic Farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Organophosphates and carbamates (OPs/CMs) are known for their acetylcholinesterase inhibiting character. A cross-sectional study of pesticide handling practices and self-perceived symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning was conducted using questionnaire-based interviews with 89 pesticide sprayers in Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE) Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority...

Anders Dalsgaard; Amp Rgen Holm Petersen, J.; Amp Rs, Erik J.; Flemming Konradsen; Hanne Klith Jensen

2011-01-01

276

Metabolism of pesticides in experimental animals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemistry of organo phosphate compounds was developed extensively by Michaelis, (1903) in Germany. During the second world war, when german authorities were searching for substances suitable for chemical warfare as nerve gases, the interest in organophosphorus compounds as pesticides had been initiated. organophosphorus pesticides including insecticides fungicides and herbicides have great medical and economic importance through their control of diseases and increase of production by the control of agricultural pests. - The organo chlorine pesticides involve the chlorinated ethane derivatives of which ddt is the best Known example. Such compounds have the disadvantage of being very persistent in the environment and tend to accumulate in the biological as well as non biological media (Goodman et al., 1980). They have a greater potential for chronic toxicity

277

Dietary pesticides (99. 99% all natural)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The toxicological significance of exposures to synthetic chemicals is examined in the context of exposures to naturally occurring chemicals. The authors calculate that 99.99{percent} (by weight) of the pesticides in the American diet are chemicals that plants produce to defend themselves. Only 52 natural pesticides have been tested in high-dose animal cancer tests, and about half (27) are rodent carcinogens; these 27 are shown to be present in many common foods. They conclude that natural and synthetic chemicals are equally likely to be positive in animal cancer tests. They also conclude that at the low doses of most human exposures the comparative hazards of synthetic pesticide residues are insignificant.

Ames, B.N.; Profet, M.; Gold, L.S. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

1990-10-01

278

International safety assessment of pesticides: dithiocarbamate pesticides, ETU, and PTU--a review and update.  

Science.gov (United States)

For the last 30 years the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) has carried out toxicological evaluations and safety assessments of dithiocarbamate pesticides, continuously adjusting previous appraisals in the light of new data and advances in the understanding of the principles and mechanisms of toxic action of these compounds. The historical narrative of the evaluative process is followed by an account of the present international safety assessment status of the dithiocarbamate pesticides so far examined by the JMPR. They are ferbam, mancozeb, maneb, metiram, nabam, propineb, thiram, zineb, ziram, and the associated substances, ethylenethiourea (ETU) and propylenethiourea (PTU). PMID:8732882

Vettorazzi, G; Almeida, W F; Burin, G J; Jaeger, R B; Puga, F R; Rahde, A F; Reyes, F G; Schvartsman, S

279

77 FR 59576 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals...regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals...to help readers determine whether this document...the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...CFR part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals...meat byproducts; milk; and sheep,...

2012-09-28

280

75 FR 11173 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...initial notice of filing of pesticide petition (PP) 9E7651 in...tolerances in 40 CFR part 180 for residues of the...

2010-03-10

 
 
 
 
281

76 FR 55329 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...  

Science.gov (United States)

...adverse human health impacts or environmental...exposure to the pesticides discussed in this...of the microbial pesticide Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713 variant Soil when used in or...QST 713 variant Soil would not result...Food additives, Pesticides and pests,...

2011-09-07

282

Organophosphorous pesticides in surface water of Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research aims to evaluate the presence and distribution of pesticides in Babolrood River of Mazandaran Province in Iran. Mean diazinon levels in surface water ranged from 77.6 to 101.6 ?g L(-1) with maximum level of 768.9 ?g L(-1) and mean malathion levels ranged from 55.7 to 75.9 ?g L(-1) with maximum level of 506.6 ?g L(-1). The residues of malathion and diazinon pesticides in all of the stations, 2 weeks after spraying, were more than allowed limits. PMID:22349309

Fadaei, Abdolmajid; Dehghani, Mohammad Hadi; Nasseri, Simin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Rastkari, Noushin; Shayeghi, Mansoreh

2012-06-01

283

Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms, many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence, and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization of the already approved pesticides and the approval of the new compounds in the near future. Thus, new tools or techniques with greater reliability than those already existing are needed to predict the potential hazards of pesticides and thus contribute to reduction of the adverse effects on human health and the environment. On the other hand, the implementation of alternative cropping systems that are less dependent on pesticides, the development of new pesticides with novel modes of action and improved safety profiles, and the improvement of the already used pesticide formulations towards safer formulations (e.g., microcapsule suspensions could reduce the adverse effects of farming and particularly the toxic effects of pesticides. In addition, the use of appropriate and well-maintained spraying equipment along with taking all precautions that are required in all stages of pesticide handling could minimize human exposure to pesticides and their potential adverse effects on the environment.

Christos A. Damalas

2011-05-01

284

Exploration analytique des intoxications par les pesticides Analytical investigation in pesticide intoxication cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Du fait du nombre croissant d'intoxications par les pesticides, il est important de développer des méthodes performantes permettant l'identification et le dosage des molécules appartenant à l'ensemble des classes de pesticides. Dans ce but, nous avons développé une méthode de dosage originale et sensible de 61 pesticides dans les matrices biologiques. Cette méthode utilise une procédure d'extraction solide/liquide sur support polymérique (HLB and MCX OASIS®. Le couplage chromatographie en phase gazeuse/spectrométrie de masse (GC/MS est utilisé pour les pesticides volatils (organophosphorés, organochlorés, phtalimides, uraciles et un couplage chromatographie en phase liquide/spectrométrie de masse (LC/MS pour les pesticides polaires et thermolabiles (carbamates, benzimidazoles. L'acquisition est réalisée en mode fragmentométrique (SIM. Les rendements d'extraction varient selon la nature des pesticides dosés, mais restent satisfaisants pour l'ensemble des pesticides. Les limites de détection (LOD et les limites de quantification (LOQ sont réparties entre 2,5 et 20 ng/ml et de 5 à 50 ng/ml. La linéarité a été étudiée entre les différentes LOQ et 1000 ng/ml pour tous les pesticides étudiés. Les résultats sont reproductibles et répétables, avec une bonne précision et une bonne justesse. Des exemples d'intoxication permettent de montrer l'intérêt diagnostique de ces méthodes : deux cas d'intoxication mortelle à l'endosulfan et au carbofuran ; trois autres d'intoxication aiguë au parathion-éthyle, à la bifenthrine et à l'aldicarbe. Considering the huge use of pesticides on a worldwide basis, pesticides account for a small but increasing number of human acute and severe intoxication. However, intoxication cases attributed to pesticides are not always well diagnosed nor documented. In clinical and forensic toxicology, identification and quantification of the toxicants involved are essential for a good diagnosis. Hence, we developed an original and sensitive multiresidue methods for the detection and quantitation, in human biological matrices, of sixty one pesticides of toxicological significance in human. These methods involved rapid solid-phase extraction using new polymeric support (HLB and MCX OASIS® cartridges. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS was used for volatile (organophosphate, organochlorine, phtalimide, uracil pesticides and liquid chromatography-ionspray®-mass spectrometry (LC/MS for thermolabile and polar pesticides (carbamates, benzimidazoles. Acquisition was performed in the selected ion monitoring (SIM mode. Extraction recovery varied owing to the nature of pesticides but was satisfactory for all. Limits of detection (LODs and limits of quantitation (LOQs ranged respectively from 2.5 to 20 ng/ml and from 5 to 50 ng/ml. An excellent linearity was observed from LOQs up to 1000 ng/ml for all the pesticides studied. The proposed procedures yielded reproducible results with good inter-assay accuracy and precision. A few cases of intoxication are presented to demonstrate the diagnostic interest of these methods : in two cases were determined lethal concentrations of endosulfan and carbofuran ; in three other cases, the procedures helped diagnose intoxication with respectively parathion-ethyl, bifenthrin and aldicarb.

Lacassie Éric

2009-04-01

285

Pesticides as a cause of occupational skin diseases in farmers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticides are chemical substances used in agricultural production to protect crops against pests. They help to achieve better quality and quantity of crops; however, they also are capable of causing occupational diseases in farmers. Skin is the most exposed organ while spraying the pesticide on fields. Farmers are also exposed to pesticides while mixing, loading the pesticide as well as while cleaning the equipment and disposing of empty containers. Other activities associated with exposure are sowing pesticide-preserved seeds, weeding and harvesting previously sprayed crops. During the first decades of using pesticides the main problem was the risk of acute intoxication among people occupationally exposed. With decrease in the toxicity of improved pesticides, attention was turned to chronic intoxication and environmental contamination. Nowadays, the problem of diseases not immediately related to the toxic potential of pesticides gains increasing interest. The majority of these non-toxic diseases are dermatoses. Most pesticide-related dermatoses are contact dermatitis, both allergic or irritant. Rare clinical forms also occur, including urticaria, erythema multiforme, ashy dermatosis, parakeratosis variegata, porphyria cutanea tarda, chloracne, skin hypopigmentation, nail and hair disorders. Farmers exposed to arsenic pesticides are at risk of occupational skin cancer, mostly morbus Bowen (carcinoma in situ), multiple basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas. Non-arsenic pesticides, e.g. paraquat, are also potentially carcinogenic. PMID:11426918

Spiewak, R

2001-01-01

286

Landscape parameters driving aquatic pesticide exposure and effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pesticide contamination is considered one of the reasons streams fail to achieve good ecological and chemical status, the main objectives of the Water Framework Directive. However, little is known on the interaction of different pesticide sources and landscape parameters and the resulting impairment of macroinvertebrate communities. We evaluated the potential effects of diffuse and point sources of pesticides using macroinvertebrate monitoring data from 663 sites in central Germany. Additionally, we investigated forested upstream reaches and structural quality as landscape parameters potentially mitigating or amplifying the effects of pesticides. Diffuse pesticide pollution and forested upstream reaches were the most important parameters affecting macroinvertebrate communities (pesticide-specific indicator SPEARpesticides). Our results indicate that forested upstream reaches and riparian buffer strips at least 5 m in width can mitigate the effects and exposure of pesticides. In addition, we developed a screening approach that allows an initial, cost-effective identification of sites of concern. Highlights: • Pesticide sources and landscape parameters important for holistic risk assessment. • Riparian buffer strips of at least 5 m in width can reduce diffuse pesticide input. • Forested upstream reaches enhance recovery of pesticide-affected communities. • Screening approach allows quick and cost-effective identification of problem sites. -- Our results show the interaction of different pesticide sources and landscape parameters and the resulting impairment of macroinvertebrate communities

287

ESTIMATION OF THE BURDEN OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN SLOVAK POPULATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pesticides used in the agriculture have to be applied according to the requirements of good agricultural practice and appropriate law. Pesticides leave detectable residues in agricultural crops, raw materials and ecosystem components. Pesticides reach the human population through the food chain. Information on the type and concentration of pesticide residues in food is in Slovakia collected trough the monitoring programs. Health risks associated with pesticides contaminants in human nutrition are very important and are recently studied by several expert groups. Prerequisite programs are necessary to protect public health. Risk analysis and monitoring of the population burden by pesticide contaminants have to be performed in expert level. The general strategy for assessment of toxicity of pesticides is listed by the World health Organisation. Scientific risk assessment is the basis for taking action and making the legislation at national and European community level.doi:10.5219/69

Jozef Sokol

2010-07-01

288

Public Health Implications of Pesticide Residues in Meat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. Since then various synthetic pesticides are used for protection of crops and public health. The persistence nature of some of these pesticides led to their accumulation in animal tissues and subsequently causes human dietary exposure to these pesticides through consumption of animal products viz. meat, milk, eggs and seafoods. Scientific evidence suggest that even such low dose but long term exposure can cause serious health hazards to human health and environment as well. The reports on occurrence of pesticides residues in animal products manufactured in India are fragmentary, but provide confirmation to the fact Indian consumers do get dietary exposure to these pesticides. The role of Insecticide Act and Prevention of Food Adulteration Act enforced in India for judicious pesticide use and safety of consumers of animal products is discussed. [Vet. World 2011; 4(4.000: 178-182

Jadhav V.J. and Waskar V.S.

2011-08-01

289

Effects of halving pesticide use on wheat production  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticides pose serious threats to both human health and the environment. In Europe, farmers are encouraged to reduce their use, and in France a recent environmental policy fixed a target of halving the pesticide use by 2018. Organic and integrated cropping systems have been proposed as possible solutions for reducing pesticide use, but the effect of reducing pesticide use on crop yield remains unclear. Here we use a set of cropping system experiments to quantify the yield losses resulting from a reduction of pesticide use for winter wheat in France. Our estimated yield losses resulting from a 50% reduction in pesticide use ranged from 5 to 13% of the yield obtained with the current pesticide use. At the scale of the whole country, these losses would decrease the French wheat production by about 2 to 3 millions of tons, which represent about 15% of the French wheat export.

Hossard, L.; Philibert, A.; Bertrand, M.; Colnenne-David, C.; Debaeke, P.; Munier-Jolain, N.; Jeuffroy, M. H.; Richard, G.; Makowski, D.

2014-03-01

290

Incident Diabetes and Pesticide Exposure among Licensed Pesticide Applicators: Agricultural Health Study 1993 – 2003  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Exposure to certain environmental toxicants may be associated with increased risk of developing diabetes. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between lifetime exposure to specific agricultural pesticides and diabetes incidence among pesticide applicators. The study included 33,457 licensed applicators, predominantly non-Hispanic white males, enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study. Incident diabetes was self-reported in a 5-year follow-up interview (1999–2003), giving 1,176 diabet...

Montgomery, M. P.; Kame, F.; Saldana, T. M.; Alavanja, M. C. R.; Sandler, D. P.

2008-01-01

291

Degradation of pesticides in biobeds: the effect of concentration and pesticide mixtures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biobeds aim to create an environment whereby any pesticide spills are retained and then degraded, thus reducing the potential for surface or groundwater contamination. Biobeds may receive high concentrations of relatively complex mixtures of pesticides. The effects of concentration and pesticide interaction on degradation rate were therefore investigated. At concentrations up to 20 times the maximum recommended application rate for isoproturon and chlorothalonil, the rate of degradation in topsoil and biomix decreased with increasing concentration. With the exception of isoproturon at concentrations above 11 mg kg(-1), degradation was quicker in biomix (a composted mixture of topsoil, compost, and wheat straw) than in topsoil. One possible explanation for faster isoproturon degradation in topsoil as compared to biomix may be that previous treatments of isoproturon applied to the field soil as part of normal agricultural practices had resulted in proliferation of microbial communities specifically adapted to use isoproturon as an energy source. Such microbial adaptation could enhance the performance of a biobed. Studies with a mixture of isoproturon and chlorothalonil showed that interactions between pesticides are possible. In biomix, the degradation of either isoproturon or chlorothalonil was unaffected by the presence of the other pesticide, whereas in topsoil, isoproturon DT(50) values increased from 18.5 to 71.5 days in the presence of chlorothalonil. These studies suggest that biobeds appear capable of treating high concentrations of more than one pesticide. PMID:12926881

Fogg, Paul; Boxall, Alistair B A; Walker, Allan

2003-08-27

292

CUMULATIVE EFFECTS OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS OR CARBAMATE PESTICIDES.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book chapter strives to summarize the body of literature exploring the toxic interaction of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in mixtures. This review represents one of the only reviews of the subject that has been published within the last 20 years. Specifically, th...

293

76 FR 27268 - Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerance  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0938; FRL-8872-6] Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerance AGENCY: Environmental...established tolerance for residues of glyphosate in or on corn, field, forage. Monsanto...tolerance for residues of the herbicide glyphosate, N-(phosphonomethyl)...

2011-05-11

294

DETERMINATION OF PESTICIDES IN COMPOSITE BEVERAGE SAMPLES  

Science.gov (United States)

USEPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory conducts research to measure the exposure of individuals to chemical pollutants through the diet, as well as other media. In support of this research, methods are being evaluated for determination of pesticides in composite dietary s...

295

Pesticides Provoke Endocrine Disruption A Review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Increasing numbers of environmental chemicals,including pesticides, have the ability to produce endocrine disruption by various mechanisms. such substances may affect hormone secretion from an endocrine gland and may alter the rate of hormone elimination from the body. environmental chemicals may also disrupt regulatory feedback mechanisms that exist between two endocrine organs; or may interact with a hormone receptor either by mimicking or antagonizing the actions of the natural hormone. these chemicals are referred to endocrine disruptive chemicals (EDC's). EDC's act to alter the blood hormone levels or the subsequent action of hormones . the use of radioimmunoassay(RIA) constitutes a superior and unrivalled tool for the determination and quantification of hormones.the endocrine system participates in virtually all important functions of an organism, such as sexual differentiation before birth, sexual maturation during puberty, reproduction in adulthood, growth, metabolism, digestion, cardiovascular function and excretion. hormones are also implicated in the etiology of certain cancers of hormone- dependent tissues, such as those of the breast, uterus, and prostate gland. therefore, endocrine disruption can potentially produce widespread effects. scientists should not stick to the past belief which presumes that pesticides have limited effect on some hormones. A paradigm shift in which a wider vision of understanding of the wholesome complex effects of pesticides o wholesome complex effects of pesticides on the whole body rather than a narrow limited understanding should take place

296

78 FR 44444 - Mancozeb; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...has modified the level at which the tolerance...other EBDCs, an average 7.5% in vivo...included decreased levels of thyroxine (T...stimulating hormone (TSH), increased thyroid...and the lifetime average daily dose was used...anticipated residue levels of pesticide...

2013-07-24

297

Radioisotopes in pesticide residues and metabolic studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The increasing use of pesticides and their serious role as environmental contaminants necessitate detailed studies of their metabolism,toxicology and environmental fate.The complex problems which are beyond conventional analytical analysis could,and with great precision,be solved by the use of nuclear techniques.Pesticides labelled with radionuclides(H-3,C-14,P-32 and Cl-36) can be used.Compounds labelled with these radionuclides can be easily measured,in very low concentrations, by use of liquid scintillation counters.Metabolism and distribution of the labelled compounds in the plant can be followed by autoradiography.In this study,supported by the IAEA, the following pesticides were investigated, C-14 DDT, C-14 Endosulfan, C-14 Carbaryl, C-14 Carbofuran, C-14 Amitraz, C-14 Aldicarb and C-14 Butocarboxim. The investigations included :a) study of the binding of these compounds in soils. b) study of the : i) fate and dynamics of aldicarb in cotton plant. ii) fate of amitraz in tomatoes. 'this work is part of the programme of studies of pesticide residues in soil, plants and foods, aproject supported by the international Atomic Energy Commission '.(Author)

298

Quality Control of Selected Pesticides with HPLC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laboratory data obtained on two different HPLC separation columns and detection by UV and DAD under repeatability conditions are presented and discussed. The behaviour of pesticides on different HPLC columns under gradient and isocratic conditions is evaluated concerning the applicability of respective methodologies. Representative chromatograms of real formulations and “empty” formlants are given for illustration. (author)

299

78 FR 60707 - Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0307; FRL-9396-6] Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...tolerance for residues of the herbicide glyphosate in or on canola, seed at 20 parts per...expression from the combined residues of glyphosate only, to the combined residues of...

2013-10-02

300

Pesticidas e abelhas / Pesticides and honey bees  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Após a análise dos critérios de classificação toxicológica (CT) dos pesticidas para as abelhas e da evolução da CT e da legislação específica deste tema, em Portugal, evidencia-se como a ausência de rigor da Autoridade Fitossanitária Nacional (AFN) e das empresas de pesticidas contribui para a muito [...] elevada probabilidade de mortalidade das abelhas pelos pesticidas e conclui-se com propostas de optimização das perspectivas de modificação da actual situação. Abstract in english After the analysis of the criterion of toxicological classification (TC) of pesticides to honeybees and of the evolution of TC and of legislation related to the theme, in Portugal, it is demonstrated how the absence of rigor of the Portuguese Pesticide Regulation Authority (AFN) and of the pesticide [...] s suppliers contribute to the very high probability of mortality of honeybees by pesticides and finally are presented proposals for the optimization of perspectives to modify the actual situation.

Pedro, Amaro; Joana, Godinho.

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
301

78 FR 40027 - Novaluron; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...cauliflower, cotton, pears, potatoes...for apple and cotton, and an assumption...tolerance-level residues for...and garden pest control, indoor...the case of threshold effects to...Organization for Economic Cooperation...the various levels of government...Pesticides and pests,...

2013-07-03

302

Decontamination of pesticide packing using ionizing radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Brazilian agriculture activities have consumed about 288,000 tons of pesticides per year conditioned in about 107,000,000 packing with weight of approximately 23,000 tons. The discharge of empty plastic packing of pesticides can be an environmental concern causing problems to human health, animals, and plants if done without inspection and monitoring. The objective of this work is to study the ionizing radiation effect in the main pesticides used in Brazil for plastic packing decontamination. Among the commercial pesticides, chlorpyrifos has significant importance because of its wide distribution and extensive use and persistence. The radiation-induced degradation of chlorpyrifos in liquid samples and in polyethylene pack was studied by gamma radiolysis. Packing of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) three layer coextruded, named COEX, contaminated with chlorpyrifos, were irradiated using both a multipurpose Co-60 gamma irradiator and a gamma source with 5000 Ci total activity Gamma cell type. The chemical analysis of the chlorpyrifos was made using a gas chromatography associated to the Mass Spectrometry-GCMS from Shimadzu Model QP 5000. Gamma radiation was efficient for removing chlorpyrifos from the plastic packing, in all studied cases

303

Decontamination of pesticide packing using ionizing radiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Brazilian agriculture activities have consumed about 288,000 tons of pesticides per year conditioned in about 107,000,000 packing with weight of approximately 23,000 tons. The discharge of empty plastic packing of pesticides can be an environmental concern causing problems to human health, animals, and plants if done without inspection and monitoring. The objective of this work is to study the ionizing radiation effect in the main pesticides used in Brazil for plastic packing decontamination. Among the commercial pesticides, chlorpyrifos has significant importance because of its wide distribution and extensive use and persistence. The radiation-induced degradation of chlorpyrifos in liquid samples and in polyethylene pack was studied by gamma radiolysis. Packing of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) three layer coextruded, named COEX, contaminated with chlorpyrifos, were irradiated using both a multipurpose Co-60 gamma irradiator and a gamma source with 5000 Ci total activity Gamma cell type. The chemical analysis of the chlorpyrifos was made using a gas chromatography associated to the Mass Spectrometry-GCMS from Shimadzu Model QP 5000. Gamma radiation was efficient for removing chlorpyrifos from the plastic packing, in all studied cases.

Duarte, C.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Lineu Prestes 2.242, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: clduarte@ipen.br; Mori, M.N.; Kodama, Yasko; Oikawa, H.; Sampa, M.H.O. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Lineu Prestes 2.242, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2007-11-15

304

78 FR 42736 - Spirotetramat; Proposed Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...FRL-9391-6] RIN 2070-ZA16 Spirotetramat; Proposed Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY...establish tolerances for residues of spirotetramat in or on persimmon and sweet corn...tolerance for residues of the insecticide spirotetramat, in or on corn, sweet, kernel...

2013-07-17

305

78 FR 66649 - Spirotetramat; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2012-0107; FRL-9399-4] Spirotetramat; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...establishes tolerances for residues of spirotetramat in or on corn, sweet, kernel plus...determination on aggregate exposure for spirotetramat including exposure resulting from...

2013-11-06

306

Pesticides: Improvements Needed To Ensure the Safety of Farmworkers and Their Children. Report to Congressional Requesters.  

Science.gov (United States)

In response to a Congressional request, the General Accounting Office examined issues related to pesticide safety for children in agricultural settings. Pesticides can cause acute, chronic, or delayed-onset illnesses. Children may be exposed to pesticides through farm work; eating pesticide-treated foods; or contact with drift from pesticide

Guerrero, Peter F.

307

[Pesticide residual status in litchi orchard soils in Guangdong, China].  

Science.gov (United States)

Litchi is a famous tropical and subtropical fruit originated in South China. Guangdong is one of the most important litchi production areas in China. Two hundred and eight soil samples were collected in litchi orchards after harvesting the fruit, in which nine often-used pesticides including metalaxyl, mancozeb, carbendazim, deltamethrin, cypermethrin, cyhalothrin, dipterex, dimethoate and dichlorvos were detected. The results showed that the detectable rates of various pesticides were ranked cypermethrin (59.1%) > carbendazim (51.0%) > mancozeb (11.1%) > metalaxyl (6.7%) > cyhalothrin (3.4%). Dimethoate and dichlorvos were detectable in few soil samples, and deltamethrin and dipterex were undetectable in all samples. The percentages of soil samples where different pesticides could be detected in one sample followed the order: one pesticide detectable (40.4%) > two pesticides simultaneously detectable (31.3%) > pesticide undetectable (18.8%) > three pesticides simultaneously detectable (8.2%) > four pesticides simultaneously detectable (1.4%). The concentrations of mancozeb in detectable samples averaged 39.05 microg x kg(-1), and that of cypermethrin was 7.83 microg x kg(-1). The mean concentrations of the other five pesticides ranged from 0.19 microg x kg(-1) to 1.65 microg x kg(-1). Totally, the pesticide residue status in litchi orchards in Guangdong was venial. PMID:21250457

Yao, Li-Xian; Huang, Lian-Xi; Li, Guo-Liang; He, Zhao-Huan; Zhou, Chang-Min; Yang, Bao-Mei; Guo, Bin

2010-11-01

308

Pesticide dissipation in soils as a model for xenobiotic behaviour  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the older 'hard' pesticides such as DDT dissipation meant primarily redistribution and bioaccumulation. For the majority of the pesticides currently being used, dissipation refers to all the degradation and transfer processes involved in the ultimate fate of chemicals in the environment. The degradation processes include non-biological, chemical and photochemical decomposition and biological decomposition by organisms and microorganisms. The transfer processes include pesticide sorption by soil colloids; diffusion of volatile pesticides into the atmosphere; movement downwards of pesticides into the soil in percolating waters, movement upwards with capillary water, and movement off the soil surface into surface waters; and absorption, exudation and bioaccumulation of pesticides by organisms. Knowledge of key pesticide and soil properties is necessary in understanding the fate and behaviour of pesticides. Key pesticide properties are symbolized by the acronym SILVER, which stands for solubility in water, ionizability, longevity (persistence), extractability in organic solvents, and the reactive groups present. The key soil properties are symbolized by the acronym SCOOP, which stands for structure (such as fragipans or macropores), clay type and amount, organic matter content, oxide (hydrous) content, and the pH of the system. These properties have been used in computer models to predict pesticide dissipation in soil and the environment. The greatest weakness of the environment. The greatest weakness of the models has been the inability to simulate real world conditions. (author). 41 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

309

Pesticide use knowledge and practices: A gender differences in Nepal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is important to understand gender difference on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices for identifying pesticide risks by gender and to recommend more gender-sensitive programs. However, very few studies have been conducted so far in Nepal. This study, thus, interviewed a total of 325 males and 109 females during 2005 to assess gender differences on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices. More than 50% females had never been to school and only <8% individuals were found trained in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Almost all males and females did not smoke, drink and eat during pesticides application and also believed that pesticides are harmful to human health, livestock, plant diversity and their environment. However, there were gender differences on household decision on pesticides to be used (p<0.001), care of wind direction during spraying (p=0.032), prior knowledge on safety measures (p=0.016), reading and understanding of pesticides labels (p<0.001), awareness of the labels (p<0.001) and protective covers. Almost all respondents were aware of negative impacts of pesticide use on human health and environment irrespective of gender; however, females were at higher risk due to lower level of pesticide use safety and awareness. It is strongly recommended to initiate gender-sensitive educational and awareness activities, especially on pesticide use practices and safety precautions

310

Some laboratory blood indicators in tractor drivers exposed to pesticides  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pesticides represent group of extremely different compounds or mixed compounds. They are produced in the form of powder for direct application, powder for suspension, concentrated suspension, concentration of emulsion, and in other forms as well. Influence of pesticides to exposed workers mainly depends on technology of pesticide application use. All poisons, just like pesticides that come in organism in some way and reach the location of their metabolism, accumulation in the body or extraction must get there through blood. Pesticides influence stem cells in bone marrow, then maturation process of blood elements and can damage mature blood cells in blood circulation. The sample encompassed 142 tractor drivers employed in state agricultural unions who were exposed to pesticides during their work. Concerning annual and daily exposure to pesticides in examined persons is determined that daily extent ranged from 3 to 12 hours and annual from 5 to 125 days, 60.93 in average. In the paper are analyzed following blood count parameters: erythrocytes, hemoglobin, leucocytes and thrombocytes The aim of the paper is to investigate whether pesticides influence changed blood count of tractor drivers exposed to pesticides during their work. Analysis of obtained results indicates that exposure to pesticides, like in examined group of workers, has not influenced damage in any of investigated blood count parameter.

Prokeš Bela L.

2010-01-01

311

Pesticide leaching FOCUS scenarios if only dissolved pesticides degrade: re-assessing the importance of soil water flow  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the pesticide screening policies assume that both dissolved and adsorbed pesticides are subject to transformation (or degradation), it is debatable whether this assumption is correct. Instead, it has been proposed that only dissolved pesticides may degrade, in line with the consensus on other organic contaminants for which only the dissolved or easily accessible fractions are biodegradable. If only dissolved pesticide fractions can degrade, this has major impacts on the pesticide risk assessment in the EU, which so far assumes all pesticide can degrade, whatever their chemical forms. In particular, if only dissolved pesticide degrades, the sorption process becomes completely irrelevant for the long term leached fraction: both regarding its (non)equilibrium and its (non)linearity assumptions. If sorption as such becomes less important, other processes should become more important for the leached fraction, and water flow as the major driving force is a logical candidate. Indeed, the rate of leaching can be shown to depend significantly on the net precipitation, with some prominent adjustments, if sorption becomes less dominant than in the current pesticide screening approaches. It will be shown that the celerity of leaching depends differently on the water flow, than does the leached fraction (which is crucial for pesticide admission policies). Therefore, a reconsideration of EU pesticide screening and admission policies may be necessary.

Te Brake, B.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.; Verhoef, A.

2009-04-01

312

Pesticide Toxicity Index--a tool for assessing potential toxicity of pesticide mixtures to freshwater aquatic organisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticide mixtures are common in streams with agricultural or urban influence in the watershed. The Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) is a screening tool to assess potential aquatic toxicity of complex pesticide mixtures by combining measures of pesticide exposure and acute toxicity in an additive toxic-unit model. The PTI is determined separately for fish, cladocerans, and benthic invertebrates. This study expands the number of pesticides and degradates included in previous editions of the PTI from 124 to 492 pesticides and degradates, and includes two types of PTI for use in different applications, depending on study objectives. The Median-PTI was calculated from median toxicity values for individual pesticides, so is robust to outliers and is appropriate for comparing relative potential toxicity among samples, sites, or pesticides. The Sensitive-PTI uses the 5th percentile of available toxicity values, so is a more sensitive screening-level indicator of potential toxicity. PTI predictions of toxicity in environmental samples were tested using data aggregated from published field studies that measured pesticide concentrations and toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia in ambient stream water. C. dubia survival was reduced to ?50% of controls in 44% of samples with Median-PTI values of 0.1-1, and to 0% in 96% of samples with Median-PTI values >1. The PTI is a relative, but quantitative, indicator of potential toxicity that can be used to evaluate relationships between pesticide exposure and biological condition. PMID:24463251

Nowell, Lisa H; Norman, Julia E; Moran, Patrick W; Martin, Jeffrey D; Stone, Wesley W

2014-04-01

313

Influence of different disease control pesticide strategies on multiple pesticide residue levels in apple  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Seven pesticide application strategies were investigated to control apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) and powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) and, at the same time.. fulfil the new quality standards implemented by some German retailers. These demand that pesticide residues should be below 80% of European Maximum Residue Levels (EU MRL) and that the number of residues present at levels above 0.01 mg kg(-1) should be limited to a maximum of four. The strategies fulfilled the requirement to use combinations of different active substances in order to prevent the emergence of resistance to pesticides. The trials were conducted at two sites in Switzerland, in 2007, and all strategies and applications were in accordance with actual practice. Four replicates of apple samples from each strategy were then analysed for pesticide residues. The incidence of infection with apple scab and powdery mildew were monitored during the season in order to evaluate the efficacy of the different strategies. The efficacies of the different strategies against apple scab and powdery mildew were between 84% and 100% successful. In general, the level of pesticide residues found correlated with application rate and time, and no measured residue level exceeded the EU-MRL. The numbers of residues present at > 0.01 mg kg(-1) were between two and five.

Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Naef, A.

2009-01-01

314

Estimating the biodegradation of pesticide in soils by monitoring pesticide-degrading gene expression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Assessing in situ microbial abilities of soils to degrade pesticides is of great interest giving insight in soil filtering capability, which is a key ecosystem function limiting pollution of groundwater. Quantification of pesticide-degrading gene expression by reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was tested as a suitable indicator to monitor pesticide biodegradation performances in soil. RNA extraction protocol was optimized to enhance the yield and quality of RNA recovered from soil samples to perform RT-qPCR assays. As a model, the activity of atrazine-degrading communities was monitored using RT-qPCRs to estimate the level of expression of atzD in five agricultural soils showing different atrazine mineralization abilities. Interestingly, the relative abundance of atzD mRNA copy numbers was positively correlated to the maximum rate and to the maximal amount of atrazine mineralized. Our findings indicate that the quantification of pesticide-degrading gene expression may be suitable to assess biodegradation performance in soil and monitor natural attenuation of pesticide. PMID:22991035

Monard, Cécile; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Lima, Oscar; Devers-Lamrani, Marion; Binet, Françoise

2013-04-01

315

75 FR 62738 - Revisions to EPA's Rule on Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides...  

Science.gov (United States)

...on Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides; Notification...persons who submit the results of human research for pesticides to EPA. EPA agreed...reviews of proposed and completed human research for pesticides, based on...

2010-10-13

316

78 FR 10538 - Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

...2070-AJ76 Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides AGENCY...persons who submit the results of human research with pesticides to EPA. The amendments...reviews of proposed and completed human research with pesticides, drawn from...

2013-02-14

317

76 FR 71880 - Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides; Notification of Submission to...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2070-AJ76 Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides; Notification...325320) who sponsor or conduct human research for pesticides, and to other entities that sponsor or conduct human research for pesticides (NAICS code...

2011-11-21

318

Safe Use of Pesticides, Guidelines. Occupational Safety and Health Series No. 38.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document provides guidance on the safe use of pesticides in agricultural work. General principles are given and followed by more detailed safety requirements for the various pesticide application techniques. Finally, the medical aspects of pesticides are considered. (BB)

International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

319

40 CFR 158.2040 - Biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table... § 158.2040 Biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table...to determine the biochemical pesticides residue data requirements for a...

2010-07-01

320

40 CFR 158.2082 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table...Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table...to determine the biochemical pesticides residue data requirements for a...

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
321

40 CFR 158.2172 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides residue data requirements table.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Experimental use permit microbial pesticides residue data requirements table...Experimental use permit microbial pesticides residue data requirements table...experimental use permit microbial pesticides residue. The test notes are...

2010-07-01

322

40 CFR 158.2130 - Microbial pesticides residue data requirements table.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides residue data requirements table... § 158.2130 Microbial pesticides residue data requirements table...requirements for microbial pesticides residue. The test notes are...

2010-07-01

323

40 CFR 165.81 - Scope of stationary pesticide containers included.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-07-01 false Scope of stationary pesticide containers included. 165...Containment Structures § 165.81 Scope of stationary pesticide containers included. (a) What is a stationary pesticide container ? A...

2010-07-01

324

77 FR 44229 - Cancellation of Pesticides for Non-Payment of Year 2012 Registration Maintenance Fees  

Science.gov (United States)

...those stocks of a registered pesticide product which are currently...Ravax AF Synthetic Resin Anti- Fouling Paint...Triad Pesticide. 070310-00002...those stocks of registered pesticide products which are...

2012-07-27

325

77 FR 70998 - Notice of Receipt of Requests to Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...distribution, or use of pesticides. B. What should I consider...registrants to cancel 22 pesticide products, including certain...the pyrethroid class of pesticides. It is a broad spectrum, non-systemic, synthetic pyrethroid...

2012-11-28

326

75 FR 28019 - Resmethrin; Notice of Receipt of Requests to Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...distribution, or use of pesticides. Since others also may...the pyrethroid class of pesticides. It is a broad spectrum, non-systemic, synthetic pyrethroid insecticide...EPA to cancel certain pesticide product...

2010-05-19

327

9 CFR 318.16 - Pesticide chemicals and other residues in products.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-01-01 false Pesticide chemicals and other residues...and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...PRODUCTS General § 318.16 Pesticide chemicals and other residues...ingredients. Residues of pesticide chemicals, food...

2010-01-01

328

33 CFR Appendix A to Part 274 - Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Pesticides A Appendix...Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Pesticides 1. Follow...inhalation of pesticides. Recommended...splash goggles, safety shoes,...

2010-07-01

329

40 CFR 158.2083 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides human health assessment data requirements table.  

Science.gov (United States)

...biochemical pesticides human health assessment. The test notes...Biochemical Pesticides Human Health Assessment Data Requirements...EP 3 870.2400 Primary eye irritation - rabbit R R...biochemical pesticides human health assessment as referenced...

2010-07-01

330

40 CFR 455.60 - Applicability; description of repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling...  

Science.gov (United States)

...description of repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...CHEMICALS Repackaging of Agricultural Pesticides Performed at...description of repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed...

2010-07-01

331

40 CFR 158.2030 - Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.  

Science.gov (United States)

...product chemistry data requirements table. 158.2030 Section 158.2030 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2030 Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data...

2010-07-01

332

40 CFR 158.2050 - Biochemical pesticides human health assessment data requirements table.  

Science.gov (United States)

...biochemical pesticides human health assessment. The...Biochemical Pesticides Human Health Assessment Data... 870.2400 Primary eye irritation - rabbit ...biochemical pesticides human health assessment as...Required if repeated contact with human skin is...

2010-07-01

333

Pesticides in Lebanon: a knowledge, attitude, and practice study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticides, despite their known toxicity, are widely used in developing countries. Evaluating the pattern of their use would be interesting to assess the appropriateness of adequate intervention. Using a standardized questionnaire, a knowledge, attitude, and practice study was performed in two Lebanese regions, in which a group of agricultural workers was compared to workers of the general population and a third group of pesticide distributors. Agricultural workers were exposed to pesticides during cropping, mixing, loading, and application (100%). They had low pesticide knowledge scales compared to pesticide distributors and to the general population workers (PPesticide safety education is necessary in order to induce protective behavior among agricultural workers. The general population may also benefit from increasing their awareness regarding pesticides. PMID:14643280

Salameh, Pascale R; Baldi, Isabelle; Brochard, Patrick; Abi Saleh, Bernadette

2004-01-01

334

[Investigation of pesticide residues in foods distributed in Kitakyushu City].  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated 160 kinds of pesticide residues in 715 samples of 116 kinds of foods distributed in Kitakyushu city. Sixty kinds of pesticides were detected in 55 kinds of foods (204 samples) in the range of 0.002-22 mg/kg. Five kinds of pesticides in 7 samples violated the residue standards and the indication of "unused". The detection ratios of unregulated pesticide in domestic and imported foods were 27.8 and 33.0%, respectively. Iprodione, dicofol, diethofencarb, procymidone and chlorfenapyr (for domestic food) and total bromine, benomyl, chlorpyrifos, dicofol, fenvalerate, cypermethrin and dimethoate (for imported food) showed relatively high detection ratios. Chinese cabbage, garland chrysanthemum, tomatoes and green teas (domestic) and broccoli, bananas, grapefruit, lemons, oranges, frozen edamame and frozen kidney beans (imported) showed high relative pesticide detection ratios. Residual pesticides were detected with relatively high frequency in imported fruits, imported frozen foods and imported processed foods. PMID:15272606

Ishikawa, Seiichi; Naetoko, Eri; Kawamura, Seiji; Yamaguchi, Rika; Higuchi, Masayuki; Kojima, Tsutomu; Yamato, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Masaki

2004-04-01

335

Radiation pollution control - - destruction of chlorinated pesticides in water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pesticides are being used on an increasing scale in agriculture and in insect control programmes, with the result that both the muncipal as well as industrial waste waters are showing the persistent presence of pesticides. These pesticides have extreme chemical resistance and therefore cannot be removed by conventional water treatment. Use of radiation for destruction of some organochloride pesticides, namely, BHC, DDT, aldrin, endrin, chlordane, heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide in water has been investigated at different doses of 60Co gamma radiation. Saturated solutions of pesticides in water were air-saturated and used in the studies. Their contents in the solutions were estimated by GLC. Studies show that all the chlorinated pesticides are destroyed by gamma radiation in aqueous medium. The observed chemical reactivity is ascribed to the generation of highly free reactive radicals in water due to gamma radiation. (M.G.B.)

336

The Processes that Determine the Fate of Pesticides in Soil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pesticides are an inevitable part of the environment, because due to the intensive use their remains are frequently detected in nature, particularly in the soil. Regardless the way pesticides get into the soil, their further fate will depend on many factors. Given the complexity of interactions of pesticides and soil, and the fact that the intensity of interaction of the same compound with different soil types is different, the studies of the influence of most important soil parameters on the mentioned interactions are becoming more numerous. In this paper are presented the processes that determine the fate of pesticides in the soil, as well as the factors that affect these processes. A special emphasis is placed on theadsorption processes, since they determine the concentration of free fraction of pesticide molecules, i.e. of pesticide quantity that may participate in detoxification processes including degradation and mobility.

Rada ?urovi?

2011-01-01

337

Determination of Pesticide Residues in Fresh and Greenhouse Vegetables  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Regarding the public concerns about serious health risks from pesticide, the occurrences of 105 pesticide residues including Organochlorine, Organophosphorus, Organonitrogen, Dicarboximides, Strobilurin, Triazine, Pyrethroids were assessed using a descriptive method in 25 fresh and greenhouse vegetable samples (fresh carrot, greenhouse tomato and cucumber. Ethyl acetate was used for extraction of pesticides from samples and the extract was cleaned up by Envicarb Solid Phase Extraction column chromatography. Pesticide residues were identified and quantified using gas chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry detector. The mean recoveries and limit of detection of the pesticides in samples were respectively 61.67-117% and the reproducibility of relative standard deviation values for the pesticides was 3.49-14.55%. Our data demonstrated that 80% of the total analyzed samples contained detectable residues including trifluralin, permethrin, chlorpyrifos, fenvalerate, fenpropathrin and iprodione, which were below the accepted maximum residue limits (MRLS adopted by FAO/WHO Codex Commision Alimentarius.

M.H. Azizi

2008-04-01

338

Biodegradation of Organophosphate Pesticide by Soil Fungi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study using enrichment technique biodegradation of organophosphorous pesticide, (Chloropyrifos and Ethion was performed. Two fungal isolates Trichoderma harznaium and Rhizopus nodosus isolated from the contaminated soil by enrichment technique, was capable of metabolizing the organophosphorous insecticide (Chloropyriofos and Ethion as a sole carbon source when grown in burkes mineral medium at concentration of 100 PPM respectively. Fungi were able to degrade 70-80% of the parental molecule (technical grade in 21 days period of incubation. Further, efficiency of degradation was increased by 10-20% with the supplementation of 0.1% dextrose to the mineral media. Desertion of Chloropyrifos, Ethion and its metabolites were analyzed by thin layer chromatography and gas Chromatography. It was evident from the result that the isolated fungi could be used to bioremediate the area contaminated with organophosphorous pesticide.

Harish.R

2013-03-01

339

Assessing pesticide contamination to groundwater: a rapid approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A methodology has been developed for identifying hazardous pesticides/site combinations threatening ground-water contamination. Screening methodologies are required to determine which locations and pesticides now in use should receive the greatest attention to safeguard the public health. The presented method uses a hazard to ground-water hydrogeological screening model (DRASTIC) and employs a one-dimensional pesticide transport model ( CMLS). The method is an efficient and practical techniqu...

Ehteshami, M.; Peralta, R. C.; Eisele, H.; Deer, H.; Tindall, T.

1991-01-01

340

Modeling Flight Attendants’ Exposures to Pesticide in Disinsected Aircraft Cabins  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aircraft cabin disinsection is required by some countries to kill insects that may pose risks to public health and native ecological systems. A probabilistic model has been developed by considering the microenvironmental dynamics of the pesticide in conjunction with the activity patterns of flight attendants, to assess their exposures and risks to pesticide in disinsected aircraft cabins under three scenarios of pesticide application. Main processes considered in the model are microenvironmen...

Zhang, Yong; Isukapalli, Sastry; Georgopoulos, Panos; Weisel, Clifford

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Pesticide testing in humans: ethics and public policy.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pesticide manufacturers have tested pesticides increasingly in human volunteers over the past decade. The apparent goal of these human studies is to establish threshold levels for symptoms, termed "no observed effect levels." Data from these studies have been submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for consideration in standard setting. There are no required ethical guidelines for studies of pesticides toxicity conducted in humans, no governmental oversight is exercised, a...

Oleskey, Christopher; Fleischman, Alan; Goldman, Lynn; Hirschhorn, Kurt; Landrigan, Philip J.; Lappe?, Marc; Marshall, Mary Faith; Needleman, Herbert; Rhodes, Rosamond; Mccally, Michael

2004-01-01

342

Pendimethalin exposure and cancer incidence among pesticide applicators.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Pendimethalin, a widely used herbicide, has been classified as a group C possible human carcinogen by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. We evaluated the incidence of cancer in relation to reported pendimethelin use among pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort of licensed pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. METHODS: Information on pesticide use came from two questionnaires (enrollment and take-home). The present analysis i...

Hou, Lifang; Lee, Won Jin; Rusiecki, Jennifer; Hoppin, Jane A.; Blair, Aaron; Bonner, Matthew R.; Lubin, Jay H.; Samanic, Claudine; Sandler, Dale P.; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Alavanja, Michael C. R.

2006-01-01

343

Environmental Exposure Assessment of Pesticides in Farmworker Homes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Farmworkers and their families are exposed to pesticides both at work and in their homes. Environmental exposure assessment provides a means to evaluate pesticides in the environment and human contact with these chemicals through identification of sources and routes of exposure. To date, a variety of methods have been used to assess pesticide exposure among farmworker families, mostly focusing on dust and handwipe samples. While many of the methods are similar, differences in the collection, ...

Hoppin, Jane A.; Adgate, John L.; Eberhart, Monty; Nishioka, Marcia; Ryan, P. Barry

2006-01-01

344

Fate of pesticide residues on tea from leaf to cup  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This comprehensive review of the fate of pesticides deposited on tea leaves focuses on the wide variations in MRL levels fixed by different agencies viz., EU, EPA, Codex, which may differ by as much as 200 times in individual chemicals. Hence, there is a need for harmonization of pesticide residue limits, which should be agreed to by all the stakeholders. The main factors that determine the pesticide load are the characteristics of chemicals; prevailing field conditions; the process of manufa...

Shanker, A.; Kumar, V.; Tewary, D. K.

2003-01-01

345

Determination of Pesticide Residues in Fresh and Greenhouse Vegetables  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Regarding the public concerns about serious health risks from pesticide, the occurrences of 105 pesticide residues including Organochlorine, Organophosphorus, Organonitrogen, Dicarboximides, Strobilurin, Triazine, Pyrethroids were assessed using a descriptive method in 25 fresh and greenhouse vegetable samples (fresh carrot, greenhouse tomato and cucumber). Ethyl acetate was used for extraction of pesticides from samples and the extract was cleaned up by Envicarb Solid Phase Extraction column...

Azizi, M. H.; Hadian, Z.

2008-01-01

346

Note on pesticide residues as a function of formulation used  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The total quantities of pesticides needed for adequate pest control may be minimized by the correct choice of methods of formulation and application. This will diminish the total burden of residues in the environment but not necessarily in the crop. Radiolabelled pesticides are useful for small-scale and laboratory tests to elucidate the principles which determine the behaviour of pesticides in the environment and to check analytical methods used for field-scale tests. (author)

347

In utero pesticide exposure, maternal paraoxonase activity, and head circumference.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although the use of pesticides in inner-city homes of the United States is of considerable magnitude, little is known about the potentially adverse health effects of such exposure. Recent animal data suggest that exposure to pesticides during pregnancy and early life may impair growth and neurodevelopment in the offspring. To investigate the relationship among prenatal pesticide exposure, paraoxonase (PON1) polymorphisms and enzyme activity, and infant growth and neurodevelopment, we are cond...

Berkowitz, Gertrud S.; Wetmur, James G.; Birman-deych, Elena; Obel, Josephine; Lapinski, Robert H.; Godbold, James H.; Holzman, Ian R.; Wolff, Mary S.

2004-01-01

348

Spectroscopic Methods for the Detection of Organophosphate Pesticides – A Preview  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Organophosphate pesticides are the ester forms of phosphoric acid usually considered as secure for agriculture uses due to their relatively fast degradation rates. Organophosphorus pesticides have been extensively used in the area of agriculture to manage insect or pests of a number of economically important crops. Organophosphate pesticides are well-known as the inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase activity, not in insects only, but can also affect the nervous system of other organisms as well ...

Vijay Kumar; Niraj Upadhay; Wasit, A. B.; Simranjeet Singh; Parvinder Kaur

2013-01-01

349

Pesticides and public health: integrated methods of mosquito management.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pesticides have a role in public health as part of sustainable integrated mosquito management. Other components of such management include surveillance, source reduction or prevention, biological control, repellents, traps, and pesticide-resistance management. We assess the future use of mosquito control pesticides in view of niche markets, incentives for new product development, Environmental Protection Agency registration, the Food Quality Protection Act, and improved pest management strate...

Rose, R. I.

2001-01-01

350

Radiochemical synthesis of 14C-labelled pesticides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioisotopic derivatives of pesticides labelled with either 14C or tritium are indispensable experimental tools for toxicology or metabolism studies required for registration of new compounds. The radiochemical synthetic pathways leading to the preparation of 14C-labelled pesticides of high specific activity, good chemical/radiochemical yield, and high radiochemical purity are presented for three groups of pesticides; triazines, aryl-haloids, and organometallic compounds. (N.T.). 10 refs., 1 tab

351

Assessing Diet as a Modifiable Risk Factor for Pesticide Exposure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effects of pesticides on the general population, largely as a result of dietary exposure, are unclear. Adopting an organic diet appears to be an obvious solution for reducing dietary pesticide exposure and this is supported by biomonitoring studies in children. However, results of research into the effects of organic diets on pesticide exposure are difficult to interpret in light of the many complexities. Therefore future studies must be carefully designed. While biomonitoring can account...

Marc Cohen; Liza Oates

2011-01-01

352

Progress on multi-residue determination of pesticides in food  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Food safety is important for the national economy and the people’s livelihood. Development of new analytical techniques and risk assessment for pesticide residues in foods are beneficial for risk management, risk communication and the health of consumer. This paper reviewed the new sample pretreatment techniques, pesticide multi-residue detection technologies and its applications, to provide certain reference for the development and improvement of pesticide residues detection and risk asses...

Zhu, Pan; Miao, Hong; Du, Juan; Zhao, Yun-feng; Wu, Yong-ning

2013-01-01

353

Progress on multi-residue determination of pesticides in food  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Food safety is important for the national economy and the people’s livelihood. Development of new analytical techniques and risk assessment for pesticide residues in foods are beneficial for risk management, risk communication and the health of consumer. This paper reviewed the new sample pretreatment techniques, pesticide multi-residue detection technologies and its applications, to provide certain reference for the development and improvement of pesticide residues detection and risk assessment in food.

ZHU Pan

2013-02-01

354

Influence of different carbon monolith preparation parameters on pesticide adsorption  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The capacity of carbon monolith for pesticide removal from water, and the mechanism of pesticide interaction with carbon surface were examined. Different carbon monolith samples were obtained by varying the carbonization and activation parameters. In order to examine the role of surface oxygen groups in pesticide adsorption, carbon monolith surface was functionalized by chemical treatment in HNO3, H2O2 and KOH. The surface properties of the obtained samples...

Vuk?evi? Marija; Kalijadis Ana; Babi? Biljana; Lauševi? Zoran; Lauševi? Mila

2013-01-01

355

What's being used at home: a household pesticide survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective. Since very little is known about the health effects that household pesticides have on children, we conducted this survey to identify what pesticides are being used in the home, where they are being used and stored, and what methods are used for their disposal. Methods. In the spring of 1999 we conducted a survey in a community in the state of Arizona, in the United States of America, on the border with Mexico. To be eligible to participate in the survey, households had to have used a pesticide in the 6 mo prior to the survey and to have at least one child under the age of 10 years. We gathered general information on pesticide usage, storage, and disposal, in addition to specific information about each of the pesticides currently being used and/or stored in the home. Results. In the 107 households surveyed, we found 148 pesticide products, for a mean of 1.4 per household. Half of the pesticides were stored less than 4 feet (1.22 m from the ground, at a level a child could reach. Seventy percent of all the pesticides were stored inside the home, with the kitchen being the storage room most often mentioned. The kitchen was also the room where most of the pesticides were used, with 69% of the respondents saying they had used at least one pesticide there. Conclusions. From our research we conclude that it will be important to continue to investigate all avenues of pesticide exposure in order to fully evaluate childhood exposures. Understanding household pesticide use and developing a model of exposure will help in this process. Profiles of the use, storage, and disposal of products will also guide the development of effective education and poison prevention programs in the community.

Bass Judith K.

2001-01-01

356

A case study in Bangka Island, Indonesia on the utilization of pesticides in black pepper plantations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Habits and consequences of pesticide use in pepper plantations were studied in Indonesia. The first study was conducted by questioning 117 farmers about their habits in pesticide use and determining pesticide residues on pepper berries on Bangka Island. Meanwhile, the second study was completed by analyzing exposure levels of pesticide in farmers' bodies before and after pesticide application to pepper plantations at Sukamulya, West Java. Risks of pesticide exposure to below ground terrestria...

Wiratno; Taniwiryono, D.; Brink, P. J.; Rietjens, I. M. C. M.; Murk, A. J.

2007-01-01

357

Gender Difference in Safe and Unsafe Practice of Pesticide Handling in Tobacco Farmers of Malaysia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To identify gender difference in safe and unsafe practice of pesticide handling in tobacco farmers of Malaysia, we conducted a 20-item questionnaire interview on storage of pesticide (4 questions), mixing of pesticide (3 questions), use of personal protective equipment and clothing while spraying pesticide (7 questions), activities during and after spraying of pesticide (5 questions), and maintenance of pesticide sprayer (1 question) in 496 tobacco farmers (395 males and 101 females) in Bacho...

Bin Nordin, Rusli; Araki, Shunichi; Sato, Hajime; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Bin Wan Muda, Wan Abdul Manan; Win Kyi, Daw

2001-01-01

358

Ultrasonic Induced Decomposition of Methidathion Pesticide  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A cost effective method of decomposition was developed for industrial effluents by using ultrasound in combination of H2O2. The process was optimized by studying the decomposition of methidathion pesticide at different frequencies, different ultrasonic wave amplitudes, pH and concentrations of the solutions. It was shown that the rate of sonochemical decomposition was directly linked to the OH° availability in the solution. The degradation was more efficient ...

Robina Farooq; Shaukat, S. F.; Khan, Abida K.; Umar Farooq

2008-01-01

359

Dietary exposures to selected metals and pesticides.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Average daily dietary exposures to 11 contaminants were estimated for approximately 120,000 U.S. adults by combining data on annual diet, as measured by a food frequency questionnaire, with contaminant residue data for table-ready foods that were collected as part of the annual U.S. Food and Drug Administration Total Diet Study. The contaminants included in the analysis were four heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury), three organophosphate pesticides (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathio...

Macintosh, D. L.; Spengler, J. D.; Ozkaynak, H.; Tsai, L.; Ryan, P. B.

1996-01-01

360

Biodegradation of Organophosphate Pesticide by Soil Fungi  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study using enrichment technique biodegradation of organophosphorous pesticide, (Chloropyrifos and Ethion) was performed. Two fungal isolates Trichoderma harznaium and Rhizopus nodosus isolated from the contaminated soil by enrichment technique, was capable of metabolizing the organophosphorous insecticide (Chloropyriofos and Ethion) as a sole carbon source when grown in burkes mineral medium at concentration of 100 PPM respectively. Fungi were able to degrade 70-80% of the parental m...

Harish.R; Supreeth.M; Jyoti Bala Chauhan

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Pesticide Atomization Modelling for Hollow Cone Nozzle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a new approach to model the pesticide atomization in order to get the droplet size and velocity very close to the nozzle exit. The two-phase flow was calculated inside and outside the nozzle. The model was based on classical fluid mechanics transport equations for the liquid dispersion, velocity and turbulence. Moreover, a novel transport equation was developed for the mean liquid/gas surface area, coming from studies in automotive and aeronautics fields. Coupling the tran...

Luca, M.; Vallet, A.

2008-01-01

362

Biosensor for Pesticides Based on Valerolacton Copolymer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A construction of amperometric biosensor based on immobilized acetycholinesterase and cholin oxidase is described and its application in the detection of organophosphate pesticides through enzyme inhibition measurements is discussed. The bioactive component of the sensor consists of acetycholinesterase or cholin oxidase covalently immobilized on two types new polymeric synthetic membranes. Two types of the copolymers were used for the synthesis of membranes - the copolymer of polyacrylamide a...

Yotova L.; Mateva R.; Yaneva S.; Marinkova D.

2007-01-01

363

Occurrence of organochlorine pesticides in indoor dust  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Organochlorine pesticides are present in the environment and suspected of causing serious health effects. Diet has been the main exposure source, but indoor source release is gaining focus. Within a monitoring study of polychlorinated biphenyls of Danish buildings built during the 1960s and 1970s, we coincidently determined extreme levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) levels in two of ten random samples. This raises concern and further large scale investigations are warranted to confirm this.

Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Mayer, Philipp

2011-01-01

364

National survey of pesticides in groundwater in New Zealand : 2002  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A total of 133 wells throughout New Zealand were sampled for the 2002 National Survey of Pesticides in Groundwater. The survey objectives were to provide a national overview of pesticides in New Zealand's groundwater systems, to examine changes with time from earlier surveys, and to examine factors linked with pesticide contamination. The samples were screened for atrazine in the laboratory using an ELISA test kit and, as a result of this screening, samples positive for atrazine were analysed for 58 different pesticides using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). Blind duplicate samples (6%) and quality control samples (17% of the negative ELISA screen samples) were also analysed by GCMS. Three regional councils carried out their own pesticide surveys around the same time but submitted the samples for analysis to a different laboratory. Their results are included to give a national perspective. Pesticides were detected in 28 wells (21%), with 13 wells (10%) having two or more pesticides detected. There were one or more wells with pesticides detected in nine of the 15 regions. No pesticides were detected in wells from the Northland, Hawke's Bay, Manawatu-Wanganui, Taranaki, Wellington, and West Coast regions. None of the wells in the 2002 survey had pesticides at levels above the maximum acceptable value (MAV) for drinking water (Ministry of Health 2000). Twenty-one different pesticides were detected, including two triazine metabolites, usually at very low conceine metabolites, usually at very low concentrations. Only three detections were at levels exceeding 1 mg m3. Thirty-nine out of the 58 pesticide detections (67%) belonged to the triazine group. As would be expected there were significant differences between wells with and without detected pesticides in factors associated with well or screen depth, and depth of water above the screen. In addition, lower groundwater temperatures and higher nitrate levels were associated with the increased detection of pesticides. A comparison with earlier surveys indicates that pesticide detections have been relatively stable over the past 12 years. After an adjustment to common reporting limits (reporting limits were substantially lower during later surveys), the overall frequency of pesticide detections were as follows: 1990 (7%), 1994 (13.6%), 1998 (11%), and 2002 (9%). (author). 22 refs., 4 tabs

365

Research of pesticide residues on fruit by terahertz spectroscopy technology  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticide residues on the fruit skin are measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) in 0.2-1.3THz. Pesticide is mainly residues for fruit, which threatens health of human, so the research about the fruit residues is absolutely important. In the experiment, a kind of pesticide carbendazim, orange, and the mixture of them are measured by THz-TDS, and then calculate absorption spectrums through Fourier transform and Fresnel formula. Experiment results indicate that THz-TDS is an effective tool for the measurement of pesticide residues on the fruit skin.

Ma, Yehao; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Xiaowei; Wang, Huali

2011-11-01

366

40 CFR 180.3 - Tolerances for related pesticide chemicals.  

Science.gov (United States)

...ethylenebisdithiocarbamate. Ferbam. Maneb. Manganous dimethyldithiocarbamate. Sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate. Thiram. Zineb. Ziram. (4) The following are members of the class of chlorinated organic pesticides: Aldrin. BHC (benzene...

2010-07-01

367

The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.  

Science.gov (United States)

Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. PMID:24716788

Ogada, Darcy L

2014-08-01

368

[Laser Raman spectrum analysis of carbendazim pesticide].  

Science.gov (United States)

Raman signal of solid and liquid carbendazim pesticide was collected by laser Raman spectrometer. The acquired Raman spectrum signal of solid carbendazim was preprocessed by wavelet analysis method, and the optimal combination of wavelet denoising parameter was selected through mixed orthogonal test. The results showed that the best effect was got with signal to noise ratio (SNR) being 62.483 when db2 wavelet function was used, decomposition level was 2, the threshold option scheme was 'rigisure' and reset mode was 'sln'. According to the vibration mode of different functional groups, the de-noised Raman bands could be divided into 3 areas: 1 400-2 000, 700-1 400 and 200-700 cm(-1). And the de-noised Raman bands were assigned with and analyzed. The characteristic vibrational modes were gained in different ranges of wavenumbers. Strong Raman signals were observed in the Raman spectrum at 619, 725, 964, 1 022, 1 265, 1 274 and 1 478 cm(-1), respectively. These characteristic vibrational modes are characteristic Raman peaks of solid carbendazim pesticide. Find characteristic Raman peaks at 629, 727, 1 001, 1 219, 1 258 and 1 365 cm(-1) in Raman spectrum signal of liquid carbendazim. These characteristic peaks were basically tallies with the solid carbendazim. The results can provide basis for the rapid screening of pesticide residue in food and agricultural products based on Raman spectrum. PMID:25358165

Wang, Xiao-bin; Wu, Rui-mei; Liu, Mu-hua; Zhang, Lu-ling; Lin, Lei; Yan, Lin-yuan

2014-06-01

369

Haematologic Indices in Pesticide Factory Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of pesticides on blood indices of subjects which are exposed to organophosphate toxins. This research was a cohort study which was carried out during 2005 on the employee of a pesticide factory in Golestan province (North of Iran. In this study the sampling from 63 subjects was carried out for two sessions in days 1 and 90. CBC and hematologic indices performed by cell counter instrument. The mean of MCV in phase 1 was 82.8±7.1 fl and in second phase the MCV was 80.3±6.7 fl. This drop in MCV statistically was meaningful (paired t-test, mean = 2.5, 95% CI=2.0-2.9, p<0.001. Erythrocyte number, hemoglobin, HCT and MCHC increase in second phase compared to first phase statistically was meaningful. There was not any significant relation between the place of work and variation of red blood cell indices. In regard to the changes in hematologic indices in workers of pesticide factory in a three months period, it seems logical to set up a program to have a routine check on the hematologic indices in working personal engaging in such occupations.

Hamid Reza Joshaghani

2007-01-01

370

40 CFR 158.2030 - Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table...Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table. (a) General . (1) Sections 158...to determine the product chemistry data requirements...

2010-07-01

371

40 CFR 158.2081 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.  

Science.gov (United States)

...biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table...biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table. (a) General . (1) Sections 158...to determine the product chemistry data requirements...

2010-07-01

372

Identifying and investigating pesticide application types to promote a more sustainable pesticide use: the case of smallholders in Boyacá, Colombia  

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The present paper investigates pesticide application types adopted by smallholder potato producers in the Department of Boyacá , Colombia. In this region, environmental, health and adverse economic effects due to pesticide mis- or over-use respectively have been observed. Firstly, pesticide application types were identified based on input-effectiveness. Secondly, their determinants of adoption were investigated. Finally suggestions were given to develop intervention options for transition to...

Feola, Giuseppe; Binder, C. R.

2010-01-01

373

Model approach for estimating potato pesticide bioconcentration factor.  

Science.gov (United States)

We presented a model that estimates the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of pesticides in potatoes supposing that the pesticide in the soil solution is absorbed by the potato by passive diffusion, following Fick's second law. The pesticides in the model are nonionic organic substances, traditionally used in potato crops that degrade in the soil according to a first-order kinetic equation. This presents an expression that relates BCF with the pesticide elimination rate by the potato, with the pesticide accumulation rate within the potato, with the rate of growth of the potato and with the pesticide degradation rate in the soil. BCF was estimated supposing steady state equilibrium of the quotient between the pesticide concentration in the potato and the pesticide concentration in the soil solution. It is suggested that a negative correlation exists between the pesticide BCF and the soil sorption partition coefficient. The model was built based on the work of Trapp et al. [Trapp, S., Cammarano, A., Capri, E., Reichenberg, F., Mayer, P., 2007. Diffusion of PAH in potato and carrot slices and application for a potato model. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41 (9), 3103-3108], in which an expression to calculate the diffusivity of persistent organic substances in potatoes is presented. The model consists in adding to the expression of Trapp et al. [Trapp, S., Cammarano, A., Capri, E., Reichenberg, F., Mayer, P., 2007. Diffusion of PAH in potato and carrot slices and application for a potato model. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41 (9), 3103-3108] the hypothesis that the pesticide degrades in the soil. The value of BCF suggests which pesticides should be monitored in potatoes. PMID:18752828

Paraíba, Lourival Costa; Kataguiri, Karen

2008-11-01

374

Adsorption of pesticides onto quartz, calcite, kaolinite, and ?-alumina  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The fate of pesticides in aquifers is influenced by the small but not insignificant adsorption of pesticides to mineral surfaces. Batch experiments with five pesticides and four minerals were conducted to quantify the contributions to adsorption from different mineral surfaces and compare adsorption characteristics of selected pesticides. Investigated mineral phases included quartz, calcite, kaolinite, and alpha -alumina. Selected pesticides comprised atrazine (6-chloro-N-2-ethyl-N-4-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine isoproturon [3-(4-isopropyl-phenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea)], mecoprop [(RS)-2-(4-chloro-2-methyl phenoxy)propionic acid], 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), and bentazone [3-isopropyl-1H-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-4-(3H)-one 2,2-dioxide]. Specific surface area and mineral surface charge proved to be important for the adsorption of these pesticides. Detectable adsorption of the anionic pesticides (mecoprop, 2,4-D, and bentazone) was only measured when positive sites were present on the mineral surface. However, when CaCl2 was added as an electrolyte, a detect able adsorption of mecoprop and 2,4-D was also measured on kaolinite (which exhibits a negative surface charge), probably due to formation of Ca-pesticide-surface complexes. Adsorption of the uncharged pesticides (atrazine and isoproturon) was detected only on kaolinite. The lack of adsorption on alpha -alumina indicates that the uncharged pesticides have a greater affinity for the silanol surface sites (= SiOH) than for the aluminol surface sites (= AIOH) in kaolinite. No measurable effect of ionic strength was found for the uncharged pesticides. The results indicate that quartz and calcite play a smaller role than clay minerals.

Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

2001-01-01

375

Pesticide transport with runoff from creeping bentgrass turf: Relationship of pesticide properties to mass transport.  

Science.gov (United States)

The off-site transport of pesticides with runoff is both an agronomic and environmental concern, resulting from reduced control of target pests in the area of application and contamination of surrounding ecosystems. Experiments were designed to measure the quantity of pesticides in runoff from creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris) turf managed as golf course fairway to gain a better understanding of factors that influence chemical availability and mass transport. Less than 1 to 23% of applied chloropyrifos, flutolanil, mecoprop-p (MCPP), dimethylamine salt of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), or dicamba was measured in edge-of-plot runoff when commercially available pesticide formulations were applied at label rates 23 +/- 9 h prior to simulated precipitation (62 +/- 13 mm). Time differential between hollow tine core cultivation and runoff did not significantly influence runoff volumes or the percentage of applied chemicals transported in the runoff. With the exception of chlorpyrifos, all chemicals of interest were detected in the initial runoff samples and throughout the runoff events. Chemographs of the five pesticides followed trends in agreement with mobility classifications associated with their soil organic carbon partition coefficient (K(OC).) Data collected from the present study provides information on the transport of chemicals with runoff from turf, which can be used in model simulations to predict nonpoint source pollution potentials and estimate ecological risks. PMID:20821562

Rice, Pamela J; Horgan, Brian P; Rittenhouse, Jennifer L

2010-06-01

376

Pesticide use in Latin America: Trends and environmental implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current demand for pesticides in Latin America exceeds US $2000 million in value. Up to 1990, the consumption is expected to rise annually by 7 to 12%. Use of pesticides has been fully accepted in Latin America as a readily available means of pest control. Nevertheless, even today pests are responsible for the loss of 25 to 40% of potential harvests. In banana cultivation, the cost of pesticides accounts for 30 to 35% of production costs. Latin America is in the process of changing over from persistent organochlorines to pesticides which are more sophisticated, more expensive and less persistent. The countries in the region are looking for ecologically acceptable permanent methods of pest control. Integrated pest management will reduce the risks of pesticide use by changing the systems of application. All Latin American countries have legislation on pesticide handling and use. These laws have been or are being harmonized with the International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides published by FAO. The Latin American pesticide industry is dependent on the supply of intermediate compounds and raw materials from developed countries. In addition, it has to deal with high production costs and a lack of research and development. It is far from utilizing the full installed capacity, and only an increase in commercial exchange in the region would make its position less unfavourable. (author). 28 refs, 3 figs, 8 tabs8 tabs

377

Neurological Effects of Pesticide Use among Farmers in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The intensive use of pesticides has attracted great attention from the Chinese government. However, current regulations have had limited influence on their safe use. Although the acute neurologic effects of pesticides have been well documented, little is known about their cumulative effects. Knowledge of the impact of pesticides on health may convince farmers to minimize their use. We conducted a cross-sectional study in three provinces of China to evaluate the relationship between pesticide exposure and neurological dysfunction. Crop farmers were divided into two groups depending on their level of pesticide exposure. A total of 236 participants were assessed by questionnaire and neurological examination for symptoms and signs of neuropathy. Characteristics of neurologic dysfunction following cumulative low-level exposure were assessed with logistic regression analysis. Farmers exposed to high-level pesticide use had greater risk of developing sensations of numbness or prickling (odds ratio (OR 2.62, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.08–6.36. After adjusting for recent exposure, the risk of numbness or prickling symptoms (OR 2.55, 95% CI: 1.04–6.25 remained statistically significant. Loss of muscle strength and decreased deep tendon reflexes had OR > 2, however, this did not reach statistical significance. These findings suggest that overuse of pesticides increased risk of neurologic dysfunction among farmers, with somatosensory small fibers most likely affected. Measures that are more efficient should be taken to curb excessive use of pesticides.

Yifan Li

2014-04-01

378

75 FR 29540 - Notice of Suspension of Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...FRL-8825-8] Notice of Suspension of Certain Pesticide...a certain pesticide active ingredient to take appropriate...a DCI is a basis for suspension of the affected registrations...must be done to avoid suspension under this notice...of Intent to Suspend Active Ingredients,...

2010-05-26

379

Pesticide transport via sub-surface drains in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transport of pesticides from point of application via sub-surface drains can contribute significantly to contamination of surface waters. Results of 23 field drainage experiments undertaken at sites across Europe were collated and analysed by residual maximum likelihood. Both maximum concentration of pesticide in drainflow (n = 167) and seasonal loss of pesticide to drains (n = 97) were significantly related to strength of pesticide sorption to soil, half-life of the pesticide in soil, the interval between application and first drainflow and the clay content of the soil. The statistical models accounted for 71% of the variability in both maximum concentration and seasonal load. Next, the dataset was used to evaluate the current methodology for assessment of aquatic exposure used in pesticide registration in Europe. Simulations for seven compounds with contrasting properties showed a good correspondence with field measurements. Finally, the review examines management approaches to reduce pesticide transport via sub-surface drains. Despite a large amount of work in this area, there are few dependable mitigation options other than to change application rate or timing or to restrict use of a compound in the most vulnerable situations. - Chemical and environmental factors influence pesticide transfer to water via drains.

380

Determination of pesticide residue in selected fruits and vegetable  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food contamination due to indiscriminate use of pesticides has become a serious problem. Fruits samples of tomato, grapes, musk melon, parsimen and vegetable samples of potato, pea, spinach, cabbage and pumpkin ere collected from local market of Peshawar, coming from different regions. All samples were extracted, purified and analyzed for the commonly used pesticides. Dichlorovas, BHC, Atrazine, Daizinon, Methadiathion and Cypermethrin were detected by Gas Chromatography. These pesticides were detected in vegetable samples Id Atrazine were found in potato sample and not detected in other samples. Large concentration of Cypermethrin (44.6) was detected in the pea sample. All the vegetables samples have maximum concentration of pesticides, which is higher than their MRLs, but in pumpkin no one of the above pesticides were detected. In fruits samples, dichlorovas, atrazine, diazinon, methadiathion. Cypermethrin were detected. BHC was not present in fruits samples. All these pesticides were above the MRLs. The study concluded that agriculture crops are highly contaminated due to the uncontrolled use of pesticides in project area and suggested that pesticides should be applied in calculated dose to avoid resistance and persistence due to over and under dose application. (author)

 
 
 
 
381

FOR HEALTHY KIDS: REDUCTION OF HOME PESTICIDE RESIDUE EXPOSURES  

Science.gov (United States)

For Healthy Kids focuses on preventing children's exposure to pesticides by educating agricultural workers on preventing "the take home pathway" for pesticide residue. A baseline survey encompassing over 570 households in the Yakima valley was conducted in the summer of 1999. Ho...

382

Analysis of pesticide residues Or a needle in a barn  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work is about the analysis of pesticide residues as well as the study of soil, air, water and organisms. The solvents used depend on the matrix, types of pesticides, analysis and the equipment. The chromatography engaged with mass spectrometry is one of the most used techniques.

383

Radiotracer studies of pesticide residues in food plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Researches using radiotracers as means for the rapid generation of background data critical for the efficient and safe use of pesticides at the Pesticide Toxicology and Chemistry Laboratory of the National Crop Protection Center, University of the Philippines, Los Banos, Laguna are described. Methodologies as well as results and discussions of the researches done are given. (ELC) 4 tabs.; 11 figs.; 16 refs

384

Rationale in the design of pesticide metabolism studies using radioisotopes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Numerous physical, chemical and biochemical forces act on pesticides in the environment to regulate their persistence and, to a large extent, determine their environmental and toxicological significance. Radioisotope-aided metabolism studies with pesticides in both target and non-target organisms are important to define the qualitative and quantitative aspects of pesticide degradation involved. Such studies provide valuable information that can be used in a number of ways, including prediction of the nature of potential pesticide interactions with man, estimation of potential residue occurrence in human foods, determination of pesticidal mode of action, and evaluation of potential toxicological effects on non-target species. In designing pesticide metabolism studies that utilize radioisotopes as tracers, the metabolism scientist must exercise careful judgement to ensure that his studies generate data that are scientifically sound and relevant to environmental and human health concerns. Such factors as isotope selection, label position, specific activity, treatment routes, dosage levels, replication, and the utilization of appropriate radiometric and analytical techniques are important considerations to assure the generation of useful data. Because of the very large number of potential pesticide/organism interactions that may be of interest to the metabolism scientist, specific research approaches vary greatly depending on the nature of the study organism and the specinature of the study organism and the specific pesticide involved. The rationale often used by metabolism studies in laboratory animals, livestock and poultry, plants, soil and aquatic organisms, arthropods and other pest species, non-target organisms, and for in vitro studies, is considered. (author)

385

A FUGACITY-BASED INDOOR RESIDENTIAL PESTICIDE FATE MODEL  

Science.gov (United States)

Dermal and non-dietary pathways are potentially significant exposure pathways to pesticides used in the home. Exposure pathways include dermal contact of pesticide residues with the hands and skin, ingestion from hand-to-mouth activities, ingestion through contact with toys an...

386

Residential Pesticide Usage in Older Adults Residing in Central California  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information on residential pesticide usage and behaviors that may influence pesticide exposure was collected in three population-based studies of older adults residing in the three Central California counties of Fresno, Kern, and Tulare. We present data from participants in the Study of Use of Products and Exposure Related Behaviors (SUPERB study (N = 153 and from community controls ascertained in two Parkinson’s disease studies, the Parkinson’s Environment and Gene (PEG study (N = 359 and The Center for Gene-Environment Studies in Parkinson’s Disease (CGEP; N = 297. All participants were interviewed by telephone to obtain information on recent and lifetime indoor and outdoor residential pesticide use. Interviews ascertained type of product used, frequency of use, and behaviors that may influence exposure to pesticides during and after application. Well over half of all participants reported ever using indoor and outdoor pesticides; yet frequency of pesticide use was relatively low, and appeared to increase slightly with age. Few participants engaged in behaviors to protect themselves or family members and limit exposure to pesticides during and after treatment, such as ventilating and cleaning treated areas, or using protective equipment during application. Our findings on frequency of use over lifetime and exposure related behaviors will inform future efforts to develop population pesticide exposure models and risk assessment.

Beate Ritz

2011-07-01

387

Pesticide Application and Safety Training. Sale Publication 4070.  

Science.gov (United States)

This guide is intended for use by those preparing to take the California certification examination for commercial pesticide applicators. The first chapter gives brief descriptions and illustrations of types of insect, vertebrate, plant, and microorganism pests. The other chapters cover pesticide classifications and formulations, labels and…

Stimmann, M. W.

388

Cholinergic pesticides cause mushroom body neuronal inactivation in honeybees  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pesticides that target cholinergic neurotransmission are highly effective, but their use has been implicated in insect pollinator population decline. Honeybees are exposed to two widely used classes of cholinergic pesticide: neonicotinoids (nicotinic receptor agonists) and organophosphate miticides (acetylcholinesterase inhibitors). Although sublethal levels of neonicotinoids are known to disrupt honeybee learning and behaviour, the neurophysiological basis of these effects has not been shown...

Palmer, Mary J.; Moffat, Christopher; Saranzewa, Nastja; Harvey, Jenni; Wright, Geraldine A.; Connolly, Christopher N.

2013-01-01

389

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides: A Manual for Private Applicators.  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication is a training manual for the private pesticide applicator's permit of the Michigan Department of Agriculture. The information presented in this manual is designed to assist prospective private applicators to meet certification requirements under federal guidelines. The primary focus of this publication is on agricultural pesticide

Bailey, J. Blair; And Others

390

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides: A Manual for Commercial Applicators.  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication is a certification manual for the commercial pesticide applicator's permit of the Michigan Department of Agriculture. The information presented in this manual is designed to assist prospective commercial pesticide applicators to meet certification requirements under federal guidelines. The first of the eight sections deals with…

Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

391

Degradation and leaching potential of pesticides in biobed systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biobeds provide a potential solution to pesticide contamination of surface waters arising from the farmyard. Previous work has shown that biobeds can effectively treat spills and splashes of pesticide. This study investigated the potential for biobeds to treat much larger volumes and amounts of pesticide waste not only arising from spills but also from washing processes. Two systems were assessed using a range of pesticides at the semi-field scale, ie a lined biobed system and an unlined system. Studies using the lined biobeds demonstrated that water management was crucial, with biobeds needing to be covered to exclude rain-water. Once covered, the top of the biobed became hydrophobic, restricting moisture loss and resulting in saturated conditions at depth. The drying out of the top layer coincided with a measured decrease in microbial biomass in the treated biobeds. Applied pesticides were effectively retained within the 0-5 cm layer. Whilst all pesticides tested degraded, low moisture content and microbial activity meant degradation rates were low. Studies using unlined biobeds showed that only the most mobile pesticides leached, and for these > 99% was removed by the system, with a significant proportion degraded within 9 months. Peak concentrations of the two most mobile pesticides did however exceeded the limits that are likely to be required by regulatory bodies. However, it is thought that these limits could be reached by optimisation of the system. PMID:15260294

Fogg, Paul; Boxall, Alistair; Walker, Allan; Jukes, Andrew

2004-07-01

392

76 FR 11456 - Pesticide Reregistration Performance Measures and Goals  

Science.gov (United States)

...pesticides with food uses/tolerances...complete all non-food use REDs by...Financial Statements Audit, EPA's...also known as ``fast track'' applications...applications for fast track me-too...List of Subjects Environmental protection, Pesticides...Office of Chemical Safety and...

2011-03-02

393

Monitoring of occupational exposure to pesticides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Number of pesticides applied is constantly increasing, and although in general they are beneficial they may create a genotoxic hazard to environment and human health too. The aim of study performed in four countries (Greece, Hungary, Poland and Spain) was to assess potential genotoxic risk of occupational exposure to pesticides. Interviews were performed and biological samples were taken from 426 donors, 50% unexposed and 50% donors occupationally exposed to genotoxic agrochemical. In this paper is presented comparison of results from studies on the influence of occupational exposure on individual susceptibility to the induction of the DNA damage by UV and DNA damage repair efficiency. Levels of the DNA damage induced in vivo and by various treatments in vitro were assessed by the use of single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) also known as a Comet assay. Susceptibility to UVC and repair capacities of lymphocytes of all unexposed and exposed to pesticides people from four countries was compared. A Hungarian subgroup of donors consisted of unexposed exposed and highly exposed persons. All groups of donors were at the similar age, sex and occupation. In general, all donors were free of major health problems. Lymphocytes, from collected in various countries whole blood samples were isolated and frozen, and then were transported to Poland in a dry ice for farther DNA damage analysis. In defrosted lymphocytes viability and presence of DNA damage were tested. Lymphocytes froof DNA damage were tested. Lymphocytes from Hungarian group expressed significantly lower viability of lymphocytes and very high damage (? 30 times higher than in other groups) detected either in untreated or treated lymphocytes. Results from all other groups of samples except Hungarian group did not show statistically significant differences between levels of DNA damages detected in defrosted lymphocytes from reference and exposed to pesticides subgroups. Statistically significant difference between the whole investigated groups from various countries (including or excluding Hungarian group) was observed in the mean levels of the DNA damage detected in untreated lymphocytes. In order to investigate differences in the individual susceptibilities to UV and repair capacities, other part of defrosted lymphocytes was irradiated with 6 J/m2 of UV-C and the DNA damage was measured right after exposure or after two hours of incubation with or without the presence of phytohemoglutinin (PHA). High dispersion in the responses in all groups under the study was observed. Results show multimode distributions of individual susceptibilities and repair capabilities in all groups under the study and subgroups (exposed and unexposed). Although, susceptibility to UV, estimated on the base of the efficiency of the UV induced dimmers excision process, was higher in subgroups exposed to pesticides (from Greece, Spain and Poland), though this difference was statistically significant only in the group from Poland. Results of obtained repair efficiency estimated for groups from Greece and Hungary did not indicate any significant differences due to exposure. In Polish and Spanish groups, lymphocytes from exposed to pesticides donors have shown a statistically different repair rate than lymphocytes from unexposed group, however the relation was inversed. Probably due to differences in life styles and diets, our results show statistically significant differences between national groups in all investigated biomarkers; the levels of the DNA damage detected in vivo, susceptibility to UV and repair capacity. (author)

394

SERS-based pesticide detection by using nanofinger sensors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Simple, sensitive, and rapid detection of trace levels of extensively used and highly toxic pesticides are in urgent demand for public health. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based sensor was designed to achieve ultrasensitive and simple pesticide sensing. We developed a portable sensor system composed of high performance and reliable gold nanofinger sensor strips and a custom-built portable Raman spectrometer. Compared to the general procedure and previously reported studies that are limited to laboratory settings, our analytical method is simple, sensitive, rapid, and cost-effective. Based on the SERS results, the chemical interaction of two pesticides, chlorpyrifos (CPF) and thiabendazole (TBZ), with gold nanofingers was studied to determine a fingerprint for each pesticide. The portable SERS-sensor system was successfully demonstrated to detect CPF and TBZ pesticides within 15 min with a detection limit of 35 ppt in drinking water and 7 ppb on apple skin, respectively. PMID:25490192

Kim, Ansoon; Barcelo, Steven J; Li, Zhiyong

2015-01-01

395

Enantioselectivity in environmental risk assessment of modern chiral pesticides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chiral pesticides comprise a new and important class of environmental pollutants nowadays. With the development of industry, more and more chiral pesticides will be introduced into the market. But their enantioselective ecotoxicology is not clear. Currently used synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphates, acylanilides, phenoxypropanoic acids and imidazolinones often behave enantioselectively in agriculture use and they always pose unpredictable enantioselective ecological risks on non-target organisms or human. It is necessary to explore the enantioselective toxicology and ecological fate of these chiral pesticides in environmental risk assessment. The enantioselective toxicology and the fate of these currently widely used pesticides have been discussed in this review article. - Chiral pesticides could pose unpredictable enantioselective toxicity on non-target organisms.

396

Towards a strategic approaches in alternative tests for pesticide safety.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticides have provided significant benefits including plant disease control and increased crop yields since people developed and utilized them. However, pesticide use is associated with many adverse effects, which necessitate precise toxicological tests and risk assessment. Most of these methods are based on animal studies, but considerations of animal welfare and ethics require the development of alternative methods for the evaluation of pesticide toxicity. Although the usage of laboratory animals is inevitable in scientific evaluation and alternative approaches have limitations in the whole coverage, continuous effort is necessary to minimize animal use and to develop reliable alternative tests for pesticide evaluation. This review discusses alternative approaches for pesticide toxicity tests and hazard evaluation that have been used in peer-reviewed reports and could be applied in future studies based on the critical animal research principles of reduction, replacement, and refinement. PMID:25343009

Jang, Yoonjeong; Kim, Ji-Eun; Jeong, Sang-Hee; Cho, Myung-Haing

2014-09-01

397

SERS-based pesticide detection by using nanofinger sensors  

Science.gov (United States)

Simple, sensitive, and rapid detection of trace levels of extensively used and highly toxic pesticides are in urgent demand for public health. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based sensor was designed to achieve ultrasensitive and simple pesticide sensing. We developed a portable sensor system composed of high performance and reliable gold nanofinger sensor strips and a custom-built portable Raman spectrometer. Compared to the general procedure and previously reported studies that are limited to laboratory settings, our analytical method is simple, sensitive, rapid, and cost-effective. Based on the SERS results, the chemical interaction of two pesticides, chlorpyrifos (CPF) and thiabendazole (TBZ), with gold nanofingers was studied to determine a fingerprint for each pesticide. The portable SERS-sensor system was successfully demonstrated to detect CPF and TBZ pesticides within 15 min with a detection limit of 35 ppt in drinking water and 7 ppb on apple skin, respectively.

Kim, Ansoon; Barcelo, Steven J.; Li, Zhiyong

2015-01-01

398

Sparingly soluble pesticide dissolved in ionic liquid aqueous.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ionic liquids may be considered as "environment-friendly solvents" for sparingly soluble pesticides. In this study, a series of aqueous ionic liquids (ILs) with different cations and different anions was used as environment-friendly alternative to harmful organic solvents sparingly dissolved in soluble pesticides (metolachlor, acetochlor, clethodim, thiamethoxam, and prochloraz). The aggregation behavior of aqueous ILs was investigated through surface tension measurement. Minimum area per IL molecule (Amin) values from the surface tension measurement showed that alkyl chain length and the halide anions strongly affect the aggregation behavior of ILs and the solubilization of pesticides. The solubility of metolachlor, acetochlor, clethodim, thiamethoxam, nitenpyram, and prochloraz in aqueous ILs increased. More importantly, the solubility of prochloraz in [C10mim][I] became 5771-fold higher than that in pure water. The substantially enhanced solubility of the above pesticides proved that aqueous ILs are promising environment-friendly solvents for pesticides that are commercially processed in emulsifiable concentrate (EC) formulation. PMID:25222470

Fan, Tengfei; Wu, Xuemin; Peng, Qingrong

2014-10-01

399

Effects of potential neurotoxic pesticides on hearing loss: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several pesticides are supposed to be neurotoxic for humans, consequently, they may also affect the auditory system. This review analyzes human and experimental animal studies testing the hypothesis that exposure to pesticides is associated with hearing loss. The literature on this topic is still sparse and methodological limitations of some papers evaluated are identified. As a whole, available data indicate a possible ototoxic action of pesticides, but alternative hypotheses could not be ruled out, also considering some confounders, such as the co-exposure to noise. Therefore, further studies are necessary in order to clarify the association between pesticides exposure and hearing loss. While awaiting more evidence, for precautionary action we recommend considering pesticides as possible ototoxic agents, in particular for vulnerable targets, such as pregnant women and children during early development. PMID:24704267

Gatto, M P; Fioretti, M; Fabrizi, G; Gherardi, M; Strafella, E; Santarelli, L

2014-05-01

400

Pesticide Residues and Bees – A Risk Assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

Bees are essential pollinators of many plants in natural ecosystems and agricultural crops alike. In recent years the decline and disappearance of bee species in the wild and the collapse of honey bee colonies have concerned ecologists and apiculturalists, who search for causes and solutions to this problem. Whilst biological factors such as viral diseases, mite and parasite infections are undoubtedly involved, it is also evident that pesticides applied to agricultural crops have a negative impact on bees. Most risk assessments have focused on direct acute exposure of bees to agrochemicals from spray drift. However, the large number of pesticide residues found in pollen and honey demand a thorough evaluation of all residual compounds so as to identify those of highest risk to bees. Using data from recent residue surveys and toxicity of pesticides to honey and bumble bees, a comprehensive evaluation of risks under current exposure conditions is presented here. Standard risk assessments are complemented with new approaches that take into account time-cumulative effects over time, especially with dietary exposures. Whilst overall risks appear to be low, our analysis indicates that residues of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides pose the highest risk by contact exposure of bees with contaminated pollen. However, the synergism of ergosterol inhibiting fungicides with those two classes of insecticides results in much higher risks in spite of the low prevalence of their combined residues. Risks by ingestion of contaminated pollen and honey are of some concern for systemic insecticides, particularly imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and the mixtures of cyhalothrin and ergosterol inhibiting fungicides. More attention should be paid to specific residue mixtures that may result in synergistic toxicity to bees. PMID:24718419

Sanchez-Bayo, Francisco; Goka, Koichi

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Water Pollution with Special Reference to Pesticide Contamination in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pesticides belong to a category of chemicals used worldwide as herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, ro-denticides, molluscicides, nematicides, and plant growth regulators in order to control weeds, pests and dis-eases in crops as well as for health care of humans and animals. The positive aspect of application of pesti-cides renders enhanced crop/food productivity and drastic reduction of vector-borne diseases. However, their unregulated and indiscriminate applications have raised serious concerns about the entire environment in general and the health of humans, birds and animals in particular. Despite ban on application of some of the environmentally persistent and least biodegradable pesticides (like organochlorines in many countries, their use is ever on rise. Pesticides cause serious health hazards to living systems because of their rapid fat solu-bility and bioaccumulation in non-target organisms. Even at low concentration, pesticides may exert several adverse effects, which could be monitored at biochemical, molecular or behavioral levels. The factors af-fecting water pollution with pesticides and their residues include drainage, rainfall, microbial activity, soil temperature, treatment surface, application rate as well as the solubility, mobility and half life of pesticides. In India organochlorine insecticides such as DDT and HCH constitute more than 70% of the pesticides used at present. Reports from Delhi, Bhopal and other cities and some rural areas have indicated presence of sig-nificant level of pesticides in fresh water systems as well as bottled drinking mineral water samples. The ef-fects of pesticides pollution in riverine systems and drinking water in India has been discussed in this review.

Anju Agrawal

2010-05-01

402

The combined antiandrogenic effects of five commonly used pesticides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, mixture effects of five dissimilarly acting pesticides were analyzed for antiandrogenic effects in vitro and in vivo. Deltamethrin, methiocarb, prochloraz, simazine, and tribenuron-methyl are all commonly used for agricultural and horticultural purposes. Concentration-response curves for the inhibition of R1881-induced transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor (AR) in vitro of each pesticide alone and in an equimolar mixture were obtained. The IC25 values for deltamethrin, methiocarb, prochloraz, and the mixture were 5.8, 5.8, 3.5, and 7.5 ?M, respectively. Simazine and tribenuron-methyl were ineffective. Applying the isobole method resulted in an isobole coefficient of 0.94 at IC25 for the effect of the mixture, indicating additive effects of the compounds. Comparison of observed effects and effects calculated by assuming additivity also strongly indicated additive effects of the pesticides in vitro. In vivo, each of the five pesticides and a mixture of the pesticides were tested for antiandrogenic effects in castrated testosterone-treated Wistar rats. The mixture induced a significant change of weights of the levator ani/bulbocavernosus muscle and adrenal glands. Changes in gene expression in ventral prostates were observed as distinct effects on levels of ornithin decarboxylase (ODC) mRNA and effects on levels of prostate binding protein subunit C3 (PBP C3) mRNA. No pesticide-induced effect on the level of testosterone-uced effect on the level of testosterone-repressed prostatic message 2 (TRPM-2) mRNA was observed, whereas flutamide increased TRPM-2 levels. In conclusion, the pesticides were found to act additively in vitro. In vivo, the organ weight changes indicated that the pesticides had an accumulating effect that was not observed for the individual pesticides. Several pesticide-induced gene expression changes were observed, indicating that these are either very sensitive antiandrogenic end-points or that these changes are induced by a pathway not related to AR

403

Association between environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative diseases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preliminary studies have shown associations between chronic pesticide exposure in occupational settings and neurological disorders. However, data on the effects of long-term non-occupational exposures are too sparse to allow any conclusions. This study examines the influence of environmental pesticide exposure on a number of neuropsychiatric conditions and discusses their underlying pathologic mechanisms. An ecological study was conducted using averaged prevalence rates of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, cerebral degeneration, polyneuropathies, affective psychosis and suicide attempts in selected Andalusian health districts categorized into areas of high and low environmental pesticide exposure based on the number of hectares devoted to intensive agriculture and pesticide sales per capita. A total of 17,429 cases were collected from computerized hospital records (minimum dataset) between 1998 and 2005. Prevalence rates and the risk of having Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and suicide were significantly higher in districts with greater pesticide use as compared to those with lower pesticide use. The multivariate analyses showed that the population living in areas with high pesticide use had an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts and that males living in these areas had increased risks for polyneuropathies, affective disorders and suicide attempts. In conclusion, this study supports and extends previous findings and provides an indication that environmental exposure to pesticides may affect the human health by increasing the incidence of certain neurological disorders at the level of the general population. -- Highlights: ? Environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative–psychiatric disorders. ? Increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts in high exposure areas. ? Males from areas with high pesticide exposure had a higher risk of polyneuropathy. ? Males from high exposure areas had a higher risk of affective psychosis and suicide. ? Nerve tissue degeneration due to oxidative damage may underlie the pathomechanism.

404

The combined antiandrogenic effects of five commonly used pesticides  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this study, mixture effects of five dissimilarly acting pesticides were analyzed for antiandrogenic effects in vitro and in vivo. Deltamethrin, methiocarb, prochloraz, simazine, and tribenuron-methyl are all commonly used for agricultural and horticultural purposes. Concentration-response curves for the inhibition of R1881-induced transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor (AR) in vitro of each pesticide alone and in an equimolar mixture were obtained. The IC25 values for deltamethrin, methiocarb, prochloraz, and the mixture were 5.8, 5.8, 3.5, and 7.5 muM, respectively. Simazine and tribenuron-methyl were ineffective. Applying the isobole method resulted in an isobole coefficient of 0.94 at IC25 for the effect of the mixture, indicating additive effects of the compounds. Comparison of observed effects and effects calculated by assuming additivity also strongly indicated additive effects of the pesticides in vitro. In vivo, each of the five pesticides and a mixture of the pesticides were tested for antiandrogenic effects in castrated testosterone-treated Wistar rats. The mixture induced a significant change of weights of the levator ani/bulbocavernosus muscle and adrenal glands. Changes in gene expression in ventral prostates were observed as distinct effects on levels of ornithin decarboxylase (ODC) mRNA and effects on levels of prostate binding protein subunit C3 (PBP C3) mRNA. No pesticide-induced effect on the level of testosterone-repressed prostatic message 2 (TRPM-2) mRNA was observed, whereas flutamide increased TRPM-2 levels. In conclusion, the pesticides were found to act additively in vitro. In vivo, the organ weight changes indicated that the pesticides had an accumulating effect that was not observed for the individual pesticides. Several pesticide-induced gene expression changes were observed, indicating that these are either very sensitive antiandrogenic end-points or that these changes are induced by a pathway not related to AR.

Kjærstad, Mia BirkhØj; Nellemann, Christine Lydia

2004-01-01

405

Photodegradation of chlorinated pesticides dispersed on sand.  

Science.gov (United States)

The photochemical behaviour of several chlorinated pesticides, namely 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), dichlorophen (DCPH), flamprop-methyl (FPM) and vinclozolin (VCZ) is studied on various kinds of sand: Fontainebleau sand (almost pure silica), Touggourt sand (coloured sand from Sahara) and Jijel sand (dark marine sand). The photodegradation of MCPA is more rapid on Fontainebleau sand than on the two others, because the former is almost colourless pure silica and the others adsorb on the internal surface of the reactor. The degradation rate decreases in the order MCPA, DCPH, FPM, VCZ. The main products identified are 4-chloro-2-methylphenol with MCPA and reduction product with DCPH. PMID:15686762

Zertal, Abdennour; Jacquet, Michel; Lavédrine, Bernadette; Sehili, Tahar

2005-03-01

406

Crystal structure of flufenoxuron: a benzoylurea pesticide  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The title compound, C21H11ClF6N2O3 (systematic name: 1-{4-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-fluorophenyl}-3-(2,6-difluorobenzoyl)urea), is a benzoylurea pesticide. The dihedral angles between the central fluorobenzene ring and the terminal difluorophenyl ring and chlorophenyl ring system are 62.15?(5) and 88.03?(5)°, respectively. In the crystal, N—H...O hydrogen bonds link adjacent molecules, forming R22(8) inversion dimers that pack into loop chains along the a-axis direction b...

Youngeun Jeon; Gihaeng Kang; Sangjin Lee; Tae Ho Kim

2014-01-01

407

Decontamination of spills and residues of some pesticides and of protective clothing worn during the handling of the pesticides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Users of pesticides may have waste or surplus quantities or spills for disposal. One alternative is to deactivate the pesticide at the handling site by using a straightforward chemical reaction. This option can be practical for those who use relatively small quantities of a large variety of pesticides, for example, greenhouse workers, small farmers, and agricultural researchers. This paper describes practical on-site methods for the disposal of spills or small waste quantities of five commonly used pesticides, Diazinon, Chlorpyrifos, Iprodione, 2,4-D, and Captan. These have been tested in the laboratory for the rate of disappearance of the pesticide, the degree of conversion to nontoxic products, the nature and identity of the products, the practicality of the method, and the ease of reproducibility. Methods selected were shown to be safe for the operator, reliable, and reproducible. Greater than 99% of the starting material had to be reacted under reasonable conditions and length of time. Detailed descriptions of the reactions are presented, so that they can be performed with reproducible results. Protective clothing worn during the handling and application of pesticides may become contaminated. Simple laundering does not always remove all of the pesticide residues. Thus, chronic dermal exposure may result from the pesticide-contaminated clothing. Appropriate methods of laundering using specific pretreatments have been determined. 7 refs.

Armour, M.A.; Nelson, C.; Sather, P. Briker, Y. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)] [and others

1996-12-31

408

Pesticide Use and Self-Reported Symptoms of Acute Pesticide Poisoning among Aquatic Farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organophosphates and carbamates (OPs/CMs) are known for their acetylcholinesterase inhibiting character. A cross-sectional study of pesticide handling practices and self-perceived symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning was conducted using questionnaire-based interviews with 89 pesticide sprayers in Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE) Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority of the farmers (88%) had experienced symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning, and this was significantly associated with the number of hours spent spraying with OPs/CMs (OR = 1.14, CI 95%: 1.02-1.28). The higher educated farmers reduced their risk of poisoning by 55% for each extra personal protective measure they adapted (OR = 0.45, CI 95%: 0.22-0.91). These findings suggest that improving safe pesticide management practices among the farmers and enforcing the effective banning of the most toxic pesticides will considerably reduce the number of acute pesticide poisoning episodes. PMID:21234245

Jensen, Hanne Klith; Konradsen, Flemming; Jørs, Erik; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Dalsgaard, Anders

2011-01-01

409

Pesticide use and self-reported symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning among aquatic farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Organophosphates and carbamates (OPs/CMs) are known for their acetylcholinesterase inhibiting character. A cross-sectional study of pesticide handling practices and self-perceived symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning was conducted using questionnaire-based interviews with 89 pesticide sprayers in Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE) Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority of the farmers (88%) had experienced symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning, and this was significantly associated with the number of hours spent spraying with OPs/CMs (OR = 1.14, CI 95%: 1.02-1.28). The higher educated farmers reduced their risk of poisoning by 55% for each extra personal protective measure they adapted (OR = 0.45, CI 95%: 0.22-0.91). These findings suggest that improving safe pesticide management practices among the farmers and enforcing the effective banning of the most toxic pesticides will considerably reduce the number of acute pesticide poisoning episodes.

Jensen, Hanne Klith; Konradsen, Flemming

2011-01-01

410

Pesticide Use and Self-Reported Symptoms of Acute Pesticide Poisoning among Aquatic Farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Organophosphates and carbamates (OPs/CMs) are known for their acetylcholinesterase inhibiting character. A cross-sectional study of pesticide handling practices and self-perceived symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning was conducted using questionnaire-based interviews with 89 pesticide sprayers in Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE) Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority of the farmers (88%) had experienced symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning, and this was significantly associated with the number of hours spent spraying with OPs/CMs (OR = 1.14, CI 95%: 1.02-1.28). The higher educated farmers reduced their risk of poisoning by 55% for each extra personal protective measure they adapted (OR = 0.45, CI 95%: 0.22-0.91). These findings suggest that improving safe pesticide management practices among the farmers and enforcing the effective banning of the most toxic pesticides will considerably reduce the number of acute pesticide poisoning episodes.

Jensen, Hanne Klith; Konradsen, Flemming

2011-01-01

411

Pesticide Safety for Farmworkers = Uso Seguro de Pesticidas para los Trabajadores del Campo.  

Science.gov (United States)

A booklet for farmworkers and employers uses illustrations and simple text in English and Spanish to inform about the dangers, precautions, and use of pesticides. Topics covered include methods of pesticide absorption; signs/symptoms of pesticide poisoning; first aid; residues; appropriate work clothes; safe and unsafe pesticide practices; how to…

Poli, Bonnie; Fluker, Sam S.

412

A novel chemiluminescence assay of organophosphorous pesticide quinalphos residue in vegetable with luminol detection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Organophosphorous pesticides are the most popular pesticides used in agriculture. As acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, organophosphorous pesticides are toxic organic chemicals. The control and detection of organophosphorous pesticide residue in food, water, and environment therefore plays a very important role in maintaining physical health. A sensitive, rapid, simple chemiluminescence(CL) method has been developed for the determination of quinalphos based ...

Yao Xin; Jiang Feng; Liu Xiaoyu; Hu Haoyu; Cui Xiaocheng

2010-01-01

413

Impacts of pesticides in a Central California estuary.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent and past studies have documented the prevalence of pyrethroid and organophosphate pesticides in urban and agricultural watersheds in California. While toxic concentrations of these pesticides have been found in freshwater systems, there has been little research into their impacts in marine receiving waters. Our study investigated pesticide impacts in the Santa Maria River estuary, which provides critical habitat to numerous aquatic, terrestrial, and avian species on the central California coast. Runoff from irrigated agriculture constitutes a significant portion of Santa Maria River flow during most of the year, and a number of studies have documented pesticide occurrence and biological impacts in this watershed. Our study extended into the Santa Maria watershed coastal zone and measured pesticide concentrations throughout the estuary, including the water column and sediments. Biological effects were measured at the organism and community levels. Results of this study suggest the Santa Maria River estuary is impacted by current-use pesticides. The majority of water samples were highly toxic to invertebrates (Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca), and chemistry evidence suggests toxicity was associated with the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos, pyrethroid pesticides, or mixtures of both classes of pesticides. A high percentage of sediment samples were also toxic in this estuary, and sediment toxicity occurred when mixtures of chlorpyrifos and pyrethroid pesticides exceeded established toxicity thresholds. Based on a Relative Benthic Index, Santa Maria estuary stations where benthic macroinvertebrate communities were assessed were degraded. Impacts in the Santa Maria River estuary were likely due to the proximity of this system to Orcutt Creek, the tributary which accounts for most of the flow to the lower Santa Maria River. Water and sediment samples from Orcutt Creek were highly toxic to invertebrates due to mixtures of the same pesticides measured in the estuary. This study suggests that the same pyrethroid and organophosphate pesticides that have been shown to cause water and sediment toxicity in urban and agriculture water bodies throughout California, have the potential to affect estuarine habitats. The results establish baseline data in the Santa Maria River estuary to allow evaluation of ecosystem improvement as management initiatives to reduce pesticide runoff are implemented in this watershed. PMID:24464329

Anderson, Brian; Phillips, Bryn; Hunt, John; Siegler, Katie; Voorhees, Jennifer; Smalling, Kelly; Kuivila, Kathy; Hamilton, Mary; Ranasinghe, J Ananda; Tjeerdema, Ron

2014-03-01

414

Exposure assessment of the cumulative intake of pesticides with dissimilar mode of action  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Risk assessment of pesticides is currently based on the no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for effects of single compounds. However, humans might be exposed to a mixture of pesticides at the same time and the exposure could occur from more pesticides with endocrine disrupting effects. In this study the effects of combined exposure from four endocrine disrupting pesticides have been investigated (procymidone, mancozeb, tebuconazole, and prochloraz). The four pesticides have dissimilar mode of actions. On the background of the potency for each pesticide to a given effect, a relative potency factor and the cumulative acute exposure of the pesticides have been estimated.

Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette

415

Determination of pesticide residues in cereal grains  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The applicability of the TLC for determination of pesticide residues in cereal grains was studied using corn, rice and wheat as representative commodities and atrazine, captan, chlorpyrifos, chlortoluron, diazinon, diuron, fenitrothion, metoxuron, prochloraz, triforine as representative compounds. Following the extraction with ethyl acetate the efficiency of extraction was tested with Bio-Rad SX-3 gel, GPC, silica gel, florisil and RP-18 reverse phase silica cartridge. The GPC alone or in combination with silica or florisil cleanup were the most suitable for cleanup of the extracts. The TLC elution characteristics of 131 pesticide active ingredients were tested with eight elution systems. The detectability of the selected compounds was determined with six detection methods including two chemical and four bioassay procedures. In addition to the basic methods, the non-toxic Penicillium cyclopium fungi spore inhibition was introduced and it was found very sensitive for some fungicide compounds. The minimum detectable quantities of the tested compounds ranged from 1 ng to 100 ng. The average recoveries from rice and wheat ranged from 78% to 89%, and the limits of quantitation, LOQ, were between 0.01 and 0.2 mg/kg for the selected ten compounds. (author)

416

Agriculture, pesticides, food security and food safety  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Decades ago, agrochemicals were introduced aiming at enhancing crop yields and at protecting crops from pests. Due to adaptation and resistance developed by pests to chemicals, every year higher amounts and new chemical compounds are used to protect crops, causing undesired side effects and raising the costs of food production. Eventually, new techniques, including genetically modified organisms (GMOs) resistant to pests, could halt the massive spread of agrochemicals in agriculture fields. Biological chemical-free agriculture is gaining also more and more support but it is still not able to respond to the need for producing massive amounts of food. The use of agrochemicals, including pesticides, remains a common practice especially in tropical regions and South countries. Cheap compounds, such as DDT, HCH and lindane, that are environmentally persistent, are today banned from agriculture use in developed countries, but remain popular in developing countries. As a consequence, persistent residues of these chemicals contaminate food and disperse in the environment. Coordinated efforts are needed to increase the production of food but with a view to enhanced food quality and safety as well as to controlling residues of persistent pesticides in the environment.

Carvalho, Fernando P. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, P-2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)]. E-mail: carvalho@itn.pt

2006-11-15

417

Action of formamidine pesticides on octopamine receptors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The formamidines are a structurally novel group of pesticides of growing importance in the control of mites, cattle ticks and certain orders of insects which have become resistant to conventional acaricides and insecticides. Their mode of action is complex with dose-dependent lethal and subletahal effects. At sublethal levels they cause behavioural changes in the target pest species (for example in feeding and in mating behaviours), changes which are responsible for the protective effects on crops and livestock. Although many suggestions have been made for the underlying biochemical mechanism, including inhibition of monoamine oxidase activity, uncoupling of respiration and blockade of neuromuscular transmission, no direct evidence has been presented. Another possibility is interaction with octopamine receptors in the central nervous system. We report here that the formamidine acaricide/insecticide, chlordimeform (CDM), and its demethylated deivative can mimic the actions of octopamine at the locust neuromuscular junctions. This gives the clearest evidence to date of the site of action of the formamidines and indicates a novel mode of action for these pesticides. PMID:6251379

Evans, P D; Gee, J D

1980-09-01

418

Biological implications of pesticides : studies with lindane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some aspects of metabolism of lindane, a pesticide, are investigated. These aspects have a bearing on the toxicity assessment of the pesticide. Young adult male Wistar rats were administered a single dose of Aroclor 1254(50 mg/kg body wt.) by stomach tube, 48 h prior to sacrifice for induction of microsomal enzymes. For metabolic transformation studies, liver slices of decapitated rats were suspended in Krebs-Ringer phosphate buffer containing 1 ?Ci of U-14C-lindane and 10 mg of cephalosporin antibiotic 'keflin'. After incubation for 60 min, radioactivity was measured and metabolites were isolated and identified by gas chromatography. The mutagenicity of lindane and hexachlorobenzene was also examined using the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome mutagenicity test of Ames and others (1975). Data on the incorporation of radioactivity from labelled lindane into hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorophenol and notably carbon dioxide in the presence of a wide-spectrum antibiotic indicate that liver enzymes are involved in the breakdown of aromatic ring of lindane yielding CO2, excluding the possibility of any role of intestinal flora in metabolism of lindane. As to mutagenicity, the findings in different experiments were not consistent, and no firm conclusion could be drawn. (M.G.B.)

419

[Assessment on acute toxicity of combined pesticides].  

Science.gov (United States)

The acute oral toxicity (LD50) of two pesticides combined from 3 categories of insecticides, i.e. organophosphates(OPs), pyrethroids and carbamates, was evaluated by Harris method on equal toxicity doses. The OPs compounds studied included: methylparathion, omethoate, methamidophos, phoxim, dichlorvos, profenofos, isocarbophos and malathion; the pyrethroids: alpha-cypermethrin, deltamethrin, fenvalerate and fenpropathrin; the carbamates: methomyl, isoprocarb and metolcarb. The mixtures of two OPs on the combination of dichlorvos plus omethoate and methamidophos plus profenofos showed additive effects, but methylparathion plus phoxim showed antagonistic effect. Most of the combination of OPs with pyrethroids showed synergistic effects, such as the mixtures of phoxim plus deltamethrin, phoxim plus alpha-cypermethrin, methlyparathion plus alpha-cypermethrin and ioscoarbphos plus fenpropthrin, with the exception of two mixtures showed additive effects: phoxim plus fenvalerate resulting in 1.5 times higher toxicity than expected, while dichlorvos plus deltamethrin resulting in less toxicity than expected. The effects of the mixtures of OPs and carbamates: phoxim plus methomyl and methamidophos plus metolcarb, were all additive, but the mixtures of he methylparathion plus methomyl showed antagonistic effect and malathion plus isoprocarb were synergistic. The biochemical mechanisms of changed toxicity of pesticides mixtures were discussed based on their toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics. It was concluded that the combined effects of insecticide mixtures were additive for OPs plus OPs or plus carbamates in most cased, but synergistic for OPs plus pyrethroids. PMID:12725074

Sun, J; Chen, B; Yao, P

2000-03-30

420

Bacterial ghost technology for pesticide delivery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial ghosts are nondenaturated empty cell envelopes of Gram-negative bacteria produced by E-mediated lysis. Such envelopes from the plant-adhering bacterium Pectobacterium cypripedii were tested for their ability to adhere to plant material and to be used as carriers for pesticide delivery. We show, using fluorescence-labeled P. cypripedii ghosts, that depending on the target plants 55 or 10% (rice or soya, respectively) of the applied bacterial ghosts was retained on the leaves after heavy simulated rain (84 mm). Furthermore, the bacterial ghosts could be loaded with the lipophilic triazole fungicide tebuconazole. In subsequent plant experiments in the glass house, the efficacy of the loaded bacterial ghost for resistance to rainfall and the protective and curative effects against the pathogens Erysiphe graminis, Leptosphaeria nodorum, and Pyrenophora teres on barley and wheat and against Sphaerotheca fuliginea on cucumber were tested. The bacterial ghosts were compared primarily with a commercial tebuconazole formulation, a wettable powder, as it has similar physical characteristics. The comparison revealed similar effects and showed consistently higher or comparable efficacy against the pathogens. The standard operational comparison with the most protective, cereal specific emulsion of oil in water displayed that the bacterial ghosts had equal to or lower efficacy than the emulsion. This study confirmed the potential of bacterial ghost platform technology as a new alternative carrier system for pesticides. PMID:15373403

Hatfaludi, Tamás; Liska, Martina; Zellinger, Daniela; Ousman, Jarju Pa; Szostak, Michael; Ambrus, Arpád; Jalava, Katri; Lubitz, Werner

2004-09-01

 
 
 
 
421

The effects of pesticide mixtures on degradation of pendimethalin in soils  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most agronomic situations involve a sequence of herbicide, fungicide, and insecticide application. On the other hand, use of pesticidal combinations has become a standard practice in the production of many agricultural crops. One of the most important processes influencing the behavior of a pesticide in the environment is its degradation in soil. It is known that due to several pesticide applications in one vegetation season, the pesticide may be present in mixtures with other pesticides or x...

Swarcewicz, Maria K.; Gregorczyk, Andrzej

2012-01-01

422

Fate of pesticides in a distilled spirit of barley shochu during the distillation process.  

Science.gov (United States)

Moromi (the fermented mash) of "mugi shochu" that had been artificially contaminated with pesticides was distilled to elucidate the fate of pesticides in the distillation process. The pesticides residing in the distillate were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Of the analyzed pesticides (249 compounds), 89% were not detected in the distillate, showing that the distillation process minimized the risk of pesticide contamination. PMID:21150108

Inoue, Tomonori; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Kinami, Tomohisa; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

2010-01-01

423

Transport and attenuation of pesticides in runoff from agricultural headwater catchments : from field characterisation to modelling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Understanding pesticide transport is crucial to evaluate their ecological impact on ecosystems. Current knowledge on the spatial variability of pesticide deposition, the impact of erosion on pesticides export and the in situ pesticide degradation is very limited at the catchment scale. In this thesis, characterisation and modeling at two scales, the plot and catchment, were combined in two agricultural contexts. A formalism was developed to predict pesticide transport in runoff and was integr...

Lefrancq, Marie

2014-01-01

424

Uncertainty and stochastic sensitivity analysis of the GeoPEARL pesticide leaching model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

GeoPEARL is a spatially distributed model describing the fate of pesticides in the soil–plant system. It calculates the drainage of pesticides to local surface waters and the leaching into groundwater. GeoPEARL plays an important role in the evaluation of Dutch pesticide policy plans. This study analysed how uncertainties in soil and pesticide properties propagate through GeoPEARL for three representative pesticides. The GeoPEARL output considered is the 90th percentile of the spatial distr...

Heuvelink, G. B. M.; Burgers, S. L. G. E.; Tiktak, A.; Berg, F.

2010-01-01

425

The Concept of Withholding Period and Pesticide Residue in Grain Storage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This review focuses on pesticides, their unquantifiable benefits to agriculture, pesticide residue, maximum pesticide residue limit, and withholding period in grain storage. It delved into the origin of synthetic pesticide and its introduction to Nigeria in the 1950s, it maintained that pesticide have posed major health and social challenges, and have had negative, unintended, catastrophic, fatal consequences to man, animals, and even the environment especially when instructions on their labe...

Adegbola, J. A.; Anugwom, U. D.; Awagu, F.; Adu, E. A.

2012-01-01

426

Requiring Pollutant Discharge Permits for Pesticide Applications that Deposit Residues in Surface Waters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Agricultural producers and public health authorities apply pesticides to control pests that damage crops and carry diseases. Due to the toxic nature of most pesticides, they are regulated by governments. Regulatory provisions require pesticides to be registered and restrictions operate to safeguard human health and the environment. Yet pesticides used near surface waters pose dangers to non-target species and drinking water supplies leading some governments to regulate discharges of pesticid...

Terence Centner; Nicholas Eberhart

2014-01-01

427

Modeling Flight Attendants’ Exposures to Pesticide in Disinsected Aircraft Cabins  

Science.gov (United States)

Aircraft cabin disinsection is required by some countries to kill insects that may pose risks to public health and native ecological systems. A probabilistic model has been developed by considering the microenvironmental dynamics of the pesticide in conjunction with the activity patterns of flight attendants, to assess their exposures and risks to pesticide in disinsected aircraft cabins under three scenarios of pesticide application. Main processes considered in the model are microenvironmental transport and deposition, volatilization, and transfer of pesticide when passengers and flight attendants come in contact with the cabin surfaces. The simulated pesticide airborne mass concentration and surface mass loadings captured measured ranges reported in the literature. The medians (means±standard devitions) of daily total exposures intakes were 0.24 (3.8±10.0), 1.4 (4.2±5.7) and 0.15 (2.1±3.2) ?g/(day kg BW) for scenarios of Residual Application, Preflight and Top-of-Descent spraying, respectively. Exposure estimates were sensitive to parameters corresponding to pesticide deposition, body surface area and weight, surface-to-body transfer efficiencies, and efficiency of adherence to skin. Preflight spray posed 2.0 and 3.1 times higher pesticide exposure risk levels for flight attendants in disinsected aircraft cabins than Top-of-Descent spray and Residual Application, respectively. PMID:24251734

Zhang, Yong; Isukapalli, Sastry; Georgopoulos, Panos; Weisel, Clifford

2014-01-01

428

Occurrence of pesticides from coffee crops in surface water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The excessive amount of pesticides applied in agricultural areas may reach surface water, thereby contaminating it. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of pesticides used in a sub-basin headwater with coffee crops, situated in the Dom Corrêa district, Manhuaçu, Minas Gerais. The region of study is a great producer of coffee. Crops occupy steep areas and are situated close to surface water bodies. In this study, four sample collection points were selected in streams as well as a point in the distribution network and two points in the water treatment station (raw and treated water a total of seven points. The samples were collected in rainy and dry seasons. Organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids, carbamates and triazoles pesticides were identified by liquid and gas chromatography analysis with tandem mass spectrometry. The occurrence of pesticides was more evident in the rainy season. A total of 24 distinct pesticides were detected. At least one pesticide was identified in 67% of the samples collected during the rainy season and in 21% of the samples collected during drought. Many pesticides detected in water are not regulated in Brazilian legislation regarding potability.

Márcio Ribeiro Vianna Neto

2013-04-01

429

Stream habitat structure influences macroinvertebrate response to pesticides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Agricultural pesticides continue to impair surface water ecosystems, although there are few assessments of interactions with other modifications such as fine sediment and physical alteration for flood drainage. We, therefore, surveyed pesticide contamination and macroinvertebrates in 14 streams along a gradient of expected pesticide exposure using a paired-reach approach to differentiate effects between physically modified and less modified sites. Apparent pesticides effects on the relative abundance of SPEcies At Risk (SPEAR) were increased at sites with degraded habitats primarily due to the absence of species with specific preferences for hard substrates. Our findings highlight the importance of physical habitat degradation in the assessment and mitigation of pesticide risk in agricultural streams. - Highlights: ? %SPEAR abundance significantly decreased with increasing TU (D. magna). ? %SPEAR abundance was significantly lower when soft sediment was dominant. ? Species specific habitat preferences influenced the total effect of pesticides. ? This study has strong implications for future stream management and risk assessment. - Ecological impacts of pesticides on stream macroinvertebrates are influenced by the heterogeneity and physical structure of micro-habitats.

430

Clinical and Biochemical Parameters of Children and Adolescents Applying Pesticides  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The primary agricultural product in Egypt is the cotton crop. Children and adolescents work seasonally in the cotton fields applying pesticides.Objectives: To examine the effect of pesticide exposure on clinical and biochemical parameters in children and adolescents applying pesticides.Methods: Male children currently applying pesticides and aged between 9 and 19 years (n = 50 were recruited for this study. They were asked to complete work, health, and exposure questionnaires; examined for any medical and neurological problems with particular attention to sensory and motor functions including cranial nerves, sensory and motor system, and reflexes. From each participant, a blood sample was taken to measure acetylcholinesterase activity, and liver and kidney functions. Children who have never worked in agriculture (n = 50, matched on age, education, and socioeconomic status were also studied and served as controls.Results: More neuromuscular disorders were identified in pesticide applicators than controls. A significant lower level of acetylcholinesterase was found in the applicator group compared to the controls. There was also a significant difference in hematological, renal and hepatic indices in the exposed children compared to the control children. Working more days in the current season and also working more years as a pesticide applicator were both associated with an increase in the prevalence of neuromuscular abnormalities and significant changes in the laboratory tests.Conclusion: Children and adolescent pesticide applicators working in farms of Egypt are at risk of developing serious health problems similar to those of adults.

O Hendy

2010-06-01

431

Quantitative and economical assessment of effectiveness of electrostatic pesticide spraying  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electrostatic pesticide spraying (EPS) improves the adhesion characteristics of the pesticide solution to agricultural crops. If the adhesion characteristics are improved, the requisite amount of the pesticide to be sprayed can be reduced in comparison with the conventional spraying method that uses non-charged pesticide. In this research, disease (rust) control experiments were carried out to substantiate the effectiveness of the EPS from a statistical point of view. We sprayed pesticide to potted Japanese pear trees under calm condition. The numbers of the rust lesions on the pear leaves were counted at fixed intervals after spraying to investigate the difference of the results of the disease control. The t-tests were carried out for the populations of the various spraying times and applied voltages. It was statistically-derived that EPS can reduce the amounts of pesticide to be sprayed by 50 % in comparison with the non-EPS method. It is also estimated from the results that about 55,000 kL year?1 of pesticides can be reduced for the Japanese pear cultivation in Tottori prefecture. Also, this means that the expense of the pear cultivation can be reduced by about 240 million yen (3 million USD) every year in Tottori prefecture by introducing EPS.

432

Potential developmental neurotoxicity of pesticides used in Europe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Pesticides used in agriculture are designed to protect crops against unwanted species, such as weeds, insects, and fungus. Many compounds target the nervous system of insect pests. Because of the similarity in brain biochemistry, such pesticides may also be neurotoxic to humans. Concerns have been raised that the developing brain may be particularly vulnerable to adverse effects of neurotoxic pesticides. Current requirements for safety testing do not include developmental neurotoxicity. We therefore undertook a systematic evaluation of published evidence on neurotoxicity of pesticides in current use, with specific emphasis on risks during early development. Epidemiologic studies show associations with neurodevelopmental deficits, but mainly deal with mixed exposures to pesticides. Laboratory experimental studies using model compounds suggest that many pesticides currently used in Europe – including organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, ethylenebisdithiocarbamates, and chlorophenoxy herbicides – can cause neurodevelopmental toxicity. Adverse effects on brain development can be severe and irreversible. Prevention should therefore be a public health priority. The occurrence of residues in food and other types of human exposures should be prevented with regard to the pesticide groups that are known to be neurotoxic. For other substances, given their widespread use and the unique vulnerability of the developing brain, the general lack of data on developmental neurotoxicity calls for investment in targeted research. While awaiting more definite evidence, existing uncertainties should be considered in light of the need for precautionary action to protect brain development.

Grandjean Philippe

2008-10-01

433

[Study on usage of pesticides in various countries].  

Science.gov (United States)

Usage of pesticides in food items in export countries was studied, focusing items which Japan imports in large quantity. Japan has imported field crops such as wheat, corn and soy bean, and also grapefruit in large quantity on a weight base, mainly from United States, Australia and Canada. While, Japan has imported various kinds of vegetables in which China had the largest share. We collected usage data of pesticides for 44 food items of 17 countries of 2004. Pesticides which were used frequently (usage rank within top ten in each item/country) were dichlorvos, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate (insecticides), mancozeb, carbendazim, thiophanate-methyl, chlorthalonil (fungicides), glyphosate, 2,4-D, paraquat, acetochlor (herbicides). Carbendazim, thiophanate-methyl, acetochlor and dichlorvos were mainly used in China. Dithiocarbamates are used frequently in various food items in various countries, and also frequently detected in monitoring in foreign countries. Some pesticides such as bisultap, monosultap, etaboxam and triazmate were used only in certain countries, and available information on toxicity or analytical method was very limited. Some of pesticides described above have not been analyzed in the pesticide residue monitoring in Japan before 2005,however, many of them are subjects of analysis for import food after 2006 with the enforcement of positivelist system for residues of pesticide and veterinary medicines in food in Japan. PMID:18220053

Yamamoto, Miyako; Toda, Miou; Tanaka, Keiko; Sugita, Takiko; Sasaki, Shiho; Uneyama, Chikako; Morikawa, Kaoru

2007-01-01

434

Influence of different carbon monolith preparation parameters on pesticide adsorption  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The capacity of carbon monolith for pesticide removal from water, and the mechanism of pesticide interaction with carbon surface were examined. Different carbon monolith samples were obtained by varying the carbonization and activation parameters. In order to examine the role of surface oxygen groups in pesticide adsorption, carbon monolith surface was functionalized by chemical treatment in HNO3, H2O2 and KOH. The surface properties of the obtained samples were investigated by BET surface area, pore size distribution and temperature-programmed desorption. Adsorption of pesticides from aqueous solution onto activated carbon monolith samples was studied by using five pesticides belonging to different chemical groups (acetamiprid, dimethoate, nicosulfuron, carbofuran and atrazine. Presented results show that higher temperature of carbonization and the amount of activating agent allow obtaining microporous carbon monolith with higher amount of surface functional groups. Adsorption properties of the activated carbon monolith were more readily affected by the amount of the surface functional groups than by specific surface area. Results obtained by carbon monolith functionalisation showed that ?-? interactions were the main force for adsorption of pesticides with aromatic structure, while acidic groups play an important role in adsorption of pesticides with no aromatic ring in the chemical structure.

Vuk?evi? Marija

2013-01-01

435

Economic burden of illness from pesticide poisonings in highland Ecuador  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Active surveillance of acute pesticide poisonings in a potato-growing region of highland Ecuador during 1991-1992 uncovered a rate of 171/100 000, due predominantly to occupational exposures to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. Occupational exposure among agricultural workers was the most common reason for poisoning (32 male workers and 1 female worker, out of a total of 50 cases. Of these 33 cases, 28 of them reported pesticide application as the work task just prior to poisoning, with over 80% citing the use of World Health Organization Hazard Category I pesticides. The suicide rate of 17.1/100 000 and the overall mortality rate of 20.5/100 000 that we found are among the highest reported anywhere in the world. At the exchange rates prevailing at that time, median costs associated with these poisonings were estimated as follows: public and social security health care direct costs of US$ 9.85/case; private health costs of US$ 8.33/case; and lost-time indirect costs of US$ 8.33/ agricultural worker. Each one of those costs was over five times the daily agricultural wage, which was then about US$ 1.50. Further costing of pesticide poisonings should be carried out in other settings to provide appropriate information for decisions about pesticide use. In addition, integrated pest management should be further evaluated as an appropriate technology to reduce the economic burden of illness from pesticide poisonings in developing countries.

Cole Donald C.

2000-01-01

436

Assessing Diet as a Modifiable Risk Factor for Pesticide Exposure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of pesticides on the general population, largely as a result of dietary exposure, are unclear. Adopting an organic diet appears to be an obvious solution for reducing dietary pesticide exposure and this is supported by biomonitoring studies in children. However, results of research into the effects of organic diets on pesticide exposure are difficult to interpret in light of the many complexities. Therefore future studies must be carefully designed. While biomonitoring can account for differences in overall exposure it cannot necessarily attribute the source. Due diligence must be given to appropriate selection of participants, target pesticides and analytical methods to ensure that the data generated will be both scientifically rigorous and clinically useful, while minimising the costs and difficulties associated with biomonitoring studies. Study design must also consider confounders such as the unpredictable nature of chemicals and inter- and intra-individual differences in exposure and other factors that might influence susceptibility to disease. Currently the most useful measures are non-specific urinary metabolites that measure a range of organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides. These pesticides are in common use, frequently detected in population studies and may provide a broader overview of the impact of an organic diet on pesticide exposure than pesticide-specific metabolites. More population based studies are needed for comparative purposes and improvements in analytical methods are required before many other compounds can be considered for assessment.

Marc Cohen

2011-05-01

437

Pesticides and human chronic diseases: Evidences, mechanisms, and perspectives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Along with the wide use of pesticides in the world, the concerns over their health impacts are rapidly growing. There is a huge body of evidence on the relation between exposure to pesticides and elevated rate of chronic diseases such as different types of cancers, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson, Alzheimer, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), birth defects, and reproductive disorders. There is also circumstantial evidence on the association of exposure to pesticides with some other chronic diseases like respiratory problems, particularly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular disease such as atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease, chronic nephropathies, autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematous and rheumatoid arthritis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and aging. The common feature of chronic disorders is a disturbance in cellular homeostasis, which can be induced via pesticides' primary action like perturbation of ion channels, enzymes, receptors, etc., or can as well be mediated via pathways other than the main mechanism. In this review, we present the highlighted evidence on the association of pesticide's exposure with the incidence of chronic diseases and introduce genetic damages, epigenetic modifications, endocrine disruption, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response (UPR), impairment of ubiquitin proteasome system, and defective autophagy as the effective mechanisms of action. - Highlights: ? There is a link between exposure to pesticides and incidence of chronic diseases. ? Genotoxicity and proteotoxicity are two main involved mechanisms. ? Epigenetic knowledge may help diagnose the relationships. ? Efficient policies on safe use of pesticides should be set up.

Mostafalou, Sara; Abdollahi, Mohammad, E-mail: Mohammad.Abdollahi@UToronto.Ca

2013-04-15

438

Potential health effects of pesticide use on farmworkers in Lesotho  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the experiences of farmworkers during crop spraying in Lesotho. The main goal of this study was to determine the perceptions and awareness of farmworkers regarding the use of pesticides and the potential effects on their health. The data were obtained from farmworkers using a combination of an open-ended and a close-ended structured questionnaire in July 2006. Of the nine farms serviced by the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security of Lesotho, Agricultural Research Division, six farms were randomly chosen and 27 farmworkers from these farms were interviewed. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics such as frequency tables. The results showed that farmworkers are relatively poorly educated and that a greater health risk is present when a lack of training and education on the use of pesticides also exists. That is, the majority (85% of farmworkers did not have secondary education and most (93% had no training on the use of pesticides, which poses a great health threat to the farmworkers. A lack of education makes it difficult for farmworkers to read and understand the information labels on pesticides and hence it is difficult for them to understand the health hazards of pesticides and the need for personal safety measures. When using and handling pesticides, 52% of farmworkers did not use rubber gloves and 93% did not use goggles or other forms of face cover. This lack of protection puts them at serious risk of skin exposure to pesticides. The farmworkers were quite aware of the harmful effects of pesticides, but were sometimes unable to translate this awareness into their own safety practices because of a lack of knowledge about the adverse effects. Therefore, training, extension services and various awareness programmes should be promoted in Lesotho in order to increase farmworkers’ knowledge and awareness of the adverse effects of pesticides on human health and the environment.

Tholang A. Mokhele

2011-07-01

439

Potential health effects of pesticide use on farmworkers in Lesotho  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This study examined the experiences of farmworkers during crop spraying in Lesotho. The main goal of this study was to determine the perceptions and awareness of farmworkers regarding the use of pesticides and the potential effects on their health. The data were obtained from farmworkers using a com [...] bination of an open-ended and a close-ended structured questionnaire in July 2006. Of the nine farms serviced by the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security of Lesotho, Agricultural Research Division, six farms were randomly chosen and 27 farmworkers from these farms were interviewed. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics such as frequency tables. The results showed that farmworkers are relatively poorly educated and that a greater health risk is present when a lack of training and education on the use of pesticides also exists. That is, the majority (85%) of farmworkers did not have secondary education and most (93%) had no training on the use of pesticides, which poses a great health threat to the farmworkers. A lack of education makes it difficult for farmworkers to read and understand the information labels on pesticides and hence it is difficult for them to understand the health hazards of pesticides and the need for personal safety measures. When using and handling pesticides, 52% of farmworkers did not use rubber gloves and 93% did not use goggles or other forms of face cover. This lack of protection puts them at serious risk of skin exposure to pesticides. The farmworkers were quite aware of the harmful effects of pesticides, but were sometimes unable to translate this awareness into their own safety practices because of a lack of knowledge about the adverse effects. Therefore, training, extension services and various awareness programmes should be promoted in Lesotho in order to increase farmworkers' knowledge and awareness of the adverse effects of pesticides on human health and the environment.

Tholang A., Mokhele.

2011-08-01

440

Detoxification of Pesticides Aqueous Solution Using Horseradish Peroxidase  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There are pesticide residues in agriculture wastewater and that compounds must be removed before discharge of wastewater in native waters. Thus the aim of this study was to remove toxic pesticide in waste water by the addition of horseradish peroxidase enzyme. The process of pesticide (methyl-parathion (O,O-Diethyl- O-4-nitro-phenylthiophosphate), atrazine (1-chloro-3-ethylamino-5-isopropylamino-2,4,6-triazine) and triazophos (O,O-diethyl O-1-phenyl-lH-1,2,4- triazol-3-yl phosphorothioate) re...

Saad Mohamed El-Said

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
441

Pesticides and electronic resources for health care providers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Agricultural workers are at higher risk of occupational injuries, including pesticide exposures. There is general agreement that the training of health care providers to recognize and manage such exposures is limited and in need of improvement. While the Internet presents opportunities for health care providers to access information and continue their medical education, it can be difficult to identify relevant resources in a timely manner. This case report presents a realistic scenario of a suspected pesticide exposure among symptomatic agricultural workers. The discussion that follows presents Web-based resources that health care providers can rely upon in recognizing, managing, and preventing pesticide-related illness. PMID:15927917

Sudakin, Daniel L

2005-01-01

442

Optimisation of gas chromatography for pesticide residue analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water and soil contamination due to the variety of pesticides used in agriculture practices is a global environmental pollution problem. Organochlorine pesticides are of special interest in this context as their high chemical stability results in their persistence and bioaccumulation in the environment and animal tissues. Sensitive, rapid and reliable methods for the routine determination of organochlorine residues in environment are thus much needed. In this study for the determination of organochlorine pesticide residue in environmental samples; experimental parameters such as effect of temperature and pressure of GC-ECD were studied and optimized. (Author)

443

Pesticides and Arthropods: Sublethal Effects and Demographic Toxicology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Insecticides and acaricides designed to control primary harmful insects and mites may also variously affect some other arthopods present in an (agroecosystem (e.g. secondary pests, predators, parasitoids, saprophytes, bioindicators, pollinators. Apart from insecticides and acaricides, arthropods may also be affe