WorldWideScience
 
 
1

77 FR 12727 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...nature of the adverse effects caused by trifloxystrobin...no-observed- adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) and...lowest-observed-adverse-effect- level (LOAEL) from...Trifloxystrobin Human Health Risk Assessment for Proposed New Use on Imported Coffee,'' p.11 in...

2012-03-02

2

77 FR 65827 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2012-0225 in the subject line on the first page of...acid, (E,E)- [alpha]-(methoxyimino...follows. A. Toxicological Profile EPA has evaluated the...pesticide's toxicological profile is determined...acid,...

2012-10-31

3

77 FR 42654 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerance  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0458 in the subject line on the first page of...acid, (E,E)-[alpha]-(methoxyimino...follows. A. Toxicological Profile EPA has evaluated the...pesticide's toxicological profile is determined...acid,...

2012-07-20

4

Residue evaluation of famoxadone and trifloxystrobin in cultivated mushrooms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dissipation of the fungicides famoxadone and trifloxystrobin in basidiocarps of Agaricus bisporus was studied in mushroom growing rooms. The mushroom samples taken at all three consecutive production flushes following single or split applications of the fungicides were extracted with solvents and the residues were determined by using a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Recoveries from the fortified control samples ranged from 87 to 105%. Following drench applications at 0.1-1 g/m2 of culture bed area, the highest famoxadone residue determined in basidiocarps was 0.1447 mg/kg. Analysis of trifloxystrobin revealed a quantitative relationship between the application rate (0.8-1.8 g/m2) and the residue levels of both the parent compound and its acid metabolite. The maximal combined residues of trifloxystrobin and its metabolite were 0.1313 mg/kg. Short- and long-term dietary risk assessment for both fungicides was carried out using consumption data from World Health Organization and the UK Pesticide Safety Directorate's Ten Consumer Model. The potential acute and chronic residue intakes via mushroom consumption were below toxicologically significant indicators. PMID:16785167

Chrysayi-Tokousbalides, Maria; Kastanias, Michael A; Coward, Susan; Philippoussis, Antonios; Diamantopoulou, Panagiota

2006-01-01

5

75 FR 33190 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0278 in the subject line on the first page of your...gov. Follow the on-line instructions for submitting...benzeneacetic acid, (E,E)-[alpha]- (methoxyimino...follows. A. Toxicological Profile EPA has evaluated the...benzeneacetic acid,...

2010-06-11

6

76 FR 69648 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0456 in the subject line on the first page of your...gov. Follow the on-line instructions for submitting...benzeneacetic acid, (E,E)-[alpha]- (methoxyimino...follows. A. Toxicological Profile EPA has evaluated the...benzeneacetic acid,...

2011-11-09

7

Field dissipation of trifloxystrobin and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid in soil and apples.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dissipation of trifloxystrobin and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid in apples and soil was studied, and the half-life (DT50) was estimated in a field study carried out at three different locations for apples and four different locations for soil. Trifloxystrobin was sprayed on apples at 127 g a.i./ha for the dissipation study. Samples of apple and soil for the dissipation experiment were collected at time intervals of 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 30, and 45 days after treatment. The quantification of residues was done by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The DT50 of trifloxystrobin ranged from 0.54 to 8.8 and 4.8 to 9.5 days in soil and apples at different latitude sites. Photolysis may be the main dissipation pathway for trifloxystrobin, and the number of sunshine hours may be the main factor affecting the trifloxystrobin dissipation rate in the field. For trifloxystrobin acid residues in soil and apples, it first increased and then began decreasing. It was indicated that the risk of trifloxystrobin application in shorter sunshine hour area should be considered. PMID:25380713

Wang, Chen; Wu, Junxue; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Hongyan

2015-01-01

8

Pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

... exposure, as well as on the treatment and prevention of pesticide poisoning. Evaluating Chemicals: Is It ... Student Edition Lesson: Arsenic and Lead Scavenger Hunt (357KB) EHP Student Edition ...

9

Risk assessment of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole residues on Allium cepa l.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A supervised field trial was conducted to study the persistence and therefore to evaluate the risk assessment of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole residues on onion. A combined formulation of trifloxystrobin 25 % + tebuconazole 50% (Nativo 75WG was applied on onion crop @ 300 and 600 g ha-1, which resulted in active application @ 75.0 and 150.0 g.a.ha-1 with respect to trifloxystrobin and @ 150.0 and 300 g.a.ha-1 with respect to tebuconazole. The average initial deposits of trifloxystrobin on onion were 0.52 and 0.82 mg kg-1 following three applications of Nativo 75 WG at the recommended and the double of the recommended dose, respectively. Similarly, the average initial deposits of tebuconazole were 0.76 and 1.32 mg kg-1 at the two dosages, respectively. The residues dissipated more than 60% at both dosages after 3 days. The half-life (t1/2 of trifloxystrobin was 1.86 and 1.18 days, while for tebuconazole 2.13 and 1.98 days, for single and double dosages, respectively. Mature onion collected at harvest did not reveal the presence of trifloxystrobin or its metabolite, CGA 32113, at a detection limit of 0.05 mg kg-1. An assessment of the intake of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole, resulting from the consumption of onion, and its comparison with acceptable daily intake revealed that recommended application of Nativo 75WG (trifloxystrobin 25%+ tebuconazole 50% is quite safe from the consumer point of view.

Gurmail Singh

2014-09-01

10

Immunoassays for trifloxystrobin analysis. Part I. Rational design of regioisomeric haptens and production of monoclonal antibodies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trifloxystrobin is one of the main active principles belonging to the strobilurin family of crop protection compounds. In this article, the synthesis of a battery of regioisomeric functionalized derivatives of trifloxystrobin is described. The same aliphatic linear carboxylated chain was introduced as spacer arm in all of the synthesized haptens, but it was located at different positions of the parent molecule. N,N'-Disuccinimidyl carbonate was employed for hapten activation, so the resulting N-hydroxysuccinimyl ester could be readily purified and efficiently coupled to proteins. After immunization and hybridoma generation, a collection of 20 mouse monoclonal antibodies from different immunizing haptens was obtained. The analytical performance of these immunoreagents was evaluated in terms of affinity and selectivity with the aim to develop rapid and practical immunochemical procedures for trifloxystrobin determination. PMID:24444931

López-Moreno, Rosario; Mercader, Josep V; Agulló, Consuelo; Abad-Somovilla, Antonio; Abad-Fuentes, Antonio

2014-01-01

11

Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRL for trifloxystrobin in beans with pods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Germany, hereafter referred to as the Evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from the Landwirtschaftskammer Nordrhein-Westfalen to modify the existing MRL for trifloxystrobin in beans with pods. In order to accommodate for the intended use of trifloxystrobin Germany proposed to raise the existing MRL on beans (with pods from the value of 0.5 mg/kg to 1 mg/kg. Germany drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005 which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive a MRL proposal of 1.0 mg/kg for the intended use on beans with pods. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of trifloxystrobin in the commodity under consideration. Based on the provisional risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the intended use of trifloxystrobin on beans with pods will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

European Food Safety Authority

2013-04-01

12

Potential toxic effect of trifloxystrobin on cellular microstructure, mRNA expression and antioxidant enzymes in Chlorella vulgaris.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the effects of trifloxystrobin that one strobilurin used widely in the world as an effective fungicidal agent to control Asian soybean rust on aquatic unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris. We determined the potential toxic effect of trifloxystrobin on C. vulgaris, and found median inhibition concentration (IC(50)) value 255.58 (95% confidence interval, 207.81-330.29)?gL(-1). In addition, the algal cells were obviously depressed or shrunk at different concentrations by electron microscopy. In the study, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay showed changes in transcript abundances of three photosynthetic genes, psaB, psbC, and rbcL, and one energy gene, ATPs. The results showed that trifloxystrobin reduced the transcript abundances of the three genes and enhanced expression of ATPs after 48 and 96 h. The lowest abundances of psaB, psbC and rbcL transcripts in response to trifloxystrobin exposure were 58%, 79% and 60% of those of the control, respectively. For the potential toxic influences, trifloxystrobin could decrease the soluble protein and total antioxidant contents (T-AOC), and increase superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activity with a gradual concentration-response relationship. Overall, the present study demonstrated that trifloxystrobin could affect the activities of antioxidant enzymes, disrupts photosynthesis in C. vulgaris, and damage cellular structure. PMID:24762415

Shen, Yu-Feng; Liu, Lei; Gong, Yu-Xin; Zhu, Bin; Liu, Guang-Lu; Wang, Gao-Xue

2014-05-01

13

Simultaneous determination of trifloxystrobin and trifloxystrobin acid residue in rice and soil by a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method using ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

A sensitive analytical method for the simultaneous determination of trifloxystrobin and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid in rice including straw, bran, brown rice and soil was developed by using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The fungicide trifloxystrobin and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid were extracted using acetonitrile with 1% formic acid v/v and subsequently cleaned up by primary secondary amine, octadecylsilane or graphitized carbon black prior to ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The determination of two target compounds was achieved in less than 3 min using an electrospray ionization source in positive mode. The limits of detection were below 0.22 ?g/kg and the limits of quantification did not exceed 0.74 ?g/kg in all matrices, which were much lower than the maximum residue levels established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. The overall average recoveries in four matrix at three levels (0.1, 1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg) ranged from 74.2 to 107.4% with a relative standard deviations of less than 7.8% (n = 5) for both analytes. The method was demonstrated to be convenient and reliable for the routine monitoring of trifloxystrobin and its metabolite. The developed method was validated and applied for the analysis of degradation study samples. PMID:24737683

Chen, Xixi; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xingang; Tao, Yan; Pan, Xinglu; Zheng, Yongquan; Dong, Fengshou

2014-07-01

14

Proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in cereals  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in wheat was organised in 2008. The test material was grown in 2007 and treated in the field with 14 pesticides formulations containing the active substances, alpha-cypermethrin, bifentrin, carbendazim, chlormequat, chlorpyrifos-methyl, difenconazole, epoxiconazole, glyphosate, iprodione, malathion, pirimicarb, prochloraz, spiroxamin and trifloxystrobin. After harvest, the test material was additionally spiked in the laboratory with three pesticides, that where the residues were too low, and axozystrobin. In total, 72 laboratories submitted results and z-scores were calculated for all laboratories and pesticides, except for glyphosate where only five laboratories submitted results and summed weighted z-scores were calculated for the laboratories with a sufficient scope. For several pesticides, the submitted results were strongly depending on the extraction procedure and consequently the assigned values were calculated based on part of the results. Acceptable z-scores were obtained by 56-97% of the participants.

Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Christensen, Hanne Bjerre

2009-01-01

15

Simultaneous detection and degradation patterns of kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin residues in citrus fruits by HPLC combined with QuEChERS.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to investigate the residues, kinetics and dissipation patterns of kresoxim-methyl, (E)-methoxyimino[?-(o-tolyloxy)-o-tolyl]acetate, and trifloxystrobin, methyl(E)-methoxyimino-{(E)-?[1-(?,?,?-trifluoro-m-tolyl)ethylideneaminooxy]-o-tolyl}acetate". A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (LC-UV) method combined with the 'Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe' (QuEChERS) protocol was developed to quantify the levels of kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin residues in citrus. More than 97% of the kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin deposists gradually dissipated from the citrus peels within 15 days. The half-lives of kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin in the peels were in the ranges of 2.63-2.66 d and 3.12-3.15 d, respectively, and the pattern of decline in the peels followed first-order kinetics. The kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin residues in the pulp dissipated below the detectable level of 0.01 mg kg(-1) after 9 days. Kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin were easily decomposed (T1/2 < 30 d), and the observed dissipation patterns could support the application of these two fungicides in the postharvest storage of citrus fruits. PMID:23452212

Zhu, Jie; Dai, Xian J; Fang, Jian J; Zhu, Hua M

2013-01-01

16

Organic Pesticide Ingredients  

Science.gov (United States)

... NPIC Home Page —> Pesticide Ingredients —> Organic Pesticide Ingredients Organic Pesticide Ingredients Organic foods are not necessarily pesticide- ... at npic@ace.orst.edu . Additional Resources on Organic Pesticide Ingredients Understand Organic Labeling - USDA National Organic ...

17

Influence of pesticides on yeasts colonizing leaves.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of nine different pesticides on the growth of yeasts isolated from the leaves of fruit and forest trees was investigated. Four insecticides (with the active ingredients: thiacloprid, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, and thiamethoxam) and five fungicides (with the effective substances: bitertanol, kresoxim-methyl, mancozeb, trifloxystrobin, and cupric oxychloride) were tested. The concentrations of chemicals were those recommended by the manufacturers for the spraying of trees. The yeast strains isolated from the leaves of fruit trees were not sensitive to any of the insecticides. The majority of yeast strains isolated from the leaves of forest trees were either not sensitive or only to a small extent. While Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Pichia anomala were not affected by any insecticide, the strains of Cryptococcus laurentii and Rhodotorula glutinis showed the highest sensitivity. The effects of fungicides on the growth of isolated yeasts were more substantial. The fungicide Dithane DG (mancozeb) completely inhibited the growth of all yeasts. All strains isolated from fruit tree leaves were more resistant to the tested fungicides than those isolated from the leaves of forest trees. The most resistant strains from the leaves of fruit trees belonged to the species Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia anomala, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas Cryptococcus albidus and C. laurentii, originating from the leaves of forest trees, showed the highest sensitivity to fungicides. PMID:22351984

Vadkertiová, Renata; Sláviková, Elena

2011-01-01

18

Pesticide Poisoning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed that examining the socio-demographic characteristics of the pesticide poisoning cases in Samsun region where the economy mainly relies on agriculture and comparing it to similar studies; thus contributing the country?s data and the possible measures. 60 pesticide poisoning cases consulted OMU Faculty of Medicine between 01.01.2004 and 31.12.2004 are examined and achieved data are analyzed and presented. Of the 60 cases, 35 (58.3% are females and 25 (41.7 are males and the average age is 21.93 ±17.56 (1-63 years. Pesticide poisoning is most common in summer (55.0% and spring (25.0%. It is stated either by the person himself/herself or by his/her relatives that the intake of the toxic substance is accidental in 36 cases (60.0% and suicidal in 24 cases (40.0%. 25 cases (41.7% are poisoned with organic phosphorus pesticides and 12 cases (20.0% with carbamat-pesticides. Consequently, in order to prevent accidental pesticide poisoning, it is necessary to be very careful with pesticide application especially in rural areas. Substances that are least toxic to human and environment, and are licenced and most effective to pests must be used, spraying period must be short, sensitive people, especially children, must be kept away, personal precautions must be taken for the spraying person and pesticides must be kept away from the reach of children and people at risk. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(3: 169-174

Neva Sataloglu

2007-06-01

19

Pesticide Poisoning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed that examining the socio-demographic characteristics of the pesticide poisoning cases in Samsun region where the economy mainly relies on agriculture and comparing it to similar studies; thus contributing the country?s data and the possible measures. 60 pesticide poisoning cases consulted OMU Faculty of Medicine between 01.01.2004 and 31.12.2004 are examined and achieved data are analyzed and presented. Of the 60 cases, 35 (58.3% are females and 25 (41.7 are males and the average age is 21.93 ±17.56 (1-63 years. Pesticide poisoning is most common in summer (55.0% and spring (25.0%. It is stated either by the person himself/herself or by his/her relatives that the intake of the toxic substance is accidental in 36 cases (60.0% and suicidal in 24 cases (40.0%. 25 cases (41.7% are poisoned with organic phosphorus pesticides and 12 cases (20.0% with carbamat-pesticides. Consequently, in order to prevent accidental pesticide poisoning, it is necessary to be very careful with pesticide application especially in rural areas. Substances that are least toxic to human and environment, and are licenced and most effective to pests must be used, spraying period must be short, sensitive people, especially children, must be kept away, personal precautions must be taken for the spraying person and pesticides must be kept away from the reach of children and people at risk. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 169-174

Neva Sataloglu

2007-06-01

20

Pesticides in Groundwater  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticides in Groundwater Care to guess how many pounds of pesticides the Nation used in 1964? How about in 1993? If ... they may cause health problems. Pesticides can contaminate groundwater Pesticide contamination of groundwater is a subject of ...

 
 
 
 
21

Occurrence and distribution study of residues from pesticides applied under controlled conditions in the field during rice processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of an experiment to study the occurrence and distribution of pesticide residues during rice cropping and processing are reported. Four herbicides, nine fungicides, and two insecticides (azoxystrobin, byspiribac-sodium, carbendazim, clomazone, difenoconazole, epoxiconazole, isoprothiolane, kresoxim-methyl, propanil, quinclorac, tebuconazole, thiamethoxam, tricyclazole, trifloxystrobin, ?-cyhalotrin) were applied to an isolated rice-crop plot under controlled conditions, during the 2009-2010 cropping season in Uruguay. Paddy rice was harvested and industrially processed to brown rice, white rice, and rice bran, which were analyzed for pesticide residues using the original QuEChERS methodology and its citrate variation by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS. The distribution of pesticide residues was uneven among the different matrices. Ten different pesticide residues were found in paddy rice, seven in brown rice, and eight in rice bran. The highest concentrations were detected in paddy rice. These results provide information regarding the fate of pesticides in the rice food chain and its safety for consumers. PMID:22497619

Pareja, Lucía; Colazzo, Marcos; Pérez-Parada, Andrés; Besil, Natalia; Heinzen, Horacio; Böcking, Bernardo; Cesio, Verónica; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

2012-05-01

22

Antimicrobial Pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

This newly launched site from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) offers a variety of resources describing how the EPA regulates antimicrobial pesticides. Antimicrobial pesticides are used in a huge variety of household and commercial products to "disinfect, sanitize, reduce, or mitigate growth or development of microbiological organisms" and to "protect inanimate objects (for example floors and walls), industrial processes or systems, surfaces, water, or other chemical substances from contamination, fouling, or deterioration caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime." Intended mainly for a regulatory audience, the site includes Antimicrobials Science Policy Documents, Antimicrobials Registration Policy Documents, Label Review Manual, Chemical/ Registration Number Indexes, and Antimicrobial PR notices.

23

Chemicals - Pesticides  

Feb 9, 2010 ... Pesticides have an important role in controlling a variety of pests, weeds, ... Defra \\has policy responsibility in England for plant protection products ... such as on \\houseplants, garden roses and lawns); In or near water (e.g. on ...

24

Scientific support for preparing an EU position for the 45th Session of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In accordance with Article 43 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, EFSA received a request from the European Commission to provide support for the preparation of the EU position for the 45th session of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR. In 2012, JMPR evaluated 12 active substances regarding the setting of toxicological reference values to be used in consumer risk assessment, 7 new compounds (ametoctradin, chlorfenapyr, dinotefuran, fluxapyroxad, MCPA, picoxystrobin, sedaxane and 4 part of periodic reevaluation (benzoate, fenpropathrin, fenvalerate, glufosinate-ammonium. Regarding the setting of Maximum Residue Limits (CXLs, JMPR assessed 26 substances (ametoctradin, azoxystrobin, buprofezin, carbofuran, chlorfenapyr, chlorothalonil, cycloxydim, cyfluthrin, cyromazine, dichlorvos, dicofol, dinotefuran, fenvalerate, fludioxonil, fluopyram, fluxapyroxad, glufosinate-ammonium, imidacloprid, MCPA, methoxyfenozide, penthiopyrad, phorate, picoxystrobin, sedaxane, spinetoram and trifloxystrobin. EFSA derived comments on the JMPR evaluations regarding the acceptability of the proposed draft Codex MRLs and the toxicological reference values.

European Food Safety Authority

2013-07-01

25

Safe Storage of Pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

Safe Storage of Pesticides Esta página Web está disponible en español Improper pesticide storage and disposal can be hazardous to human health ... Follow these safety recommendations: Don't stockpile. Reduce storage needs by buying only the amount of pesticide ...

26

Pesticide poisoning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acute poisoning with pesticides is a global public health problem and accounts for as many as 300,000 deaths worldwide every year. The majority of deaths occur due to exposure to organophosphates, organochlorines and aluminium phosphide. Organophosphate compounds inhibit acetylcholinesterase resulting in acute toxicity. Intermediate syndrome can develop in a number of patients and may lead to respiratory paralysis and death. Management consists of proper oxygenation, atropine in escalating doses and pralidoxime in high doses. It is Important to decontaminate the skin while taking precautions to avoid secondary contamination of health personnel. Organochlorine pesticides are toxic to the central nervous system and sensitize the myocardium to catecholamines. Treatment involves supportive care and avoiding exogenous sympathomimetic agents. Ingestion of paraquat causes severe inflammation of the throat, corrosive injury to the gastrointestinal tract, renal tubular necrosis, hepatic necrosis and pulmonary fibrosis. Administration of oxygen should be avoided as it produces more fibrosis. Use of immunosuppressive agents have improved outcome in patients with paraquat poisoning. Rodenticides include thallium, superwarfarins, barium carbonate and phosphides (aluminium and zinc phosphide). Alopecia is an atypical feature of thallium toxicity. Most exposures to superwarfarins are harmless but prolonged bleeding may occur. Barium carbonate Ingestion can cause severe hypokalaemia and respiratory muscle paralysis. Aluminium phosphide is a highly toxic agent with mortality ranging from 37% to 100%. It inhibits mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase and leads to pulmonary and cardiac toxicity. Treatment is supportive with some studies suggesting a beneficial effect of magnesium sulphate. Pyrethroids and insect repellants (e.g. diethyltoluamide) are relatively harmless but can cause toxic effects to pulmonary and central nervous systems. Ethylene dibromide-a highly toxic, fumigant pesticide-produces oral ulcerations, followed by liver and renal toxicity, and is almost uniformly fatal. Physicians working in remote and rural areas need to be educated about early diagnosis and proper management using supportive care and antidotes, wherever available. PMID:18085124

Goel, Ashish; Aggarwal, Praveen

2007-01-01

27

Toxic effects of three strobilurins (trifloxystrobin, azoxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl) on mRNA expression and antioxidant enzymes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) juveniles.  

Science.gov (United States)

The strobilurins are used widely in the world as effective fungicidal agents to control Asian soybean rust. In this study, the early life stage of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), which is one of the most important aquaculture species in China, was chosen to measure the acute toxicity of three common strobilurin-derived fungicides (trifloxystrobin (TFS), azoxystrobin (AZ) and kresoxim-methyl (KM)). As endpoints, normal developmental parameters (lethal concentration (LC??) and average heart rate), expression of relative genes, and three antioxidant enzyme activities in the developing juveniles were recorded during a 48 h exposure. The results revealed that values of LC?? were TFS 0.051 (0.046-0.058) mg L?¹, AZ 0.549 (0.419-0.771) mg L?¹ and KM 0.338 (0.284-0.407) mg L?¹ for juveniles. For the potential toxicity mechanisms, these three fungicides increased catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activity and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, significantly inhibited expressions of three growth-related genes (IGF-1, IGF-2 and GHR) and two energy-related-genes (CCK and PYY), and caused pronounced up-regulation a stress-gene (HSP70). The present study demonstrated potential toxic effects of TFS, AZ and KM on the early development of C. idella. Overall, three strobilurins (TFS, AZ and KM) might cause serious damages to the aquatic species; therefore, their pollution supervision in water ecological environment should be strengthened. PMID:24210350

Liu, Lei; Jiang, Chao; Wu, Zhuo-Qi; Gong, Yu-Xin; Wang, Gao-Xue

2013-12-01

28

Bioefficacy, residue dynamics and safety assessment of the combination fungicide trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50%-75 WG in managing early blight of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports the in vitro and in vivo bioefficacy of a combination fungicide trifloxystrobin (25%) + tebuconazole (50%) against early blight disease of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) caused by Alternaria solani and their corresponding pre-harvest intervals (PHI) with reference to the maximum residue limits (European Union). Bioefficacy of the test fungicide combination revealed that in vitro conditions manifested the best control (75.1%) at 350 mg kg(-1) against 76.2% control under field conditions. A sample preparation method based on ethyl acetate extraction and estimation by LC-MS multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was validated in tomato fruits at 0.01 mg/kg and dissipation studies were conducted in field at single and double doses. The residues of both the compounds on all the sampling days were below the European Union maximum residue limits (EU-MRLs) and the maximum permissible intakes (MPIs) were calculated on the basis of prescribed acceptable daily intake (ADI). The combined bioefficacy and residue dynamics information will support label-claim of this fungicide combination for the management of early blight in tomato. PMID:24328546

Saha, Sujoy; Purath, Ahammed Shabeer Thekkum; Jadhav, Manjusha R; Loganathan, M; Banerjee, Kaushik; Rai, A B

2014-01-01

29

Towards the field-scale experiments and numerical modeling of pesticides in tropical soils  

Science.gov (United States)

Intensive use of pesticides in agriculture inevitably poses an increased threat to groundwater. Recent findings of pesticide residues in selected drinking water wells in Hawaii brings further attention to this problem since the primary source for potable water in Hawaii is groundwater from basal or dike-confined aquifers. A challenging research project was carried out at the University of Hawaii to elucidate potential impacts of selected pesticides on groundwater and to understand pesticide behavior in tropical soils. The major outcome of the project will be a recommendation to the Hawaii Department of Agriculture whether to restrict or approve these pesticide products entering Hawaii's agricultural market. Three sites on Oahu, one on Maui, and one on Kauai were selected for field evaluation of leaching. The soil types on Oahu are Wahiawa Oxisol (Poamoho), Molokai Oxisol (Kunia), and Waialua Vertisol (Waimanalo). The soil at Kula, Maui is an andisol (loam of Kula series) and that at Mana, Kauai is a Vertisol of Malama series. Three herbicides (S-metolachlor, imazaquin, sulfometuron methyl), one fungicide (trifloxystrobin), and one insecticide (imidacloprid) were used in our study. In addition, a commonly used herbicide (atrazine) and potassium bromide tracer were applied as reference chemicals. After spraying, the plots were covered with straw to decrease evaporation from bare soil surface and irrigated with aerial sprinklers for a period of 16 weeks. Disturbed soil samples from various depths were taken at regular intervals for pesticide analysis. Water flow dynamics was monitored with TDR probes and tensiometers installed at three depths. Weather data were acquired simultaneously. In-situ measurements of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity were done using a tension disc infiltrometer. Laboratory experiments of soil-water retention, as well as degradation, sorption, and column displacement experiments for the selected pesticides were conducted. Hence, comprehensive a database for mathematical modeling of the pesticide transport was obtained. Results so far indicate that S-metolachlor showed its low leachability and short decay half-life. On the other hand, imidacloprid exhibited its low sorption ability with higher leaching potential and longer half-life. Likewise, transport of bromide seems to be controlled by soil hydrologic properties and water application rates.

Dusek, J.; Ray, C.; Sanda, M.; Vogel, T.; Green, R.; Loo, B.

2004-12-01

30

Pesticides and Pregnancy  

Science.gov (United States)

... products that are also considered pesticides, such as cockroach spray, rat poison, or flea collars for pets. ... sprayed over much of the Gulf region to control flies and mosquitoes. Will exposure to pesticides increase ...

31

What Is a Pesticide?  

Science.gov (United States)

... All of these common products are considered pesticides: Cockroach sprays and baits Insect repellents for personal use. ... conventional pesticides in increasing numbers. What about pest control devices? A pest control "device" is any instrument ...

32

Pesticide Instrumental Analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This workshop was the evaluation of the pesticides impact on the vegetable matrix with the purpose to determine the analysis by GC / M S. The working material were lettuce matrix, chard and a mix of green leaves and pesticides.

33

Pesticides poisoning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pesticides are chemical toxicants which are used to kill by their toxic actions, the pest organisms, known to incur significant economic losses or threaten human life, his health and that of his domesticated animals. These toxicants are seldom species-specific. The presence of these or their metabolites may scientific be vouched not only in the environment they are used, but in the entire ecosystem, in the subsoil, in the underwater reservoirs and in the food chain of all non-target species including man, his friends i.e. predator and parasite organisms which be uses against the pests, and in his cherished domesticated animals. In the present paper a survey is made of different groups of toxic chemicals generally used to manage pests, in the ecosystem, food chain and tissues and body parts of non-target species including man and the ones dear to him. Toxicology and biochemistry of these toxic materials and their important metabolites are also briefly discussed with special reference to ways and means through which these poison the above non-target species. (author)

34

Pesticide exposure - Indian scene  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. India started pesticide production with manufacturing plant for DDT and benzene hexachloride (BHC) (HCH) in the year 1952. In 1958, India was producing over 5000 metric tonnes of pesticides. Currently, there are approximately 145 pesticides registered for use, and production has increased to approximately 85,000 metric tonnes. Rampant use of these chemicals has given rise to several short-term and long-term adverse effects of these chemicals. The first report of poisoning due to pesticides in India came from Kerala in 1958 where, over 100 people died after consuming wheat flour contaminated with parathion. Subsequently several cases of pesticide-poisoning including the Bhopal disaster have been reported. Despite the fact that the consumption of pesticides in India is still very low, about 0.5 kg/ha of pesticides against 6.60 and 12.0 kg/ha in Korea and Japan, respectively, there has been a widespread contamination of food commodities with pesticide residues, basically due to non-judicious use of pesticides. In India, 51% of food commodities are contaminated with pesticide residues and out of these, 20% have pesticides residues above the maximum residue level values on a worldwide basis. It has been observed that their long-term, low-dose exposure are increasingly linked to human health effects such as immune-suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intellion, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities, and cancer. In this light, problems of pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, use of biotechnology, and biopesticides, and use of pesticides obtained from natural plant sources such as neem extracts are some of the future strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides

35

Pesticides halve bees'  

...Pesticides halve bees' pollen gathering ability, research shows | EurActiv source of protein that bees have, and it is vital for ... cap,bees,pesticides EU news & policy debates- across languages - en fr Click here for EU news »x Search this ... VIDEOS Home › Agriculture & Food › News Pesticides halve bees' pollen gathering ability, research shows [fr] -A + A Published 04 ...February 2014 1 comment Tags bees, pesticides Bumblebees exposed to controversial pesticides collect just half the pollen they would otherwise harvest, according to new ...

36

Pesticides and children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Prevention and control of damage to health, crops, and property by insects, fungi, and noxious weeds are the major goals of pesticide applications. As with use of any biologically active agent, pesticides have unwanted side-effects. In this review, we will examine the thesis that adverse pesticide effects are more likely to occur in children who are at special developmental and behavioral risk. Children's exposures to pesticides in the rural and urban settings and differences in their exposure patterns are discussed. The relative frequency of pesticide poisoning in children is examined. In this connection, most reported acute pesticide poisonings occur in children younger than age 5. The possible epidemiological relationships between parental pesticide use or exposure and the risk of adverse reproductive outcomes and childhood cancer are discussed. The level of consensus among these studies is examined. Current concerns regarding neurobehavioral toxicity and endocrine disruption in juxtaposition to the relative paucity of toxicant mechanism-based studies of children are explored

37

Consumer Products Treated with Pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

Consumer Products Treated with Pesticides Resources Questions On Pesticides? National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) 1-800-858- ... various items has become of increased concern to consumers. In response to these concerns, many products (e. ...

38

Desenvolvimento de métodos analíticos para determinação de agrotóxicos em sedimentos por cromatografia gasosa monodimensional e bidimensional abrangente com micro detector de captura de elétrons Development of analytical methods for pesticides in sediments by monodimensional and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro electron-capture detection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of analytical methods for determination of eight pesticides of different chemical classes (trichlorfon, propanil, fipronil, propiconazole, trifloxystrobin, permethrin, difenoconazole and azoxystrobin in sediments with gas chromatography-micro-electron capture detector (GC/µECD and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detector (GCxGC/µECD is described. These methods were applied to real sediment samples, and the best results were obtained using a 5% diphenyl-methylpolysiloxane column for 1D-GC. For GCxGC the same column was employed in the first dimension and a 50%-phenyl-methylpolysiloxane stationary phase was placed in the second dimension. Due to the superior peak capacity and selectivity of GCxGC, interfering matrix peaks were separated from analytes, showing a better performance of GCxGC.

Juliana Macedo da Silva

2010-01-01

39

Desenvolvimento de métodos analíticos para determinação de agrotóxicos em sedimentos por cromatografia gasosa monodimensional e bidimensional abrangente com micro detector de captura de elétrons / Development of analytical methods for pesticides in sediments by monodimensional and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro electron-capture detection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english The development of analytical methods for determination of eight pesticides of different chemical classes (trichlorfon, propanil, fipronil, propiconazole, trifloxystrobin, permethrin, difenoconazole and azoxystrobin) in sediments with gas chromatography-micro-electron capture detector (GC/µECD) and [...] comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detector (GCxGC/µECD) is described. These methods were applied to real sediment samples, and the best results were obtained using a 5% diphenyl-methylpolysiloxane column for 1D-GC. For GCxGC the same column was employed in the first dimension and a 50%-phenyl-methylpolysiloxane stationary phase was placed in the second dimension. Due to the superior peak capacity and selectivity of GCxGC, interfering matrix peaks were separated from analytes, showing a better performance of GCxGC.

Juliana Macedo da, Silva; Cláudia Alcaraz, Zini; Elina Bastos, Caramão; Ewelin Monica Paturi Navarro, Canizares; Karen Alam, Leal.

40

Pesticides: Emergency Information  

Science.gov (United States)

... being treated. Do not use eye drops or chemicals or drugs in the wash water. Poison on skin. If pesticide splashes on the skin, drench area with water and remove contaminated clothing. Wash skin and hair thoroughly with soap and ...

 
 
 
 
41

Pesticide Safety Tips  

Science.gov (United States)

... minutes. Do not use eye drops or place chemicals or drugs in the wash water. Poison on skin. If pesticide splashes on the skin, drench area with water and remove contaminated clothing. Wash skin and hair thoroughly with soap and ...

42

Illegal Pesticide Products  

Science.gov (United States)

Illegal Pesticide Products Esta página Web está disponible en español Quick Resources Protect your Business Counterfeit Flea and Tick Products for ... clear directions and safety warnings. Common Illegal Pest Products mothballs | pet products | insecticidal chalk | " Tres Pasitos " | antibacterial ...

43

pesticides workshop presentation niea jake gibson  

...Rosetta Mullan and Ray Thomas Pesticides monitoring 2004 –present Pesticides Workshop, Loughry College 15th March...5?g/l total pesticides) in potable water • DWD pesticide...Principally occupied by agriculture Mineral Extraction Sites Mixed Forest Moors and...

44

Genotoxicity of chlororganic pesticides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Kazakhstan there are the warehouses of the obsolete pesticides and their container which should be buried in special burial grounds or neutralized to minimize dangerous genetic and ecological risks. The results of two yr of research were identification of substances stored in 64 former warehouses of pesticides. 64 former warehouses (in the 10 areas of Almaty oblast) are on distance of 250 km from a large city of Almaty (the former capital of Kazakhstan). A total of 352,6 ton of obsolete pesticides and 250 ton of their container were disposed. We determined the residues of DDT metabolites (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and HCH isomers (hexachlorocyclohexane) in soil around pesticides warehouses where their concentrations exceed MAC (maximum concentration limit) in tens - hundreds times. To analyze a genotoxicity of chlororganic pesticides we used their concentrations that were found in soil from former warehouses. The analysis of structural mutations of chromosomes was carried out by metaphase method in I mitoses meristem cells of barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.). It was ascertained that HCH isomers and DDT metabolites have genotoxic effect exceeding spontaneous mutation in 5-7 times. High contaminations by pesticides on soil around of warehouses and their ability to induce chromosome aberrations in plant cells indicate that warehouses are a new centre of contamination by POP's (proof organic pollutants). (author)

45

Transporte de agrotóxicos em lavoura de arroz irrigado sob três manejos de irrigação / Pesticide transport in rice field under three irrigation managements  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O cultivo de arroz irrigado no Rio Grande do Sul caracteriza-se pela permanência de lâmina de irrigação sobre o solo, o que ocasiona perdas de agrotóxicos na ocorrência de chuvas; portanto, o adequado manejo de irrigação pode influenciar na redução do transporte destes para o ambiente. O objetivo de [...] ste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes manejos de irrigação no extravasamento da água e no transporte e persistência de clomazone, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, trifloxystrobin e propiconazol em lavoura de arroz irrigado. Os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial consistiram nos manejos de irrigação por inundação contínua, intermitente e por banhos (fator A) e pelos agrotóxicos mencionados (fator B). Determinou-se o volume total de água extravasada e a taxa de dissipação e transporte desses agrotóxicos. Devido ao maior armazenamento de água da chuva, quando comparadas com a irrigação contínua, as irrigações intermitente e por banhos proporcionaram diminuição de 53 e 95% do volume de água perdida, resultando, respectivamente, em redução de 49 e 64% na massa total de agrotóxicos transportados para o ambiente, em relação ao total aplicado na lavoura. A massa de agrotóxico transportada não ultrapassou 3% do total aplicado, e as maiores concentrações de agrotóxicos em água ocorreram próximo à sua aplicação. Com base nesses resultados, salienta-se que os manejos de irrigação intermitente e por banhos minimizam o transporte de agrotóxicos para o ambiente. Abstract in english Rice crop in the state of Rio Grande do Sul is characterized by the presence of water layer on the soil, which can cause pesticide runoff during the occurrence of rainfall. Thus, proper irrigation management can reduce pesticide transport into the environment. The objective of this study was to eval [...] uate the effect of different irrigation managements on water runoff, transport and dissipation of clomazone, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, trifloxystrobin, and propiconazol. The treatments were arranged in a factorial scheme and consisted of continuous flooding, intermittent flooding, and flushing irrigation (factor A) and by the application of the pesticides listed above (factor B). Total water runoff, and pesticide transport and dissipation rate were evaluated. Due to the larger rainfall storage, compared with continuous flooding, intermittent flooding and flushing irrigation provided a reduction of 53 and 95% of water runoff, resulting, respectively, in a reduction of 49 and 64% of the total mass transported into the environment in relation to the total applied in the field. The pesticide mass transported was lower than 3% of the total amount applied. Based on these results, it could be concluded that intermittent flooding and flushing irrigation minimize pesticide transport into the environment.Since the highest pesticide concentrations occur close to application time, it is of fundamental importance to conduct proper irrigation management providing maximum permanence in the environment.

L.F.D., Martini; L.A., Avila; G.V., Cassol; R., Zanella; S.L.O., Machado; M.S., Marques; M., De Vicari.

46

Transporte de agrotóxicos em lavoura de arroz irrigado sob três manejos de irrigação / Pesticide transport in rice field under three irrigation managements  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O cultivo de arroz irrigado no Rio Grande do Sul caracteriza-se pela permanência de lâmina de irrigação sobre o solo, o que ocasiona perdas de agrotóxicos na ocorrência de chuvas; portanto, o adequado manejo de irrigação pode influenciar na redução do transporte destes para o ambiente. O objetivo de [...] ste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes manejos de irrigação no extravasamento da água e no transporte e persistência de clomazone, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, trifloxystrobin e propiconazol em lavoura de arroz irrigado. Os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial consistiram nos manejos de irrigação por inundação contínua, intermitente e por banhos (fator A) e pelos agrotóxicos mencionados (fator B). Determinou-se o volume total de água extravasada e a taxa de dissipação e transporte desses agrotóxicos. Devido ao maior armazenamento de água da chuva, quando comparadas com a irrigação contínua, as irrigações intermitente e por banhos proporcionaram diminuição de 53 e 95% do volume de água perdida, resultando, respectivamente, em redução de 49 e 64% na massa total de agrotóxicos transportados para o ambiente, em relação ao total aplicado na lavoura. A massa de agrotóxico transportada não ultrapassou 3% do total aplicado, e as maiores concentrações de agrotóxicos em água ocorreram próximo à sua aplicação. Com base nesses resultados, salienta-se que os manejos de irrigação intermitente e por banhos minimizam o transporte de agrotóxicos para o ambiente. Abstract in english Rice crop in the state of Rio Grande do Sul is characterized by the presence of water layer on the soil, which can cause pesticide runoff during the occurrence of rainfall. Thus, proper irrigation management can reduce pesticide transport into the environment. The objective of this study was to eval [...] uate the effect of different irrigation managements on water runoff, transport and dissipation of clomazone, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, trifloxystrobin, and propiconazol. The treatments were arranged in a factorial scheme and consisted of continuous flooding, intermittent flooding, and flushing irrigation (factor A) and by the application of the pesticides listed above (factor B). Total water runoff, and pesticide transport and dissipation rate were evaluated. Due to the larger rainfall storage, compared with continuous flooding, intermittent flooding and flushing irrigation provided a reduction of 53 and 95% of water runoff, resulting, respectively, in a reduction of 49 and 64% of the total mass transported into the environment in relation to the total applied in the field. The pesticide mass transported was lower than 3% of the total amount applied. Based on these results, it could be concluded that intermittent flooding and flushing irrigation minimize pesticide transport into the environment.Since the highest pesticide concentrations occur close to application time, it is of fundamental importance to conduct proper irrigation management providing maximum permanence in the environment.

L.F.D., Martini; L.A., Avila; G.V., Cassol; R., Zanella; S.L.O., Machado; M.S., Marques; M., De Vicari.

2012-12-01

47

The Lasting Threat of Pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past several weeks, a plethora of news articles have featured pesticides: the recent findings that amniotic fluids (which surround a fetus in the womb) contain detectable levels of pesticides in 30% of tested women; the fact that, in addition to the already-established link to cancers, pesticide exposure during pregnancy may also be linked to child learning disabilities, such as Hyperactivity or Attention Deficit Disorder; and the initiation of a multi-agency proposal to impose a sales tax on agricultural chemicals, such as pesticides and insecticides. Despite continued controversy over the real health effects of pesticides, few argue about the global increase in pesticide use. With the increase in pesticide use, there is a concomitant increase in the amount of unused, stored (or more accurately, abandoned) pesticides. This week's In The News addresses the fate of unused pesticides -- the several hundred thousand tons of obsolete, dangerous pesticides that currently plague several countries around the globe. Many of these obsolete pesticides were banned from use after import, were oversupplied or sent as duplicate supplies by aid agencies, or were inappropriate for local use. The nine resources listed provide background information and scientific resources on pesticides and the obsolete pesticide problem.

Payne, Laura X.

48

Pesticide Use and Water Quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication describes in nontechnical language the problem of pesticide use and how it affects water quality. It provides information on laws affecting pesticide use and the reasons for them, as well as giving directions for the proper use of pesticides. The booklet is divided into five chapters, each of which concludes with a list of study…

Reneau, Fred

49

On the paradox of pesticides  

CERN Document Server

The paradox of pesticides was observed experimentally, which says that pesticides may dramatically increase the population of a pest when the pest has a natural predator. Here we use a mathematical model to study the paradox. We find that the timing for the application of pesticides is crucial for the resurgence or non-resurgence of the pests. In particular, regularly applying pesticides is not a good idea as also observed in experiments. In fact, the best time to apply pesticides is when the pest population is reasonably high.

Li, Y Charles

2013-01-01

50

A Test House Study of Pesticides and PesticideDegradation Products Following an Indoor Application  

Science.gov (United States)

Preexisting pesticide degradates are a concern for pesticide biomonitoring studies as exposure to them may result in overestimation of pesticide exposure. The purpose of this research was to determine whether there was significant formation and movement, of pesticide degradates o...

51

Genotoxic effects of pesticides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidemiologic data showed an increase in the number of cancer cases in persons involved in agricultural production using pesticides. According to IARC, more than 25% of pesticides are classified as oncogens. In recent years, the concept of malignant tumors developing after environmental contamination with chemicals has been accepted. Changes in genetic material are at the basis of this process because many environmental pollutants are chemical carcinogens and mutagens with the capacity of causing DNA damage. DNA damage was proposed as a useful parameter for assessing the genotoxic properties of environmental pollutants. The correlation between exposure to carcinogenic substance and the level of DNA damage is essential. Pesticides are highly biologically active chemicals. They may interact with DNA and damage its structure. Such interaction may be critical for the manifestation of carcinogenic properties of different chemicals. We report on the organotropic genotoxic effects of different chemical classes of pesticides (decis, cypermetrin, 2,4-D, polyram) studied by means of alkaline unwinding assay DNA. PMID:9216788

Kornuta, N; Bagley, E; Nedopitanskaya, N

1996-01-01

52

78 FR 40027 - Novaluron; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...Levels of Concern Once a pesticide's toxicological profile...human exposure to the pesticide. For hazards that have...www.epa.gov/pesticides/factsheets/riskassess...spleen and liver). Dermal short-term (1 to...chemistry (decreased absorption rate =...

2013-07-03

53

78 FR 3333 - Spiromesifen; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...Levels of Concern Once a pesticide's toxicological profile...human exposure to the pesticide. For hazards that have...www.epa.gov/pesticides/factsheets/riskassess...follicles in females. Dermal short-term (1 to...intraspecies rats. absorption rate =...

2013-01-16

54

77 FR 49732 - Cyprodinil; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...human exposure to the pesticide. For hazards that...www.epa.gov/pesticides/factsheets/riskassess...body-weight gain, absorption rate = increased cholesterol...Cancer (Oral, dermal, inhalation) Not likely...performed for a food-use pesticide, if a...

2012-08-17

55

Soil column leaching of pesticides.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this review, I address the practical and theoretical aspects of pesticide soil mobility.I also address the methods used to measure mobility, and the factors that influence it, and I summarize the data that have been published on the column leaching of pesticides.Pesticides that enter the unsaturated soil profile are transported downwards by the water flux, and are adsorbed, desorbed, and/or degraded as they pass through the soil. The rate of passage of a pesticide through the soil depends on the properties of the pesticide, the properties of the soil and the prevailing environmental conditions.Because large amounts of many different pesticides are used around the world, they and their degradates may sometimes contaminate groundwater at unacceptable levels.It is for this reason that assessing the transport behavior and soil mobility of pesticides before they are sold into commerce is important and is one indispensable element that regulators use to assess probable pesticide safety. Both elementary soil column leaching and sophisticated outdoor lysimeter studies are performed to measure the leaching potential for pesticides; the latter approach more reliably reflects probable field behavior, but the former is useful to initially profile a pesticide for soil mobility potential.Soil is physically heterogeneous. The structure of soil varies both vertically and laterally, and this variability affects the complex flow of water through the soil profile, making it difficult to predict with accuracy. In addition, macropores exist in soils and further add to the complexity of how water flow occurs. The degree to which soil is tilled, the density of vegetation on the surface, and the type and amounts of organic soil amendments that are added to soil further affect the movement rate of water through soil, the character of soil adsorption sites and the microbial populations that exist in the soil. Parameters that most influence the rate of pesticide mobility in soil are persistence (DT50) of the pesticide, and its sorption/desorption(Koc) characteristics. These parameters may vary for the same pesticide from geographic site-to-site and with soil depth. The interactions that normally occur between pesticides and dissolved organic matter (DOM) or WDC are yet other factors that may complicate pesticide leaching behavior.The soil mobility of pesticides is normally tested both in the laboratory and in the field. Lab studies are initially performed to give researchers a preliminary appraisal of the relative mobility of a pesticide. Later, field lysimeter studies can be performed to provide more natural leaching conditions that emulate the actual field use pattern. Lysimeter studies give the most reliable information on the leaching behavior of a pesticide under field conditions, but these studies are time-consuming and expensive and cannot be performed everywhere. It is for this reason that the laboratory soil column leaching approach is commonly utilized to profile the mobility of a pesticide,and appraise how it behaves in different soils, and relative to other pesticides.Because the soil structure is chemically and physically heterogenous, different pesticide tests may produce variable DT50 and Koc values; therefore, initial pesticide mobility testing is undertaken in homogeneously packed columns that contain two or more soils and are eluted at constant flow rates. Such studies are done in duplicate and utilize a conservative tracer element. By fitting an appropriate mathematical model to the breakthrough curve of the conservative tracer selected,researchers determine key mobility parameters, such as pore water velocity, the column-specific dispersion coefficient, and the contribution of non equilibrium transport processes. Such parameters form the basis for estimating the probable transport and degradation rates that will be characteristic of the tested pesticide. Researchers also examine how a pesticide interacts with soil DOM and WDC, and what contribution from facilitated transport to mobility is made as a result of the effects of

Katagi, Toshiyuki

2013-01-01

56

Radiation induced microbial pesticide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author)

Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Sang Jae

2000-01-01

57

Curious about pesticide action.  

Science.gov (United States)

The safe and effective use of pesticides requires knowledge of their mode of action in pests and adverse effects in nontarget organisms coupled with an understanding of their metabolic activation and detoxification. The author and his laboratory colleagues were privileged to observe, participate in, and sometimes influence these developments for the past six decades. This review considers contributions of the Berkeley and Madison laboratories to understanding insecticides acting at voltage-gated sodium and GABA-gated chloride channels and the nicotinic receptor and at serine hydrolases and other targets as well as the action of insecticide synergists and selected herbicides and fungicides. Some of the discoveries gave new probes, radioligands, photoaffinity labeling reagents, and understanding of reactive intermediates that changed the course of pesticide investigations and related areas of science. The importance of coupling mode of action with metabolism and design with serendipity is illustrated with a wide variety of chemotypes. PMID:20698709

Casida, John E

2011-04-13

58

Radiation induced microbial pesticide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author)

59

Pesticide-metabolizing enzymes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticides are known to function as substrates, inhibitors and inducers of drug-metabolizing enzymes, with the same compound frequently acting in more than one of these roles. Current studies of phase I metabolism of pesticides include cytochrome P450 (P450) and the flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO), with particular reference to individual isozymes. In mouse liver, the level of FMO1 is gender dependent, FMO3 is gender specific, while FMO5 appears to be gender independent. The isozyme specificity of methylenedioxyphenyl synergists for induction of P450 in mouse liver involves P450s 1A1, 1A2 and 2B10, including a non-Ah receptor-dependent mechanism for 1A2 induction. The substrate specificity of mouse and human P450 and FMO isozymes is discussed. PMID:8597134

Hodgson, E; Rose, R L; Ryu, D Y; Falls, G; Blake, B L; Levi, P E

1995-12-01

60

Tracer work in pesticide research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Innumerable studies on the large number of pesticides being used throughout the world led to some adverse findings on the properties and behavior of these chemicals and their degradation products in revelation to potential toxicity and environmental pollution. However, it is also a fact (difficult to accept as it may) that the use of pesticides as an indirect means of increasing food production cannot yet be dispensed with despite the potential dangers attributed to it. What can be done is to insure its judicious application which means minimizing its effectiveness in controlling pest infestations. To be able to do this it is necessary to know not only what pesticide is to be used against a given pest but also the fate of pesticide after application to a particular environment under prevailing conditions. Knowledge of the distribution and persistence of the parent compounds under metabolites will also help either, to confirm or to dispel the alleged dangers posed by them. Radiotracer methodology is particularly effective for this type of work because it permits highly sensitive analysis with minimum clean-up and permits one to determine even the bound residues which defies ordinary extraction procedures. Some studies made are studies on fate of pesticides in plant after foliar application to plant needs, uptake and translocation of systemic pesticides, fate of pesticides in soil, bioaccumulation of pesticide by aquatic organisms, etc. This particular study is on distribution of pesticide among the components of a rice/fish ecosystem. This project aims to generate data from experiments conducted in a model ecosystem using radiolabelled lindane and carbo-furan. In both cases, results show a decline in extractable species from the recommended dosage of pesticide application although they tend to imbibe a considerable amount of pesticide. It is hoped that depuration in additional experiments will bring useful results. (Auth.)

 
 
 
 
61

PESTICIDE TESTING WITH LITTORAL ENCLOSURES  

Science.gov (United States)

The littoral enclosures research design and protocol were designed to use in developing a field test guidance document to use in the pesticide registration process. ith its use, the primary and secondary (ecological) effects of pesticides on the structure and function of lentic e...

62

NANOTECHNOLOGY AND NANOENCAPSULATION OF PESTICIDES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper is about nano-technology perspectives and their applications in the pesticides development. Information on companies that are participating in microencapsulate pesticide production is present, as well as nanotechnology concepts, and companies that make micro and nano-encapsulate pest formulations.

Eder Lugo-Medina; Cipriano García-Gutiérrez; Rey David Ruelas-Ayala

2010-01-01

63

Choice of pesticide fate models  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The choice of a pesticide fate model at field scale is linked to the available input data. The article describes the available pesticide fate models at a field scale and the guidelines for the choice of the suitable model as function of the data input requested

64

The ARS Pesticide Properties Database  

Science.gov (United States)

Maintained by the Agricultural Research Service's (ARS) Remote Sensing and Modeling Lab, the ARS Pesticide Properties Database "is a compendium of chemical and physical properties of 324 widely used pesticides." The database, organized alphabetically, focuses on "16 of the most important properties" affecting pesticide transport and degradation characteristics under different soil and weather conditions. For each pesticide, users will find information on CASRN, Molecular formula, Molecular weight, Physical state, Boiling point, Melting point, Decomposition point, Heat of vaporization, Rate Constants-Hydrolysis (Photolysis), Vapor pressure, Water solubility, Organic solubility, Henry's Law, Octanol/ water partitioning, Acid dissociation, Soil sorption, Field dissipation, and Soil halflife (aerobic, anaerobic). Also provided are several sections describing the properties and units of pesticide parameters, a Coden list, and links to a few related sites.

2005-12-06

65

Progress in studies on genotoxicity of pesticides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pesticides are playing an important role in food production and food security. However, the ecoenvironment and human being could be impacted by improper use of some pesticides. An increasing attention has been paid to genotoxicity of pesticide and a progress has been made in recent years. The methodology, results, and probable mechanisms of genotoxicity of pesticide are reviewed in this article. (authors)

66

Organochlorine pesticides and endometriosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Limited study of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and endometriosis has been conducted. One hundred women aged 18-40 years who were undergoing laparoscopy provided 20 cm(3) of blood for toxicologic analysis and surgeons completed operative reports regarding the presence of endometriosis. Gas chromatography with electron capture was used to quantify (ng/g serum) six OCPs. Logistic regression was utilized to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for individual pesticides and groups based on chemical structure adjusting for current cigarette smoking and lipids. The highest tertile of aromatic fungicide was associated with a fivefold risk of endometriosis (aOR=5.3; 95% CI, 1.2-23.6) compared to the lowest tertile. Similar results were found for t-nonachlor and HCB. These are the first such findings in a laproscopic cohort that suggest an association between OCP exposure and endometriosis. More prospective studies are necessary to ensure temporal ordering and confirm these findings. PMID:20580667

Cooney, Maureen A; Buck Louis, Germaine M; Hediger, Mary L; Vexler, Albert; Kostyniak, Paul J

2010-11-01

67

The Greening of Pesticide–Environment Interactions: Some Personal Observations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Pesticide–environment interactions are bidirectional. The environment alters pesticides by metabolism and photodegradation, and pesticides in turn change the environment through nontarget or secondary effects.

Casida, John E.

2012-01-01

68

40 CFR 152.175 - Pesticides classified for restricted use.  

Science.gov (United States)

...PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.175 Pesticides classified for restricted... The following uses of pesticide products containing...mixtures with fungicides and chlorinated hydrocarbon, inorganic phosphate...

2010-07-01

69

Pesticide use and application: An Indian scenario  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Agricultural development continues to remain the most important objective of Indian planning and policy. In the process of development of agriculture, pesticides have become an important tool as a plant protection agent for boosting food production. Further, pesticides play a significant role by keeping many dreadful diseases. However, exposure to pesticides both occupationally and environmentally causes a range of human health problems. It has been observed that the pesticides exposures are increasingly linked to immune suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities and cancer. Currently, India is the largest producer of pesticides in Asia and ranks twelfth in the world for the use of pesticides. A vast majority of the population in India is engaged in agriculture and is therefore exposed to the pesticides used in agriculture. Although Indian average consumption of pesticide is far lower than many other developed economies, the problem of pesticide residue is very high in India. Pesticide residue in several crops has also affected the export of agricultural commodities in the last few years. In this context, pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, proper application technologies, and integrated pest management are some of the key strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides. There is a dearth of studies related to these issues in India. Therefore, the thrust of this paper was to review the technology of application of pesticides in India and recommend future strategies for the rational use of pesticides and minimizing the problems related to health and environment.

Abhilash, P.C., E-mail: pcabhilash@gmail.com [Eco-Auditing Group, National Botanical Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh (India); Singh, Nandita, E-mail: nanditasingh8@yahoo.co.in [Eco-Auditing Group, National Botanical Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh (India)

2009-06-15

70

Acute pesticide poisoning and pesticide registration in Central America  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has been for 20 years the most acknowledged international initiative for reducing negative impact from pesticide use in developing countries. We analyzed pesticide use and poisoning in Central America, particularly in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, and evaluated whether registration decisions are based on such data, in accordance with the FAO Code. Extensive use of very hazardous pesticides continues in Central America and so do poisonings with organophosphates, carbamates, endosulfan and paraquat as the main causative agents. Central American governments do not carry out or commission scientific risk assessments. Instead, guidelines from international agencies are followed for risk management through the registration process. Documentation of pesticide poisonings during several decades never induced any decision to ban or restrict a pesticide. However, based on the official surveillance systems, in 2000, the ministers of health of the seven Central American countries agreed to ban or restrict twelve of these pesticides. Now, almost 4 years later, restrictions have been implemented in El Salvador and in Nicaragua public debate is ongoing. Chemical and agricultural industries do not withdraw problematic pesticides voluntarily. In conclusion, the registration processes in Central America do not comply satisfactorily with the FAO Codnot comply satisfactorily with the FAO Code. However, international regulatory guidelines are important in developing countries, and international agencies should strongly extend its scope and influence, limiting industry involvement. Profound changes in international and national agricultural policies, steering towards sustainable agriculture based on non-chemical pest management, are the only way to reduce poisonings

71

Radiation induced pesticidal microbes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants.

Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, D. S

2001-01-01

72

Radiation induced pesticidal microbes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants

73

Pesticide movement and water management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Agricultural chemicals are essential components of agricultural production systems in the United states. Pesticides control weeds, insects, and have had an important role in increasing agricultural productivity in the last 50 years, despite diminishing crop land acreage. The benefits of chemicals use options in agriculture must be balanced against potential contamination of surface water and ground water resources. This study shows the effect of water management practices on pesticide movemen...

Ehteshami, M.; Peralta, R. C.

1989-01-01

74

Canadian pesticide air sampling campaign  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although pesticides are widely used in Canada, little is known about the presence, distribution, and fate of currently used pesticides (CUPs) in the Canadian atmosphere. This paper provided details of a campaign conducted in 2003 to provide information on air and precipitation levels of CUPs. The objective of the campaign was to create pesticide emission inventories and to identify important pesticide issues related to environmental fate, exposure, and risk assessment in order to develop effective pesticide policies. A Canadian atmospheric network for currently used pesticides was established, which was then followed by an intensive field study in the Canadian prairies. Air samples were collected weekly using high volume PS-1 samplers with polyurethane foam (PUF) XAD sandwiches and glass fibre filters. Precipitation samples were collected each month using MIC samplers equipped with XAD columns. Passive air samplers were deployed at many of the sites for periods of 1 to 3 months. Results of the study showed relatively high concentrations of endosulfan at all sites. High levels of chloropyrifos, malathion, and carbofurans were also detected from air samples. High concentrations of lindane were also observed. Alachlor, metochlor, and trifluralin concentrations were detected in most Ontario and Quebec air and rainfall samples. Eleven target pesticides were detected from air samples during the prairie study. High concentrations of triallate were observed, and good correlations between air concentration trends and dry deposition trends were seen for triallate, 2,4-D, MCPA, dicamba, and bromoxynil. Results of the campaign are now being modelled using a simplified gridded pesticide emission and residue model. 4 refs., 7 figs.

Yao, Y.; Harner, T.; Blanchard, P.; Li, Y.F.; Aulagnier, F. [Environment Canada, Gatineau, PQ (Canada). Meteorological Service of Canada; Tuduri, L. [Laboratoire de Physico Toxicochimie des Systemes Naturels, Talence (France). Equipe Perigourdine de Chimie Appliquee; Waite, D.; Belzer, W. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environmental Conservation Branch; Murphy, C. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environmental Protection Service

2005-07-01

75

40 CFR 180.3 - Tolerances for related pesticide chemicals.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Tolerances for related pesticide chemicals. 180.3 Section 180.3 Protection...TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Definitions and Interpretative...3 Tolerances for related pesticide chemicals. (a) Pesticide chemicals...

2010-07-01

76

Pesticides' influence on wine fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wine quality strongly depends on the grape quality. To obtain high-quality wines, it is necessary to process healthy grapes at the correct ripeness stage and for this reason the farmer has to be especially careful in the prevention of parasite attacks on the grapevine. The most common fungal diseases affecting grape quality are downy and powdery mildew (Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator), and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea). On the other hand, the most dangerous insects are the grape moth (Lobesia botrana), vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus), and the citrus mealybug (Planococcus citri). Farmers fight grape diseases and insects applying pesticides that can be found at harvest time on grapes. The persistence of pesticides depends on the chemical characteristic of the active ingredients as well as on photodegradation, thermodegradation, codistillation, and enzymatic degradation. The pesticide residues on grapes can be transferred to the must and this can influence the selection and development of yeast strains. Moreover, yeasts can also influence the levels of the pesticides in the wine by reducing or adsorbing them on lees. During the fermentative process, yeasts can cause the disappearance of pesticide residues by degradation or absorption at the end of the fermentation when yeasts are deposited as lees. In this chapter, we reviewed the effect of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides on yeasts. We also studied the effect of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation on pesticide residues. PMID:20610173

Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo

2010-01-01

77

Challenges in Regulating Pesticide Mixtures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper introduces the field of mixture toxicity and the challenges in regulating pesticide mixtures. Even though pesticides are unique chemical stressors designed to have biological activity that can affect a number of nontarget species, they are intentionally placed into the environment in large quantities. Currently, methods and terminology for evaluating mixture toxicity are poorly established. The most common approach used is the assumption of additive concentration, with the concentrations adjusted for potency to a reference toxicant. Using this approach, the joint action of pesticides that have similar chemical structures and modes of toxic action can be predicted. However, this approach and other modeling techniques often provide little insight into the observed toxicity produced by mixtures of pesticides from different classes. Particularly difficult to model are mixtures that involve a secondary toxicant that changes the toxicokinetics of a primary toxicant. This may result in increased activation or a change in the persistence of the primary toxicant within the organism and may be responsible for a several-fold increase or decrease in toxicity. At present, the ecological effects caused by mixtures of pesticides are given little consideration in the regulatory process. However, mixtures are being considered in relation to human health in the pesticide registration process, setting a precedent that could be followed for ecological protection. Additionally, pesticide mixtures may be regulated through toxicity testing of surface water under the Clean Water Act. The limits of our basic knowledge of how mixtures interact are compromising both these avenues for regulating mixtures. We face many challenges to adequately protecting the environment from mixture toxicity; these challenges include understanding the interactions of toxicants within an organism, identifying the mixtures that most commonly occur and cause adverse effects, and developing a regulatory structure capable of minimizing environmental impacts.

Debra Denton

2004-12-01

78

33 CFR 274.4 - Pesticide management.  

Science.gov (United States)

...include information presented in the “Pesticide Applicator Training Manual”, § 274.3(e) or (2) a B.S. degree in agronomy, entomology, forestry or horticulture from an accredited college or university. (e) Restricted-use pesticide...

2010-07-01

79

Pesticide contamination of the coastline of Martinique  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In January and February 2002, the presence of certain agricultural pesticides throughout the coastline of the Caribbean island of Martinique was investigated. The tropical climate of the French West Indies is suitable for banana production, which requires intensive use of pesticides. An inventory of all pesticides used on the island (compounds and tonnage) was compiled. Surveys and analyses revealed the presence of pesticides in the plumes of seven rivers. The organochlorine chlordecone and m...

Bocquene, Gilles; Franco, Alain

2005-01-01

80

Ecotoxicological evaluation of pesticides in groundwater  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A preliminary ecotoxicological risk assessement of pesticides in groundwater has been performed. Predictable environmental concentrations in shallow groundwater, based on both calculations of pesticide leaching and detected levels during monitoring programmes, have been compared with aquatic ecotoxicity data. Among pesticides detected in groundwater only the levels of aldicarb (including metabolites), 1,3-dichloropropene, and ethoprophos exceed risk boundaries. Among ...

Notenboom J; Cam, Gestel; Jbhj, Linders

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

77 FR 73951 - Pyriproxyfen; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...Levels of Concern Once a pesticide's toxicological profile...human exposure to the pesticide. For hazards that have...www.epa.gov/pesticides/factsheets/riskassess...pathology parameters. Dermal long-term (6 months...critical) (dermal absorption LOAEL = 141.28...

2012-12-12

82

Pesticide Residues in Food: Your Daily Dose.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extensive use of pesticides during food production has created concerns for certain involuntary risks. Examines these concerns: government role in control and monitoring pesticide use, proposals for reform, and how consumer awareness might be an effective pressure for finding remedies. A table listing produce and pesticide residues is included.…

Mott, Lawrie

1985-01-01

83

Pesticides: Food and environmental implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pesticides are an integral part of modern agriculture, also in most developing countries. Although the annual average consumption of active ingredients in agriculture may be below 0.1 kg a.i./ha, most countries now consume more than 2 kg a.i./ha; some of the intensively cropped regions in South-East Asia are exposed to even higher amounts. Inherent contamination of the environment follows if rules and regulations are not strictly adhered to. The search for safer, less persistent and more specific pesticides and examination of the fate of applied pesticides in various regions of the world were the main themes of the symposium. Special emphasis was placed on the use of nuclear techniques, especially on labelled compounds in research. The Proceedings include all the papers and posters that were presented. Refs, figs and tabs

84

Modern pesticides and bobwhite populations  

Science.gov (United States)

Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) are frequently used as test animals for wildlife tests of pesticides. The organophosphate and carbamate pesticides that have replaced the organochlorines have many desirable properties, but they span a wide range of acute toxicities and some of them affe,ct survival, reproduction, food consumption, behavior, and nervous system enzymes in laboratory tests. Applying these laboratory findings to the field requires assumptions about the severity of exposure in the field. Direct field measurements show that birds may be exposed to significant amounts of these pesticides or even more toxic degradation products under some conditions. Adverse population effects may also result from depression of insect populations during the seasons when bobwhites rely on insects for food.

Stromborg, K.L.

1982-01-01

85

Losses of pesticides from agriculture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ation of total content of phenoxy acids in one single stream was 25 ?g/L in June 1985. Along with the phenoxy acids, the herbicide atrazine was found in some streams over the whole sampling season. In watersheds where only smaller parts of the area are devoted to agricultural production, no pesticides were found, or only small amounts were detected on single occasions. These investigations indicate that under certain conditions pesticide residues arising from normal agricultural use may contribute to diffuse (non-point) pollution of the aquatic environment. (author). 27 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

86

Accountability in the pesticide industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

To counter the lack of corporate accountability of the agrochemical industry for the damage caused by its perpetuation of the use of harmful chemical pesticides, the Rockefeller Brothers Fund staff in June 2002 brought together concerned scientists, lawyers, socially responsible investment professionals, and sustainable agriculture advocates at their Pocantico Conference Center. The group's objective was to communicate to market analysts the long-term downside risks of investments in pesticides, in the hope that dissemination of this information would contribute to increasing corporate accountability and safeguarding public and environmental health. Excerpts from its proceedings are presented. PMID:12749634

Riggs, Peter; Waples, Megan

2003-01-01

87

Pesticides and their effects on wildlife  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

About 560 active ingredients are currently used as pesticides. Applications of these pesticides are made to agricultural lands and other areas inhabited by wildlife. Unfortunately, many agricultural-use pesticides also entail some measure of risk to organisms other than the pest species. Because testing of pesticides prior to registration cannot evaluate all the potential environmental-pesticide-wildlife/fish interactions, current methods of risk assessment do not always provide sufficient safety to nontarget organisms. This is evidenced by die-offs of fish and wildlife from applications of pesticides at environmentally {open_quotes}safe{close_quotes} rates, the linking of population declines of some species with agrochemical use, and observations of survival-threatening behavioral changes in laboratory and field animals exposed to typical field levels of pesticides. It is important to note, however, that the majority of pesticides, when properly applied, have not caused significant injury to wildlife. A brief summary of pesticide effects on wildlife and fish are presented for the common classes of pesticides in use today.

Driver, C.J.

1994-07-01

88

The use and disposal of household pesticides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most pesticides are synthetic chemicals manufactured specifically for their toxic properties to the target species, and widely used globally. Several epidemiological studies in the United States have suggested health concerns arising from the chronic exposure of young children to pesticides in the domestic environment. In the UK very little is currently known about how nonoccupational pesticides are being used or disposed of. Any use of pesticides is a potential risk factor for children's exposure, and any potential exposure is likely to be reduced by the parents' adopting precautionary behaviour when using these pesticide products. This was investigated using a sample of 147 parents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort in and around Bristol, through an in-depth interview between August and November 2001. The results of this study add to the understanding of the underlying behaviour of parents applying pesticide products in the home environment in the UK. Pesticides are readily available, and are normally purchased in do-it-yourself shops and supermarkets and mostly disposed of in domestic waste. Safety was stated by 45% of parents to be the most important factor to consider when buying a pesticide. When buying pesticide products, labels were stated to be the most important source of information about pesticides. However, a third of parents stated they would not follow the product label exactly when using a product, just under half felt labels were both inadequate and hard to understand, and about 10% of parents would not take notice of warnings on the pesticide label. Less than half of parents would use gloves when applying a pesticide, although the use of protective equipment such as gloves during the application of pesticides could greatly reduce the exposure. It is a public health concern that the instructions on the labels of products may not always be understood or followed, and further understanding of user behaviour is needed. PMID:15476740

Grey, Charlotte N B; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Golding, Jean

2005-01-01

89

The use and disposal of household pesticides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most pesticides are synthetic chemicals manufactured specifically for their toxic properties to the target species, and widely used globally. Several epidemiological studies in the United States have suggested health concerns arising from the chronic exposure of young children to pesticides in the domestic environment. In the UK very little is currently known about how nonoccupational pesticides are being used or disposed of. Any use of pesticides is a potential risk factor for children's exposure, and any potential exposure is likely to be reduced by the parents' adopting precautionary behaviour when using these pesticide products. This was investigated using a sample of 147 parents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort in and around Bristol, through an in-depth interview between August and November 2001. The results of this study add to the understanding of the underlying behaviour of parents applying pesticide products in the home environment in the UK. Pesticides are readily available, and are normally purchased in do-it-yourself shops and supermarkets and mostly disposed of in domestic waste. Safety was stated by 45% of parents to be the most important factor to consider when buying a pesticide. When buying pesticide products, labels were stated to be the most important source of information about pesticides. However, a third of parents stated they would not follow the product label exactly when using a product, just under half felt labeusing a product, just under half felt labels were both inadequate and hard to understand, and about 10% of parents would not take notice of warnings on the pesticide label. Less than half of parents would use gloves when applying a pesticide, although the use of protective equipment such as gloves during the application of pesticides could greatly reduce the exposure. It is a public health concern that the instructions on the labels of products may not always be understood or followed, and further understanding of user behaviour is needed

90

75 FR 62387 - Pesticide Product Registrations; Conditional Approval  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2007-0092; FRL-8845-8] Pesticide Product Registrations...conditionally register the pesticide products Paladin Technical, Paladin, and...conditionally register the following pesticide products: 1. Paladin Technical, a...

2010-10-08

91

75 FR 60113 - Pesticide Science Policy; Notice of Withdrawal  

Science.gov (United States)

...assessments of acute exposure to pesticide residues in food. EPA is withdrawing this...certainty of no harm'') for pesticide residues in foods to assure protection from...assessments of acute exposure to pesticide residues in food. The PDP tests...

2010-09-29

92

40 CFR 155.50 - Initiate a pesticide's registration review.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initiate a pesticide's registration review...Registration Review Procedures § 155.50 Initiate a pesticide's registration review. The Agency will initiate a pesticide's registration...

2010-07-01

93

Chiral pesticides: identification, description, and environmental implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Of the 1,693 pesticides considered in this review, 1,594 are organic chemicals, 47 are inorganic chemicals, 53 are of biological origin (largely non chemical; insect,fungus, bacteria, virus, etc.), and 2 have an undetermined structure. Considering that the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs found 1,252 pesticide active ingredients(EPA Pesticides Customer Service 2011), we consider this dataset to be comprehensive; however, no direct comparison of the compound lists was undertaken. Of all pesticides reviewed, 482 (28%) are chiral; 30% are chiral when considering only the organic chemical pesticides. A graph of this distribution is shown in Fig. 7a. Each pesticide is classified with up to three pesticidal utilities (e.g., fungicide, plant growth regulator, rodenticide, etc.), taken first from the Pesticide Manual as a primary source, and the Compendium of Common Pesticide Names website as a secondary source. Of the chiral pesticides, 195 (34%) are insecticides (including attractants, pheromones, and repellents), 150 (27%) are herbicides (including plant growth regulators and herbicide safeners), 104 (18%) are fungicides, and 55 (10%)are acaricides. The distribution of chiral pesticides by utility is shown in Fig. 7b,including categories of pesticides that make up 3%t or less of the usage categories.Figure 7c shows a similar distribution of non chiral pesticide usage categories. Of the chiral pesticides, 270 (56%) have one chiral feature, 105 (22%) have two chiral features, 30 (6.2%) have three chiral features, and 29 (6.0%) have ten or more chiral features.Chiral chemicals pose many difficulties in stereospecific synthesis, characterization, and analysis. When these compounds are purposely put into the environment,even more interesting complications arise in tracking, monitoring, and predicting their fate and risks. More than 475 pesticides are chiral, as are other chiral contaminants such as pharmaceuticals, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, synthetic musks, and their degradates (Kallenborn and Hiihnerfuss 2001;Heeb et al. 2007; Hihnerfuss and Shah 2009). The stereoisomers of pesticides can have widely different efficacy, toxicity to nontarget organisms, and metabolic rates in biota. For these reasons, it is important to first be aware of likely fate and effect differences, to incorporate molecular asymmetry insights into research projects, and to study the individual stereoisomers of the applied pesticide material.With the advent of enantioselective chromatography techniques, the chirality of pesticides has been increasingly studied. While the ChirBase (Advanced ChemistryDevelopment 1997-2010) database does not include all published chiral analytical separations, it does contain more than 3,500 records for 146 of the 482 chiral pesticides (30%). The majority of the records are found in the liquid chromatography database (2,677 or 76%), followed by the gas chromatography database (652 or 18%),and the capillary electrophoresis database (203 or 6%). The finding that only 30% of the chiral pesticides covered in this review have entries in ChirBase highlights the need for expanded efforts to develop additional enantioselective chromatographic methods. Other techniques (e.g., nuclear magnetic resonance and other spectroscopy)are available for investigation of chiral compounds, but often are not utilized because of cost, complexity, or simply not recognizing that a pesticide is chiral.In this review, we have listed and have briefly described the general nature of chiral fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, and other miscellaneous classes. A data-set generated for this review contains 1,693 pesticides, the number of enantioselective separation records in ChirBase, pesticide usage class, SMILES structure string and counts of stereogenic centers. This dataset is publically available for download at the following website: http://www.epa.gov/heasd/products/products.html. With the information herein coupled to the publically accessible dataset, we can begin to develop the tools to handle molecular asymmetry as

Ulrich, Elin M; Morrison, Candice N; Goldsmith, Michael R; Foreman, William T

2012-01-01

94

The enzymatic basis for pesticide bioremediation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Enzymes are central to the biology of many pesticides, influencing their modes of action, environmental fates and mechanisms of target species resistance. Since the introduction of synthetic xenobiotic pesticides, enzymes responsible for pesticide turnover have evolved rapidly, in both the target organisms and incidentally exposed biota. Such enzymes are a source of significant biotechnological potential and form the basis of several bioremediation strategies intended to reduce the environmen...

Scott, Colin; Pandey, Gunjan; Hartley, Carol J.; Jackson, Colin J.; Cheesman, Matthew J.; Taylor, Matthew C.; Pandey, Rinku; Khurana, Jeevan L.; Teese, Mark; Coppin, Chris W.; Weir, Kahli M.; Jain, Rakesh K.; Lal, Rup; Russell, Robyn J.; Oakeshott, John G.

2008-01-01

95

Rosemaund Pesticide Transport Study 1987-1993  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report comprised the results, conclusions and recommendations of a project in the early 1990s to study the pesticide concentrations in soil and water that resulted from normal use of agrochemicals on arable crops at a farm in the Rosemaund catchment. The main purpose of the project was to monitor the water-borne transfer of pesticides from fields into the stream draining the catchment. It concluded that at least some of the environmental degradation in the stream was due to pesticides

Mitchell, R. D. J.; Matthiessen, P.; Williams, R. J.; Brook, D. N.; Clare, R. W.

1996-01-01

96

Analytical methods for detecting pesticide switches with evolution of pesticide resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

After a pest develops resistance to a pesticide, switching between different unrelated pesticides is a common management option, but this raises the following questions: (1) What is the optimal frequency of pesticide use? (2) How do the frequencies of pesticide applications affect the evolution of pesticide resistance? (3) How can the time when the pest population reaches the economic injury level (EIL) be estimated and (4) how can the most efficient frequency of pesticide applications be determined? To address these questions, we have developed a novel pest population growth model incorporating the evolution of pesticide resistance and pulse spraying of pesticides. Moreover, three pesticide switching methods, threshold condition-guided, density-guided and EIL-guided, are modelled, to determine the best choice under different conditions with the overall aim of eradicating the pest or maintaining its population density below the EIL. Furthermore, the pest control outcomes based on those three pesticide switching methods are discussed. Our results suggest that either the density-guided or EIL-guided method is the optimal pesticide switching strategy, depending on the frequency (or period) of pesticide applications. PMID:23891583

Liang, Juhua; Tang, Sanyi; Nieto, Juan J; Cheke, Robert A

2013-10-01

97

76 FR 36479 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...  

Science.gov (United States)

...part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities...regulations for residues of pesticides in or on food commodities...regulations for residues of pesticides in or on food...

2011-06-22

98

77 FR 63782 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on a Commodity  

Science.gov (United States)

...regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on the food commodity...part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on the food commodity...regulations for residues of pesticides in or on the food...

2012-10-17

99

77 FR 26477 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...  

Science.gov (United States)

...part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities...regulations for residues of pesticides in or on food commodities...tolerances for residues of the biochemical pesticide, 2,6-diisopropylnaphthalene...following food and...

2012-05-04

100

Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air. For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health.

Benoit Roig

2011-06-01

 
 
 
 
101

Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. Better control of pesticide uses and enforcement of safety behaviors, such as using personal protection equipment (PPE in the workplace, are critical for reducing the risk of developing pesticide-related symptoms and diseases. Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting.

Ming Ye

2013-11-01

102

Agricultural soils, pesticides and microbial diversity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pesticide effects on microbial community structure and activity in soil are reviewed, showing that methodological developments within the past few years have generated new possibilities for assessing pesticide effects. The first example is the use of mRNA quantification showing that nitrification processes are indeed very susceptible to some pesticides, and that there is correlation between the mRNA transcript quantity and the nitrification rate. The second example is devoted to pesticides influencing microbial community structures. The emergence of high throughput sequencing techniques now allows a more detailed analysis of which bacterial species are influenced. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

HjelmsØ, Mathis Hjort; Jacobsen, Carsten Suhr

2014-01-01

103

Sorption of pesticides to aquifer minerals  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper summarizes results from a work were the sorption of five pesticides on seven minerals were studied in order to quantify the adsorption to different mineral surfaces. Investigated mineral phases are: quartz, calcite, kaolinite, a-alumina, and three iron oxides (2-line ferrihydrite, goethite, lepidocrocite). Selected pesticides are: atrazine, isoproturon, mecoprop, 2,4-D, and bentazone. The results demonstrate that pesticides adsorb to pure mineral surfaces. However, the size of the adsorption depends on the type of pesticide and the type of mineral.

Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

2000-01-01

104

40 CFR 158.2110 - Microbial pesticides data requirements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...including all use patterns, food and nonfood uses for terrestrial...Additional data requirements for genetically modified microbial pesticides. Additional requirements for genetically modified microbial pesticides may...

2010-07-01

105

Global pesticide consumption and pollution: with China as a focus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Varieties and consumption of pesticides worldwide have been increasing dramatically as increased human population and crop production. In this process pesticide misuses become more and more serious, which has resulted in heavy environmental pollution and health risk of humans. In order to safeguard human health, threatened species and ecosystems from pesticide pollution, the consumption and pollution of pesticides worldwide especially China were reviewed and documented in present study. Meanwhile, the development trend of pesticide varieties and consumption was also prospected and discussed. It was found that worldwide consumption structure of pesticides has undergone significant changes since 1960s. The proportion of herbicides in pesticide consumption increased rapidly and the consumption of insecticides and fungicides/bactericides declined. China has become the largest pesticide producer and exporter in the world. Pesticide pollution of air, water bodies and soils, and pesticide-induced deaths in China has been serious in past years. Bio-pesticides should be further developed in the future.

WenJun Zhang

2011-08-01

106

THE EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES IN WATER RESOURCES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Environmental pollution is concerned problem all around world due to rapid increase of industrialization and urbanization. Especially, the intensive pesticide use has caused some environmental problems in many countries. The major problem occurred in water resources. Therefore, these resources need to be protected from the contamination of pesticides for future sustainable use.

CUMHUR AYDINALP

2004-07-01

107

Pesticide fact sheet number 20. 2: Amitrole  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. The Fact Sheet is issued on Amitrole for issuance of each special review document.

1992-12-01

108

QA/QC in pesticide residue analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper outlines problems related to pesticide residue analysis in a regulatory laboratory that are related to: availability of reference materials, as over 1000 pesticide active ingredients are currently in use and over 400 crops represent a large part of a healthy diet; analysis time; availability of samples in sufficient numbers; uncertainties of the procedures

109

Residential exposures to pesticides and childhood leukaemia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Like many chemicals, carcinogenicity of pesticides is poorly characterised in humans, especially in children, so that the present knowledge about childhood leukaemia risk derives primarily from epidemiological studies. Overall, case-control studies published in the last decade have reported positive associations with home use of insecticides, mostly before the child's birth, while findings for herbicides are mixed. Previous studies relied solely on self-reports, therefore lacking information on active ingredients and effects of potential recall bias. Few series to date have examined the influence of children's genetic susceptibility related to transport and metabolism of pesticides. To overcome these limitations, investigators of the Northern California Childhood Leukaemia Study (NCCLS) have undertaken, in collaboration with a multidisciplinary team, a comprehensive assessment of residential pesticide exposure, including: (1) quality control of self-reports; (2) home pesticide inventory and linkage to the Environmental Protection Agency to obtain data on active ingredients; (3) collection and laboratory analyses of ?600 home dust samples for over 60 pesticides and (4) geographic information studies using California environmental databases to assess exposure to agricultural pesticides. The NCCLS is also conducting large-scale geno-typing to evaluate the role of genes in xenobiotic pathways relevant to the transport and metabolism of pesticides. A better quantification of children's exposures to pesticides at home is critical to the evaluation of childhood leukaemia risk, especially for future gene-environment interaction studies. (authors)

110

Introduction to Indoor Air Quality: Pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

... it is prudent to reduce the use of chemical pesticides outdoors as well as indoors. Depending on the site and pest to be controlled, one or more ... fertilizing, watering, and aerating lawns, the need for chemical pesticide ... a pest control company, choose one carefully. Ask for an inspection of ...

111

Toxicity of Pesticides. Agrichemical Fact Sheet 2.  

Science.gov (United States)

This fact sheet gives the acute oral and dermal toxicity (LD 50) of over 250 pesticides in lab animals. The chemicals are categorized as fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, or miscellaneous compounds. One or more trade names are given for each pesticide. In addition, a brief explanation of toxicity determination is given. (BB)

Hock, Winand K.

112

Investigation of pesticide degradation in surface waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The degradation of organophosphorus and thiocarbamate pesticides was investigated using isotope tracer methods. The hydrolysis (degradation) of ester-type pesticides was studied by radiometric enzyme inhibition method in aqueous medium with 14C as tracer. The hydrolysis of S-ethyl-N,N-dipropylthiocarbamate prerequired the oxidation of the parent compound. (Sz.J.)

113

Biosensors for Pesticide Detection: New Trends  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the large amounts of pesticides commonly used and their impact on health, prompt and accurate pesticide analysis is important. This review gives an overview of recent advances and new trends in biosensors for pesticide detection. Optical, electrochemical and piezoelectric biosensors have been reported based on the detection method. In this review biosensors have been classified according to the immobilized biorecognition element: enzymes, cells, antibodies and, more rarely, DNA. The use of tailor-designed biomolecules, such as aptamers and molecularly imprinted polymers, is reviewed. Artificial Neural Networks, that allow the analysis of pesticide mixtures are also presented. Recent advances in the field of nanomaterials merit special mention. The incorporation of nanomaterials provides highly sensitive sensing devices allowing the efficient detection of pesticides.

Jean-Louis Marty

2012-03-01

114

Toxicity of pesticides on photosynthesis of diatoms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pakistan being an agricultural country, a large amount of pesticides are used, including organophosphates and synthetic pyrethroids. These pesticides are released through rivers and other tributeries into the coastal environment, thus posing a contiguous threat to marine organisms. In the present study two species of diatoms Amphora and Navicula were selected for the assessment of impact of organ phosphate and pyrethroid toxicity on these primary producers. The study shows that rate of photosynthesis was inhibited in both Amphora and Navicula species exposed to pesticide. The acute toxicity of pesticide was determined by measuring IC50 of the test organisms. IC50 calculated for diatom species depicts that different pesticides had variable effects on the photosynthesis of microalgae. High sensitivity of marine organisms is alarming as it may have implications on the marine ecosystem and fisheries. The results are also useful in setting control limits for the release of these chemicals in nature. (author)

115

Pesticide Toxicity Index: a tool for assessing potential toxicity of pesticide mixtures to freshwater aquatic organisms  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticide mixtures are common in streams with agricultural or urban influence in the watershed. The Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) is a screening tool to assess potential aquatic toxicity of complex pesticide mixtures by combining measures of pesticide exposure and acute toxicity in an additive toxic-unit model. The PTI is determined separately for fish, cladocerans, and benthic invertebrates. This study expands the number of pesticides and degradates included in previous editions of the PTI from 124 to 492 pesticides and degradates, and includes two types of PTI for use in different applications, depending on study objectives. The Median-PTI was calculated from median toxicity values for individual pesticides, so is robust to outliers and is appropriate for comparing relative potential toxicity among samples, sites, or pesticides. The Sensitive-PTI uses the 5th percentile of available toxicity values, so is a more sensitive screening-level indicator of potential toxicity. PTI predictions of toxicity in environmental samples were tested using data aggregated from published field studies that measured pesticide concentrations and toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia in ambient stream water. C. dubia survival was reduced to ? 50% of controls in 44% of samples with Median-PTI values of 0.1–1, and to 0% in 96% of samples with Median-PTI values > 1. The PTI is a relative, but quantitative, indicator of potential toxicity that can be used to evaluate relationships between pesticide exposure and biological condition.

Nowell, Lisa H.; Norman, Julia E.; Moran, Patrick W.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Stone, Wesley W.

2014-01-01

116

Pesticide environmental indicators and environmental policy.  

Science.gov (United States)

A current concern in many European countries is the environmental impact of agricultural pesticide usage and appropriate policy development to reduce impact. Currently, relatively hazardous pesticides that might be targeted for replacement by other products or management practices are not positively identified, with consequently few incentives for farmers to choose the least environmentally-risky chemicals. There is a lacuna in terms of widely-agreed operational environmental indicators, and an urgent need for comparative environmental assessment tools for pesticides, for use by both agriculturists and policy-makers. Such a system could, for example, provide a basis on which to differentiate an eco-tax according to the environmental threats posed by each product, and thus improve policy effectiveness. The heterogeneity of pesticide chemicals should be taken into account more explicitly in policy design. Through a comparison of different approaches covered in the literature on pesticide environmental classifications, this paper assesses the feasibility of developing environmental banding to improve the effectiveness of pesticide policy. A more pragmatic approach lies in the development of pesticide groupings rather than a continuous scale of environmental burden, i.e. focusing on broad similarities and differences rather than precise individual ordering. In particular, hazard indicators should be considered further, as a first stage in progress towards comprehensive environmental impact measures. PMID:12357660

Falconer, K

2002-07-01

117

Dynamics of pesticides in potato crops.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the behavior of pesticides commonly used on potato in a part of northwestern Spain with a large area devoted to this crop. Experimental potato plots were treated with commercial formulations of two insecticides, a nematicide, a herbicide, and a combination of two fungicides, and the concentrations of the active ingredients were monitored throughout the growing season in the 0-1 and 1-15 cm soil layers, in water dripping off the potato plants, and in the potatoes themselves. The technique used for pesticide determination was gas chromatography with mass selective detection. For potato analyses, pesticide extraction was optimized. The only pesticide ever detected in potato tubers was metalaxyl, the concentration of which never exceeded half the maximum residual limit even when it was applied several times more often than is officially recommended for potato crops. Metalaxyl was also the only pesticide detected in wash-off, apparently due to its being more soluble in water than the other pesticides applied to the growing plants. A mathematical model of pesticide transport in soil was fitted to the experimental data using the program HYDRUS-1D. PMID:16506836

López-Pérez, Gonzalo C; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; López-Periago, Eugenio; Soto-Gonzalez, Benedicto; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gandara, Jesús

2006-03-01

118

Neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective and neurodevelopmental outcomes among occupational (both adolescent and adult workers) and non-occupational populations (children). The symposium discussion highlighted many challenges for researchers concerned with the prevention of neurotoxic illness due to pesticides and generated a number of directions for further research and policy interventions for the protection of human health, highlighting the importance of examining potential long-term effects across the lifespan arising from early adolescent, childhood or prenatal exposure.

London, Leslie; Beseler, Cheryl

2012-01-01

119

Chiral pesticides: Identification, description, and environmental implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Anthropogenic chemicals, including pesticides, are a major source of contamination and pollution in the environment. Pesticides have many positive uses: increased food production, decreased damage to crops and structures, reduced disease vector populations, and more. Nevertheless, pesticide exposure can pose risks to humans and the environment, so various mitigation strategies are exercised to make them safer, minimize their use, and reduce their unintended environment effects. One strategy that may help achieve these goals relies on the unique properties of chirality or molecular asymmetry. Some common terms related to chirality are defined in Table 1.

Ulrich, Elin M.; Morrison, Candice N.; Goldsmith, Michael R.; Foreman, William T.

2012-01-01

120

Detection of pesticide by polymeric enzyme electrodes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) containing immobilized acetylcholine esterase (AChE) enzyme were used for the electrochemical determination of organophosphorous (OP) and carbamate pesticides. The extent of AChE deactivation by the pesticide was determined in the presence of acetylcholine (AChCl) substrate. The unique nature of this approach lies in the enzyme immobilization procedure in which AChE was attached to the SPE by in situ bulk polymerization of acrylamide to ensure efficient adherence within the membrane with minimal losses in enzyme activity. Responses were observed for the pesticides Monocrotophos, Malathion, Metasystox and Lannate over the concentration range 0-10 ppb (microg L(-1)). PMID:17328951

Dutta, K; Bhattacharyay, D; Mukherjee, A; Setford, S J; Turner, A P F; Sarkar, P

2008-03-01

 
 
 
 
121

The Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory: A Quantitative Instrument for the Assessment of Beliefs about Pesticide Risks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent media attention has focused on the risks that agricultural pesticides pose to the environment and human health; thus, these topics provide focal areas for scientists and science educators to enhance public understanding of basic toxicology concepts. This study details the development of a quantitative inventory to gauge pesticide risk beliefs. The goal of the inventory was to characterize misconceptions and knowledge gaps, as well as expert-like beliefs, concerning pesticide risk. This study describes the development and field testing of the Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory with an important target audience: pesticide educators in a southeastern U.S. state. The 19-item, Likert-type inventory was found to be psychometrically sound with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.780 and to be a valuable tool in capturing pesticide educators’ beliefs about pesticide risk, assessing beliefs in four key categories. The Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory could be useful in exploring beliefs about pesticide risks and in guiding efforts to address misconceptions held by a variety of formal and informal science learners, educators, practitioners, the agricultural labor force, and the general public.

W. Gregory Cope

2011-06-01

122

Pesticide Environmental Accounting: A method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts. - A method to estimate the external costs of a pesticide application based on the ecotoxicology, environmental behaviour and application rate of an active ingredient

123

Pesticides in the agricultural environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In most countries, regulations to control the use of pesticides require data from a hierarchical series of tests in order to assess their environmental acceptability. The test sequence begins with laboratory measurements, which are followed by field studies intended to confirm the predictions made from the laboratory results. Frequently, such predictions are not confirmed, largely because controlled laboratory conditions are too far removed from those that occur in the field. There is increasing interest in the potential of lysimeter systems to replace many of the laboratory tests. They enable test, including those using radiolabelled compounds, to be conducted outdoors under closely monitored conditions. The results to data are encouraging, but more work is required to validate such systems. (author). 33 refs

124

76 FR 11344 - Difenoconazole; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...act similarly in plants (fungi) by inhibiting ergosterol biosynthesis, there is not necessarily a relationship between their pesticidal...altered cholesterol levels, stress responses, and altered DNA methylation. It is not clearly understood whether these...

2011-03-02

125

78 FR 75257 - Flutriafol; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...act similarly in plants (fungi) by inhibiting ergosterol biosynthesis, there is not necessarily a relationship between their pesticidal...altered cholesterol levels, stress responses, and altered DNA methylation. It is not clearly understood whether...

2013-12-11

126

75 FR 24421 - Tebuconazole; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...act similarly in plants (fungi) by inhibiting ergosterol biosynthesis, there is not necessarily a relationship between their pesticidal...altered cholesterol levels, stress responses, and altered DNA methylation. It is not clearly understood whether...

2010-05-05

127

78 FR 67048 - Prothioconazole; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...act similarly in plants (fungi) by inhibiting ergosterol biosynthesis, there is not necessarily a relationship between their pesticidal...altered cholesterol levels, stress responses, and altered DNA methylation. It is not clearly understood whether...

2013-11-08

128

76 FR 50898 - Metconazole; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...act similarly in plants (fungi) by inhibiting ergosterol biosynthesis, there is not necessarily a relationship between their pesticidal...altered cholesterol levels, stress responses, and altered DNA methylation. It is not clearly understood whether these...

2011-08-17

129

77 FR 26450 - Metconazole; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...act similarly in plants (fungi) by inhibiting ergosterol biosynthesis, there is not necessarily a relationship between their pesticidal...altered cholesterol levels, stress responses, and altered DNA methylation. It is not clearly understood whether these...

2012-05-04

130

76 FR 82157 - Difenoconazole; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...act similarly in plants (fungi) by inhibiting ergosterol biosynthesis, there is not necessarily a relationship between their pesticidal...altered cholesterol levels, stress responses, and altered DNA methylation. It is not clearly understood whether these...

2011-12-30

131

78 FR 37468 - Cyproconazole; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...conazoles act similarly in plants by inhibiting ergosterol biosynthesis, there is not necessarily a relationship between their pesticidal...altered cholesterol levels, stress responses, and altered DNA methylation. It is not clearly understood whether...

2013-06-21

132

75 FR 4284 - Triticonazole; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...act similarly in plants (fungi) by inhibiting ergosterol biosynthesis, there is not necessarily a relationship between their pesticidal...altered cholesterol levels, stress responses, and altered DNA methylation. It is not clearly understood whether these...

2010-01-27

133

77 FR 42433 - Difenoconazole; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...act similarly in plants (fungi) by inhibiting ergosterol biosynthesis, there is not necessarily a relationship between their pesticidal...altered cholesterol levels, stress responses, and altered DNA methylation. It is not clearly understood whether these...

2012-07-19

134

76 FR 61587 - Prothioconazole; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...act similarly in plants (fungi) by inhibiting ergosterol biosynthesis, there is not necessarily a relationship between their pesticidal...altered cholesterol levels, stress responses, and altered DNA methylation. It is not clearly understood whether these...

2011-10-05

135

76 FR 54127 - Tebuconazole; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...act similarly in plants (fungi) by inhibiting ergosterol biosynthesis, there is not necessarily a relationship between their pesticidal...altered cholesterol levels, stress responses, and altered DNA methylation. It is not clearly understood whether these...

2011-08-31

136

76 FR 34877 - Difenoconazole; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...act similarly in plants (fungi) by inhibiting ergosterol biosynthesis, there is not necessarily a relationship between their pesticidal...altered cholesterol levels, stress responses, and altered DNA methylation. It is not clearly understood whether these...

2011-06-15

137

TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR PESTICIDE MANUFACTURING EFFLUENTS: BENTAZON  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of laboratory studies of the treatability of wastewater generated from the manufacture of bentazon. The wastewater was characterized for pesticide content by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Toxicity determinations on bentazon and its major ...

138

LES PESTICIDES : TOXICITE, RESIDUS ET ANALYSE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Les pesticides chimiques de synthèse se sont révélés très efficaces et fiables dans la protection des plantes et ont largement contribué à l’augmentation des rendements. Mais ces derniers temps, la question d’une limitation de l’utilisation des pesticides est de plus en plus posée car la société accepte de moins en moins l’éventualité de risques pour la santé humaine et pour l’environnement. Par conséquent, il est dans l’intérêt de tous les partenaires de la filière alimentaire que les Limites Maximales Résiduelles (LMR soient respectées. Les LMR sont fixées légalement pour chaque pesticide. La DJA et l’ArfD sont utilisées comme des seuils de référence de prudence toxicologique pour s’assurer que toutes les LMR sont sûres d’un point de vue de la santé humaine. Les techniques chromatographiques ont largement contribué pour le dosage des résidus des pesticides.

Mohamed BENZINE

2006-09-01

139

Determination of pesticide residues in cannabis smoke.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was conducted in order to quantify to what extent cannabis consumers may be exposed to pesticide and other chemical residues through inhaled mainstream cannabis smoke. Three different smoking devices were evaluated in order to provide a generalized data set representative of pesticide exposures possible for medical cannabis users. Three different pesticides, bifenthrin, diazinon, and permethrin, along with the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol, which are readily available to cultivators in commercial products, were investigated in the experiment. Smoke generated from the smoking devices was condensed in tandem chilled gas traps and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Recoveries of residues were as high as 69.5% depending on the device used and the component investigated, suggesting that the potential of pesticide and chemical residue exposures to cannabis users is substantial and may pose a significant toxicological threat in the absence of adequate regulatory frameworks. PMID:23737769

Sullivan, Nicholas; Elzinga, Sytze; Raber, Jeffrey C

2013-01-01

140

78 FR 57280 - Chlorantraniliprole; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...PP 2E8064) by Interregional Research Project Number 4 (IR-4...index.htm. Based on the First Index Reservoir Screening Tool (FIRST), Pesticide Root Zone Model...Concentration in Ground Water (SCI-GROW) models, the...

2013-09-18

 
 
 
 
141

77 FR 59558 - Sulfentrazone; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...IV. Other Considerations A. Analytical Enforcement Methodology Adequate...for inclusion in the Pesticides Analytical Manual, Volume II. The method may be requested from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry Branch, Environmental...

2012-09-28

142

76 FR 55804 - Dicamba; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...IV. Other Considerations A. Analytical Enforcement Methodology Adequate...are published in the Pesticide Analytical Manual (PAM) Volume II. The...may be requested from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry Branch, Environmental...

2011-09-09

143

Indicator DA4: Pesticides in water  

Pesticides are of concern because of their unacceptability in drinking water, but ... \\depending on the crops grown, choice of product used and weather patterns. ... \\For information on this indicator contact Defra's Observatory team on +44 (0) ...

144

75 FR 24695 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

...except fuzzy kiwifruit; sorghum; sugarcane, cane; sunflower, seed; and turnip greens. Contact: Carmen Rodia, (703) 306-0327, rodia.carmen@epa.gov. List of Subjects Environmental protection, Pesticides and pest. Dated: April...

2010-05-05

145

75 FR 32767 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

...Park, NC 27709. Active ingredient: Flubendiamide. Proposed Uses:: Legume; Soybean. Contact: Carmen Rodia, (703) 306-0327; rodia.carmen@epa.gov. List of Subjects Environmental protection, Pesticides and pest. Dated: May...

2010-06-09

146

Effect of pesticides on soil microbial community.  

Science.gov (United States)

According to guidelines for the approval of pesticides, information about effects of pesticides on soil microorganisms and soil fertility are required, but the relationships of different structures of pesticides on the growth of various groups of soil microorganisms are not easily predicted. Some pesticides stimulate the growth of microorganisms, but other pesticides have depressive effects or no effects on microorganisms. For examples, carbofuran stimulated the population of Azospirillum and other anaerobic nitrogen fixers in flooded and non-flooded soil, but butachlor reduced the population of Azospirillum and aerobic nitrogen fixers in non-flooded soil. Diuron and chlorotoluron showed no difference between treated and nontreated soil, and linuron showed a strong difference. Phosphorus(P)-contains herbicides glyphosate and insecticide methamidophos stimulated soil microbial growth, but other P-containing insecticide fenamiphos was detrimental to nitrification bacteria. Therefore, the following review presents some data of research carried out during the last 20 years. The effects of twenty-one pesticides on the soil microorganisms associated with nutrient and cycling processes are presented in section 1, and the applications of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) for studying microbial diversity are discussed in section 2. PMID:20512724

Lo, Chi-Chu

2010-07-01

147

Chlorination of organophosphorus pesticides in natural waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Unknown second-order rate constants for the reactions of three organophosphorus pesticides (chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon) with chlorine were determined in the present study, and the influence of pH and temperature was established. It was found that an increase in the pH provides a negative effect on the pesticides degradation rates. Apparent second-order rate constants at 20 oC and pH 7 were determined to be 110.9, 0.004 and 191.6 M-1 s-1 for chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon, respectively. A higher reactivity of chlorine with the phosphorothioate group (chlorpyrifos and diazinon) than with the phosphate moiety (chlorfenvinfos) could explain these results. Intrinsic rate constant for the elementary reactions of chlorine species with chlorpyrifos and diazinon were also calculated, leading to the conclusion that the reaction between hypochlorous acid and the pesticide is predominant at neutral pH. The elimination of these pesticides in surface waters was also investigated. A chlorine dose of 2.5 mg L-1 was enough to oxidize chlorpyrifos and diazinon almost completely, with a formation of trihalomethanes below the EU standard for drinking water. However, the removal of chlorfenvinfos was not appreciable. Therefore, chlorination is a feasible option for the removal of organophosphorus pesticides with phosphorothioate group during oxidation and disinfection processes, but not for the elimination of pesticides with phosphate moiety

148

Pesticides in Soil: Effects on Microorganisms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since their discovery to the present day, pesticides have been an inevitable segment of agricultural production and efforts have been made to synthesize compounds that would share a required efficacy along with selectivity, sufficient persistence on the object of protection and favourable toxicological and ecotoxicological characteristics so as to minimize their effect on the environment.When a pesticide gets into soil after application, it takes part in a number of physical, chemical and biological processes that depend not only on the compound itself, but a number of other factors as well, such as: physical, chemical and biological characteristics of soil; climatic factors, equipment used, method of application, method of storage, handling and disposal of waste, site characteristics (proximity of ground and underground waters, biodiversity and sensitivity of the environment. Microorganisms play an important role in pesticide degradation as they are able to utilize the biogenic elements from those compounds, as well as energy for their physiological processes. On the other hand, pesticides are more or less toxic substances that can have adverse effect on populations of microorganisms and prevent their development, reduce their abundance, deplete their taxonomic complexity and create communities with a lower level of diversity and reduced physiological activity.The article discusses complex interactions between pesticides and microorganisms in soil immediately after application and over the ensuing period. Data on changes in the abundance of some systematic and physiological groups of microorganisms, their microbial biomass and enzymatic activity caused under pesticide activity are discussed as indicators of these processes.

Ljiljana Radivojevi?

2007-01-01

149

Pesticide risk assessment in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recognition of potential risks, all pesticides distributed and sold in the United States must fulfil extensive registration requirements for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Registration is a licensing procedure where industry must submit data to demonstrate the safety of pesticidal substances and products before they can be used commercially. The regulatory control of pesticides is unique among chemicals in the U.S. in that testing beyond initial registration may be imposed by the Agency throughout the commercial life of the chemical, as long as there is adequate justification. Registration requirements are gauged to the nature of potential exposures. For instance, more data are generally needed for food use registrations than for non-food uses because of direct consumption of treated foods by the whole U.S. population. Unlike pesticide practices in many countries and authorities, as in the European Community where agricultural pesticides, non-agricultural pesticides and genetically engineered microbial agents are handled by separate directives, all pesticide activities are covered in the U.S. by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. This statute covers pesticide uses on foods and animal feed and a number of non-food applications like forest and horticultural uses, residential lawn care, in-home applications, and disinfectants/sterilants. Traditional inorganic and organic chemicals are covered, as well as biological agents like pheromones. Naturally occurring and genetically altered microorganisms also come under the definition of pesticides, but multicellular animals are exempt from regulation as pesticides. Pesticide registration in the U.S. as in many other countries may be a long-term, resource intensive undertaking. Not uncommonly the process from beginning to complete registration may take 4 to 10 years and cost about $10 million. To meet the responsibilities of reviewing studies, overseeing 400 active ingredients and 35,000 products, and implementing other aspects of the statute, EPA employs about 900 people. Unlike the approval process and actions to cancel pesticides in some countries, in the U.S. they are generally much more transparent. The need for specific test guidelines and the nature of the protocols are debated in the scientific community. Test data adequacy is evaluated according to objective criteria, and study findings are reviewed using standard evaluation procedures and risk assessment guidelines that have been through public comment. Agency risk concerns for a registered pesticide are vetted at a meeting of its Scientific Advisory Panel, a group of technical experts outside of government, where the potential risk case is reviewed and discussed. The meeting is open to the public with opportunity for input from industry, public interest groups, and other parties. Formal Agency regulatory proposals to cancel registered pesticides are published for public review and comment, and there may be several rounds of public involvement before a final decision is reached. Even after a regulatory decision has been made, and unless a settlement has been reached, the Agency is often sued by an environmental group or industry that questions the EPA position; in such situations, the case is then transferred to the court for deliberation. Risks are evaluated for a host of different effects by the pesticide program: acute and chronic, human health and ecological

150

Prioritizing pesticide compounds for analytical methods development  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a periodic need to re-evaluate pesticide compounds in terms of priorities for inclusion in monitoring and studies and, thus, must also assess the current analytical capabilities for pesticide detection. To meet this need, a strategy has been developed to prioritize pesticides and degradates for analytical methods development. Screening procedures were developed to separately prioritize pesticide compounds in water and sediment. The procedures evaluate pesticide compounds in existing USGS analytical methods for water and sediment and compounds for which recent agricultural-use information was available. Measured occurrence (detection frequency and concentrations) in water and sediment, predicted concentrations in water and predicted likelihood of occurrence in sediment, potential toxicity to aquatic life or humans, and priorities of other agencies or organizations, regulatory or otherwise, were considered. Several existing strategies for prioritizing chemicals for various purposes were reviewed, including those that identify and prioritize persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic compounds, and those that determine candidates for future regulation of drinking-water contaminants. The systematic procedures developed and used in this study rely on concepts common to many previously established strategies. The evaluation of pesticide compounds resulted in the classification of compounds into three groups: Tier 1 for high priority compounds, Tier 2 for moderate priority compounds, and Tier 3 for low priority compounds. For water, a total of 247 pesticide compounds were classified as Tier 1 and, thus, are high priority for inclusion in analytical methods for monitoring and studies. Of these, about three-quarters are included in some USGS analytical method; however, many of these compounds are included on research methods that are expensive and for which there are few data on environmental samples. The remaining quarter of Tier 1 compounds are high priority as new analytes. The objective for analytical methods development is to design an integrated analytical strategy that includes as many of the Tier 1 pesticide compounds as possible in a relatively few, cost-effective methods. More than 60 percent of the Tier 1 compounds are high priority because they are anticipated to be present at concentrations approaching levels that could be of concern to human health or aquatic life in surface water or groundwater. An additional 17 percent of Tier 1 compounds were frequently detected in monitoring studies, but either were not measured at levels potentially relevant to humans or aquatic organisms, or do not have benchmarks available with which to compare concentrations. The remaining 21 percent are pesticide degradates that were included because their parent pesticides were in Tier 1. Tier 1 pesticide compounds for water span all major pesticide use groups and a diverse range of chemical classes, with herbicides and their degradates composing half of compounds. Many of the high priority pesticide compounds also are in several national regulatory programs for water, including those that are regulated in drinking water by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under the Safe Drinking Water Act and those that are on the latest Contaminant Candidate List. For sediment, a total of 175 pesticide compounds were classified as Tier 1 and, thus, are high priority for inclusion in analytical methods available for monitoring and studies. More than 60 percent of these compounds are included in some USGS analytical method; however, some are spread across several research methods that are expensive to perform, and monitoring data are not extensive for many compounds. The remaining Tier 1 compounds for sediment are high priority as new analytes. The objective for analytical methods development for sediment is to enhance an existing analytical method that currently includes nearly half of the pesticide compounds in Tier 1 by adding as many additional Tier 1 compounds as are analytically compatible. About 35 percent o

Norman, Julia E.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.; Nowell, Lisa H.

2012-01-01

151

A new crop of concerns: Congress investigates pesticide safety.  

Science.gov (United States)

A March 2000 report by the General Accounting Office, Pesticides: Improvements Needed to Ensure the Safety of Farmworkers and Their Children, states that much remains unknown about the risks faced by children in agriculture, and that enforcement of pesticide protection standards for farmworkers is patchy and unsystematic. Many cases of farmworkers' pesticide-related illnesses go unreported, leaving health workers with an inadequate basis for tracking patterns and fine-tuning pesticide standards, says the report. In addition, children are known to be more vulnerable to the effects of pesticides, but there is a lack of data regarding children's exposures and the precise effects of pesticides on children's health. PMID:11017902

Taylor, D A

2000-09-01

152

40 CFR 168.22 - Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Advertising § 168.22 Advertising of unregistered pesticides...claims made for it as part of its distribution...claim made for it as part of the statement required...advertisements in any advertising medium to which pesticide...exemption applies. (ii) State the name...

2010-07-01

153

75 FR 62323 - Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Change to...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2070-AJ74 Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards...Containers and Containment; Change to Labeling Compliance...important roles in the management of pesticide risks...review by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) as...Nor does it impose or change any information...

2010-10-08

154

Use of labelled pesticides in pesticide research studies and problems in the interpretation of the data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The introduction of labelled pesticides has helped to solve number of problems connected with the formation and degradation of pesticides, factors influencing the above, location of the metabolites in the plants etc. However in most of the studies, the active ingredient has been labelled and diluted and applied at the recommended doses. But the efficacy of the pesticide is modified by the method of formulation, nature of fillers, emulsifiers, solvents, size of droplets etc. Hence the utility as well as the limitations in the use of labelled pesticides in the formulations are discussed. Also due to the variations in the half life of the radioisotopes used for labelling, the use of labelled pesticides for long as well as short duration crops has also been indicated. Autoradiography has become an useful tool in studying the movement of pesticide in the plant, and insects and also locating the regions of high concentration of pesticides and their residues. Though useful, the production of artefacts caused by exudation of cell sap, and other exudates, thickness of samples, increasing time of contact in the case of low energy radioisotope labelled compounds etc. have prevented the use of this technique on a wide scale. The problems in the preparation of autoradiographs of the plant specimens treated with labelled pesticides are also discussed. (author)

155

Bioremediation of single and mixture of pesticide-contaminated soils by mixed pesticide-enriched cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, degradation efficiencies for individual as well as mixed pesticide in different Indian soils, by mixed pesticide-enriched cultures, were evaluated under submerged and unsaturated conditions, Lindane (L), methyl parathion (MP), carbofuran (C), and a mixture of L, MP, and C were used in the study. For all the various conditions considered, methyl parathion degradation was the maximum and lindane degradation was the minimum. The degradation kinetics of the pesticides in sandy, clayey, compost, and red soils by various microbial isolates were studied. It was observed that adsorption was maximum and degradation of pesticides was minimum in compost soil. The degradation efficiencies of pesticides in liquid phase associated with soil sediment were less than those under the normal liquid phase conditions as leaching of pesticides from soil phase was continuous. Pesticide degradation was more in submerged soils compared to that in unsaturated soils. The degradation by-products of individual and mixed pesticides in liquid, unsaturated, and submerged soils were identified. Different metabolites were produced under submerged and unsaturated conditions. PMID:21424248

Rama Krishna, K; Philip, Ligy

2011-08-01

156

Intoxicación por plaguicidas Pesticide poisoning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los plaguicidas son una de las familias de productos químicos más ampliamente empleadas por el hombre. Se han usado sobre todo para combatir plagas por su acción sobre las cosechas o como vectores de enfermedades transmisibles. Los plaguicidas pueden clasificarse en función de su empleo (insecticidas, fungicidas, herbicidas, raticidas… o de su familia química (organoclorados, organofosforados, carbamatos, piretoides, compuestos bipiridílicos, sales inorgánicas…. Todos ellos son biocidas lo que implica, habitualmente una alta toxicidad humana que ha sido motivo de preocupación desde mitad del siglo XX debido al amplio e indiscriminado empleo de estos productos. La exposición a los plaguicidas puede tener efectos agudos, crónicos y a largo plazo. Algunos compuestos organoclorados (como el DDT fueron los primeros en ser empleado en fumigaciones masivas para combatir la malaria y han debido ser prohibidos debido a su capacidad de bioacumulación y persistencia medioambiental. El peligro representado por la generalizada presencia de estos agentes, se ha demostrado en los numerosos episodios de epidemias tóxicas humanas, productoras de alta morbi-mortalidad, descritas por casi todas las familias químicas: insecticidas y fungicidas organoclorados, insecticidas organofosforados y carbamatos, fungicidas organomercuriales y sales inorgánicas. Estos episodios se han producido sobre todo por vía alimentaria y en el terreno profesional. Otras causas de preocupación sanitaria son su capacidad carcinogénica y de ocasionar alteraciones reproductivas. Se presentan las principales características de algunas de las familias más relevantes.Pesticides are one of the families of chemical products most widely used by man. They have been used above all to combat pests because of their effect on harvests and as vectors of transmissible diseases. Pesticides can be classified according to their use (insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, raticides… or by their chemical family (organochlorates, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, Bipyridilium compounds, inorganic salts…. All of them are biocides, which normally implies a high toxicity for humans, which has been a cause for concern since the mid-XX century due to the widespread and indiscriminate use of these products. Exposure to pesticides can have effects that are acute, chronic and long-term. Some organochlorate compounds (such as DDT were the first to be used in massive fumigations to fight malaria and have had to be banned because of their capacity for bioaccumulation and environmental persistence. The danger represented by the widespread presence of these agents has been demonstrated in numerous episodes of human toxic epidemics, producers of a high morbidity/mortality, described for nearly all chemical families: organochlorate insecticides and fungicides, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, organomercurial fungicides and inorganic salts. These episodes have above all been caused through the ingestion of foodstuffs and in the occupational field. Other causes of health concern are their carcinogenic capacity and occasional reproductive alterations. The principal characteristics of some of the most relevant families are presented.

A. Ferrer

2003-01-01

157

Intoxicación por plaguicidas / Pesticide poisoning  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los plaguicidas son una de las familias de productos químicos más ampliamente empleadas por el hombre. Se han usado sobre todo para combatir plagas por su acción sobre las cosechas o como vectores de enfermedades transmisibles. Los plaguicidas pueden clasificarse en función de su empleo (insecticida [...] s, fungicidas, herbicidas, raticidas…) o de su familia química (organoclorados, organofosforados, carbamatos, piretoides, compuestos bipiridílicos, sales inorgánicas…). Todos ellos son biocidas lo que implica, habitualmente una alta toxicidad humana que ha sido motivo de preocupación desde mitad del siglo XX debido al amplio e indiscriminado empleo de estos productos. La exposición a los plaguicidas puede tener efectos agudos, crónicos y a largo plazo. Algunos compuestos organoclorados (como el DDT) fueron los primeros en ser empleado en fumigaciones masivas para combatir la malaria y han debido ser prohibidos debido a su capacidad de bioacumulación y persistencia medioambiental. El peligro representado por la generalizada presencia de estos agentes, se ha demostrado en los numerosos episodios de epidemias tóxicas humanas, productoras de alta morbi-mortalidad, descritas por casi todas las familias químicas: insecticidas y fungicidas organoclorados, insecticidas organofosforados y carbamatos, fungicidas organomercuriales y sales inorgánicas. Estos episodios se han producido sobre todo por vía alimentaria y en el terreno profesional. Otras causas de preocupación sanitaria son su capacidad carcinogénica y de ocasionar alteraciones reproductivas. Se presentan las principales características de algunas de las familias más relevantes. Abstract in english Pesticides are one of the families of chemical products most widely used by man. They have been used above all to combat pests because of their effect on harvests and as vectors of transmissible diseases. Pesticides can be classified according to their use (insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, rati [...] cides…) or by their chemical family (organochlorates, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, Bipyridilium compounds, inorganic salts…). All of them are biocides, which normally implies a high toxicity for humans, which has been a cause for concern since the mid-XX century due to the widespread and indiscriminate use of these products. Exposure to pesticides can have effects that are acute, chronic and long-term. Some organochlorate compounds (such as DDT) were the first to be used in massive fumigations to fight malaria and have had to be banned because of their capacity for bioaccumulation and environmental persistence. The danger represented by the widespread presence of these agents has been demonstrated in numerous episodes of human toxic epidemics, producers of a high morbidity/mortality, described for nearly all chemical families: organochlorate insecticides and fungicides, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, organomercurial fungicides and inorganic salts. These episodes have above all been caused through the ingestion of foodstuffs and in the occupational field. Other causes of health concern are their carcinogenic capacity and occasional reproductive alterations. The principal characteristics of some of the most relevant families are presented.

A., Ferrer.

158

Characterizing pesticide dissipation in food crops  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ingestion of residues via consumption of food crops is the predominant exposure route of the general population toward pesticides. However, pesticide dissipation in crops constitutes a main source of uncertainty in estimating residues in harvested crop parts and subsequent human exposure. Nevertheless, dissipation is a key mechanism in models assessing pesticide distribution in the cropenvironment and the magnitude of residues in harvest. We provide a consistent framework for characterizing pesticide dissipation in food crops for use in modeling approaches applied in health risk and impact assessment. We collected 4,482 unique dissipation half-lives for 341 substances applied to 182 different crop species and fully characterize these data by describing their variance, distribution and uncertainty as well as by identifying the influence of substance, crop and environmental characteristics. We obtain an overall geo-mean half-life over all data points of 3.9 days with 95% of all half-lives falling within the range between 0.6 and 29 days. Uncertainty in predicting a substance-specific geo-mean half-life varies with varying numbers of available data points with the highest uncertainty associated to pesticides with less than seven reported half-lives. Temperature in air was identified to have a significant influence on dissipation kinetics. We, hence, provide estimated half-lives for a default temperature of 20°C, while introducing a correction term for deviating temperature conditions. Diffusive exchange processes also have a significant influence on pesticide dissipation, wherever these processes dominate dissipation rates compared to degradation. In these cases, we recommend not to use measured dissipation half-lives as basis for estimating degradation, which is recommended in cases, where degradation is dominating. We are currently testing the regression to predict degradation half-lives in crops. By providing mean degradation half-lives at 20°C for more than 300 pesticides, we reduce uncertainty and improve assumptions in current practice of health risk and impact assessments.

Fantke, Peter

2013-01-01

159

Agricultural pesticide use in California: pesticide prioritization, use densities, and population distributions for a childhood cancer study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several studies have suggested an association between childhood cancer and pesticide exposure. California leads the nation in agricultural pesticide use. A mandatory reporting system for all agricultural pesticide use in the state provides information on the active ingredient, amount used, and location. We calculated pesticide use density to quantify agricultural pesticide use in California block groups for a childhood cancer study. Pesticides with similar toxicologic properties (probable carcinogens, possible carcinogens, genotoxic compounds, and developmental or reproductive toxicants) were grouped together for this analysis. To prioritize pesticides, we weighted pesticide use by the carcinogenic and exposure potential of each compound. The top-ranking individual pesticides were propargite, methyl bromide, and trifluralin. We used a geographic information system to calculate pesticide use density in pounds per square mile of total land area for all United States census-block groups in the state. Most block groups (77%) averaged less than 1 pound per square mile of use for 1991-1994 for pesticides classified as probable human carcinogens. However, at the high end of use density (> 90th percentile), there were 493 block groups with more than 569 pounds per square mile. Approximately 170,000 children under 15 years of age were living in these block groups in 1990. The distribution of agricultural pesticide use and number of potentially exposed children suggests that pesticide use density would be of value for a study of childhood cancer. PMID:11689348

Gunier, R B; Harnly, M E; Reynolds, P; Hertz, A; Von Behren, J

2001-10-01

160

Improving poisoning diagnosis and surveillance of street pesticides  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english An effective surveillance system is required to reduce pesticide exposures and poisonings, especially from street pesticides (illegal, unlabelled, and decanted agricultural pesticides used predominately for urban household purposes). Poisoning from any pesticide class, not only organophosphates, con [...] stitutes a medically notifiable condition in South Africa. Current practice, however, is to report only organophosphate cases, resulting in severe under-reporting. The lack of data concerning the link between poisonings and street pesticides has led to the mistaken assumption that urban populations are not at risk from significant pesticide exposures and poisonings. Without accurate statistics, healthcare professionals and policy makers are unaware of the contribution of street pesticide poisonings to the overall health burden. Accurate diagnosis is a prerequisite for notification and subsequent surveillance. An algorithm has been developed to enable healthcare professionals to improve the diagnosis and notification of pesticide poisonings.

Hanna-Andrea, Rother.

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
161

42 CFR 84.1156 - Pesticide respirators; performance requirements; general.  

Science.gov (United States)

...RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide...Resistance [mm. water-column height] Type of pesticide...or mouthpiece fit test using positive or negative pressure recommended...during the test. (c) Silica dust test. Three completely...

2010-10-01

162

76 FR 28776 - Pesticide Reregistration Performance Measures and Goals; Correction  

Science.gov (United States)

...FRL-8873-4] Pesticide Reregistration Performance Measures and Goals; Correction AGENCY: Environmental...Agency's progress in meeting its performance measures and goals for pesticide reregistration during fiscal years 2009 and 2010. This document is...

2011-05-18

163

COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES  

Science.gov (United States)

To estimate pesticide exposure for young children wearing diapers, a method for collecting urine samples for analysis of pesticide metabolites is needed. To find a practical method, two possibilities were investigated: (1) analysis of expressed urine from cotton diaper inserts ...

164

78 FR 25438 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Select Source, LLC., Agent: Wagner Regulatory Associates, Inc., P.O. Box 640, Hockessin...protection, Pesticides and pests. Dated: April 23, 2013. Richard P. Keigwin, Jr., Director, Pesticide Re-Evaluation...

2013-05-01

165

76 FR 34979 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hebei Veyong Bio-Chemical Company, Ltd., Agent Name: Wagner Regulatory Associates, Inc., 7460 Lancaster Pike, Suite...protection, Pesticides and pests. Dated: June 7, 2011. Richard P. Keigwin, Jr., Director, Pesticide Re-evaluation...

2011-06-15

166

PERMEATION RESISTANCE OF GLOVE MATERIALS TO AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDES  

Science.gov (United States)

The toxicities of many agricultural pesticides require that hand protection be provided to persons who mix, load, and apply these products. he selection of appropriate handwear is particularly problematic for pesticides that contain organic solvents or active ingredients that beh...

167

Improving poisoning diagnosis and surveillance of street pesticides  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english An effective surveillance system is required to reduce pesticide exposures and poisonings, especially from street pesticides (illegal, unlabelled, and decanted agricultural pesticides used predominately for urban household purposes). Poisoning from any pesticide class, not only organophosphates, con [...] stitutes a medically notifiable condition in South Africa. Current practice, however, is to report only organophosphate cases, resulting in severe under-reporting. The lack of data concerning the link between poisonings and street pesticides has led to the mistaken assumption that urban populations are not at risk from significant pesticide exposures and poisonings. Without accurate statistics, healthcare professionals and policy makers are unaware of the contribution of street pesticide poisonings to the overall health burden. Accurate diagnosis is a prerequisite for notification and subsequent surveillance. An algorithm has been developed to enable healthcare professionals to improve the diagnosis and notification of pesticide poisonings.

Hanna-Andrea, Rother.

168

Photochemical Attenuation of Pesticides in Prairie Potholes  

Science.gov (United States)

Prairie potholes are small, shallow, glacially-derived wetlands scattered across a vast region extending from Midwestern United States into south central Canada known as the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR). They constitute one of the largest inland wetland systems on Earth and play a prominent role in sustaining the regional biodiversity and productivity. Throughout the PPR, historic and contemporary conversion of native prairie for agriculture resulted in a pronounced loss of potholes. Remaining potholes have become interspersed within a matrix of agricultural landscape and trap nonpoint source pollutants such as pesticides from adjacent farmland, which has raised concerns regarding negative impacts on the water quality of downstream water bodies. The fate and persistence of pesticides in potholes, however, remains largely unexplored. Prairie potholes are typically characterized by shallow depth (i.e., large photic zone) and high levels of dissolved organic matter (DOM), making them ideal for photochemical reactions. In this context, we collected pothole water samples from North Dakota to investigate the rates and mechanisms of sunlight-induced attenuation of pesticides. The photodegradation kinetics and pathways of sixteen pesticides in the pothole water were monitored under both simulated and natural sunlight. For most pesticides, photolysis accelerated in the pothole water relative to the buffer control, which pointed to the importance of photosensitized processes (i.e., indirect photolysis). Upon solar irradiation, a mixture of photochemically produced reactive intermediates (PPRIs), such as carbonate radical, hydroxyl radical, singlet oxygen, and triplet-excited state DOM, formed in the pothole water. The major pathways through which pesticides degraded were inferred from the relative contribution attributable to specific PPRIs via quencher experiments. Different classes of pesticides exhibited contrasting photochemical behavior, but singlet oxygen and triplet DOM appeared to exert the largest effects on the overall photodegradation. Furthermore, a suite of second-order rate constants for reactions of pesticides with PPRIs were derived based on the quenching effect on observed reaction rate constants and measured steady-state concentrations of PPRIs. These rate constants may find practical utility for estimating DOM photochemical reaction rates in addition to data traditionally estimated from model compounds. Overall, our work contributed to a systematic evaluation of the potential for photochemical attenuation of pesticides in near-surface pothole water. Given recent incentives to expand agriculture in the PPR for production of organic crops and corn-based biofuels, this research also calls for the need to properly conserve prairie potholes and to develop regionally-specific, sustainable water resource management and land use strategies.

Zeng, T.; Arnold, W. A.

2013-12-01

169

Compound specific isotope analysis of organophosphorus pesticides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) has been established as a tool to study the environmental fate of a wide range of contaminants. In this study, CSIA was developed to analyse the stable carbon isotope signatures of the widely used organophosphorus pesticides: dichlorvos, omethoate and dimethoate. The linearity of the GC-C-IRMS system was tested for target pesticides and led to an acceptable isotope composition within the uncertainty of the instrument. In order to assess the accuracy of the developed method, the effect of the evaporation procedure on measured carbon isotope composition (?(13)C) values was studied and showed that concentration by evaporation of solvents had no significant isotope effect. The CSIA was then applied to investigate isotope fractionation of the hydrolysis and photolysis of selected pesticides. The carbon isotope fractionation of tested pesticides was quantified by the Rayleigh model, which revealed a bulk enrichment factor (?) of -0.2±0.1‰ for hydrolysis of dichlorvos, -1.0±0.1‰ and -3.7±1.1‰ for hydrolysis and photolysis of dimethoate respectively. This study is a first step towards the application of CSIA to trace the transport and degradation of organophosphorus pesticides in the environment. PMID:24997952

Wu, Langping; Yao, Jun; Trebse, Polonca; Zhang, Ning; Richnow, Hans H

2014-09-01

170

Optimal management of irrigation and vadose zone pesticide transport  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A management model is developed for maximizing crop yield while avoiding unacceptable pesticide leaching. Utilized constraint equations: maintain a soil moisture volume balance, describe downward pesticide transport, and limit the amount of pesticide reaching groundwater. The reported optimization model is the first which includes unsaturated zone pesticide transport. It is designed to help prevent nonpoint-source contamination of shallow groundwater aquifers. The model computes optimal irrig...

Hegazy, M. A.; Peralta, R. C.

1992-01-01

171

Public Health Implications of Pesticide Residues in Meat  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. Since then various synthetic pesticides are used for protection of crops and public health. The persistence nature of some of these pesticides led to their accumulation in animal tissues and subsequently causes human dietary exposure to these pesticides through consumption of animal products viz. meat, milk, eggs and seafoods. Scientific evidence suggest that even such low dose but l...

Jadhav V.J. and Waskar V.S.

2011-01-01

172

Zinc oxide based Acetylcholinesterase biosensor for organophosphorus pesticide detection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pesticide residues in food pose a major health risk to consumers and currently there is no commercially available on-site detection method. Acetylcholinesterase based amperometric biosensors have the potential to offer a cheap, sensitive, easy to use and portable detection method for a widely used class of pesticides i.e. organophosphorus pesticides. They work on the principle that the enzyme Acetylcholinesterase is inhibited by organophosphorus pesticides. The challenges in effectively makin...

Sinha, Ravi

2009-01-01

173

Pesticide residues in grain from Kazakhstan and potential health risks associated with exposure to detected pesticides.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the first study of pesticide residue results in grain from Kazakhstan. A total of 80 samples: barley, oat, rye, and wheat were collected and tested in the accredited laboratory. Among 180 pesticides, 10 active substances were detected. Banned pesticides, such as DDTs, ?-HCH, aldrin and diazinon were found in cereal grain. Chlorpyrifos methyl and pirimiphos methyl were the most frequently detected residues. No residues were found in 77.5% of the samples, 13.75% contained pesticide residues at or below MRLs, and 8.75% above MRLs. The greatest percentage of samples with residues (29%) was noted for wheat, and the lowest for rye (20%). Obtained data were used to estimate potential health risks associated with exposure to these pesticides. The highest estimated daily intakes (EDIs) were as follows: 789% of the ADI for aldrin (wheat) and 49.8% of the ADI for pirimiphos methyl (wheat and rye). The acute risk from aldrin and tebuconazole in wheat was 315.9% and 98.7% ARfD, respectively. The results show that despite the highest EDIs of pesticide residues in cereals, the current situation could not be considered a serious public health problem. Nevertheless, an investigation into continuous monitoring of pesticide residues in grain is recommended. PMID:24316210

Lozowicka, B; Kaczynski, P; Paritova, Capital A Cyrillic ?; Kuzembekova, G B; Abzhalieva, A B; Sarsembayeva, N B; Alihan, K

2014-02-01

174

78 FR 63938 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...  

Science.gov (United States)

...publication in the Pesticide Analytical Manual...06 ppm; pea, field, hay at 15 ppm; pea, field, vines at...TAED) and its degradation product diacetylethylenediamine...residues of the microbial insecticide...when used as a pesticide inert...

2013-10-25

175

76 FR 3885 - Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...  

Science.gov (United States)

...174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA has...modification of regulations for residues of pesticides in or on food commodities. Further...requirement of a tolerance for residues of Bacillus...

2011-01-21

176

76 FR 69692 - Withdrawal of a Pesticide Petition for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various Commodities  

Science.gov (United States)

...announcing the withdrawal of a pesticide petition received under section 408 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. Pursuant...

2011-11-09

177

Treatment of pesticide containing solutions by photo catalysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The potential health hazards of pesticides in surface water and underground water are well recognized. These pollutants enter the natural environment, generally, during crops disinfection, during pesticide industry cleaning, miss use of and miss understanding the ecological effects of such pesticides by the farmer. (Author)

178

America's Growing Dilemma: Pesticides in Food and Water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Public concern about the safety of continued reliance on pesticides in agricultural production is widespread and growing. The lack of understanding of how food is grown, the role of pesticides in food production, the risk assessment and regulatory processes and alternatives to pesticide use limits citizen participation in food safety debates and…

Strauss, Valerie; Sullivan, Monica, Ed.

179

Assessing Children’s Dietary Pesticide Exposure: Direct Measurement of Pesticide Residues in 24-Hr Duplicate Food Samples  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: The data presented here are a response to calls for more direct measurements of pesticide residues in foods consumed by children and provide an opportunity to compare direct measures of pesticide residues in foods representing actual consumption with those reported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Pesticide Data Program. Objective: We measured pesticide residues in 24-hr duplicate food samples collected from a group of 46 young children participating in the Children’s Pesti...

Schenck, Frank J.; Pearson, Melanie A.; Wong, Jon W.; Lu, Chensheng Alex

2010-01-01

180

Pesticide clastogenicity in Chinese hamster ovary cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paraquat, alachlor, butachlor, phorate and monocrotophos, several of the most extensively used pesticides in Taiwan, were investigated for their clastogenicity using chromosome aberration (CAb) induction in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Significance levels of the binomial trend analysis and binomial mutagenicity data test were two criteria for the summary judgement of the pesticide clastogenicity. Except for phorate, all pesticides tested were clastogenic to CHO cells in the absence of in vitro metabolic activation by S9. 5 microliters/ml rat-liver extract, S9, were used as the source of in vitro metabolic activation. 3 different outcomes were found after the addition of S9. Paraquat: significant decrease in induced CAbs. Monocrotophos: concomitant occurrence of decreased cytotoxicity and increased clastogenicity. Alachlor, butachlor and phorate: increased cytotoxicities with no sign of enhancement in clastogenicity. PMID:3600690

Lin, M F; Wu, C L; Wang, T C

1987-07-01

 
 
 
 
181

Pesticides, microglial NOX2, and Parkinson's disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accumulating evidence indicates that pesticide exposure is associated with an increased risk for developing Parkinson's disease (PD). Several pesticides known to damage dopaminergic (DA) neurons, such as paraquat, rotenone, lindane, and dieldrin also demonstrate the ability to activate microglia, the resident innate immune cell in the brain. While each of these environmental toxicants may impact microglia through unique mechanisms, they all appear to converge on a common final pathway of microglial activation: NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) activation. This review will detail the role of microglia in selective DA neurotoxicity, highlight what is currently known about the mechanism of microglial NOX2 activation in these key pesticides, and describe the importance for DA neuron survival and PD etiology. PMID:23349115

Taetzsch, Thomas; Block, Michelle L

2013-02-01

182

International safety assessment of pesticides: dithiocarbamate pesticides, ETU, and PTU--a review and update.  

Science.gov (United States)

For the last 30 years the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) has carried out toxicological evaluations and safety assessments of dithiocarbamate pesticides, continuously adjusting previous appraisals in the light of new data and advances in the understanding of the principles and mechanisms of toxic action of these compounds. The historical narrative of the evaluative process is followed by an account of the present international safety assessment status of the dithiocarbamate pesticides so far examined by the JMPR. They are ferbam, mancozeb, maneb, metiram, nabam, propineb, thiram, zineb, ziram, and the associated substances, ethylenethiourea (ETU) and propylenethiourea (PTU). PMID:8732882

Vettorazzi, G; Almeida, W F; Burin, G J; Jaeger, R B; Puga, F R; Rahde, A F; Reyes, F G; Schvartsman, S

183

Pesticides and respiratory symptoms among farmers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Despite the intensive use of pesticides in agriculture there are few studies assessing the risk of respiratory conditions from this exposure. The study aimed at quantifying the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among farmers and evaluating its relationship with occupational use of pesticides and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,379 farmers from two municipalities of Southern Brazil in 1996. Frequency and type of chemical exposure and pesticide poisoning were recorded for both sexes. All subjects aged 15 years or older with at least 15 weekly hours of agricultural activity were interviewed. An adapted questionnaire developed by the American Thoracic Society was used for the assessment of respiratory symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out. RESULTS: More than half (55% of interviewees were male. The prevalence of asthma symptoms was 12% and chronic respiratory disease symptoms was 22%. Higher odds ratios for both asthma (OR=1.51; 95% CI: 1.07-2.14 and chronic respiratory disease (OR=1.34; 95% CI 1.00-1.81 symptoms were found in women. Logistic regression analysis identified associations between many forms of exposure to pesticides and increased respiratory symptoms. Occurrence of pesticide poisoning was associated with higher prevalence of asthma symptoms (OR=1.54; 95% CI: 1.04-2.58 and chronic respiratory disease symptoms (OR=1.57; 95% CI: 1.08-2.28. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of causality limitations, the study results provide evidence that farming exposure to pesticides is associated with higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, especially when the exposure is above two days per month.

Faria Neice Müller Xavier

2005-01-01

184

Management of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organophosphorus pesticide self-poisoning is an important clinical problem in rural regions of the developing world, and kills an estimated 200,000 people every year. Unintentional poisoning kills far fewer people but is a problem in places where highly toxic organophosphorus pesticides are available. Medical management is difficult, with case fatality generally more than 15%. We describe the limited evidence that can guide therapy and the factors that should be considered when designing further clinical studies. 50 years after first use, we still do not know how the core treatments--atropine, oximes, and diazepam--should best be given. Important constraints in the collection of useful data have included the late recognition of great variability in activity and action of the individual pesticides, and the care needed cholinesterase assays for results to be comparable between studies. However, consensus suggests that early resuscitation with atropine, oxygen, respiratory support, and fluids is needed to improve oxygen delivery to tissues. The role of oximes is not completely clear; they might benefit only patients poisoned by specific pesticides or patients with moderate poisoning. Small studies suggest benefit from new treatments such as magnesium sulphate, but much larger trials are needed. Gastric lavage could have a role but should only be undertaken once the patient is stable. Randomised controlled trials are underway in rural Asia to assess the effectiveness of these therapies. However, some organophosphorus pesticides might prove very difficult to treat with current therapies, such that bans on particular pesticides could be the only method to substantially reduce the case fatality after poisoning. Improved medical management of organophosphorus poisoning should result in a reduction in worldwide deaths from suicide. PMID:17706760

Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A; Eyer, Peter; Dawson, Andrew H

2008-02-16

185

78 FR 70906 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...  

Science.gov (United States)

...for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various Commodities...for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities...Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), (21 U.S...for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food...

2013-11-27

186

Pesticide fact sheet number 20. 1: Amitrole  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after one of the following actions has occurred. (1) Issuance or reissuance of a registration standard, (2) Issuance of each special review document, (3) Registration of a significantly changed use pattern, (4) Registration of a new chemical, or (5) An immediate need for information to resolve controversial issues relating to a specific chemical or use pattern.

1992-09-01

187

Pesticide exposure, safety issues, and risk assessment indicators.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms), many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence), and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization of the already approved pesticides and the approval of the new compounds in the near future. Thus, new tools or techniques with greater reliability than those already existing are needed to predict the potential hazards of pesticides and thus contribute to reduction of the adverse effects on human health and the environment. On the other hand, the implementation of alternative cropping systems that are less dependent on pesticides, the development of new pesticides with novel modes of action and improved safety profiles, and the improvement of the already used pesticide formulations towards safer formulations (e.g., microcapsule suspensions) could reduce the adverse effects of farming and particularly the toxic effects of pesticides. In addition, the use of appropriate and well-maintained spraying equipment along with taking all precautions that are required in all stages of pesticide handling could minimize human exposure to pesticides and their potential adverse effects on the environment. PMID:21655127

Damalas, Christos A; Eleftherohorinos, Ilias G

2011-05-01

188

[Neurotoxicity of pesticides: its relationship with neurodegenerative diseases].  

Science.gov (United States)

Several epidemiological studies suggest that pesticides could lead to neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Among pesticides, insecticides appear more neurotoxic than others but the neurotoxic mechanisms leading to adverse health effects remain unclear. The currently used pesticides such as rotenone and paraquat could disrupt mitochondrial bioenergetic function, reactive oxygen metabolism, redox function and promote ?-synuclein aggregation. In addition, recent studies demonstrate that genetic susceptibility to Parkinson's disease could monitor pesticide susceptibility, as demonstrated for polymorphisms in pesticide metabolizing enzymes that are involved in organophosphorus sensitivity. PMID:23544381

Thany, Steeve H; Reynier, Pascal; Lenaers, Guy

2013-03-01

189

Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms, many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence, and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization of the already approved pesticides and the approval of the new compounds in the near future. Thus, new tools or techniques with greater reliability than those already existing are needed to predict the potential hazards of pesticides and thus contribute to reduction of the adverse effects on human health and the environment. On the other hand, the implementation of alternative cropping systems that are less dependent on pesticides, the development of new pesticides with novel modes of action and improved safety profiles, and the improvement of the already used pesticide formulations towards safer formulations (e.g., microcapsule suspensions could reduce the adverse effects of farming and particularly the toxic effects of pesticides. In addition, the use of appropriate and well-maintained spraying equipment along with taking all precautions that are required in all stages of pesticide handling could minimize human exposure to pesticides and their potential adverse effects on the environment.

Christos A. Damalas

2011-05-01

190

Pesticide pollution remains severe after cleanup of a stockpile of obsolete pesticides at Vikuge, Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

High levels of DDT residues and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were found in soil, well water, and surface water around a collapsed pesticide storage shed at Vikuge Farm, Tanzania. Residues of DDT and HCHs were found at three soil depths down to 50 cm. Surface soil samples contained up to 28% total DDT and 6% total HCH residues. Water samples had concentrations of up to 30 microg L(-1) of organochlorine pesticides. Other compounds detected were aldrin, azinphos-methyl, carbosulfan, gamma-chlordane, chlorprofam, heptachlor, hexazinone, metamitron, metazachlor, pendimethalin, and thiabendazole. Although the visible remains of pesticides have been removed, the remaining soil is itself hazardous waste and poses a risk to the environment and the inhabitants of the surrounding villages. These findings show the necessity to follow up the environmental situation at former storage sites of obsolete stocks of pesticides, and that the environmental problems are not necessarily solved by removing the visible remains. PMID:15666681

Elfvendahl, Sara; Mihale, Matobola; Kishimba, Michael A; Kylin, Henrik

2004-12-01

191

Landscape parameters driving aquatic pesticide exposure and effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pesticide contamination is considered one of the reasons streams fail to achieve good ecological and chemical status, the main objectives of the Water Framework Directive. However, little is known on the interaction of different pesticide sources and landscape parameters and the resulting impairment of macroinvertebrate communities. We evaluated the potential effects of diffuse and point sources of pesticides using macroinvertebrate monitoring data from 663 sites in central Germany. Additionally, we investigated forested upstream reaches and structural quality as landscape parameters potentially mitigating or amplifying the effects of pesticides. Diffuse pesticide pollution and forested upstream reaches were the most important parameters affecting macroinvertebrate communities (pesticide-specific indicator SPEARpesticides). Our results indicate that forested upstream reaches and riparian buffer strips at least 5 m in width can mitigate the effects and exposure of pesticides. In addition, we developed a screening approach that allows an initial, cost-effective identification of sites of concern. Highlights: • Pesticide sources and landscape parameters important for holistic risk assessment. • Riparian buffer strips of at least 5 m in width can reduce diffuse pesticide input. • Forested upstream reaches enhance recovery of pesticide-affected communities. • Screening approach allows quick and cost-effective identification of problem sites. -- Our results show the interaction of different pesticide sources and landscape parameters and the resulting impairment of macroinvertebrate communities

192

Ocular toxicity from pesticide exposure: A recent review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Toxic effects on eyes result from exposure to pesticides via inhalation, ingestion, dermal contact and ocular exposure. Exposure of unprotected eyes to pesticides results in the absorption in ocular tissue and potential ocular toxicity. Recent literature on the risks of ocular toxicity from pesticide exposure is limited.Ocular toxicity from pesticide exposure, including the dose-response relationship, has been studied in different animal species. Cholinesterase enzymes have been detected in animal ocular tissue, with evidence of organophosphate-induced inhibition. Pathological effects of pesticides have been observed in conjunctiva, cornea, lens, retina and the optic nerve. Pesticide exposure has been associated with retinopathy in agricultural workers and wives of farmers who used pesticides. Saku disease, an optico-autonomic peripheral neuropathy, has been described in Japan in people living in an area where organophosphates were used. Pesticide exposure is also associated with abnormal ocular movements.Progressive toxic ocular effects leading to defective vision are a serious health concern. Agricultural workers are at high risk of exposure to pesticides and associated ocular toxicity. Primary prevention is the appropriate method of protecting eyes from pesticide-related damage. This includes improved eye safety and care in workplaces, and effective pesticide regulation for maintenance of public eye health. PMID:21432383

Jaga, Kushik; Dharmani, Chandrabhan

2006-05-01

193

Effects of halving pesticide use on wheat production  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticides pose serious threats to both human health and the environment. In Europe, farmers are encouraged to reduce their use, and in France a recent environmental policy fixed a target of halving the pesticide use by 2018. Organic and integrated cropping systems have been proposed as possible solutions for reducing pesticide use, but the effect of reducing pesticide use on crop yield remains unclear. Here we use a set of cropping system experiments to quantify the yield losses resulting from a reduction of pesticide use for winter wheat in France. Our estimated yield losses resulting from a 50% reduction in pesticide use ranged from 5 to 13% of the yield obtained with the current pesticide use. At the scale of the whole country, these losses would decrease the French wheat production by about 2 to 3 millions of tons, which represent about 15% of the French wheat export.

Hossard, L.; Philibert, A.; Bertrand, M.; Colnenne-David, C.; Debaeke, P.; Munier-Jolain, N.; Jeuffroy, M. H.; Richard, G.; Makowski, D.

2014-03-01

194

ESTIMATION OF THE BURDEN OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN SLOVAK POPULATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pesticides used in the agriculture have to be applied according to the requirements of good agricultural practice and appropriate law. Pesticides leave detectable residues in agricultural crops, raw materials and ecosystem components. Pesticides reach the human population through the food chain. Information on the type and concentration of pesticide residues in food is in Slovakia collected trough the monitoring programs. Health risks associated with pesticides contaminants in human nutrition are very important and are recently studied by several expert groups. Prerequisite programs are necessary to protect public health. Risk analysis and monitoring of the population burden by pesticide contaminants have to be performed in expert level. The general strategy for assessment of toxicity of pesticides is listed by the World health Organisation. Scientific risk assessment is the basis for taking action and making the legislation at national and European community level.doi:10.5219/69

Jozef Sokol

2010-07-01

195

Public Health Implications of Pesticide Residues in Meat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. Since then various synthetic pesticides are used for protection of crops and public health. The persistence nature of some of these pesticides led to their accumulation in animal tissues and subsequently causes human dietary exposure to these pesticides through consumption of animal products viz. meat, milk, eggs and seafoods. Scientific evidence suggest that even such low dose but long term exposure can cause serious health hazards to human health and environment as well. The reports on occurrence of pesticides residues in animal products manufactured in India are fragmentary, but provide confirmation to the fact Indian consumers do get dietary exposure to these pesticides. The role of Insecticide Act and Prevention of Food Adulteration Act enforced in India for judicious pesticide use and safety of consumers of animal products is discussed. [Vet. World 2011; 4(4.000: 178-182

Jadhav V.J. and Waskar V.S.

2011-08-01

196

Propagation of Uncertainties in Soil and Pesticide Properties to Pesticide Leaching  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the new Dutch decision tree for the evaluation of pesticide leaching to groundwater, spatially distributed soil data are used by the GeoPEARL model to calculate the 90th percentile of the spatial cumulative distribution function of the leaching concentration in the area of potential usage (SP90). Until now it was not known to what extent uncertainties in soil and pesticide properties propagate to spatially aggregated parameters like the SP90. A study was performed to quantify the uncertain...

Berg, F.; Tiktak, A.; Heuvelink, G. B. M.; Burgers, S. L. G. E.; Brus, D. J.; Vries, F.; Stolte, J.; Kroes, J. G.

2012-01-01

197

Agricultural pesticide usage and prioritization in South Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to review agricultural pesticide usage and trends and to identify hazardous pesticides for regulation, in terms of public health, in South Korea. The authors collected data on usage and trends of agricultural pesticides through agriculture-related databases. Criteria from the US Environmental Protection Agency classification for carcinogenicity, World Health Organization classification for acute toxicity, and European Union prioritization list for endocrine-disrupting chemicals were used for the hazard categorization of identified individual active ingredients. Pesticides to be prioritized among all pesticides used in South Korea between 2007 and 2011 were selected by taking into account the volume of usage, toxicity, and epidemiological evidence. Annual agricultural use of pesticides has increased rapidly from the 1970s to 1990s in South Korea, but has declined since 2001. The quantity of pesticides used in 2011 was reported as 19,131 tons, and was comprised of 34.7% insecticides, 28.0% fungicides, and 27.1% herbicides. The 50 pesticides with the greatest volume of usage accounted for 82.6% of the total volume of pesticides used between 2007 and 2011, with the most-used active ingredient being machine oil, followed by mancozeb and then paraquat. Organophosphates were the most used among the top 50 pesticides. A total of 24 pesticides were selected for recommendation of intensive regulation in South Korea. In conclusion, the authors described the usage and trends of overall agricultural pesticides, which would serve as a fundamental step forward in managing pesticide in terms of public health. Intensive efforts are required for the prevention of potential health effects from the 24 identified pesticides. PMID:24959760

Cha, Eun Shil; Jeong, Mihye; Lee, Won Jin

2014-01-01

198

Pesticides Provoke Endocrine Disruption A Review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Increasing numbers of environmental chemicals,including pesticides, have the ability to produce endocrine disruption by various mechanisms. such substances may affect hormone secretion from an endocrine gland and may alter the rate of hormone elimination from the body. environmental chemicals may also disrupt regulatory feedback mechanisms that exist between two endocrine organs; or may interact with a hormone receptor either by mimicking or antagonizing the actions of the natural hormone. these chemicals are referred to endocrine disruptive chemicals (EDC's). EDC's act to alter the blood hormone levels or the subsequent action of hormones . the use of radioimmunoassay(RIA) constitutes a superior and unrivalled tool for the determination and quantification of hormones.the endocrine system participates in virtually all important functions of an organism, such as sexual differentiation before birth, sexual maturation during puberty, reproduction in adulthood, growth, metabolism, digestion, cardiovascular function and excretion. hormones are also implicated in the etiology of certain cancers of hormone- dependent tissues, such as those of the breast, uterus, and prostate gland. therefore, endocrine disruption can potentially produce widespread effects. scientists should not stick to the past belief which presumes that pesticides have limited effect on some hormones. A paradigm shift in which a wider vision of understanding of the wholesome complex effects of pesticides o wholesome complex effects of pesticides on the whole body rather than a narrow limited understanding should take place

199

33 CFR 274.4 - Pesticide management.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Operation § 274.4 Pesticide management. (a) Administration...Virginia 23511 and a three day (20 hr) conference training course...personnel, or a three day (20 hr) special training course conducted...from professional pest control management personnel prior to...

2010-07-01

200

33 CFR 274.4 - Pesticide management.  

Science.gov (United States)

...conducted by the Army Health Services Command (AHSC) at Fort...Houston, Texas 78234, for Civil Works personnel, or a...certification § 274.3(f) Civil Works supervisors...or the Army Health Services Command, Fort Sam...regulations listing pesticides classified for...

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
201

76 FR 59909 - Amisulbrom; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...tomatoes. Nissan Chemical Industries, Inc...under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic...for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food) only if EPA determines...b)(4). The Codex Alimentarius is a joint U.N. Food and...

2011-09-28

202

76 FR 18906 - Mancozeb; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...limit for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food) only if EPA determines...consistent with U.S. food safety standards...established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission...b)(4). The Codex Alimentarius is a joint U.N. Food and Agriculture...

2011-04-06

203

77 FR 12207 - Pyroxasulfone; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...commodities. K-I Chemical U.S.A., Inc...under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic...for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food) only if EPA determines...b)(4). The Codex Alimentarius is a joint United Nations Food and...

2012-02-29

204

78 FR 46274 - Pyroxasulfone; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pyroxasulfone exposure causes the growth of crystals in the...pesticide based on the weight of the evidence from...account for prenatal and postnatal toxicity and the completeness...factor. 2. Prenatal and postnatal sensitivity. The pre-natal...day as reduced fetal weight and increased fetal...

2013-07-31

205

Pesticidas e abelhas / Pesticides and honey bees  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Após a análise dos critérios de classificação toxicológica (CT) dos pesticidas para as abelhas e da evolução da CT e da legislação específica deste tema, em Portugal, evidencia-se como a ausência de rigor da Autoridade Fitossanitária Nacional (AFN) e das empresas de pesticidas contribui para a muito [...] elevada probabilidade de mortalidade das abelhas pelos pesticidas e conclui-se com propostas de optimização das perspectivas de modificação da actual situação. Abstract in english After the analysis of the criterion of toxicological classification (TC) of pesticides to honeybees and of the evolution of TC and of legislation related to the theme, in Portugal, it is demonstrated how the absence of rigor of the Portuguese Pesticide Regulation Authority (AFN) and of the pesticide [...] s suppliers contribute to the very high probability of mortality of honeybees by pesticides and finally are presented proposals for the optimization of perspectives to modify the actual situation.

Pedro, Amaro; Joana, Godinho.

2012-07-01

206

75 FR 11884 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide products containing currently registered active ingredients, pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as amended. EPA is publishing this notice of applications, pursuant to section 3(c)(4) of...

2010-03-12

207

77 FR 72975 - Zeta Cypermethrin; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0472; FRL-9371-7] Zeta Cypermethrin; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY...establishes tolerances for residues of zeta- cypermethrin in or on multiple commodities...tolerances for residues of the insecticide zeta-cypermethrin, in or on pistachio...

2012-12-07

208

Pesticidas e abelhas / Pesticides and honey bees  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Após a análise dos critérios de classificação toxicológica (CT) dos pesticidas para as abelhas e da evolução da CT e da legislação específica deste tema, em Portugal, evidencia-se como a ausência de rigor da Autoridade Fitossanitária Nacional (AFN) e das empresas de pesticidas contribui para a muito [...] elevada probabilidade de mortalidade das abelhas pelos pesticidas e conclui-se com propostas de optimização das perspectivas de modificação da actual situação. Abstract in english After the analysis of the criterion of toxicological classification (TC) of pesticides to honeybees and of the evolution of TC and of legislation related to the theme, in Portugal, it is demonstrated how the absence of rigor of the Portuguese Pesticide Regulation Authority (AFN) and of the pesticide [...] s suppliers contribute to the very high probability of mortality of honeybees by pesticides and finally are presented proposals for the optimization of perspectives to modify the actual situation.

Pedro, Amaro; Joana, Godinho.

209

Pesticide contamination of the coastline of Martinique.  

Science.gov (United States)

In January and February 2002, the presence of certain agricultural pesticides throughout the coastline of the Caribbean island of Martinique was investigated. The tropical climate of the French West Indies is suitable for banana production, which requires intensive use of pesticides. An inventory of all pesticides used on the island (compounds and tonnage) was compiled. Surveys and analyses revealed the presence of pesticides in the plumes of seven rivers. The organochlorine chlordecone and metabolites of aldicarb were detected at nearly all of the monitored sites, even though the use of chlordecone has been prohibited since 1993. Two triazines (ametryn and simazine) were also identified. The concentrations of carbamates and triazines detected in the water and sediment samples from Martinique are comparable to those reported for mainland France. Chlordecone concentrations in the sediment and particulate matter samples were, however, particularly high in the samples from Martinique. Toxicological implications are discussed. Of particular concern are the high levels of chlordecone (which is bioaccumulating and carcinogenic) and further monitoring of this compound is recommended, especially in fish and other sea-food products. PMID:16045943

Bocquené, Gilles; Franco, Alain

2005-01-01

210

77 FR 10962 - Flazasulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...flazasulfuron follows. A. Toxicological Profile EPA has...the longer-term mammalian toxicity studies...kidney function (chronic nephropathy) and...HQ-OPP-2010-0494. B. Toxicological Points of Departure...a = acute, c = chronic). RfD = reference...pesticide, if a toxicological study has...

2012-02-24

211

78 FR 48068 - Topramezone; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...topramezone follows. A. Toxicological Profile EPA has...Topramezone exhibits a mammalian toxicity profile...on the eyes in chronic toxicity studies...EPA-HQ-OPP-2012-0262. B. Toxicological Points of Departure...a = acute, c = chronic). RfD = reference...pesticide, if a toxicological study has...

2013-08-07

212

Sprinkler irrigation-pesticide best management systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pesticides reduce crop losses due to insects, pathogens, weeds and other pests, but can contaminate ground water. Ground water refers to water in the saturated portion of the soil material. Water in an unsaturated region of the soil is termed soil moisture.

Peralta, Richard C.; Deer, Howard; Hill, Robert W.; Allen, L. Neil

1991-01-01

213

77 FR 72232 - Dodine; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...MOE = 100.. 28-Day Dermal Toxicity- (HDT...LOAEL = not identified. Dermal intermediate-term...Cancer (oral, dermal, inhalation...Tested. IAF = inhalation absorption rate. LOAEL = lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level...performed for a food-use pesticide, if a...

2012-12-05

214

78 FR 69562 - Fenpropathrin; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2012-0899 in the subject line on the first page...insecticide fenpropathrin, alpha-cyano- 3-phenoxybenzyl...A. Toxicological Profile EPA has evaluated...pyrethroids, which lack an alpha-cyano moiety...which contain an alpha-cyano moiety...pesticide's toxicological profile is...

2013-11-20

215

76 FR 12877 - Fomesafen; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0122 in the subject line on the first page...Follow the on-line instructions for...A. Toxicological Profile EPA has evaluated...proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR[alpha...differences in PPAR[alpha] activation and...pesticide's toxicological profile is...

2011-03-09

216

77 FR 70902 - Fenpropathrin; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0644 in the subject line on the first page of...insecticide fenpropathrin, alpha-cyano-3-phenoxy-benzyl...follows. A. Toxicological Profile EPA has evaluated the...pyrethroids, which contain an alpha-cyano moiety, produce...pesticide's toxicological profile is determined,...

2012-11-28

217

76 FR 53641 - Tetraconazole; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0583 in the subject line on the first page of...gov. Follow the on-line instructions for submitting...follows. A. Toxicological Profile EPA has evaluated the...features characteristic of [alpha]-2 microglobulin...pesticide's toxicological profile is determined,...

2011-08-29

218

76 FR 23882 - Metiram; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...toxicity observed included abortions and decreased BW gains...for the developmental effects assessed. Although...not have significant negative economic impact on a...pesticide tolerance is, in effect, the removal of a regulatory...action will not have any negative economic impact on...

2011-04-29

219

Agricultural pesticides and risk of childhood cancers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Agricultural pesticide applications have the potential for significant drift beyond the target spray area and may result in exposure to non-farming residents in surrounding communities. Using geographic information system (GIS) methods, 1778 childhood cancer cases and 1802 controls born in Texas between 1990 and 1998 were assigned probable agricultural pesticide exposure based on proximity of birth residence to crop fields. Multivariate modeling was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for selected cancers. For most childhood cancers, we found no evidence of elevated risk associated with residential proximity at birth to cropland. There was an overall pattern of increased risk for germ-cell tumors but the odds ratios were based on few number of exposed cases. There was also some indication of increased risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and Burkitt lymphoma, but point estimates were imprecise and not statistically significant. Previous studies have assessed pesticide exposure primarily based on parental occupational history or household use, while our focus was on agricultural pesticides and so may represent a different array of chemical agents occurring at lower doses. PMID:18675586

Carozza, Susan E; Li, Bo; Wang, Qing; Horel, Scott; Cooper, Sharon

2009-03-01

220

Diagnosis & Treatment of Poisoning by Pesticides.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report succinctly discusses the steps necessary to diagnose and treat poisoning from pesticides, especially organophosphates, carbamates and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Immediate and continuing steps in the care of poisoning victims are outlined with supportive information on where to locate emergency assistance. (CS)

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

 
 
 
 
221

Use and storage of domestic pesticides in the UK.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several epidemiological studies, particularly from the United States, have suggested health concerns may arise from the chronic exposure of young children to pesticides in their home environment. Most of these studies are retrospective and the available pesticide exposure information is either subject to the problem of recall or derived from surrogate information. Currently, little is known about the extent of pesticide use in homes and gardens in the UK. This was investigated in this study using a sample of parents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort in and around Bristol. The level and extent of pesticide use by parents was explored through interviews that took place at the homes of the participants during August to November 2001, followed by an inventory of products stored in the home. From the results, 93% of parents had used at least one pesticide over the preceding year with the highest use being in the garden, second inside the home, followed by treating pets and head lice. Most households reported using one to five different products over the past year, with a mean of 3.5. The frequency of pesticide use showed that a minority of parents are using pesticides in the high frequency range. Over 85 different pesticide products were found to be stored in 76% of homes, with 76 different types of pesticide active ingredients. Insecticides were the most commonly used and stored pesticide. PMID:16697439

Grey, Charlotte N B; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Golding, Jean

2006-09-15

222

European Union policy on pesticides: implications for agriculture in Ireland.  

Science.gov (United States)

European Community (EC) legislation has limited the availability of pesticide active substances used in effective plant protection products. The Pesticide Authorisation Directive 91/414/EEC introduced the principle of risk assessment for approval of pesticide active substances. This principle was modified by the introduction of Regulation (EC) 1107/2009, which applies hazard, the intrinsic toxicity of the active substance, rather than risk, the potential for hazard to occur, as the approval criterion. Potential impacts of EC pesticide legislation on agriculture in Ireland are summarised. While these will significantly impact on pesticide availability in the medium to long term, regulations associated with water quality (Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC and Drinking Water Directive 1998/83/EC) have the potential to restrict pesticide use more immediately, as concerns regarding public health and economic costs associated with removing pesticides from water increase. This rationale will further reduce the availability of effective pesticide active substances, directly affecting crop protection and increasing pesticide resistance within pest and disease populations. In addition, water quality requirements may also impact on important active substances used in plant protection in Ireland. The future challenge for agriculture in Ireland is to sustain production and profitability using reduced pesticide inputs within a framework of integrated pest management. PMID:24753219

Jess, Stephen; Kildea, Steven; Moody, Aidan; Rennick, Gordon; Murchie, Archie K; Cooke, Louise R

2014-11-01

223

Pesticide use knowledge and practices: A gender differences in Nepal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is important to understand gender difference on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices for identifying pesticide risks by gender and to recommend more gender-sensitive programs. However, very few studies have been conducted so far in Nepal. This study, thus, interviewed a total of 325 males and 109 females during 2005 to assess gender differences on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices. More than 50% females had never been to school and only <8% individuals were found trained in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Almost all males and females did not smoke, drink and eat during pesticides application and also believed that pesticides are harmful to human health, livestock, plant diversity and their environment. However, there were gender differences on household decision on pesticides to be used (p<0.001), care of wind direction during spraying (p=0.032), prior knowledge on safety measures (p=0.016), reading and understanding of pesticides labels (p<0.001), awareness of the labels (p<0.001) and protective covers. Almost all respondents were aware of negative impacts of pesticide use on human health and environment irrespective of gender; however, females were at higher risk due to lower level of pesticide use safety and awareness. It is strongly recommended to initiate gender-sensitive educational and awareness activities, especially on pesticide use practices and safety precautions

224

[Pesticide residual status in litchi orchard soils in Guangdong, China].  

Science.gov (United States)

Litchi is a famous tropical and subtropical fruit originated in South China. Guangdong is one of the most important litchi production areas in China. Two hundred and eight soil samples were collected in litchi orchards after harvesting the fruit, in which nine often-used pesticides including metalaxyl, mancozeb, carbendazim, deltamethrin, cypermethrin, cyhalothrin, dipterex, dimethoate and dichlorvos were detected. The results showed that the detectable rates of various pesticides were ranked cypermethrin (59.1%) > carbendazim (51.0%) > mancozeb (11.1%) > metalaxyl (6.7%) > cyhalothrin (3.4%). Dimethoate and dichlorvos were detectable in few soil samples, and deltamethrin and dipterex were undetectable in all samples. The percentages of soil samples where different pesticides could be detected in one sample followed the order: one pesticide detectable (40.4%) > two pesticides simultaneously detectable (31.3%) > pesticide undetectable (18.8%) > three pesticides simultaneously detectable (8.2%) > four pesticides simultaneously detectable (1.4%). The concentrations of mancozeb in detectable samples averaged 39.05 microg x kg(-1), and that of cypermethrin was 7.83 microg x kg(-1). The mean concentrations of the other five pesticides ranged from 0.19 microg x kg(-1) to 1.65 microg x kg(-1). Totally, the pesticide residue status in litchi orchards in Guangdong was venial. PMID:21250457

Yao, Li-Xian; Huang, Lian-Xi; Li, Guo-Liang; He, Zhao-Huan; Zhou, Chang-Min; Yang, Bao-Mei; Guo, Bin

2010-11-01

225

Influence of different disease control pesticide strategies on multiple pesticide residue levels in apple  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Seven pesticide application strategies were investigated to control apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) and powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) and, at the same time.. fulfil the new quality standards implemented by some German retailers. These demand that pesticide residues should be below 80% of European Maximum Residue Levels (EU MRL) and that the number of residues present at levels above 0.01 mg kg(-1) should be limited to a maximum of four. The strategies fulfilled the requirement to use combinations of different active substances in order to prevent the emergence of resistance to pesticides. The trials were conducted at two sites in Switzerland, in 2007, and all strategies and applications were in accordance with actual practice. Four replicates of apple samples from each strategy were then analysed for pesticide residues. The incidence of infection with apple scab and powdery mildew were monitored during the season in order to evaluate the efficacy of the different strategies. The efficacies of the different strategies against apple scab and powdery mildew were between 84% and 100% successful. In general, the level of pesticide residues found correlated with application rate and time, and no measured residue level exceeded the EU-MRL. The numbers of residues present at > 0.01 mg kg(-1) were between two and five.

Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Rasmussen, Peter Have

2009-01-01

226

77 FR 59188 - Registration Review; Pesticide Dockets Opened for Review and Comment  

Science.gov (United States)

...docket for the pesticide's registration...Acetamiprid (Case 7617...because these pesticides are not included...of any affected tolerances that are not supported...current or pending tolerances. Risk assessments...knows about the pesticide case and a...

2012-09-26

227

75 FR 7560 - Public Availability of Identities of Inert Ingredients in Pesticides; Extension of Comment Period  

Science.gov (United States)

...Public Availability of Identities of Inert Ingredients in Pesticides; Extension of...public availability of the identities of the inert ingredients in pesticide products. Two...public availability of the identities of the inert ingredients in pesticide products....

2010-02-22

228

40 CFR 180.905 - Pesticide chemicals; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Pesticide chemicals; exemptions from the requirement...TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.905 Pesticide chemicals; exemptions from the...

2010-07-01

229

40 CFR 159.178 - Information on pesticides in or on food, feed or water.  

Science.gov (United States)

...regarding the detection of a pesticide in waters of the United States or finished drinking water if the pesticide is registered for use in finished...submitted concerning detections of pesticides in waters of the United States,...

2010-07-01

230

78 FR 4844 - Notice of Intent To Suspend Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...distribution, or use of pesticides. Since others also...or at the Office of Pesticide Programs Regulatory...required data for their pesticide products listed in Table...7050 UV/Visible absorption....... 6/16...870.1200 Acute dermal...

2013-01-23

231

77 FR 8755 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Temporary Tolerance Exemption for Residues of...  

Science.gov (United States)

...part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities...regulations for residues of pesticides in or on food various commodities...result in residues that are...additives, Food additives, Pesticides and...

2012-02-15

232

40 CFR 168.75 - Procedures for exporting unregistered pesticides-purchaser acknowledgement statements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Procedures for exporting unregistered pesticides-purchaser acknowledgement...INTERPRETATIONS Export Policy and Procedures for Exporting Unregistered Pesticides § 168.75 Procedures for exporting unregistered pesticides—purchaser...

2010-07-01

233

40 CFR 161.108 - Relationship of Pesticide Assessment Guidelines to data requirements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...108 Relationship of Pesticide Assessment Guidelines...requirements. The Pesticide Assessment Guidelines...Subdivisions of the Pesticide Assessment Guidelines...PB83-153961 161.240 R Spray Drift Evaluation...

2010-07-01

234

Pesticide residues in locally available cereals and vegetables  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vegetable samples (pechay, cabbage, lettuce, green beans and tomatoes) bought from public markets in the Metro Manila area were analyzed for pesticide residues using gas chromatography. The samples analyzed in 1968-69 contained high levels of chlorinated pesticides such as DDT, Aldrin, Endrin, and Thiodan, while in the samples analyzed in January 1976, no chlorinated and organophosphate pesticides were detected. Cereal samples (rice, corn and sorghum) were obtained from the National Grains Authority and analyzed for pesticide residues and bromine residues. Total bromine residues was determined by neutron activation analysis. In most of the samples analyzed, the concentrations of pesticide residues were below the tolerance levels set by the FAO/WHO Committee on Pesticide Residues in Foods. An exception was one rice sample from Thailand, the bromine residue content (110ppm) of which exceeds the tolerance level of 50ppm

235

Characterization of pesticide-?-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes in aqueous solution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The solubility of four different pesticides, "dimethoate", "simazine" "linuron" and "thiram", poorly soluble or non-soluble in water, were measured in water and in aqueous solution of ?-cyclodextrin by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Standard water solutions of pesticides were prepared in the range of concentrations up to the maximum solubility of each pesticide in water. Concentrations of the pesticides were determined as absorbance on the absorption maximum. The obtained results show that the aqueous solution of ?-cyclodextrin was a powerful solubilizer of investigated pesticides due to the formation of inclusion complexes. Effective solubility of some of the pesticides in aqueous ?-cyclodextrin solution was up to three orders of magnitude higher than those in water. Thermodynamic parameters and complex stability constant of the obtained inclusion complexes were determined by the calorimetric measurements.

Petrovi? Goran M.

2005-01-01

236

Radiation pollution control - - destruction of chlorinated pesticides in water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pesticides are being used on an increasing scale in agriculture and in insect control programmes, with the result that both the muncipal as well as industrial waste waters are showing the persistent presence of pesticides. These pesticides have extreme chemical resistance and therefore cannot be removed by conventional water treatment. Use of radiation for destruction of some organochloride pesticides, namely, BHC, DDT, aldrin, endrin, chlordane, heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide in water has been investigated at different doses of 60Co gamma radiation. Saturated solutions of pesticides in water were air-saturated and used in the studies. Their contents in the solutions were estimated by GLC. Studies show that all the chlorinated pesticides are destroyed by gamma radiation in aqueous medium. The observed chemical reactivity is ascribed to the generation of highly free reactive radicals in water due to gamma radiation. (M.G.B.)

237

Use of lysimeters for determining pesticide fate in agroecosystems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A lysimeter system is presented in which 14C labelled pesticides are applied in accordance with agricultural practice. The long term behaviour of pesticides in the soil-plant system can thus be determined under realistic climatic, cropping and soil conditions. In these experiments, pesticides and their metabolites are measured in soil, soil solutions, plants and drainage water over several growing seasons. In addition, a wind tunnel, combined with sensitive analytical methods, allows the determination of pesticide residues, their metabolites and 14CO2 as the mineralization product released into the air. Complementary standardized laboratory experiments yield information on the role of individual processes leading to binding, bioavailability and translocation. Important conclusions are thus obtained for the appropriate practical use of pesticides. As a final step in the validation of the lysimeter, a large scale experiment is in progress to compare lysimeter and field studies, with emphasis placed on the translocation of pesticides in deeper soil layers and groundwater. (author). Abstract only

238

[Investigation of pesticide residues in foods distributed in Kitakyushu City].  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated 160 kinds of pesticide residues in 715 samples of 116 kinds of foods distributed in Kitakyushu city. Sixty kinds of pesticides were detected in 55 kinds of foods (204 samples) in the range of 0.002-22 mg/kg. Five kinds of pesticides in 7 samples violated the residue standards and the indication of "unused". The detection ratios of unregulated pesticide in domestic and imported foods were 27.8 and 33.0%, respectively. Iprodione, dicofol, diethofencarb, procymidone and chlorfenapyr (for domestic food) and total bromine, benomyl, chlorpyrifos, dicofol, fenvalerate, cypermethrin and dimethoate (for imported food) showed relatively high detection ratios. Chinese cabbage, garland chrysanthemum, tomatoes and green teas (domestic) and broccoli, bananas, grapefruit, lemons, oranges, frozen edamame and frozen kidney beans (imported) showed high relative pesticide detection ratios. Residual pesticides were detected with relatively high frequency in imported fruits, imported frozen foods and imported processed foods. PMID:15272606

Ishikawa, Seiichi; Naetoko, Eri; Kawamura, Seiji; Yamaguchi, Rika; Higuchi, Masayuki; Kojima, Tsutomu; Yamato, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Masaki

2004-04-01

239

Determination of Pesticide Residues in Fresh and Greenhouse Vegetables  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Regarding the public concerns about serious health risks from pesticide, the occurrences of 105 pesticide residues including Organochlorine, Organophosphorus, Organonitrogen, Dicarboximides, Strobilurin, Triazine, Pyrethroids were assessed using a descriptive method in 25 fresh and greenhouse vegetable samples (fresh carrot, greenhouse tomato and cucumber. Ethyl acetate was used for extraction of pesticides from samples and the extract was cleaned up by Envicarb Solid Phase Extraction column chromatography. Pesticide residues were identified and quantified using gas chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry detector. The mean recoveries and limit of detection of the pesticides in samples were respectively 61.67-117% and the reproducibility of relative standard deviation values for the pesticides was 3.49-14.55%. Our data demonstrated that 80% of the total analyzed samples contained detectable residues including trifluralin, permethrin, chlorpyrifos, fenvalerate, fenpropathrin and iprodione, which were below the accepted maximum residue limits (MRLS adopted by FAO/WHO Codex Commision Alimentarius.

M.H. Azizi

2008-04-01

240

Bifunctional surfactants their potential application as pesticides  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, a new class of surfactants that combines two contradictory functions has appeared. They can be used as effective antioxidants protecting model and biological objects against peroxidation and its negative consequences, thanks to the antioxidant functional group incorporated into the hydrophilic part of the molecule. On the other hand, they may be applied as common pesticides thanks to their intensive interaction with biological membranes that leads to destruction and death of the unwanted microorganisms. Both applications depend on the concentration of the bifunctional surfactants (BS used. The work contains results of the studies on a possible pesticide application of the bifunctional surfactants. Planar lipid membranes (BLM were used as model membranes.

Sarapuk J.

2000-09-01

 
 
 
 
241

Biodegradation of Organophosphate Pesticide by Soil Fungi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study using enrichment technique biodegradation of organophosphorous pesticide, (Chloropyrifos and Ethion was performed. Two fungal isolates Trichoderma harznaium and Rhizopus nodosus isolated from the contaminated soil by enrichment technique, was capable of metabolizing the organophosphorous insecticide (Chloropyriofos and Ethion as a sole carbon source when grown in burkes mineral medium at concentration of 100 PPM respectively. Fungi were able to degrade 70-80% of the parental molecule (technical grade in 21 days period of incubation. Further, efficiency of degradation was increased by 10-20% with the supplementation of 0.1% dextrose to the mineral media. Desertion of Chloropyrifos, Ethion and its metabolites were analyzed by thin layer chromatography and gas Chromatography. It was evident from the result that the isolated fungi could be used to bioremediate the area contaminated with organophosphorous pesticide.

Harish.R

2013-03-01

242

Two organophosphorus pesticides: methyl parathion and dicapthon.  

Science.gov (United States)

Structural studies performed in this laboratory of organophosphorus pesticides continue with these related compounds. The -NO2 groups of methyl parathion (systematic name: dimethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate, C8H10NO5PS) and dicapthon (systematic name: 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl dimethyl phosphorothioate, C8H9ClNO5PS) make dihedral angles of 10.67?(8) and 5.8?(1)°, respectively, with the planes of their attached rings, which accompanies angular distortion at the ring C atoms to which the -NO2 groups are attached. Similar distortions are observed at the C atom to which the thiophosphate groups are attached. Significant differences in distances and angles around the phenolic O, versus the -OMe groups, explain why it is the site of hydrolysis for these compounds. A comparison of a torsion angle involving the thiophosphate group and phenolic O atom with similar pesticide structures is given and indicates steric influences on that angle. PMID:25279599

Baughman, Russell G; Hall, Gabriel B

2014-10-15

243

Radiochemical synthesis of 14C-labelled pesticides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioisotopic derivatives of pesticides labelled with either 14C or tritium are indispensable experimental tools for toxicology or metabolism studies required for registration of new compounds. The radiochemical synthetic pathways leading to the preparation of 14C-labelled pesticides of high specific activity, good chemical/radiochemical yield, and high radiochemical purity are presented for three groups of pesticides; triazines, aryl-haloids, and organometallic compounds. (N.T.). 10 refs., 1 tab

244

What's being used at home: a household pesticide survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective. Since very little is known about the health effects that household pesticides have on children, we conducted this survey to identify what pesticides are being used in the home, where they are being used and stored, and what methods are used for their disposal. Methods. In the spring of 1999 we conducted a survey in a community in the state of Arizona, in the United States of America, on the border with Mexico. To be eligible to participate in the survey, households had to have used a pesticide in the 6 mo prior to the survey and to have at least one child under the age of 10 years. We gathered general information on pesticide usage, storage, and disposal, in addition to specific information about each of the pesticides currently being used and/or stored in the home. Results. In the 107 households surveyed, we found 148 pesticide products, for a mean of 1.4 per household. Half of the pesticides were stored less than 4 feet (1.22 m from the ground, at a level a child could reach. Seventy percent of all the pesticides were stored inside the home, with the kitchen being the storage room most often mentioned. The kitchen was also the room where most of the pesticides were used, with 69% of the respondents saying they had used at least one pesticide there. Conclusions. From our research we conclude that it will be important to continue to investigate all avenues of pesticide exposure in order to fully evaluate childhood exposures. Understanding household pesticide use and developing a model of exposure will help in this process. Profiles of the use, storage, and disposal of products will also guide the development of effective education and poison prevention programs in the community.

Bass Judith K.

2001-01-01

245

Farming on the treadmill : agricultural change and pesticide pollution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The thesis examines the pollution of water by pesticides in Britain, an issue of public and political concern since the late 1980s as the results of extensive water monitoring, required under the EC's Drinking Water Directive have highlighted the spread and levels of contamination. The study explores the co-evolution of post-war agricultural policy and pesticide usage and examines how pesticide pollution of water has been constructed as a 'problem' and how this has been contest...

Ward, N.

1994-01-01

246

Assessing pesticide contamination to groundwater: a rapid approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A methodology has been developed for identifying hazardous pesticides/site combinations threatening ground-water contamination. Screening methodologies are required to determine which locations and pesticides now in use should receive the greatest attention to safeguard the public health. The presented method uses a hazard to ground-water hydrogeological screening model (DRASTIC) and employs a one-dimensional pesticide transport model ( CMLS). The method is an efficient and practical techniqu...

Ehteshami, M.; Peralta, R. C.; Eisele, H.; Deer, H.; Tindall, T.

1991-01-01

247

Progress on multi-residue determination of pesticides in food  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Food safety is important for the national economy and the people’s livelihood. Development of new analytical techniques and risk assessment for pesticide residues in foods are beneficial for risk management, risk communication and the health of consumer. This paper reviewed the new sample pretreatment techniques, pesticide multi-residue detection technologies and its applications, to provide certain reference for the development and improvement of pesticide residues detection and risk assessment in food.

ZHU Pan

2013-02-01

248

Modelling regional transport of pesticide residues in groundwater  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The movement of pesticides through soil and groundwater to pumping wells for drinking-water supply was modelled. Most of the retardation and transformation occurs when a pesticide moves through the unsaturated zone. Computed leaching to groundwater increased when soil heterogeneity was taken into account. A column method was developed to measure the rate of pesticide transformation in the aquifer as input for models. The fluctuation of the concentration in the pumping well due to the applicat...

Leistra, M.; Beltman, W. H. J.; Boesten, J. J. T. I.; Matser, A. M.; Zee, S. E. A. T. M.

1996-01-01

249

PESTICIDES POLLUTION OF FOOD - RISKS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR CONSUMER PROTECTION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper examines the current meanings and implications of pesticide residues in foods for humanconsumption, suggesting attitudes and courses of action required in this area in order to minimize the negative effectsfrom the consumer protection perspective.The analysis is based on studying the relevant information from various different sources concerning the useof pesticides, the effects of consumption of food contaminated with pesticide residues, the state of the regulations in thisarea, th...

Ene, Corina

2010-01-01

250

Progress on multi-residue determination of pesticides in food  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Food safety is important for the national economy and the people’s livelihood. Development of new analytical techniques and risk assessment for pesticide residues in foods are beneficial for risk management, risk communication and the health of consumer. This paper reviewed the new sample pretreatment techniques, pesticide multi-residue detection technologies and its applications, to provide certain reference for the development and improvement of pesticide residues detection and risk asses...

Zhu, Pan; Miao, Hong; Du, Juan; Zhao, Yun-feng; Wu, Yong-ning

2013-01-01

251

Pesticide testing in humans: ethics and public policy.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pesticide manufacturers have tested pesticides increasingly in human volunteers over the past decade. The apparent goal of these human studies is to establish threshold levels for symptoms, termed "no observed effect levels." Data from these studies have been submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for consideration in standard setting. There are no required ethical guidelines for studies of pesticides toxicity conducted in humans, no governmental oversight is exercised, a...

Oleskey, Christopher; Fleischman, Alan; Goldman, Lynn; Hirschhorn, Kurt; Landrigan, Philip J.; Lappe?, Marc; Marshall, Mary Faith; Needleman, Herbert; Rhodes, Rosamond; Mccally, Michael

2004-01-01

252

Poverty-Environment Nexus: Use of Pesticide in Cotton Zone of Punjab, Pakistan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of pesticides in Pakistan has reached 117513 metric tonnes in 2005 which was only 12530 metric tonnes in 1985.  This colossal increase in pesticide use raises serious health and environmental concerns. The purpose of this Poverty-Environment Nexus study is to answer three questions relating to pesticide use; 1) Are the poor farmers using more amounts of pesticides?, 2) Are the poor farmers using more toxic pesticides?, 3) Is pesticide use and its associated health effects, impacti...

Muhammad khan; Naeem Akram; Muhammad Iftikhar ul Husnain; Ihtsham ul Haq Padda; Saima Akhtar Qureshi

2011-01-01

253

Impact of Pesticide Applications in Cotton Agroecosystem and Soil Bioactivity Studies II: Nitrification Dynamics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Field experiments were conducted to study the effect of pesticide applications on soil nitrification dynamics in cotton agroecosystem. The pesticides either alone or in combination (mixture) were applied according to the normal agricultural application rates in test, farmer (with pesticide applications) and control (without pesticide applications) fields. Soil samples were collected before and after two days, following pesticide applications and at sowing, before pesticide application, after ...

Zafar Iqbal; Altaf Hussain; Asi, Muhammad R.; Chaudhry, Jamil A.

2001-01-01

254

Occurrence of organochlorine pesticides in indoor dust  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Organochlorine pesticides are present in the environment and suspected of causing serious health effects. Diet has been the main exposure source, but indoor source release is gaining focus. Within a monitoring study of polychlorinated biphenyls of Danish buildings built during the 1960s and 1970s, we coincidently determined extreme levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) levels in two of ten random samples. This raises concern and further large scale investigations are warranted to confirm this.

Bräuner, Elvira V.; Mayer, Philipp

2011-01-01

255

Percutaneous absorption and exposure assessment of pesticides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dermal exposure to a diverse range of chemicals may result from various uses. In order to assess exposure and estimate potential risks, accurate quantitative data on absorption are required. Various factors will influence the final results and interpretations of studies designed to assess the ability of compounds to penetrate the skin. This overview will discuss skin penetration by pesticides, emphasizing key parameters to be considered from the perspective of exposure assessment. PMID:20033883

Ngo, Mai A; O'Malley, Michael; Maibach, Howard I

2010-03-01

256

40 CFR 180.3 - Tolerances for related pesticide chemicals.  

Science.gov (United States)

...ethylenebisdithiocarbamate. Ferbam. Maneb. Manganous dimethyldithiocarbamate. Sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate. Thiram. Zineb. Ziram. (4) The following are members of the class of chlorinated organic pesticides: Aldrin. BHC (benzene...

2010-07-01

257

Effects of pesticides on isolated rat hepatocytes, mitochondria, and microsomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-seven pesticides, with which people are concerned, especially as residues in food, were examined in vitro for their effects on hepatocytes, mitochondria, and microsomes isolated from male rats. Nineteen pesticides returned non-protein sulfhydryl (NPSH) contents in hepatocytes to less than 80% of control at concentrations from 10(-3) to 10(-5) M after 90 min incubation. Among them, only dichlofluanid was reactive with glutathione non-enzymatically. Lipid peroxidation in hepatocytes was stimulated by five pesticides at 10(-3) M, with edifenphos being the most potent peroxidant. Cell viability was considerably decreased by incubation with chlorobenzilate, edifenphos, dichlofluanid, and chinomethionat at 10(-3) M, and in these cases, depletion of cellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) contents proceeded to cell death. With respect to isolated mitochondrial respiration, six pesticides inhibited state 3 and/or state 4 respiration rates at concentrations from 10(-3) to 10(-5) M, whereas three pesticides uncoupled state 4 respiration at 10(-3) M. With respect to isolated microsomal lipid peroxidation, seven pesticides, five of which were organophosphorus compounds, were peroxidative at concentrations from 10(-3) to 10(-5) M, whereas seven pesticides were antioxidative at concentrations from 10(-3) to 10(-7) M. Only three pesticides, aldicarb, maleic hydrazide, and chlormequat chloride had no effect on any parameters tested at 10(-3) M. Pesticides that affected isolated mitochondria or microsomes did not necessarily have any effect on isolated hepatocytes. PMID:8368870

Yamano, T; Morita, S

1993-08-01

258

Research of pesticide residues on fruit by terahertz spectroscopy technology  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticide residues on the fruit skin are measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) in 0.2-1.3THz. Pesticide is mainly residues for fruit, which threatens health of human, so the research about the fruit residues is absolutely important. In the experiment, a kind of pesticide carbendazim, orange, and the mixture of them are measured by THz-TDS, and then calculate absorption spectrums through Fourier transform and Fresnel formula. Experiment results indicate that THz-TDS is an effective tool for the measurement of pesticide residues on the fruit skin.

Ma, Yehao; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Xiaowei; Wang, Huali

2011-11-01

259

The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.  

Science.gov (United States)

Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. PMID:24716788

Ogada, Darcy L

2014-08-01

260

Occurrence of pesticide residues in Lebanon's water resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contamination of water sources by pesticides is one of the most critical environmental problems. The present work is designed to address the occurrence of 67 pesticides in the Lebanese waters. Chemical analysis was performed by a solid-phase extraction followed by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using programmed temperature vaporization injection. In drinking water and groundwater samples, organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides were frequently detected with a maximal sum concentration of up to 31.8 ng L(-1). High pesticide ecotoxicological risk was noticed in many surface waters, while this risk was driven mainly by diazinon, chlorpyrifos, fenpropathrin and bifenthrin insecticides. PMID:24008278

Kouzayha, Abir; Al Ashi, Aisha; Al Akoum, Rami; Al Iskandarani, Mohamad; Budzinski, Hélène; Jaber, Farouk

2013-11-01

 
 
 
 
261

National survey of pesticides in groundwater in New Zealand : 2002  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A total of 133 wells throughout New Zealand were sampled for the 2002 National Survey of Pesticides in Groundwater. The survey objectives were to provide a national overview of pesticides in New Zealand's groundwater systems, to examine changes with time from earlier surveys, and to examine factors linked with pesticide contamination. The samples were screened for atrazine in the laboratory using an ELISA test kit and, as a result of this screening, samples positive for atrazine were analysed for 58 different pesticides using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). Blind duplicate samples (6%) and quality control samples (17% of the negative ELISA screen samples) were also analysed by GCMS. Three regional councils carried out their own pesticide surveys around the same time but submitted the samples for analysis to a different laboratory. Their results are included to give a national perspective. Pesticides were detected in 28 wells (21%), with 13 wells (10%) having two or more pesticides detected. There were one or more wells with pesticides detected in nine of the 15 regions. No pesticides were detected in wells from the Northland, Hawke's Bay, Manawatu-Wanganui, Taranaki, Wellington, and West Coast regions. None of the wells in the 2002 survey had pesticides at levels above the maximum acceptable value (MAV) for drinking water (Ministry of Health 2000). Twenty-one different pesticides were detected, including two triazine metabolites, usually at very low concentrations. Only three detections were at levels exceeding 1 mg m3. Thirty-nine out of the 58 pesticide detections (67%) belonged to the triazine group. As would be expected there were significant differences between wells with and without detected pesticides in factors associated with well or screen depth, and depth of water above the screen. In addition, lower groundwater temperatures and higher nitrate levels were associated with the increased detection of pesticides. A comparison with earlier surveys indicates that pesticide detections have been relatively stable over the past 12 years. After an adjustment to common reporting limits (reporting limits were substantially lower during later surveys), the overall frequency of pesticide detections were as follows: 1990 (7%), 1994 (13.6%), 1998 (11%), and 2002 (9%). (author). 22 refs., 4 tabs

262

Acute pesticide poisoning--a global public health problem.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acute pesticide poisoning has become a major public health problem worldwide, following the intensification of agriculture and the promotion of agro-chemicals in low and middle income countries, with more than 300,000 deaths each year. The easy availability of highly toxic pesticides in the homes of farming communities has made pesticides the preferred means of suicide with an extremely high case fatality. Similarly, the extensive use of pesticides exposes the community to both long-term and acute occupational health problems. A concerted effort is urgently needed to address the situation. PMID:17349229

Konradsen, Flemming

2007-02-01

263

[Acute pesticide poisoning--a global public health problem].  

Science.gov (United States)

Following the intensification of agriculture and the promotion of agro-chemicals in low and middle income countries, acute pesticide poisoning has become a major public health problem with more than 300,000 deaths each year around the world. The easy availability of highly toxic pesticides in the homes of farming communities has made pesticides a preferred choice for suicide with an extremely high case fatality. Similarly, the extensive use of pesticides exposes the community to both long-term and acute occupational health problems. A concerted effort is urgently needed to address this problem. PMID:16999902

Konradsen, Flemming

2006-09-01

264

Monitoring pesticides in the Great Barrier Reef.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticide runoff from agriculture poses a threat to water quality in the world heritage listed Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and sensitive monitoring tools are needed to detect these pollutants. This study investigated the utility of passive samplers in this role through deployment during a wet and dry season at river mouths, two near-shore regions and an offshore region. The nearshore marine environment was shown to be contaminated with pesticides in both the dry and wet seasons (average water concentrations of 1.3-3.8 ng L(-1) and 2.2-6.4 ng L(-1), respectively), while no pesticides were detected further offshore. Continuous monitoring of two rivers over 13 months showed waters flowing to the GBR were contaminated with herbicides (diuron, atrazine, hexazinone) year round, with highest average concentrations present during summer (350 ng L(-1)). The use of passive samplers has enabled identification of insecticides in GBR waters which have not been reported in the literature previously. PMID:19818971

Shaw, Melanie; Furnas, Miles J; Fabricius, Katharina; Haynes, David; Carter, Steve; Eaglesham, Geoff; Mueller, Jochen F

2010-01-01

265

Haematologic Indices in Pesticide Factory Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of pesticides on blood indices of subjects which are exposed to organophosphate toxins. This research was a cohort study which was carried out during 2005 on the employee of a pesticide factory in Golestan province (North of Iran. In this study the sampling from 63 subjects was carried out for two sessions in days 1 and 90. CBC and hematologic indices performed by cell counter instrument. The mean of MCV in phase 1 was 82.8±7.1 fl and in second phase the MCV was 80.3±6.7 fl. This drop in MCV statistically was meaningful (paired t-test, mean = 2.5, 95% CI=2.0-2.9, p<0.001. Erythrocyte number, hemoglobin, HCT and MCHC increase in second phase compared to first phase statistically was meaningful. There was not any significant relation between the place of work and variation of red blood cell indices. In regard to the changes in hematologic indices in workers of pesticide factory in a three months period, it seems logical to set up a program to have a routine check on the hematologic indices in working personal engaging in such occupations.

Hamid Reza Joshaghani

2007-01-01

266

Pesticide residues in oranges from Valencia (Spain).  

Science.gov (United States)

One hundred and fifty citrus samples from an agricultural co-operative of the Valencian Community (Spain) were analysed for pre- and post-harvest pesticide residues using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography. Among the residues from post-harvest treatments, imazalil was detected in 112 (74.7%) samples at a mean level of 1.2 mg/kg, thiabendazole in 21 (14.0%) samples at a mean level of 0.47 mg/kg and carbendazim in 5 (3.3%) samples at a mean level of 1.05 mg/kg. Among the residues from pre-harvest treatment, dicofol was detected in 28 (18.7%) samples at a mean level of .28 mg/kg chlorpyriphos in 19 (12.7% samples at a mean level of 0.16 mg/kg and endosulfan in 11 (7.3%) at a mean level of 0.27 mg/kg. Most of the samples contained residues of various pesticides and six samples (4.0%) exceeded the European Union Maximum Residue Limit (MRL). The pesticides that surpassed the MRLs were chlorpyriphos in five samples and dicofol in one. PMID:11469317

Fernández, M; Picó, Y; Mañes, J

2001-07-01

267

40 CFR 168.75 - Procedures for exporting unregistered pesticides-purchaser acknowledgement statements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...for exporting unregistered pesticides-purchaser acknowledgement statements. 168...exporting unregistered pesticides—purchaser acknowledgement statements. ...obtain a statement signed by the foreign purchaser prior to export, acknowledging...

2010-07-01

268

40 CFR 158.2171 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.  

Science.gov (United States)

...use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table. ...use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table. ...this table to determine the product analysis data requirements and...

2010-07-01

269

40 CFR 158.2120 - Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table. ...2120 Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table. ...use this table to determine the product analysis data requirements and...

2010-07-01

270

Acute pesticide morbidity and mortality: California.  

Science.gov (United States)

The California Pesticide Illness Surveillance Program collects, investigates, abstracts, and records reports received from physicians. A minority of the reports are received through the county health officers who are notified by physicians under a state requirement for reporting pesticide-caused conditions. Most of the cases are identified by review of workers' compensation records. All the cases identified are investigated by the agricultural commissioners of the counties where exposure occurred. The investigation reports are reviewed and abstracted by staff of the Worker Health and Safety Branch of the California Department of Pesticide Regulation, California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA). The crucial determination is assessment of the degree of relationship between the exposure and subsequent disease: definite, probable, possible, unlikely, or unrelated. In most years, the number of cases investigated has been between 2,500 and 3,000. Excluding antimicrobials, the number of cases found after investigation to have a definite, probable, or possible relationship with pesticide exposure has ranged from 970 (in 1989) to 1,372 (in 1988). Cases involving antimicrobials rarely were reported prior to 1987. In that year, surveillance staff began reviewing workers' compensation records personally, with the specific goal of identifying antimicrobial cases. Since then, antimicrobials have been found to account for 746-813 cases annually, primarily involving splashes and squirts to the eye and inhalation of fumes or vapors. Numbers of case reports from agricultural situations have varied irregularly, driven by small numbers of episodes concerning multiple individuals. Variability in numbers of cases involving the skin has depended almost entirely on variation in numbers of field worker dermatitis. The most common situation for field worker dermatitis has been summer work in table grapes grown in the southern San Joaquin valley. In the two years since reentry intervals for the acaricide propargite were lengthened, there have been no more major clusters of field worker dermatitis. Although the cases collected by the surveillance program are predominantly occupational, because of dependence on workers' compensation for case identification, most recorded deaths are nonoccupational. Nonoccupational fatalities include suicides, mistaken ingestion of pesticides (especially if stored in food containers), and entry into structures being fumigated. Occupational deaths are less common and more varied. The circumstances of each reported occupational death are summarized above. PMID:1410694

Mehler, L N; O'Malley, M A; Krieger, R I

1992-01-01

271

Dietary intakes of pesticides based on community duplicate diet samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

The calculation of dietary intake of selected pesticides was accomplished using food samples collected from individual representatives of a defined demographic community using a community duplicate diet approach. A community of nine participants was identified in Apopka, FL from which intake assessments of organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid pesticides were made. From these nine participants, sixty-seven individual samples were collected and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Measured concentrations were used to estimate dietary intakes for individuals and for the community. Individual intakes of total OP and pyrethroid pesticides ranged from 6.7 to 996 ng and 1.2 to 16,000 ng, respectively. The community intake was 256 ng for OPs and 3430 ng for pyrethroid pesticides. The most commonly detected pesticide was permethrin, but the highest overall intake was of bifenthrin followed by esfenvalerate. These data indicate that the community in Apopka, FL, as represented by the nine individuals, was potentially exposed to both OP and pyrethroid pesticides at levels consistent with a dietary model and other field studies in which standard duplicate diet samples were collected. Higher levels of pyrethroid pesticides were measured than OPs, which is consistent with decreased usage of OPs. The diversity of pyrethroid pesticides detected in food samples was greater than expected. Continually changing pesticide usage patterns need to be considered when determining analytes of interest for large scale epidemiology studies. The Community Duplicate Diet Methodology is a tool for researchers to meet emerging exposure measurement needs that will lead to more accurate assessments of intake which may enhance decisions for chemical regulation. Successfully determining the intake of pesticides through the dietary route will allow for accurate assessments of pesticide exposures to a community of individuals, thereby significantly enhancing the research benefit realized from epidemiological exposure studies. PMID:24070872

Melnyk, Lisa Jo; Xue, Jianping; Brown, G Gordon; McCombs, Michelle; Nishioka, Marcia; Michael, Larry C

2014-01-15

272

Oxidative stress indices in Nigerian pesticide applicators and farmers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Reports have clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of organophosphate pesticides (Op) toxicity. However, there is dearth of information on which group of the farm workers is more at risk of Op-induced oxidative stress. Aim: This study determined serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH), myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO), and serum activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in farm workers exposed to Op. Subjects and Methods: A total of 60 (30 pesticide applicators and 30 farmers) and 30 apparently healthy non-farmers who were nonexposed to Op (controls) were recruited into this study. Serum activity of AChE was determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), while serum levels of MDA, GSH, and NO and serum activities of CAT, MPO, GPx, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined colorimetrically. Results: Serum activities of AChE and CAT were significantly lower, whereas MPO activity was significantly higher in pesticide applicators compared with controls. Similarly, farmers had significantly reduced serum AChE activity and significantly raised MPO activity compared with controls. However, serum activities of AChE, CAT, and MPO were significantly lower, whereas mean level of MDA was significantly higher in pesticide applicators compared with farmers. Conclusion: This study shows that Op applicators are more exposed to oxidative stress than farmers, thus Op applicators require increased antioxidant supplements than farmers.

Surajudeen, Yaqub A; Sheu, Rahamon K; Ayokulehin, Kosoko M; Olatunbosun, Arinola G

2014-01-01

273

42 CFR 84.1156 - Pesticide respirators; performance requirements; general.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 70 85 20 Chin-style gas mask 65 80 20...at end of the service life specified in Table 14...back-mounted, and chin-style gas mask pesticide...back-mounted, and chin-style gas mask pesticide respirators...for determining the test life of the canister or...

2010-10-01

274

The 49th annual Florida Pesticide Residue Workshop.  

Science.gov (United States)

The papers in this special issue of Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry were originally presented at the 49th annual Florida Pesticide Residue Workshop (FPRW). The FPRW is an annual meeting for scientists specializing in trace level analysis of pesticides, veterinary drug residues, and other chemical contaminants in food, animal feed, and environmental samples. PMID:23282283

Turnipseed, Sherri B; Romano, Joe

2013-03-13

275

Rationale in the design of pesticide metabolism studies using radioisotopes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Numerous physical, chemical and biochemical forces act on pesticides in the environment to regulate their persistence and, to a large extent, determine their environmental and toxicological significance. Radioisotope-aided metabolism studies with pesticides in both target and non-target organisms are important to define the qualitative and quantitative aspects of pesticide degradation involved. Such studies provide valuable information that can be used in a number of ways, including prediction of the nature of potential pesticide interactions with man, estimation of potential residue occurrence in human foods, determination of pesticidal mode of action, and evaluation of potential toxicological effects on non-target species. In designing pesticide metabolism studies that utilize radioisotopes as tracers, the metabolism scientist must exercise careful judgement to ensure that his studies generate data that are scientifically sound and relevant to environmental and human health concerns. Such factors as isotope selection, label position, specific activity, treatment routes, dosage levels, replication, and the utilization of appropriate radiometric and analytical techniques are important considerations to assure the generation of useful data. Because of the very large number of potential pesticide/organism interactions that may be of interest to the metabolism scientist, specific research approaches vary greatly depending on the nature of the study organism and the specific pesticide involved. The rationale often used by metabolism studies in laboratory animals, livestock and poultry, plants, soil and aquatic organisms, arthropods and other pest species, non-target organisms, and for in vitro studies, is considered. (author)

276

77 FR 8741 - Spirotetramat; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions  

Science.gov (United States)

...tolerance for pesticide chemical residues in food that will result from...limit for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food) only if EPA determines...408(b)(4). The Codex Alimentarius is a joint U.N. Food and Agriculture...

2012-02-15

277

Pesticide transport via sub-surface drains in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transport of pesticides from point of application via sub-surface drains can contribute significantly to contamination of surface waters. Results of 23 field drainage experiments undertaken at sites across Europe were collated and analysed by residual maximum likelihood. Both maximum concentration of pesticide in drainflow (n = 167) and seasonal loss of pesticide to drains (n = 97) were significantly related to strength of pesticide sorption to soil, half-life of the pesticide in soil, the interval between application and first drainflow and the clay content of the soil. The statistical models accounted for 71% of the variability in both maximum concentration and seasonal load. Next, the dataset was used to evaluate the current methodology for assessment of aquatic exposure used in pesticide registration in Europe. Simulations for seven compounds with contrasting properties showed a good correspondence with field measurements. Finally, the review examines management approaches to reduce pesticide transport via sub-surface drains. Despite a large amount of work in this area, there are few dependable mitigation options other than to change application rate or timing or to restrict use of a compound in the most vulnerable situations. - Chemical and environmental factors influence pesticide transfer to water via drains.

278

76 FR 55272 - Flubendiamide; Pesticide Tolerances; Technical Amendment  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2007-0099; FRL-8870-8] Flubendiamide; Pesticide Tolerances; Technical...tolerance levels, for the pesticide, flubendiamide in or on the meat and meat byproducts...existing tolerances for residues of flubendiamide (40 CFR 180.639) on certain...

2011-09-07

279

ORGANIC PESTICIDE MODIFICATION OF SPECIES INTERACTIONS USING ANNUAL PLANT COMMUNITIES  

Science.gov (United States)

A method is proposed and tested for assessing multispecies responses to three pesticides (atrazine, 2,4,D and malathion). Pesticides were applied at two concentrations, mon model plant communities grown in raised beds using soil containing a natural weed bank. over by species was...

280

Linking pesticide exposure and dementia: what is the evidence?  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been a steep increase in the prevalence of dementia in recent decades, which has roughly followed an increase in pesticide use some decades earlier, a time when it is probable that current dementia patients could have been exposed to pesticides. This raises the question whether pesticides contribute to dementia pathogenesis. Indeed, many studies have found increased prevalence of cognitive, behavioral and psychomotor dysfunction in individuals chronically exposed to pesticides. Furthermore, evidence from recent studies shows a possible association between chronic pesticide exposure and an increased prevalence of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. At the cellular and molecular level, the mechanism of action of many classes of pesticides suggests that these compounds could be, at least partly, accountable for the neurodegeneration accompanying AD and other dementias. For example, organophosphates, which inhibit acetylcholinesterase as do the drugs used in treating AD symptoms, have also been shown to lead to microtubule derangements and tau hyperphosphorylation, a hallmark of AD. This emerging association is of considerable public health importance, given the increasing dementia prevalence and pesticide use. Here we review the epidemiological links between dementia and pesticide exposure and discuss the possible pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical implications of this association. PMID:23416173

Zaganas, Ioannis; Kapetanaki, Stefania; Mastorodemos, Vassileios; Kanavouras, Konstantinos; Colosio, Claudio; Wilks, Martin F; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

2013-05-10

 
 
 
 
281

Radiotracer studies of pesticide residues in food plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Researches using radiotracers as means for the rapid generation of background data critical for the efficient and safe use of pesticides at the Pesticide Toxicology and Chemistry Laboratory of the National Crop Protection Center, University of the Philippines, Los Banos, Laguna are described. Methodologies as well as results and discussions of the researches done are given. (ELC) 4 tabs.; 11 figs.; 16 refs

282

VERIFYING THE PERFORMANCE OF PESTICIDE SPRAY DRIFT REDUCTION TECHNOLOGIES  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of pesticide sprays usually results in formation of small spray droplets which can drift with air currents to nearby sensitive sites. A number of technologies offer the potential to reduce the amount of spray drift from pesticide applications. Acceptance and use of ...

283

Monitoring of occupational exposure to pesticides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Number of pesticides applied is constantly increasing, and although in general they are beneficial they may create a genotoxic hazard to environment and human health too. The aim of study performed in four countries (Greece, Hungary, Poland and Spain) was to assess potential genotoxic risk of occupational exposure to pesticides. Interviews were performed and biological samples were taken from 426 donors, 50% unexposed and 50% donors occupationally exposed to genotoxic agrochemical. In this paper is presented comparison of results from studies on the influence of occupational exposure on individual susceptibility to the induction of the DNA damage by UV and DNA damage repair efficiency. Levels of the DNA damage induced in vivo and by various treatments in vitro were assessed by the use of single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) also known as a Comet assay. Susceptibility to UVC and repair capacities of lymphocytes of all unexposed and exposed to pesticides people from four countries was compared. A Hungarian subgroup of donors consisted of unexposed exposed and highly exposed persons. All groups of donors were at the similar age, sex and occupation. In general, all donors were free of major health problems. Lymphocytes, from collected in various countries whole blood samples were isolated and frozen, and then were transported to Poland in a dry ice for farther DNA damage analysis. In defrosted lymphocytes viability and presence of DNA damage were tested. Lymphocytes from Hungarian group expressed significantly lower viability of lymphocytes and very high damage (? 30 times higher than in other groups) detected either in untreated or treated lymphocytes. Results from all other groups of samples except Hungarian group did not show statistically significant differences between levels of DNA damages detected in defrosted lymphocytes from reference and exposed to pesticides subgroups. Statistically significant difference between the whole investigated groups from various countries (including or excluding Hungarian group) was observed in the mean levels of the DNA damage detected in untreated lymphocytes. In order to investigate differences in the individual susceptibilities to UV and repair capacities, other part of defrosted lymphocytes was irradiated with 6 J/m2 of UV-C and the DNA damage was measured right after exposure or after two hours of incubation with or without the presence of phytohemoglutinin (PHA). High dispersion in the responses in all groups under the study was observed. Results show multimode distributions of individual susceptibilities and repair capabilities in all groups under the study and subgroups (exposed and unexposed). Although, susceptibility to UV, estimated on the base of the efficiency of the UV induced dimmers excision process, was higher in subgroups exposed to pesticides (from Greece, Spain and Poland), though this difference was statistically significant only in the group from Poland. Results of obtained repair efficiency estimated for groups from Greece and Hungary did not indicate any significant differences due to exposure. In Polish and Spanish groups, lymphocytes from exposed to pesticides donors have shown a statistically different repair rate than lymphocytes from unexposed group, however the relation was inversed. Probably due to differences in life styles and diets, our results show statistically significant differences between national groups in all investigated biomarkers; the levels of the DNA damage detected in vivo, susceptibility to UV and repair capacity. (author)

284

Development of genetically enhanced baculovirus pesticides (Chapter 5). Book chapter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report describes the assessment of the potential environmental impacts of genetically improved viral pesticides, including an evaluation of the properties of the foreign gene product(s) and the biological properties of the altered virus itself. The current field release studies are collecting much of the information which will be needed to assess the environmental safety of these new pesticides. Of primary concern will be the cost-to-benefit ratios as determined by production costs, stability, application, technology, and field efficacy. Despite the improvements afforded through biotechnology, it is clear that viral and other microbial pesticides will only reduce, not eliminate, the agricultural requirements for synthetic pesticides. Even so, biological pesticides are among the best solutions to reducing crop losses in the absence of ecological disturbances and potential health hazards.

Wood, H.A.

1991-01-01

285

Pesticide residues in honey samples from Himachal Pradesh (India).  

Science.gov (United States)

Honey, being a natural product manufactured by honey bees is considered to be free from any extraneous material. The over-reliance on pesticides caused several environmental problems including pesticide residues in food. This constitutes a potential risk for human health, because of their sub acute and chronic toxicity. Therefore this study was carried out to know the extent of pesticide residue in honey produced in the various parts of Himachal Pradesh. Among different pesticides analysed in honey; HCH and its isomers were the most frequently detected followed by DDT and its isomers. Of the studied synthetic pyrethroids, only cypermethrin was found in honey samples. Residues of organophosphates viz. acephate, chlorpyriphos, ethion and monocrotophos were not detected, however malathion's residue was found exceeding the MRL (5 ppb) proposed by the Ministry of Commerce, Government of India. More over honey from natural vegetation contained lesser residues. It can be concluded that honey from Himachal Pradesh had low pesticide residues. PMID:18506381

Choudhary, Amit; Sharma, Duni C

2008-05-01

286

Towards a Strategic Approaches in Alternative Tests for Pesticide Safety  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticides have provided significant benefits including plant disease control and increased crop yields since people developed and utilized them. However, pesticide use is associated with many adverse effects, which necessitate precise toxicological tests and risk assessment. Most of these methods are based on animal studies, but considerations of animal welfare and ethics require the development of alternative methods for the evaluation of pesticide toxicity. Although the usage of laboratory animals is inevitable in scientific evaluation and alternative approaches have limitations in the whole coverage, continuous effort is necessary to minimize animal use and to develop reliable alternative tests for pesticide evaluation. This review discusses alternative approaches for pesticide toxicity tests and hazard evaluation that have been used in peer-reviewed reports and could be applied in future studies based on the critical animal research principles of reduction, replacement, and refinement.

Jang, Yoonjeong; Kim, Ji-Eun; Jeong, Sang-Hee

2014-01-01

287

Sparingly soluble pesticide dissolved in ionic liquid aqueous.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ionic liquids may be considered as "environment-friendly solvents" for sparingly soluble pesticides. In this study, a series of aqueous ionic liquids (ILs) with different cations and different anions was used as environment-friendly alternative to harmful organic solvents sparingly dissolved in soluble pesticides (metolachlor, acetochlor, clethodim, thiamethoxam, and prochloraz). The aggregation behavior of aqueous ILs was investigated through surface tension measurement. Minimum area per IL molecule (Amin) values from the surface tension measurement showed that alkyl chain length and the halide anions strongly affect the aggregation behavior of ILs and the solubilization of pesticides. The solubility of metolachlor, acetochlor, clethodim, thiamethoxam, nitenpyram, and prochloraz in aqueous ILs increased. More importantly, the solubility of prochloraz in [C10mim][I] became 5771-fold higher than that in pure water. The substantially enhanced solubility of the above pesticides proved that aqueous ILs are promising environment-friendly solvents for pesticides that are commercially processed in emulsifiable concentrate (EC) formulation. PMID:25222470

Fan, Tengfei; Wu, Xuemin; Peng, Qingrong

2014-10-01

288

Effects of potential neurotoxic pesticides on hearing loss: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several pesticides are supposed to be neurotoxic for humans, consequently, they may also affect the auditory system. This review analyzes human and experimental animal studies testing the hypothesis that exposure to pesticides is associated with hearing loss. The literature on this topic is still sparse and methodological limitations of some papers evaluated are identified. As a whole, available data indicate a possible ototoxic action of pesticides, but alternative hypotheses could not be ruled out, also considering some confounders, such as the co-exposure to noise. Therefore, further studies are necessary in order to clarify the association between pesticides exposure and hearing loss. While awaiting more evidence, for precautionary action we recommend considering pesticides as possible ototoxic agents, in particular for vulnerable targets, such as pregnant women and children during early development. PMID:24704267

Gatto, M P; Fioretti, M; Fabrizi, G; Gherardi, M; Strafella, E; Santarelli, L

2014-05-01

289

A fugacity-based indoor residential pesticide fate model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dermal and non-dietary pathways are potentially significant exposure pathways to pesticides used in residences. Exposure pathways include dermal contact with residues on surfaces, ingestion from hand- and object-to-mouth activities, and absorption of pesticides into food. A limited amount of data has been collected on pesticide concentrations in various residential compartments following an application. But models are needed to interpret this data and make predictions about other pesticides based on chemical properties. In this paper, we propose a mass-balance compartment model based on fugacity principles. We include air (both gas phase and aerosols), carpet, smooth flooring, and walls as model compartments. Pesticide concentrations on furniture and toys, and in food, are being added to the model as data becomes available. We determine the compartmental fugacity capacity and mass transfer-rate coefficient for wallboard as an example. We also present the framework and equations needed for a dynamic mass-balance model.

Bennett, Deborah H.; Furtaw, Edward J.; McKone, Thomas E.

2002-06-01

290

Environmental pesticide distribution in horticultural and floricultural periurban production units.  

Science.gov (United States)

The environmental pesticide distribution on non-target systems (soil, drift and agricultural plastics) during the application step at small periurban production units, was studied in open field and greenhouses, for different crops (tomato, lettuce, broccoli, strawberry and flowers) using different pesticides (endosulfan, procymidone, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin). In all cases, soil was the most exposed non-target system. For greenhouses, a general pesticide distribution was found of approximately 2/3 for crop, 1/4 for soil and 1/20 for plastic, of the total amount applied. In horticultural open fields, although the distribution was very dependent on the crop size and type, soil was also the most exposed non-target subsystem. Pesticide drift seems not to be significant in these production units, whilst pesticide accumulation on agricultural plastics reached up to 45% of the total applied, for polyethylene mulching in strawberry fields. PMID:22285036

Querejeta, Giselle A; Ramos, Laura M; Flores, Andrea P; Hughes, Enrique A; Zalts, Anita; Montserrat, Javier M

2012-04-01

291

Cholinesterase activity depression among California agricultural pesticide applicators.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cholinesterase activity measurements for 542 California agricultural pesticide applicators under medical supervision during the first 9 months of 1985 were analyzed. Twenty-six workers, 4.8% of the sample, had cholinesterase values at or below the California threshold values for removal from continued exposure to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides (60% of baseline for red blood cell cholinesterase and 50% of baseline for plasma cholinesterase activity). Eight of these 26 workers, 31.5%, had pesticide-related illnesses. Pesticides most frequently associated with cholinesterase depressions exceeding California threshold values included mevinphos (Phosdrin), oxydemeton methyl (Metasystox-R), methomyl (Lannate), and acephate (Orthene); these pesticides included organophosphates in toxicity categories I and II and one carbamate in toxicity category I. PMID:2729280

Ames, R G; Brown, S K; Mengle, D C; Kahn, E; Stratton, J W; Jackson, R J

1989-01-01

292

Influence of Some Pesticides on Humoral and Cellular Immunity of Exposed Workers in Pesticides Industries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pesticide poisoning is a major public health problem in developing countries. In most of these countries organophosphate pesticides constitute the most widely used pesticides. The main toxicity of OPs is neurotoxicity, which is caused by the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. OPs also affect the immune response, including effects on cellular and humoral immunity. Our study examined the effect of organophosphorus compounds on humoral and cellular immunity of exposed workers in pesticides industries. The study was conducted into 40 subjects. They were 2 groups; 20 exposed workers from Gharbeia and Kafr Elsheikh at 2008 and 2009 and 20 unexposed individuals as a control group at the same period of time. We examined some immune parameters; pseudocholinesterase, WBCs count, CD4%, CD8%, CD4/CD8, CD56%, Interleukin 2, IgG and IgM. Also we take history and clinical examination for them. We reported a highly significant decrease in pseudo cholinesterase level among the exposed group in comparison to the control group, highly significant increase in percentage of CD8 in the exposed group in comparison to control group, highly significant decrease in CD4 / CD8 ratio in the exposed group in comparison to control group, highly significant decrease in percentage of CD56 in the exposed group in comparison to control group and a highly significant increase in IgG level in the exposed group in comparison to control group. On the other hand, we reported no significant change in white blood cells count between the exposed and control groups, no significant change in percentage of CD4 among the exposed and control group, no significant change in Interleukin 2 level among the exposed and control group and no significant change in IgM level among the exposed and control group. We concluded that pesticides extensively affect the humoral and cellular immune system of occupationally exposed workers.

293

The combined antiandrogenic effects of five commonly used pesticides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, mixture effects of five dissimilarly acting pesticides were analyzed for antiandrogenic effects in vitro and in vivo. Deltamethrin, methiocarb, prochloraz, simazine, and tribenuron-methyl are all commonly used for agricultural and horticultural purposes. Concentration-response curves for the inhibition of R1881-induced transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor (AR) in vitro of each pesticide alone and in an equimolar mixture were obtained. The IC25 values for deltamethrin, methiocarb, prochloraz, and the mixture were 5.8, 5.8, 3.5, and 7.5 ?M, respectively. Simazine and tribenuron-methyl were ineffective. Applying the isobole method resulted in an isobole coefficient of 0.94 at IC25 for the effect of the mixture, indicating additive effects of the compounds. Comparison of observed effects and effects calculated by assuming additivity also strongly indicated additive effects of the pesticides in vitro. In vivo, each of the five pesticides and a mixture of the pesticides were tested for antiandrogenic effects in castrated testosterone-treated Wistar rats. The mixture induced a significant change of weights of the levator ani/bulbocavernosus muscle and adrenal glands. Changes in gene expression in ventral prostates were observed as distinct effects on levels of ornithin decarboxylase (ODC) mRNA and effects on levels of prostate binding protein subunit C3 (PBP C3) mRNA. No pesticide-induced effect on the level of testosterone-uced effect on the level of testosterone-repressed prostatic message 2 (TRPM-2) mRNA was observed, whereas flutamide increased TRPM-2 levels. In conclusion, the pesticides were found to act additively in vitro. In vivo, the organ weight changes indicated that the pesticides had an accumulating effect that was not observed for the individual pesticides. Several pesticide-induced gene expression changes were observed, indicating that these are either very sensitive antiandrogenic end-points or that these changes are induced by a pathway not related to AR

294

The combined antiandrogenic effects of five commonly used pesticides  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this study, mixture effects of five dissimilarly acting pesticides were analyzed for antiandrogenic effects in vitro and in vivo. Deltamethrin, methiocarb, prochloraz, simazine, and tribenuron-methyl are all commonly used for agricultural and horticultural purposes. Concentration-response curves for the inhibition of R1881-induced transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor (AR) in vitro of each pesticide alone and in an equimolar mixture were obtained. The IC25 values for deltamethrin, methiocarb, prochloraz, and the mixture were 5.8, 5.8, 3.5, and 7.5 muM, respectively. Simazine and tribenuron-methyl were ineffective. Applying the isobole method resulted in an isobole coefficient of 0.94 at IC25 for the effect of the mixture, indicating additive effects of the compounds. Comparison of observed effects and effects calculated by assuming additivity also strongly indicated additive effects of the pesticides in vitro. In vivo, each of the five pesticides and a mixture of the pesticides were tested for antiandrogenic effects in castrated testosterone-treated Wistar rats. The mixture induced a significant change of weights of the levator ani/bulbocavernosus muscle and adrenal glands. Changes in gene expression in ventral prostates were observed as distinct effects on levels of ornithin decarboxylase (ODC) mRNA and effects on levels of prostate binding protein subunit C3 (PBP C3) mRNA. No pesticide-induced effect on the level of testosterone-repressed prostatic message 2 (TRPM-2) mRNA was observed, whereas flutamide increased TRPM-2 levels. In conclusion, the pesticides were found to act additively in vitro. In vivo, the organ weight changes indicated that the pesticides had an accumulating effect that was not observed for the individual pesticides. Several pesticide-induced gene expression changes were observed, indicating that these are either very sensitive antiandrogenic end-points or that these changes are induced by a pathway not related to AR.

Kjærstad, Mia BirkhØj; Nellemann, Christine Lydia

2004-01-01

295

Association between environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative diseases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preliminary studies have shown associations between chronic pesticide exposure in occupational settings and neurological disorders. However, data on the effects of long-term non-occupational exposures are too sparse to allow any conclusions. This study examines the influence of environmental pesticide exposure on a number of neuropsychiatric conditions and discusses their underlying pathologic mechanisms. An ecological study was conducted using averaged prevalence rates of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, cerebral degeneration, polyneuropathies, affective psychosis and suicide attempts in selected Andalusian health districts categorized into areas of high and low environmental pesticide exposure based on the number of hectares devoted to intensive agriculture and pesticide sales per capita. A total of 17,429 cases were collected from computerized hospital records (minimum dataset) between 1998 and 2005. Prevalence rates and the risk of having Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and suicide were significantly higher in districts with greater pesticide use as compared to those with lower pesticide use. The multivariate analyses showed that the population living in areas with high pesticide use had an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts and that males living in these areas had increased risks for polyneuropathies, affective disorders and suicide attempts. In conclusion, this study supports and extends previous findings and provides an indication that environmental exposure to pesticides may affect the human health by increasing the incidence of certain neurological disorders at the level of the general population. -- Highlights: ? Environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative–psychiatric disorders. ? Increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts in high exposure areas. ? Males from areas with high pesticide exposure had a higher risk of polyneuropathy. ? Males from high exposure areas had a higher risk of affective psychosis and suicide. ? Nerve tissue degeneration due to oxidative damage may underlie the pathomechanism.

296

Water Pollution with Special Reference to Pesticide Contamination in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pesticides belong to a category of chemicals used worldwide as herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, ro-denticides, molluscicides, nematicides, and plant growth regulators in order to control weeds, pests and dis-eases in crops as well as for health care of humans and animals. The positive aspect of application of pesti-cides renders enhanced crop/food productivity and drastic reduction of vector-borne diseases. However, their unregulated and indiscriminate applications have raised serious concerns about the entire environment in general and the health of humans, birds and animals in particular. Despite ban on application of some of the environmentally persistent and least biodegradable pesticides (like organochlorines in many countries, their use is ever on rise. Pesticides cause serious health hazards to living systems because of their rapid fat solu-bility and bioaccumulation in non-target organisms. Even at low concentration, pesticides may exert several adverse effects, which could be monitored at biochemical, molecular or behavioral levels. The factors af-fecting water pollution with pesticides and their residues include drainage, rainfall, microbial activity, soil temperature, treatment surface, application rate as well as the solubility, mobility and half life of pesticides. In India organochlorine insecticides such as DDT and HCH constitute more than 70% of the pesticides used at present. Reports from Delhi, Bhopal and other cities and some rural areas have indicated presence of sig-nificant level of pesticides in fresh water systems as well as bottled drinking mineral water samples. The ef-fects of pesticides pollution in riverine systems and drinking water in India has been discussed in this review.

Anju Agrawal

2010-05-01

297

Pesticides Present in Migrant Farmworker Housing in North Carolina  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Migrant farmworkers are exposed to pesticides at work. Housing provided to migrant farmworkers may also expose them to pesticides, increasing their health risks. This analysis (1) describes the presence of organophosphorous (OP) and pyrethroid pesticides in North Carolina migrant farmworker houses, and (2) delineates associations of farmworker camp characteristics with pesticide detection and concentration. Methods In 2010, 186 migrant farmworkers camps in NC were recruited (participation rate of 82.3%); pesticide wipe samples for 176 houses were analyzed. Tobacco is the predominant hand-harvested crop in this region. Two farmworkers per camp completed interviews; a third assisted with a housing inspection. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry was used to detect OP and pyrethroid pesticides. Covariates of pesticide detection and concentration were determined with ANOVA and Tobit regression. Results OPs were found in 166 of 176 houses (average of 2.4/house); pyrethroids were found in 171 houses (average of 4.3/house). The number of different OPs detected in each camp and concentrations of these OPs were not associated with camp and housing characteristics. The number of different pyrethroids detected in each camp and concentrations of these pyrethroids were associated with camps having residents with H2-A visas, a posted North Carolina Department of Labor Certificate of Inspection, no barracks, fewer residents, no bedroom weather protection or floor violations, and no roaches. Conclusions Farmworkers are exposed to pesticides where they live. Policy on removing pesticides from farmworker houses is needed. Reducing pesticides in farmworker houses will reduce one health risk confronted by this vulnerable population. PMID:24038176

Arcury, Thomas A.; Lu, Chensheng; Chen, Haiying; Quandt, Sara A.

2014-01-01

298

Improved alginate based slow release pesticide formulations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Use of poly(ethylene imine) treated Ca-alginates was investigated for the preparation of slow release formulations of dichlobenil, propanil and carbofuran. It was demonstrated that release of pesticides from the alginate granules was markedly retarded by post-treatment of the Ca-alginate beads with polyamine. The release profile depended on the post-treatment procedure: type and concentration of the polyamine, pH and duration. Retardation of herbicide release up to 1 year was attained. (author). 11 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

299

Pesticide use and self-reported symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning among aquatic farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Organophosphates and carbamates (OPs/CMs) are known for their acetylcholinesterase inhibiting character. A cross-sectional study of pesticide handling practices and self-perceived symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning was conducted using questionnaire-based interviews with 89 pesticide sprayers in Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE) Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority of the farmers (88%) had experienced symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning, and this was significantly associated with the number of hours spent spraying with OPs/CMs (OR = 1.14, CI 95%: 1.02-1.28). The higher educated farmers reduced their risk of poisoning by 55% for each extra personal protective measure they adapted (OR = 0.45, CI 95%: 0.22-0.91). These findings suggest that improving safe pesticide management practices among the farmers and enforcing the effective banning of the most toxic pesticides will considerably reduce the number of acute pesticide poisoning episodes.

Jensen, Hanne Klith; Konradsen, Flemming

2011-01-01

300

Pesticide Use and Self-Reported Symptoms of Acute Pesticide Poisoning among Aquatic Farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Organophosphates and carbamates (OPs/CMs) are known for their acetylcholinesterase inhibiting character. A cross-sectional study of pesticide handling practices and self-perceived symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning was conducted using questionnaire-based interviews with 89 pesticide sprayers in Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE) Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority of the farmers (88%) had experienced symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning, and this was significantly associated with the number of hours spent spraying with OPs/CMs (OR = 1.14, CI 95%: 1.02-1.28). The higher educated farmers reduced their risk of poisoning by 55% for each extra personal protective measure they adapted (OR = 0.45, CI 95%: 0.22-0.91). These findings suggest that improving safe pesticide management practices among the farmers and enforcing the effective banning of the most toxic pesticides will considerably reduce the number of acute pesticide poisoning episodes.

Jensen, Hanne Klith; Konradsen, Flemming

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Decontamination of spills and residues of some pesticides and of protective clothing worn during the handling of the pesticides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Users of pesticides may have waste or surplus quantities or spills for disposal. One alternative is to deactivate the pesticide at the handling site by using a straightforward chemical reaction. This option can be practical for those who use relatively small quantities of a large variety of pesticides, for example, greenhouse workers, small farmers, and agricultural researchers. This paper describes practical on-site methods for the disposal of spills or small waste quantities of five commonly used pesticides, Diazinon, Chlorpyrifos, Iprodione, 2,4-D, and Captan. These have been tested in the laboratory for the rate of disappearance of the pesticide, the degree of conversion to nontoxic products, the nature and identity of the products, the practicality of the method, and the ease of reproducibility. Methods selected were shown to be safe for the operator, reliable, and reproducible. Greater than 99% of the starting material had to be reacted under reasonable conditions and length of time. Detailed descriptions of the reactions are presented, so that they can be performed with reproducible results. Protective clothing worn during the handling and application of pesticides may become contaminated. Simple laundering does not always remove all of the pesticide residues. Thus, chronic dermal exposure may result from the pesticide-contaminated clothing. Appropriate methods of laundering using specific pretreatments have been determined. 7 refs.

Armour, M.A.; Nelson, C.; Sather, P. Briker, Y. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)] [and others

1996-12-31

302

76 FR 2110 - Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...  

Science.gov (United States)

...section 408 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic...part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA has...modification of regulations for residues of pesticides in or on food commodities....

2011-01-12

303

75 FR 65321 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...  

Science.gov (United States)

...section 408 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic...part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA has...modification of regulations for residues of pesticides in or on food commodities....

2010-10-22

304

75 FR 80489 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...  

Science.gov (United States)

...section 408 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic...part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA has...modification of regulations for residues of pesticides in or on food commodities....

2010-12-22

305

76 FR 49396 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...  

Science.gov (United States)

...section 408 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic...in 40 CFR part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. The Agency...modification of regulations for residues of pesticides in or on food commodities....

2011-08-10

306

77 FR 59576 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...  

Science.gov (United States)

...section 408 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic...in 40 CFR part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. The Agency...modification of regulations for residues of pesticides in or on food commodities....

2012-09-28

307

76 FR 33183 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...  

Science.gov (United States)

...section 408 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic...part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. The Agency...modification of regulations for residues of pesticides in or on food commodities....

2011-06-08

308

Inverse modeling of pesticide degradation and pesticide-degrading population size dynamics in a bioremediation system: parameterizing the Monod model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticide degradation models are compared which simulate the response of biofilters for treatment of pesticide-contaminated waste water to time-irregular pesticide supply in which the pesticide is used for growth and mineralized. Biofilter microcosms containing a mixture of straw, peat and soil and harboring micropopulations which uses the herbicide linuron for growth, were irrigated with linuron for 28 weeks with a stop in its supply between week 12 and 17. Matrix samples were regularly taken to assay linuron mineralization. A first-order approximation of the Monod model was used to simulate the observed mineralization data, while an inverse modeling framework combining a sensitivity analysis (Morris Sensitivity Analysis) with an inverse modeling approach (Shuffled Complex Evolution Metropolis) adopted to parameterize the model. Lag times in linuron mineralization decreased during the initial weeks of linuron irrigation but increased after supply of linuron ceased. The model well-simulated the lag time dynamics which were related to the dynamics of the predicted linuron-degrading population size in the microcosms. It was predicted that the population size decreased at a rate of 0.031 d(-1) after pesticide supply ceased to reach its initial population size after 25 weeks. We conclude that modeling pesticide degradation in biofilters should incorporate biomass dynamics in case the pesticide is used as C-source. First-order approaches without incorporating biomass dynamics could lead to underestimation of the risk of pesticide leaching. PMID:19232428

Sniegowski, Kristel; Mertens, Jan; Diels, Jan; Smolders, Erik; Springael, Dirk

2009-05-01

309

77 FR 69838 - MON 87410 and MON 87411 Pesticide-Incorporated Protectant Corn Events: Pesticide Experimental Use...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pesticide-Incorporated Protectant Corn Events: Pesticide Experimental...permit (EUP) for the plant-incorporated protectants...high and adverse human health impacts or environmental...thuringiensis (Bt) proteins and either of the two...87410 and 87411. The Bt proteins to be used in the single...environmental and human health safety of these......

2012-11-21

310

Pesticide Safety for Farmworkers = Uso Seguro de Pesticidas para los Trabajadores del Campo.  

Science.gov (United States)

A booklet for farmworkers and employers uses illustrations and simple text in English and Spanish to inform about the dangers, precautions, and use of pesticides. Topics covered include methods of pesticide absorption; signs/symptoms of pesticide poisoning; first aid; residues; appropriate work clothes; safe and unsafe pesticide practices; how to…

Poli, Bonnie; Fluker, Sam S.

311

Disposal of obsolete pesticides, the case of Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethiopia has accumulated obsolete pesticide stocks since pesticides were first imported in the 1960s due to prolonged storage of pesticides, inappropriate storage conditions because of poor storage facilities, the lack of trained staff and lack of national legislation for pesticide registration and monitoring system of pesticide use in the country. The first pesticide inventory conducted in 1995 led by FAO in collaboration with the government of Ethiopia had identified about 426 tonnes of obsolete pesticides mainly on state-owned agricultural farms and held by the Ministry of Health. However, these stocks have increased to over 1500 tonnes (including 200 active ingredients) as found in a detailed inventory conducted in 1999. The stocks included organochlorines (258.3 tonnes), organophosphates (155.4 tonnes), carbamates (58.5 tonnes), coumarines (14.9 tonnes), inorganics (30.2 tonnes), others (257.2 tonnes), mixed pesticides (70.4 tonnes) and unknown pesticides (307.1 tonnes) including both liquid and solid state formulations. The obsolete organochlorine pesticides stocks were mostly pesticides such as chlordane, DDT, dieldrin and lindane that are banned or restricted in most countries. The highest amount of a single active ingredient found was the organophosphate insecticide pirimiphos methyl (172.1 tonnes). All these stocks were disposed of in the first phase of disposal in Finland (during 2000-2003) by the hazardous waste management company Ekokem at a cost of about US$ 4.44 million. Another 1000 tonnes of obsolete pesticides have been identified and are currently being eliminated in a second disposal phase at a total cost of US$ 8,135,500. Along with the disposal process, a number of activities are being implemented to prevent future pesticides accumulation. These activities include the development and enforcement of pesticide policy, the implementation of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and Integrated Vector Management (IVM), capacity building in terms of providing professional trainings, creating awareness among stakeholders on the environmental and human health hazard posed by obsolete pesticides as well as other actions to prevent their accumulation and enforcement of national legislations and policies related to pesticides use. However, pesticide use in the country is increasing. For instance, 12 years of pesticides import data (1996-2007) by the Ministry of Agriculture shows that 2973 tonnes of pesticides were imported between 1996-1998, 3670 tonnes between 1999-2001, 5079 tonnes between 2002-2004 and 8302 tonnes between 2005-2007. Moreover, 6 years of insecticide import data (1996/97-2001/02) by the Ministry of Health shows that around 919 tonnes of insecticides were imported between 1996/97-1997/98, 812 tonnes between 1998/99-1999/00 and 970 tonnes between 2000/01-2001/02 for malaria and other vector borne diseases control. PMID:19073344

Haylamicheal, Israel D; Dalvie, Mohamed A

2009-04-01

312

Exposure assessment of the cumulative intake of pesticides with dissimilar mode of action  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Risk assessment of pesticides is currently based on the no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for effects of single compounds. However, humans might be exposed to a mixture of pesticides at the same time and the exposure could occur from more pesticides with endocrine disrupting effects. In this study the effects of combined exposure from four endocrine disrupting pesticides have been investigated (procymidone, mancozeb, tebuconazole, and prochloraz). The four pesticides have dissimilar mode of actions. On the background of the potency for each pesticide to a given effect, a relative potency factor and the cumulative acute exposure of the pesticides have been estimated.

Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette

313

Biological implications of pesticides : studies with lindane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some aspects of metabolism of lindane, a pesticide, are investigated. These aspects have a bearing on the toxicity assessment of the pesticide. Young adult male Wistar rats were administered a single dose of Aroclor 1254(50 mg/kg body wt.) by stomach tube, 48 h prior to sacrifice for induction of microsomal enzymes. For metabolic transformation studies, liver slices of decapitated rats were suspended in Krebs-Ringer phosphate buffer containing 1 ?Ci of U-14C-lindane and 10 mg of cephalosporin antibiotic 'keflin'. After incubation for 60 min, radioactivity was measured and metabolites were isolated and identified by gas chromatography. The mutagenicity of lindane and hexachlorobenzene was also examined using the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome mutagenicity test of Ames and others (1975). Data on the incorporation of radioactivity from labelled lindane into hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorophenol and notably carbon dioxide in the presence of a wide-spectrum antibiotic indicate that liver enzymes are involved in the breakdown of aromatic ring of lindane yielding CO2, excluding the possibility of any role of intestinal flora in metabolism of lindane. As to mutagenicity, the findings in different experiments were not consistent, and no firm conclusion could be drawn. (M.G.B.)

314

Agriculture, pesticides, food security and food safety  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Decades ago, agrochemicals were introduced aiming at enhancing crop yields and at protecting crops from pests. Due to adaptation and resistance developed by pests to chemicals, every year higher amounts and new chemical compounds are used to protect crops, causing undesired side effects and raising the costs of food production. Eventually, new techniques, including genetically modified organisms (GMOs) resistant to pests, could halt the massive spread of agrochemicals in agriculture fields. Biological chemical-free agriculture is gaining also more and more support but it is still not able to respond to the need for producing massive amounts of food. The use of agrochemicals, including pesticides, remains a common practice especially in tropical regions and South countries. Cheap compounds, such as DDT, HCH and lindane, that are environmentally persistent, are today banned from agriculture use in developed countries, but remain popular in developing countries. As a consequence, persistent residues of these chemicals contaminate food and disperse in the environment. Coordinated efforts are needed to increase the production of food but with a view to enhanced food quality and safety as well as to controlling residues of persistent pesticides in the environment.

Carvalho, Fernando P. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, P-2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)]. E-mail: carvalho@itn.pt

2006-11-15

315

Bacterial ghost technology for pesticide delivery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial ghosts are nondenaturated empty cell envelopes of Gram-negative bacteria produced by E-mediated lysis. Such envelopes from the plant-adhering bacterium Pectobacterium cypripedii were tested for their ability to adhere to plant material and to be used as carriers for pesticide delivery. We show, using fluorescence-labeled P. cypripedii ghosts, that depending on the target plants 55 or 10% (rice or soya, respectively) of the applied bacterial ghosts was retained on the leaves after heavy simulated rain (84 mm). Furthermore, the bacterial ghosts could be loaded with the lipophilic triazole fungicide tebuconazole. In subsequent plant experiments in the glass house, the efficacy of the loaded bacterial ghost for resistance to rainfall and the protective and curative effects against the pathogens Erysiphe graminis, Leptosphaeria nodorum, and Pyrenophora teres on barley and wheat and against Sphaerotheca fuliginea on cucumber were tested. The bacterial ghosts were compared primarily with a commercial tebuconazole formulation, a wettable powder, as it has similar physical characteristics. The comparison revealed similar effects and showed consistently higher or comparable efficacy against the pathogens. The standard operational comparison with the most protective, cereal specific emulsion of oil in water displayed that the bacterial ghosts had equal to or lower efficacy than the emulsion. This study confirmed the potential of bacterial ghost platform technology as a new alternative carrier system for pesticides. PMID:15373403

Hatfaludi, Tamás; Liska, Martina; Zellinger, Daniela; Ousman, Jarju Pa; Szostak, Michael; Ambrus, Arpád; Jalava, Katri; Lubitz, Werner

2004-09-01

316

Agriculture, pesticides, food security and food safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decades ago, agrochemicals were introduced aiming at enhancing crop yields and at protecting crops from pests. Due to adaptation and resistance developed by pests to chemicals, every year higher amounts and new chemical compounds are used to protect crops, causing undesired side effects and raising the costs of food production. Eventually, new techniques, including genetically modified organisms (GMOs) resistant to pests, could halt the massive spread of agrochemicals in agriculture fields. Biological chemical-free agriculture is gaining also more and more support but it is still not able to respond to the need for producing massive amounts of food. The use of agrochemicals, including pesticides, remains a common practice especially in tropical regions and South countries. Cheap compounds, such as DDT, HCH and lindane, that are environmentally persistent, are today banned from agriculture use in developed countries, but remain popular in developing countries. As a consequence, persistent residues of these chemicals contaminate food and disperse in the environment. Coordinated efforts are needed to increase the production of food but with a view to enhanced food quality and safety as well as to controlling residues of persistent pesticides in the environment

317

Clinical and Biochemical Parameters of Children and Adolescents Applying Pesticides  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The primary agricultural product in Egypt is the cotton crop. Children and adolescents work seasonally in the cotton fields applying pesticides.Objectives: To examine the effect of pesticide exposure on clinical and biochemical parameters in children and adolescents applying pesticides.Methods: Male children currently applying pesticides and aged between 9 and 19 years (n = 50 were recruited for this study. They were asked to complete work, health, and exposure questionnaires; examined for any medical and neurological problems with particular attention to sensory and motor functions including cranial nerves, sensory and motor system, and reflexes. From each participant, a blood sample was taken to measure acetylcholinesterase activity, and liver and kidney functions. Children who have never worked in agriculture (n = 50, matched on age, education, and socioeconomic status were also studied and served as controls.Results: More neuromuscular disorders were identified in pesticide applicators than controls. A significant lower level of acetylcholinesterase was found in the applicator group compared to the controls. There was also a significant difference in hematological, renal and hepatic indices in the exposed children compared to the control children. Working more days in the current season and also working more years as a pesticide applicator were both associated with an increase in the prevalence of neuromuscular abnormalities and significant changes in the laboratory tests.Conclusion: Children and adolescent pesticide applicators working in farms of Egypt are at risk of developing serious health problems similar to those of adults.

O Hendy

2010-06-01

318

Assessing Diet as a Modifiable Risk Factor for Pesticide Exposure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of pesticides on the general population, largely as a result of dietary exposure, are unclear. Adopting an organic diet appears to be an obvious solution for reducing dietary pesticide exposure and this is supported by biomonitoring studies in children. However, results of research into the effects of organic diets on pesticide exposure are difficult to interpret in light of the many complexities. Therefore future studies must be carefully designed. While biomonitoring can account for differences in overall exposure it cannot necessarily attribute the source. Due diligence must be given to appropriate selection of participants, target pesticides and analytical methods to ensure that the data generated will be both scientifically rigorous and clinically useful, while minimising the costs and difficulties associated with biomonitoring studies. Study design must also consider confounders such as the unpredictable nature of chemicals and inter- and intra-individual differences in exposure and other factors that might influence susceptibility to disease. Currently the most useful measures are non-specific urinary metabolites that measure a range of organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides. These pesticides are in common use, frequently detected in population studies and may provide a broader overview of the impact of an organic diet on pesticide exposure than pesticide-specific metabolites. More population based studies are needed for comparative purposes and improvements in analytical methods are required before many other compounds can be considered for assessment.

Marc Cohen

2011-05-01

319

Economic burden of illness from pesticide poisonings in highland Ecuador  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Active surveillance of acute pesticide poisonings in a potato-growing region of highland Ecuador during 1991-1992 uncovered a rate of 171/100 000, due predominantly to occupational exposures to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. Occupational exposure among agricultural workers was the most common reason for poisoning (32 male workers and 1 female worker, out of a total of 50 cases. Of these 33 cases, 28 of them reported pesticide application as the work task just prior to poisoning, with over 80% citing the use of World Health Organization Hazard Category I pesticides. The suicide rate of 17.1/100 000 and the overall mortality rate of 20.5/100 000 that we found are among the highest reported anywhere in the world. At the exchange rates prevailing at that time, median costs associated with these poisonings were estimated as follows: public and social security health care direct costs of US$ 9.85/case; private health costs of US$ 8.33/case; and lost-time indirect costs of US$ 8.33/ agricultural worker. Each one of those costs was over five times the daily agricultural wage, which was then about US$ 1.50. Further costing of pesticide poisonings should be carried out in other settings to provide appropriate information for decisions about pesticide use. In addition, integrated pest management should be further evaluated as an appropriate technology to reduce the economic burden of illness from pesticide poisonings in developing countries.

Cole Donald C.

2000-01-01

320

Effect of soil properties on the persistence of carbamate pesticides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Persistence of six carbamate pesticides (oxamyl, I; carbaryl, II; phorate, III; phosphomidon, IV; carbofuran, V and methomyl, VI) on ten different soils of Aligarh district was investigated in the laboratory incubated conditions under different moisture levels; temperature; pesticide concentration; acidic, neutral and alkaline pH; FYM (farm yield manure) and nitrogen concentration. The process of degradation followed first order kinetics. The rate of degradation of all the six carbamate pesticides in studied soils was found to increase with rise in temperature, moisture content, amount of FYM or N and decrease with increasing pesticidal concentration. The degradation was more rapid in alkaline medium than neutral or acidic medium. The values of activation energies (Ea) showed that the degradation of pesticides in soils is due to microbial activity and probably enzymatic. The degradation of pesticides was in the order I > VI > V > IV > II > III. The degradation of pesticides in different soils was in the order S1 > S2 > S3 > S4 > S5 > S6 > S7 > S8, > S9 > S10. PMID:21117417

Bansal, O P

2009-10-01

 
 
 
 
321

Occurrence of pesticides from coffee crops in surface water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The excessive amount of pesticides applied in agricultural areas may reach surface water, thereby contaminating it. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of pesticides used in a sub-basin headwater with coffee crops, situated in the Dom Corrêa district, Manhuaçu, Minas Gerais. The region of study is a great producer of coffee. Crops occupy steep areas and are situated close to surface water bodies. In this study, four sample collection points were selected in streams as well as a point in the distribution network and two points in the water treatment station (raw and treated water a total of seven points. The samples were collected in rainy and dry seasons. Organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids, carbamates and triazoles pesticides were identified by liquid and gas chromatography analysis with tandem mass spectrometry. The occurrence of pesticides was more evident in the rainy season. A total of 24 distinct pesticides were detected. At least one pesticide was identified in 67% of the samples collected during the rainy season and in 21% of the samples collected during drought. Many pesticides detected in water are not regulated in Brazilian legislation regarding potability.

Márcio Ribeiro Vianna Neto

2013-04-01

322

Stream habitat structure influences macroinvertebrate response to pesticides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Agricultural pesticides continue to impair surface water ecosystems, although there are few assessments of interactions with other modifications such as fine sediment and physical alteration for flood drainage. We, therefore, surveyed pesticide contamination and macroinvertebrates in 14 streams along a gradient of expected pesticide exposure using a paired-reach approach to differentiate effects between physically modified and less modified sites. Apparent pesticides effects on the relative abundance of SPEcies At Risk (SPEAR) were increased at sites with degraded habitats primarily due to the absence of species with specific preferences for hard substrates. Our findings highlight the importance of physical habitat degradation in the assessment and mitigation of pesticide risk in agricultural streams. - Highlights: ? %SPEAR abundance significantly decreased with increasing TU (D. magna). ? %SPEAR abundance was significantly lower when soft sediment was dominant. ? Species specific habitat preferences influenced the total effect of pesticides. ? This study has strong implications for future stream management and risk assessment. - Ecological impacts of pesticides on stream macroinvertebrates are influenced by the heterogeneity and physical structure of micro-habitats.

323

Pesticide exposure and Parkinson's disease: epidemiological evidence of association.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been suggested that exposure to pesticides might be involved in the etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). We conducted an updated systematic review of the epidemiologic literature over the past decade on the relationship between pesticide exposure and PD, using the MEDLINE database. Despite methodological differences, a significantly increased PD risk was observed in 13 out of 23 case-control studies that considered overall exposure to pesticides (risk estimates of 1.1-2.4) and in 10 out of 12 studies using other research designs (risk estimates of 2 or higher). Various studies found stronger associations in genetically susceptible individuals. Among a growing number of studies on the effects of exposure to specific pesticides (n=20), an increased PD risk has been associated with insecticides, especially chlorpyrifos and organochlorines, in six studies (odds ratios of 1.8-4.4), and with the herbicide paraquat, the fungicide maneb or the combination of both. Findings considerably strengthen the evidence that exposure to pesticides in well water may contribute to PD, whereas studies of farming and rural residence found inconsistent or little association with the disease. Taken together, this comprehensive set of results suggests that the hypothesis of an association between pesticide exposure and PD cannot be ruled out. However, inadequate data on consistent responses to exposure hinder the establishment of a causal relationship with PD. Given the extensive worldwide use of many pesticides, further studies are warranted in larger populations that include detailed quantitative data on exposure and determination of genetic polymorphisms. PMID:22627180

Freire, Carmen; Koifman, Sergio

2012-10-01

324

Estimation of pesticide runoff from paddy fields to rural rivers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The runoff characteristics of pesticides from paddy fields to rural rivers were investigated over a period of three years in Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan. High pesticide concentrations were usually observed in rivers during pesticide application periods. In one year, the growth of rice seedlings slowed down after transplantation owing to low temperatures and lack of sunshine, and many farmers delayed herbicide application. In that year, high-concentration runoff of herbicides in rivers was observed 1-3 weeks later than in average years. The pesticide runoff rates ranged from 0.3% for fenthion to 42% for benfuresate. The runoff rates of pesticides applied post-flood were large. Furthermore, the larger the water solubility of the pesticide, the larger the runoff rate. The highest concentrations of herbicides in paddy water were observed on the day of application or 1-2 days later, and the concentrations decreased exponentially afterwards. The half-lives of the herbicides ranged from 1.2 days for pretilachlor and esprocarb to 5 days for simetryn; the concentrations of the herbicides in paddy water had decreased to 1/10 of their initial concentrations by about 7 days after application. Therefore, the runoff amounts of pesticides from paddy fields could be decreased by improving irrigation-water management. PMID:16594332

Numabe, A; Nagahora, S

2006-01-01

325

Quantitative and economical assessment of effectiveness of electrostatic pesticide spraying  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electrostatic pesticide spraying (EPS) improves the adhesion characteristics of the pesticide solution to agricultural crops. If the adhesion characteristics are improved, the requisite amount of the pesticide to be sprayed can be reduced in comparison with the conventional spraying method that uses non-charged pesticide. In this research, disease (rust) control experiments were carried out to substantiate the effectiveness of the EPS from a statistical point of view. We sprayed pesticide to potted Japanese pear trees under calm condition. The numbers of the rust lesions on the pear leaves were counted at fixed intervals after spraying to investigate the difference of the results of the disease control. The t-tests were carried out for the populations of the various spraying times and applied voltages. It was statistically-derived that EPS can reduce the amounts of pesticide to be sprayed by 50 % in comparison with the non-EPS method. It is also estimated from the results that about 55,000 kL year?1 of pesticides can be reduced for the Japanese pear cultivation in Tottori prefecture. Also, this means that the expense of the pear cultivation can be reduced by about 240 million yen (3 million USD) every year in Tottori prefecture by introducing EPS.

326

Pesticides and human chronic diseases: Evidences, mechanisms, and perspectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Along with the wide use of pesticides in the world, the concerns over their health impacts are rapidly growing. There is a huge body of evidence on the relation between exposure to pesticides and elevated rate of chronic diseases such as different types of cancers, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson, Alzheimer, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), birth defects, and reproductive disorders. There is also circumstantial evidence on the association of exposure to pesticides with some other chronic diseases like respiratory problems, particularly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular disease such as atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease, chronic nephropathies, autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematous and rheumatoid arthritis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and aging. The common feature of chronic disorders is a disturbance in cellular homeostasis, which can be induced via pesticides' primary action like perturbation of ion channels, enzymes, receptors, etc., or can as well be mediated via pathways other than the main mechanism. In this review, we present the highlighted evidence on the association of pesticide's exposure with the incidence of chronic diseases and introduce genetic damages, epigenetic modifications, endocrine disruption, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response (UPR), impairment of ubiquitin proteasome system, and defective autophagy as the effective mechanisms of action. - Highlights: ? There is a link between exposure to pesticides and incidence of chronic diseases. ? Genotoxicity and proteotoxicity are two main involved mechanisms. ? Epigenetic knowledge may help diagnose the relationships. ? Efficient policies on safe use of pesticides should be set up

327

Potential health effects of pesticide use on farmworkers in Lesotho  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This study examined the experiences of farmworkers during crop spraying in Lesotho. The main goal of this study was to determine the perceptions and awareness of farmworkers regarding the use of pesticides and the potential effects on their health. The data were obtained from farmworkers using a com [...] bination of an open-ended and a close-ended structured questionnaire in July 2006. Of the nine farms serviced by the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security of Lesotho, Agricultural Research Division, six farms were randomly chosen and 27 farmworkers from these farms were interviewed. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics such as frequency tables. The results showed that farmworkers are relatively poorly educated and that a greater health risk is present when a lack of training and education on the use of pesticides also exists. That is, the majority (85%) of farmworkers did not have secondary education and most (93%) had no training on the use of pesticides, which poses a great health threat to the farmworkers. A lack of education makes it difficult for farmworkers to read and understand the information labels on pesticides and hence it is difficult for them to understand the health hazards of pesticides and the need for personal safety measures. When using and handling pesticides, 52% of farmworkers did not use rubber gloves and 93% did not use goggles or other forms of face cover. This lack of protection puts them at serious risk of skin exposure to pesticides. The farmworkers were quite aware of the harmful effects of pesticides, but were sometimes unable to translate this awareness into their own safety practices because of a lack of knowledge about the adverse effects. Therefore, training, extension services and various awareness programmes should be promoted in Lesotho in order to increase farmworkers' knowledge and awareness of the adverse effects of pesticides on human health and the environment.

Tholang A., Mokhele.

2011-08-01

328

Pesticides and Arthropods: Sublethal Effects and Demographic Toxicology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Insecticides and acaricides designed to control primary harmful insects and mites may also variously affect some other arthopods present in an (agroecosystem (e.g. secondary pests, predators, parasitoids, saprophytes, bioindicators, pollinators. Apart from insecticides and acaricides, arthropods may also be affected by the activity of other pesticides (fungicides, herbicides, etc.. Regardless of whether they are deemed desirable or not, the effects that pesticides have on arthopods need to be quantified as closely as possible through appropriate experimental procedures. Data acquired in tests designed to determined LD50/LC50 values are inadequate for evaluation of pesticide effectiveness in the field as pesticidesalso cause various sublethal effects, generally disregarded in such investigations. The sublethal effects of pesticides refer to any altered behaviour and/or physiology of individuals that have survived exposure to pesticides at doses/concentrations that can be lethal(within range causing mortality in an experimental population that exceeds mortality in an untreated population or sublethal (below that range. Pesticides affect locomotion and mobility, stimulate dispersion of arthropods from treated areas, complicate or prevent their navigation, orientation and ability to locate hosts, and cause changes in their feeding, mating and egg-laying patterns. Sublethal pesticide effects on arthropod physiology reflect on the life span, rate of development, fecundity and/or fertility, sex ratio and immunity of surviving individuals. Different parameters are being used in arthropod bioassays to determine sublethal effects (ED50/EC50, LOEC, NOEC, total effect index. Compared to acute toxicity tests, these parameters improve the quality of evaluation and create a more accurate view of the effects of a pesticide. However, such approach covers mainly fecundity/fertility alone, while all other sublethal effects remain unaccounted for. Besides, it refers to an evaluation of individuals, rather than populations, and it is the latter that are required for a more reliable evaluation of effectiveness of pesticides in real life. A demographic-toxicologicalapproach has been proposed therefore as a way of integrating the effects that a toxicant may cause at population level, which includes the construction of life tables and computation of population growth parameters, including intrinsic rate of increase (rm as a crucialparameter. Compared to other laboratory toxicity tests, the demographic-toxicological bioassay has been found superior in terms of a capacity to evaluate overall effects of pesticides, and such approach in evaluating pesticide effects is crucial for environmentally-based programmes of integrated plant protection and a competent evaluation of ecotoxicological risks of pesticide applications.

Dejan Mar?i?

2007-01-01

329

Calculation of pesticide degradation in decaying cotton gin trash.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticide residues were measured in stockpiled cotton gin trash (CGT) over a 2-year period. Samples were analysed by GC/MS/MS and interpretation of the results was aided by the presence of DDE residues, remnant from prior DDT use. Fourteen pesticide residues from current agricultural practice were detected in CGT. Several of these, including indoxacarb, profenofos, chlorpyrifos, propargite, bifenthrin, ethion and cyhalothrin, were more persistent than expected on the basis of published data for soil dissipation. The results showed a complex pattern of pesticide residue decay over time because of the simultaneous decomposition of the CGT matrix. PMID:18651089

Crossan, Angus N; Kennedy, Ivan R

2008-10-01

330

Environmental toxins: Alarming impacts of pesticides on male fertility.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review comprehensively summarizes the effects of more than 15 mostly used pesticides on male reproductive physiology, as recent experimental and epidemiological research have indicated their alarming impact on overall human health. Mechanisms have described that pesticide exposure damages spermatozoa, alter Sertoli or Leydig cell function, both in vitro and in vivo and thus affects semen quality. But, the literature suggests a need for more intricate research in those pesticides that are defined as mutagens or carcinogens and directly affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. This literature review also proposes specific solutions to overcome these health effects. PMID:24347299

Sengupta, Pallav; Banerjee, Rajdeb

2014-10-01

331

Pesticide Use in South Africa : One of the Largest Importers of Pesticides in Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

South Africa is a diverse country, with a diverse environment that is home to more than 49 000 000 people. Pesticide usage is very often necessary to maintain both agricultural productivity as well as human health. The climatic conditions range from semi-tropic to semi-arid regions. Although the majority of the country has summer rainfall, the south western coastal region is predominantly a winter rainfall area. These variations in climate allows for a wide variety of crops, from tropical fru...

Quinn, Laura; Vos, Jayne; Fernandes-whaley, Maria; Roos, Claudine; Bouwman, Henk; Kylin, Henrik; Pieters, Rialet; Den Berg, Johnnie

2011-01-01

332

Analysis of pesticides in dried hops by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

An analytical method was developed for the determination of eleven agrochemicals [abamectin (as B1a), bifenazate, bifenthrin, carfentrazone-ethyl, cymoxanil, hexythiazox, imidacloprid, mefenoxam, pymetrozine, quinoxyfen, and trifloxystrobin] in dried hops. The method utilized polymeric and NH2 solid phase extraction (SPE) column cleanups and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Method validation and concurrent recoveries from untreated dried hops ranged from 71 to 126% for all compounds over three levels of fortification (0.10, 1.0, and 10.0 ppm). Commercially grown hop samples collected from several field sites had detectable residues of bifenazate, bifenthrin, hexythiazox, and quinoxyfen. The control sample used was free of contamination below the 0.050 ppm level for all agrochemicals of interest. The limit of quantitation and limit of detection for all compounds were 0.10 and 0.050 ppm, respectively. PMID:18593182

Hengel, Matt J; Miller, Marion

2008-08-27

333

Electrochemical biosensor technology: application to pesticide detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, electrochemical sensors and biosensors are becoming an accepted part of analytical chemistry since they satisfy the expanding need for rapid and reliable measurements. An area in which electrochemical biosensors perhaps show the greatest diversity and potential for development involves the measurement of environmentally significant parameters. The increasing number of pollutants in the environment calls for fast and cost-effective analytical requirements. In this context, biosensors appear as suitable alternative or complementary analytical tools. The aim of this chapter is to review some basic concept concerning the electrochemical biosensors and to illustrate a protocol for the detection of environmental organic pollutants on the basis of electrochemical biosensors. In particular, a method based on the inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) for the detection of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides will be described in detail. PMID:19159094

Palchetti, Ilaria; Laschi, Serena; Mascini, Marco

2009-01-01

334

Acute Poisoning by Drug and Pesticide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The concept behind this study is to find out the prevalence and reasons for acute poisoning in the emergency unit of 5th Azar hospital in Gorgan which is the main department in the town. This study was a cross-sectional descriptive study, the sample population were all the patients with acute poisoning either intentionally or accidentally whom admitted to the emergency unit of the hospital during period of one year. This research was implemented using a questionnaires which was filled either by the patients themselves or by those accompany them. The collected data were analyzed using the proper statistical tests. We conclude that the pre-university students are the main age group, drugs and pesticides are major types for either accidental or acute deliberate self-poising.

Azad Reza Mansourian

2007-01-01

335

Microbial degradation of an organophosphate pesticide, malathion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organophosphorus pesticide, malathion, is used in public health, residential, and agricultural settings worldwide to control the pest population. It is proven that exposure to malathion produce toxic effects in humans and other mammals. Due to high toxicity, studies are going on to design effective methods for removal of malathion and its associated compounds from the environment. Among various techniques available, degradation of malathion by microbes proves to be an effective and environment friendly method. Recently, research activities in this area have shown that a diverse range of microorganisms are capable of degrading malathion. Therefore, we aimed at providing an overview of research accomplishments on this subject and discussed the toxicity of malathion and its metabolites, various microorganisms involved in its biodegradation and effect of various environmental parameters on its degradation. PMID:23442144

Singh, Baljinder; Kaur, Jagdeep; Singh, Kashmir

2014-05-01

336

Biotransformation of the pesticide sodium arsenate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biotransformation is an important parameter in assessing the environmental impact and fate of pesticides since metabolites produced may be either more or less toxic than the parent compound. Sodium arsenate (+5 inorganic), the wood preservative and insecticide, may be converted to both inorganic (+3) and organic compounds (-3) by microorganisms in soil, sediment and water bodies. Biotransformation of sodium arsenate was studied in pure cultures of 5 bacterial species using a mineral salt and limited carbon source medium. Arsenate concentrations were 10 microgram/ml and 100 microgram/ml of arsenic respectively. The rate of biodegradation of the parent compound was described by a first order composite exponential equation of the form Ct = C1e-k1t+C2e-k2t. Rates of production of metabolites (arsenite, monomethylarsine, dimethylarsine and trimethylarsine) were described by a first order exponential equation of the form Ct = Co (1-e-kt). PMID:7009715

Shariatpanahi, M; Anderson, A C; Abdelghani, A A; Englande, A J; Hughes, J; Wilkinson, R F

1981-01-01

337

Biodegradation of organophosphorus pesticides by soil bacteria  

Science.gov (United States)

A number of studies in the 1980s and 1990s showed that crop-protection products, applied to drained fields, could move downwards through the soil profile and to the groundwater. Organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) are used all over the world for crop protection, for other agricultural practices such as sheep dipping and, in aquaculture, for the control of sea lice. Ops besides showing a specific neurotoxicity and have also been related to various modern diseases, including Creutzfeldt-Jakob (CJD) and the Gulf War syndrome. Although OPs are less persistent than Organoclorine pesticides (OCs), they still constitute an environmental risks thus increasing the social concern about their levels in soils, surface waters, and ground waters. Degradation of OPs by microorganisms has been assessed for a few bacterial strains. In the present study the OPs degrading potential of indigenous soil microorganisms was investigated. Using enrichment cultures in which parathion was the only C and energy sources many bacterial strains were isolated from OPs contaminated and pristine agricultural soils characterized by different physico-chemical properties. More than 40 potential OPs degraders were isolated and grouped in operational taxonomic units (OTU) using analysis of polymorphism showed by the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS). Partial sequencing of 16S rRNA gene of representative isolates of each OTU revealed that most of them belong to Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. All the analyzed soils showed the presence of putative OPs degraders: the highest diversity was found in organic cultivated soils, the lowest in chemically cultivated soils. Degradation of different OPs, characterized by different physical and chemical properties, was obtained by different selected representative strains using SPME GC-MS analysis on water and soil microcosms. The results showed that, after the incubation period, the amount of pesticide residues were in the range 20-80%. Some of the isolates bacterial species are currently unknown as OPs degraders.

de Pasquale, C.; Fodale, R.; Lo Piccolo, L.; Palazzolo, E.; Alonzo, G.; Quatrini, P.

2009-04-01

338

Comprehensive screening study of pesticide degradation via oxidation and hydrolysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This comprehensive study focused on the reactivity of a set of 62 pesticides via oxidization by free chlorine, monochloramine, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, and permanganate; photodegradation with UV(254); and hydrolysis at pH 2, 7, and 12. Samples were analyzed using direct injection liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry detection or gas chromatography-electron capture detection after liquid-liquid extraction. Many pesticides were reactive via hydrolysis and/or chlorination and ozonation mechanisms under typical drinking water treatment conditions, with less reactivity exhibited on average for chlorine dioxide, monochloramine, hydrogen peroxide, and UV(254). The pyrazole and organophosphorous pesticides were most reactive in general, whereas carbamates and others were less reactive. The screening study provides guidance for the pesticide/oxidation systems that are most likely to lead to degradates in water treatment and the environment. PMID:22141915

Chamberlain, Evelyn; Shi, Honglan; Wang, Tongwen; Ma, Yinfa; Fulmer, Alice; Adams, Craig

2012-01-11

339

Citizen's Guide to Pest Control and Pesticide Safety  

Science.gov (United States)

... u Make sure your garden plot has good drainage. Raised beds will improve drainage, especially of clay soils. If a heavy clay ... w Health and environmental effects w Referrals for investigation of pesticide incidents and emergency treatment information w ...

340

75 FR 56013 - Technical Amendments to Pesticide Regulations  

Science.gov (United States)

...number is (703) 305-5805. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kathryn Boyle, Field and External Affairs Division, Office of Pesticide...fax number: (703) 305-5884; e- mail address: boyle.kathryn@epa.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Does this...

2010-09-15

 
 
 
 
341

78 FR 26935 - Data Requirements for Antimicrobial Pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

...Antimicrobials play an important role in public health and safety. While...Wood Preservatives prepared by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation...allowing the Agency to fulfill its role of making pesticide...

2013-05-08

342

Pesticide transport simulation in a tropical catchment by SWAT.  

Science.gov (United States)

The application of agrochemicals in Southeast Asia is increasing in rate, variety and toxicity with alarming speed. Understanding the behavior of these different contaminants within the environment require comprehensive monitoring programs as well as accurate simulations with hydrological models. We used the SWAT hydrological model to simulate the fate of three different pesticides, one of each usage type (herbicide, fungicide and insecticide) in a mountainous catchment in Northern Thailand. Three key parameters were identified: the sorption coefficient, the decay coefficient and the coefficient controlling pesticide percolation. We yielded satisfactory results simulating pesticide load dynamics during the calibration period (NSE: 0.92-0.67); the results during the validation period were also acceptable (NSE: 0.61-0.28). The results of this study are an important step in understanding the modeling behavior of these pesticides in SWAT and will help to identify thresholds of worst-case scenarios in order to assess the risk for the environment. PMID:24811948

Bannwarth, M A; Sangchan, W; Hugenschmidt, C; Lamers, M; Ingwersen, J; Ziegler, A D; Streck, T

2014-08-01

343

The Quality of Our Nation's Waters: Nutrients and Pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

The Quality of Our Nation's Waters: Nutrients and Pesticides is the first report in a series of non-technical publications from the US Geological Survey. Based on findings of the NAWQA (National Water Quality Assessment Program), this first report "presents insights on nutrients and pesticides in water and on pesticides in bed sediment and fish tissue." Subsequent reports will cover other water-quality topics including arsenic, radon, other trace elements, and industrial chemicals, as well as chemical and physical effects on aquatic communities. Targeting resource managers, regulators, and policy makers, the report (.pdf format) provides a general overview of findings on nutrients and pesticides, in addition to technical discussions of "the sources, distributions, and potential effects of these chemicals."

344

40 CFR 158.2100 - Microbial pesticides definition and applicability.  

Science.gov (United States)

...required in this subpart. (3) Genetically modified microbial pesticides may be subject...the manner and extent to which the organism has been genetically modified. (4) Pest control organisms such as insect predators,...

2010-07-01

345

78 FR 66698 - Pesticides; Repellency Awareness Graphic; Notice of Availability  

Science.gov (United States)

...FRL-9400-2] Pesticides; Repellency Awareness Graphic; Notice of Availability AGENCY: Environmental...seeking comment on a repellency awareness graphic for producers of skin-applied insect...use a standardized repellency awareness graphic that will clearly communicate to...

2013-11-06

346

ENANTIOMER-SPECIFIC FATE AND EFFECTS OF CHIRAL PESTICIDES  

Science.gov (United States)

This research provides examples of the techniques used for enantiomer separation, a necessity for measurement of enantioselectivity. Examples are also given of selectivity in soil and water microbial transformations with a variety of pesticides, including metalaxyl, dichlorprop,...

347

ENANTIOMER-SPECIFIC FATE AND EFFECTS OF MODERN CHIRAL PESTICIDES  

Science.gov (United States)

This slide presentation presents enantiomer-specific fate and effects of modern chiral pesticides. The research areas presented were analytical separation of enantiomers; environmental occurrence of enantiomers; transformation rates and enantioselectivity; bioaccumulation; and e...

348

[Risk assessment of human exposure to pesticides in food].  

Science.gov (United States)

This review presents methods for the assessment of acute and chronic risk from pesticide residues in food. Multiple pesticide residues can often be found in food. Currently, there is no internationally accepted procedure for the assessment of cumulative exposure to multiple pesticide residues in food. Therefore, risk assessment is based on toxicological evaluation of single compounds in a food matrix. The international estimation of short-term intake model (IESTI) has been used to calculate acute intake. IESTI is based on "the worst-case scenario" and addresses the possibility that consumers sometimes eat large amounts of a food item, and such a large amount might contain residues at highest levels. However, it should take into account uneven distribution of pesticide residues in food. Chronic exposure is based on a deterministic approach, analogous to the calculation of the theoretical maximum daily intake. PMID:21971112

Kneževi?, Zorka; Serdar, Maja

2011-09-01

349

76 FR 31606 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Spray PAK Flea and Resmethrin. Tick Killer for Cats & Dogs with Deodorant. 000655-00778...St. Lucie County noted that resmethrin causes less allergic reaction in pesticide-sensitive individuals, and Manatee County...

2011-06-01

350

Criteria for evaluating the impact of pesticides on groundwater quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

A lot of data and information are available regarding the presence of pesticides in ground-waters or their tendency to contaminate them. Despite this, for a very large number of pesticides these data and information are almost completely lacking. Many theoretical methods have been proposed to predict the leaching potential of pesticides. Persistence (expressed by DT50) and mobility (expressed by Koc) are key parameters that seem to be particularly representative of the overall leaching potential of nonionic compounds and they are widely used in these methods. Nevertheless, these parameters may vary greatly causing sharp differences in ranking the leaching potential of pesticides. Indeed, when the GUS Index is calculated using the available published values of Koc and DT50 in combinations representing the minimum, medium and maximum leaching potential of herbicides, very different results can be obtained. Many of these compounds can be classified as contaminants or non contaminants, depending on the type of combination used. PMID:1439743

Bottoni, P; Funari, E

1992-08-12

351

40 CFR 170.135 - Posted pesticide safety information.  

Science.gov (United States)

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard...chewing gum or tobacco, or using the toilet. (iii) Wear work clothing that...handlers, including a requirement for safety training. (c) Emergency medical care...

2010-07-01

352

40 CFR 170.235 - Posted pesticide safety information.  

Science.gov (United States)

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard...chewing gum or tobacco, or using the toilet. (iii) Wear work clothing that protects...handlers including a requirement for safety training. (c) Emergency medical care...

2010-07-01

353

40 CFR 170.130 - Pesticide safety training for workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

...satisfies the handler training requirements of...crop advisor by a program acknowledged as...pesticide safety training that includes all...tobacco, or using the toilet. (iii) Wearing... (3) Further training will be provided... (d) Training programs. (1)...

2010-07-01

354

Metabolism of pesticides in plants: some applications of nuclear techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Metabolism of pesticides in plants is reviewed, using selected references to illustrate the development and application of nuclear techniques. The significance of metabolic processes is discussed and some possible developments in the application of nuclear technology. (author)

355

Survey on the pesticide residues in tea in south India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tea is considered as a 'health beverage' due its antioxidant properties and resultant beneficial effects on human health. Such a beverage should be free from toxic elements such as pesticide residues and heavy metals. A large scale survey of teas produced in the tea factories of south India had been carried out for a period of three years from 2006 to 2008 and 912 tea samples were analysed for the residues of certain pesticides such as dicofol, ethion, quinalphos, hexaconazole, fenpropathrin, fenvalerate and propargite which are used for pest and disease control in tea in this part of the country. The analytical data proved that only less than 0.5 percentage of tea samples had residues of these pesticides. However, residues of pesticides were below their maximum limits in tea, stipulated by the European Union, Codex Alimentarius Commission of FAO/WHO and Prevention of Food Adulteration Act of Govt. of India. PMID:20640937

Seenivasan, Subbiah; Muraleedharan, NarayananNair

2011-05-01

356

76 FR 38033 - Cloquintocet-mexyl; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...number is (703) 305-5805. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bethany Benbow, Registration Division (7505P), Office of Pesticide...telephone number: (703) 347-8072; e-mail address: benbow.bethany@epa.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. General...

2011-06-29

357

76 FR 55799 - Mandipropamid; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions  

Science.gov (United States)

...2011-0639 in the subject line on the first page of your...gov. Follow the on-line instructions for submitting...phenyl]ethyl]-[alpha]-(2-propynyloxy...pesticide's toxicological profile is determined, EPA...phenyl]ethyl]-...

2011-09-09

358

Residues of organochlorinated pesticides in soils from the Czech Republic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

National POPs inventories carried out currently in many countries as a part of the implementation of Stockholm Convention revealed the need for detailed information about a distribution of pollutants in various regions. Screening for the residues of selected organochlorinated pesticides (chlordane, heptachlor, dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, isodrin, endosulfan I, endosulfan II, methoxychlor, mirex) in soil and biotic samples from the Czech Republic was performed. Although these pesticides have never been used in large quantities in this region, results indicate that their residues still persist in the top layer soils more than 20 years after they have been banned. The fact that their soil concentrations in the mountains are generally higher than those in agricultural areas, and detection of the traces of pesticides that have never been used in this region suggest on their occurrence in soils due to the atmospheric redistribution rather than as a result of direct application. - Organochlorinated pesticides persist in soils

359

Factors associated with self-reported symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning among farmers in northwestern Jamaica.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticide poisoning is a major public health concern in developing countries. The authors conducted a population survey among farmers in 3 parishes of northwestern Jamaica to determine the occurrence of acute pesticide poisoning and to identify factors associated with pesticide poisoning. Approximately 16% of 359 farmers who participated in the study reported 1 or more incidents of acute pesticide poisoning within the last 2 years. Only 25% of the farmers reported ever receiving training in pesticide handling or safety. The majority (68%) of farmers who reported pesticide poisoning never sought medical attention for poisoning. The factors found to be associated with pesticide poisoning in this study indicate that implementation of specific intervention strategies and education of farmers is needed in order to improve safe handling, use, and disposal of pesticides and reduce incidents of acute pesticide poisoning. PMID:24484363

Ncube, Ngqabutho M; Fogo, Christopher; Bessler, Patricia; Jolly, Curtis M; Jolly, Pauline E

2011-01-01

360

Chlorinated pesticides in stream sediments from organic, integrated and conventional farms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine if current sheep/beef farming practices affect pesticide residues in streams, current-use and legacy chlorinated pesticides were quantified in 100 sediment samples from 15 streams on the South Island of New Zealand. The study involved five blocks of three neighboring farms, with each block containing farms managed by organic, integrated and conventional farming practices. Significantly higher concentrations of dieldrin, ? endosulfans, ? current-use pesticides, and ? chlorinated pesticides were measured in sediments from conventional farms compared to organic and integrated farms. However, streams in the latter two farming categories were not pesticide-free and sometimes contained relatively high concentrations of legacy pesticides. Comparison of measured pesticide concentrations with sediment quality guidelines showed that, regardless of farming practice, mean pesticide concentrations were below the recommended toxicity thresholds. However, up to 23% of individual samples contained chlorpyrifos, endosulfan sulfate, ? DDT, dieldrin, or ? chlordane concentrations above these thresholds. -- Highlights: •Pesticides were measured in streams in organic, integrated, and conventional farms. •Higher concentrations of some pesticides were found in conventional sites. •Streams in organic and integrated sites were not pesticide free. •Mean pesticide concentrations were below the recommended toxicity thresholds. -- Higher concentrations of several chlorinated pesticides were found in conventional farms; however, organic and integrated practices were not pesticide-free

 
 
 
 
361

Health Aspects of Organophosphorous Pesticides in Asian Countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Organophosphorous (OP) pesticides are used frequently in agriculture, particularly in Asian countries over the past decades. Poisoning by these agents, either as acute or chronic in these nations, is a serious health problem. OP pesticides residue in fruits and vegetables that may not induce early clinical features, could also affect the human health. Therefore, medical and health professionals should be aware and learn more on the toxicology, prevention and proper management of OP poisoning....

Balali-mood, B.; Moodi, M.; Balali-mood, K.; Balali-mood, M.

2012-01-01

362

Pesticides residue levels in selected fruits from some Ghanaian markets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The amount of some pesticide residues in fruits was monitored at five (5) Accra Metropolis markets. Locally produced fruits (pawpaw and tomato) and imported apples were purchased from two supermarkets and three urban markets in Accra metropolis and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector for pesticide residues. A total of 220 samples of fruits were extracted and analyzed for pesticide residues, mainly organochlorines (?-HCH, ?-HCH, aldrin, heptachlor, ?-chlordane, heptachlor epoxide, ?-endosulfan, p,p'-DDE, endrin, ?-endosulfan, o,p'-DDT, endrin aldehyde, p,p'- DDT, endrin ketone and methoxychlor). The data showed that most of the fruit samples analyzed contain residues of the monitored pesticides above the accepted maximum residue limit (MRL) as adopted by the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The results obtained showed that 38.6 % fruit samples showed results above the MRL, 48.7 % were below the MRL and 12.7 % contained no detectable level of the monitored pesticides. Data analysis of health risk estimates indicated that, particularly ?-HCH, ?-HCH, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE or p,p'-DDT do not pose a direct hazard to human health, although present in the three fruits (pawpaw, tomato and apple). However, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, endrin aldehyde, and endrin ketone levels exceeded the reference dose, indicating a great potential for systemic toxicity, especially in children who are considered to be the most vulnerable poidered to be the most vulnerable population subgroup. Lastly, the public is aware of pesticide residues in fruits and advocates for the curtailing of pesticide use on horticulture produce or strong educational programmes for farmers on control and safer use of pesticides. (au)

363

Trends in Flow-based Biosensing Systems for Pesticide Assessment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This review gives a survey on the state of the art of pesticide detection usingflow-based biosensing systems for sample screening. Although immunosensor systems havebeen proposed as powerful pesticide monitoring tools, this review is mainly focused onenzyme-based biosensors, as they are the most commonly employed when using a flowsystem. Among the different detection methods able to be integrated into flow-injectionanalysis (FIA) systems, the electrochemical ones will be treated in more detai...

Jean-Louis Marty; Silvana Andreescu; Mònica Campàs; Beatriz Prieto-Simón

2006-01-01

364

Treatment of Pesticide Contaminated Wastewater by Soil Microorganisms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cypermethrin is one of the most widely used pesticides in the country for agriculture crop production. Due to least water solubility and toxicity, its removal need especial attention. Microbial degradation is considered to be an efficient and cost effective method for decontamination of toxic pesticides from the environment. In this study, malathion degrading bacterial isolate, identified as Pseudomonas, was used to assess its biodegradation potential for cypermethrin in aqueous syste...

Khan, M. A.; Jilani, S.

2011-01-01

365

DRY–WET CYCLES INCREASE PESTICIDE RESIDUE RELEASE FROM SOIL  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Soil drying and rewetting may alter the release and availability of aged pesticide residues in soils. A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of soil drying and wetting on the release of pesticide residues. Soil containing environmentally long-term aged (9–17 years) 14C-labeled residues of the herbicides ethidimuron (ETD) and methabenzthiazuron (MBT) and the fungicide anilazine (ANI) showed a significantly higher release of 14C activity in water extracts of previousl...

Jablonowski, Nicolai David; Linden, Andreas; Ko?ppchen, Stephan; Thiele, Bjo?rn; Hofmann, Diana; Burauel, Peter

2012-01-01

366

The 2010 European Union Report on Pesticide Residues in Food  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report presents the results of the control of pesticide residues in food commodities sampled during the calendar year 2010 in the 27 EU Member States and two EFTA countries (Iceland and Norway). The report also comprises the outcome of the consumer risk assessment of pesticide residues. EFSA presents for the first time the results of a pilot cumulative risk assessment (CRA) to multiple chemical residues. Finally, the report provides some recommendations aimed at the improvement of the fu...

European Food Safety Authority

2013-01-01

367

Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food an...

Damalas, Christos A.; Eleftherohorinos, Ilias G.

2011-01-01

368

Longitudinal investigation of dietary exposure to selected pesticides.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Between September 1995 and September 1996, 4-day composite duplicate plate samples (379 solid food samples and 303 beverage samples) were obtained from a stratified random sample of 75 individuals in Maryland and analyzed for the presence of 10 pesticides. Samples were collected in each of six approximately equally spaced cycles as part of a larger pilot investigation of longitudinal exposure to pesticides and other elements. Chlorpyrifos was detected in 38.3% of the solid food samples, malat...

Macintosh, D. L.; Kabiru, C. W.; Ryan, P. B.

2001-01-01

369

Sol-Gel Materials with Pesticide Delivery Properties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pesticides are widely used in agriculture, although they may create hazards both to humans and to the environment. In order to reduce the harmful effects of their administration, there has been made a great effort to find solutions. The porous sol-gel silica materials which are able to entrap different organic molecules represent new studied controlled release carriers. The aim of the present work was to prepare and characterize sol-gel composites based on trichlorfon as organophosphorous pesticide embedded in silica matrices generated from three different SiO2 sources: tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS, colloidal silica (CS, and sodium silicate (SS. Similar samples to those containing only trichlorfon have also been synthesised, in which ?-, ?-, and ?-cyclodextrin have been included in order to study the possibility of improving the release of the pesticide from the silica matrices. The porous sol-gel silica materials generated from TEOS and CS are able to entrap the trichlorfon and ensure an efficient delivery of the pesticide. In the absence of cyclodextrins, better results are obtained in the case of TEOS precursor, compared to colloidal silica. The addition of cyclodextrins in order to improve the release of the pesticide from the silica matrices was successful only in the case of CS as SiO2 precursor. The best release of the pesticide was obtained with ?-CD.

Ligia Todan

2010-09-01

370

Considerations on the Content of Pesticides Residues in Vegetables  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pesticide contamination of vegetables, today, is more and more questionable. Biodegradability and molecular recalcitrance are two properties expressing the capacity of used substances in plant treatments. Therefore, it is preferred the use of those pesticides that decompose from a treatment to another without accumulating thepollutant residues. It is recommended that, when choosing a pesticide which is used in treatments, to keep in mind: no effect dose, tolerable daily intake, tolerable amount of residues, residues’ limit, the maximum limit allowable, daily dose acceptable for the individual, level of tolerance, maximum limit of contamination allowed and themaximum daily intake acceptable for human. In the Laboratory of pesticide residues determination from plants and plant products in Târgu Mure?, pesticide residues were detected in some species of vegetables; methods of analysis used in the laboratory are multiresidual analysis methods developed in the laboratory (method GC x GC - TOF MS. To be mentioned that the pesticides detected values in vegetables have not exceeded the maximum permissible limits.

Florica Morar

2011-06-01

371

Spectroscopic Methods for the Detection of Organophosphate Pesticides – A Preview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Organophosphate pesticides are the ester forms of phosphoric acid usually considered as secure for agriculture uses due to their relatively fast degradation rates. Organophosphorus pesticides have been extensively used in the area of agriculture to manage insect or pests of a number of economically important crops. Organophosphate pesticides are well-known as the inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase activity, not in insects only, but can also affect the nervous system of other organisms as well as humans. Organophosphorus pesticides are not restricted to anticholinesterase action, but comprise genotoxicity and teratogenicity including other environmental and ecological adverse impact. Such severe health and ecological consequences signify a requirement for a better understanding of the fate of organophosphates in the environment. By kept all these things in mind we have written a review on organophosphorus pesticides. In this review we have previewed the different methods of spectroscopic methods of detection including UV-visible, X-ray, Mass analysis, NMR, electrochemical analysis (sensor based and FTIR. Among all these mass and electrochemical studies were flourished till date and considered as advanced techniques for the analysis of other pesticides also.

Vijay Kumar

2013-08-01

372

Total Pesticide Exposure Calculation among Vegetable Farmers in Benguet, Philippines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This was a cross-sectional study that investigated pesticide exposure and its risk factors targeting vegetable farmers selected through cluster sampling. The sampling size calculated with P=.05 was 211 vegetable farmers and 37 farms. The mean usage of pesticide was 21.35 liters. Risk factors included damaged backpack sprayer (34.7%), spills on hands (31.8%), and spraying against the wind (58%). The top 3 pesticides used were pyrethroid (46.4%), organophosphates (24.2%), and carbamates (21.3%). Those who were exposed to fungicides and insecticides also had higher total pesticide exposure. Furthermore, a farmer who was a pesticide applicator, mixer, loader, and who had not been given instructions through training was at risk of having higher pesticide exposure. The most prevalent symptoms were headache (64.1%), muscle pain (61.1%), cough (45.5%), weakness (42.4%), eye pain (39.9%), chest pain (37.4%), and eye redness (33.8%). The data can be used for the formulation of an integrated program on safety and health in the vegetable industry.

373

An optical instrument to test pesticide residues in agricultural products  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticide is one of the indispensability materials in modern agricultural management, however the excessive use of pesticides has threatened the ecological environment and people's health. This paper introduced an optical instrument to test the pesticide residues in agricultural products based on the inhibition rate of organophosphates against acrtyl-cholinesterase (AchE). The instrument consists mainly of a solid light source with 410nm wavelength, a sampling container, an optical sensor, a temperature sensor, and a MCU based data acquisition board. The light illuminated through the liquid in the sampling container, and the absorptivity was determined by the amount of the pesticide residues in the liquid. This paper involves the design of optical testing system, the data acquisition and calibration of the optical sensor, the design of microcontroller-based electrical board. Tests were done to reveal the affection of temperature and reacting time on AchE, to establish the relationship between the amount of methamidophos and dichlorvos with AchE. The results showed that the absorption rate was related to the pesticide residues and it could be concluded that the pesticide residues exceeded the normal level when the inhibition rate was over 50 percent. The instrument has potential application in vegetable markets.

Qiu, Zhengjun; Zheng, Wenzhong; Fang, Hui; He, Yong

2005-10-01

374

Extraction of pesticide residues from biological and environmental samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various procedures that show potential in offering shorter extraction times with higher recoveries and low consumption of organic solvents are discussed. Solid phase extraction is attracting increasing attention for the isolation of pesticide residues from aqueous solutions and constitutes an alternative to liquid-liquid extraction. Microwave assisted extraction of stable pesticide residues from soil samples appears to be a viable alternative to conventional Soxhlet extraction. Thermal desorption involving high temperature distillation is an innovative method for efficiently extracting certain pesticides from soil, sediment and plant samples. Supercritical fluid extraction is emerging as a valuable technique for the isolation of pesticide residues from soil, plant and food samples, using supercritical fluids as the extraction media. It represents an excellent alternative to the potentially hazardous solvents currently used in conventional methods. The feasibility of employing water based systems for the extraction of certain pesticides from fruits and vegetables has also been investigated. A brief survey is given of these extraction procedures and a comparison made with the techniques widely used for the extraction of pesticides residues from biological and environmental samples. (author). 22 refs, 4 figs, 12 tabs

375

Removal of trace pesticide residues from farm produce  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In view of current food production practices, we must accept the fact that small quantities of pesticide residues will be present in our food supply. The significance of minute quantities of these chemical residues in food over an extended period of time is much debated question and has become a problem for man to face in controlling the total insult to his environment. Tolerance of pesticide residues in food are occasionally revised, some being revised downward. Against this background, it becomes obvious that the effects of processing chemical residues in food is an area where available information should be consolidated and missing information obtained through further research. This is particularly important for developing countries where 'persistent' pesticides are in use and where farmers treat crops with exaggerated quantities of pesticide chemicals to guarantee yields, rmoval of, residues in food processing is affected by type of food, insecticide type; and nature and severity of processing procedure used. Examples of processing methods include peeling; washing, hot water blanching, cooking, canning, chemical and physical treatments for oil refinement, processing of grain into flour and bread, milk into cream and cheese, etc. Removal of pesticide residues is usually incidental to the processing operation. In the present paper the effect of washing and peeling on the decontamination of pesticide residue in mangoes are discussed. (author)scussed. (author)

376

Pesticide distribution in an agricultural environment in Argentina.  

Science.gov (United States)

An assessment of the off-site migration of pesticides from agricultural activity into the environment in the Neuquen River Valley was performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of pesticides in several compartments of a small agricultural sub-catchment. Soil, surface water, shallow groundwater and drift deposition were analyzed for pesticide residues. Results showed the presence of some pesticide residues in soil, surface water and shallow groundwater compartments. The highest detection frequencies in water (surface and subsurface) were found for azinphos-methyl and chlorpyrifos (>70%). In terms of concentration, the highest levels were observed in shallow groundwater for azinphos methyl (22.5 ?g/L) and carbaryl (45.7 ?g/L). In the soil, even before the application period had started, accumulation of residues was present. These residues increased during the period studied. Spray drift during pesticide application was found to be a significant pathway for the migration of pesticide residues in surface water, while leaching and preferential flows were the main transport routes contributing to subsurface contamination. PMID:21806463

Loewy, Ruth M; Monza, Liliana B; Kirs, Veronica E; Savini, Monica C

2011-01-01

377

Elevated Serum Pesticide Levels and Risk of Parkinson Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Exposure to pesticides has been reported to increase the risk of Parkinson disease (PD), but identification of the specific pesticides is lacking. Three studies have found elevated levels of organochlorine pesticides in postmortem PD brains. Objective To determine whether elevated levels of organochlorine pesticides are present in the serum of patients with PD. Design Case-control study. Setting An academic medical center. Participants Fifty patients with PD, 43 controls, and 20 patients with Alzheimer disease. Main Outcome Measures Levels of 16 organochlorine pesticides in serum samples. Results ?-Hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH) was more often detectable in patients with PD (76%) compared with controls (40%) and patients with Alzheimer disease (30%). The median level of ?-HCH was higher in patients with PD compared with controls and patients with Alzheimer disease. There were no marked differences in detection between controls and patients with PD concerning any of the other 15 organochlorine pesticides. Finally, we observed a significant odds ratio for the presence of ?-HCH in serum to predict a diagnosis of PD vs control (odds ratio, 4.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.67–11.6) and PD vs Alzheimer disease (odds ratio, 5.20), which provides further evidence for the apparent association between serum ?-HCH and PD. Conclusions These data suggest that ?-HCH is associated with a diagnosis of PD. Further research is warranted regarding the potential role of ?-HCH as a etiologic agent for some cases of PD. PMID:19597089

Richardson, Jason R.; Shalat, Stuart L.; Buckley, Brian; Winnik, Bozena; O’Suilleabhain, Padraig; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Reisch, Joan; German, Dwight C.

2012-01-01

378

75 FR 54629 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...  

Science.gov (United States)

...sesame, sweet rocket, calendula, castor oil plant, Chinese tallowtree, cottonseed, euphorbia, evening primrose...Agency under EPA MRID number 445554-03 for the detection and measurement of the pesticide residues. Contact: Janet...

2010-09-08

379

75 FR 60452 - Notice of Filing of Several Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...  

Science.gov (United States)

...ADDRESSES: Submit your comments, identified by docket identification (ID) number and the pesticide petition number (PP) of...exemption as part (c) for residues of the antifungal agent Aspergillus flavus NRRL 21882 in or on cotton. The petitioner...

2010-09-30

380

40 CFR 180.7 - Petitions proposing tolerances or exemptions for pesticide residues in or on raw agricultural...  

Science.gov (United States)

...exemptions for pesticide residues in or on raw...or processed foods. 180.7...EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Procedural...levels of the pesticide chemical residue in or on the food, or for...

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
381

Thin layer chromatography as an alternative method for pesticide analysis in rice grains  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The applicability of thin layer chromatography for the analysis of pesticide residues in grains as an alternative method to gas and high performance liquid chromatography was evaluated. Recoveries of six selected pesticides representing different pesticide classes as well as marker compounds for the four TLC detection methods employed ranged from 60 to 102%. The CVs of most of the pesticides analysed were within the range of CV indicated excepted for pesticide residue analysis. Thin layer chromatography can be a useful tool to analyze pesticide residues in rice grains. (author)

382

Pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from South America – A Nordic project  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to investigate the amount of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from South America. A total of 724 samples of 46 different fruits and vegetables from eight South American countries were collected in 2007. In 19% of the samples no residues were found, 72% of samples contained pesticide residues at or below MRL, and 8.4% of samples contained pesticide residues above MRL. Thiabendazole, imazalil and chlorpyrifos were the pesticide most frequently found. Thirty-seven pesticides were found with frequencies higher that 1% in the samples. The results emphasize the need for continuous monitoring of pesticide residues, especially in imported fruits and vegetables.

Hjorth, Karen; Johansen, K.

2011-01-01

383

The role of private pesticide vendors in preventing access to pesticides for self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 15% to 20% of self-poisoning cases, the pesticides used are purchased from shops just prior to ingestion. We explored how pesticide vendors interacted with customers at risk of self-poisoning to identify interventions to prevent such poisonings. Two strategies were specifically discussed: selling pesticides only to farmers bearing identity cards or customers bearing pesticide 'prescriptions'. Vendors reported refusing to sell pesticides to people thought to be at risk of self-poisoning, but acknowledged the difficulty of distinguishing them from legitimate customers; vendors also stated they did want to help to improve identification of such customers. The community did not blame vendors when pesticides used for self-poison were purchased from their shops. Vendors have already taken steps to restrict access, including selling low toxic products, counselling and asking customer to return the next day. However, there was little support for the proposed interventions of 'identity cards' and 'prescriptions'. Novel public health approaches are required to complement this approach. PMID:23736739

Weerasinghe, Manjula; Pearson, Melissa; Peiris, Ravi; Dawson, Andrew H; Eddleston, Michael; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Agampodi, Suneth; Konradsen, Flemming

2014-04-01

384

Applicability and modelling of nanofiltration and reverse osmosis for remediation of groundwater polluted with pesticides and pesticide transformation products  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The main body of research on pesticide removal with membranes has looked at pesticides used for pest control, but during transport from surface to groundwater aquifers, pesticides are transformed. Therefore the real polluting compounds are often transformation products, and this vastly increases the total number of pollutants in need of treatment, which also creates a need for a simple way of predicting expected rejections to avoid the daunting task of investigating all these experimentally. In this study, the applicability of NF/LPRO/RO membranes for treatment of groundwater polluted with some of these key transformation products is assessed experimentally and compared to that of regular pesticides. Also, it was investigated whether the rejection could be modelled with a simple steric model. It was found that NF membranes capable of rejecting the regular pesticides did not give satisfactory rejections of the transformation products, mainly because of the reduced size of these. Further, the rejection could bedescribed with a pore flow model, but different definitions of the molecular width were needed to describe rejection for NF and LPRO/RO membranes. With the model it was predicted that rejections over 90 % can be obtained with an LPRO membrane for most pesticides and transformation products found in Danish groundwater.

Madsen, Henrik Tækker; SØgaard, Erik Gydesen

2014-01-01

385

Association between environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative diseases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Preliminary studies have shown associations between chronic pesticide exposure in occupational settings and neurological disorders. However, data on the effects of long-term non-occupational exposures are too sparse to allow any conclusions. This study examines the influence of environmental pesticide exposure on a number of neuropsychiatric conditions and discusses their underlying pathologic mechanisms. An ecological study was conducted using averaged prevalence rates of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, cerebral degeneration, polyneuropathies, affective psychosis and suicide attempts in selected Andalusian health districts categorized into areas of high and low environmental pesticide exposure based on the number of hectares devoted to intensive agriculture and pesticide sales per capita. A total of 17,429 cases were collected from computerized hospital records (minimum dataset) between 1998 and 2005. Prevalence rates and the risk of having Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and suicide were significantly higher in districts with greater pesticide use as compared to those with lower pesticide use. The multivariate analyses showed that the population living in areas with high pesticide use had an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts and that males living in these areas had increased risks for polyneuropathies, affective disorders and suicide attempts. In conclusion, this study supports and extends previous findings and provides an indication that environmental exposure to pesticides may affect the human health by increasing the incidence of certain neurological disorders at the level of the general population. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative-psychiatric disorders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts in high exposure areas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Males from areas with high pesticide exposure had a higher risk of polyneuropathy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Males from high exposure areas had a higher risk of affective psychosis and suicide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nerve tissue degeneration due to oxidative damage may underlie the pathomechanism.

Parron, Tesifon [University of Almeria, Department of Neurosciences and Health Sciences, Almeria (Spain); Andalusian Council of Health at Almeria province, Almeria (Spain); Requena, Mar [Andalusian Council of Health at Almeria province, Almeria (Spain); Hernandez, Antonio F., E-mail: ajerez@ugr.es [University of Granada School of Medicine, Granada (Spain); Alarcon, Raquel [Andalusian Council of Health at Almeria province, Almeria (Spain)

2011-11-15

386

Incorporating ecologically relevant measures of pesticide effect for estimating the compatibility of pesticides and biocontrol agents.  

Science.gov (United States)

The compatibility of biological control agents with pesticides is a central concern in integrated pest management programs. The most common assessments of compatibility consist of simple comparisons of acute toxicity among pest species and select biocontrol agents. A more sophisticated approach, developed by the International Organisation of Biological Control (IOBC), is based on a tiered hierarchy made up of threshold values for mortality and sublethal effects that is used to determine the compatibility of pesticides and biological control agents. However, this method is unable to capture longer term population dynamics, which is often critical to the success of biological control and pest suppression. In this article, we used the delay in population growth index, a measure of population recovery, to investigate the potential impacts that the threshold values for levels of lethal and sublethal effects developed by the IOBC had on three biocontrol agents: sevenspotted lady beetle, Coccinella septempunctata L.; the aphid parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh), and Fopius arisanus (Sonan), a parasitoid of tephritid flies. Based on life histories of these economically important natural enemies, we established a delay of 1-generation time interval as sufficient to disrupt biological control success. We found that delays equivalent to 1-generation time interval were caused by mortality as low as 50% or reductions of offspring as low as 58%, both values in line with thresholds developed by the IOBC. However, combinations of mortality and reduction of offspring lower than these values (from 32 to 43% each) over a simulated 4-mo period caused significant population delays. Furthermore, the species used in these simulations reacted differently to the same levels of effect. The parasitoid D. rapae was the most susceptible species, followed by F. arisanus and C. septempunctata. Our results indicate that it is not possible to generalize about potential long-term impacts of pesticides on biocontrol agents because susceptibility is influenced by differences in life history variables. Additionally, populations of biocontrol agents may undergo significant damage when mortality approaches 50% or when there is mortality of -30% and a 30% reduction in offspring caused by a sublethal effect. Our results suggest that more ecologically relevant measures of effect such as delays in population growth may advance our knowledge of pesticide impacts on populations of beneficial species. PMID:17849847

Stark, John D; Vargas, Roger; Banks, John E

2007-08-01

387

The 2010 European Union Report on Pesticide Residues in Food  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This report presents the results of the control of pesticide residues in food commodities sampled during the calendar year 2010 in the 27 EU Member States and two EFTA countries (Iceland and Norway. The report also comprises the outcome of the consumer risk assessment of pesticide residues. EFSA presents for the first time the results of a pilot cumulative risk assessment (CRA to multiple chemical residues. Finally, the report provides some recommendations aimed at the improvement of the future monitoring programmes and the enforcement of the European pesticide residue legislation. In total, more than 77,000 samples of approximately 500 different types of food (raw or processed were analysed for pesticide residues by national competent authorities. Considering the results concerning both the national and the EU-coordinated programmes, the total number of analytical determinations reported among all the countries amounted to more than 14 million. The results of the EU-coordinated programme for 2010 showed that 1.6% of total samples analysed exceeded the European legal limits (MRLs. EFSA concluded that the long-term exposure of consumers did not raise health concerns. In assessing the short-term exposure, the pesticide monitoring results revealed that a risk could not be excluded for 79 samples concerning 30 different pesticides if the pertinent food was consumed in high amounts. The results of the CRA are considered indicative as the work on establishing which groups of pesticides are expected to share the same toxicological effects is not yet complete and the final methodological approach needs to be further elaborated. The outcome of the pilot CRA demonstrated that the exposure calculations are affected by significant uncertainties, mainly related to the analytical results reported as “non-detected”. The methodology used in this pilot exercise will be further revised to reduce the uncertainties of the exposure assessment.

European Food Safety Authority

2013-03-01

388

Use of isotopic tracers in pesticide and environmental contamination research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The era of synthetic organic pesticides, starting with DDT and the herbicide 2,4-D about 1940, coincides with that of rapid advances in radiotracer applications. This is indeed fortunate since isotopic experiments are an essential step in evaluating each new pesticide and in continually reassessing older compounds for safety and most efficient utilization. This research is carried out in all developed nations with important supplementation on local problems or use conditions from investigations in the developing countries. Several slides will help illustrate the sequence of studies for establishing the disposition and fate of pesticides and other environmental contaminants.It is clear that very little of the pesticide ever contacts the pest. Pesticide chemicals are generally applied at dosages of 0.2 to 2 kilogram per hectare from one to five or more times per crop season. Less than 0.01% of an insecticide is absorbed or ingested by the pest insect. The remaining amount, more than 99.99%, is an environmental contaminant, a portion of which is a potential residue in food, feed and fibre. Isotopic research is critical in understanding or solving several aspects of the problem. The isotopic label is introduced into the chemical by synthesis in a commercial or university laboratory or in a national or regional atomic research centre. The most common radioisotopes used are tritium, 14carbon, 32phosphorus, 35sulphur and 36chlorine. Stable isotopes are becoming increasingly important in pesticide research, particularly carbon 13, nitrogen 15 and oxygen 18. The initial studies usually involve administration of the 14 carbon-labelled pesticide to rats, which are then held in metabolism cages that allow separate collection of expired gases, urine and faeces. The products in the excreta are identified by various chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. The persistence of the chemical and its metabolites in various tissues is also determined to make sure that the material is not stored in fat, like DDT, or any other place in the body

389

Hydraulically active biopores stimulate pesticide mineralization in agricultural subsoil  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Soil biopores can serve as preferential flow paths for downward transport of inorganic nutrients and organic compounds. Pesticides may also be transported down through the subsoil in biopores, thereby posing a threat to the groundwater resource. However, biopores may also constitute hot spots for microbially-mediated pesticide mineralization, thereby reducing the risk of pesticide leaching. To investigate this we identified hydraulically active biopores in a test plot of an agricultural field by percolating brilliant blue through the soil. Small portions of soil (500 mg) were sampled at approx. 1-cm distances along a transect covering 10 biopores and adjacent matrix soil at two depths: 30 cm below ground surface (b.g.s.; transition zone below the plough layer) and 55 cm b.g.s. (subsoil). The general microbial community was characterized by culturable heterotrophic bacteria (CFU), respiratory activity (CO production rate), and growth activity ([H]leucine incorporation). Specific pesticide degrader populations (bromoxynil and 4-chloro-2-methyl-phenoxyacetic acid (MCPA)) were enumerated by the most probable number (MPN) method, and pesticide mineralization was quantified by C-mineralization assays. Compared to the matrix soil, increased density of heterotrophic bacteria, respiratory activity, growth activity, and bromoxynil mineralization was observed in the biopores in the subsoil layer, but not in the transition zone. By contrast, the density of MCPA degraders and MCPA mineralization activity were highly stimulated in the transition zone biopores, whereas the density of MCPA degraders was significantly lower in the subsoil, where no MCPA mineralization occurred. We conclude that hydraulically active biopores may constitute hot spots for pesticide mineralization, but that this biopore effect is compound-specific and likely inadequate to prevent pesticide leaching, especially, in subsoil with low densities of degrader populations. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Badawi, Nora; Johnsen, Anders R.

2013-01-01

390

40 CFR 158.2173 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Experimental use permit microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table. 158.2173...Experimental use permit microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table. (a) General...how to use this table to determine the toxicology data requirements for a...

2010-07-01

391

40 CFR 158.2140 - Microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table. 158.2140... § 158.2140 Microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table. (a) General...how to use this table to determine the toxicology data requirements for a...

2010-07-01

392

Pesticide consumption and productivity and the potential of IPM in Bangladesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper analyses trends in consumption, productivity and the determinants of pesticide use in Bangladesh over a 33 year period (1977-2009), including a discussion on the scope to expand Integrated Pest Management (IPM) practices. Pesticide use grew at an alarming rate of 10.0% per year (pdiversification, average farm size and literacy rate are the most significant determinants of pesticide use, whereas research and development (R&D) investment depresses pesticide use. Consistent evidence of excessive pesticide use in Bangladesh was observed. Although the government has shifted focus from pesticide use to IPM, its coverage remains inadequate as only 7.4% of the total farmers are covered after 30 years of effort. Tighter pesticide regulation and its effective implementation, and expansion of IPM through public, private and non-governmental organisation (NGO) stakeholders are suggested to reduce pesticide consumption. PMID:23314122

Rahman, Sanzidur

2013-02-15

393

Microsoft Word - WFD - GW - 7 - Chemical diffuse source pressures - pesticides.DOC  

...monitoring data on pesticides is available from public water supply boreholes and springs. The Sniffer diffuse pollution screening tool project (SNIFFER 2006 WFD19), was used to assess certain pesticides with...

394

U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--HOUSEHOLD PESTICIDE INVENTORY DATA  

Science.gov (United States)

The Household Pesticide Inventory data set provides information characterizing the name, active ingredients, EPA product code, and storage conditions of pesticides kept on the household property for 91 households. Keywords: exposure survey, questionnaire. The U.S.-Mexico Borde...

395

40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.  

Science.gov (United States)

...restricted use pesticides in, on, or around food handling establishments, human dwellings, institutions, such as schools and hospitals, industrial establishments, including...pesticides in public health programs for the management and control of pests having medical...

2010-07-01

396

Characterizing pesticide sorption and degradation in macro scale biopurification systems using column displacement experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The efficiency of biopurification systems to treat pesticide-contaminated water was previously studied in microcosms. To validate the obtained results, macrocosm systems were set-up. Four pesticides (linuron, isoproturon, bentazone, and metalaxyl) were continuously applied to ten different organic substrate mixes. Retention of the pesticides was similar and in some cases slightly lower in the macrocosms compared to the microcosms. Differences in retention between the different mixes were however minimal. Moreover, the classification of the retention strength of the pesticides was identical to that observed in microcosms: linuron > isoproturon > metalaxyl > bentazone. Monod kinetics were used to describe delayed degradation, which occurred for isoproturon, metalaxyl and bentazone. No breakthrough of linuron was observed, thus, this pesticide was appointed as the most retained and/or degraded pesticide, followed by isoproturon, metalaxyl and bentazone. Finally, most of the matrix mixes efficient in degrading or retaining pesticides were mixes containing dried cow manure. - Transport of pesticides in macrocosm containing organic substrates

397

Characterizing pesticide sorption and degradation in macro scale biopurification systems using column displacement experiments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The efficiency of biopurification systems to treat pesticide-contaminated water was previously studied in microcosms. To validate the obtained results, macrocosm systems were set-up. Four pesticides (linuron, isoproturon, bentazone, and metalaxyl) were continuously applied to ten different organic substrate mixes. Retention of the pesticides was similar and in some cases slightly lower in the macrocosms compared to the microcosms. Differences in retention between the different mixes were however minimal. Moreover, the classification of the retention strength of the pesticides was identical to that observed in microcosms: linuron > isoproturon > metalaxyl > bentazone. Monod kinetics were used to describe delayed degradation, which occurred for isoproturon, metalaxyl and bentazone. No breakthrough of linuron was observed, thus, this pesticide was appointed as the most retained and/or degraded pesticide, followed by isoproturon, metalaxyl and bentazone. Finally, most of the matrix mixes efficient in degrading or retaining pesticides were mixes containing dried cow manure. - Transport of pesticides in macrocosm containing organic substrates.

Wilde, Tineke de [Laboratory of Crop Protection Chemistry, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail: Tineke.DeWilde@UGent.be; Spanoghe, Pieter [Laboratory of Crop Protection Chemistry, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Mertens, Jan; Sniegowksi, Kristel; Ryckeboer, Jaak [Division of Soil and Water Management, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, K.U. Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Jaeken, Peter [PCF-Royal Research Station of Gorsem, De Brede Akker 13, 3800 Sint-Truiden (Belgium); Springael, Dirk [Division of Soil and Water Management, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, K.U. Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

2009-04-15

398

40 CFR 1.43 - Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-07-01 false Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances... Headquarters § 1.43 Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances...activities. (b) Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics. The Office of...

2010-07-01

399

Requiring Pollutant Discharge Permits for Pesticide Applications that Deposit Residues in Surface Waters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Agricultural producers and public health authorities apply pesticides to control pests that damage crops and carry diseases. Due to the toxic nature of most pesticides, they are regulated by governments. Regulatory provisions require pesticides to be registered and restrictions operate to safeguard human health and the environment. Yet pesticides used near surface waters pose dangers to non-target species and drinking water supplies leading some governments to regulate discharges of pesticides under pollution discharge permits. The dual registration and discharge permitting provisions are burdensome. In the United States, agricultural interest groups are advancing new legislation that would exempt pesticide residues from water permitting requirements. An analysis of the dangers posed by pesticide residues in drinking water leads to a conclusion that both pesticide registration and pollutant discharge permitting provisions are needed to protect human health and aquatic species.

Terence Centner

2014-05-01

400

CELL DEATH AND INHIBITION OF POPULATION GROWTH OF MARINE UNICELLULAR ALGAE BY PESTICIDES  

Science.gov (United States)

The marine diatom, Skeletonema costatum, was exposed to the pesticides hexachlorocyclopentadiene, EPN, chlorpyrifos, carbophenothion, and Atrazine and examined for death of cells with Evans blue, a mortal stain. All pesticides caused death of cells, but significant mortality occu...

 
 
 
 
401

77 FR 39640 - Synchronizing the Expiration Dates of the Pesticide Applicator Certificate With the Underlying...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2070-AJ77 Synchronizing the Expiration Dates of the Pesticide Applicator...simplify federal certification expiration dates. Restricted use pesticides...final rule will synchronize the expiration dates on the Federal certificate...

2012-07-05

402

78 FR 11881 - Notice of Receipt of Requests To Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Select Source, LLC, Agent: Wagner Regulatory Associates, Inc., P.O. Box 640, Hockessin...protection, Pesticides and pests. Dated: February 12, 2013. Richard P. Keigwin, Jr., Director, Pesticide Re-Evaluation...

2013-02-20

403

TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR PESTICIDE MANUFACTURING EFFLUENTS: ATRAZINE, MANEB, MSMA, AND ORYZALIN  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of laboratory and pilot studies of the treatability of wastewaters generated by the manufacture of the pesticides maneb, oryzalin, atrazine, and MSMA. Wastewaters were characterized for pesticide content, routine parameters, and toxicity to fish, algae, a...

404

40 CFR 158.2030 - Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Use patterns . Product chemistry data are required for all...biochemical pesticides product chemistry. The test notes are shown...Biochemical Pesticides Product Chemistry Data Requirements Guideline...Notes Product Identity and Composition 880.1100 Product...

2010-07-01

405

40 CFR 158.2081 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Use patterns . Product chemistry data are required for all...biochemical pesticides product chemistry. The test notes are shown...Biochemical Pesticides Product Chemistry Data Requirements Guideline...Notes Product Identity and Composition 880.1100 Product...

2010-07-01

406

HPLC SEPARATION OF CHIRAL ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES ON POLYSACCHARIDE CHIRAL STATIONARY PHASES  

Science.gov (United States)

High-performance liquid chromatographic separation of the individual enantiomers of 12 organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) were obtained on polysaccharide chiral HPLC columns using an alkane-alcohol mobile phase. The OP pesticides were crotoxyphos, dialifor, dyfonate, fenamiphos, ...

407

HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION OF THE ENANTIOMERS OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES ON POLYSACCHARIDE CHIRAL STATIONARY PHASES  

Science.gov (United States)

High-performance liquid chromatographic separation of the individual enantiomers of 12 organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) was obtained on polysaccharide enantioselective HPLC columns using alkane-alcohol mobile phase. The OP pesticides were crotoxyphos, dialifor, fonofos, fenamiph...

408

75 FR 6656 - SFIREG Pesticide Operations and Management Working Committee Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0001; FRL-8811-3] SFIREG Pesticide Operations and Management Working Committee Meeting AGENCY: Environmental...and Evaluation Group (SFIREG), Pesticide Operations and Management (POM) Working Committee will hold a...

2010-02-10

409

COMPARISON OF CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY, RESIDUE LEVELS, AND URINARY METABOLITE EXCRETION OF RATS EXPOSED TO ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES  

Science.gov (United States)

Blood cholinesterase activity, urinary levels of phenolic and organophosphorus metabolites, and residues of intact compounds in blood and fat were determined following exposure of rats to organophosphorus pesticides. The eight pesticides studied included representative halogenate...

410

40 CFR 168.75 - Procedures for exporting unregistered pesticides-purchaser acknowledgement statements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...unregistered pesticides-purchaser acknowledgement statements. 168.75 Section...unregistered pesticides—purchaser acknowledgement statements. This section...with the submission of the purchaser acknowledgement statement to EPA, a...

2010-07-01

411

Ecological investigation of application of pesticides in rice fields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among several pests of rice as one of the main agricultural products in Iran, rice borer, C hilo sarsaparilla is one of the most important pests of this crop. Use of pesticides coincided with the occurrence of this pest in the northern region of Iran in 1972. At present in order to control this pest, more than 12000 tones of pesticides granules are used annually. Ecological effects of pesticides application and the use of Trichograma sp. as a natural enemy, for assessing the impacts of pesticides in environments, especially on different living organisms on the plant, in irrigation water, and in 5 cm depth of surface soil, were investigated in two regions of Amol, named Osk. Mahalleh and Capik Field of Tashbandan. Results indicated that the two treatments were not different on crop loss. One the contrary, in the pesticide treatment, there was a considerable dec tease in the population of living organisms, particularly, no organism was observed in 5 cm depth of surface soil. It is recommended that in order to maintain the balance of environment, the use of chemicals for controlling rice borer must be with extreme care, only in the inevitable was with the use of principles of Integrated Pest Management

412

Development of soybean certified reference material for pesticide residue analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A soybean certified reference material for pesticide residue analysis was developed by the National Metrology Institute of Japan. Three organophosphorus (diazinon, fenitrothion, chlorphyrifos) and one pyrethroid (permethrin) pesticides were sprayed on soybeans three times before harvest. These soybeans were freeze pulverized, homogenized, bottled, and sterilized by ?-irradiation to prepare the candidate material. Three isotope-dilution mass spectrometric methods that varied in terms of the solvents used for extraction of the target pesticides, the clean-up procedure, and the injection techniques and columns used for quantification via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were applied to the characterization. Each target pesticide was quantified by two of these analytical methods, and the results were in good agreement. Homogeneity and stability assessment of the material demonstrated that the relative standard uncertainties due to the inhomogeneity and the instability for an expiry date of 55 months were 1.89-4.00% and 6.65-11.5%, respectively. The certified pesticide concentrations with expanded uncertainties (coverage factor k=2, approximate 95% confidence interval) calculated using the results of the characterization and the homogeneity and stability assessment were 21.7 ± 3.2 ?g/kg for diazinon, 88 ± 21 ?g/kg for fenitrothion, 11.1 ± 3.2 ?g/kg for chlorpyrifos, and 20.1 ± 4.3 ?g/kg for permethrin (as the sum of the constituent isomers). PMID:24401412

Yarita, Takashi; Otake, Takamitsu; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Kuroda, Youko; Numata, Masahiko; Iwata, Hitoshi; Watai, Masatoshi; Mitsuda, Hitoshi; Fujikawa, Takashi; Ota, Hidekazu

2014-02-01

413

Pesticide monitoring in surface water and groundwater using passive samplers  

Science.gov (United States)

Passive samplers as screening devices have been used within a czech national water quality monitoring network since 2002 (SPMD and DGT samplers for non polar substances and metals). The passive sampler monitoring of surface water was extended to polar substances, in 2005. Pesticide and pharmaceutical POCIS samplers have been exposed in surface water at 21 locations and analysed for polar pesticides, perfluorinated compounds, personal care products and pharmaceuticals. Pesticide POCIS samplers in groundwater were exposed at 5 locations and analysed for polar pesticides. The following active substances of plant protection products were analyzed in surface water and groundwater using LC/MS/MS: 2,4,5-T, 2,4-D, Acetochlor, Alachlor, Atrazine, Atrazine_desethyl, Azoxystrobin, Bentazone, Bromacil, Bromoxynil, Carbofuran, Clopyralid, Cyanazin, Desmetryn, Diazinon, Dicamba, Dichlobenil, Dichlorprop, Dimethoat, Diuron, Ethofumesate, Fenarimol, Fenhexamid, Fipronil, Fluazifop-p-butyl, Hexazinone, Chlorbromuron, Chlorotoluron, Imazethapyr, Isoproturon, Kresoxim-methyl, Linuron, MCPA, MCPP, Metalaxyl, Metamitron, Methabenzthiazuron, Methamidophos, Methidathion, Metobromuron, Metolachlor, Metoxuron, Metribuzin, Monolinuron, Nicosulfuron, Phorate, Phosalone, Phosphamidon, Prometryn, Propiconazole, Propyzamide, Pyridate, Rimsulfuron, Simazine, Tebuconazole, Terbuthylazine, Terbutryn, Thifensulfuron-methyl, Thiophanate-methyl and Tri-allate. The POCIS samplers performed very well being able to provide better picture than grab samples. The results show that polar pesticides and also perfluorinated compounds, personal care products and pharmaceuticals as well occur in hydrosphere of the Czech republic. Acknowledgment: Authors acknowledge the financial support of grant No. 2B06095 by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports.

Kodes, V.; Grabic, R.

2009-04-01

414

Methodologies for study of the impact of pollutant pesticides  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays the human population is exposed to the contact and to the ingestion of pesticides located in the food and directly in the environment. The consequences for the long-term humanity, can be alarming. In Mexico, the market of these products has gone expanding constant. As consequences for the use, there are mentioned problems like the decrease of the fertility, increase of types of cancer, congenital malformations, diverse types of allergies, mutations genotípicas, serious problems in the nervous central system, disorders of the immunological human system, between others. For the great variety of chemical substances no existing natives set in, as well as great the number of used pesticides, during an analysis one can present a variety of them, interference in a qualitative and quantitative way in the determination. Therefore, it is necessary to standardize analytical methods paragraph the determination of pesticides, principally consider those that should determine shortly time the presence and level that of the pollutant. The presence and level of the pollutant pesticide is needed for the evaluation of the immediate risks towards the health and the environment (water, soil, sediment, air, vegetation and fauna, principally. It is priority to realize investigations to standardize the methods to determine residues of pesticides, considering principally those who should present a minor price, rapidity in the determination, constant conditions of adsorption, which support a good purification of the extracts of the samples, between others. Being necessary an agreement among instances of government and particular laboratories, to work with the same intention.

Rosío T. Amparán-Salido,

2009-04-01

415

A glyphosate-based pesticide impinges on transcription  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Widely spread chemicals used for human benefits may exert adverse effects on health or the environment, the identification of which are a major challenge. The early development of the sea urchin constitutes an appropriate model for the identification of undesirable cellular and molecular targets of pollutants. The widespread glyphosate-based pesticide affected sea urchin development by impeding the hatching process at millimolar range concentration of glyphosate. Glyphosate, the active herbicide ingredient of Roundup, by itself delayed hatching as judged from the comparable effect of different commercial glyphosate-based pesticides and from the effect of pure glyphosate addition to a threshold concentration of Roundup. The surfactant polyoxyethylene amine (POEA), the major component of commercial Roundup, was found to be highly toxic to the embryos when tested alone and therefore could contribute to the inhibition of hatching. Hatching, a landmark of early development, is a transcription-dependent process. Correlatively, the herbicide inhibited the global transcription, which follows fertilization at the 16-cell stage. Transcription inhibition was dose-dependent in the millimolar glyphosate range concentration. A 1257-bp fragment of the hatching enzyme transcript from Sphaerechinus granularis was cloned and sequenced; its transcription was delayed by 2 h in the pesticide-treated embryos. Because transcription is a fundamental basic biological process, the pesticide mabasic biological process, the pesticide may be of health concern by inhalation near herbicide spraying at a concentration 25 times the adverse transcription concentration in the sprayed microdroplets

416

Parameterization Models for Pesticide Exposure via Crop Consumption  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An approach for estimating human exposure to pesticides via consumption of six important food crops is presented that can be used to extend multimedia models applied in health risk and life cycle impact assessment. We first assessed the variation of model output (pesticide residues per kg applied) as a function of model input variables (substance, crop, and environmental properties) including their possible correlations using matrix algebra. We identified five key parameters responsible for between 80% and 93% of the variation in pesticide residues, namely time between substance application and crop harvest, degradation half-lives in crops and on crop surfaces, overall residence times in soil, and substance molecular weight. Partition coefficients also play an important role for fruit trees and tomato (Kow), potato (Koc), and lettuce (Kaw, Kow). Focusing on these parameters, we develop crop-specific models by parametrizing a complex fate and exposure assessment framework. The parametric models thereby reflectthe framework’s physical and chemical mechanisms and predict pesticide residues in harvest using linear combinations of crop, crop surface, and soil compartments. Parametric model results correspond well with results from the complex framework for 1540 substance-crop combinations with total deviations between a factor 4 (potato) and a factor 66 (lettuce). Predicted residues also correspond well with experimental data previously used to evaluate the complex framework. Pesticide mass in harvest can finally be combined with reduction factors accounting for food processing to estimate human exposure from crop consumption. All parametric models can be easily implemented into existing assessment frameworks.

Fantke, Peter; Wieland, Peter

2012-01-01

417

Screening and evaluation of fruit samples for four pesticide residues.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence of 4 pesticide residues, imidacloprid, carbendazim, methiocarb, and hexythiazox, was assessed in several fruits (oranges, tangerines, watermelons, and date plums) from the Valencian Community (Spain). A total of 227 samples--56 oranges, 134 tangerines, 13 watermelons, and 24 date plums--were taken from an agricultural cooperative representative of the area studied during 2001. The pesticides were determined by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry after sample extraction with ethyl acetate and anhydrous sodium sulfate. Recoveries of 4 pesticides at 2 fortification levels (0.02 and 0.2 mg/kg), the lower of which was the quantification limit, ranged from 60 to 108%. Concentrations of imidacloprid, carbendazim, methiocarb, and hexythiazox ranged from 0.02 to 0.75 mg/kg in 184 samples (54 oranges, 119 tangerines, 3 watermelons, and 8 date plums). Nineteen samples contained methiocarb or hexythiazox residues that exceeded the maximum residue limits. Calculation of the estimated daily intakes of the 4 pesticides studied and their comparison with the Acceptable Daily Intakes established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the World Health Organization demonstrated the safety of fruit consumption and showed the importance of monitoring for pesticide residues. PMID:16001861

Blasco, Cristina; Font, Guillermina; Mañes, Jordi; Picó, Yolanda

2005-01-01

418

Pesticide residue monitoring in Korean agricultural products, 2003-05.  

Science.gov (United States)

Between 2003 and 2005, a total of 11,716 samples were collected and analysed to determine the level of pesticides residues. Multi-residue methods (MRMs) capable of simultaneously determining 250 pesticides were used. Of the 11,716 samples, 89.1% had no detectable residues and 1.7% had violative residues. The detection rates by commodity group were 11.4, 8.6, 0.3, and 0.02% for vegetables, fruit, grain, mushrooms, and the others, respectively. Agricultural products with pesticide residues were pepper, Perilla frutescens, leafy lettuce and spinach in decreasing order. Of the 250 pesticides that were monitored, 70 pesticides were actually found. Procymidone, endosulfan, chlorfenapyr, metalaxyl, and diethofencarb were frequently detected. Of the samples, parsley, Petasites hybridus, Aster scaber and leek had high violative rates of 23.1, 12.6, 8.2, and 7.9%, respectively. From violative samples, procymidone, endosulfan, metalaxyl, diazinon and chlorpyrifos were frequently detected. The violation rates were 1.71, 1.68, and 1.76% in 2003, 2004 and 2005, respectively, and the detection rates were 8.5, 12.0, and 13.3% in 2003, 2004, and 2005, respectively. PMID:24784964

Cho, T H; Kim, B S; Jo, S J; Kang, H G; Choi, B Y; Kim, M Y

2009-01-01

419

Detoxification of Pesticides Aqueous Solution Using Horseradish Peroxidase  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are pesticide residues in agriculture wastewater and that compounds must be removed before discharge of wastewater in native waters. Thus the aim of this study was to remove toxic pesticide in waste water by the addition of horseradish peroxidase enzyme. The process of pesticide (methyl-parathion (O,O-Diethyl- O-4-nitro-phenylthiophosphate, atrazine (1-chloro-3-ethylamino-5-isopropylamino-2,4,6-triazine and triazophos (O,O-diethyl O-1-phenyl-lH-1,2,4- triazol-3-yl phosphorothioate removal from synthetic wastewater using horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide has been analyzed. The technical feasibility of the process was studied using 0.001-3.0 mM synthetic pesticides solutions. Experiments were carried out at different time, HRP and H2O2 dose and pH to determine the optimum removing conditions. The removal of the three pesticides increases with an increase in HRP and hydrogen peroxide dose. The optimum HRP dose is 2.0 U L-1 and 10 mM for H2O2. The contact needed to reach equilibrium was found to be 360 min. Maximum removal was achieved up to 74% at pH 8. Also, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD of the effluent reduced at the end of 6 h from 2111-221 mg L-1 (at pH 8. Tests based upon horseradish peroxidase, at optimized parameters, show the reduction of toxicity to non-toxic levels.

Saad Mohamed El-Said

2013-01-01

420

Development of a fieldable rapid pesticide exposure analysis sensing system  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the recent interest in organically grown foods, most agricultural crops use multiple pesticides to optimize yield. There are many persons whose health may be affected by the spraying; there is the active applicator and the passive neighbors. In between these extremes are the farm workers who pick the crops anywhere from days to weeks after application. How much pesticide residue are these workers exposed to during a workday and how much is transferred back to the residence? Despite the low vapor pressures, what is the true concentration of pesticides surrounding a person when pesticides adsorbed to particulate matter are included? What is the relationship between the concentration around an individual and the amount adsorbed/ingested? To answer these questions on a statistically significant scale in actual field conditions, a portable, fast, inexpensive measurement device is required. We present herein results obtained using Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) that demonstrate the capability to detect < 100 organophosphate, organochlorine and carbamate-based pesticides in the vapor phase as well as the ability of SERS sensors to detect a particular analyte in a synthetic urine matrix. We will also present data collected from CDC quantified urine samples and will present results obtained in a field test wherein SERS sensors wore worn as dosimeters in the field and real-time vapor sampling of the farm workers barracks was performed. The issue of potential interferences will also be discussed.

Spencer, Kevin M.; Clauson, Susan L.; Spencer, Sarah A.; Sylvia, James M.; Vallejos, Quirina M.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
421

Organochlorine pesticides in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Organochlorine (OC) pesticides were measured in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico during 2000-2001. Concentrations of some OC pesticides (DDTs, chlordanes, toxaphene) were elevated compared with levels in the Great Lakes region, while those of other pesticides were not (hexachlorocyclohexanes, dieldrin). While this suggests southern Mexico as a source region for the former group of chemicals, comparably high levels have also been reported in parts of the southern United States, where their suspected sources are soil emissions (DDTs, toxaphene) and termiticide usage (chlordane). Ratios of p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE and trans-chlordane/cis-chlordane/trans-nonachlor (TC/CC/TN) in Chiapas suggest a mixture of fresh and weathered sources, while congener profiles of toxaphene suggest emission of old residues from soils. This is supported by air parcel back trajectory analysis, which indicated that air masses over Chiapas at the time of sampling had previously passed over areas of continuing or recent use of some OC pesticides as well as areas of past use. - Elevated levels of several organochlorine pesticides were found in the ambient air of southern Mexico

422

Reduction of pesticide residues in tomatoes and other produce.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is interest in reducing pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables in order to minimize human exposure. The objectives of this study were to (i) determine the effect of various washing treatments with and without sonication on pesticide removal from tomatoes and (ii) assess the effectiveness of a water wash on select samples using a produce-washing flume. In the first set of experiments, tomatoes were contaminated with acephate, malathion, carbaryl, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, permethrin, cyhalothrin, chlorothalonil, and imidacloprid and were dried overnight. Subsets of the tomatoes were then washed (10°C, 1 min) with one of the following: water, sodium hypochlorite (80 ?g/ml, pH 7), peroxyacetic acid (80 ?g/ml), or Tween 20 (0.1%) with and without sonication. In general, the effect of sonication depended on the washing treatment and on the pesticide. A separate experiment measured pesticide residues in contaminated samples before and after being washed in a flume (22°C, 1 min). Pesticide residues in contaminated produce were reduced from about 40 to 90% when washed for 1 min in the flume. PMID:23462090

Al-Taher, Fadwa; Chen, Yang; Wylie, Philip; Cappozzo, Jack

2013-03-01

423

Laboratory training manual on the use of nuclear techniques in pesticide research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a laboratory training manual on the use of nuclear techniques, and in particular radioisotopes in pesticide research. It is designed to give the scientists involved in pesticide research the basic terms and principles for understanding ionizing radiation: detection and measurement its hazards and safety measures, and some of the more common applications. Laboratory exercises representing the types of experiments that are valuable in pesticide research programmes and field tests which demonstrate the use of radiolabelled pesticides are included

424

Cancer risk and parental pesticide application in children of Agricultural Health Study participants.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Parental exposure to pesticides may contribute to childhood cancer risk. Through the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective study of pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina, we examined childhood cancer risk and associations with parental pesticide application. Identifying information for 17,357 children of Iowa pesticide applicators was provided by parents via questionnaires (1993-1997) and matched against the Iowa Cancer Registry. Fifty incident childhood cancers were identified ...

Flower, Kori B.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Lynch, Charles F.; Blair, Aaron; Knott, Charles; Shore, David L.; Sandler, Dale P.

2004-01-01

425

Overcoming of Soil Contamination with Pesticides in Forest Nurseries Using the Activity of Microorganisms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of pesticides during cultivation of pine seedlings in forest nurseries results in the formation two phenotypes of teratomorph seedlings - conditionally normal and abnormal. Growing forest cultures from teratomorph seedlings leads to their low survival rate. It is known that pesticides and their metabolic products can remain in soil for many years. It is therefore impossible to rely only on natural degradation of pesticides in soil. A promising way of removing pesticides from soil is t...

Freiberg, Irina A.; Stetsenko, Svetlana K.

2010-01-01