WorldWideScience
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77 FR 12727 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...or on imported coffee, green bean...Trifloxystrobin Human Health Risk Assessment...Use on Imported Coffee,'' p.11...which used food consumption information from...from dietary consumption of food and drinking...Organization/World Health Organization...trifloxystrobin on coffee....

2012-03-02

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77 FR 65827 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...Vegetable, root, except sugar beet, subgroup 1B...Vegetable, root, except sugar beet, subgroup 1B...Vegetable, root, except sugar beet, subgroup 1B...certainty that no harm will result from...Trifloxystrobin. Human Health Risk Assessment...Continuing Surveys of Food Intake by...

2012-10-31

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75 FR 33190 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...of Pesticide Programs (OPP) Regulatory...0.038 mg/ Two-Generation UFA = 10x...toxicity. In the two generation reproduction...young rats in the two-generation reproduction...food standards program, and it...

2010-06-11

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Simultaneous determination of tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin, and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid residues in gherkin under field conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

A rapid, simple, and selective analytical method for the simultaneous determination of tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin, and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid residues in gherkin and soil was developed and validated by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile and cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction with primary secondary amine sorbent. The limit of quantification of the method was 0.05 mg/kg for all three compounds. The method was validated using blank samples spiked at three levels and recoveries ranged from 83.5 to 103.8% with a relative standard deviation of 1.2 to 4.8%. The developed method was validated and applied for the analysis of a degradation study sample. The residues of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole were found to dissipate following first-order kinetics with half-life ranging between 3.31-3.38 and 3.0-3.04 days, respectively, for two different dosages. Pesticide residues were below the European Union maximum residue level after seven days for trifloxystrobin (0.2 mg/kg) and ten days for tebuconazole (0.05 mg/kg), which suggested the use of this fungicide mixture to be safe to humans. These results can be utilized in formulating the spray schedule and safety evaluation on trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole in gherkin crop. PMID:25619713

Paramasivam, Mariappan; Selvi, Chellamuthu; Deepa, Manthirachalam; Jayaprakash, Samiyannan A; Chandrasekaran, Subramanian

2015-03-01

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76 FR 69648 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...amino]oxy]methyl]-methyl ester), in or on...exception of apples, oranges and grapes. For these...except for apples, oranges, and grapes which utilized...ethylidene]amino]oxy]methyl]-methyl ester), in or on...

2011-11-09

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77 FR 42654 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerance  

Science.gov (United States)

...amino]oxy]methyl]-methyl ester], in or...exception of apples, oranges and grapes. For these...apples, grapes, and oranges where the average field...ethylidene] amino]oxy]methyl]-methyl ester], in or on...

2012-07-20

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Pesticides.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review is devoted to methods for the determination of residues of pesticides and some related industrial chemicals. Topics include: residue methods, sampling, chromatography, organochlorine pesticides, organophosphorus pesticides, carbamate insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, pyrethrins, fumigants, and related chemicals. (MVL)

Sherma, Joseph

1989-01-01

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Risk assessment of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole residues on Allium cepa l.  

OpenAIRE

A supervised field trial was conducted to study the persistence and therefore to evaluate the risk assessment of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole residues on onion. A combined formulation of trifloxystrobin 25 % + tebuconazole 50% (Nativo 75WG) was applied on onion crop @ 300 and 600 g ha-1, which resulted in active application @ 75.0 and 150.0 g.a.ha-1 with respect to trifloxystrobin and @ 150.0 and 300 g.a.ha-1 with respect to tebuconazole. The average initial deposits of trifloxystrobin ...

Gurmail Singh; Reenu Takker; Gurminder Singh Chahil; Gaganjyot; Sanjay Kumar Sahoo; Balwinder Singh

2014-01-01

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Risk assessment of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole residues on Allium cepa l.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A supervised field trial was conducted to study the persistence and therefore to evaluate the risk assessment of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole residues on onion. A combined formulation of trifloxystrobin 25 % + tebuconazole 50% (Nativo 75WG was applied on onion crop @ 300 and 600 g ha-1, which resulted in active application @ 75.0 and 150.0 g.a.ha-1 with respect to trifloxystrobin and @ 150.0 and 300 g.a.ha-1 with respect to tebuconazole. The average initial deposits of trifloxystrobin on onion were 0.52 and 0.82 mg kg-1 following three applications of Nativo 75 WG at the recommended and the double of the recommended dose, respectively. Similarly, the average initial deposits of tebuconazole were 0.76 and 1.32 mg kg-1 at the two dosages, respectively. The residues dissipated more than 60% at both dosages after 3 days. The half-life (t1/2 of trifloxystrobin was 1.86 and 1.18 days, while for tebuconazole 2.13 and 1.98 days, for single and double dosages, respectively. Mature onion collected at harvest did not reveal the presence of trifloxystrobin or its metabolite, CGA 32113, at a detection limit of 0.05 mg kg-1. An assessment of the intake of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole, resulting from the consumption of onion, and its comparison with acceptable daily intake revealed that recommended application of Nativo 75WG (trifloxystrobin 25%+ tebuconazole 50% is quite safe from the consumer point of view.

Gurmail Singh

2014-09-01

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Track of fate and primary metabolism of trifloxystrobin in rice paddy ecosystem.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trifloxystrobin, a strobilurin fungicide, has been widely applied to control fungal diseases in various crops, especially in rice cultivation. However, its residual profile in rice paddy that was highly linked to its ecological risk still remains poorly understood. To elucidate the fate and primary metabolism of trifloxystrobin in rice paddy, a simple and efficient analytical method was developed using the DisQuE extraction kit combined with GC-?ECD and GC-EI-MS/MS analyses. As a result, methodological recoveries of trifloxystrobin fortified in paddy water, soil and rice straw ranging from 0.005 to 2mgkg(-1) (mgL(-1) for water) were acquired from 87.6% to 109.1% with relative standard deviation (RSD) from 1.9% to 9.5% (n=5), and the limit of detection (LOD, signal to noise (S/N)=3) and the limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N=10) were 6.3×10(-4)mgL(-1) and 2.09×10(-3)mgL(-1), respectively, which indicates the favorable accuracy, precision and sensitivity of the method for effective monitoring of the trace amounts of residual trifloxystrobin in the rice paddy. Furthermore, dissipation of residual trifloxystrobin was in accordance with the first-order rate equation, showing the half-lives from 0.7 to 7.5days, illustrating that trifloxystrobin generally degraded in a rapid rate in the rice paddy. Additionally, trifloxystrobin acid identified as the primary metabolite of trifloxystrobin in the rice paddy via GC-EI-MS/MS analysis was found to be dominantly accumulated in the paddy water and maintained up to 2.41mgL(-1) within 14days, suggesting that long-term and frequent application of this fungicide may pose a high risk towards aquatic organisms in surrounding aqueous ecosystems through paddy drainage. Taken together, our data serve as a useful tool for monitoring residual trifloxystrobin in rice paddy ecosystem and also provide a basis for in-depth understanding of environmental behavior and ecological risk posed by this fungicide. PMID:25770954

Cao, Mengchao; Li, Shuying; Wang, Quansheng; Wei, Peng; Liu, Yanan; Zhu, Guonian; Wang, Mengcen

2015-06-15

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Residue levels and dissipation behaviors for trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole in mango fruit and soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

An evaluation of residue levels of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole was carried out on mango fruits after treatments with the combined formulation, trifloxystrobin (25 % w/w) and tebuconazole (50 % w/w), at standard and double doses of 250?+?500 and 500?+?1000 g a.i. ha(-1), respectively. Extraction and purification of the mango fruit samples were carried out by the QuEChERS method after validating the analytical parameters. Determination of the fungicides was carried out by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) for both fungicides were 0.015 ?g mL(-1) and 0.05 mg kg(-1), respectively. The residue levels of trifloxystrobin for standard and double-dose treatments were 0.492 and 0.901 mg kg(-1) and for tebuconazole were 0.535 and 1.124 mg kg(-1), respectively. A faster dissipation of tebuconazole in mango fruit was observed compared with that for tebuconazole. Dissipation of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole in mango followed first-order kinetics, and the half-lives were 9 and 6 days, respectively. The preharvest intervals (PHI), the time taken for the combined residues of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole to dissipate to their permissible levels (maximum residue limits), were 14 and 20 days for standard and double doses, respectively. At harvest, mature mango fruit and soil were free from fungicide residues. PMID:25663402

Mohapatra, Soudamini

2015-03-01

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Immunoassays for trifloxystrobin analysis. Part II. Assay development and application to residue determination in food.  

Science.gov (United States)

Immunochemical assays constitute complementary analytical methods for small organic molecule determination. We herein describe the characterisation and optimisation of two competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in different formats using monoclonal antibodies to the Quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicide trifloxystrobin. Antibody selectivity was evaluated using a variety of agrochemicals and the main trifloxystrobin metabolite. Acceptable tolerance of the immunoassay to methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile was observed in all cases, whereas a dissimilar influence of buffer pH and ionic strength was found. Moreover, the influence of Tween 20 over the analytical parameters was studied. The limits of detection of the optimised assays were below 0.1 ?g L(-1). Excellent recoveries, even at 10 ?g kg(-1), were obtained when strawberry, tomato, and cucumber samples spiked with trifloxystrobin were analysed. Finally, statistical agreement was found between immunoassay and reference chromatographic results using blind-spiked and in-field treated samples. PMID:24874355

Mercader, Josep V; López-Moreno, Rosario; Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A; Abad-Somovilla, Antonio; Abad-Fuentes, Antonio

2014-11-01

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Dissipation and residues of trifloxystrobin and its metabolite in rice under field conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Residue analysis of trifloxystrobin and its metabolite (CGA 321113) in rice matrices, paddy water, and soil was developed using the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method was used to evaluate the dissipation rate of trifloxystrobin and CGA 321113 in rice seedling, soil, and paddy water as well as the residual level in harvest rice (grain, hull, straw) and soil. The results demonstrated that the dissipation half-lives of trifloxystrobin in rice seedling, soil, and water were 1.9 d to 4.7 d, 0.35 d to 0.54 d, and 0.28 d to 0.51 d, respectively. The final total residue of trifloxystrobin and CGA 321113 was highest in rice hull and lowest in paddy soil. The highest total residues in husked rice, rice hull, straw, and paddy soil at 28 d after spraying were 0.39 mg kg(-1), 3.82 mg kg(-1), 0.29 mg kg(-1), and 0.15 mg kg(-1), respectively. According to the final residue data and the maximum residue limits of trifloxystrobin in rice grain and straw (Codex Alimentarius) and in rice hull (US Environmental Protection Agency), 28 d could be recommended as the preharvest interval for trifloxystrobin application in the rice field. The data show that CGA 321113 constitutes a small amount of the final total residues in rice matrices, whereas it is much higher than its parent compound in soil samples. PMID:25158269

Li, Puyu; Wang, Lin; Hao, Xianghong; Han, Lijun

2014-12-01

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Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for trifloxystrobin in spring onions and globe artichokes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Italy, hereafter referred to as the Evaluating Member State Italy (EMS Italy, received an application from Bayer CropScience to modify the existing MRL for trifloxystrobin in globe artichokes. Belgium, hereafter referred to as the Evaluating Member State Belgium (EMS Belgium, compiled an application to modify the existing MRL for trifloxystrobin in spring onions. In order to accommodate the intended uses of trifloxystrobin on these crops, the Evaluating Member States proposed to raise the existing MRLs for trifloxystrobin from the limit of quantification (LOQ of 0.02 mg/kg to 0.2 mg/kg in globe artichokes and to 0.1 mg/kg in spring onions. The evaluation reports were drafted in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005 and were submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. The available residue trials data confirm the MRL proposals for trifloxystrobin in spring onions and globe artichokes as derived by the Evaluating Member States. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of trifloxystrobin in the commodities under consideration. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the intended use of trifloxystrobin on spring onions and globe artichokes will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

European Food Safety Authority

2012-09-01

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Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for trifloxystrobin in spring onions and globe artichokes  

OpenAIRE

In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, Italy, hereafter referred to as the Evaluating Member State Italy (EMS Italy), received an application from Bayer CropScience to modify the existing MRL for trifloxystrobin in globe artichokes. Belgium, hereafter referred to as the Evaluating Member State Belgium (EMS Belgium), compiled an application to modify the existing MRL for trifloxystrobin in spring onions. In order to accommodate the intended uses of trifloxystrobi...

European Food Safety Authority

2012-01-01

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Potential toxic effect of trifloxystrobin on cellular microstructure, mRNA expression and antioxidant enzymes in Chlorella vulgaris.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the effects of trifloxystrobin that one strobilurin used widely in the world as an effective fungicidal agent to control Asian soybean rust on aquatic unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris. We determined the potential toxic effect of trifloxystrobin on C. vulgaris, and found median inhibition concentration (IC(50)) value 255.58 (95% confidence interval, 207.81-330.29)?gL(-1). In addition, the algal cells were obviously depressed or shrunk at different concentrations by electron microscopy. In the study, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay showed changes in transcript abundances of three photosynthetic genes, psaB, psbC, and rbcL, and one energy gene, ATPs. The results showed that trifloxystrobin reduced the transcript abundances of the three genes and enhanced expression of ATPs after 48 and 96 h. The lowest abundances of psaB, psbC and rbcL transcripts in response to trifloxystrobin exposure were 58%, 79% and 60% of those of the control, respectively. For the potential toxic influences, trifloxystrobin could decrease the soluble protein and total antioxidant contents (T-AOC), and increase superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activity with a gradual concentration-response relationship. Overall, the present study demonstrated that trifloxystrobin could affect the activities of antioxidant enzymes, disrupts photosynthesis in C. vulgaris, and damage cellular structure. PMID:24762415

Shen, Yu-Feng; Liu, Lei; Gong, Yu-Xin; Zhu, Bin; Liu, Guang-Lu; Wang, Gao-Xue

2014-05-01

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Proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in cereals  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in wheat was organised in 2008. The test material was grown in 2007 and treated in the field with 14 pesticides formulations containing the active substances, alpha-cypermethrin, bifentrin, carbendazim, chlormequat, chlorpyrifos-methyl, difenconazole, epoxiconazole, glyphosate, iprodione, malathion, pirimicarb, prochloraz, spiroxamin and trifloxystrobin. After harvest, the test material was additionally spiked in the laboratory with three pesticides, that where the residues were too low, and axozystrobin. In total, 72 laboratories submitted results and z-scores were calculated for all laboratories and pesticides, except for glyphosate where only five laboratories submitted results and summed weighted z-scores were calculated for the laboratories with a sufficient scope. For several pesticides, the submitted results were strongly depending on the extraction procedure and consequently the assigned values were calculated based on part of the results. Acceptable z-scores were obtained by 56-97% of the participants.

Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Christensen, Hanne Bjerre

2009-01-01

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The Landau Stream Mesocosm Facility: pesticide mitigation in vegetated flow-through streams.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vegetated treatment systems have the ability to reduce the risk of adverse effects of nonpoint source pesticide pollution in agricultural surface waters, however, flow-through systems have rarely been evaluated. Peak concentrations of a mixture of two insecticides and two fungicides (Indoxacarb, Tebuconazole, Thiacloprid and Trifloxystrobin) were reduced by more than 90% in 45 m experimental stream mesocosms. Plant density and solubility had the highest explanatory power for the response variable reduction of peak concentration (R² = 0.70, p < 0.001). Optimized vegetated streams can be highly effective in reduction of runoff related pesticide peak concentrations. PMID:23397373

Elsaesser, David; Stang, Christoph; Bakanov, Nikita; Schulz, Ralf

2013-06-01

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Assessment of trifloxystrobin uptake kinetics, developmental toxicity and mRNA expression in rare minnow embryos.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trifloxystrobin (TFS) is the widely used strobilurin fungicide. However, little information is so far available regarding the uptake kinetics and developmental toxicity of TFS to fish. The present study was conducted to investigate the uptake kinetics, potential environment risk and toxicity of TFS on Gobiocypris rarus embryos. Results revealed that increased malformation, decreased body length and heart rate, affected spontaneous movement and swimming speed provide a gradual concentration-dependent manner; values of 144 h LC50 (median lethal concentration) and EC50 (median effective concentration) were 1.11 and 0.86 ?g L(-1). Continuous exposure to TFS resulted in a steady accumulation with no evidence of elimination. Enzyme activities were significantly changed; reactive oxygen species and DNA damage were significantly induced after TFS treatment. Certain genes related to cell apoptosis (p53), metabolism (cyp1a), stress response (hsp70) and blood vessels (vezf1) development were all significantly up-regulated. This is the first study to define uptake kinetics and to focus on behavioral consequences, physiological changes and mRNA expression following TFS exposure in the early life stages of fish. Our results suggest that TFS is highly toxic to fish embryos. PMID:25240160

Zhu, Bin; Liu, Guang-Lu; Liu, Lei; Ling, Fei; Wang, Gao-Xue

2015-02-01

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Emerging pesticide metabolites in groundwater and surface water as determined by the application of a multimethod for 150 pesticide metabolites.  

Science.gov (United States)

A recently developed multimethod for the determination of 150 pesticide metabolites was exemplarily applied to 58 samples of groundwater and surface water. 37 of these metabolites were detected in at least two samples with a concentration ?0.025 ?g/L. The detected metabolites were ranked according to their concentration and frequency of detection. Findings are clearly dominated by metabolites of chloroacetanilide herbicides, but metabolites of sulfonylurea and thiocarbamate herbicides and other herbicides (dichlobenil) together with metabolites of some fungicides (tolylfluanid, chlorothalonil, trifloxystrobin) were also prominent. A number of 17 of the ranked metabolites are denoted as emerging metabolites because no reports on their previous detection in groundwater or surface water were found. Most of them, however, were correctly predicted to occur in the summary reports of the European pesticide approval process. Median total concentrations of the analysed pesticide metabolites summed up to 0.62 ?g/L in groundwater and 0.33 ?g/L in surface waters. While the concentration of the individual metabolites is usually low (<0.1 ?g/L) the diversity of metabolites found in one sample can be large; between two and six metabolites were detected most frequently (maximum of 12 metabolites). Runoff from urban surfaces was investigated in this study and also here previously undetected pesticide (biocide) metabolites were detected. The emerging pesticide metabolites detected in environmental water samples in this study require more extended monitoring. PMID:23863396

Reemtsma, Thorsten; Alder, Lutz; Banasiak, Ursula

2013-10-01

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Rapid gas chromatographic method for the determination of famoxadone, trifloxystrobin and fenhexamid residues in tomato, grape and wine samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trifloxystrobin, fenhexamid and famoxadone belong to the generation of fungicides acting against a broad spectrum of fungi and widely used in Integrated Pest Management strategies in different agricultural crops but mainly in viticulture. In the present work, a gas chromatographic (GC) method for their determination was developed and validated on tomato, grape and wine matrices. The method was based on a simple one step liquid-liquid microextraction with cyclohexane/dichloromethane (9+1, v/v) and determination of fungicides by gas chromatography with nitrogen phosphorous (NP-) and electron capture (EC-) detection, and ion trap mass spectrometry (ITMS) for confirmation. The method was validated by recovery experiments, assessment of matrix effect and calculation of the associated uncertainty. Recoveries for GC-NPD and GC-ECD were found in the range of 81-102% with RSD compound with trifloxystrobin being the most sensitive. The expanded uncertainty, calculated for a sample concentration of 0.10 mg/kg, ranged from 4.8 to 13% for the GC-ECD and from 5.4 to 29% for the GC-NPD. The concentration levels for famoxadone residues found in tomato and grape samples from field experiments were clearly below the EU established MRL values, thus causing no problems in terms of food safety. PMID:16950327

Likas, D T; Tsiropoulos, N G; Miliadis, G E

2007-05-25

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Effectiveness of thiophanate-methyl, trifloxystrobin and vinclozolin on canker caused by Phoma exigua Desm. on ash tree seedlings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years several cases of cankers caused by Phoma exigua on ash tree seedlings have been reported in Belgian nurseries, leading to a total loss of the affected crops. Similar symptoms have been observed on ash tree seedlings elsewhere in Europe, notably in France and in Great Britain, but the pathogenicity was never established. Inoculation and re-isolation tests were therefore undertaken and demonstrated the phytopathogenic character of P. exigua on ash. Moreover the effectiveness of three fungicides (thiophanate-methyl, trifloxystrobin, vinclozolin against stem canker of ash tree seedlings was studied. In vitro tests were conducted to evaluate the ability of these fungicides to inhibit mycelium growth and spore germination. The extent to which they reduced the symptoms was estimated in a field trial. The results of this study allowed to get by the Belgian proper authorities the use extension of thiophanate-methyl for the control of canker caused by P. exigua in forest nurseries.

Cuvelier M.

2006-01-01

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Pesticides residues in the Prochilodus costatus (Valenciennes, 1850) fish caught in the São Francisco River, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine the levels of pesticides in the fish Prochilodus costatus caught in São Francisco River, one of most important rivers in Brazil. Thirty-six fish were captured in three different areas, and samples of the dorsal muscle and pooled viscera were collected for toxicological analysis. We evaluated the presence of 150 different classes of insecticides, fungicides, herbicides and acaricides by multiresidue analysis technique using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), with the limit of detection of 5 ppb. In this study, organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides were detected at the highest levels in the caught fish. Among the 41 organophosphorus pesticides surveyed, nine types were detected (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dichlorvos, disulfoton, ethion, etrimfos, phosalone, phosmet and pyrazophos) in the muscle, viscera pool, or both in 22 (61.1%) fish. Sampled tissues of 20 (55.6%) fish exhibited at least one of the eight evaluated carbamate pesticides and their metabolites: aldicarb, aldicarb sulfoxide, carbaryl, carbofuran, carbosulfan, furathiocarb, methomyl and propoxur. Fungicides (carbendazim, benalaxyl, kresoxim-methyl, trifloxystrobin, pyraclostrobin and its metabolite BF 500 pyraclostrobin), herbicides (pyridate and fluasifop p-butyl), acaricide (propargite) and pyrethroid (flumethrin) were also detected. In conclusion, P. costatus fish caught in the São Francisco River contained residues of 17 different pesticides, in both muscles and the viscera pool, indicating heavy environmental contamination by pesticides in the study area. PMID:25844860

Oliveira, Fabiano A; Reis, Lilian P G; Soto-Blanco, Benito; Melo, Marília M

2015-06-01

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Influence of pesticides on yeasts colonizing leaves.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of nine different pesticides on the growth of yeasts isolated from the leaves of fruit and forest trees was investigated. Four insecticides (with the active ingredients: thiacloprid, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, and thiamethoxam) and five fungicides (with the effective substances: bitertanol, kresoxim-methyl, mancozeb, trifloxystrobin, and cupric oxychloride) were tested. The concentrations of chemicals were those recommended by the manufacturers for the spraying of trees. The yeast strains isolated from the leaves of fruit trees were not sensitive to any of the insecticides. The majority of yeast strains isolated from the leaves of forest trees were either not sensitive or only to a small extent. While Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Pichia anomala were not affected by any insecticide, the strains of Cryptococcus laurentii and Rhodotorula glutinis showed the highest sensitivity. The effects of fungicides on the growth of isolated yeasts were more substantial. The fungicide Dithane DG (mancozeb) completely inhibited the growth of all yeasts. All strains isolated from fruit tree leaves were more resistant to the tested fungicides than those isolated from the leaves of forest trees. The most resistant strains from the leaves of fruit trees belonged to the species Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia anomala, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas Cryptococcus albidus and C. laurentii, originating from the leaves of forest trees, showed the highest sensitivity to fungicides. PMID:22351984

Vadkertiová, Renata; Sláviková, Elena

2011-01-01

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The Pesticide Action Network Pesticide Database  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pesticide Action Network Pesticide Database, maintained by the Pesticide Action Network of North America, provides up-to-date information for those working with or researching pesticides. The site lets users search by chemical name, chemical abstracts service (CAS) number, trade name, or US EPA product registration number to retrieve a selected pesticide's active ingredients, breakdown products, and other chemicals used in it. Also available is California specific pesticide information, toxicity and regulation information, nontoxic alternatives to pesticides, and more.

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Pesticide Safety Tips  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticide Safety Tips Resources Questions On Pesticides? National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) 1-800-858-7378 Although pesticides can be useful, they also can be dangerous if used carelessly ...

27

Pesticides in Groundwater  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticides in Groundwater Care to guess how many pounds of pesticides the Nation used in 1964? How about in 1993? If ... they may cause health problems. Pesticides can contaminate groundwater Pesticide contamination of groundwater is a subject of ...

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Pesticide Poisoning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed that examining the socio-demographic characteristics of the pesticide poisoning cases in Samsun region where the economy mainly relies on agriculture and comparing it to similar studies; thus contributing the country?s data and the possible measures. 60 pesticide poisoning cases consulted OMU Faculty of Medicine between 01.01.2004 and 31.12.2004 are examined and achieved data are analyzed and presented. Of the 60 cases, 35 (58.3% are females and 25 (41.7 are males and the average age is 21.93 ±17.56 (1-63 years. Pesticide poisoning is most common in summer (55.0% and spring (25.0%. It is stated either by the person himself/herself or by his/her relatives that the intake of the toxic substance is accidental in 36 cases (60.0% and suicidal in 24 cases (40.0%. 25 cases (41.7% are poisoned with organic phosphorus pesticides and 12 cases (20.0% with carbamat-pesticides. Consequently, in order to prevent accidental pesticide poisoning, it is necessary to be very careful with pesticide application especially in rural areas. Substances that are least toxic to human and environment, and are licenced and most effective to pests must be used, spraying period must be short, sensitive people, especially children, must be kept away, personal precautions must be taken for the spraying person and pesticides must be kept away from the reach of children and people at risk. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(3: 169-174

Neva Sataloglu

2007-06-01

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Residues of the quinone outside inhibitor fungicide trifloxystrobin after postharvest dip treatments to control Penicillium spp. on citrus fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effectiveness of postharvest dip treatment with trifloxystrobin (TFX) or imazalil (IMZ) was compared for controlling green and blue mold (caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively) of citrus fruit. Residues retained by fruit were determined as a function of treatment time, dip temperature, and storage conditions. Trials on 'Avana apireno' mandarin oranges artificially inoculated with P. digitatum or P. italicum revealed that treatments with 200 to 600 mg/liter active ingredient TFX at 20 degrees C were less effective than 100 mg/liter TFX at 500C for controlling P. digitatum but equally effective for controlling P. italicum. IMZ treatments with 200 mg/liter IMZ at 20 degrees C or 25 mg/liter IMZ at 50 degrees C resulted in more than 98% reduction of P. digitatum and ca. 93% reduction of P. italicum compared with untreated fruit. Total suppression of pathogens was achieved when higher IMZ doses were applied. Studies on artificially wounded lemons, oranges, clementines, and mandarins revealed that treatment with 100 mg/liter TFX at 50 degrees C effectively controlled decay development (mainly due to P. digitatum) after 7 days of storage at 20 degrees C. These results were confirmed on nonwounded oranges of cv. Tarocco and on grapefruits of cvs. Marsh Seedless and Star Ruby during 3 weeks of simulated quarantine at 1 degrees C, storage (5 weeks at 8 degrees C for oranges and 8 weeks at 11degrees C for grapefruits), and an additional 1 week of simulated marketing conditions at 20 degrees C. IMZ at 50 degrees C was highly effective for controlling decay during storage and the simulated marketing period. TFX treatment at 50 degrees C was as effective as IMZ for controlling decay in most samples. After treatment with 100 mg/liter TFX at 20 degrees C, fungicide residues in 'Tarocco' oranges doubled from 0.15 mg/kg to 0.30 mg/kg when dip time increased from 0.5 to 3 min, whereas when treatments were performed at 50 degrees C TFX residues were not related to dipping time. Residues of TFX were significantly correlated with dip temperature. A 3-min dip treatment at 50 degrees C resulted in a deposition of TFX that was approximately twofold higher than that obtained when treatments were carried out at 20 degrees C. PMID:16865899

Schirra, Mario; D'Aquino, Salvatore; Palma, Amedeo; Angioni, Alberto; Cabras, Paolo; Migheli, Quirico

2006-07-01

30

Removal of pesticides from white wine by the use of fining agents and filtration.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of four clarification agents (bentonite, charcoal, PVPP and potassium caseinate) on the removal of residues of three fungicides (famoxadone, fluquinconazole and trifloxystrobin) applied directly to a racked white wine, elaborated from Airen variety grapes from the D.O. Region of Jumilla (Murcia, Spain) are studied. The clarified wines were filtered with 0.45 microm nylon filters to determine the influence of this winemaking process in the disappearance of fungicide residues. Hydro-alcoholic solutions with the three fungicides at concentrations of 1 and 2 ppm were then added through intense stirring to each of the containers. Two hours later, the corresponding clarifying agent was added with intense stirring for some minutes. The containers were then sealed and left to settle for five days. Once the clean wines had been racked, they were filtered through nylon 0.45 microm pore filters. All assays were performed three times. Analytical determination of fluquinconazole and trifloxystrobin was performed by gas chromatography with an electron captor detector (ECD), while that of famoxadone was made using an HPLC-DAD. For the three fungicides, the highest elimination is produced with the clarification by charcoal, reaching Levels of removal of 100% in all cases. For the four clarifying agents, the highest elimination is produced for the fluquinconazole residues. The fungicide which is retained most in the lees is famoxadone, since it has the lowest solubility of the three pesticides studied. The highest percentage of residues in the lees is obtained for the assay with charcoal. The filtration process of the clarified wines using the four agents studied is not effective, since the elimination percentage is generally lower than 10% of the initial residues in the non-clarified wines. PMID:18399438

Oliva, J; Payá, P; Cámara, M A; Barba, A

2007-01-01

31

Pesticides (Environmental Health Student Portal)  

Science.gov (United States)

... pesticides, and the balance between the risks and benefits of using pesticides. Chemicals: Messing Around in Nature's ... dictionaries, and various organizations concerning pesticides. Pesticides and Food: Health Problems Pesticides May Pose (U.S. Environmental Protection ...

32

National Pesticide Information Center  

Science.gov (United States)

National Pesticide Information Center npic@ace.orst.edu 1.800.858.7378 Index A B C D E F ... Your Pest Control Your Pest Integrated Pest Management Pesticide Ingredients Active Ingredients Other/Inert Ingredients Pesticide Products ...

33

What Is a Pesticide?  

Science.gov (United States)

... killers. Some swimming pool chemicals. What is the balance between the risks and benefits of pesticides? By ... substances are not regulated as pesticides? The U.S. definition of pesticides is quite broad, but it does ...

34

Safe Storage of Pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

Safe Storage of Pesticides Esta página Web está disponible en español Improper pesticide storage and disposal can be hazardous to human health ... Follow these safety recommendations: Don't stockpile. Reduce storage needs by buying only the amount of pesticide ...

35

Transporte de agrotóxicos em lavoura de arroz irrigado sob três manejos de irrigação Pesticide transport in rice field under three irrigation managements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O cultivo de arroz irrigado no Rio Grande do Sul caracteriza-se pela permanência de lâmina de irrigação sobre o solo, o que ocasiona perdas de agrotóxicos na ocorrência de chuvas; portanto, o adequado manejo de irrigação pode influenciar na redução do transporte destes para o ambiente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes manejos de irrigação no extravasamento da água e no transporte e persistência de clomazone, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, trifloxystrobin e propiconazol em lavoura de arroz irrigado. Os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial consistiram nos manejos de irrigação por inundação contínua, intermitente e por banhos (fator A e pelos agrotóxicos mencionados (fator B. Determinou-se o volume total de água extravasada e a taxa de dissipação e transporte desses agrotóxicos. Devido ao maior armazenamento de água da chuva, quando comparadas com a irrigação contínua, as irrigações intermitente e por banhos proporcionaram diminuição de 53 e 95% do volume de água perdida, resultando, respectivamente, em redução de 49 e 64% na massa total de agrotóxicos transportados para o ambiente, em relação ao total aplicado na lavoura. A massa de agrotóxico transportada não ultrapassou 3% do total aplicado, e as maiores concentrações de agrotóxicos em água ocorreram próximo à sua aplicação. Com base nesses resultados, salienta-se que os manejos de irrigação intermitente e por banhos minimizam o transporte de agrotóxicos para o ambiente.Rice crop in the state of Rio Grande do Sul is characterized by the presence of water layer on the soil, which can cause pesticide runoff during the occurrence of rainfall. Thus, proper irrigation management can reduce pesticide transport into the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different irrigation managements on water runoff, transport and dissipation of clomazone, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, trifloxystrobin, and propiconazol. The treatments were arranged in a factorial scheme and consisted of continuous flooding, intermittent flooding, and flushing irrigation (factor A and by the application of the pesticides listed above (factor B. Total water runoff, and pesticide transport and dissipation rate were evaluated. Due to the larger rainfall storage, compared with continuous flooding, intermittent flooding and flushing irrigation provided a reduction of 53 and 95% of water runoff, resulting, respectively, in a reduction of 49 and 64% of the total mass transported into the environment in relation to the total applied in the field. The pesticide mass transported was lower than 3% of the total amount applied. Based on these results, it could be concluded that intermittent flooding and flushing irrigation minimize pesticide transport into the environment.Since the highest pesticide concentrations occur close to application time, it is of fundamental importance to conduct proper irrigation management providing maximum permanence in the environment.

L.F.D. Martini

2012-12-01

36

Pesticide poisoning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acute poisoning with pesticides is a global public health problem and accounts for as many as 300,000 deaths worldwide every year. The majority of deaths occur due to exposure to organophosphates, organochlorines and aluminium phosphide. Organophosphate compounds inhibit acetylcholinesterase resulting in acute toxicity. Intermediate syndrome can develop in a number of patients and may lead to respiratory paralysis and death. Management consists of proper oxygenation, atropine in escalating doses and pralidoxime in high doses. It is Important to decontaminate the skin while taking precautions to avoid secondary contamination of health personnel. Organochlorine pesticides are toxic to the central nervous system and sensitize the myocardium to catecholamines. Treatment involves supportive care and avoiding exogenous sympathomimetic agents. Ingestion of paraquat causes severe inflammation of the throat, corrosive injury to the gastrointestinal tract, renal tubular necrosis, hepatic necrosis and pulmonary fibrosis. Administration of oxygen should be avoided as it produces more fibrosis. Use of immunosuppressive agents have improved outcome in patients with paraquat poisoning. Rodenticides include thallium, superwarfarins, barium carbonate and phosphides (aluminium and zinc phosphide). Alopecia is an atypical feature of thallium toxicity. Most exposures to superwarfarins are harmless but prolonged bleeding may occur. Barium carbonate Ingestion can cause severe hypokalaemia and respiratory muscle paralysis. Aluminium phosphide is a highly toxic agent with mortality ranging from 37% to 100%. It inhibits mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase and leads to pulmonary and cardiac toxicity. Treatment is supportive with some studies suggesting a beneficial effect of magnesium sulphate. Pyrethroids and insect repellants (e.g. diethyltoluamide) are relatively harmless but can cause toxic effects to pulmonary and central nervous systems. Ethylene dibromide-a highly toxic, fumigant pesticide-produces oral ulcerations, followed by liver and renal toxicity, and is almost uniformly fatal. Physicians working in remote and rural areas need to be educated about early diagnosis and proper management using supportive care and antidotes, wherever available. PMID:18085124

Goel, Ashish; Aggarwal, Praveen

2007-01-01

37

78 FR 63938 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...  

Science.gov (United States)

...40 CFR part 180 for residues of the fungicide trifloxystrobin...cleanup procedures and determination by GC-NPD. A newer...40 CFR part 180 for residues of the herbicide saflufenacil...is established for residues of the insecticide prallethrin,...

2013-10-25

38

Towards the field-scale experiments and numerical modeling of pesticides in tropical soils  

Science.gov (United States)

Intensive use of pesticides in agriculture inevitably poses an increased threat to groundwater. Recent findings of pesticide residues in selected drinking water wells in Hawaii brings further attention to this problem since the primary source for potable water in Hawaii is groundwater from basal or dike-confined aquifers. A challenging research project was carried out at the University of Hawaii to elucidate potential impacts of selected pesticides on groundwater and to understand pesticide behavior in tropical soils. The major outcome of the project will be a recommendation to the Hawaii Department of Agriculture whether to restrict or approve these pesticide products entering Hawaii's agricultural market. Three sites on Oahu, one on Maui, and one on Kauai were selected for field evaluation of leaching. The soil types on Oahu are Wahiawa Oxisol (Poamoho), Molokai Oxisol (Kunia), and Waialua Vertisol (Waimanalo). The soil at Kula, Maui is an andisol (loam of Kula series) and that at Mana, Kauai is a Vertisol of Malama series. Three herbicides (S-metolachlor, imazaquin, sulfometuron methyl), one fungicide (trifloxystrobin), and one insecticide (imidacloprid) were used in our study. In addition, a commonly used herbicide (atrazine) and potassium bromide tracer were applied as reference chemicals. After spraying, the plots were covered with straw to decrease evaporation from bare soil surface and irrigated with aerial sprinklers for a period of 16 weeks. Disturbed soil samples from various depths were taken at regular intervals for pesticide analysis. Water flow dynamics was monitored with TDR probes and tensiometers installed at three depths. Weather data were acquired simultaneously. In-situ measurements of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity were done using a tension disc infiltrometer. Laboratory experiments of soil-water retention, as well as degradation, sorption, and column displacement experiments for the selected pesticides were conducted. Hence, comprehensive a database for mathematical modeling of the pesticide transport was obtained. Results so far indicate that S-metolachlor showed its low leachability and short decay half-life. On the other hand, imidacloprid exhibited its low sorption ability with higher leaching potential and longer half-life. Likewise, transport of bromide seems to be controlled by soil hydrologic properties and water application rates.

Dusek, J.; Ray, C.; Sanda, M.; Vogel, T.; Green, R.; Loo, B.

2004-12-01

39

Groundbreaking Pesticide Ban  

Science.gov (United States)

Learn how one child's willingness to share her experience of life-threatening exposure to lawn pesticides helped inspire a citywide ban of pesticides for lawn or garden use, in this video segment adapted from Playing with Poison.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2011-07-01

40

Pesticides and Pregnancy  

Science.gov (United States)

... What if I am exposed to pesticides while breastfeeding? Pesticides may be found in breast milk, but ... CJ et al. 2013. Effects of metformin-diet intervention before and throughout pregnancy on obstetric and neonatal ...

41

Pesticide Fact Sheets  

Science.gov (United States)

... Page —> NPIC Publications —> Pesticide Fact Sheets Pesticide Fact Sheets NPIC fact sheets are designed to answer questions ... will need Adobe Reader . What Type of Fact Sheets Does NPIC Produce? Active Ingredient Fact Sheets Active ...

42

Pesticide Instrumental Analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This workshop was the evaluation of the pesticides impact on the vegetable matrix with the purpose to determine the analysis by GC / M S. The working material were lettuce matrix, chard and a mix of green leaves and pesticides.

43

Introduction to Pesticide Drift  

Science.gov (United States)

... Drift Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Introduction to Pesticide Drift Pesticide spray drift is the ... and Toxics Sustainable Practices Water Laws & Regulations By Business Sector By Topic Compliance Enforcement Laws and Executive ...

44

Pesticides poisoning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pesticides are chemical toxicants which are used to kill by their toxic actions, the pest organisms, known to incur significant economic losses or threaten human life, his health and that of his domesticated animals. These toxicants are seldom species-specific. The presence of these or their metabolites may scientific be vouched not only in the environment they are used, but in the entire ecosystem, in the subsoil, in the underwater reservoirs and in the food chain of all non-target species including man, his friends i.e. predator and parasite organisms which be uses against the pests, and in his cherished domesticated animals. In the present paper a survey is made of different groups of toxic chemicals generally used to manage pests, in the ecosystem, food chain and tissues and body parts of non-target species including man and the ones dear to him. Toxicology and biochemistry of these toxic materials and their important metabolites are also briefly discussed with special reference to ways and means through which these poison the above non-target species. (author)

45

Pesticide exposure - Indian scene  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. India started pesticide production with manufacturing plant for DDT and benzene hexachloride (BHC) (HCH) in the year 1952. In 1958, India was producing over 5000 metric tonnes of pesticides. Currently, there are approximately 145 pesticides registered for use, and production has increased to approximately 85,000 metric tonnes. Rampant use of these chemicals has given rise to several short-term and long-term adverse effects of these chemicals. The first report of poisoning due to pesticides in India came from Kerala in 1958 where, over 100 people died after consuming wheat flour contaminated with parathion. Subsequently several cases of pesticide-poisoning including the Bhopal disaster have been reported. Despite the fact that the consumption of pesticides in India is still very low, about 0.5 kg/ha of pesticides against 6.60 and 12.0 kg/ha in Korea and Japan, respectively, there has been a widespread contamination of food commodities with pesticide residues, basically due to non-judicious use of pesticides. In India, 51% of food commodities are contaminated with pesticide residues and out of these, 20% have pesticides residues above the maximum residue level values on a worldwide basis. It has been observed that their long-term, low-dose exposure are increasingly linked to human health effects such as immune-suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intellion, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities, and cancer. In this light, problems of pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, use of biotechnology, and biopesticides, and use of pesticides obtained from natural plant sources such as neem extracts are some of the future strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides

46

Pesticide National Synthesis Project  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pesticide National Synthesis Project homepage offers a number of publications and reports on pesticides in the Hydrologic System. The site also features data sets, national maps of pesticide use, and some special topic reports, as well as information on the Project and its staff.

47

Application of liquid chromatography with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry to the determination of a new generation of pesticides in processed fruits and vegetables.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a method for the sensitive and selective determination of 24 new pesticide residues (azoxystrobin, trifloxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl, fenazaquin, indoxacarb, fenothiocarb, furathiocarb, benfuracarb, imidachloprid, dimethomorph, fenpyroximate, hexythiazox, tebufenpyrad, tebufenozide, difeconazole, fenbuconazole, flusilazole, paclobutrazol, tebuconazole, tetraconazole, bromuconazole, etofenprox, fenhexamid, pyridaben) in apple puree, concentrated lemon juice and tomato puree. A miniaturized extraction-partition procedure requiring small amounts of non-chlorinated solvents was used. The extracts are analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) without any further clean-up step. The pesticides are separated on a reversed-phase polar column using a gradient elution. Fifty-five simultaneous MS-MS transitions of precursor ions were monitored (two or three for each pesticide). Studies at fortification levels of 0.001-0.020 and 0.010-0.200 mg/kg gave mean recoveries ranging from 76 to 106% for all compounds, except for imidacloprid, with (R.S.D.s) commercial fruit products (nectars, juices, purees) were analyzed. None of samples contained residues higher than 0.010 mg/kg. PMID:15146917

Sannino, Anna; Bolzoni, Luciana; Bandini, Mirella

2004-05-21

48

POEM: PESTICIDE ORCHARD ECOSYSTEM MODEL  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pesticide Orchard Ecosystem Model (POEM) is a mathematical model of organophosphate pesticide movement in an apple orchard ecosystem. In addition submodels on invertebrate population dynamics are included. The fate model allows the user to select the pesticide, its applicatio...

49

Ban of Neonicotinoid Pesticides  

OpenAIRE

European Union (EU) has banned the use of three pesticides: clothianidin, thiamethoxam and imidacloprid in bee attractive crops. These pesticides all belong to a pesticide group called neonicotinoids, and they are believed to be a contributing factor in the declining bee population. The ban was enforced in EU the 1st of December 2013. Neonicotinoids (clothianidin and thiamethoxam) are an important part of the control of pests in oilseed rape production in Danish agriculture. The neonicotinoid...

Inthasen, Prapaporn

2014-01-01

50

Desenvolvimento de métodos analíticos para determinação de agrotóxicos em sedimentos por cromatografia gasosa monodimensional e bidimensional abrangente com micro detector de captura de elétrons Development of analytical methods for pesticides in sediments by monodimensional and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro electron-capture detection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of analytical methods for determination of eight pesticides of different chemical classes (trichlorfon, propanil, fipronil, propiconazole, trifloxystrobin, permethrin, difenoconazole and azoxystrobin in sediments with gas chromatography-micro-electron capture detector (GC/µECD and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detector (GCxGC/µECD is described. These methods were applied to real sediment samples, and the best results were obtained using a 5% diphenyl-methylpolysiloxane column for 1D-GC. For GCxGC the same column was employed in the first dimension and a 50%-phenyl-methylpolysiloxane stationary phase was placed in the second dimension. Due to the superior peak capacity and selectivity of GCxGC, interfering matrix peaks were separated from analytes, showing a better performance of GCxGC.

Juliana Macedo da Silva

2010-01-01

51

Health effects of pesticides  

OpenAIRE

Tea industry is one of the most important agro-industry of the country. Wide scale use of pesticides in tea cultivation to protect the crops from insect and fungus has led to buildup of their residues in several parts of tea plant, and around the area. Some of the pesticides are toxic and injurious to health and affect the environment. In India, a large member of pesticides have been registered for use in tea cultivation. But only few are being used currently and for which maximum residue lev...

Seth, P. K.

2003-01-01

52

Pesticide-Exposure Matrix  

Science.gov (United States)

The "Pesticide-exposure Matrix" was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years.

53

Pesticides: Protecting Workers  

Science.gov (United States)

... to mitigate risks associated with the use of older pesticides while preserving their benefits. In many cases, EPA made significant changes to increase protection for workers as part of the reregistration process. More recently, ...

54

Transporte de agrotóxicos em lavoura de arroz irrigado sob três manejos de irrigação / Pesticide transport in rice field under three irrigation managements  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O cultivo de arroz irrigado no Rio Grande do Sul caracteriza-se pela permanência de lâmina de irrigação sobre o solo, o que ocasiona perdas de agrotóxicos na ocorrência de chuvas; portanto, o adequado manejo de irrigação pode influenciar na redução do transporte destes para o ambiente. O objetivo de [...] ste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes manejos de irrigação no extravasamento da água e no transporte e persistência de clomazone, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, trifloxystrobin e propiconazol em lavoura de arroz irrigado. Os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial consistiram nos manejos de irrigação por inundação contínua, intermitente e por banhos (fator A) e pelos agrotóxicos mencionados (fator B). Determinou-se o volume total de água extravasada e a taxa de dissipação e transporte desses agrotóxicos. Devido ao maior armazenamento de água da chuva, quando comparadas com a irrigação contínua, as irrigações intermitente e por banhos proporcionaram diminuição de 53 e 95% do volume de água perdida, resultando, respectivamente, em redução de 49 e 64% na massa total de agrotóxicos transportados para o ambiente, em relação ao total aplicado na lavoura. A massa de agrotóxico transportada não ultrapassou 3% do total aplicado, e as maiores concentrações de agrotóxicos em água ocorreram próximo à sua aplicação. Com base nesses resultados, salienta-se que os manejos de irrigação intermitente e por banhos minimizam o transporte de agrotóxicos para o ambiente. Abstract in english Rice crop in the state of Rio Grande do Sul is characterized by the presence of water layer on the soil, which can cause pesticide runoff during the occurrence of rainfall. Thus, proper irrigation management can reduce pesticide transport into the environment. The objective of this study was to eval [...] uate the effect of different irrigation managements on water runoff, transport and dissipation of clomazone, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, trifloxystrobin, and propiconazol. The treatments were arranged in a factorial scheme and consisted of continuous flooding, intermittent flooding, and flushing irrigation (factor A) and by the application of the pesticides listed above (factor B). Total water runoff, and pesticide transport and dissipation rate were evaluated. Due to the larger rainfall storage, compared with continuous flooding, intermittent flooding and flushing irrigation provided a reduction of 53 and 95% of water runoff, resulting, respectively, in a reduction of 49 and 64% of the total mass transported into the environment in relation to the total applied in the field. The pesticide mass transported was lower than 3% of the total amount applied. Based on these results, it could be concluded that intermittent flooding and flushing irrigation minimize pesticide transport into the environment.Since the highest pesticide concentrations occur close to application time, it is of fundamental importance to conduct proper irrigation management providing maximum permanence in the environment.

L.F.D., Martini; L.A., Avila; G.V., Cassol; R., Zanella; S.L.O., Machado; M.S., Marques; M., De Vicari.

2012-12-01

55

[Neurotoxicology of pesticides].  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticides have been used for many years for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating pests such as insects, rodents, and weeds. However, most pesticides are not completely specific for pests and can also induce damage to the human nervous system. In particular, insecticides often directly targets the nervous system by affecting major targets such as the neuro-transmitter metabolism, neuronal receptors, and ion channels; acetylcholine (ACh) esterase for organo-phosphates and carbamates, nicotinic ACh receptor for neonicotinoids, ?-aminobutyric acid receptors/chloride channels for organochlorides and fipronil, and voltage-gated sodium channel for pyrethroids. Additional targets include sites in the sodium channels, glutamate-gated chloride channels, and octopamine and ryanodine receptors. Several pesticides also produce adverse neurological effects indirectly by disrupting the general cellular mechanisms that support the high metabolic activity of the nervous system. Nowadays, more potent pesticides are being developed as replacements for the older, harmful ones. Pesticide neurotoxicity in humans may involve the central or peripheral nervous system or both and may induce typical neuronal damage in case of acute poisoning even by new agents. However, whether effect of exposure to pesticides at below acute-poisoning threshold level remains unclear. Moreover, neurotoxicology for behavioral and higher-brain function remains an unresolved and a challenging problem. PMID:25585434

Ichikawa, Hiroo

2015-01-01

56

Reducing the impact of pesticides on biological control in Australian vineyards: pesticide mortality and fecundity effects on an indicator species, the predatory mite Euseius victoriensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Laboratory bioassays on detached soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., leaves were used to test 23 fungicides, five insecticides, two acaricides, one herbicide, and two adjuvants on a key Australian predatory mite species Euseius victoriensis (Womersley) in "worst-case scenario" direct overspray assays. Zero- to 48-h-old juveniles, their initial food, and water supply were sprayed to runoff with a Potter tower; spinosad and wettable sulfur residues also were tested. Tests were standardized to deliver a pesticide dose comparable with commercial application of highest label rates at 1,000 liter/ha. Cumulative mortality was assessed 48 h, 4 d, and 7 d after spraying. Fecundity was assessed for 7 d from start of oviposition. No significant mortality or fecundity effects were detected for the following compounds at single-use application at 1,000 liter/ha: azoxystrobin, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subsp. kurstaki, captan, chlorothalonil, copper hydroxide, fenarimol, glyphosate, hexaconazole, indoxacarb, metalaxyl/copper hydroxide, myclobutanil, nonyl phenol ethylene oxide, phosphorous acid, potassium bicarbonate, pyraclostrobin, quinoxyfen, spiroxamine, synthetic latex, tebufenozide, triadimenol, and trifloxystrobin. Iprodione and penconazole had some detrimental effect on fecundity. Canola oil as acaricide (2 liter/100 liter) and wettable sulfur (200 g/100 liter) had some detrimental effect on survival and fecundity and cyprodinil/fludioxonil on survivor. The following compounds were highly toxic (high 48-h mortality): benomyl, carbendazim, emamectin benzoate, mancozeb, spinosad (direct overspray and residue), wettable sulfur (> or = 400 g/100 liter), and pyrimethanil; pyrimethanil had no significant effect on fecundity of surviving females. Indoxacarb safety to E. victoriensis contrasts with its toxicity to key parasitoids and chrysopid predators. Potential impact of findings is discussed. PMID:21309226

Bernard, Martina B; Cole, Peter; Kobelt, Amanda; Horne, Paul A; Altmann, James; Wratten, Stephen D; Yen, Alan L

2010-12-01

57

The Lasting Threat of Pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past several weeks, a plethora of news articles have featured pesticides: the recent findings that amniotic fluids (which surround a fetus in the womb) contain detectable levels of pesticides in 30% of tested women; the fact that, in addition to the already-established link to cancers, pesticide exposure during pregnancy may also be linked to child learning disabilities, such as Hyperactivity or Attention Deficit Disorder; and the initiation of a multi-agency proposal to impose a sales tax on agricultural chemicals, such as pesticides and insecticides. Despite continued controversy over the real health effects of pesticides, few argue about the global increase in pesticide use. With the increase in pesticide use, there is a concomitant increase in the amount of unused, stored (or more accurately, abandoned) pesticides. This week's In The News addresses the fate of unused pesticides -- the several hundred thousand tons of obsolete, dangerous pesticides that currently plague several countries around the globe. Many of these obsolete pesticides were banned from use after import, were oversupplied or sent as duplicate supplies by aid agencies, or were inappropriate for local use. The nine resources listed provide background information and scientific resources on pesticides and the obsolete pesticide problem.

Payne, Laura X.

58

77 FR 74003 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With...  

Science.gov (United States)

...mold-related'' pesticide products. Mold-related pesticides are antimicrobial...label claim to inhibit or destroy mold or mildew growth on hard, nonporous and porous surfaces...hereinafter referred to as ``mold-related...

2012-12-12

59

Pesticide Action Network UK  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pesticide Action Network UK (PAN UK) is a nonprofit organization that "promotes healthy food, agriculture and an environment which will provide food and meet public health needs without dependence on toxic chemicals, and without harm to food producers and agricultural workers.� Through its website, PAN UK offers a number of downloadable publications including briefings; fact sheets for active ingredients like aldicarb, cypermethrin, methyl parathion, and paraquat; monthly gardening tips, and annual reviews. Site visitors can also search for pesticide-related images and numerous publication listings through the website's Photographic Database and Research Database. The site also contains pesticide-related news, press releases, and information about PAN UK activities in the United Kingdom, Europe, and around the world. Many related links are included as well in such categories as Conferences, Consumer Links, Databases & Resources, Integrated Pest Management, and more.

60

Pesticide personal protective clothing.  

Science.gov (United States)

A fairly large established data base provides information on clothing worn by U.S. and Canadian farmers to work with pesticides, their attitudes and beliefs about pesticide risk, and clothing as a dermal barrier. Very limited similar data are available for farmers in less developed countries. Clearly, farmers perceive the benefits of pesticides to far exceed any risks. While few report poisoning symptoms, most believe that their usual work clothing offers a sufficient pesticide barrier, and few wear special-purpose protective clothing. Gloves of various materials, including cotton and leather, appear to be the major protective clothing item. Although farmers feel that their usual work clothing provides excellent protection, fabric penetration research does not support this. Shirting-weight fabrics offer some limited protection against light spray of field-strenght pesticides. Heavier-weight fabrics, such as denim and twill, are better barriers. With a heavier spray or a spill, usual work clothing does not give sufficient protection. Greater protection can usually be achieved with the use of a fluorocarbon finished fabric, such as Scotchgard or Zepel. Scotchgard can readily be applied at home. A durable-press finish does not appear to improve fabric's pesticide-barrier resistance and some data suggest that it may decrease barrier properties. A second alternative for increased protection is the use of a special-purpose fabric, such as a coated nonwoven or possibly Gore-Tex. Numerous other new "waterproof breathable" fabrics have recently come to the market. Many of these are finished or coated fabrics and one would expect them to be at least somewhat resistant to pesticides. However, they have not been tested. Wearing an additional layer also appears to be another clothing strategy to minimize exposure. Fabric penetration research also shows that pesticide formulation, volume or spray regime, concentration, and active ingredients influence the barrier properties of fabrics. Clothing evaluation studies have shown that protective clothing and coveralls of various materials and designs were effective in reducing exposure. Results of some of these studies suggested that the farmer's typical work clothing was more effective than fabric penetration results suggested. This apparent conflict is not surprising, given the methods used in both types of research. The field studies use pads placed in various areas under the clothing. This method assumes that exposure is uniform over entire body regions. But fluorescent tracer research has shown that this is not a valid assumption (DeJonge et al. 1985; Fenske 1988). Also, the way in which the pads are attached may make a difference, although no research has examined this issue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1771275

Branson, D H; Sweeney, M

1991-01-01

61

On the paradox of pesticides  

CERN Document Server

The paradox of pesticides was observed experimentally, which says that pesticides may dramatically increase the population of a pest when the pest has a natural predator. Here we use a mathematical model to study the paradox. We find that the timing for the application of pesticides is crucial for the resurgence or non-resurgence of the pests. In particular, regularly applying pesticides is not a good idea as also observed in experiments. In fact, the best time to apply pesticides is when the pest population is reasonably high.

Li, Y Charles

2013-01-01

62

Illegal Pesticide Products  

Science.gov (United States)

... Versions imported from such countries as England and Australia often give doses in metric units, which can cause Americans to accidentally over-dose or under-dose pets. Read more about counterfeit pesticide products for dogs and cats . Retailer information about ...

63

PESTICIDE SCREENING RESULTS FROM EIGHT DAYCARE CENTERS  

Science.gov (United States)

To improve assessments of children's exposures to pesticides in support of the Food Quality Protection Act, priority research and data needs include: pesticide use patterns, pesticide residue distributions, and dermal exposure assessment approaches. To address these gaps, the ...

64

77 FR 27130 - Ametoctradin; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...FRL-9339-6] Ametoctradin; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...Division (7505P), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection...registration in the USA, Australia, and Canada and import tolerance...proposed by the Agency, the Pesticide Management Regulatory...

2012-05-09

65

Radiation induced microbial pesticide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author)

Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Sang Jae

2000-01-01

66

Radiation induced microbial pesticide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author)

67

Quality control of pesticide products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In light of an established need for more efficient analytical procedures, this publication, which documents the findings of an IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on “Quality Control of Pesticide Products”, simplifies the existing protocol for pesticide analysis while simultaneously upholding existing standards of quality. This publication includes both a report on the development work done in the CRP and a training manual for use by pesticide analysis laboratories. Based on peer reviewed and internationally recognized methods published by the Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC) and the Collaborative International Pesticides Analytical Council (CIPAC), this report provides laboratories with versatile tools to enhance the analysis of pesticide chemicals and to extend the scope of available analytical repertoires. Adoption of the proposed analytical methodologies promises to reduce laboratories’ use of solvents and the time spent on reconfiguration and set-up of analytical equipment

68

The Greening of Pesticide–Environment Interactions: Some Personal Observations  

OpenAIRE

Background: Pesticide–environment interactions are bidirectional. The environment alters pesticides by metabolism and photodegradation, and pesticides in turn change the environment through nontarget or secondary effects.

Casida, John E.

2012-01-01

69

PESTICIDE APPLICATION TECHNICS IMPROVEMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The academic textbook Pesticide application tehnics improvement is the result of several-year recording theoretical models, numerous practical tests, and data collection relating to technical systems in plant protection and its environment in the narrowest sense. In this first edition, the authors cover the area they have dealt with for many years. The authors aimed to present complete and clear methods how to solve specific problems in the agricultural practice management, plant protection, and direct practice application – ‘‘Know- How'', with as many as possible useful data. References used, along with local ones, are mostly American and from Western Europe. This textbook is intended for those who already use the agricultural technique in plant protection and those who are just acquiring the basics of technical systems proper application in daily practice, regardless the size of the agricultural farm. The authors covered in details and explained some bases of physics logic, analysis, and synthesis of specific laws while using pesticides due to extremely importance in understanding the problem area.

?uro Banaj

2011-06-01

70

Acute pesticide poisoning and pesticide registration in Central America  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has been for 20 years the most acknowledged international initiative for reducing negative impact from pesticide use in developing countries. We analyzed pesticide use and poisoning in Central America, particularly in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, and evaluated whether registration decisions are based on such data, in accordance with the FAO Code. Extensive use of very hazardous pesticides continues in Central America and so do poisonings with organophosphates, carbamates, endosulfan and paraquat as the main causative agents. Central American governments do not carry out or commission scientific risk assessments. Instead, guidelines from international agencies are followed for risk management through the registration process. Documentation of pesticide poisonings during several decades never induced any decision to ban or restrict a pesticide. However, based on the official surveillance systems, in 2000, the ministers of health of the seven Central American countries agreed to ban or restrict twelve of these pesticides. Now, almost 4 years later, restrictions have been implemented in El Salvador and in Nicaragua public debate is ongoing. Chemical and agricultural industries do not withdraw problematic pesticides voluntarily. In conclusion, the registration processes in Central America do not comply satisfactorily with the FAO Codnot comply satisfactorily with the FAO Code. However, international regulatory guidelines are important in developing countries, and international agencies should strongly extend its scope and influence, limiting industry involvement. Profound changes in international and national agricultural policies, steering towards sustainable agriculture based on non-chemical pest management, are the only way to reduce poisonings

71

Radiation induced pesticidal microbes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants.

Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, D. S

2001-01-01

72

Radiation induced pesticidal microbes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants

73

Pesticides' influence on wine fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wine quality strongly depends on the grape quality. To obtain high-quality wines, it is necessary to process healthy grapes at the correct ripeness stage and for this reason the farmer has to be especially careful in the prevention of parasite attacks on the grapevine. The most common fungal diseases affecting grape quality are downy and powdery mildew (Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator), and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea). On the other hand, the most dangerous insects are the grape moth (Lobesia botrana), vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus), and the citrus mealybug (Planococcus citri). Farmers fight grape diseases and insects applying pesticides that can be found at harvest time on grapes. The persistence of pesticides depends on the chemical characteristic of the active ingredients as well as on photodegradation, thermodegradation, codistillation, and enzymatic degradation. The pesticide residues on grapes can be transferred to the must and this can influence the selection and development of yeast strains. Moreover, yeasts can also influence the levels of the pesticides in the wine by reducing or adsorbing them on lees. During the fermentative process, yeasts can cause the disappearance of pesticide residues by degradation or absorption at the end of the fermentation when yeasts are deposited as lees. In this chapter, we reviewed the effect of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides on yeasts. We also studied the effect of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation on pesticide residues. PMID:20610173

Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo

2010-01-01

74

PESTIS: Pesticide Action Network North America  

Science.gov (United States)

As the word Action in its title indicates, PESTIS is definitely an advocacy group and is not moderate on its feelings about pesticides. In fact, a part of PESTIS, is PANNA (Pesticide Action Network North America), which "works to replace pesticide use with ecologically sound and socially just alternatives." Regardless of your feeling towards pesticides, this Web site includes all sorts of data and information related to pesticide use, including ecotoxicological studies on fish, amphibians, fungi, and more, to ideas for alternatives to pesticides. And, for those visitors interested in furthering their own activism, there is a link to current PESTIS projects and campaigns and ways to help.

75

Pesticide risks around the home (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticides are substances which kill or deter unwanted pests, such as insects or rodents. These substances can ... avoid an accidental ingestion is to keep all pesticides out of the reach of children.

76

Effects of fertilizer and pesticide use  

Science.gov (United States)

When used properly, fertilizer and pesticide application can help protect crops and encourage their growth. However, fertilizers and pesticides can run off into bodies of water and contaminate water sources.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

2008-06-25

77

78 FR 13264 - Acetochlor; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...the dietary exposure analysis and risk assessment...water models used in pesticide exposure assessment...Acetochlor parent residue exposure is generally...concentrations using the PRZM (Pesticide Root Zone Model) and EXAMS (Exposure Analysis Modeling...

2013-02-27

78

75 FR 29441 - Novaluron; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...the dietary exposure analysis and risk assessment...water models used in pesticide exposure assessment...were used to assess residues of concern in drinking water: The Pesticide Root Zone Model/Exposure Analysis Modeling...

2010-05-26

79

75 FR 51045 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

...register new uses for pesticide products containing currently registered...docket that addresses multiple products, please indicate to which...follows to register pesticide products containing currently registered...avocado, cacao, citrus, coffee, guava, mango, olive,...

2010-08-18

80

75 FR 11174 - Pesticide Product Registration Approval  

Science.gov (United States)

...20737, to register the pesticide product, Gonacon Immunocontraceptive...of use, application methods and rates, and level...1700--Validating the method of analysis of the formulation and...application to register the pesticide product, Gonacon...

2010-03-10

81

Effects of Urbanization on Water Quality: Pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

... A Teachers Contact Back to previous page The effects of urbanization on water quality: Pesticides Pesticides are ... in the United States home page. Related topics: Effects of urbanization Ground-water quality Accessibility FOIA Privacy ...

82

Pesticide Alternatives Laboratory  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pesticide Alternatives Laboratory of Michigan State University is on the cutting edge of pest control in the Upper Midwest, whether on agricultural or non-agricultural lands, public or private. Visitors interested in seeing the pesky adversaries of the lab, should click on "Bugs of The Lab", on the left hand side of the page, then click on the subcategory "Research Subjects". Along with photos of a dozen pests, including the "Plum Curculio", "Mites", and the "Oblique-Banded Leaf Roller", visitors can read a description of the pest, learn about and see images of the damage they do to specific crops, and discover where they are found on the plant. The Resistant Pest management Newsletter section on the left-hand side of the page has numerous subsections that should be of interest to visitors. Visitors can "Subscribe to the Newsletter" and peruse "Archives of Past Issues". Also interesting is the "Ask an Expert About Resistance Issues" section, which lists ten regions of the earth, and when one of the regions is clicked on, several experts' names pop up with their area of expertise, e-mail, and location. Additionally, anyone who is an expert and qualified, but is not on the list, may have their name added after filling out the "Expert Application", available on the "Ask an Expert..." homepage. All of the experts are volunteers.

83

Pesticide runoff from greenhouse production.  

Science.gov (United States)

A research has been undertaken studying pesticide residues in water from greenhouses and the use of soils and filter materials to reduce such losses. The pesticides detected in water samples collected downstream greenhouses include 9 fungicides, 5 herbicides and 4 insecticides. 10 compounds from flower and vegetable productions were frequently found to exceed environmental risk levels, and with a few exceptions the compounds were found in higher concentrations than those typically found in agricultural runoff. Some compounds were found in high concentrations (>1 microg/l) in undiluted runoff from greenhouses producing vegetables. Nutrient concentrations in the runoff were also sporadically very high, with phosphorous values varying between 0.85 and 7.4 mg P/l, and nitrogen values between 7.5 and 41.4 mg N/l. Undiluted runoff from the productions showed values of 60 mg P/l and 300 mg N/l. High values of pesticides correlated with high values of nutrients, especially P. Column experiments using a sandy agricultural soil and stock solutions of non-polar and slightly polar pesticides mixed with a complex binder and nutrients showed a significant reduction for nearly all of the compounds used, indicating that transport through soil will reduce the concentrations of the studied pesticides. The pesticide adsorption capacity of the filter materials pine bark, peat, Sphagnum moss, compost, oat straw, ferrous sand and clay soil were tested in batch and column experiments. Adsorption were studied contacting the filter materials with aqueous solutions containing greenhouse production pesticides. The batch experiments showed that pine bark and peat, both combining a high content of organic matter with a low ph, provided the highest adsorption for most of the tested pesticides. Sphagnum moss, compost and oat straw also showed high adsorption for most of the pesticides, while the mineral filters provided the lowest adsorption (30-55%). Further column experiments confirmed these results, displaying the best removal efficiency in the organic materials, varying from 200 microg/g in compost, to 500 microg/g in moss, straw and pine bark. PMID:20351415

Roseth, Roger; Haarstad, Ketil

2010-01-01

84

77 FR 42433 - Difenoconazole; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...food-use pesticide, if a toxicological...CSFII). As to residue levels in food...unrefined acute analysis for food and...of pesticide residues in food and...actual levels of pesticide residues that have been...dietary exposure analysis and risk...

2012-07-19

85

ABIOTIC HYDROLYSIS OF SORBED PESTICIDES  

Science.gov (United States)

The hydrolysis of pesticides that are sorbed to sterilized natural sediments has been investigated in aqueous systems at acid, neutral and alkaline pH's. The results show that the rate constants of pH independent ('neutral') hydrolyses are the same within experimental uncertainti...

86

Adsorption of pesticides on resins.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this work was to assess the capability of organic hydrophobic polymeric resins Amberlite XAD-4 and XAD-7 to remove the pesticides alachlor and amitrole from water. The pesticides adsorption on the two different adsorbents was measured by batch equilibrium technique and isotherm types and parameters were estimated. Two theoretical models were applied based on a Freundlich and a Langmuir isotherms. The effect of pesticides chemical composition and structure as well as the nature of solid surface on the efficiency of adsorption was evaluated. The influence of pH also was studied. In low pH solutions adsorption of amitrole was higher upon the nonionic aliphatic acrylic ester copolymer XAD-7 in comparison to the nonionic, crosslinked macroreticular copolymer of styrene divinylbenzene XAD-4. In neutral and intermediate pH solutions the polar acrylic ester copolymer XAD-7 was more effective to the retention of alachlor. The acrylic ester copolymer showed at pH 3 the lower effectiveness in alachlor removal from water. The data of the adsorption isotherms of pesticides upon the examined polymeric resins seemed to conform to both the Freundlich and the Langmuir isotherm models. PMID:12617554

Kyriakopoulos, Grigorios; Hourdakis, Adamadia; Doulia, Danae

2003-03-01

87

Assessing Health Risks from Pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

... effects (non-cancer) Carcinogenicity (cancer) Developmental and Reproductive Testing: Identify effects in the fetus of an exposed pregnant female (birth defects) and how pesticide exposure affects the ability of a test animal to successfully reproduce. Mutagenicity Testin g : Assess a ...

88

EVALUATION OF 10 PESTICIDE METHODS  

Science.gov (United States)

Ten pesticide analysis methods were evaluated. The compounds listed in each method were analyzed in triplicate at two concentration levels in reagent water and POTW effluent. Each method was performed as written with only minor modifications as approved by the USEPA Project Offic...

89

The use and disposal of household pesticides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most pesticides are synthetic chemicals manufactured specifically for their toxic properties to the target species, and widely used globally. Several epidemiological studies in the United States have suggested health concerns arising from the chronic exposure of young children to pesticides in the domestic environment. In the UK very little is currently known about how nonoccupational pesticides are being used or disposed of. Any use of pesticides is a potential risk factor for children's exposure, and any potential exposure is likely to be reduced by the parents' adopting precautionary behaviour when using these pesticide products. This was investigated using a sample of 147 parents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort in and around Bristol, through an in-depth interview between August and November 2001. The results of this study add to the understanding of the underlying behaviour of parents applying pesticide products in the home environment in the UK. Pesticides are readily available, and are normally purchased in do-it-yourself shops and supermarkets and mostly disposed of in domestic waste. Safety was stated by 45% of parents to be the most important factor to consider when buying a pesticide. When buying pesticide products, labels were stated to be the most important source of information about pesticides. However, a third of parents stated they would not follow the product label exactly when using a product, just under half felt labeusing a product, just under half felt labels were both inadequate and hard to understand, and about 10% of parents would not take notice of warnings on the pesticide label. Less than half of parents would use gloves when applying a pesticide, although the use of protective equipment such as gloves during the application of pesticides could greatly reduce the exposure. It is a public health concern that the instructions on the labels of products may not always be understood or followed, and further understanding of user behaviour is needed

90

75 FR 13284 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Request for Nominations to the Pesticide Program Dialogue...  

Science.gov (United States)

...the Agency by law. The following sectors are represented on the current PPDC: Environmental/public interest and animal rights groups; farm worker organizations; pesticide industry and trade associations; pesticide user, grower, and...

2010-03-19

91

77 FR 64990 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Request for Nominations to the Pesticide Program Dialogue...  

Science.gov (United States)

...and farm worker groups; pesticide users and growers; animal rights groups; pest consultants; State, local, and tribal...the current PPDC: Environmental/public interest and animal rights groups; farm worker organizations; pesticide...

2012-10-24

92

Pesticide Environmental Accounting: a method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts. PMID:17604888

Leach, A W; Mumford, J D

2008-01-01

93

A mobile App for military operational entomology pesticide applications  

Science.gov (United States)

Multiple field studies conducted for the Deployed War Fighter Protection (DWFP) research program have generated over 80 specific guidance points for innovative combinations of pesticide application equipment, pesticide formulations, and application techniques for aerosol and residual pesticide treat...

94

33 CFR 274.7 - Authorization of pesticide use.  

Science.gov (United States)

...iv) A listing of the pesticide or pesticides the agency proposes...A) Quantity of the pesticide expected to be applied...application; (C) Method of application; ...alternatives. (vii) Analysis of possible...

2010-07-01

95

Managing Pesticide Risks for Non-Target Ecosystems with Pesticide Risk Indicators: a Multicriteria Approach  

OpenAIRE

In the search for effective pesticide risk management tools, the design of pesticide risk indicators is nowadays receiving increasing attention as a complement to more established regulatory strategies. In the present paper, we apply some recently developed pesticide risk indices and test their potential for management purposes. A pilot approach is proposed, which explores pesticide worst-case hazard scenarios at different space-time scales by means of a set of 5 ecotoxicological risk indices...

Travisi, Chiara Maria; Nijkamp, Peter; Vighi, Marco; Giacomelli, Paolo

2004-01-01

96

Fate of pesticides during beer brewing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fates of more than 300 pesticide residues were investigated in the course of beer brewing. Ground malt artificially contaminated with pesticides was brewed via steps such as mashing, boiling, and fermentation. Analytical samples were taken from wort, spent grain, and beer produced at certain key points in the brewing process. The samples were extracted and purified with the QuEChERS (Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe) method and were then analyzed by LC-MS/MS using a multiresidue method. In the results, a majority of pesticides showed a reduction in the unhopped wort and were adsorbed onto the spent grain after mashing. In addition, some pesticides diminished during the boiling and fermentation. This suggests that the reduction was caused mainly by adsorption, pyrolysis, and hydrolysis. After the entire process of brewing, the risks of contaminating beer with pesticides were reduced remarkably, and only a few pesticides remained without being removed or resolved. PMID:21401094

Inoue, Tomonori; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Suga, Keiko; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

2011-04-27

97

Chiral pesticides: identification, description, and environmental implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Of the 1,693 pesticides considered in this review, 1,594 are organic chemicals, 47 are inorganic chemicals, 53 are of biological origin (largely non chemical; insect,fungus, bacteria, virus, etc.), and 2 have an undetermined structure. Considering that the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs found 1,252 pesticide active ingredients(EPA Pesticides Customer Service 2011), we consider this dataset to be comprehensive; however, no direct comparison of the compound lists was undertaken. Of all pesticides reviewed, 482 (28%) are chiral; 30% are chiral when considering only the organic chemical pesticides. A graph of this distribution is shown in Fig. 7a. Each pesticide is classified with up to three pesticidal utilities (e.g., fungicide, plant growth regulator, rodenticide, etc.), taken first from the Pesticide Manual as a primary source, and the Compendium of Common Pesticide Names website as a secondary source. Of the chiral pesticides, 195 (34%) are insecticides (including attractants, pheromones, and repellents), 150 (27%) are herbicides (including plant growth regulators and herbicide safeners), 104 (18%) are fungicides, and 55 (10%)are acaricides. The distribution of chiral pesticides by utility is shown in Fig. 7b,including categories of pesticides that make up 3%t or less of the usage categories.Figure 7c shows a similar distribution of non chiral pesticide usage categories. Of the chiral pesticides, 270 (56%) have one chiral feature, 105 (22%) have two chiral features, 30 (6.2%) have three chiral features, and 29 (6.0%) have ten or more chiral features.Chiral chemicals pose many difficulties in stereospecific synthesis, characterization, and analysis. When these compounds are purposely put into the environment,even more interesting complications arise in tracking, monitoring, and predicting their fate and risks. More than 475 pesticides are chiral, as are other chiral contaminants such as pharmaceuticals, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, synthetic musks, and their degradates (Kallenborn and Hiihnerfuss 2001;Heeb et al. 2007; Hihnerfuss and Shah 2009). The stereoisomers of pesticides can have widely different efficacy, toxicity to nontarget organisms, and metabolic rates in biota. For these reasons, it is important to first be aware of likely fate and effect differences, to incorporate molecular asymmetry insights into research projects, and to study the individual stereoisomers of the applied pesticide material.With the advent of enantioselective chromatography techniques, the chirality of pesticides has been increasingly studied. While the ChirBase (Advanced ChemistryDevelopment 1997-2010) database does not include all published chiral analytical separations, it does contain more than 3,500 records for 146 of the 482 chiral pesticides (30%). The majority of the records are found in the liquid chromatography database (2,677 or 76%), followed by the gas chromatography database (652 or 18%),and the capillary electrophoresis database (203 or 6%). The finding that only 30% of the chiral pesticides covered in this review have entries in ChirBase highlights the need for expanded efforts to develop additional enantioselective chromatographic methods. Other techniques (e.g., nuclear magnetic resonance and other spectroscopy)are available for investigation of chiral compounds, but often are not utilized because of cost, complexity, or simply not recognizing that a pesticide is chiral.In this review, we have listed and have briefly described the general nature of chiral fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, and other miscellaneous classes. A data-set generated for this review contains 1,693 pesticides, the number of enantioselective separation records in ChirBase, pesticide usage class, SMILES structure string and counts of stereogenic centers. This dataset is publically available for download at the following website: http://www.epa.gov/heasd/products/products.html. With the information herein coupled to the publically accessible dataset, we can begin to develop the tools to handle molecular asymmetry as

Ulrich, Elin M; Morrison, Candice N; Goldsmith, Michael R; Foreman, William T

2012-01-01

98

Proper pesticide use [videorecording] : monitoring the impact of pesticides with nuclear techniques.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food safety experts from the IAEA are conducting research using nuclear techniques to evaluate the impact of pesticide use on the environment, in food products and surface waters. The project aims to improve agricultural management practices, raise awareness on pesticide monitoring and ultimately develop a simple, "rapid-alert" test for measuring potential contamination from pesticides.

99

Monitoring of pesticides in human milk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After establishing proper analytical methodology for multiple pesticide residues, cotton-growing areas of Multan Division of Pakistan were surveyed and 40 samples of human milk from cotton pickers were collected during two crop seasons. Screening of these samples showed 72.5% contamination with 19 different pesticides/metabolites. The most frequently occurring pesticides were DDT and its metabolites, dimethoate, cyhalothrin, monocrotophos, profenofos and quinalphos. (author)

100

Pesticide Risk Valuation in Empirical Economics  

OpenAIRE

Pesticide use in agriculture poses several risks to both human health and non-target agro-ecosystems. Due to lack of information on the monetary value of reducing pesticide risks, it is difficult to perform an economic analysis that addresses social efficiency of policy and draws conclusions about the appropriate degree of regulation.The aim of the current paper is to present a critical overview of the empirical literature on pesticide risk valuation that provides disaggregate willingness-to-...

Nijkamp, Peter; Travisi, Chiara Maria; Vindigni, Gabriella

2002-01-01

101

Pesticides in groundwater - two examples from Africa  

OpenAIRE

To produce cash crops, pesticides are needed to a much higher degree in the tropics than in the temperate zones. When this need to use pesticides is coupled with low education among the users it's a perfect basis for environmental problems. However, the highest risk of pesticide contamination of water resources, including groundwater, is often not the direct use in agricultural fields, but point sources and "old sins". An additional problem is that substances that have been phased out in indu...

Kylin, Henrik; Meinhardt, Ralph; Kishimba, Michael; Bouwman, Henk

2005-01-01

102

Pesticides reduce regional biodiversity of stream invertebrates  

OpenAIRE

The biodiversity crisis is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity, but our understanding of the drivers remains limited. Thus, after decades of studies and regulation efforts, it remains unknown whether to what degree and at what concentrations modern agricultural pesticides cause regional-scale species losses. We analyzed the effects of pesticides on the regional taxa richness of stream invertebrates in Europe (Germany and France) and Australia (southern Victoria). Pesticides caused ...

Beketov, Mikhail A.; Kefford, Ben J.; Scha?fer, Ralf B.; Liess, Matthias

2013-01-01

103

Biosensors for Pesticide Detection: New Trends  

OpenAIRE

Due to the large amounts of pesticides commonly used and their impact on health, prompt and accurate pesticide analysis is important. This review gives an overview of recent advances and new trends in biosensors for pesticide detection. Optical, electrochemical and piezoelectric biosensors have been reported based on the detection method. In this review biosensors have been classified according to the immobilized biorecognition element: enzymes, cells, antibodies and, more rarely, DNA. The us...

Jean-Louis Marty; Beatriz Prieto-Simón; Audrey Sassolas

2012-01-01

104

Determination of Pesticide Residues in Cannabis Smoke  

OpenAIRE

The present study was conducted in order to quantify to what extent cannabis consumers may be exposed to pesticide and other chemical residues through inhaled mainstream cannabis smoke. Three different smoking devices were evaluated in order to provide a generalized data set representative of pesticide exposures possible for medical cannabis users. Three different pesticides, bifenthrin, diazinon, and permethrin, along with the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol, which are readily available...

Nicholas Sullivan; Sytze Elzinga; Raber, Jeffrey C.

2013-01-01

105

Pesticide exposure to greenhouse handgunners.  

Science.gov (United States)

The exposure of pesticide applicators in a commercial greenhouse facility was assessed. Data were collected from four handgunners who applied fluvalinate (insecticide), chlorpyrifos (insecticide), ethazol (fungicide), and dicofol (miticide). Potential exposure was measured with exposure pads placed outside all clothing of the applicator. Handwashes and air samples were also collected, as were pre- and post-exposure tank mixture samples. Pesticide penetration was measured with exposure pads placed inside protective clothing. When all exposure assessments were normalized for spray rate, it was determined that applicators were at significantly greater potential dermal risk (excluding hands) from fluvalinate. The normalized air samples showed significantly more exposure to the applicator from ethazol. Exposure to outside pads was primarily (84%) to the legs of the applicators. Ethazol penetrated Tyvek coveralls more readily than the other compounds. Tank mixture analyses suggested that the wettable powder formulations were not well-mixed. PMID:2774669

Stamper, J H; Nigg, H N; Mahon, W D; Nielsen, A P; Royer, M D

1989-01-01

106

76 FR 36479 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...  

Science.gov (United States)

...make a final determination on this pesticide...regulations for residues of pesticides...regulations for residues of pesticides...part 180 for residues of the insecticide thiamethoxam...procedures and determination by liquid...

2011-06-22

107

78 FR 79359 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...  

Science.gov (United States)

...40 CFR part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals...EPA can make a final determination on these pesticide...of regulations for residues of pesticides in or...180 for the combined residues of the insecticide spinetoram,...

2013-12-30

108

78 FR 56185 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...  

Science.gov (United States)

...40 CFR part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals...EPA can make a final determination on these pesticide...of regulations for residues of pesticides in or...40 CFR part 180 for residues of the insecticide diflubenzuron,...

2013-09-12

109

Application of nuclear techniques in pesticide research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear techniques are commonly used in studying the environmental fate of pesticides in soil, water and other environmental matrices and the metabolism of pesticides in animals and plants, as well as in the identification of the degradation products of pesticides formulations. Stable isotopes such as /sup 13/C and /sup 18/O are used in determining the structure of degradation products of pesticides and in understanding the biochemical mechanisms involved in the transformation. Radioisotopes such as tritium, /sup 14/C and/sup 32/P as traces in pesticides research are well established. A pesticide molecule 'labelled' with radioactive atom can easily be traced among score of natural, non-labelled chemicals found in soil, water, animals or plant tissues and other environmental matrices by using radiation detectors. The labelled pesticide and its degradation products can be separated from other chemicals by chromatographic techniques and their amounts estimated by quantifying the radioactivity associated with them. This technique is very sensitive to minute quantities, is reliable and save time that would otherwise be required for tedious purification procedures. For examples, residues of pesticides, which are tightly bound to an environmental matrix and cannot be extracted with a solvent, can be estimated by using a radiotracer technique. In the present paper formation and study of bound residues of pesticides by using radiotracer techniques will be discussed. (author)r techniques will be discussed. (author)

110

Sorption of pesticides to aquifer minerals  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper summarizes results from a work were the sorption of five pesticides on seven minerals were studied in order to quantify the adsorption to different mineral surfaces. Investigated mineral phases are: quartz, calcite, kaolinite, a-alumina, and three iron oxides (2-line ferrihydrite, goethite, lepidocrocite). Selected pesticides are: atrazine, isoproturon, mecoprop, 2,4-D, and bentazone. The results demonstrate that pesticides adsorb to pure mineral surfaces. However, the size of the adsorption depends on the type of pesticide and the type of mineral.

Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

2000-01-01

111

Protein phosphorylation pathways disruption by pesticides  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phosphosites in the human proteome represent an excellent source of potential biomarkers of pesticide toxicity. In fact, experimental animal models as well as in vitro studies have revealed phosphorylation disruption associated to metabolic regulation, hormone signaling, neuronal function and differentiation, cell survival and death. Due to their estrogen-mimicking ability, pesticides are considered as prime etiological suspects of increasing tumor incidence. Evidences of alterations in the signal transduction pathways involved in the tumor progression stage of pesticides were also provided. Despite progress in understanding the effect of pesticides on the human phosphorproteome and their health outcomes, it remains a complex issue to be studied. By now, the potential impact of pesticides in epigenetic phosphorylation pathways remains poorly explored. In addition, studies involving pesticides mixtures effects are needed. This review updates and provides a comprehensive discussion on the molecular and biochemical events underlying protein phosphorylation pathway disruption caused by pesticides most frequently detected in human tissues and fluids, such as organochlorine pesticides and organophosphates. The link between epidemiological studies and experimental approaches is also considered. Future challenges, such as micro-array phosphoproteome studies to complement gene expression arrays to understand the mechanisms involved in pesticide toxicology are briefly discussed.

Gladis Magnarelli

2013-10-01

112

Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air. For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health.

Benoit Roig

2011-06-01

113

40 CFR 158.2110 - Microbial pesticides data requirements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...including all use patterns, food and nonfood uses for terrestrial...Additional data requirements for genetically modified microbial pesticides. Additional requirements for genetically modified microbial pesticides may...

2010-07-01

114

Pattern of pesticide storage before pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Deliberate self-poisoning with agricultural pesticides is the commonest means of suicide in rural Asia. It is mostly impulsive and facilitated by easy access to pesticides. The aim of this large observational study was to investigate the immediate source of pesticides used for self-harm to help inform suicide prevention strategies such as reducing domestic access to pesticides. Methods The study was conducted in a district hospital serving an agricultural region of Sri Lanka. Patients who had self-poisoned with pesticides and were admitted to the adult medical wards were interviewed by study doctors following initial resuscitation to identify the source of pesticides they have ingested. Results Of the 669 patients included in the analysis, 425 (63.5% were male; the median age was 26 (IQR 20-36. In 511 (76% cases, the pesticides had been stored either inside or immediately outside the house; among this group only eight patients obtained pesticides that were kept in a locked container. Ten percent (n = 67 of the patients used pesticides stored in the field while 14% (n = 91 purchased pesticides from shops within a few hours of the episode. The most common reasons for choosing the particular pesticide for self-harm were its easy accessibility (n = 311, 46% or its popularity as a suicide agent in their village (n = 290, 43%. Conclusion Three quarters of people who ingested pesticides in acts of self-harm used products that were available within the home or in close proximity; relatively few patients purchased the pesticide for the act. The study highlights the importance of reducing the accessibility of toxic pesticides in the domestic environment.

Eddleston Michael

2009-11-01

115

Toxicity of Pesticides. Agrichemical Fact Sheet 2.  

Science.gov (United States)

This fact sheet gives the acute oral and dermal toxicity (LD 50) of over 250 pesticides in lab animals. The chemicals are categorized as fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, or miscellaneous compounds. One or more trade names are given for each pesticide. In addition, a brief explanation of toxicity determination is given. (BB)

Hock, Winand K.

116

77 FR 59106 - Glufosinate Ammonium; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...chronic dietary analysis for crops that...Anticipated residue and percent crop...residue levels of pesticide residues in food...tolerance-level residues. The chronic dietary exposure analysis was performed using anticipated residues from field trial...chronic dietary pesticide exposures...

2012-09-26

117

77 FR 23625 - Quizalofop Ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...anticipated residue and/or PCT...Tolerance level residues and/or 100...dietary exposure analysis and risk assessment...models used in pesticide exposure assessment...levels based on analysis of the residue field trial...for Setting Pesticide...

2012-04-20

118

QA/QC in pesticide residue analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper outlines problems related to pesticide residue analysis in a regulatory laboratory that are related to: availability of reference materials, as over 1000 pesticide active ingredients are currently in use and over 400 crops represent a large part of a healthy diet; analysis time; availability of samples in sufficient numbers; uncertainties of the procedures

119

Introduction to Indoor Air Quality: Pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

... inside the house. Pesticides are classed as semi-volatile organic compounds and include a variety of chemicals in various forms. Pesticides are chemicals that are used to kill or control pests which include bacteria, fungi, and other organisms, in addition to insects and ...

120

Using Pesticides Safely. Special Circular 296.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of pesticides is necessary to aid in the production of food, feed and fiber, and is equally important in the control of home garden and household pests, but correct use is critical in preventing injury to persons, animals, and plants. This circular contains information on State of Pennsylvania and federal pesticide laws; different types of…

Hock, W. K.

121

NATIONAL PESTICIDE INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (NPIRS)  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Pesticide Information Retrieval System (NPIRS) is a collection of pesticide-related databases available through subscription to the Center for Environmental and Regulatory Information Systems, CERIS. The following is a summary of data found in the databases, data sou...

122

RECENT ADVANCES IN PESTICIDE SPRAY APPLICATION TECHNOLOGY  

Science.gov (United States)

Applications of pesticides and other production strategies have ensured adequate and high quality food, fiber, floral and nursery crops. To meet the wide variety of canopy structure characteristics, growing circumstances and marketing requirements, high quality of pesticide transport is essential t...

123

Pesticides exposure in Pakistan: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the first systematic review of studies done since 1960, and to give an integrated picture of pesticides exposure to humans, animals, plants, waters, soils/sediments, atmosphere etc. in Pakistan. Authors have extracted data from different departments, published literature in research journals and National reports. Although the wide-spread usage of pesticides in Pakistan has controlled the pests, but like other countries, it has started causing environmental problems in the area. In some areas of Punjab and Sindh groundwater has been found contaminated and is constantly being under the process of contamination due to pesticide use. There is considerable evidence that farmers have overused and misused pesticides especially in cotton-growing areas. It is evident from the biological monitoring studies that farmers are at higher risk for acute and chronic health effects associated with pesticides due to occupational exposure. Furthermore, the intensive use of pesticides (higher sprays more than the recommended dose) in cotton areas involves a special risk for the field workers, pickers, and of an unacceptable residue concentration in cottonseed oil and cakes. The authors have also discussed the merits and demerits of different studies. The review will set the future course of action of different studies on pesticide exposure in Pakistan. Data limitations are still the major obstacle towards establishing clear environmental trends in Pakistan. The authors suggest that a reliable monitoring, assessment and reporting procedures shall be implemented in accordance with appropriate environmental policies, laws and regulations in order to minimize the pesticides exposure. PMID:17765971

Tariq, Muhammad Ilyas; Afzal, Shahzad; Hussain, Ishtiaq; Sultana, Nargis

2007-11-01

124

76 FR 16308 - Dichlormid; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue.'' Consistent...database for dichlormid. Data gaps included several chemistry...all food and non-food use pesticides (40 CFR part 158, subpart...the nature and number of data gaps and qualitative evidence...

2011-03-23

125

Investigation of pesticide degradation in surface waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The degradation of organophosphorus and thiocarbamate pesticides was investigated using isotope tracer methods. The hydrolysis (degradation) of ester-type pesticides was studied by radiometric enzyme inhibition method in aqueous medium with 14C as tracer. The hydrolysis of S-ethyl-N,N-dipropylthiocarbamate prerequired the oxidation of the parent compound. (Sz.J.)

126

Biosensors for Pesticide Detection: New Trends  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the large amounts of pesticides commonly used and their impact on health, prompt and accurate pesticide analysis is important. This review gives an overview of recent advances and new trends in biosensors for pesticide detection. Optical, electrochemical and piezoelectric biosensors have been reported based on the detection method. In this review biosensors have been classified according to the immobilized biorecognition element: enzymes, cells, antibodies and, more rarely, DNA. The use of tailor-designed biomolecules, such as aptamers and molecularly imprinted polymers, is reviewed. Artificial Neural Networks, that allow the analysis of pesticide mixtures are also presented. Recent advances in the field of nanomaterials merit special mention. The incorporation of nanomaterials provides highly sensitive sensing devices allowing the efficient detection of pesticides.

Jean-Louis Marty

2012-03-01

127

Toxicity of pesticides on photosynthesis of diatoms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pakistan being an agricultural country, a large amount of pesticides are used, including organophosphates and synthetic pyrethroids. These pesticides are released through rivers and other tributeries into the coastal environment, thus posing a contiguous threat to marine organisms. In the present study two species of diatoms Amphora and Navicula were selected for the assessment of impact of organ phosphate and pyrethroid toxicity on these primary producers. The study shows that rate of photosynthesis was inhibited in both Amphora and Navicula species exposed to pesticide. The acute toxicity of pesticide was determined by measuring IC50 of the test organisms. IC50 calculated for diatom species depicts that different pesticides had variable effects on the photosynthesis of microalgae. High sensitivity of marine organisms is alarming as it may have implications on the marine ecosystem and fisheries. The results are also useful in setting control limits for the release of these chemicals in nature. (author)

128

From pesticides to genetically modified plants : history, economics and politics  

OpenAIRE

Two technologies of crop protection are compared, crop protection by pesticides and by Genetically Modified Plants (GMPs). The history of pesticides provides lessons relevant to the future of GMPs; (1) high pesticide usage is counter-productive, (2) the technology requires intensive regulation and (3) has nonetheless many external effects which strongly reduce its social benefits, (4) early calculations on net benefits of pesticides were over-optimistic, and (5) intensive use of pesticides ma...

Zadoks, J. C.; Waibel, H.

2000-01-01

129

Chlorination of organophosphorus pesticides in natural waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Unknown second-order rate constants for the reactions of three organophosphorus pesticides (chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon) with chlorine were determined in the present study, and the influence of pH and temperature was established. It was found that an increase in the pH provides a negative effect on the pesticides degradation rates. Apparent second-order rate constants at 20 oC and pH 7 were determined to be 110.9, 0.004 and 191.6 M-1 s-1 for chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon, respectively. A higher reactivity of chlorine with the phosphorothioate group (chlorpyrifos and diazinon) than with the phosphate moiety (chlorfenvinfos) could explain these results. Intrinsic rate constant for the elementary reactions of chlorine species with chlorpyrifos and diazinon were also calculated, leading to the conclusion that the reaction between hypochlorous acid and the pesticide is predominant at neutral pH. The elimination of these pesticides in surface waters was also investigated. A chlorine dose of 2.5 mg L-1 was enough to oxidize chlorpyrifos and diazinon almost completely, with a formation of trihalomethanes below the EU standard for drinking water. However, the removal of chlorfenvinfos was not appreciable. Therefore, chlorination is a feasible option for the removal of organophosphorus pesticides with phosphorothioate group during oxidation and disinfection processes, but not for the elimination of pesticides but not for the elimination of pesticides with phosphate moiety

130

Characteristics of pesticide pyrotechnic smoke devices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticide smoke generating products are widely used by amateurs and professionals but there is little published information available about their burn and deposition characteristics to enable the risks associated with using these devices to be assessed. This paper investigates their burn characteristics, deposition patterns, pesticide air concentrations and potential exposure to operators. Thirteen firings were carried out in different spaces with different ventilation conditions. Three types of devices were investigated: dicloran, permethrin and red dye. Pesticide air concentrations increased after firing, reaching a maximum determined by the room volume in approximately 10 min and decreasing exponentially as a result of ventilation and deposition. Ejected pesticide was present in the aerosol phase but there were only occasional traces of vapour. Settlement of pesticide was affected by surface orientation, height, sampling material and the pesticide-to-space volume ratio. The manufacturer's recommended treatment period for dicloran of 4 h followed by half an hour of ventilation may be insufficient to reduce pesticide to safe levels for re-entry under very calm conditions. PMID:16984945

Roff, M W; Griffiths, L K; Gobeau, N; Johnson, P D; Pickering, D; Rimmer, D A; Saunders, C J; Wheeler, J P

2006-10-01

131

PESTLCI – A PESTICIDE DISTRIBUTION MODEL FOR LCA  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the presented work is to develop a model for distribution of pesticides into the environment following application to the field. Based on input of required substance characteristics and applied quantities for the pesticides, the model will estimate the emissions to the air, water, soil and groundwater compartments for use in life cycle inventory analysis of agricultural product systems. The model is called PESTLCI and it builds on an already existing model by Hauschild, 2000 /2/ to which a number of amendments are introduced inspired by existing work on hazard and risk characterisation and assessment of pesticide applications. The report therefore starts with a review of the work reported by the CAPER project as described in / / in order to locate new methods amenable for: 1. Handling of pesticide screening in LCA 2. Distribution modelling of pesticides in LCA 3. Evaluation of human exposure in LCA Following the review of existing methods, a number of modifications and new modules are developed and integrated into the existing method for pesticide distribution modelling to arrive at PESTLCI. Finally, PESTLCI is tested on three pesticide applications and the results compared to the results obtained with the old model. PESTLCI is available as a Excel© spreadsheet (Danish Xp version) model.

Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

2003-01-01

132

Modeling of pesticide emissions from agricultural ecosystems  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticides are applied to crops and soils to improve agricultural yields, but the use of pesticides has become highly regulated because of concerns about their adverse effects on human health and environment. Estimating pesticide emission rates from soils and crops is a key component for risk assessment for pesticide registration, identification of pesticide sources to the contamination of sensitive ecosystems, and appreciation of transport and fate of pesticides in the environment. Pesticide emission rates involve processes occurring in the soil, in the atmosphere, and on vegetation surfaces and are highly dependent on soil texture, agricultural practices, and meteorology, which vary significantly with location and/or time. To take all these factors into account for simulating pesticide emissions from large agricultural ecosystems, this study coupled a comprehensive meteorological model with a dynamic pesticide emission model. The combined model calculates hourly emission rates from both emission sources: current applications and soil residues resulting from historical use. The coupled modeling system is used to compute a gridded (36 × 36 km) hourly toxaphene emission inventory for North America for the year 2000 using a published U.S. toxaphene residue inventory and a Mexican toxaphene residue inventory developed using its historical application rates and a cropland inventory. To my knowledge, this is the first such hourly toxaphene emission inventory for North America. Results show that modeled emission rates have strong diurnal and seasonal variations at a given location and over the entire domain. The simulated total toxaphene emission from contaminated agricultural soils in North America in 2000 was about 255 t, which compares reasonably well to a published annual estimate. Most emissions occur in spring and summer, with domain-wide emission rates in April, May and, June of 36, 51, and 35 t/month, respectively. The spatial distribution of emissions depends on the distribution of toxaphene soil residues, and high emission rates coincide with heavily contaminated areas.

Li, Rong

2012-04-01

133

Organophosphate Pesticide Exposure and Work in Pome Fruit: Evidence for the Take-Home Pesticide Pathway  

OpenAIRE

Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are commonly used in the United States, and farmworkers are at risk for chronic exposure. Using a sample of 218 farmworkers in 24 communities and labor camps in eastern Washington State, we examined the association between agricultural crop and OP pesticide metabolite concentrations in urine samples of adult farmworkers and their children and OP pesticide residues in house and vehicle dust samples. Commonly reported crops were apples (71.6%), ...

Coronado, Gloria D.; Vigoren, Eric M.; Thompson, Beti; Griffith, William C.; Faustman, Elaine M.

2006-01-01

134

Lifetime Pesticide Use and Telomere Shortening among Male Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Telomere length (TL) in surrogate tissues may be influenced by environmental exposures. Objective: We aimed to determine whether lifetime pesticides use is associated with buccal cell TL. Methods: We examined buccal cell TL in relation to lifetime use of 48 pesticides for 1,234 cancer-free white male pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of 57,310 licensed pesticide applicators. Participants provided detailed information on lifetime use of 50 pesticides at enrollment (1993–1997). Buccal cells were collected from 1999 to 2006. Relative telomere length (RTL) was measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We used linear regression modeling to evaluate the associations between specific pesticides and the logarithm of RTL, adjusting for age at buccal cell collection, state of residence, applicator license type, chewing tobacco use, and total lifetime days of all pesticide use. Results: The mean RTL for participants decreased significantly in association with increased lifetime days of pesticide use for alachlor (p = 0.002), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D; p = 0.004), metolachlor (p = 0.01), trifluralin (p = 0.05), permethrin (for animal application) (p = 0.02), and toxaphene (p = 0.04). A similar pattern of RTL shortening was observed with the metric lifetime intensity-weighted days of pesticide use. For dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), we observed significant RTL shortening for lifetime intensity-weighted days (p = 0.04), but not for lifetime days of DDT use (p = 0.08). No significant RTL lengthening was observed for any pesticide. Conclusion: Seven pesticides previously associated with cancer risk in the epidemiologic literature were inversely associated with RTL in buccal cell DNA among cancer-free pesticide applicators. Replication of these findings is needed because we cannot rule out chance or fully rule out bias. PMID:23774483

Hou, Lifang; Andreotti, Gabriella; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Savage, Sharon; Hoppin, Jane A.; Sandler, Dale P.; Barker, Joseph; Zhu, Zhong-Zheng; Hoxha, Mirjam; Dioni, Laura; Zhang, Xiao; Koutros, Stella; Freeman, Laura E. Beane

2013-01-01

135

Rhinitis Associated with Pesticide Use Among Private Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study  

OpenAIRE

Farmers commonly experience rhinitis but the risk factors are not well-characterized. The aim of this study was to analyze cross-sectional data on rhinitis in the past year and pesticide use from 21,958 Iowa and North Carolina farmers in the Agricultural Health Study, enrolled 1993–7, to evaluate pesticide predictors of rhinitis. Polytomous and logistic regression models were used to assess association between pesticide use and rhinitis while controlling for demographics and farm-related ex...

Slager, Rebecca E.; Simpson, Sean L.; Levan, Tricia D.; Poole, Jill A.; Sandler, Dale P.; Hoppin, Jane A.

2010-01-01

136

Detection of pesticide by polymeric enzyme electrodes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) containing immobilized acetylcholine esterase (AChE) enzyme were used for the electrochemical determination of organophosphorous (OP) and carbamate pesticides. The extent of AChE deactivation by the pesticide was determined in the presence of acetylcholine (AChCl) substrate. The unique nature of this approach lies in the enzyme immobilization procedure in which AChE was attached to the SPE by in situ bulk polymerization of acrylamide to ensure efficient adherence within the membrane with minimal losses in enzyme activity. Responses were observed for the pesticides Monocrotophos, Malathion, Metasystox and Lannate over the concentration range 0-10 ppb (microg L(-1)). PMID:17328951

Dutta, K; Bhattacharyay, D; Mukherjee, A; Setford, S J; Turner, A P F; Sarkar, P

2008-03-01

137

Adsorption of ionisable pesticides in soils.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the fate of a pesticide in soil is fundamental to the accurate assessment of its environmental behaviour and vital in ensuring the safe use of new and existing products. Ionisable pesticides comprise a significant proportion of both existing and new active substances registered for use in agriculture worldwide. This group of pesticides includes chemicals that are frequently found in groundwater and surface waters in many different countries. Despite this, approaches to predict the influence of soil properties on the behaviour of ionisable pesticides in soils are poorly developed. Current regulatory assessments frequently default to methods developed for nonionic chemicals, although it is evident that ionisable compounds do not often react like neutral molecules. This review presents the state of knowledge on the adsorption of ionisable pesticides in soils. It first introduces the issues concerning adsorption and the characteristics of this particular kind of chemical. The mechanisms postulated for the adsorption of ionisable pesticides are then described: these are hydrophobic partitioning, ionic exchange, charge transfer, ligand exchange, cation or water bridging, and the formation of bound residues. Relatively little experimental evidence is available, and we are still unable to determine the quantitative contribution of each process in a particular situation. Knowledge is still lacking concerning phenomena occurring at the surfaces of soil particles. Measurements do not allow determination of the operative pH at the surface of soil particles or in microenvironments, and the influence of ionic strength or competition effects is difficult to assess. Subsequently, the review focuses on the influence of soil properties on adsorption and on potential to predict the behaviour of ionisable pesticides in soils. Unlike hydrophobic compounds, adsorption of ionisable pesticides is highly sensitive to variation in pH. This relationship mainly derives from the different proportion of ionic and neutral forms of the pesticide present at each pH level but also from the presence of surfaces with pH-dependent charges in soils. Soil organic matter generally promotes adsorption, although a negative influence has sometimes been reported. Clay and oxides can also play a significant role in some cases. So far, no modelling approach has been applied successfully to a range of ionisable pesticides to predict their adsorption in soils. The standardization of experimental settings and the application of approaches specific to a particular class of pesticide or different type of soil might be necessary to describe the complexity of interactions among ionisable molecules. Degradation of ionisable pesticides is influenced by soil pH in a particular way that relates to changes in sorption, changes in composition and activity of the microbial community, and to shifts in the balance between different degradative mechanisms. PMID:17016919

Kah, M; Brown, C D

2006-01-01

138

Neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective and neurodevelopmental outcomes among occupational (both adolescent and adult workers) and non-occupational populations (children). The symposium discussion highlighted many challenges for researchers concerned with the prevention of neurotoxic illness due to pesticides and generated a number of directions for further research and policy interventions for the protection of human health, highlighting the importance of examining potential long-term effects across the lifespan arising from early adolescent, childhood or prenatal exposure.

London, Leslie; Beseler, Cheryl

2012-01-01

139

The Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory: A Quantitative Instrument for the Assessment of Beliefs about Pesticide Risks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent media attention has focused on the risks that agricultural pesticides pose to the environment and human health; thus, these topics provide focal areas for scientists and science educators to enhance public understanding of basic toxicology concepts. This study details the development of a quantitative inventory to gauge pesticide risk beliefs. The goal of the inventory was to characterize misconceptions and knowledge gaps, as well as expert-like beliefs, concerning pesticide risk. This study describes the development and field testing of the Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory with an important target audience: pesticide educators in a southeastern U.S. state. The 19-item, Likert-type inventory was found to be psychometrically sound with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.780 and to be a valuable tool in capturing pesticide educators’ beliefs about pesticide risk, assessing beliefs in four key categories. The Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory could be useful in exploring beliefs about pesticide risks and in guiding efforts to address misconceptions held by a variety of formal and informal science learners, educators, practitioners, the agricultural labor force, and the general public.

W. Gregory Cope

2011-06-01

140

Pesticide Environmental Accounting: A method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts. - A method to estimate the external costs of a pesticide application based on the ecotoxicology, environmental behaviour and application rate of an active ingredient

141

Pesticide Environmental Accounting: A method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts. - A method to estimate the external costs of a pesticide application based on the ecotoxicology, environmental behaviour and application rate of an active ingredient.

Leach, A.W. [Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY (United Kingdom)], E-mail: a.w.leach@imperial.ac.uk; Mumford, J.D. [Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY (United Kingdom)], E-mail: j.mumford@imperial.ac.uk

2008-01-15

142

75 FR 11884 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

...Active Ingredient: Spinetoram. Proposed Use: Spot-on for cats and kittens. Contact: Samantha Hulkower, (703) 603-0683, hulkower.samantha@epa.gov. List of Subjects Environmental protection, Pesticides and pest. Dated:...

2010-03-12

143

NEUROENDOCRINE AND REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuroendocrine and Reproductive Effects of Pesticides 1Stoker, TE, Goldman 2, JM and Cooper 2, RL. 1Gamete and Early Embryogenesis Biology Branch and 2 Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laborat...

144

75 FR 22252 - Cyromazine; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...establishing tolerances for residues of the insecticide cyromazine, (N-cyclopropyl-1...Risk Assessment and Determination of Safety Section...pesticide chemical residue in or on a food...for use for the determination of residues of cyromazine...

2010-04-28

145

78 FR 75262 - Flonicamid; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...established tolerances for residues of the flonicamid...establishing tolerances for residues of the insecticide, flonicamid (N...Risk Assessment and Determination of Safety Section...pesticide chemical residue in or on a...

2013-12-11

146

75 FR 6576 - Acetamiprid; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...a tolerance for residues of the insecticide acetamiprid...Assessment and Determination of Safety Section...pesticide chemical residue in or on a food...established for residues of the insecticide acetamiprid...

2010-02-10

147

75 FR 24428 - Spirodiclofen; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...tolerances for residues of the insecticide spirodiclofen...Assessment and Determination of Safety Section...pesticide chemical residue in or on a food...a reduction in residues in juice. 5. Determination of safety....

2010-05-05

148

78 FR 57280 - Chlorantraniliprole; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...tolerances for residues of the insecticide chlorantraniliprole...Assessment and Determination of Safety Section...pesticide chemical residue in or on a food...humans. 5. Determination of safety...chlorantraniliprole residues. IV....

2013-09-18

149

76 FR 10026 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

...docket that addresses multiple products, please indicate to which...follows to register pesticide products containing currently registered...papaya, sapodilla, star apple. Contact: Linda DeLuise...Uses: For use in ATD emulsion products, paints, building...

2011-02-23

150

75 FR 29908 - Prothioconazole; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...the acute assessment. ii. Chronic exposure...triazole-containing class of pesticides, often...all the members of this class of compounds are capable...acid K salt metabolites. ii. Rabbit developmental...palate, deviated snout, malocclusion, extra ribs, and...

2010-05-28

151

Amperometric detection of pesticides using polymer electrodes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The real time monitoring of some organophosphorus based pesticides is of great concern to environmentalists because the widespread use of pesticides is causing severe health hazards to all living beings and also hampering our ecological balance. The traditional methods of measurement of pesticide residues are time consuming, need sample pre-treatment, and lack desired specificity and accuracy. We have developed an amperometric biosensor for indirect measurement of the pesticide concentration precisely in ppb level. The method is based on the action of two enzymes namely acetylcholine esterase and choline oxidase which are uniquely immobilized in a polymeric porous network directly on the working electrode of a screen-printed sensor. Polyacrylamide matrix has been prepared by copolymerisation of acrylamide and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide using Potassium peroxodisulphate (K2S2O8) as initiator. A linear relationship was obtained between the range of 0 to 10 ppb. PMID:16758294

Ghosh, Dipankar; Dutta, Kakoli; Bhattacharyay, Dipankar; Sarkar, Priyabrata

2006-08-01

152

Re-usable biosensor for organophosphate pesticides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An enzyme sensor for the detection of organophosphate pesticides in water was fabricated. Acetylcholinesterase and cholineoxidase were co-immobilized on a Pt electrode by crosslinking. Enzymatic activity was measured amperometrically by the generation of H2O2. Dichlorvos (DDVP, dimethyl 2,2-dichlorovynyl phosphate) was chosen as a model pesticide and its inhibition characteristics were utilized for the pesticide detection. A good linear correlation was observed between the Relative Inhibition (RI) and pesticide concentrations with high sensitivity. The re-activation characteristics of inhibited enzyme by 2-pyridinealdoxime methochloride (PAM) were investigated in detail. It has been found that the enzyme electrode may be used several times for the inhibition detection if proper recovery procedure is enforced. The excessive treatment by PAM, however, deteriorates the immobilized enzyme. The result indicates that the sensor is highly promising for the continuous monitoring of organophosphates. 11 refs., 7 figs.

Okazaki, S.; Nakagawa, H.; Asakura, S.; Fukuda, K. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kiuchi, H.; Takahashi, S.; Shigemori, T. [New Cosmos Electric Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

1998-06-05

153

High risk pesticides in sugar beet protection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to traits of pesticides permitted to use in sugar beet (oral percutaneus and inhalation toxicity, toxicity to wildlife, bees and aquatic organisms, re-entry interval, maximum number of treatments, effects on reproduction do not present health risk in sugar production/technology. However, the danger exists for workers by chronic exposure during the application, especially from pesticide being potential endocrine disruptors (EDS (fentin acetate, benomyl, endosulfan, methomyl, methidathion. EDS can cause sterility or decreased fertility, impaired development, birth defects of the reproductive tract and metabolic disorders. Authors recommend limited application of EDS pesticides (to limit the number of treatments to only one during the vegetation, replacement with pesticides with low risk to humans game and fishes, as well as mandatory submission of re-entry data for registration.

Šovljanski Radmila A.

2006-01-01

154

Determination of pesticide residues in cannabis smoke.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was conducted in order to quantify to what extent cannabis consumers may be exposed to pesticide and other chemical residues through inhaled mainstream cannabis smoke. Three different smoking devices were evaluated in order to provide a generalized data set representative of pesticide exposures possible for medical cannabis users. Three different pesticides, bifenthrin, diazinon, and permethrin, along with the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol, which are readily available to cultivators in commercial products, were investigated in the experiment. Smoke generated from the smoking devices was condensed in tandem chilled gas traps and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Recoveries of residues were as high as 69.5% depending on the device used and the component investigated, suggesting that the potential of pesticide and chemical residue exposures to cannabis users is substantial and may pose a significant toxicological threat in the absence of adequate regulatory frameworks. PMID:23737769

Sullivan, Nicholas; Elzinga, Sytze; Raber, Jeffrey C

2013-01-01

155

Types of pesticides and determination of their residues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pesticide is any material or component used to protect from pests. Its toxic effect is related to the chemical structure, which can be divided into 3 types : 1- Metal pesticides : Sulphur, cupper, zinc, mercury; 2- Vegetal pesticides : advanced and less toxic to the general health; 3- Synthetic organo pesticides : organo chlorine, organophosphorous, carbamate and pyrethroids. Pesticides in the soil undergo biological dissociation according to their concentration and chemical structure. High concentration of the pesticides in the soil may lead to fertility decrease due to destruction of micro-organisms by the pesticides. Many methods are used to analyze the residues of pesticides in plant or soil : 1- Chromatographic methods : Gas chromatography, gas liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography; 2- Spectroscopy methods : spectrophotometer and mass spectrometer; 3- Isotopic methods : based on tracers technique which is the most sensitive and accurate method and can estimate minor amounts of the pesticides. (author)

156

Pesticide modelling for a small catchment using SWAT-2000.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticides in stream flow from the 142 ha Colworth catchment in Bedfordshire, UK were monitored from October 1999 to December 2000. About 47% of the catchment is tile-drained and different pesticides and cropping patterns have recently been evaluated in terms of their effect on nutrient and pesticide losses to the stream. The data from Colworth were used to test soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) 2000 predictions of pesticide concentrations at the catchment outlet. A sound model set-up to carry out pesticide modelling was created by means of hydrological modelling with proper simulation of crop growth and evapotranspiration. The pesticides terbuthylazine, terbutryn, cyanazine and bentazone were modelled. There was close agreement between SWAT-predicted pesticide concentration values and observations. Scenario trials were conducted to explore management options for reducing pesticide loads arriving at the catchment outlet. The results obtained indicate that SWAT can be used as a tool to understand pesticide behavior at the catchment scale. PMID:16923591

Kannan, Narayanan; White, Sue M; Worrall, Fred; Whelan, Mick J

2006-01-01

157

76 FR 68750 - Final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Pesticide General Permit for Point...  

Science.gov (United States)

...biological pesticides and chemical pesticide residues to Waters of the United States...permit that all chemical pesticides have a residue, and, therefore would need...analysis, titled, ``Economic Analysis of the Pesticide General Permit (PGP)...

2011-11-07

158

Pesticides, Microglial NOX2, and Parkinson's disease  

OpenAIRE

Accumulating evidence indicates that pesticide exposure is associated with an increased risk for developing Parkinson's disease (PD). Several pesticides known to damage dopaminergic (DA) neurons, such as paraquat, rotenone, lindane, and dieldrin also demonstrate the ability to activate microglia, the resident innate immune cell in the brain. While each of these environmental toxicants may impact microglia through unique mechanisms, they all appear to converge on a common final pathway of micr...

Taetzsch, Thomas; Block, Michelle L.

2013-01-01

159

Protein phosphorylation pathways disruption by pesticides  

OpenAIRE

Phosphosites in the human proteome represent an excellent source of potential biomarkers of pesticide toxicity. In fact, experimental animal models as well as in vitro studies have revealed phosphorylation disruption associated to metabolic regulation, hormone signaling, neuronal function and differentiation, cell survival and death. Due to their estrogen-mimicking ability, pesticides are considered as prime etiological suspects of increasing tumor incidence. Evidences of alterations in the s...

Gladis Magnarelli; Teresa Fonovich

2013-01-01

160

Morbidity in newborns exposed to organophosphorus pesticides  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Insecticides are toxines by which we destroy harmful insects. The most frequent insecticides which are used today are organophosphorus pesticides. This group of compounds make substances whose activity mechanism is based on the inhibition of acetylcho­linesterase in nerve synapsis, thus producing holynergic syndrome, resulting from the accumulation of acetylcholine which developed due to the absence of decomposition under the influence of cholinesterase. In the clinical picture of acute toxication by cholinesterase inhibitors there is a clear difference between muscarinic and nicotine effects. The basic aim of the study was to establish the effects of organophosphorus pesticides present in blood and breast milk of mothers on newborns morbidity. Material and methods. The study group consisted of 18 newborns whose mothers had isolated organophosphorus pesticides in their blood and breast­milk on the third day after delivery, and the control group consisted of 84 newborns whose mothers did not have isolated organophosphorus pesticides in their blood and breastmilk. Results. Morbidity is three times greater, often in combination with some disorders of the central nervous system, and the relative risk for its appearance is eight time greater in newborns exposed to organophosphorus pesticides. Disscusion. Disorders that appear in newborns exposed to pesticides are mutagenic, cancerogenic and neurotoxic and some agenses could disturb the immune system which is reflected in morbidity increase, primarly of the central nervous system. Conclusion. The presence of organophosphorus pesticides in blood and breast milk has negative effects on newborns. In addition to acetylcho­linesterase inhibition, organophosphorus pesticides react by means of other mechanisms as well.

?or?evi? Mom?ilo

2010-01-01

161

High risk pesticides in sugar beet protection  

OpenAIRE

According to traits of pesticides permitted to use in sugar beet (oral percutaneus and inhalation toxicity, toxicity to wildlife, bees and aquatic organisms, re-entry interval, maximum number of treatments, effects on reproduction) do not present health risk in sugar production/technology. However, the danger exists for workers by chronic exposure during the application, especially from pesticide being potential endocrine disruptors (EDS) (fentin acetate, benomyl, endosulfan, methomyl, methid...

Šovljanski Radmila A.; Kloko?ar-Šmit Zlata D.; In?i? Dušanka V.

2006-01-01

162

Phytoremediation of pesticide wastes in soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soils at agrochemical dealer sites often are contaminated with pesticide residues from decades of accidental and incidental spillage. We have determined that prairie grasses native to the Midwestern U.S. are suitable for phytoremediation because they are tolerant of most herbicides and of climatic extremes, such as heat, cold, drought, and flooding. A mixed stand of big bluestem, switch grass, and yellow indiangrass develops a rhizosphere with microflora that can readily detoxify pesticide residues. Specific atrazine-degrading bacteria or the free enzyme atrazine chlorohydrolase also can enhance the rate of biotransformation of atrazine in soil. Metolachlor degradation can be accelerated significantly by the prairie grass/rhizosphere effect. Several grasses used in filter strips have also been evaluated for their pesticide-degradation capabilities. The prairie grasses also have been demonstrated to reduce the rates of leaching of pesticides through intact soil columns, since less water leaches out of vegetated soil columns compared to non-vegetated soil columns. The evaluation of the degree of success of remediation has relied heavily on chemical residue analysis, but recent studies on biological endpoints have shown promise for providing more ecologically relevant indications of the potential exposure of organisms to pesticides in the soil. Earthworm 8-day bioaccumulation assays and root growth assays have shown the value of assessing the bioavailability of the residues. Mass balance experiments have utilized radiolabeled atrazine and metolachlor to ascertain the complete metabolism and binding profile of those two pesticides in phytoremediation studies. PMID:16729579

Henderson, Keri L D; Belden, Jason B; Zhao, Shaohan; Coats, Joel R

2006-01-01

163

Chlorination of organophosphorus pesticides in natural waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Unknown second-order rate constants for the reactions of three organophosphorus pesticides (chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon) with chlorine were determined in the present study, and the influence of pH and temperature was established. It was found that an increase in the pH provides a negative effect on the pesticides degradation rates. Apparent second-order rate constants at 20 {sup o}C and pH 7 were determined to be 110.9, 0.004 and 191.6 M{sup -1} s{sup -1} for chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon, respectively. A higher reactivity of chlorine with the phosphorothioate group (chlorpyrifos and diazinon) than with the phosphate moiety (chlorfenvinfos) could explain these results. Intrinsic rate constant for the elementary reactions of chlorine species with chlorpyrifos and diazinon were also calculated, leading to the conclusion that the reaction between hypochlorous acid and the pesticide is predominant at neutral pH. The elimination of these pesticides in surface waters was also investigated. A chlorine dose of 2.5 mg L{sup -1} was enough to oxidize chlorpyrifos and diazinon almost completely, with a formation of trihalomethanes below the EU standard for drinking water. However, the removal of chlorfenvinfos was not appreciable. Therefore, chlorination is a feasible option for the removal of organophosphorus pesticides with phosphorothioate group during oxidation and disinfection processes, but not for the elimination of pesticides with phosphate moiety.

Acero, Juan L. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)], E-mail: jlacero@unex.es; Benitez, F. Javier; Real, Francisco J.; Gonzalez, Manuel [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)

2008-05-01

164

Pesticides in Soil: Effects on Microorganisms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since their discovery to the present day, pesticides have been an inevitable segment of agricultural production and efforts have been made to synthesize compounds that would share a required efficacy along with selectivity, sufficient persistence on the object of protection and favourable toxicological and ecotoxicological characteristics so as to minimize their effect on the environment.When a pesticide gets into soil after application, it takes part in a number of physical, chemical and biological processes that depend not only on the compound itself, but a number of other factors as well, such as: physical, chemical and biological characteristics of soil; climatic factors, equipment used, method of application, method of storage, handling and disposal of waste, site characteristics (proximity of ground and underground waters, biodiversity and sensitivity of the environment. Microorganisms play an important role in pesticide degradation as they are able to utilize the biogenic elements from those compounds, as well as energy for their physiological processes. On the other hand, pesticides are more or less toxic substances that can have adverse effect on populations of microorganisms and prevent their development, reduce their abundance, deplete their taxonomic complexity and create communities with a lower level of diversity and reduced physiological activity.The article discusses complex interactions between pesticides and microorganisms in soil immediately after application and over the ensuing period. Data on changes in the abundance of some systematic and physiological groups of microorganisms, their microbial biomass and enzymatic activity caused under pesticide activity are discussed as indicators of these processes.

Ljiljana Radivojevi?

2007-01-01

165

Chlorination of organophosphorus pesticides in natural waters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unknown second-order rate constants for the reactions of three organophosphorus pesticides (chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon) with chlorine were determined in the present study, and the influence of pH and temperature was established. It was found that an increase in the pH provides a negative effect on the pesticides degradation rates. Apparent second-order rate constants at 20 degrees C and pH 7 were determined to be 110.9, 0.004 and 191.6 M(-1) s(-1) for chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon, respectively. A higher reactivity of chlorine with the phosphorothioate group (chlorpyrifos and diazinon) than with the phosphate moiety (chlorfenvinfos) could explain these results. Intrinsic rate constant for the elementary reactions of chlorine species with chlorpyrifos and diazinon were also calculated, leading to the conclusion that the reaction between hypochlorous acid and the pesticide is predominant at neutral pH. The elimination of these pesticides in surface waters was also investigated. A chlorine dose of 2.5 mg L(-1) was enough to oxidize chlorpyrifos and diazinon almost completely, with a formation of trihalomethanes below the EU standard for drinking water. However, the removal of chlorfenvinfos was not appreciable. Therefore, chlorination is a feasible option for the removal of organophosphorus pesticides with phosphorothioate group during oxidation and disinfection processes, but not for the elimination of pesticides with phosphate moiety. PMID:17904287

Acero, Juan L; Benítez, F Javier; Real, Francisco J; González, Manuel

2008-05-01

166

Pesticide risk assessment in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recognition of potential risks, all pesticides distributed and sold in the United States must fulfil extensive registration requirements for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Registration is a licensing procedure where industry must submit data to demonstrate the safety of pesticidal substances and products before they can be used commercially. The regulatory control of pesticides is unique among chemicals in the U.S. in that testing beyond initial registration may be imposed by the Agency throughout the commercial life of the chemical, as long as there is adequate justification. Registration requirements are gauged to the nature of potential exposures. For instance, more data are generally needed for food use registrations than for non-food uses because of direct consumption of treated foods by the whole U.S. population. Unlike pesticide practices in many countries and authorities, as in the European Community where agricultural pesticides, non-agricultural pesticides and genetically engineered microbial agents are handled by separate directives, all pesticide activities are covered in the U.S. by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. This statute covers pesticide uses on foods and animal feed and a number of non-food applications like forest and horticultural uses, residential lawn care, in-home applications, and disinfectants/sterilants. Traditional inorganic and organic chemicals are covered, as well as biological agents like pheromones. Naturally occurring and genetically altered microorganisms also come under the definition of pesticides, but multicellular animals are exempt from regulation as pesticides. Pesticide registration in the U.S. as in many other countries may be a long-term, resource intensive undertaking. Not uncommonly the process from beginning to complete registration may take 4 to 10 years and cost about $10 million. To meet the responsibilities of reviewing studies, overseeing 400 active ingredients and 35,000 products, and implementing other aspects of the statute, EPA employs about 900 people. Unlike the approval process and actions to cancel pesticides in some countries, in the U.S. they are generally much more transparent. The need for specific test guidelines and the nature of the protocols are debated in the scientific community. Test data adequacy is evaluated according to objective criteria, and study findings are reviewed using standard evaluation procedures and risk assessment guidelines that have been through public comment. Agency risk concerns for a registered pesticide are vetted at a meeting of its Scientific Advisory Panel, a group of technical experts outside of government, where the potential risk case is reviewed and discussed. The meeting is open to the public with opportunity for input from industry, public interest groups, and other parties. Formal Agency regulatory proposals to cancel registered pesticides are published for public review and comment, and there may be several rounds of public involvement before a final decision is reached. Even after a regulatory decision has been made, and unless a settlement has been reached, the Agency is often sued by an environmental group or industry that questions the EPA position; in such situations, the case is then transferred to the court for deliberation. Risks are evaluated for a host of different effects by the pesticide program: acute and chronic, human health and ecological

167

75 FR 62323 - Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Change to...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2070-AJ74 Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards...Containers and Containment; Change to Labeling Compliance...important roles in the management of pesticide risks...review by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) as...Nor does it impose or change any information...

2010-10-08

168

Male Reproduction and Pesticides. Work related and dietary exposure : Pesticides Research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We found no difference in semen quality and male fecundity between traditional and organic farmers. Pesticide use by Danish farmers did not influence the different semen parameters Ø a spraying season. The dietary pesticide intake in the study group did not entail a risk of measurable reduced semen quality. However, the exposure assessments used were based on the extrernal exposure.

Larsen, Solveig B.; Bonde, Jens Peter

1999-01-01

169

Pesticide runoff from farms: upscaling from pesticide application in fields to concentrations in streams and rivers  

Science.gov (United States)

The Great Barrier Reef off the coast of north eastern Australia is a natural wonder of the world, and recently there have been concerns about possible harm to the reef from pesticides flowing into the sea from streams and rivers. We present a theoretical basis for scaling data for pesticide application to the topsoil on a large number of farm fields up to watershed scale water quality. At the field scale the pesticide application is assumed to be a pulse input, with a distribution of application times over the season. For a large number of farms, the total mass in the topsoil at any time is represented by a convolution integral taking into account the distribution of inputs and applying first order decay. This enables the calculation of average mass, residual mass at the end of the season, and maximum mass of pesticide in the watershed. Runoff is assumed to occur after a threshold of 50 mm of rainfall or irrigation, and a simple transfer process of pesticide from topsoil to runoff is used. The convolution method together with 100 year climate records was used to model concentrations and annual pesticide losses from two agricultural watersheds draining to the Great Barrier Reef. Even with this highly simplified description of field and watershed hydrology, the convolution method gave predictions of the same order as measured pesticide values. The convolution method for predicting the amount of pesticide mass in the topsoil in a catchment can also be coupled to more sophisticated models of water runoff and mass transfer.

Knight, J. H.; Cook, F. J.; Silburn, D. M.; Kookana, R. S.; Thorburn, P.

2011-12-01

170

Intoxicación por plaguicidas Pesticide poisoning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los plaguicidas son una de las familias de productos químicos más ampliamente empleadas por el hombre. Se han usado sobre todo para combatir plagas por su acción sobre las cosechas o como vectores de enfermedades transmisibles. Los plaguicidas pueden clasificarse en función de su empleo (insecticidas, fungicidas, herbicidas, raticidas… o de su familia química (organoclorados, organofosforados, carbamatos, piretoides, compuestos bipiridílicos, sales inorgánicas…. Todos ellos son biocidas lo que implica, habitualmente una alta toxicidad humana que ha sido motivo de preocupación desde mitad del siglo XX debido al amplio e indiscriminado empleo de estos productos. La exposición a los plaguicidas puede tener efectos agudos, crónicos y a largo plazo. Algunos compuestos organoclorados (como el DDT fueron los primeros en ser empleado en fumigaciones masivas para combatir la malaria y han debido ser prohibidos debido a su capacidad de bioacumulación y persistencia medioambiental. El peligro representado por la generalizada presencia de estos agentes, se ha demostrado en los numerosos episodios de epidemias tóxicas humanas, productoras de alta morbi-mortalidad, descritas por casi todas las familias químicas: insecticidas y fungicidas organoclorados, insecticidas organofosforados y carbamatos, fungicidas organomercuriales y sales inorgánicas. Estos episodios se han producido sobre todo por vía alimentaria y en el terreno profesional. Otras causas de preocupación sanitaria son su capacidad carcinogénica y de ocasionar alteraciones reproductivas. Se presentan las principales características de algunas de las familias más relevantes.Pesticides are one of the families of chemical products most widely used by man. They have been used above all to combat pests because of their effect on harvests and as vectors of transmissible diseases. Pesticides can be classified according to their use (insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, raticides… or by their chemical family (organochlorates, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, Bipyridilium compounds, inorganic salts…. All of them are biocides, which normally implies a high toxicity for humans, which has been a cause for concern since the mid-XX century due to the widespread and indiscriminate use of these products. Exposure to pesticides can have effects that are acute, chronic and long-term. Some organochlorate compounds (such as DDT were the first to be used in massive fumigations to fight malaria and have had to be banned because of their capacity for bioaccumulation and environmental persistence. The danger represented by the widespread presence of these agents has been demonstrated in numerous episodes of human toxic epidemics, producers of a high morbidity/mortality, described for nearly all chemical families: organochlorate insecticides and fungicides, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, organomercurial fungicides and inorganic salts. These episodes have above all been caused through the ingestion of foodstuffs and in the occupational field. Other causes of health concern are their carcinogenic capacity and occasional reproductive alterations. The principal characteristics of some of the most relevant families are presented.

A. Ferrer

2003-01-01

171

76 FR 11456 - Pesticide Reregistration Performance Measures and Goals  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009 and 2010. The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide...Under FFDCA, EPA must make a determination that pesticide residues remaining in or on food are...to the pesticide chemical residue'' from dietary and...

2011-03-02

172

42 CFR 84.1156 - Pesticide respirators; performance requirements; general.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pesticide respirators; performance requirements; general...PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist...Pesticide respirators; performance requirements; general...requirements for performance and protection... Resistance of filter(s), cartridge... (c) Silica dust test....

2010-10-01

173

TRANSFER EFFICIENCES OF PESTICIDES FROM HOUSEHOLD CERAMIC TILE TO FOODS  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditional assessments of pesticide exposure through diet have focused on contamination during production (e.g., pesticides in agriculture). However, recent residential monitoring studies have demonstrated that a significant portion of total exposure to infants and children ...

174

Improving poisoning diagnosis and surveillance of street pesticides  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english An effective surveillance system is required to reduce pesticide exposures and poisonings, especially from street pesticides (illegal, unlabelled, and decanted agricultural pesticides used predominately for urban household purposes). Poisoning from any pesticide class, not only organophosphates, con [...] stitutes a medically notifiable condition in South Africa. Current practice, however, is to report only organophosphate cases, resulting in severe under-reporting. The lack of data concerning the link between poisonings and street pesticides has led to the mistaken assumption that urban populations are not at risk from significant pesticide exposures and poisonings. Without accurate statistics, healthcare professionals and policy makers are unaware of the contribution of street pesticide poisonings to the overall health burden. Accurate diagnosis is a prerequisite for notification and subsequent surveillance. An algorithm has been developed to enable healthcare professionals to improve the diagnosis and notification of pesticide poisonings.

Hanna-Andrea, Rother.

2012-06-01

175

40 CFR 155.50 - Initiate a pesticide's registration review.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Initiate a pesticide's registration review. 155.50 Section 155.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...REGISTRATION REVIEW Registration Review Procedures § 155.50 Initiate a pesticide's registration...

2010-07-01

176

75 FR 60113 - Pesticide Science Policy; Notice of Withdrawal  

Science.gov (United States)

...the preferred method, but recommended...understanding of methods of analysis. For a time...exposure to pesticide residues in...vary for each pesticide- commodity...Assessment Analysis EPA's evaluation...methodology to a method known as...

2010-09-29

177

COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES  

Science.gov (United States)

To estimate pesticide exposure for young children wearing diapers, a method for collecting urine samples for analysis of pesticide metabolites is needed. To find a practical method, two possibilities were investigated: (1) analysis of expressed urine from cotton diaper inserts ...

178

FREQUENCY ANALYSIS OF PESTICIDE CONCENTRATIONS FOR RISK ASSESSMENT (FRANCO MODEL)  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes a method for statistically characterizing the occurrence and duration of pesticide concentrations in surface waters receiving runoff from agricultural lands. The characterization bridges the gap between simulated instream pesticide modeling and the risk asse...

179

Some laboratory blood indicators in tractor drivers exposed to pesticides  

OpenAIRE

Pesticides represent group of extremely different compounds or mixed compounds. They are produced in the form of powder for direct application, powder for suspension, concentrated suspension, concentration of emulsion, and in other forms as well. Influence of pesticides to exposed workers mainly depends on technology of pesticide application use. All poisons, just like pesticides that come in organism in some way and reach the location of their metabolism, accumulation in the body or ex...

Prokeš Bela L.

2010-01-01

180

Pesticide Exposure and Child Neurodevelopment: Summary and Implications  

OpenAIRE

Widely used around the world, pesticides play an important role in protecting health, crops, and property. However, pesticides may also have detrimental effects on human health, with young children among the particularly vulnerable. Recent research suggests that even low levels of pesticide exposure can affect young children’s neurological and behavioral development. Evidence shows a link between pesticides and neonatal reflexes, psychomotor and mental development, and attention-deficit hyp...

Liu, Jianghong; Schelar, Erin

2012-01-01

181

Influence of Combinations of Pesticides and Fertilizers on Aquatic Productivity  

OpenAIRE

We have examined the effects of environmentally realistic concentrations of widely used pesticides and fertilizers for rice paddy in Western Ghats regions of India on chlorophyll and zooplankton production using a laboratory mesocosm. Malathion (100 ?g·L-1), Cypermethrin (25 ?g·L-1), Nitrate-nitrogen (8 mg·L-1) and Phosphate-phosphorus (8 mg·L-1) in different combinations such as pesticide-pesticide and pesticide-fertilizer were tested in fully factorial manner...

Ganapati Hegde; Mahesh Mandya; Gokarnakar, Sushma S.; Babu, Vinodbabu N.; Shivaramaiah, Vijayakumar N.; Krishnamurthy, Sannanegunda V.

2014-01-01

182

Risk assessment of pesticide runoff from turf.  

Science.gov (United States)

The TurfPQ model was used to simulate the runoff of 15 pesticides commonly applied to creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) fairways and greens on golf courses in the northeastern USA. Simulations produced 100-yr daily records of water runoff, pesticide runoff, and pesticide concentration in runoff for three locations: Boston, MA, Philadelphia, PA, and Rochester, NY. Results were summarized as annual and monthly means and annual maximum daily loads (AMDLs) corresponding to 10- and 20-yr return periods. Mean annual pesticide runoff loads did not exceed 3% of annual applications for any pesticide or site, and most losses were substantially less than 1% of application. However, annual or monthly mean concentrations of chlorothalonil, iprodione, and PCNB in fairway runoff often exceeded concentrations that result in 50% mortality of the affected species (LC50) for aquatic organisms. Concentrations of azoxystrobin, bensulide, cyfluthrin, and trichlorfon in extreme (1 in 10 yr or 1 in 20 yr) events often approached or exceeded LC50 levels. Concentrations of halofenozide, mancozeb, MCPP, oxadiazon, propiconazole, thiophanate-methyl, triadimefon, and trinexapac-ethyl were well below LC50 levels, and turf runoff of these chemicals does not appear to be hazardous to aquatic life in surface waters. PMID:12708667

Haith, Douglas A; Rossi, Frank S

2003-01-01

183

Compound specific isotope analysis of organophosphorus pesticides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) has been established as a tool to study the environmental fate of a wide range of contaminants. In this study, CSIA was developed to analyse the stable carbon isotope signatures of the widely used organophosphorus pesticides: dichlorvos, omethoate and dimethoate. The linearity of the GC-C-IRMS system was tested for target pesticides and led to an acceptable isotope composition within the uncertainty of the instrument. In order to assess the accuracy of the developed method, the effect of the evaporation procedure on measured carbon isotope composition (?(13)C) values was studied and showed that concentration by evaporation of solvents had no significant isotope effect. The CSIA was then applied to investigate isotope fractionation of the hydrolysis and photolysis of selected pesticides. The carbon isotope fractionation of tested pesticides was quantified by the Rayleigh model, which revealed a bulk enrichment factor (?) of -0.2±0.1‰ for hydrolysis of dichlorvos, -1.0±0.1‰ and -3.7±1.1‰ for hydrolysis and photolysis of dimethoate respectively. This study is a first step towards the application of CSIA to trace the transport and degradation of organophosphorus pesticides in the environment. PMID:24997952

Wu, Langping; Yao, Jun; Trebse, Polonca; Zhang, Ning; Richnow, Hans H

2014-09-01

184

The aqueous radiation chemistry of pesticides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The degradation of pesticides is an important issue affecting the users and the environment. Degradation rates influence the spatial and temporal application rates and the effects on crops sown in subsequent seasons. Free radical reactions have been widely suggested as important in the aqueous degradation chemistry of pesticides and we report direct measurements of free radical reactions of nine pesticides widely used in Australia. Steady-state gamma radiolysis and pulse radiolysis have been used to follow the chemistry of the reactions of OH, H, O2-,SO4-,CO2-,eaq- and other radical species with the nine pesticides. HPLC and mass spectrometry were used to determine the reaction products and the spectra and kinetics of the primary radical reactions and their products were followed by pulse radiolysis. Elucidation of the reaction mechanisms and the structures of the radical intermediates formed from the initial radical attacks has been aided by the use of molecular modelling programs to estimate the configuration and electron density of the intermediates. The results, particularly the rate constants for the Initial radical attack, do not suggest that photochemically generated free radicals play a large part in the degradation of these pesticides in the environment

185

76 FR 6465 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...40 CFR part 180 for residues of the herbicide glyphosate...are available for analysis of residues of glyphosate and...GLC), Method I in Pesticides Analytical...

2011-02-04

186

76 FR 49396 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...  

Science.gov (United States)

...make a final determination on this pesticide...regulations for residues of pesticides...part 180 for residues of the insecticide metaflumizone...to determine residues of metaflumizone...The final determination of...

2011-08-10

187

75 FR 11171 - Notice of Filing of Several Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...  

Science.gov (United States)

...can make a final determination on these pesticide...regulations for residues of pesticides in...a tolerance for residues of the insecticide, Paecilomyces...a tolerance for residues of the insecticide,...

2010-03-10

188

75 FR 57942 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...  

Science.gov (United States)

...modified Monier-Williams method, which is the official method of analysis approved by the Association...pesticide inert ingredient in pesticide formulations applied to growing...after harvest. An analytical method has not been proposed...

2010-09-23

189

PESTICIDE SOURCES TO SOIL AND PRINCIPLES OF SPRAY PHYSICS  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past 50 years, organic pesticides have greatly enhanced the production and quality of food, feed, and fiber as well as the control of disease vectors and pests adversely affecting human health and welfare. n this review of the pesticides literature, the pesticide source te...

190

PESTICIDE SOIL SORPTION PARAMETERS: THEORY, MEASUREMENT, USES, LIMITATIONS AND RELIABILITY  

Science.gov (United States)

The soil sorption coefficient Kd and the soil organic carbon sorption coefficient Koc of pesticides are basic parameters used worldwide in describing the environmental behavior of pesticides. They are a measure of the strength of sorption of pesticides to soils and other geosorbent surfaces at the ...

191

Summary of Validation of Multi-Pesticide Methods for Various Pesticide Formulations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The validation of multi-pesticide methods applicable for various types of pesticide formulations is treated. In a worked-out practical example, i.e. lambda cyhalothrin, the theoretical considerations outlined in the General Guidance section are put into practice. GC conditions, selection of an internal standard and criteria for an acceptable repeatability of injections are outlined, followed by sample preparation, calibration, batch analysis and confirmation of results through comparison using different separation columns. Complete sets of data are displayed in tabular form for other pesticide active ingredients and real formulations. (author)

192

78 FR 6274 - Withdrawal of Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various Commodities  

Science.gov (United States)

...Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various Commodities...regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities...petition summary. You may also reach each contact person by mail...180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food...

2013-01-30

193

76 FR 20667 - Notice of Withdrawal of Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various Commodities...regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities...petition summary. You may also reach each contact person by mail...180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food...

2011-04-13

194

The status of pesticide pollution in Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper summarises the findings of recent studies carried out to assess the levels of pesticide residues in water, sediment, soil and some biota collected from different parts of Tanzania. Although the intention is to cover the whole country, so far the studies have focused on areas with known large-scale pesticide use (Southern Lake Victoria and its basin, TPC sugar Plantations in Kilimanjaro region, Dar es Salaam coast, Mahonda-Makoba basin in Zanzibar) and a former pesticide storage area at Vikuge Farm in Coast region). Analysis of the cleaned extracts in GC-ECD/NPD revealed the dominance of organochlorines in all samples. Generally, low levels of residues were found in areas associated with agricultural pesticide use but the levels in the former storage areas were substantially high. DDT and HCH were dominant in all the studied areas. In the former areas, levels of summation operatorDDT in water, sediments and soil were up to 2mugL(-1), 700mugkg(-1) and 500mugkg(-1), respectively, while those of summation operatorHCH were up to 0.2mugL(-1), 132mugkg(-1) and 60mugkg(-1), respectively. The levels in aquatic biota were much higher than those in the water most likely due to bioaccumulation. In the former storage area at Vikuge the levels of pesticides in the topsoil were alarmingly high. Their concentrations were up to 282,000mgkg(-1) dry weight for summation operatorDDT and up to 63,000mgkg(-1) for summation operatorHCH. A herbicide, pendimethalin [N-(1-ethylpropyl)-2,6-dinitro-3,4-xylidine], was also found at concentrations up to 41,000mgkg(-1) dry weight. Thus the total pesticide content in the soil was almost 40%. Following these findings the area is now earmarked to be a demonstration site for a proposed GEF project 'Bioremediation of POPs impacted soils in East Africa'. PMID:18969567

Kishimba, M A; Henry, L; Mwevura, H; Mmochi, A J; Mihale, M; Hellar, H

2004-09-01

195

Effects of pesticides on crab cheliped regeneration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mud crab cheliped regeneration bioassay has proven to be a sensitive and reliable bioassay in studies of the potential sublethal effects of pesticides, including teratogenesis, spontaneous autotomy, and duration of the various stages of development. The assay has also been demonstated to be a useful indication of mortality associated with the impact of these chemicals of anthropogenic origin during the megalopal and early postlarval stages of development. Four pesticides were tested here using the cheliped regeneration bioassay technique. Although carbofuran is approximately 5--6 times more toxic than methomyl, both compounds yield very similar results in terms of sublethal effects.

Costlow, J.D. Jr.

1993-01-01

196

Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms, many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence, and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization of the already approved pesticides and the approval of the new compounds in the near future. Thus, new tools or techniques with greater reliability than those already existing are needed to predict the potential hazards of pesticides and thus contribute to reduction of the adverse effects on human health and the environment. On the other hand, the implementation of alternative cropping systems that are less dependent on pesticides, the development of new pesticides with novel modes of action and improved safety profiles, and the improvement of the already used pesticide formulations towards safer formulations (e.g., microcapsule suspensions could reduce the adverse effects of farming and particularly the toxic effects of pesticides. In addition, the use of appropriate and well-maintained spraying equipment along with taking all precautions that are required in all stages of pesticide handling could minimize human exposure to pesticides and their potential adverse effects on the environment.

Christos A. Damalas

2011-05-01

197

CYP2D6 polymorphism, pesticide exposure, and Parkinson's disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

We performed a case-control study of Parkinson's disease (PD) in a population characterized by a high prevalence of pesticide exposure and studied the joint effect of pesticide exposure and CYP2D6. Although they are based on a small group of subjects with the joint exposure, our findings are consistent with a gene-environment interaction disease model according to which (1) pesticides have a modest effect in subjects who are not CYP2D6 poor metabolizers, (2) pesticides' effect is increased in poor metabolizers (approximately twofold), and (3) poor metabolizers are not at increased PD risk in the absence of pesticide exposure. PMID:14991823

Elbaz, Alexis; Levecque, Clotilde; Clavel, Jacqueline; Vidal, Jean-Sébastien; Richard, Florence; Amouyel, Philippe; Alpérovitch, Annick; Chartier-Harlin, Marie-Christine; Tzourio, Christophe

2004-03-01

198

Disposal and degradation of pesticide waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

Generation of pesticide waste is inevitable during every agricultural operation from storage to use and equipment cleanup. Large-scale pesticide manufacturers can afford sophisticated recovery, treatment, and cleanup techniques. Small-scale pesticide users, for example, single farms or small application businesses, struggle with both past waste problems, including contaminated soils, and disposal of unused product and equipment rinsewater. Many of these problems have arisen as a result of inability to properly handle spills during, equipment loading and rinsewater generated after application. Small-scale facilities also face continued problems of wastewater handling. Old, obsolete pesticide stocks are a vexing problem in numerous developing countries. Pesticide waste is characterized by high concentrations of a diversity of chemicals and associated adjuvants. Dissipation of chemicals at elevated concentrations is much slower than at lower concentrations, in part because of microbial toxicity and mass transfer limitations. High concentrations of pesticides may also move faster to lower soil depths, especially when pore water becomes saturated wish a compound. Thus, if pesticide waste is not properly disposed of, groundwater and surface water contamination become probable. The Waste Management Hierarchy developed as an Australian Code of Practice can serve as a guide for development of a sound waste management plan. In order of desirability, the course of actions include waste avoidance, waste reduction, waste recycling, waste treatment, and waste disposal. Proper management of pesticide stocks, including adequate storage conditions, good inventory practices, and regular turnover of products,. will contribute to waste avoidance and reduction over the long-term. Farmers can also choose to use registered materials that have the lowest recommended application rates or are applied in the least volume of water. Wastewater that is generated during equipment rinsing can be recycled by spraying it onto cropland, thus avoiding a soil contamination problem. If it is not feasible to spray out rinsates, then water treatment becomes necessary. However, for small waste generators, practical technology is still too experimental and not easily implemented on an individual farm or at a small application business. Nevertheless, research has been quite active in application of advanced oxidation processes (UV/ozonation: photoassisted Fenton reaction: photocatalysis using TiO2). Obsolete pesticide stocks in developing countries are being packaged and shipped to developed countries for incineration. Contaminated soil can also be incinerated, but this is not practical nor affordable for small waste generators. Chemical degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides may be amenable to dechlorination by alkali polyethylene glycol treatment, but further study is needed to make the technique practical for small waste generators. Contaminated soils may be amenable to cleanup by one of several biological treatment methods, including composting, landfarming, and bioaugmentation/ biostimulation. Composting and landfarming (which may be used in combination with biostimulation) may be the most practical of the biological methods that is immediately ready for implementation by small-scale pesticide waste generators. PMID:12666819

Felsot, Allan S; Racke, Kenneth D; Hamilton, Denis J

2003-01-01

199

Exploration analytique des intoxications par les pesticides Analytical investigation in pesticide intoxication cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Du fait du nombre croissant d'intoxications par les pesticides, il est important de développer des méthodes performantes permettant l'identification et le dosage des molécules appartenant à l'ensemble des classes de pesticides. Dans ce but, nous avons développé une méthode de dosage originale et sensible de 61 pesticides dans les matrices biologiques. Cette méthode utilise une procédure d'extraction solide/liquide sur support polymérique (HLB and MCX OASIS®. Le couplage chromatographie en phase gazeuse/spectrométrie de masse (GC/MS est utilisé pour les pesticides volatils (organophosphorés, organochlorés, phtalimides, uraciles et un couplage chromatographie en phase liquide/spectrométrie de masse (LC/MS pour les pesticides polaires et thermolabiles (carbamates, benzimidazoles. L'acquisition est réalisée en mode fragmentométrique (SIM. Les rendements d'extraction varient selon la nature des pesticides dosés, mais restent satisfaisants pour l'ensemble des pesticides. Les limites de détection (LOD et les limites de quantification (LOQ sont réparties entre 2,5 et 20 ng/ml et de 5 à 50 ng/ml. La linéarité a été étudiée entre les différentes LOQ et 1000 ng/ml pour tous les pesticides étudiés. Les résultats sont reproductibles et répétables, avec une bonne précision et une bonne justesse. Des exemples d'intoxication permettent de montrer l'intérêt diagnostique de ces méthodes : deux cas d'intoxication mortelle à l'endosulfan et au carbofuran ; trois autres d'intoxication aiguë au parathion-éthyle, à la bifenthrine et à l'aldicarbe. Considering the huge use of pesticides on a worldwide basis, pesticides account for a small but increasing number of human acute and severe intoxication. However, intoxication cases attributed to pesticides are not always well diagnosed nor documented. In clinical and forensic toxicology, identification and quantification of the toxicants involved are essential for a good diagnosis. Hence, we developed an original and sensitive multiresidue methods for the detection and quantitation, in human biological matrices, of sixty one pesticides of toxicological significance in human. These methods involved rapid solid-phase extraction using new polymeric support (HLB and MCX OASIS® cartridges. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS was used for volatile (organophosphate, organochlorine, phtalimide, uracil pesticides and liquid chromatography-ionspray®-mass spectrometry (LC/MS for thermolabile and polar pesticides (carbamates, benzimidazoles. Acquisition was performed in the selected ion monitoring (SIM mode. Extraction recovery varied owing to the nature of pesticides but was satisfactory for all. Limits of detection (LODs and limits of quantitation (LOQs ranged respectively from 2.5 to 20 ng/ml and from 5 to 50 ng/ml. An excellent linearity was observed from LOQs up to 1000 ng/ml for all the pesticides studied. The proposed procedures yielded reproducible results with good inter-assay accuracy and precision. A few cases of intoxication are presented to demonstrate the diagnostic interest of these methods : in two cases were determined lethal concentrations of endosulfan and carbofuran ; in three other cases, the procedures helped diagnose intoxication with respectively parathion-ethyl, bifenthrin and aldicarb.

Lacassie Éric

2009-04-01

200

75 FR 33744 - Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Proposed...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Publicly available docket materials are available either...titled ``Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards...Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP). The SAP and the Secretary of...review by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB)...

2010-06-15

201

Pesticide transport simulation in a tropical catchment by SWAT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The application of agrochemicals in Southeast Asia is increasing in rate, variety and toxicity with alarming speed. Understanding the behavior of these different contaminants within the environment require comprehensive monitoring programs as well as accurate simulations with hydrological models. We used the SWAT hydrological model to simulate the fate of three different pesticides, one of each usage type (herbicide, fungicide and insecticide) in a mountainous catchment in Northern Thailand. Three key parameters were identified: the sorption coefficient, the decay coefficient and the coefficient controlling pesticide percolation. We yielded satisfactory results simulating pesticide load dynamics during the calibration period (NSE: 0.92–0.67); the results during the validation period were also acceptable (NSE: 0.61–0.28). The results of this study are an important step in understanding the modeling behavior of these pesticides in SWAT and will help to identify thresholds of worst-case scenarios in order to assess the risk for the environment. - Highlights: • We performed a global LH-sensitivity analysis of all pesticide related parameters. • Key physical parameters are associated to percolation, degradation and sorption. • We simulated the measured loads of three different pesticides. • We performed an uncertainty analysis of all pesticide simulations. • All Pesticides differed considerably in their sensitivity and simulation behavior. - Pesticide load simulations of three pesticides were modeled by SWAT, providing clues on how to handle pesticides in future SWAT studies

202

Landscape parameters driving aquatic pesticide exposure and effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pesticide contamination is considered one of the reasons streams fail to achieve good ecological and chemical status, the main objectives of the Water Framework Directive. However, little is known on the interaction of different pesticide sources and landscape parameters and the resulting impairment of macroinvertebrate communities. We evaluated the potential effects of diffuse and point sources of pesticides using macroinvertebrate monitoring data from 663 sites in central Germany. Additionally, we investigated forested upstream reaches and structural quality as landscape parameters potentially mitigating or amplifying the effects of pesticides. Diffuse pesticide pollution and forested upstream reaches were the most important parameters affecting macroinvertebrate communities (pesticide-specific indicator SPEARpesticides). Our results indicate that forested upstream reaches and riparian buffer strips at least 5 m in width can mitigate the effects and exposure of pesticides. In addition, we developed a screening approach that allows an initial, cost-effective identification of sites of concern. Highlights: • Pesticide sources and landscape parameters important for holistic risk assessment. • Riparian buffer strips of at least 5 m in width can reduce diffuse pesticide input. • Forested upstream reaches enhance recovery of pesticide-affected communities. • Screening approach allows quick and cost-effective identification of problem sites. -- Our results show the interaction of different pesticide sources and landscape parameters and the resulting impairment of macroinvertebrate communities

203

ESTIMATION OF THE BURDEN OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN SLOVAK POPULATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pesticides used in the agriculture have to be applied according to the requirements of good agricultural practice and appropriate law. Pesticides leave detectable residues in agricultural crops, raw materials and ecosystem components. Pesticides reach the human population through the food chain. Information on the type and concentration of pesticide residues in food is in Slovakia collected trough the monitoring programs. Health risks associated with pesticides contaminants in human nutrition are very important and are recently studied by several expert groups. Prerequisite programs are necessary to protect public health. Risk analysis and monitoring of the population burden by pesticide contaminants have to be performed in expert level. The general strategy for assessment of toxicity of pesticides is listed by the World health Organisation. Scientific risk assessment is the basis for taking action and making the legislation at national and European community level.doi:10.5219/69

Jozef Sokol

2010-07-01

204

Public Health Implications of Pesticide Residues in Meat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. Since then various synthetic pesticides are used for protection of crops and public health. The persistence nature of some of these pesticides led to their accumulation in animal tissues and subsequently causes human dietary exposure to these pesticides through consumption of animal products viz. meat, milk, eggs and seafoods. Scientific evidence suggest that even such low dose but long term exposure can cause serious health hazards to human health and environment as well. The reports on occurrence of pesticides residues in animal products manufactured in India are fragmentary, but provide confirmation to the fact Indian consumers do get dietary exposure to these pesticides. The role of Insecticide Act and Prevention of Food Adulteration Act enforced in India for judicious pesticide use and safety of consumers of animal products is discussed. [Vet. World 2011; 4(4.000: 178-182

Jadhav V.J. and Waskar V.S.

2011-08-01

205

Incident Diabetes and Pesticide Exposure among Licensed Pesticide Applicators: Agricultural Health Study 1993 – 2003  

OpenAIRE

Exposure to certain environmental toxicants may be associated with increased risk of developing diabetes. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between lifetime exposure to specific agricultural pesticides and diabetes incidence among pesticide applicators. The study included 33,457 licensed applicators, predominantly non-Hispanic white males, enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study. Incident diabetes was self-reported in a 5-year follow-up interview (1999–2003), giving 1,176 diabet...

Montgomery, M. P.; Kame, F.; Saldana, T. M.; Alavanja, M. C. R.; Sandler, D. P.

2008-01-01

206

Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Agriculture - Plant.  

Science.gov (United States)

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the agriculture-plant pest control category. The text discusses identification and control of insects, diseases, nematodes, and weeds of agricultural crops. Proper use of application equipment and safety…

Fitzwater, W. D.; And Others

207

Decontamination of pesticide packing using ionizing radiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Brazilian agriculture activities have consumed about 288,000 tons of pesticides per year conditioned in about 107,000,000 packing with weight of approximately 23,000 tons. The discharge of empty plastic packing of pesticides can be an environmental concern causing problems to human health, animals, and plants if done without inspection and monitoring. The objective of this work is to study the ionizing radiation effect in the main pesticides used in Brazil for plastic packing decontamination. Among the commercial pesticides, chlorpyrifos has significant importance because of its wide distribution and extensive use and persistence. The radiation-induced degradation of chlorpyrifos in liquid samples and in polyethylene pack was studied by gamma radiolysis. Packing of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) three layer coextruded, named COEX, contaminated with chlorpyrifos, were irradiated using both a multipurpose Co-60 gamma irradiator and a gamma source with 5000 Ci total activity Gamma cell type. The chemical analysis of the chlorpyrifos was made using a gas chromatography associated to the Mass Spectrometry-GCMS from Shimadzu Model QP 5000. Gamma radiation was efficient for removing chlorpyrifos from the plastic packing, in all studied cases.

Duarte, C.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Lineu Prestes 2.242, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: clduarte@ipen.br; Mori, M.N.; Kodama, Yasko; Oikawa, H.; Sampa, M.H.O. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Lineu Prestes 2.242, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2007-11-15

208

Decontamination of pesticide packing using ionizing radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Brazilian agriculture activities have consumed about 288,000 tons of pesticides per year conditioned in about 107,000,000 packing with weight of approximately 23,000 tons. The discharge of empty plastic packing of pesticides can be an environmental concern causing problems to human health, animals, and plants if done without inspection and monitoring. The objective of this work is to study the ionizing radiation effect in the main pesticides used in Brazil for plastic packing decontamination. Among the commercial pesticides, chlorpyrifos has significant importance because of its wide distribution and extensive use and persistence. The radiation-induced degradation of chlorpyrifos in liquid samples and in polyethylene pack was studied by gamma radiolysis. Packing of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) three layer coextruded, named COEX, contaminated with chlorpyrifos, were irradiated using both a multipurpose Co-60 gamma irradiator and a gamma source with 5000 Ci total activity Gamma cell type. The chemical analysis of the chlorpyrifos was made using a gas chromatography associated to the Mass Spectrometry-GCMS from Shimadzu Model QP 5000. Gamma radiation was efficient for removing chlorpyrifos from the plastic packing, in all studied cases

209

77 FR 26462 - Dimethomorph; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...unnecessary. iv. Anticipated residue and PCT information...not use anticipated residue and/or PCT information...dimethomorph. Tolerance level residues and/or 100 PCT were...the dietary exposure analysis and risk assessment...water models used in pesticide exposure...

2012-05-04

210

Radioisotopes in pesticide residues and metabolic studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The increasing use of pesticides and their serious role as environmental contaminants necessitate detailed studies of their metabolism,toxicology and environmental fate.The complex problems which are beyond conventional analytical analysis could,and with great precision,be solved by the use of nuclear techniques.Pesticides labelled with radionuclides(H-3,C-14,P-32 and Cl-36) can be used.Compounds labelled with these radionuclides can be easily measured,in very low concentrations, by use of liquid scintillation counters.Metabolism and distribution of the labelled compounds in the plant can be followed by autoradiography.In this study,supported by the IAEA, the following pesticides were investigated, C-14 DDT, C-14 Endosulfan, C-14 Carbaryl, C-14 Carbofuran, C-14 Amitraz, C-14 Aldicarb and C-14 Butocarboxim. The investigations included :a) study of the binding of these compounds in soils. b) study of the : i) fate and dynamics of aldicarb in cotton plant. ii) fate of amitraz in tomatoes. 'this work is part of the programme of studies of pesticide residues in soil, plants and foods, aproject supported by the international Atomic Energy Commission '.(Author)

211

75 FR 80346 - Flutolanil; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...unnecessary. iv. Anticipated residue and percent crop treated...not use anticipated residue and/or PCT information...flutolanil. Tolerance level residues and/or 100% CT were...the dietary exposure analysis and risk assessment...water models used in pesticide exposure...

2010-12-22

212

75 FR 31785 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

...code 111). Animal production (NAICS...register pesticide products containing Fluxapyroxad...peas and beans, edible podded legumes...peas and beans, edible podded legume...7969-GNI. Product name: BAS 700...peas and beans, edible podded legume...7969-GNO. Product name: BAS...

2010-06-04

213

DEVELOPMENT OF GENETICALLY ENHANCED BACULOVIRUS PESTICIDES  

Science.gov (United States)

The assessment of potential environmental impacts of genetically improved viral pesticides will include an evaluation of the properties of the foreign gene product(s) as well as the biological properties of altered virus itself. It is anticipated that in the near future several t...

214

DETERMINATION OF PESTICIDES IN COMPOSITE BEVERAGE SAMPLES  

Science.gov (United States)

USEPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory conducts research to measure the exposure of individuals to chemical pollutants through the diet, as well as other media. In support of this research, methods are being evaluated for determination of pesticides in composite dietary s...

215

Quality Control of Selected Pesticides with HPLC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laboratory data obtained on two different HPLC separation columns and detection by UV and DAD under repeatability conditions are presented and discussed. The behaviour of pesticides on different HPLC columns under gradient and isocratic conditions is evaluated concerning the applicability of respective methodologies. Representative chromatograms of real formulations and “empty” formlants are given for illustration. (author)

216

76 FR 27268 - Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerance  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0938; FRL-8872-6] Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerance AGENCY: Environmental...established tolerance for residues of glyphosate in or on corn, field, forage. Monsanto...tolerance for residues of the herbicide glyphosate, N-(phosphonomethyl)...

2011-05-11

217

78 FR 23497 - Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...Register of May 23, 2012 (Volume 77, FR 30481) (FRL...tolerance (the legal limit for a pesticide chemical...phenobarbital, a known liver tumor promoter. Liver enzyme...International Residue Limits In making its tolerance...international maximum residue limits (MRLs)...

2013-04-19

218

EMISSION OF PESTICIDES INTO THE AIR  

Science.gov (United States)

During and after the application of pesticide in agriculture, a substantial fraction of the dosage may enter the atmosphere and be transported over varying distances downwind of the target. The rate and extent of the emission during application depends primarily on the applicat...

219

Quality Control Of Selected Pesticides With GC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The practical quality control of selected pesticides with GC is treated. Detailed descriptions are given on materials and methods used, including sample preparation and GC operating conditions. The systematic validation of multi methods is described, comprising performance characteristics in routine analysis, like selectivity, specificity etc. This is illustrated by chromatograms, calibration curves and tables derived from real laboratory data. (author)

220

Some laboratory blood indicators in tractor drivers exposed to pesticides  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pesticides represent group of extremely different compounds or mixed compounds. They are produced in the form of powder for direct application, powder for suspension, concentrated suspension, concentration of emulsion, and in other forms as well. Influence of pesticides to exposed workers mainly depends on technology of pesticide application use. All poisons, just like pesticides that come in organism in some way and reach the location of their metabolism, accumulation in the body or extraction must get there through blood. Pesticides influence stem cells in bone marrow, then maturation process of blood elements and can damage mature blood cells in blood circulation. The sample encompassed 142 tractor drivers employed in state agricultural unions who were exposed to pesticides during their work. Concerning annual and daily exposure to pesticides in examined persons is determined that daily extent ranged from 3 to 12 hours and annual from 5 to 125 days, 60.93 in average. In the paper are analyzed following blood count parameters: erythrocytes, hemoglobin, leucocytes and thrombocytes The aim of the paper is to investigate whether pesticides influence changed blood count of tractor drivers exposed to pesticides during their work. Analysis of obtained results indicates that exposure to pesticides, like in examined group of workers, has not influenced damage in any of investigated blood count parameter.

Prokeš Bela L.

2010-01-01

221

Pesticide dissipation in soils as a model for xenobiotic behaviour  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the older 'hard' pesticides such as DDT dissipation meant primarily redistribution and bioaccumulation. For the majority of the pesticides currently being used, dissipation refers to all the degradation and transfer processes involved in the ultimate fate of chemicals in the environment. The degradation processes include non-biological, chemical and photochemical decomposition and biological decomposition by organisms and microorganisms. The transfer processes include pesticide sorption by soil colloids; diffusion of volatile pesticides into the atmosphere; movement downwards of pesticides into the soil in percolating waters, movement upwards with capillary water, and movement off the soil surface into surface waters; and absorption, exudation and bioaccumulation of pesticides by organisms. Knowledge of key pesticide and soil properties is necessary in understanding the fate and behaviour of pesticides. Key pesticide properties are symbolized by the acronym SILVER, which stands for solubility in water, ionizability, longevity (persistence), extractability in organic solvents, and the reactive groups present. The key soil properties are symbolized by the acronym SCOOP, which stands for structure (such as fragipans or macropores), clay type and amount, organic matter content, oxide (hydrous) content, and the pH of the system. These properties have been used in computer models to predict pesticide dissipation in soil and the environment. The greatest weakness of the environment. The greatest weakness of the models has been the inability to simulate real world conditions. (author). 41 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

222

[Pesticide residual status in litchi orchard soils in Guangdong, China].  

Science.gov (United States)

Litchi is a famous tropical and subtropical fruit originated in South China. Guangdong is one of the most important litchi production areas in China. Two hundred and eight soil samples were collected in litchi orchards after harvesting the fruit, in which nine often-used pesticides including metalaxyl, mancozeb, carbendazim, deltamethrin, cypermethrin, cyhalothrin, dipterex, dimethoate and dichlorvos were detected. The results showed that the detectable rates of various pesticides were ranked cypermethrin (59.1%) > carbendazim (51.0%) > mancozeb (11.1%) > metalaxyl (6.7%) > cyhalothrin (3.4%). Dimethoate and dichlorvos were detectable in few soil samples, and deltamethrin and dipterex were undetectable in all samples. The percentages of soil samples where different pesticides could be detected in one sample followed the order: one pesticide detectable (40.4%) > two pesticides simultaneously detectable (31.3%) > pesticide undetectable (18.8%) > three pesticides simultaneously detectable (8.2%) > four pesticides simultaneously detectable (1.4%). The concentrations of mancozeb in detectable samples averaged 39.05 microg x kg(-1), and that of cypermethrin was 7.83 microg x kg(-1). The mean concentrations of the other five pesticides ranged from 0.19 microg x kg(-1) to 1.65 microg x kg(-1). Totally, the pesticide residue status in litchi orchards in Guangdong was venial. PMID:21250457

Yao, Li-Xian; Huang, Lian-Xi; Li, Guo-Liang; He, Zhao-Huan; Zhou, Chang-Min; Yang, Bao-Mei; Guo, Bin

2010-11-01

223

Use and storage of domestic pesticides in the UK.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several epidemiological studies, particularly from the United States, have suggested health concerns may arise from the chronic exposure of young children to pesticides in their home environment. Most of these studies are retrospective and the available pesticide exposure information is either subject to the problem of recall or derived from surrogate information. Currently, little is known about the extent of pesticide use in homes and gardens in the UK. This was investigated in this study using a sample of parents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort in and around Bristol. The level and extent of pesticide use by parents was explored through interviews that took place at the homes of the participants during August to November 2001, followed by an inventory of products stored in the home. From the results, 93% of parents had used at least one pesticide over the preceding year with the highest use being in the garden, second inside the home, followed by treating pets and head lice. Most households reported using one to five different products over the past year, with a mean of 3.5. The frequency of pesticide use showed that a minority of parents are using pesticides in the high frequency range. Over 85 different pesticide products were found to be stored in 76% of homes, with 76 different types of pesticide active ingredients. Insecticides were the most commonly used and stored pesticide. PMID:16697439

Grey, Charlotte N B; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Golding, Jean

2006-09-15

224

40 CFR 158.2081 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.  

Science.gov (United States)

...particular biochemical pesticide product. Notes that...are required for all pesticide products and are not...active ingredient; Residue of concern=the...use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry... TGAI and EP 4 Analysis and Certified...

2010-07-01

225

40 CFR 158.2150 - Microbial pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data requirements table.  

Science.gov (United States)

...tests for microbial pesticides: i. Avian acute...tests for microbial pesticides: i. Estuarine...Required if, after an analysis of the microbial pesticide's...or expected field residue exposure levels...

2010-07-01

226

76 FR 3601 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues  

Science.gov (United States)

...FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR); considering...methods of sampling and analysis for the determination of pesticide residues in food and feed...Address Methods of Analysis for Pesticide Residues by the CCPR...

2011-01-20

227

77 FR 3229 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR)  

Science.gov (United States)

...WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR); considering...sampling and analysis for the determination of pesticide residues in food and feed...Revision of the Risk Analysis Principles Applied...Committee on Pesticide Residues...

2012-01-23

228

78 FR 23558 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for New Active Ingredients  

Science.gov (United States)

...http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/regulating/registration-public-involvement...following applications to register pesticide products containing an...Glenvale, Queensland, Australia, 4350, c/o MacIntosh Associates...other applications to register pesticide products containing this...

2013-04-19

229

75 FR 34115 - Pesticides; Availability of Updated Schedule for Registration Review  

Science.gov (United States)

...decision to review all pesticides in two groups -- the fumigants...the Agency moved these pesticides ahead in the schedule so that dockets for all pesticides in these groups will open...to address current data gaps and to refine...

2010-06-16

230

Analysis of Recent Situation of Pesticide Poisoning in Bangladesh: Is There a Proper Estimate?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Conclusion: Pesticide poisoning is responsible for great number of admissions and deaths in Bangladesh. Creating a register of commercially available pesticides in each region for rapid identification of nature of the pesticide is recommended.

Gourab Dewan

2014-06-01

231

Determination of Pesticide Residues in Fresh and Greenhouse Vegetables  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Regarding the public concerns about serious health risks from pesticide, the occurrences of 105 pesticide residues including Organochlorine, Organophosphorus, Organonitrogen, Dicarboximides, Strobilurin, Triazine, Pyrethroids were assessed using a descriptive method in 25 fresh and greenhouse vegetable samples (fresh carrot, greenhouse tomato and cucumber. Ethyl acetate was used for extraction of pesticides from samples and the extract was cleaned up by Envicarb Solid Phase Extraction column chromatography. Pesticide residues were identified and quantified using gas chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry detector. The mean recoveries and limit of detection of the pesticides in samples were respectively 61.67-117% and the reproducibility of relative standard deviation values for the pesticides was 3.49-14.55%. Our data demonstrated that 80% of the total analyzed samples contained detectable residues including trifluralin, permethrin, chlorpyrifos, fenvalerate, fenpropathrin and iprodione, which were below the accepted maximum residue limits (MRLS adopted by FAO/WHO Codex Commision Alimentarius.

M.H. Azizi

2008-04-01

232

Pesticide residues in locally available cereals and vegetables  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vegetable samples (pechay, cabbage, lettuce, green beans and tomatoes) bought from public markets in the Metro Manila area were analyzed for pesticide residues using gas chromatography. The samples analyzed in 1968-69 contained high levels of chlorinated pesticides such as DDT, Aldrin, Endrin, and Thiodan, while in the samples analyzed in January 1976, no chlorinated and organophosphate pesticides were detected. Cereal samples (rice, corn and sorghum) were obtained from the National Grains Authority and analyzed for pesticide residues and bromine residues. Total bromine residues was determined by neutron activation analysis. In most of the samples analyzed, the concentrations of pesticide residues were below the tolerance levels set by the FAO/WHO Committee on Pesticide Residues in Foods. An exception was one rice sample from Thailand, the bromine residue content (110ppm) of which exceeds the tolerance level of 50ppm

233

Use of lysimeters for determining pesticide fate in agroecosystems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A lysimeter system is presented in which 14C labelled pesticides are applied in accordance with agricultural practice. The long term behaviour of pesticides in the soil-plant system can thus be determined under realistic climatic, cropping and soil conditions. In these experiments, pesticides and their metabolites are measured in soil, soil solutions, plants and drainage water over several growing seasons. In addition, a wind tunnel, combined with sensitive analytical methods, allows the determination of pesticide residues, their metabolites and 14CO2 as the mineralization product released into the air. Complementary standardized laboratory experiments yield information on the role of individual processes leading to binding, bioavailability and translocation. Important conclusions are thus obtained for the appropriate practical use of pesticides. As a final step in the validation of the lysimeter, a large scale experiment is in progress to compare lysimeter and field studies, with emphasis placed on the translocation of pesticides in deeper soil layers and groundwater. (author). Abstract only

234

Stream habitat structure influences macroinvertebrate response to pesticides  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Agricultural pesticide contamination in surface waters is increasingly threatening to impair the surface water ecosystems. Agricultural streams are furthermore often heavily maintained to optimise the transport of water away from fields. The physical habitat degradation that result from heavy stream maintenance probably introduce additional stress that may act in concert with pesticide stress. We surveyed pesticide contamination and macroinvertebrate community structure in 14 streams along a gradient of expected pesticide exposure. A paired-reach approach was applied to differentiate the effects of pesticides between sites with degraded and more undisturbed physical properties. The effect of pesticides on macroinvertebrate communities (measured as the relative abundance of SPEcies At Risk) was increased at stream sites with degraded physical habitats primarily due to the absence of species with specific preferences for habitats with hard substrate. Our findings highlight the importance of considering physicalhabitat degradation in the assessment and mitigation of risk in agricultural streams.

Rasmussen, Jes; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter

2012-01-01

235

[Investigation of pesticide residues in foods distributed in Kitakyushu City].  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated 160 kinds of pesticide residues in 715 samples of 116 kinds of foods distributed in Kitakyushu city. Sixty kinds of pesticides were detected in 55 kinds of foods (204 samples) in the range of 0.002-22 mg/kg. Five kinds of pesticides in 7 samples violated the residue standards and the indication of "unused". The detection ratios of unregulated pesticide in domestic and imported foods were 27.8 and 33.0%, respectively. Iprodione, dicofol, diethofencarb, procymidone and chlorfenapyr (for domestic food) and total bromine, benomyl, chlorpyrifos, dicofol, fenvalerate, cypermethrin and dimethoate (for imported food) showed relatively high detection ratios. Chinese cabbage, garland chrysanthemum, tomatoes and green teas (domestic) and broccoli, bananas, grapefruit, lemons, oranges, frozen edamame and frozen kidney beans (imported) showed high relative pesticide detection ratios. Residual pesticides were detected with relatively high frequency in imported fruits, imported frozen foods and imported processed foods. PMID:15272606

Ishikawa, Seiichi; Naetoko, Eri; Kawamura, Seiji; Yamaguchi, Rika; Higuchi, Masayuki; Kojima, Tsutomu; Yamato, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Masaki

2004-04-01

236

Influence of different disease control pesticide strategies on multiple pesticide residue levels in apple  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Seven pesticide application strategies were investigated to control apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) and powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) and, at the same time.. fulfil the new quality standards implemented by some German retailers. These demand that pesticide residues should be below 80% of European Maximum Residue Levels (EU MRL) and that the number of residues present at levels above 0.01 mg kg(-1) should be limited to a maximum of four. The strategies fulfilled the requirement to use combinations of different active substances in order to prevent the emergence of resistance to pesticides. The trials were conducted at two sites in Switzerland, in 2007, and all strategies and applications were in accordance with actual practice. Four replicates of apple samples from each strategy were then analysed for pesticide residues. The incidence of infection with apple scab and powdery mildew were monitored during the season in order to evaluate the efficacy of the different strategies. The efficacies of the different strategies against apple scab and powdery mildew were between 84% and 100% successful. In general, the level of pesticide residues found correlated with application rate and time, and no measured residue level exceeded the EU-MRL. The numbers of residues present at > 0.01 mg kg(-1) were between two and five.

Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Naef, A.

2009-01-01

237

The 2011 European Union Report on Pesticide Residues in Food  

OpenAIRE

The report presents the results of the control activities related to pesticide residues in food carried out in 2011 in 29 European countries (27 Member States and 2 EFTA countries). The report also presents a dietary risk assessment. On the basis of the detailed analysis of the results, EFSA derived some recommendations aimed at improving the enforcement of the European pesticide residue legislation. In 2011, more than 79,000 samples of more than 600 food products were tested for pesticide re...

European Food Safety Authority

2014-01-01

238

Antibiotic, Pesticide, and Microbial Contaminants of Honey: Human Health Hazards  

OpenAIRE

Agricultural contamination with pesticides and antibiotics is a challenging problem that needs to be fully addressed. Bee products, such as honey, are widely consumed as food and medicine and their contamination may carry serious health hazards. Honey and other bee products are polluted by pesticides, heavy metals, bacteria and radioactive materials. Pesticide residues cause genetic mutations and cellular degradation and presence of antibiotics might increase resistant human or animal's patho...

Al-waili, Noori; Salom, Khelod; Al-ghamdi, Ahmed; Ansari, Mohammad Javed

2012-01-01

239

Note on pesticide residues as a function of formulation used  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The total quantities of pesticides needed for adequate pest control may be minimized by the correct choice of methods of formulation and application. This will diminish the total burden of residues in the environment but not necessarily in the crop. Radiolabelled pesticides are useful for small-scale and laboratory tests to elucidate the principles which determine the behaviour of pesticides in the environment and to check analytical methods used for field-scale tests. (author)

240

Towards a Strategic Approaches in Alternative Tests for Pesticide Safety  

OpenAIRE

Pesticides have provided significant benefits including plant disease control and increased crop yields since people developed and utilized them. However, pesticide use is associated with many adverse effects, which necessitate precise toxicological tests and risk assessment. Most of these methods are based on animal studies, but considerations of animal welfare and ethics require the development of alternative methods for the evaluation of pesticide toxicity. Although the usage of laboratory...

Jang, Yoonjeong; Kim, Ji-eun; Jeong, Sang-hee; Cho, Myung-haing

2014-01-01

241

Gender Difference in Safe and Unsafe Practice of Pesticide Handling in Tobacco Farmers of Malaysia  

OpenAIRE

To identify gender difference in safe and unsafe practice of pesticide handling in tobacco farmers of Malaysia, we conducted a 20-item questionnaire interview on storage of pesticide (4 questions), mixing of pesticide (3 questions), use of personal protective equipment and clothing while spraying pesticide (7 questions), activities during and after spraying of pesticide (5 questions), and maintenance of pesticide sprayer (1 question) in 496 tobacco farmers (395 males and 101 females) in Bacho...

Bin Nordin, Rusli; Araki, Shunichi; Sato, Hajime; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Bin Wan Muda, Wan Abdul Manan; Win Kyi, Daw

2001-01-01

242

Biodegradation of Organophosphate Pesticide by Soil Fungi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study using enrichment technique biodegradation of organophosphorous pesticide, (Chloropyrifos and Ethion was performed. Two fungal isolates Trichoderma harznaium and Rhizopus nodosus isolated from the contaminated soil by enrichment technique, was capable of metabolizing the organophosphorous insecticide (Chloropyriofos and Ethion as a sole carbon source when grown in burkes mineral medium at concentration of 100 PPM respectively. Fungi were able to degrade 70-80% of the parental molecule (technical grade in 21 days period of incubation. Further, efficiency of degradation was increased by 10-20% with the supplementation of 0.1% dextrose to the mineral media. Desertion of Chloropyrifos, Ethion and its metabolites were analyzed by thin layer chromatography and gas Chromatography. It was evident from the result that the isolated fungi could be used to bioremediate the area contaminated with organophosphorous pesticide.

Harish.R

2013-03-01

243

Effect of pesticides on surface ozone concentration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparative study through seasonal variation of surface ozone concentration was carried out recently (1991-1992) at a background area free from expected urban pollutants (Shebin ElKom) and industrial and urban areas (Cairo). Surface ozone concentrations in ppb were generally lower in such area compared with urban or industrial areas studied through the comparative seasonal variations. Notable smog values (>100 ppb) of hourly surface ozone concentrations appeared during summer season in this rural area; during this season, some pesticides were sprayed over cotton and other crops fields in near by agricultural areas. The unexpected jump in the values of diurnal concentrations of surface ozone in that area may be due to the photochemical reactions of these organic pesticides in the atmosphere. 1 fig, 3 tab

244

Dietary exposures to selected metals and pesticides.  

OpenAIRE

Average daily dietary exposures to 11 contaminants were estimated for approximately 120,000 U.S. adults by combining data on annual diet, as measured by a food frequency questionnaire, with contaminant residue data for table-ready foods that were collected as part of the annual U.S. Food and Drug Administration Total Diet Study. The contaminants included in the analysis were four heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury), three organophosphate pesticides (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathio...

Macintosh, D. L.; Spengler, J. D.; Ozkaynak, H.; Tsai, L.; Ryan, P. B.

1996-01-01

245

Pesticide Residues and Bees – A Risk Assessment  

OpenAIRE

Bees are essential pollinators of many plants in natural ecosystems and agricultural crops alike. In recent years the decline and disappearance of bee species in the wild and the collapse of honey bee colonies have concerned ecologists and apiculturalists, who search for causes and solutions to this problem. Whilst biological factors such as viral diseases, mite and parasite infections are undoubtedly involved, it is also evident that pesticides applied to agricultural crops have a negative i...

Sanchez-bayo, Francisco; Goka, Koichi

2014-01-01

246

Biodegradation of Organophosphate Pesticide by Soil Fungi  

OpenAIRE

In this study using enrichment technique biodegradation of organophosphorous pesticide, (Chloropyrifos and Ethion) was performed. Two fungal isolates Trichoderma harznaium and Rhizopus nodosus isolated from the contaminated soil by enrichment technique, was capable of metabolizing the organophosphorous insecticide (Chloropyriofos and Ethion) as a sole carbon source when grown in burkes mineral medium at concentration of 100 PPM respectively. Fungi were able to degrade 70-80% of the parental m...

Harish R; Supreeth.M; Jyoti Bala Chauhan

2013-01-01

247

Pesticide Atomization Modelling for Hollow Cone Nozzle  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents a new approach to model the pesticide atomization in order to get the droplet size and velocity very close to the nozzle exit. The two-phase flow was calculated inside and outside the nozzle. The model was based on classical fluid mechanics transport equations for the liquid dispersion, velocity and turbulence. Moreover, a novel transport equation was developed for the mean liquid/gas surface area, coming from studies in automotive and aeronautics fields. Coupling the tran...

Luca, M.; Vallet, A.

2008-01-01

248

TurfPQ, a pesticide runoff model for turf.  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental assessments of golf courses and other turf systems must often rely on mathematical modeling. However, in the case of pesticide runoff, successful modeling applications are rare. Available models were developed for agricultural applications and have seen very limited testing for turf. TurfPQ is a pesticide runoff model developed exclusively for turf. The model is based on a curve number calculation for runoff volume and linear partitioning of pesticide into adsorbed and dissolved components during a precipitation or irrigation event. Calibration is optional, so the model can be applied, using default parameter values, to situations where runoff and chemical loss data are unavailable. TurfPQ was tested with default parameter values for 52 pesticide runoff events involving six pesticides measured in plot studies in four states. The model typically produced conservative overpredictions of pesticide runoff, particularly with strongly adsorbed pesticides. Mean predicted pesticide runoff was 2.9% [corrected] of application, compared with an observed mean of 2.1%. TurfPQ captured the dynamics of the pesticide runoff events well with R2 = 0.65 [corrected]. Sensitivity analyses indicated that prediction errors could be reduced by better estimates of adsorption parameters and runoff curve numbers. However, even with default parameters, TurfPQ predictions are at least as accurate as those produced by more complex models. PMID:11401250

Haith, D A

2001-01-01

249

National survey of pesticides in groundwater in New Zealand : 2002  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A total of 133 wells throughout New Zealand were sampled for the 2002 National Survey of Pesticides in Groundwater. The survey objectives were to provide a national overview of pesticides in New Zealand's groundwater systems, to examine changes with time from earlier surveys, and to examine factors linked with pesticide contamination. The samples were screened for atrazine in the laboratory using an ELISA test kit and, as a result of this screening, samples positive for atrazine were analysed for 58 different pesticides using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). Blind duplicate samples (6%) and quality control samples (17% of the negative ELISA screen samples) were also analysed by GCMS. Three regional councils carried out their own pesticide surveys around the same time but submitted the samples for analysis to a different laboratory. Their results are included to give a national perspective. Pesticides were detected in 28 wells (21%), with 13 wells (10%) having two or more pesticides detected. There were one or more wells with pesticides detected in nine of the 15 regions. No pesticides were detected in wells from the Northland, Hawke's Bay, Manawatu-Wanganui, Taranaki, Wellington, and West Coast regions. None of the wells in the 2002 survey had pesticides at levels above the maximum acceptable value (MAV) for drinking water (Ministry of Health 2000). Twenty-one different pesticides were detected, including two triazine metabolites, usually at very low conceine metabolites, usually at very low concentrations. Only three detections were at levels exceeding 1 mg m3. Thirty-nine out of the 58 pesticide detections (67%) belonged to the triazine group. As would be expected there were significant differences between wells with and without detected pesticides in factors associated with well or screen depth, and depth of water above the screen. In addition, lower groundwater temperatures and higher nitrate levels were associated with the increased detection of pesticides. A comparison with earlier surveys indicates that pesticide detections have been relatively stable over the past 12 years. After an adjustment to common reporting limits (reporting limits were substantially lower during later surveys), the overall frequency of pesticide detections were as follows: 1990 (7%), 1994 (13.6%), 1998 (11%), and 2002 (9%). (author). 22 refs., 4 tabs

250

Pesticide exposure and health conditions of terrestrial pesticide applicators in Córdoba Province, Argentina.  

Science.gov (United States)

Agricultural workers represent a population that is highly vulnerable to the toxic effects of pesticide exposure. This cross sectional study aimed to describe the health conditions of terrestrial pesticide applicators in Córdoba Province, Argentina, their work practices and socio-demographic characteristics, by means of a standardized self-administered questionnaire (n = 880). A descriptive analysis reported a high prevalence of occasional or frequent symptoms: 47.4% had symptoms of irritation, 35.5% fatigue, 40.4% headache and 27.6% nervousness or depression. Using logistic regression models, risk and protective factors were found for symptoms of irritation, medical consultation and hospitalization. Among the occupational exposure variables, marital status, length of time in the job, low level of protection with regard to the use of personal protective equipment, combined use of different pesticides and the application of the insecticide endosulfan, were associated with a higher frequency of reported symptoms and higher consultation rates and hospitalization. PMID:25859729

Butinof, Mariana; Fernandez, Ricardo Antorio; Stimolo, María Inés; Lantieri, María Josefina; Blanco, Marcelo; Machado, Ana Lia; Franchini, Germán; Díaz, María Del Pilar

2015-03-01

251

Haematologic Indices in Pesticide Factory Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of pesticides on blood indices of subjects which are exposed to organophosphate toxins. This research was a cohort study which was carried out during 2005 on the employee of a pesticide factory in Golestan province (North of Iran. In this study the sampling from 63 subjects was carried out for two sessions in days 1 and 90. CBC and hematologic indices performed by cell counter instrument. The mean of MCV in phase 1 was 82.8±7.1 fl and in second phase the MCV was 80.3±6.7 fl. This drop in MCV statistically was meaningful (paired t-test, mean = 2.5, 95% CI=2.0-2.9, p<0.001. Erythrocyte number, hemoglobin, HCT and MCHC increase in second phase compared to first phase statistically was meaningful. There was not any significant relation between the place of work and variation of red blood cell indices. In regard to the changes in hematologic indices in workers of pesticide factory in a three months period, it seems logical to set up a program to have a routine check on the hematologic indices in working personal engaging in such occupations.

Hamid Reza Joshaghani

2007-01-01

252

Genetic Variation in Base Excision Repair Pathway Genes, Pesticide Exposure, and Prostate Cancer Risk  

OpenAIRE

Background: Previous research indicates increased prostate cancer risk for pesticide applicators and pesticide manufacturing workers. Although underlying mechanisms are unknown, evidence suggests a role of oxidative DNA damage.

Barry, Kathryn Hughes; Koutros, Stella; Berndt, Sonja I.; Andreotti, Gabriella; Hoppin, Jane A.; Sandler, Dale P.; Burdette, Laurie A.; Yeager, Meredith; Freeman, Laura E. Beane; Lubin, Jay H.; Ma, Xiaomei; Zheng, Tongzhang; Alavanja, Michael C. R.

2011-01-01

253

77 FR 23245 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Notice of Public Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

...represented on the PPDC: Pesticide industry and trade associations; environmental/ public interest, consumer, and animal rights groups; farm worker organizations; pesticide user, grower, and commodity groups; Federal and...

2012-04-18

254

New insight into pesticide partition coefficient Kd for modelling pesticide fluvial transport: Application to an agricultural catchment in south-western France  

OpenAIRE

Pesticides applied on crops are leached with rainfall to groundwater and surface water. They threat the aquatic environment and may render water unfit for human consumption. Pesticide partitioning is one of the pesticide fate processes in the environment that should be properly formalised in pesticide fate models. Based on the analysis of 7 pesticide molecules (alachlor, atrazine, atrazine's transformation product deethylatrazine or DEA, isoproturon, tebuconazole and trifluralin) sampled from...

Boithias, Laurie; Sauvage, Sabine; Merlina, Georges; Jean, Se?verine; Probst, Jean-luc; Sanchez-pe?rez, Jose?-miguel

2014-01-01

255

Pesticides Protect the Fruit, but Not the People”: Using Community-Based Ethnography to Understand Farmworker Pesticide-Exposure Risks  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives. We used community-based ethnography and public health risk assessment to assess beliefs about pesticide exposure risks among farmworkers in the Lower Yakima Valley of Washington State. Methods. We used unstructured and semistructured interviews, work-site observation, and detailed field notes to gather data on pesticide exposure risks from 99 farmworkers. Results. Farmworkers' pesticide-relevant beliefs and attitudes could be grouped into 5 major themes: (1) dry pesticides are often perceived as a virtually harmless powder, (2) farmworkers who identify themselves as allergic to pesticides are more acutely affected by exposure, (3) the effect of pesticide exposure is more severe for those perceived as physically weak, (4) protective equipment is used selectively in response to financial pressure to work rapidly, and (5) some farmworkers delay decontamination until they find water deemed an appropriate temperature for handwashing. Conclusions. We elucidated farmworkers' pesticide-relevant beliefs regarding perceived danger and susceptibility to pesticides, the need to put safety second to financial considerations, and reasons for delaying decontamination. Researchers and policymakers should incorporate these data in study designs and legislation concerned with farmworker exposure to pesticides. PMID:19890166

Thompson, Beti; O'Connor, Kathleen; Shell-Duncan, Bettina; King, Denae; Herrera, Angelica P.; Navarro, Bridgette

2009-01-01

256

Adsorption of pesticides onto quartz, calcite, kaolinite, and ?-alumina  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The fate of pesticides in aquifers is influenced by the small but not insignificant adsorption of pesticides to mineral surfaces. Batch experiments with five pesticides and four minerals were conducted to quantify the contributions to adsorption from different mineral surfaces and compare adsorption characteristics of selected pesticides. Investigated mineral phases included quartz, calcite, kaolinite, and alpha -alumina. Selected pesticides comprised atrazine (6-chloro-N-2-ethyl-N-4-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine isoproturon [3-(4-isopropyl-phenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea)], mecoprop [(RS)-2-(4-chloro-2-methyl phenoxy)propionic acid], 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), and bentazone [3-isopropyl-1H-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-4-(3H)-one 2,2-dioxide]. Specific surface area and mineral surface charge proved to be important for the adsorption of these pesticides. Detectable adsorption of the anionic pesticides (mecoprop, 2,4-D, and bentazone) was only measured when positive sites were present on the mineral surface. However, when CaCl2 was added as an electrolyte, a detect able adsorption of mecoprop and 2,4-D was also measured on kaolinite (which exhibits a negative surface charge), probably due to formation of Ca-pesticide-surface complexes. Adsorption of the uncharged pesticides (atrazine and isoproturon) was detected only on kaolinite. The lack of adsorption on alpha -alumina indicates that the uncharged pesticides have a greater affinity for the silanol surface sites (= SiOH) than for the aluminol surface sites (= AIOH) in kaolinite. No measurable effect of ionic strength was found for the uncharged pesticides. The results indicate that quartz and calcite play a smaller role than clay minerals.

Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

2001-01-01

257

Transporte de agrotóxicos em lavoura de arroz irrigado sob três manejos de irrigação Pesticide transport in rice field under three irrigation managements  

OpenAIRE

O cultivo de arroz irrigado no Rio Grande do Sul caracteriza-se pela permanência de lâmina de irrigação sobre o solo, o que ocasiona perdas de agrotóxicos na ocorrência de chuvas; portanto, o adequado manejo de irrigação pode influenciar na redução do transporte destes para o ambiente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes manejos de irrigação no extravasamento da água e no transporte e persistência de clomazone, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, trifloxystrobin...

Martini, L. F. D.; Avila, L. A.; Cassol, G. V.; Zanella, R.; Machado, S. L. O.; Marques, M. S.; Vicari, M.

2012-01-01

258

Pesticide Application and Safety Training. Sale Publication 4070.  

Science.gov (United States)

This guide is intended for use by those preparing to take the California certification examination for commercial pesticide applicators. The first chapter gives brief descriptions and illustrations of types of insect, vertebrate, plant, and microorganism pests. The other chapters cover pesticide classifications and formulations, labels and…

Stimmann, M. W.

259

77 FR 48902 - S-Metolachlor; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...and chronic analyses assume tolerance-level residues on all crops...used in the analyses. i. Acute...food-use pesticide, if a toxicological...Tolerance level residues and 100 PCT...exposure analysis and risk...models used in pesticide...

2012-08-15

260

Analysis of pesticide residues Or a needle in a barn  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work is about the analysis of pesticide residues as well as the study of soil, air, water and organisms. The solvents used depend on the matrix, types of pesticides, analysis and the equipment. The chromatography engaged with mass spectrometry is one of the most used techniques.

261

Determination of pesticide residue in selected fruits and vegetable  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food contamination due to indiscriminate use of pesticides has become a serious problem. Fruits samples of tomato, grapes, musk melon, parsimen and vegetable samples of potato, pea, spinach, cabbage and pumpkin ere collected from local market of Peshawar, coming from different regions. All samples were extracted, purified and analyzed for the commonly used pesticides. Dichlorovas, BHC, Atrazine, Daizinon, Methadiathion and Cypermethrin were detected by Gas Chromatography. These pesticides were detected in vegetable samples Id Atrazine were found in potato sample and not detected in other samples. Large concentration of Cypermethrin (44.6) was detected in the pea sample. All the vegetables samples have maximum concentration of pesticides, which is higher than their MRLs, but in pumpkin no one of the above pesticides were detected. In fruits samples, dichlorovas, atrazine, diazinon, methadiathion. Cypermethrin were detected. BHC was not present in fruits samples. All these pesticides were above the MRLs. The study concluded that agriculture crops are highly contaminated due to the uncontrolled use of pesticides in project area and suggested that pesticides should be applied in calculated dose to avoid resistance and persistence due to over and under dose application. (author)

262

77 FR 67282 - Dinotefuran; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions  

Science.gov (United States)

...tolerances for combined residues of dinotefuran...pesticide chemical residues in food that will...situation. The available insecticides for BMSB control are...section 408(l)(5), residues of the pesticide not...Risk Assessment and Determination of Safety Section...

2012-11-09

263

Rationale in the design of pesticide metabolism studies using radioisotopes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Numerous physical, chemical and biochemical forces act on pesticides in the environment to regulate their persistence and, to a large extent, determine their environmental and toxicological significance. Radioisotope-aided metabolism studies with pesticides in both target and non-target organisms are important to define the qualitative and quantitative aspects of pesticide degradation involved. Such studies provide valuable information that can be used in a number of ways, including prediction of the nature of potential pesticide interactions with man, estimation of potential residue occurrence in human foods, determination of pesticidal mode of action, and evaluation of potential toxicological effects on non-target species. In designing pesticide metabolism studies that utilize radioisotopes as tracers, the metabolism scientist must exercise careful judgement to ensure that his studies generate data that are scientifically sound and relevant to environmental and human health concerns. Such factors as isotope selection, label position, specific activity, treatment routes, dosage levels, replication, and the utilization of appropriate radiometric and analytical techniques are important considerations to assure the generation of useful data. Because of the very large number of potential pesticide/organism interactions that may be of interest to the metabolism scientist, specific research approaches vary greatly depending on the nature of the study organism and the specinature of the study organism and the specific pesticide involved. The rationale often used by metabolism studies in laboratory animals, livestock and poultry, plants, soil and aquatic organisms, arthropods and other pest species, non-target organisms, and for in vitro studies, is considered. (author)

264

Development of pesticide use maps for South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Over 3000 pesticides are registered for use in South Africa. Many studies have highlighted the movement of pesticides to agricultural crops from the point of application into non-target environments, particularly surface and groundwater resources. Exposure to pesticides can lead to serious human hea [...] lth and environmental effects. It is therefore important to identify critical areas where specific pesticides may result in a high risk of exposure to humans or the environment. Crop specific pesticide use data were obtained from a market research company and integrated into a geographical information system detailing the distribution of agricultural crops in South Africa as determined by an agricultural census performed in 2002. By estimating the total application of a specific pesticide to all crops produced in a magisterial district, it was possible to generate maps which provide an estimate of the application rate of over 200 pesticides per magisterial district. These maps were intersected with an agricultural land-cover map to provide a refined map giving details of the spatial distribution of pesticide use across the country. These maps are the first of their kind in South Africa and provide a spatial overview of the likely distribution of specific active ingredients based on the distribution of crops throughout the country. While there are a number of limitations and uncertainties associated with the data used to produce these maps, these are not unique to South Africa, and similar methodologies have been applied in more developed countries.

James M., Dabrowski.

2015-02-01

265

77 FR 10515 - Pesticide Product Registrations; Conditional Approval  

Science.gov (United States)

...conditionally register the pesticide product HeiQ AGS-20 containing a new [[Page 10516...determinations which show that use of HeiQ AGS-20 during the period of conditional registration...to register the pesticide product, HeiQ AGS-20, a product that would be used as...

2012-02-22

266

PESTICIDES AND AMPHIBIAN DECLINES IN THE SIERRA NEVADA MOUNTAINS, CA  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have shown that pesticides from the Central Valley of CA enter the Sierra Nevada ecosystem through aerial deposition in snow and rain, and that surface concentrations of certain pesticides are within an order of magnitude of the 96hr LC50 of amphibians. Pseudacris regilla hatchlings...

267

Modeling the Factors Impacting Pesticide Concentrations in Groundwater Wells.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the effect of pumping, hydrogeology, and pesticide characteristics on pesticide concentrations in production wells using a reactive transport model in two conceptual hydrogeologic systems; a layered aquifer with and without a stream present. The pumping rate can significantly affect the pesticide breakthrough time and maximum concentration at the well. The effect of the pumping rate on the pesticide concentration depends on the hydrogeology of the aquifer; in a layered aquifer, a high pumping rate resulted in a considerably different breakthrough than a low pumping rate, while in an aquifer with a stream the effect of the pumping rate was insignificant. Pesticide application history and properties have also a great impact on the effect of the pumping rate on the concentration at the well. The findings of the study show that variable pumping rates can generate temporal variability in the concentration at the well, which helps understanding the results of groundwater monitoring programs. The results are used to provide guidance on the design of pumping and regulatory changes for the long-term supply of safe groundwater. The fate of selected pesticides is examined, for example, if the application of bentazone in a region with a layered aquifer stops today, the concentration at the well can continue to increase for 20?years if a low pumping rate is applied. This study concludes that because of the rapid response of the pesticide concentration at the drinking water well due to changes in pumping, wellhead management is important for managing pesticide concentrations. PMID:25243476

Aisopou, Angeliki; Binning, Philip J; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Bjerg, Poul L

2014-09-19

268

Potential Transport and Degradation of “Aged” Pesticide Residues in Soil  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased pesticide residence time in soil, or “aging”, has been shown to affect the sorption-desorption of pesticides in the soil, which in turn can control transport and degradation processes. Aging effects have been characterized by batch sequential extraction methods, in which sorption coefficie...

269

Pesticides in the atmosphere: distribution, trends, and governing factors  

Science.gov (United States)

Most people know about the presence and health effects of pesticide residues in the water they drink. However, they may not realize the impact of atmospheric transportation and deposition of pesticides on water quality. Scientific studies of pesticides in various atmospheric matrices (air, rain, snow, aerosols, and fog) provide some of the answers. Pesticides in the Atmosphere focuses on the review and interpretation of direct measurements of pesticides in the environment. An exhaustive compilation, the book examines hundreds of studies in detailed tabular listings, with accompanying maps that include such features as spatial and temporal domain studies, target analytes, detection limits, and compounds detected. Working with the foundation of forty years of scientific studies, the editors synthesize this research to characterize the common threads and main conclusions. They use this information to identify where we need to improve our understanding of pesticides in the atmosphere and their significance to water quality. Pesticides in the Atmosphere serves as a resource, text, and reference to a wide spectrum of scientists, water managers, and students. It includes extensive compilations of references, interpretive analyses and conclusions. For those not familiar with the atmospheric transportation and deposition of pesticides it provides a comprehensive introduction.

Majewski, Michael S.; Capel, Paul D.

1996-01-01

270

Analysis of organophosphorus pesticides using FT-NMR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A rapid and highly selective method of the identification of 23 kinds of organophosphorus pesticides was develop by using 31P FT-NMR with 1H complete decoupling method. Chemical shifts referenced by 85 % H3PO4 were within -4 to 100 ppm, and there was no overlapping among the organophosphorus pesticides used in this experiment. (author)

271

PESTICIDE SPRAY PENETRATION AND THERMAL COMFORT OF PROTECTIVE APPAREL FOR PESTICIDE APPLICATORS  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of protective apparel to serve as a barrier from dermal exposure is considered vital for providing some measure of protection for those who work with and around pesticides. his research is aimed at ultimately providing recommendations for types of protective apparel for p...

272

SERS-based pesticide detection by using nanofinger sensors  

Science.gov (United States)

Simple, sensitive, and rapid detection of trace levels of extensively used and highly toxic pesticides are in urgent demand for public health. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based sensor was designed to achieve ultrasensitive and simple pesticide sensing. We developed a portable sensor system composed of high performance and reliable gold nanofinger sensor strips and a custom-built portable Raman spectrometer. Compared to the general procedure and previously reported studies that are limited to laboratory settings, our analytical method is simple, sensitive, rapid, and cost-effective. Based on the SERS results, the chemical interaction of two pesticides, chlorpyrifos (CPF) and thiabendazole (TBZ), with gold nanofingers was studied to determine a fingerprint for each pesticide. The portable SERS-sensor system was successfully demonstrated to detect CPF and TBZ pesticides within 15 min with a detection limit of 35 ppt in drinking water and 7 ppb on apple skin, respectively.

Kim, Ansoon; Barcelo, Steven J.; Li, Zhiyong

2015-01-01

273

Enantioselectivity in environmental risk assessment of modern chiral pesticides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chiral pesticides comprise a new and important class of environmental pollutants nowadays. With the development of industry, more and more chiral pesticides will be introduced into the market. But their enantioselective ecotoxicology is not clear. Currently used synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphates, acylanilides, phenoxypropanoic acids and imidazolinones often behave enantioselectively in agriculture use and they always pose unpredictable enantioselective ecological risks on non-target organisms or human. It is necessary to explore the enantioselective toxicology and ecological fate of these chiral pesticides in environmental risk assessment. The enantioselective toxicology and the fate of these currently widely used pesticides have been discussed in this review article. - Chiral pesticides could pose unpredictable enantioselective toxicity on non-target organisms.

Ye Jing [MOE Key Lab of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhao Meirong [Research Center of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Liu Jing [MOE Key Lab of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Liu Weiping, E-mail: wliu@zju.edu.c [MOE Key Lab of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Research Center of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China)

2010-07-15

274

Enantioselectivity in environmental risk assessment of modern chiral pesticides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chiral pesticides comprise a new and important class of environmental pollutants nowadays. With the development of industry, more and more chiral pesticides will be introduced into the market. But their enantioselective ecotoxicology is not clear. Currently used synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphates, acylanilides, phenoxypropanoic acids and imidazolinones often behave enantioselectively in agriculture use and they always pose unpredictable enantioselective ecological risks on non-target organisms or human. It is necessary to explore the enantioselective toxicology and ecological fate of these chiral pesticides in environmental risk assessment. The enantioselective toxicology and the fate of these currently widely used pesticides have been discussed in this review article. - Chiral pesticides could pose unpredictable enantioselective toxicity on non-target organisms.

275

Monitoring of occupational exposure to pesticides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Number of pesticides applied is constantly increasing, and although in general they are beneficial they may create a genotoxic hazard to environment and human health too. The aim of study performed in four countries (Greece, Hungary, Poland and Spain) was to assess potential genotoxic risk of occupational exposure to pesticides. Interviews were performed and biological samples were taken from 426 donors, 50% unexposed and 50% donors occupationally exposed to genotoxic agrochemical. In this paper is presented comparison of results from studies on the influence of occupational exposure on individual susceptibility to the induction of the DNA damage by UV and DNA damage repair efficiency. Levels of the DNA damage induced in vivo and by various treatments in vitro were assessed by the use of single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) also known as a Comet assay. Susceptibility to UVC and repair capacities of lymphocytes of all unexposed and exposed to pesticides people from four countries was compared. A Hungarian subgroup of donors consisted of unexposed exposed and highly exposed persons. All groups of donors were at the similar age, sex and occupation. In general, all donors were free of major health problems. Lymphocytes, from collected in various countries whole blood samples were isolated and frozen, and then were transported to Poland in a dry ice for farther DNA damage analysis. In defrosted lymphocytes viability and presence of DNA damage were tested. Lymphocytes froof DNA damage were tested. Lymphocytes from Hungarian group expressed significantly lower viability of lymphocytes and very high damage (? 30 times higher than in other groups) detected either in untreated or treated lymphocytes. Results from all other groups of samples except Hungarian group did not show statistically significant differences between levels of DNA damages detected in defrosted lymphocytes from reference and exposed to pesticides subgroups. Statistically significant difference between the whole investigated groups from various countries (including or excluding Hungarian group) was observed in the mean levels of the DNA damage detected in untreated lymphocytes. In order to investigate differences in the individual susceptibilities to UV and repair capacities, other part of defrosted lymphocytes was irradiated with 6 J/m2 of UV-C and the DNA damage was measured right after exposure or after two hours of incubation with or without the presence of phytohemoglutinin (PHA). High dispersion in the responses in all groups under the study was observed. Results show multimode distributions of individual susceptibilities and repair capabilities in all groups under the study and subgroups (exposed and unexposed). Although, susceptibility to UV, estimated on the base of the efficiency of the UV induced dimmers excision process, was higher in subgroups exposed to pesticides (from Greece, Spain and Poland), though this difference was statistically significant only in the group from Poland. Results of obtained repair efficiency estimated for groups from Greece and Hungary did not indicate any significant differences due to exposure. In Polish and Spanish groups, lymphocytes from exposed to pesticides donors have shown a statistically different repair rate than lymphocytes from unexposed group, however the relation was inversed. Probably due to differences in life styles and diets, our results show statistically significant differences between national groups in all investigated biomarkers; the levels of the DNA damage detected in vivo, susceptibility to UV and repair capacity. (author)

276

Pesticide Residues and Bees – A Risk Assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

Bees are essential pollinators of many plants in natural ecosystems and agricultural crops alike. In recent years the decline and disappearance of bee species in the wild and the collapse of honey bee colonies have concerned ecologists and apiculturalists, who search for causes and solutions to this problem. Whilst biological factors such as viral diseases, mite and parasite infections are undoubtedly involved, it is also evident that pesticides applied to agricultural crops have a negative impact on bees. Most risk assessments have focused on direct acute exposure of bees to agrochemicals from spray drift. However, the large number of pesticide residues found in pollen and honey demand a thorough evaluation of all residual compounds so as to identify those of highest risk to bees. Using data from recent residue surveys and toxicity of pesticides to honey and bumble bees, a comprehensive evaluation of risks under current exposure conditions is presented here. Standard risk assessments are complemented with new approaches that take into account time-cumulative effects over time, especially with dietary exposures. Whilst overall risks appear to be low, our analysis indicates that residues of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides pose the highest risk by contact exposure of bees with contaminated pollen. However, the synergism of ergosterol inhibiting fungicides with those two classes of insecticides results in much higher risks in spite of the low prevalence of their combined residues. Risks by ingestion of contaminated pollen and honey are of some concern for systemic insecticides, particularly imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and the mixtures of cyhalothrin and ergosterol inhibiting fungicides. More attention should be paid to specific residue mixtures that may result in synergistic toxicity to bees. PMID:24718419

Sanchez-Bayo, Francisco; Goka, Koichi

2014-01-01

277

Persistent organochlorine pesticide residues in animal feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

Animal products like milk and meat are often found to be contaminated with residues of persistent pesticides and other toxic substances. The major source of entry of these compounds to animal body is the contaminated feed and fodder. So, unless the residues are managed at this stage, it is very difficult to prevent contamination in milk and meat. Therefore, the status of residue level of most persistent organochlorinated pesticides (OCP) in feed and fodder should be monitored regularly. The frequency of occurrence and contamination levels of OCP residues in different kinds of animal concentrate feed and straw samples collected from Bundelkhand region of India were determined. Out of 533 total samples, 301 i.e. 56.47% samples were positive containing residues of different OCPs like hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) complex, endosulfan and dicofol. Among different HCH isomers, the mean concentration of ?-HCH was highest, and total HCH varied from 0.01 to 0.306 mg kg(-1). In case of DDT complex, i.e. DDD, DDE and DDT, the concentration ranged between 0.016 and 0.118 mg kg(-1) and the pp(|) isomers were more frequently encountered than their op(|) counterparts. Endosulfan was also found in some samples in concentration ranging from 0.009 to 0.237 mg/kg, but dicofol could be recorded in very few samples. Although feed samples were found to contain OC residues, after comparing their levels in positive samples with the limiting values of respective pesticides, only very few were found to exceed the threshold level. Otherwise, they were mostly within safe limits. PMID:20443138

Nag, Subir Kumar; Raikwar, Mukesh K

2011-03-01

278

Association between environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative diseases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preliminary studies have shown associations between chronic pesticide exposure in occupational settings and neurological disorders. However, data on the effects of long-term non-occupational exposures are too sparse to allow any conclusions. This study examines the influence of environmental pesticide exposure on a number of neuropsychiatric conditions and discusses their underlying pathologic mechanisms. An ecological study was conducted using averaged prevalence rates of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, cerebral degeneration, polyneuropathies, affective psychosis and suicide attempts in selected Andalusian health districts categorized into areas of high and low environmental pesticide exposure based on the number of hectares devoted to intensive agriculture and pesticide sales per capita. A total of 17,429 cases were collected from computerized hospital records (minimum dataset) between 1998 and 2005. Prevalence rates and the risk of having Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and suicide were significantly higher in districts with greater pesticide use as compared to those with lower pesticide use. The multivariate analyses showed that the population living in areas with high pesticide use had an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts and that males living in these areas had increased risks for polyneuropathies, affective disorders and suicide attempts. In conclusion, this study supports and extends previous findings and provides an indication that environmental exposure to pesticides may affect the human health by increasing the incidence of certain neurological disorders at the level of the general population. -- Highlights: ? Environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative–psychiatric disorders. ? Increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts in high exposure areas. ? Males from areas with high pesticide exposure had a higher risk of polyneuropathy. ? Males from high exposure areas had a higher risk of affective psychosis and suicide. ? Nerve tissue degeneration due to oxidative damage may underlie the pathomechanism.

279

The combined antiandrogenic effects of five commonly used pesticides  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this study, mixture effects of five dissimilarly acting pesticides were analyzed for antiandrogenic effects in vitro and in vivo. Deltamethrin, methiocarb, prochloraz, simazine, and tribenuron-methyl are all commonly used for agricultural and horticultural purposes. Concentration-response curves for the inhibition of R1881-induced transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor (AR) in vitro of each pesticide alone and in an equimolar mixture were obtained. The IC25 values for deltamethrin, methiocarb, prochloraz, and the mixture were 5.8, 5.8, 3.5, and 7.5 muM, respectively. Simazine and tribenuron-methyl were ineffective. Applying the isobole method resulted in an isobole coefficient of 0.94 at IC25 for the effect of the mixture, indicating additive effects of the compounds. Comparison of observed effects and effects calculated by assuming additivity also strongly indicated additive effects of the pesticides in vitro. In vivo, each of the five pesticides and a mixture of the pesticides were tested for antiandrogenic effects in castrated testosterone-treated Wistar rats. The mixture induced a significant change of weights of the levator ani/bulbocavernosus muscle and adrenal glands. Changes in gene expression in ventral prostates were observed as distinct effects on levels of ornithin decarboxylase (ODC) mRNA and effects on levels of prostate binding protein subunit C3 (PBP C3) mRNA. No pesticide-induced effect on the level of testosterone-repressed prostatic message 2 (TRPM-2) mRNA was observed, whereas flutamide increased TRPM-2 levels. In conclusion, the pesticides were found to act additively in vitro. In vivo, the organ weight changes indicated that the pesticides had an accumulating effect that was not observed for the individual pesticides. Several pesticide-induced gene expression changes were observed, indicating that these are either very sensitive antiandrogenic end-points or that these changes are induced by a pathway not related to AR.

Kjærstad, Mia BirkhØj; Nellemann, Christine Lydia

2004-01-01

280

The combined antiandrogenic effects of five commonly used pesticides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, mixture effects of five dissimilarly acting pesticides were analyzed for antiandrogenic effects in vitro and in vivo. Deltamethrin, methiocarb, prochloraz, simazine, and tribenuron-methyl are all commonly used for agricultural and horticultural purposes. Concentration-response curves for the inhibition of R1881-induced transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor (AR) in vitro of each pesticide alone and in an equimolar mixture were obtained. The IC25 values for deltamethrin, methiocarb, prochloraz, and the mixture were 5.8, 5.8, 3.5, and 7.5 ?M, respectively. Simazine and tribenuron-methyl were ineffective. Applying the isobole method resulted in an isobole coefficient of 0.94 at IC25 for the effect of the mixture, indicating additive effects of the compounds. Comparison of observed effects and effects calculated by assuming additivity also strongly indicated additive effects of the pesticides in vitro. In vivo, each of the five pesticides and a mixture of the pesticides were tested for antiandrogenic effects in castrated testosterone-treated Wistar rats. The mixture induced a significant change of weights of the levator ani/bulbocavernosus muscle and adrenal glands. Changes in gene expression in ventral prostates were observed as distinct effects on levels of ornithin decarboxylase (ODC) mRNA and effects on levels of prostate binding protein subunit C3 (PBP C3) mRNA. No pesticide-induced effect on the level of testosterone-uced effect on the level of testosterone-repressed prostatic message 2 (TRPM-2) mRNA was observed, whereas flutamide increased TRPM-2 levels. In conclusion, the pesticides were found to act additively in vitro. In vivo, the organ weight changes indicated that the pesticides had an accumulating effect that was not observed for the individual pesticides. Several pesticide-induced gene expression changes were observed, indicating that these are either very sensitive antiandrogenic end-points or that these changes are induced by a pathway not related to AR

281

Disposal of unwanted pesticides in Stellenbosch, South Africa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Unwanted pesticides in developing countries are major environmental health threats. This study followed-up a previous audit of unwanted and obsolete pesticides on farms in a rural district of South Africa six years after a National Retrieval Project (NPR) was undertaken. Methods: A descriptive survey of 37 farms that had been in possession of unwanted pesticides in a 1995 survey and a purposive sample of 34 neighbouring farms, was carried out. The survey data included farm details; details of unwanted pesticide stocks, volumes of empty containers and safety and hygiene of pesticide stores. In addition, management was asked if they had been informed about and participated in the 1997 NPR and similarly whether they were aware of the retrieval planned by the African Stockpiles Programme (ASP). Results: Forty (56%) farms were in possession of obsolete pesticides of which 24 (59%) were farms that had unwanted stocks in the previous survey. There were more than 9 tonnes of these pesticides, 50% more than in the previous survey, including 20 chemicals banned, withdrawn or restricted in South Africa or classified as WHO Class I toxicity. Over 2800 kg of pesticides (30%) were not identifiable. None of the farms participated in the NPR, although 47 knew of the initiative. Only six farmers (9%) knew of the ASP initiative. Fifty-nine farms (83%) had empty containers on the premises. Most pesticide stores (67%) had floors contaminated with chemicals. Conclusion: The suminated with chemicals. Conclusion: The survey found that despite the NPR, the problem of unwanted pesticides in the study area and probably throughout South Africa has deteriorated. National and international policies should control the problem at source and encourage more sustainable agriculture

282

75 FR 28009 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...CFR part 180 for residues of the insecticide...methodology LC/MS/MS analysis is available to...CFR 180.593 for residues of the miticide...when used as a pesticide inert...

2010-05-19

283

75 FR 80489 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...  

Science.gov (United States)

...for residues of pesticides in or on food commodities...CFR part 180 for residues of the herbicide...enforcement method for residues of dichlormid in...ACL) of EPA. Analysis is carried out using...a tolerance for residues of 5-chloro...million (ppm) in pesticide formulations....

2010-12-22

284

Pesticide Use and Self-Reported Symptoms of Acute Pesticide Poisoning among Aquatic Farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Organophosphates and carbamates (OPs/CMs) are known for their acetylcholinesterase inhibiting character. A cross-sectional study of pesticide handling practices and self-perceived symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning was conducted using questionnaire-based interviews with 89 pesticide sprayers in Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE) Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority of the farmers (88%) had experienced symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning, and this was significantly associated with the number of hours spent spraying with OPs/CMs (OR = 1.14, CI 95%: 1.02-1.28). The higher educated farmers reduced their risk of poisoning by 55% for each extra personal protective measure they adapted (OR = 0.45, CI 95%: 0.22-0.91). These findings suggest that improving safe pesticide management practices among the farmers and enforcing the effective banning of the most toxic pesticides will considerably reduce the number of acute pesticide poisoning episodes.

Jensen, Hanne Klith; Konradsen, Flemming

2011-01-01

285

Pesticide use and self-reported symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning among aquatic farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Organophosphates and carbamates (OPs/CMs) are known for their acetylcholinesterase inhibiting character. A cross-sectional study of pesticide handling practices and self-perceived symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning was conducted using questionnaire-based interviews with 89 pesticide sprayers in Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE) Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority of the farmers (88%) had experienced symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning, and this was significantly associated with the number of hours spent spraying with OPs/CMs (OR = 1.14, CI 95%: 1.02-1.28). The higher educated farmers reduced their risk of poisoning by 55% for each extra personal protective measure they adapted (OR = 0.45, CI 95%: 0.22-0.91). These findings suggest that improving safe pesticide management practices among the farmers and enforcing the effective banning of the most toxic pesticides will considerably reduce the number of acute pesticide poisoning episodes.

Jensen, Hanne Klith; Konradsen, Flemming

2011-01-01

286

Decontamination of spills and residues of some pesticides and of protective clothing worn during the handling of the pesticides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Users of pesticides may have waste or surplus quantities or spills for disposal. One alternative is to deactivate the pesticide at the handling site by using a straightforward chemical reaction. This option can be practical for those who use relatively small quantities of a large variety of pesticides, for example, greenhouse workers, small farmers, and agricultural researchers. This paper describes practical on-site methods for the disposal of spills or small waste quantities of five commonly used pesticides, Diazinon, Chlorpyrifos, Iprodione, 2,4-D, and Captan. These have been tested in the laboratory for the rate of disappearance of the pesticide, the degree of conversion to nontoxic products, the nature and identity of the products, the practicality of the method, and the ease of reproducibility. Methods selected were shown to be safe for the operator, reliable, and reproducible. Greater than 99% of the starting material had to be reacted under reasonable conditions and length of time. Detailed descriptions of the reactions are presented, so that they can be performed with reproducible results. Protective clothing worn during the handling and application of pesticides may become contaminated. Simple laundering does not always remove all of the pesticide residues. Thus, chronic dermal exposure may result from the pesticide-contaminated clothing. Appropriate methods of laundering using specific pretreatments have been determined. 7 refs.

Armour, M.A.; Nelson, C.; Sather, P. Briker, Y. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)] [and others

1996-12-31

287

Exposure assessment of the cumulative intake of pesticides with dissimilar mode of action  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Risk assessment of pesticides is currently based on the no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for effects of single compounds. However, humans might be exposed to a mixture of pesticides at the same time and the exposure could occur from more pesticides with endocrine disrupting effects. In this study the effects of combined exposure from four endocrine disrupting pesticides have been investigated (procymidone, mancozeb, tebuconazole, and prochloraz). The four pesticides have dissimilar mode of actions. On the background of the potency for each pesticide to a given effect, a relative potency factor and the cumulative acute exposure of the pesticides have been estimated.

Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette

288

[Status of pesticide registration and residue analysis for traditional Chinese medicine in China].  

Science.gov (United States)

The present paper outlined pesticide registration status for traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and summarized the characteristics of pesticide contamination in different regions of some widely used TCMs by retrieving last 10 years' literatures. At present, the problems of pesticide residues for TCM include less pesticide registrations, widespread high-residue organochlorine pesticides contamination, pesticide abuse, irregular GAP bases and imperfect pesticide limit standards, etc. According to the current situation, we should adopt some control measures to strengthen the quality control of TCMs so as to ensure the safety of TCMs and related products. PMID:24791523

Yang, Yin-Hui; Dou, Xiao-Wen; Kong, Wei-Jun; Yang, Mei-Hua; Chen, Shi-Lin; Xiao, Qiang

2013-12-01

289

Impacts of pesticides in a Central California estuary.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent and past studies have documented the prevalence of pyrethroid and organophosphate pesticides in urban and agricultural watersheds in California. While toxic concentrations of these pesticides have been found in freshwater systems, there has been little research into their impacts in marine receiving waters. Our study investigated pesticide impacts in the Santa Maria River estuary, which provides critical habitat to numerous aquatic, terrestrial, and avian species on the central California coast. Runoff from irrigated agriculture constitutes a significant portion of Santa Maria River flow during most of the year, and a number of studies have documented pesticide occurrence and biological impacts in this watershed. Our study extended into the Santa Maria watershed coastal zone and measured pesticide concentrations throughout the estuary, including the water column and sediments. Biological effects were measured at the organism and community levels. Results of this study suggest the Santa Maria River estuary is impacted by current-use pesticides. The majority of water samples were highly toxic to invertebrates (Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca), and chemistry evidence suggests toxicity was associated with the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos, pyrethroid pesticides, or mixtures of both classes of pesticides. A high percentage of sediment samples were also toxic in this estuary, and sediment toxicity occurred when mixtures of chlorpyrifos and pyrethroid pesticides exceeded established toxicity thresholds. Based on a Relative Benthic Index, Santa Maria estuary stations where benthic macroinvertebrate communities were assessed were degraded. Impacts in the Santa Maria River estuary were likely due to the proximity of this system to Orcutt Creek, the tributary which accounts for most of the flow to the lower Santa Maria River. Water and sediment samples from Orcutt Creek were highly toxic to invertebrates due to mixtures of the same pesticides measured in the estuary. This study suggests that the same pyrethroid and organophosphate pesticides that have been shown to cause water and sediment toxicity in urban and agriculture water bodies throughout California, have the potential to affect estuarine habitats. The results establish baseline data in the Santa Maria River estuary to allow evaluation of ecosystem improvement as management initiatives to reduce pesticide runoff are implemented in this watershed. PMID:24464329

Anderson, Brian; Phillips, Bryn; Hunt, John; Siegler, Katie; Voorhees, Jennifer; Smalling, Kelly; Kuivila, Kathy; Hamilton, Mary; Ranasinghe, J Ananda; Tjeerdema, Ron

2014-03-01

290

Pesticides in the atmosphere; distribution, trends, and governing factors  

Science.gov (United States)

A comprehensive review of existing literature on the occurrence and distribution of pesticides in the atmosphere of the United States and adjoining Canadian provinces showed that the atmosphere is an important part of the hydrologic cycle that acts to distribute and deposit pesticides in areas far removed from their application sites. A compilation of existing data shows that pesticides have been detected in the atmosphere throughout the nation. Most of the available information on pesticides in the atmosphere is from small-scale, short-term studies that seldom lasted more than one year. Only two national-scale, multi-year studies were done since the late 1960's that analyzed for a wide variety of pesticides in air that were in current use at the time. Another large-scale study was done during 1990-91, but was limited to the midwestern and northeastern United States and only analyzed for two classes of herbicides in wet deposition. Most of the pesticides analyzed for were detected in either air or rain, and represent about 25 percent of the total number of insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides in current use. The geographical distribution of studies, and the type of sampling and analysis were highly variable with most of the historical study efforts concentrated in the Great Lakes area and California. Air and rain were the main atmospheric matrices sampled, but pesticides were also detected in fog and snow. Reported pesticide concentrations in air and rain were frequently positively correlated to their regional agricultural use. Deviations from this relation could usually be explained by non-agricultural use of pesticides, sampling and analytical difficulties, and environmental persistence. High concentrations of locally used pesticides were found to occur seasonally, usually in conjunction with spring planting of row crops and warm temperatures, but high concentrations also occurred during winter months in those areas where dormant orchards were sprayed. The environmentally more persistent pesticides were detected in the atmosphere at low concen- trations throughout the year. Deposition of airborne pesticides can have significant effects on water quality, but neither the nature of nor the magnitude of these effects can be determined with certainty on the basis of the type of data currently available. The lack of consistent, long-term regional and national monitoring and study of pesticides in atmospheric matrices severely limits assessment capability.

Majewski, Michael S.; Capel, Paul D.

1995-01-01

291

Biological implications of pesticides : studies with lindane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some aspects of metabolism of lindane, a pesticide, are investigated. These aspects have a bearing on the toxicity assessment of the pesticide. Young adult male Wistar rats were administered a single dose of Aroclor 1254(50 mg/kg body wt.) by stomach tube, 48 h prior to sacrifice for induction of microsomal enzymes. For metabolic transformation studies, liver slices of decapitated rats were suspended in Krebs-Ringer phosphate buffer containing 1 ?Ci of U-14C-lindane and 10 mg of cephalosporin antibiotic 'keflin'. After incubation for 60 min, radioactivity was measured and metabolites were isolated and identified by gas chromatography. The mutagenicity of lindane and hexachlorobenzene was also examined using the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome mutagenicity test of Ames and others (1975). Data on the incorporation of radioactivity from labelled lindane into hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorophenol and notably carbon dioxide in the presence of a wide-spectrum antibiotic indicate that liver enzymes are involved in the breakdown of aromatic ring of lindane yielding CO2, excluding the possibility of any role of intestinal flora in metabolism of lindane. As to mutagenicity, the findings in different experiments were not consistent, and no firm conclusion could be drawn. (M.G.B.)

292

Determination of pesticide residues in cereal grains  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The applicability of the TLC for determination of pesticide residues in cereal grains was studied using corn, rice and wheat as representative commodities and atrazine, captan, chlorpyrifos, chlortoluron, diazinon, diuron, fenitrothion, metoxuron, prochloraz, triforine as representative compounds. Following the extraction with ethyl acetate the efficiency of extraction was tested with Bio-Rad SX-3 gel, GPC, silica gel, florisil and RP-18 reverse phase silica cartridge. The GPC alone or in combination with silica or florisil cleanup were the most suitable for cleanup of the extracts. The TLC elution characteristics of 131 pesticide active ingredients were tested with eight elution systems. The detectability of the selected compounds was determined with six detection methods including two chemical and four bioassay procedures. In addition to the basic methods, the non-toxic Penicillium cyclopium fungi spore inhibition was introduced and it was found very sensitive for some fungicide compounds. The minimum detectable quantities of the tested compounds ranged from 1 ng to 100 ng. The average recoveries from rice and wheat ranged from 78% to 89%, and the limits of quantitation, LOQ, were between 0.01 and 0.2 mg/kg for the selected ten compounds. (author)

293

Agriculture, pesticides, food security and food safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decades ago, agrochemicals were introduced aiming at enhancing crop yields and at protecting crops from pests. Due to adaptation and resistance developed by pests to chemicals, every year higher amounts and new chemical compounds are used to protect crops, causing undesired side effects and raising the costs of food production. Eventually, new techniques, including genetically modified organisms (GMOs) resistant to pests, could halt the massive spread of agrochemicals in agriculture fields. Biological chemical-free agriculture is gaining also more and more support but it is still not able to respond to the need for producing massive amounts of food. The use of agrochemicals, including pesticides, remains a common practice especially in tropical regions and South countries. Cheap compounds, such as DDT, HCH and lindane, that are environmentally persistent, are today banned from agriculture use in developed countries, but remain popular in developing countries. As a consequence, persistent residues of these chemicals contaminate food and disperse in the environment. Coordinated efforts are needed to increase the production of food but with a view to enhanced food quality and safety as well as to controlling residues of persistent pesticides in the environment

294

Effects of pesticides on fauna and flora  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The complexities of environmental interactions in the transport, transformation and biological effects of widespread, low level chemical contaminants confound the ability of current methods to predict the possible health and environmental impacts of both new and old chemicals. We cannot transfer with certainty the knowledge gained in the laboratory of the behaviour and effects of a single chemical study in isolated living species to that gained in a natural ecosystem. However, over the past years the environmental monitoring programmes have undergone rapid conceptual and technological advancement. Environmental monitoring plays an essential role in the evaluation and management of pesticides and other anthropogenic chemicals. In the absence of effective environmental monitoring, detection of serious environmental contamination and threats to human health caused by chemical pollutants may occur only after critical and irreversible damage has been done. Between 1976 and 1987 the ecosystematic effects caused by various herbicides and insecticides were analysed. The regenerative power of the tropical ecosystems, after having been treated with insecticides, does not only depend on the type of pesticide or its formulation and concentration, but also in a decisive way on the proportions of sprayed and unsprayed areas and the ecophysiological capacity of different organisms in the tropical food chains. (author). 19 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabss

295

Agriculture, pesticides, food security and food safety  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Decades ago, agrochemicals were introduced aiming at enhancing crop yields and at protecting crops from pests. Due to adaptation and resistance developed by pests to chemicals, every year higher amounts and new chemical compounds are used to protect crops, causing undesired side effects and raising the costs of food production. Eventually, new techniques, including genetically modified organisms (GMOs) resistant to pests, could halt the massive spread of agrochemicals in agriculture fields. Biological chemical-free agriculture is gaining also more and more support but it is still not able to respond to the need for producing massive amounts of food. The use of agrochemicals, including pesticides, remains a common practice especially in tropical regions and South countries. Cheap compounds, such as DDT, HCH and lindane, that are environmentally persistent, are today banned from agriculture use in developed countries, but remain popular in developing countries. As a consequence, persistent residues of these chemicals contaminate food and disperse in the environment. Coordinated efforts are needed to increase the production of food but with a view to enhanced food quality and safety as well as to controlling residues of persistent pesticides in the environment.

Carvalho, Fernando P. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, P-2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)]. E-mail: carvalho@itn.pt

2006-11-15

296

The effects of pesticide mixtures on degradation of pendimethalin in soils  

OpenAIRE

Most agronomic situations involve a sequence of herbicide, fungicide, and insecticide application. On the other hand, use of pesticidal combinations has become a standard practice in the production of many agricultural crops. One of the most important processes influencing the behavior of a pesticide in the environment is its degradation in soil. It is known that due to several pesticide applications in one vegetation season, the pesticide may be present in mixtures with other pesticides or x...

Swarcewicz, Maria K.; Gregorczyk, Andrzej

2011-01-01

297

Evaluation of predictive models for pesticide behaviour in South African soils / HR Meinhardt  

OpenAIRE

The re-evaluation of pesticide use patterns is a high priority internationally. The process has led to a reduction in the numbers of pesticides allowed for use in many countries. This withdrawal of pesticides is aimed at consumer and environmental protection. Pesticide mobility and persistence is of major importance especially when considering the protection of water sources. In order to evaluate the suitability of a pesticide for use it is essential that its environmental behaviour is unders...

Meinhardt, Hr

2009-01-01

298

Assessing Diet as a Modifiable Risk Factor for Pesticide Exposure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of pesticides on the general population, largely as a result of dietary exposure, are unclear. Adopting an organic diet appears to be an obvious solution for reducing dietary pesticide exposure and this is supported by biomonitoring studies in children. However, results of research into the effects of organic diets on pesticide exposure are difficult to interpret in light of the many complexities. Therefore future studies must be carefully designed. While biomonitoring can account for differences in overall exposure it cannot necessarily attribute the source. Due diligence must be given to appropriate selection of participants, target pesticides and analytical methods to ensure that the data generated will be both scientifically rigorous and clinically useful, while minimising the costs and difficulties associated with biomonitoring studies. Study design must also consider confounders such as the unpredictable nature of chemicals and inter- and intra-individual differences in exposure and other factors that might influence susceptibility to disease. Currently the most useful measures are non-specific urinary metabolites that measure a range of organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides. These pesticides are in common use, frequently detected in population studies and may provide a broader overview of the impact of an organic diet on pesticide exposure than pesticide-specific metabolites. More population based studies are needed for comparative purposes and improvements in analytical methods are required before many other compounds can be considered for assessment.

Marc Cohen

2011-05-01

299

Stream habitat structure influences macroinvertebrate response to pesticides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Agricultural pesticides continue to impair surface water ecosystems, although there are few assessments of interactions with other modifications such as fine sediment and physical alteration for flood drainage. We, therefore, surveyed pesticide contamination and macroinvertebrates in 14 streams along a gradient of expected pesticide exposure using a paired-reach approach to differentiate effects between physically modified and less modified sites. Apparent pesticides effects on the relative abundance of SPEcies At Risk (SPEAR) were increased at sites with degraded habitats primarily due to the absence of species with specific preferences for hard substrates. Our findings highlight the importance of physical habitat degradation in the assessment and mitigation of pesticide risk in agricultural streams. - Highlights: ? %SPEAR abundance significantly decreased with increasing TU (D. magna). ? %SPEAR abundance was significantly lower when soft sediment was dominant. ? Species specific habitat preferences influenced the total effect of pesticides. ? This study has strong implications for future stream management and risk assessment. - Ecological impacts of pesticides on stream macroinvertebrates are influenced by the heterogeneity and physical structure of micro-habitats.

300

Pesticides and human chronic diseases: Evidences, mechanisms, and perspectives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Along with the wide use of pesticides in the world, the concerns over their health impacts are rapidly growing. There is a huge body of evidence on the relation between exposure to pesticides and elevated rate of chronic diseases such as different types of cancers, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson, Alzheimer, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), birth defects, and reproductive disorders. There is also circumstantial evidence on the association of exposure to pesticides with some other chronic diseases like respiratory problems, particularly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular disease such as atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease, chronic nephropathies, autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematous and rheumatoid arthritis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and aging. The common feature of chronic disorders is a disturbance in cellular homeostasis, which can be induced via pesticides' primary action like perturbation of ion channels, enzymes, receptors, etc., or can as well be mediated via pathways other than the main mechanism. In this review, we present the highlighted evidence on the association of pesticide's exposure with the incidence of chronic diseases and introduce genetic damages, epigenetic modifications, endocrine disruption, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response (UPR), impairment of ubiquitin proteasome system, and defective autophagy as the effective mechanisms of action. - Highlights: ? There is a link between exposure to pesticides and incidence of chronic diseases. ? Genotoxicity and proteotoxicity are two main involved mechanisms. ? Epigenetic knowledge may help diagnose the relationships. ? Efficient policies on safe use of pesticides should be set up.

Mostafalou, Sara; Abdollahi, Mohammad, E-mail: Mohammad.Abdollahi@UToronto.Ca

2013-04-15

301

Quantitative and economical assessment of effectiveness of electrostatic pesticide spraying  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electrostatic pesticide spraying (EPS) improves the adhesion characteristics of the pesticide solution to agricultural crops. If the adhesion characteristics are improved, the requisite amount of the pesticide to be sprayed can be reduced in comparison with the conventional spraying method that uses non-charged pesticide. In this research, disease (rust) control experiments were carried out to substantiate the effectiveness of the EPS from a statistical point of view. We sprayed pesticide to potted Japanese pear trees under calm condition. The numbers of the rust lesions on the pear leaves were counted at fixed intervals after spraying to investigate the difference of the results of the disease control. The t-tests were carried out for the populations of the various spraying times and applied voltages. It was statistically-derived that EPS can reduce the amounts of pesticide to be sprayed by 50 % in comparison with the non-EPS method. It is also estimated from the results that about 55,000 kL year?1 of pesticides can be reduced for the Japanese pear cultivation in Tottori prefecture. Also, this means that the expense of the pear cultivation can be reduced by about 240 million yen (3 million USD) every year in Tottori prefecture by introducing EPS.

302

Quantitative and economical assessment of effectiveness of electrostatic pesticide spraying  

Science.gov (United States)

Electrostatic pesticide spraying (EPS) improves the adhesion characteristics of the pesticide solution to agricultural crops. If the adhesion characteristics are improved, the requisite amount of the pesticide to be sprayed can be reduced in comparison with the conventional spraying method that uses non-charged pesticide. In this research, disease (rust) control experiments were carried out to substantiate the effectiveness of the EPS from a statistical point of view. We sprayed pesticide to potted Japanese pear trees under calm condition. The numbers of the rust lesions on the pear leaves were counted at fixed intervals after spraying to investigate the difference of the results of the disease control. The t-tests were carried out for the populations of the various spraying times and applied voltages. It was statistically-derived that EPS can reduce the amounts of pesticide to be sprayed by 50 % in comparison with the non-EPS method. It is also estimated from the results that about 55,000 kL year-1 of pesticides can be reduced for the Japanese pear cultivation in Tottori prefecture. Also, this means that the expense of the pear cultivation can be reduced by about 240 million yen (3 million USD) every year in Tottori prefecture by introducing EPS.

Nishimura, Ryo; Fujita, Satoko; Michihara, Shota; Masuoka, Takashi; Kimura, Toshihiro; Yatsuzuka, Shinji; Anaguchi, Shinobu

2013-03-01

303

Clinical and Biochemical Parameters of Children and Adolescents Applying Pesticides  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The primary agricultural product in Egypt is the cotton crop. Children and adolescents work seasonally in the cotton fields applying pesticides.Objectives: To examine the effect of pesticide exposure on clinical and biochemical parameters in children and adolescents applying pesticides.Methods: Male children currently applying pesticides and aged between 9 and 19 years (n = 50 were recruited for this study. They were asked to complete work, health, and exposure questionnaires; examined for any medical and neurological problems with particular attention to sensory and motor functions including cranial nerves, sensory and motor system, and reflexes. From each participant, a blood sample was taken to measure acetylcholinesterase activity, and liver and kidney functions. Children who have never worked in agriculture (n = 50, matched on age, education, and socioeconomic status were also studied and served as controls.Results: More neuromuscular disorders were identified in pesticide applicators than controls. A significant lower level of acetylcholinesterase was found in the applicator group compared to the controls. There was also a significant difference in hematological, renal and hepatic indices in the exposed children compared to the control children. Working more days in the current season and also working more years as a pesticide applicator were both associated with an increase in the prevalence of neuromuscular abnormalities and significant changes in the laboratory tests.Conclusion: Children and adolescent pesticide applicators working in farms of Egypt are at risk of developing serious health problems similar to those of adults.

O Hendy

2010-06-01

304

Occurrence of pesticides from coffee crops in surface water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The excessive amount of pesticides applied in agricultural areas may reach surface water, thereby contaminating it. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of pesticides used in a sub-basin headwater with coffee crops, situated in the Dom Corrêa district, Manhuaçu, Minas Gerais. The region of study is a great producer of coffee. Crops occupy steep areas and are situated close to surface water bodies. In this study, four sample collection points were selected in streams as well as a point in the distribution network and two points in the water treatment station (raw and treated water a total of seven points. The samples were collected in rainy and dry seasons. Organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids, carbamates and triazoles pesticides were identified by liquid and gas chromatography analysis with tandem mass spectrometry. The occurrence of pesticides was more evident in the rainy season. A total of 24 distinct pesticides were detected. At least one pesticide was identified in 67% of the samples collected during the rainy season and in 21% of the samples collected during drought. Many pesticides detected in water are not regulated in Brazilian legislation regarding potability.

Márcio Ribeiro Vianna Neto

2013-04-01

305

Chesapeake Bay watershed pesticide use declines but toxicity increases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Large areas of the Chesapeake Bay, USA, watershed are in agricultural land use, but there is no baywide program to track application rates of current-use pesticides in any of the watershed jurisdictions. Watershed studies demonstrate that several pesticides are present in surface and groundwater throughout the region. Between 1985 and 2004, the Maryland Department of Agriculture conducted surveys to estimate pesticide application within the state. Application rates of the dominant insecticides and herbicides were compiled over the survey period. Toxicity of the pesticides was tabulated, and the toxic units (TU) of applied active ingredients were calculated for several animal and plant species. The total mass of pesticides being applied to the watershed declined during the survey period. Due to increasing potency of the chemicals, however, total TUs applied have remained static or have significantly increased depending on the species of bioassay test organism used to assess toxicity. Applying estimates of pesticide transport into rivers in the Mississippi River basin show that significant quantities of pesticides may be entering Chesapeake Bay. PMID:21312252

Hartwell, S Ian

2011-05-01

306

Influence of different carbon monolith preparation parameters on pesticide adsorption  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The capacity of carbon monolith for pesticide removal from water, and the mechanism of pesticide interaction with carbon surface were examined. Different carbon monolith samples were obtained by varying the carbonization and activation parameters. In order to examine the role of surface oxygen groups in pesticide adsorption, carbon monolith surface was functionalized by chemical treatment in HNO3, H2O2 and KOH. The surface properties of the obtained samples were investigated by BET surface area, pore size distribution and temperature-programmed desorption. Adsorption of pesticides from aqueous solution onto activated carbon monolith samples was studied by using five pesticides belonging to different chemical groups (acetamiprid, dimethoate, nicosulfuron, carbofuran and atrazine. Presented results show that higher temperature of carbonization and the amount of activating agent allow obtaining microporous carbon monolith with higher amount of surface functional groups. Adsorption properties of the activated carbon monolith were more readily affected by the amount of the surface functional groups than by specific surface area. Results obtained by carbon monolith functionalisation showed that ?-? interactions were the main force for adsorption of pesticides with aromatic structure, while acidic groups play an important role in adsorption of pesticides with no aromatic ring in the chemical structure.

Vuk?evi? Marija

2013-01-01

307

[Study on usage of pesticides in various countries].  

Science.gov (United States)

Usage of pesticides in food items in export countries was studied, focusing items which Japan imports in large quantity. Japan has imported field crops such as wheat, corn and soy bean, and also grapefruit in large quantity on a weight base, mainly from United States, Australia and Canada. While, Japan has imported various kinds of vegetables in which China had the largest share. We collected usage data of pesticides for 44 food items of 17 countries of 2004. Pesticides which were used frequently (usage rank within top ten in each item/country) were dichlorvos, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate (insecticides), mancozeb, carbendazim, thiophanate-methyl, chlorthalonil (fungicides), glyphosate, 2,4-D, paraquat, acetochlor (herbicides). Carbendazim, thiophanate-methyl, acetochlor and dichlorvos were mainly used in China. Dithiocarbamates are used frequently in various food items in various countries, and also frequently detected in monitoring in foreign countries. Some pesticides such as bisultap, monosultap, etaboxam and triazmate were used only in certain countries, and available information on toxicity or analytical method was very limited. Some of pesticides described above have not been analyzed in the pesticide residue monitoring in Japan before 2005,however, many of them are subjects of analysis for import food after 2006 with the enforcement of positivelist system for residues of pesticide and veterinary medicines in food in Japan. PMID:18220053

Yamamoto, Miyako; Toda, Miou; Tanaka, Keiko; Sugita, Takiko; Sasaki, Shiho; Uneyama, Chikako; Morikawa, Kaoru

2007-01-01

308

Potential health effects of pesticide use on farmworkers in Lesotho  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This study examined the experiences of farmworkers during crop spraying in Lesotho. The main goal of this study was to determine the perceptions and awareness of farmworkers regarding the use of pesticides and the potential effects on their health. The data were obtained from farmworkers using a com [...] bination of an open-ended and a close-ended structured questionnaire in July 2006. Of the nine farms serviced by the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security of Lesotho, Agricultural Research Division, six farms were randomly chosen and 27 farmworkers from these farms were interviewed. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics such as frequency tables. The results showed that farmworkers are relatively poorly educated and that a greater health risk is present when a lack of training and education on the use of pesticides also exists. That is, the majority (85%) of farmworkers did not have secondary education and most (93%) had no training on the use of pesticides, which poses a great health threat to the farmworkers. A lack of education makes it difficult for farmworkers to read and understand the information labels on pesticides and hence it is difficult for them to understand the health hazards of pesticides and the need for personal safety measures. When using and handling pesticides, 52% of farmworkers did not use rubber gloves and 93% did not use goggles or other forms of face cover. This lack of protection puts them at serious risk of skin exposure to pesticides. The farmworkers were quite aware of the harmful effects of pesticides, but were sometimes unable to translate this awareness into their own safety practices because of a lack of knowledge about the adverse effects. Therefore, training, extension services and various awareness programmes should be promoted in Lesotho in order to increase farmworkers' knowledge and awareness of the adverse effects of pesticides on human health and the environment.

Tholang A., Mokhele.

2011-08-01

309

[Anti-corrosive effect of pesticides in soil corrosion conditions].  

Science.gov (United States)

Effect of some sub-standard pesticides (Ramrod, Linuron, Simazin) with respect to corrosion-active groups of microorganisms: sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), denitrifying bacteria (DNB), saprophytic bacteria (SB) and their inhibiting properties under the conditions of active corrosion have been studied to estimate a possibility to use them as biocide additions when producing protective materials. It has been shown that the sub-standard pesticides Ramrod and Simazin are promising for to be used as the biocides additions under the protection of bioresistant materials. It is supposed that inhibitors-biocides may be found in a series of compounds obtained under chemical modification of substandard pesticides Ramrod and Simazin. PMID:11692682

Smykun, N V; Tretiak, A P; Kurmakova, I N

2001-01-01

310

Optimisation of gas chromatography for pesticide residue analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water and soil contamination due to the variety of pesticides used in agriculture practices is a global environmental pollution problem. Organochlorine pesticides are of special interest in this context as their high chemical stability results in their persistence and bioaccumulation in the environment and animal tissues. Sensitive, rapid and reliable methods for the routine determination of organochlorine residues in environment are thus much needed. In this study for the determination of organochlorine pesticide residue in environmental samples; experimental parameters such as effect of temperature and pressure of GC-ECD were studied and optimized. (Author)

311

[Contact eczema caused by pesticides in East Germany].  

Science.gov (United States)

19 allergic, occupational contact eczemas and 1 irrative contact dermatitis caused by pesticides from 1985-86 in the GDR are described. The 20 casuistic reports are supplemented with data concerning age, sex, exposure time, patch-test results, occupation site and dermatological details. The following pesticides were determined: maneb, zineb, mancozeb, propineb, thiram, demephion, dimethoate, propachlor, metham-Na, benomyl, chloralhydrate with chloralmethylhalbacetal, carbaryl, dinocap captan, phenyl-Hg-acetate and trichlodinitrobenzene. Each individual case adhered to the recommended test concentration for skin tests. Contact eczemas brought about by the pesticides demephion and trichlordinitrobenzene have not yet to be described. Those working in gardening seem to be particularly prone. PMID:2525102

Jung, H D; Hönemann, W; Kloth, C; Lübbe, D; Pambor, M; Quednow, C; Rätz, K H; Rothe, A; Tarnick, M

1989-01-01

312

Environmental toxins: alarming impacts of pesticides on male fertility.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review comprehensively summarizes the effects of more than 15 mostly used pesticides on male reproductive physiology, as recent experimental and epidemiological research have indicated their alarming impact on overall human health. Mechanisms have described that pesticide exposure damages spermatozoa, alter Sertoli or Leydig cell function, both in vitro and in vivo and thus affects semen quality. But, the literature suggests a need for more intricate research in those pesticides that are defined as mutagens or carcinogens and directly affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. This literature review also proposes specific solutions to overcome these health effects. PMID:24347299

Sengupta, Pallav; Banerjee, Rajdeb

2014-10-01

313

Monitoring results for organochlorine pesticides in soil and water from selected obsolete pesticide stores in Pakistan.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports on the concentration and distribution pattern of organochlorine pesticides in soil and water samples collected from obsolete pesticide stores in three provinces of Pakistan and analyzed on capillary gas chromatography/electron capture detection. The data for soil and water samples were highly variable as samplings were done from diversified locations. The soil samples mainly contained DDTs followed by lindane and heptachlor. The contamination levels in North West Frontier Province (NWFP), Punjab, and Sindh were in ranges of 247-9,157 mg kg(-1), 214-10,892 mg kg(-1), and 86-1,139 mg kg(-1), respectively. In water, residue range levels were 0-15.17 (median 0.29) microg L(-1), 0.25-0.78 (median 0.36) microg L(-1), and 0.11-0.83 (median 0.21) microg L(-1) in NWFP, Punjab, and Sindh, respectively. PMID:19507044

Ahad, Karam; Mohammad, Ashiq; Khan, Hizbullah; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Hayat, Yousaf

2010-07-01

314

Pesticide Use in South Africa : One of the Largest Importers of Pesticides in Africa  

OpenAIRE

South Africa is a diverse country, with a diverse environment that is home to more than 49 000 000 people. Pesticide usage is very often necessary to maintain both agricultural productivity as well as human health. The climatic conditions range from semi-tropic to semi-arid regions. Although the majority of the country has summer rainfall, the south western coastal region is predominantly a winter rainfall area. These variations in climate allows for a wide variety of crops, from tropical fru...

Quinn, Laura; Vos, Jayne; Fernandes-whaley, Maria; Roos, Claudine; Bouwman, Henk; Kylin, Henrik; Pieters, Rialet; Den Berg, Johnnie

2011-01-01

315

Pesticide residues in grapes from integrated production of the Slovene origin The CORRECTED TITLE is: Pesticide residues in grapes from vineyards included in integrated pest management in Slovenia.  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Although the list of pesticides used in integrated pest management (IPM) in grape growing and their annual application rates are limited, we are still confronted with the problem of pesticide residues in grapes. The paper presents the results of pesticide monitoring in 47 samples of wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) of the 2006 vintage from the vineyards included in IPM. The grape samples were analysed for the presence of 67 pesticides. Among them, 20 were allowed in IPM in ...

Bas?a C?esnik, Helena; Gregorc?ic?, Ana; C?us?, Franc

2008-01-01

316

Reproductive toxicity risk assessment for pesticides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human health risk assessment for pesticides is based mainly on animal studies submitted by the applicant and aims to determine safe exposure levels for operators (farmers and agricultural workers) and consumers of all age groups. Critical effects, including those resulting from reproductive toxicity, are identified during hazard assessment from an evaluation of all studies in the toxicity package. Reproductive or developmental effects are considered critical if they are more severe or occur at lower doses than other toxicities. Reference values for human exposure are then derived from No Adverse Effect Levels for the relevant critical effects by applying safety factors. This paper describes methods and caveats applicable to the evaluation of prenatal toxicity and two-generation studies from the view of a regulator, stressing the importance of individual litter data and the relationship between different endpoints. PMID:23138925

Ulbrich, Beate

2013-01-01

317

Culmination of low-dose pesticide effects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticides applied in agriculture can affect the structure and function of nontarget populations at lower doses and for longer timespans than predicted by the current risk assessment frameworks. We identified a mechanism for this observation. The populations of an aquatic invertebrate (Culex pipiens) exposed over several generations to repeated pulses of low concentrations of the neonicotinoid insecticide (thiacloprid) continuously declined and did not recover in the presence of a less sensitive competing species (Daphnia magna). By contrast, in the absence of a competitor, insecticide effects on the more sensitive species were only observed at concentrations 1 order of magnitude higher, and the species recovered more rapidly after a contamination event. The underlying processes are experimentally identified and reconstructed using a simulation model. We conclude that repeated toxicant pulse of populations that are challenged with interspecific competition may result in a multigenerational culmination of low-dose effects. PMID:23859631

Liess, Matthias; Foit, Kaarina; Becker, Anne; Hassold, Enken; Dolciotti, Ida; Kattwinkel, Mira; Duquesne, Sabine

2013-08-01

318

Pesticide transport simulation in a tropical catchment by SWAT.  

Science.gov (United States)

The application of agrochemicals in Southeast Asia is increasing in rate, variety and toxicity with alarming speed. Understanding the behavior of these different contaminants within the environment require comprehensive monitoring programs as well as accurate simulations with hydrological models. We used the SWAT hydrological model to simulate the fate of three different pesticides, one of each usage type (herbicide, fungicide and insecticide) in a mountainous catchment in Northern Thailand. Three key parameters were identified: the sorption coefficient, the decay coefficient and the coefficient controlling pesticide percolation. We yielded satisfactory results simulating pesticide load dynamics during the calibration period (NSE: 0.92-0.67); the results during the validation period were also acceptable (NSE: 0.61-0.28). The results of this study are an important step in understanding the modeling behavior of these pesticides in SWAT and will help to identify thresholds of worst-case scenarios in order to assess the risk for the environment. PMID:24811948

Bannwarth, M A; Sangchan, W; Hugenschmidt, C; Lamers, M; Ingwersen, J; Ziegler, A D; Streck, T

2014-08-01

319

Analysis of pesticide residues and metabolites by radioactive tracers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method using radioactive tracers is described for determining residues and metabolites of pesticides. The sensitivity of this technique is very high and it can be better as 10-3?gr per gr. of dry matter. (J.C.)

320

77 FR 8741 - Spirotetramat; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions  

Science.gov (United States)

...pesticide chemical residue. * * *'' Section...available effective insecticides, it is currently infeasible...with the available insecticides in most areas of onion...risks presented by residues of spirotetramat in...Risk Assessment and Determination of Safety...

2012-02-15

321

77 FR 75855 - Spirotetramat; Pesticide Tolerance for Emergency Exemption  

Science.gov (United States)

...pesticide chemical residue. * * *'' Section...effective alternative insecticides, increasing resistance...historically effective insecticide imidacloprid, and...risks presented by residues of spirotetramat in...Risk Assessment and Determination of Safety Section...

2012-12-26

322

Clean up of pesticide residues by Gel- Permeation chromatography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Use of the semi-automatic gel chromatographic system, Type : KL-SX-3 ( GPC) was evaluated for pesticide residue analysis. The clean up procedure was found efficient for large column use (28 mm id. x 20 cm). Recoveries of linuron and pirimiphos-methyl were found 84.3 and 79.8 percent respectively. Fat and pesticide contents are clearly separable. About eighty percent of DDT (88.8%), 91.4% of carbaryl and 98% of carbofuran were recovered in 80-190 ml of cyclohexane-dichloromethane 1 : 1 eluent. In the small column more than 70% of pesticides come out in the initial fractions ( 0-30 ml) of eluent. From this study it is thus concluded that GPC (KL-SX-C) with large column is suitable to separate pesticides from fat and other co-extracts from grain samples, but small column technique is of limited use. (author)

323

DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS AND PESTICIDES IN GINSENG PRODUCTS  

Science.gov (United States)

Medicinal plants may carry residuals of environmentally persistent pesticides or assimilate heavy metals in varying degrees. Several factors may influence contaminant accumulation, including species, level and duration of contaminant exposure, and topography. As part of a progra...

324

76 FR 38033 - Cloquintocet-mexyl; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...tolerances therein to cover residues of the inert ingredient (herbicide safener), cloquintocet-mexyl (acetic acid [(5...in pesticide formulations containing the active ingredients clodinafop-propargyl (wheat only), dicamba (wheat only),...

2011-06-29

325

ABIOTIC PROCESSES IN THE DEGRADATION OF PESTICIDES IN NATURAL WATERS  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticides and other trace micropollutants released to the aquatic environment are subject to hydrolysis, oxidation-reduction, and photodecomposition. Kinetic treatments of hydrolysis and direct photolysis processes have been successful in allowing accurate extrapolation of labor...

326

Gas chromatography-vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy for multiclass pesticide identification.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new vacuum ultraviolet detector for gas chromatography was recently developed and applied to multiclass pesticide identification. VUV detection features full spectral acquisition in a wavelength range of 115-240nm, where virtually all chemical species absorb. VUV absorption spectra of 37 pesticides across different classes were recorded. These pesticides display rich gas phase absorption features across various classes. Even for isomeric compounds, such as hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, the VUV absorption spectra are unique and can be easily differentiated. Also demonstrated is the ability to use VUV data analysis software for deconvolution of co-eluting signals. As a universal detector, VUV provides both qualitative and quantitative information. It offers high specificity, sensitivity (pg on-column detection limits), and a fast data acquisition rate, making it a powerful tool for multiclass pesticide screening when combined with gas chromatography. PMID:25757817

Fan, Hui; Smuts, Jonathan; Walsh, Phillip; Harrison, Dale; Schug, Kevin A

2015-04-10

327

Trends in the Exposures to Pesticides in Central Europe.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

1. Rijeka : InTech, 2011 - (Stoytcheva, M.), s. 3-18 ISBN 978-953-307-459-7 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : pesticides * exposures Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

Pelclová, D.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Mrázová, K.; Rakovcová, H.; Fenclová, Z.

328

76 FR 7707 - Fludioxonil; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions  

Science.gov (United States)

...generated for apple, grapefruit, lemon, lime, orange, pear, tomato...tomato, apple, grapefruit, lemon, lime, grape, and orange...g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control...commodities, Pesticides and pests, Reporting and...

2011-02-11

329

40 CFR 165.43 - Scope of pesticide products included.  

Science.gov (United States)

...systems; antifouling coatings; wood preservatives; or swimming pools. (3) The pesticide product is not a hazardous...sites in the antimicrobial product use category of swimming pools. (e) How will EPA determine if an...

2010-07-01

330

76 FR 4686 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...advocates; the chemical industry; pesticide users; and...264 Piperonyl Powder for Pets. Butoxide Pyrethrins...Sergeant's Pet Care Products, Inc., 2625...Chemsico, Div of United Industries Corp., P.O. Box...

2011-01-26

331

Photodegradation of pesticides in float system effluent from tobacco plantation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Several crops can generate liquid effluent containing pesticide residues. In the region of the Vale do Rio Pardo, RS, Brazil, one type of effluent results from the float system used in the tobacco seedling plantation. This system is an alternative that substitutes for the conventional seedbeds of to [...] bacco production. The tobacco is germinated on polystyrene tray beds on a water blade that may contain pesticides residues following the transplant of seedlings to the farm. In this paper, we have simulated in the laboratory, the photo-degradation of the pesticides present in the effluent of the float system, including the pesticides metalaxyl, iprodione and imidacloprid. Photolysis and photoperoxidation were the methods used. The experiments were performed with a mercury vapor light bulb of 80, 125 and 250 W. The obtained results show that the photodegradation of the metalaxyl, iprodione and imidacloprid in an optimized system presents considerable reproducibility and high degradation, requiring less time.

R. de C. de S., Schneider; B. V., Trolli; M. da S., Mazuim; G., Hauch; N. de M., Baccar; E. L., Machado.

2009-12-01

332

78 FR 26935 - Data Requirements for Antimicrobial Pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

...approach to pesticide risk management by enhancing its ability...Testing and Assessment (IATA) Strategies: Use of new computational...approaches used by Canada's Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA...Preservatives prepared by the Organisation for Economic...

2013-05-08

333

75 FR 48669 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...cancellations. Any distribution, sale, or use of the products subject to this...human health, and agricultural advocates; the...interested in the sale, distribution, or use of pesticides...registrants, of 33 products registered...

2010-08-11

334

76 FR 54230 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...cancellations. Any distribution, sale, or use of the products subject to this...human health, and agricultural advocates; the...interested in the sale, distribution, or use of pesticides...registrants, of 60 products registered...

2011-08-31

335

40 CFR 158.2100 - Microbial pesticides definition and applicability.  

Science.gov (United States)

...required in this subpart. (3) Genetically modified microbial pesticides may be subject...the manner and extent to which the organism has been genetically modified. (4) Pest control organisms such as insect predators,...

2010-07-01

336

Biodegradation of organophosphorus pesticides by soil bacteria  

Science.gov (United States)

A number of studies in the 1980s and 1990s showed that crop-protection products, applied to drained fields, could move downwards through the soil profile and to the groundwater. Organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) are used all over the world for crop protection, for other agricultural practices such as sheep dipping and, in aquaculture, for the control of sea lice. Ops besides showing a specific neurotoxicity and have also been related to various modern diseases, including Creutzfeldt-Jakob (CJD) and the Gulf War syndrome. Although OPs are less persistent than Organoclorine pesticides (OCs), they still constitute an environmental risks thus increasing the social concern about their levels in soils, surface waters, and ground waters. Degradation of OPs by microorganisms has been assessed for a few bacterial strains. In the present study the OPs degrading potential of indigenous soil microorganisms was investigated. Using enrichment cultures in which parathion was the only C and energy sources many bacterial strains were isolated from OPs contaminated and pristine agricultural soils characterized by different physico-chemical properties. More than 40 potential OPs degraders were isolated and grouped in operational taxonomic units (OTU) using analysis of polymorphism showed by the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS). Partial sequencing of 16S rRNA gene of representative isolates of each OTU revealed that most of them belong to Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. All the analyzed soils showed the presence of putative OPs degraders: the highest diversity was found in organic cultivated soils, the lowest in chemically cultivated soils. Degradation of different OPs, characterized by different physical and chemical properties, was obtained by different selected representative strains using SPME GC-MS analysis on water and soil microcosms. The results showed that, after the incubation period, the amount of pesticide residues were in the range 20-80%. Some of the isolates bacterial species are currently unknown as OPs degraders.

de Pasquale, C.; Fodale, R.; Lo Piccolo, L.; Palazzolo, E.; Alonzo, G.; Quatrini, P.

2009-04-01

337

Mortality of intentional and unintentional pesticide poisonings in Germany from 1980 to 2010.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticide poisoning is a major public health issue especially in low-income countries. WHO figures show about 3 million pesticide poisonings occurring worldwide annually. A recent systematic review estimated that 360?000 fatalities result from self-poisoning with pesticides, accounting for approximately 30 per cent of all suicides worldwide. We analyzed the German cause-of-death registry with respect to pesticide-specific ICD codes. We present crude and age-standardized mortality rates plus the percentage of all suicides that are intentional pesticide poisonings. From 1980 to 2010 the number of fatal pesticide poisoning in Germany dropped from 506 to 39. The crude mortality rate decreased from 6.5 per 1 million inhabitants in 1980 to 0.5 in 2010. Reduced availability of toxic pesticides in Germany played the biggest role in the decline of fatal pesticide poisoning. We worry that declines in pesticide poisonings in industrialized countries are not matched in developing countries. PMID:25611891

Moebus, Susanne; Bödeker, Wolfgang

2015-05-01

338

Sources, occurrence and predicted aquatic impact of legacy and contemporary pesticides in streams.  

Science.gov (United States)

We couple current findings of pesticides in surface and groundwater to the history of pesticide usage, focusing on the potential contribution of legacy pesticides to the predicted ecotoxicological impact on benthic macroinvertebrates in headwater streams. Results suggest that groundwater, in addition to precipitation and surface runoff, is an important source of pesticides (particularly legacy herbicides) entering surface water. In addition to current-use active ingredients, legacy pesticides, metabolites and impurities are important for explaining the estimated total toxicity attributable to pesticides. Sediment-bound insecticides were identified as the primary source for predicted ecotoxicity. Our results support recent studies indicating that highly sorbing chemicals contribute and even drive impacts on aquatic ecosystems. They further indicate that groundwater contaminated by legacy and contemporary pesticides may impact adjoining streams. Stream observations of soluble and sediment-bound pesticides are valuable for understanding the long-term fate of pesticides in aquifers, and should be included in stream monitoring programs. PMID:25697475

McKnight, Ursula S; Rasmussen, Jes J; Kronvang, Brian; Binning, Philip J; Bjerg, Poul L

2015-05-01

339

Transfer rates of 19 typical pesticides and the relationship with their physicochemical property.  

Science.gov (United States)

Determining the transfer rate of pesticides during tea brewing is important to identify the potential exposure risks from pesticide residues in tea. In this study, the transfer rates of 19 typical pesticides from tea to brewing were investigated using gas chromatography tandem mass and ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass. The leaching rates of five pesticides (isocarbophos, triazophos, fenvalerate, buprofezin, and pyridaben) during tea brewing were first reported. The pesticides exhibited different transfer rates; however, this result was not related to residual concentrations and tea types. Pesticides with low octanol-water partition coefficients (Logkow) and high water solubility demonstrated high transfer rates. The transfer rates of pesticides with water solubility > 29 mg L(-1) (or 25% (or 2.48) were >65% (or tea trees and establishment of maximum residue limits of pesticides in tea to reduce pesticide exposure in humans. PMID:25537114

Chen, Hongping; Pan, Meiling; Pan, Rong; Zhang, Minglu; Liu, Xin; Lu, Chengyin

2015-01-21

340

Pesticide toxicity index for freshwater aquatic organisms, 2nd edition  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program is designed to assess current water-quality conditions, changes in water quality over time, and the effects of natural and human factors on water quality for the Nation's streams and ground-water resources. For streams, one of the most difficult parts of the assessment is to link chemical conditions to effects on aquatic biota, particularly for pesticides, which tend to occur in streams as complex mixtures with strong seasonal patterns. A Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) was developed that combines pesticide exposure of aquatic biota (measured concentrations of pesticides in stream water) with acute toxicity estimates (standard endpoints from laboratory bioassays) to produce a single index value for a sample or site. The development of the PTI was limited to pesticide compounds routinely measured in NAWQA studies and to toxicity data readily available from existing databases. Qualifying toxicity data were found for one or more types of test organisms for 124 of the 185 pesticide compounds measured in NAWQA samples, but with a wide range of available bioassays per compound (1 to 232). In the databases examined, there were a total of 3,669 bioassays for the 124 compounds, including 398 48-hour EC50 values (concentration at which 50 percent of test organisms exhibit a sublethal response) for freshwater cladocerans, 699 96-hour LC50 values (concentration lethal to 50 percent of test organisms) for freshwater benthic invertebrates, and 2,572 96-hour LC50 values for freshwater fish. The PTI for a particular sample is the sum of toxicity quotients (measured concentration divided by the median toxicity concentration from bioassays) for each detected pesticide, and thus, is based on the concentration addition model of pesticide toxicity. The PTI can be calculated for specific groups of pesticides and for specific taxonomic groups. Although the PTI does not determine whether water in a sample is toxic to aquatic organisms, its values can be used to rank or compare the toxicity of samples or sites on a relative basis for use in further analysis or additional assessments. The PTI approach may be useful as a basis for comparing the potential significance of pesticides in different streams on a common basis, for evaluating relations between pesticide exposure and observed biological conditions, and for prioritizing where further studies are most needed.

Munn, Mark D.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Moran, Patrick W.; Nowell, Lisa H.

2006-01-01

341

Chlorinated pesticides in stream sediments from organic, integrated and conventional farms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine if current sheep/beef farming practices affect pesticide residues in streams, current-use and legacy chlorinated pesticides were quantified in 100 sediment samples from 15 streams on the South Island of New Zealand. The study involved five blocks of three neighboring farms, with each block containing farms managed by organic, integrated and conventional farming practices. Significantly higher concentrations of dieldrin, ? endosulfans, ? current-use pesticides, and ? chlorinated pesticides were measured in sediments from conventional farms compared to organic and integrated farms. However, streams in the latter two farming categories were not pesticide-free and sometimes contained relatively high concentrations of legacy pesticides. Comparison of measured pesticide concentrations with sediment quality guidelines showed that, regardless of farming practice, mean pesticide concentrations were below the recommended toxicity thresholds. However, up to 23% of individual samples contained chlorpyrifos, endosulfan sulfate, ? DDT, dieldrin, or ? chlordane concentrations above these thresholds. -- Highlights: •Pesticides were measured in streams in organic, integrated, and conventional farms. •Higher concentrations of some pesticides were found in conventional sites. •Streams in organic and integrated sites were not pesticide free. •Mean pesticide concentrations were below the recommended toxicity thresholds. -- Higher concentrations of several chlorinated pesticides were found in conventional farms; however, organic and integrated practices were not pesticide-free

342

Presence of organophosphorus pesticide oxygen analogs in air samples  

OpenAIRE

A number of recent toxicity studies have highlighted the increased potency of oxygen analogs (oxons) of several organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. These findings were a major concern after environmental oxons were identified in environmental samples from air and surfaces following agricultural spray applications in California and Washington State. This paper reports on the validity of oxygen analog measurements in air samples for the OP pesticide, chlorpyrifos. Controlled environmental and lab...

Armstrong, Jenna L.; Fenske, Richard A.; Yost, Michael G.; Galvin, Kit; Tchong-french, Maria; Yu, Jianbo

2013-01-01

343

Caffeine and related methylxanthines: possible naturally occurring pesticides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural and synthetic methylxanthines inhibit insect feeding and are pesticidal at concentrations known to occur in plants. These effects are due primarily to inhibition of phosphodiesterase activity and to an increase in intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate. At lower concentrations, methylxanthines are potent synergists of other pesticides known to activate adenylate cyclase in insects. These data suggest that methylxanthines may function as natural insecticides and that phosphodiesterase inhibitors, alone or in combination with other compounds, may be useful in insect control. PMID:6207592

Nathanson, J A

1984-10-12

344

Pesticides residue levels in selected fruits from some Ghanaian markets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The amount of some pesticide residues in fruits was monitored at five (5) Accra Metropolis markets. Locally produced fruits (pawpaw and tomato) and imported apples were purchased from two supermarkets and three urban markets in Accra metropolis and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector for pesticide residues. A total of 220 samples of fruits were extracted and analyzed for pesticide residues, mainly organochlorines (?-HCH, ?-HCH, aldrin, heptachlor, ?-chlordane, heptachlor epoxide, ?-endosulfan, p,p'-DDE, endrin, ?-endosulfan, o,p'-DDT, endrin aldehyde, p,p'- DDT, endrin ketone and methoxychlor). The data showed that most of the fruit samples analyzed contain residues of the monitored pesticides above the accepted maximum residue limit (MRL) as adopted by the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The results obtained showed that 38.6 % fruit samples showed results above the MRL, 48.7 % were below the MRL and 12.7 % contained no detectable level of the monitored pesticides. Data analysis of health risk estimates indicated that, particularly ?-HCH, ?-HCH, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE or p,p'-DDT do not pose a direct hazard to human health, although present in the three fruits (pawpaw, tomato and apple). However, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, endrin aldehyde, and endrin ketone levels exceeded the reference dose, indicating a great potential for systemic toxicity, especially in children who are considered to be the most vulnerable poidered to be the most vulnerable population subgroup. Lastly, the public is aware of pesticide residues in fruits and advocates for the curtailing of pesticide use on horticulture produce or strong educational programmes for farmers on control and safer use of pesticides. (au)

345

The 2011 European Union Report on Pesticide Residues in Food  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The report presents the results of the control activities related to pesticide residues in food carried out in 2011 in 29 European countries (27 Member States and 2 EFTA countries. The report also presents a dietary risk assessment. On the basis of the detailed analysis of the results, EFSA derived some recommendations aimed at improving the enforcement of the European pesticide residue legislation. In 2011, more than 79,000 samples of more than 600 food products were tested for pesticide residues throughout Europe. Nearly 900 pesticides were sought and less than 400 were detected in measurable amounts. In the framework of the EU-coordinated monitoring programme which covered more than 12,000 samples 98.1 % of the tested food samples analysed complied with the legal limits and that 53.4 % of samples contained no measurable residues at all. The dietary risk assessment that was performed to estimate the long-term exposure of consumers confirmed that there was no long-term risk to consumer health through their diets from 99 % of the 171 pesticides assessed. For two pesticides (dieldrin and heptachlor the estimated worst-case exposure exceeded the toxicological reference value, indicating there may be a potential for an impact on consumer health. Neither compound is authorised for use as a pesticide, but due to historical use and the high persistence of the molecules and their capacity to bioaccumulate, they are still present in the food chain. The risk assessment that focussed on the short-term exposure revealed that potential consumer health concerns could not be excluded in 253 instances should the products that contained residues in high concentrations be consumed in high amounts. Finally, an acute risk assessment was carried out for pears that contained multiple residues of pesticides that share the same toxicological effects. Two samples of pears exceeded the toxicological threshold for cumulative effects.

European Food Safety Authority

2014-05-01

346

Decline of Pesticide Residues from Barley to Malt  

OpenAIRE

Abstract The fate of dinitroaniline herbicides (pendimethalin and trifluralin), organophosphous insecticides (fenitrothion and malathion), and pyrimidine (nuarimol) and triazole (myclobutanil and propiconazole) fungicides from barley to malt has been assessed. Several samples for residue analysis were taken after each stage of malting (steeping, germination, and kilning). Analyses of pesticide residues were carried out by GC/ITMS in SIM mode. Pesticides decline along the process al...

Navarro, Simon; Vela, Nuria; Pe?rez, Gabriel; Navarro, Gine?s

2007-01-01

347

Development of Enhanced Analytical Methodology in Pesticide Chemistry  

OpenAIRE

The analysis of pesticide residues in fruit, vegetables, rape seed and water has been improved using developments in sample handling and analytical techniques. The method development is associated with analytical difficulties, since pesticides currently used in agriculture represent a variety of chemical classes having very different physico chemical properties. The method development also encounters difficulties when many various commodity classes with different characteristics are studied. ...

Pihlstro?m, Tuija

2003-01-01

348

Testosterone production and spermatogenic damage induced by organophosphorate pesticides  

OpenAIRE

ParathionÒ is an organophosphorate pesticide amply used in agriculture. Many alterations induced by organophosphorate pesticides have been described, such as: cytogenetic alterations in germinal cells, oligozoospermia and teratozoospermia in the mouse. The effect of ParathionÒ, both pure (PP) and commercial (PC), on mouse interstitial cell testosterone production was evaluated in vivo and in vitro. Male mice were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of 1/3 LD50 of ParathionÒ, both...

Contreras, H. R.; Paredes, V.; Urquieta, B.; Del Valle, L.; Bustos-obrego?n, E.

2006-01-01

349

Evaluation of pesticide adsorption in gas chromatographic injector and column  

OpenAIRE

Components in complex matrices can cause variations in chromatographic response during analysis of pesticides by gas chromatography. These variations are related to the competition between analytes and matrix components for adsorption sites in the chromatographic system. The capacity of the pesticides chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin to be adsorbed in the injector and chromatographic column was evaluated by constructing three isotherms and changing the column heating rate to 10 and 30 ºC min-1....

Gevany Paulino de Pinho; Flaviano Oliveira Silvério; Antônio Augusto Neves; Maria Eliana Lopes Ribeiro de Queiroz

2012-01-01

350

The Organochlorine Pesticides Residue Levels in Karun River Water  

OpenAIRE

Background: The organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are among the most commonly used in water streams around the world. Most of these contaminants are highly hydrophobic and persist in sediments of rivers and lakes. Studies have suggested that OCPs may affect the normal function of the human and wildlife endocrine systems.Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the concentrations of selected organochlorine pesticides residues [OP'DDT, PP'DDT, alderin, dieldrin, heptachlor, (?,ß,?,?...

Behrooz Jannat; Abdolazim Behfar; Zahra Nazari; Mohammad Hassan Rabiee; Gholamreza Raeesi; Mohammad Reza Oveisi; Nafiseh Sadeghi

2013-01-01

351

Reaction pathways and mechanisms of photodegradation of pesticides  

OpenAIRE

The photodegradation of pesticides is reviewed, with particular reference to the studies that describe the mechanisms of the processes involved, the nature of reactive intermediates and final products. Potential use of photochemical processes in advanced oxidation methods for water treatment is also discussed. Processes considered include direct photolysis leading to homolysis or heterolysis of the pesticide, photosensitized photodegradation by singlet oxygen and a variety of metal complexes,...

Burrows, H. D.; Canle L, M.; Santaballa, J. A.; Steenken, S.

2002-01-01

352

Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators  

OpenAIRE

Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food an...

Damalas, Christos A.; Eleftherohorinos, Ilias G.

2011-01-01

353

Myths, models and mitigation of resistance to pesticides.  

OpenAIRE

Resistance to pesticides in arthropod pests is a significant economic, ecological and public health problem. Although extensive research has been conducted on diverse aspects of pesticide resistance and we have learned a great deal during the past 50 years, to some degree the discussion about 'resistance management' has been based on 'myths'. One myth involves the belief that we can manage resistance. I will maintain that we can only attempt to mitigate resistance because resistance is a natu...

Hoy, M. A.

1998-01-01

354

Exposure to pesticide residues from consumption of Italian blood oranges  

OpenAIRE

Abstract The paper reports findings concerning a five years study aimed to evaluate pesticides levels, deriving from orchards activities, on the Italian most common orange cultivar (Citrus Sinensis, L. Osbeck, cv. Tarocco). The study, using a Bayesian approach, allowed obtaining both the qualitative (the number) and quantitative distributions (the amount) of pesticides with its own probability value. Multi residues analyses of the 460 analysed samples highlighted the presence o...

Fallico, Biagio; D Urso, Mary Giuseppina; Chiappara, Elena

2009-01-01

355

The need for translational research on antidotes for pesticide poisoning  

OpenAIRE

Pesticide poisoning kills hundreds of thousands of people in the Asia Pacific region each year. The majority are from deliberate self-poisoning with organophosphorus pesticides (OP), aluminium phosphide and paraquat. The current response from a public health, medical and research perspective is inadequate.There are few proven or effective treatments; in addition, very little clinical research has been done to transfer antidotes shown to work in animal studies into clinical practice.The human ...

Buckley, Nick A.; Eddleston, Michael; Dawson, Andrew H.

2005-01-01

356

Pesticide Residues Evaluation in Pulp, Juice and Nectar of Fruits  

OpenAIRE

Industrial processing of fruit in order to produce juice and nectar can contribute to over exposure of some contaminants, such as pesticide residues. Thus, this work aimed to check the compliance with the Maximum Residue Levels (MRL). In our research, 162 samples of frozen pulps, 16 of juice and 2 of nectar, were evaluated for pesticide residues, as well as the acceptable dietary intake (ADI). A multi-residue method was employed and almost 140 active ingredients were studied. Positive results...

Claudia Helena Pastor Ciscato; Amir Bertoni Gebara; Claudia Maria Barbosa; Gisele Santos Souza; Hamada, N.; Silva, D. L.

2012-01-01

357

Application of Multi-Analyte Methods for Pesticide Formulations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The application of multi-analyte methods for pesticide formulations by GC analysis is discussed. HPLC was used to determine active ingredients. HPLC elution sequences were related to individual n-octanol/water partition coefficients. Real laboratory data are presented and evaluated with regard to validation requirements. The retention time data of pesticides on different HPLC columns under gradient and isocratic conditions are compared to illustrate the applicability of the methodologies. (author)

358

Reducing pesticide level in wine by selective filtration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wine Pesticide residues, even when below grape regulatory limit, are a concern for consumers and have an impact on the export potential of wine in certain markets. A consortium of European SMEs (www.adfimax.com has developed a product that reduces the level of mycotoxins and pesticides in wine while keeping all other wine parameter identical. The product is derived from renewable vegetable fiber. The production process includes both activation and micronisation. The usage recommendation is to substitute only the pre-coat, typically perlite, by the product at 1 or 1.5?kg?m?2 without changing the other layer (body feed typically kieselguhr. This paper describes the results of numerous industrial trials that were performed in France, Luxemburg, Germany and Spain. The impact of the product on the wine oenological characteristics was evaluated for different wine (white, red and rosé in different countries and for different grape variety (including Cabernet sauvignon, Merlot and Gamay. Results showed a reduction of the test wine pesticide level of 50% to 60% for all pesticides compared to the blank. Level of pesticide analyzed in the cake where extremely high at a level of a 1,000 times greater than the filtered wine showing the ability of the product to selectively capture the pesticides molecules.

Lempereur Valérie

2014-01-01

359

Extraction of pesticide residues from biological and environmental samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various procedures that show potential in offering shorter extraction times with higher recoveries and low consumption of organic solvents are discussed. Solid phase extraction is attracting increasing attention for the isolation of pesticide residues from aqueous solutions and constitutes an alternative to liquid-liquid extraction. Microwave assisted extraction of stable pesticide residues from soil samples appears to be a viable alternative to conventional Soxhlet extraction. Thermal desorption involving high temperature distillation is an innovative method for efficiently extracting certain pesticides from soil, sediment and plant samples. Supercritical fluid extraction is emerging as a valuable technique for the isolation of pesticide residues from soil, plant and food samples, using supercritical fluids as the extraction media. It represents an excellent alternative to the potentially hazardous solvents currently used in conventional methods. The feasibility of employing water based systems for the extraction of certain pesticides from fruits and vegetables has also been investigated. A brief survey is given of these extraction procedures and a comparison made with the techniques widely used for the extraction of pesticides residues from biological and environmental samples. (author). 22 refs, 4 figs, 12 tabs

360

Sol-Gel Materials with Pesticide Delivery Properties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pesticides are widely used in agriculture, although they may create hazards both to humans and to the environment. In order to reduce the harmful effects of their administration, there has been made a great effort to find solutions. The porous sol-gel silica materials which are able to entrap different organic molecules represent new studied controlled release carriers. The aim of the present work was to prepare and characterize sol-gel composites based on trichlorfon as organophosphorous pesticide embedded in silica matrices generated from three different SiO2 sources: tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS, colloidal silica (CS, and sodium silicate (SS. Similar samples to those containing only trichlorfon have also been synthesised, in which ?-, ?-, and ?-cyclodextrin have been included in order to study the possibility of improving the release of the pesticide from the silica matrices. The porous sol-gel silica materials generated from TEOS and CS are able to entrap the trichlorfon and ensure an efficient delivery of the pesticide. In the absence of cyclodextrins, better results are obtained in the case of TEOS precursor, compared to colloidal silica. The addition of cyclodextrins in order to improve the release of the pesticide from the silica matrices was successful only in the case of CS as SiO2 precursor. The best release of the pesticide was obtained with ?-CD.

Ligia Todan

2010-09-01

361

Biodegradation of Selected Chlorinated Pesticides Contaminating Lake Maruiut Ecosystem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water pollution with chlorinated pesticides is one of the most serious environemntal problems due to their highpersistence as a result of the slow biodegradation. Residue levels of organochlorine compounds including (P, P- - DDT, -HCH and DDE and cyclodiene components (aldrin, endrin in the water and sediments of Lake Mariut, Alexandria (brackish water were analyzed and determined by capillary gas chromatography. Bacterial isolates collected from sediments of such lake were identified and investigated for their ability to biodegrade the selected pesticides. Water and sediment samples were collected from six different sites in the main basin of Lake Maruit and also through three successive seasons, summer, autumn and winter 1996-97. Bacterial isolates were identified and subjected to two concentrations: 0.05 and 50 ppm of the investigated pesticides to study the interaction between pesticides and bacteria. Results showed that lindane, aldrin. P,P- - DDT and endrine were present in the water and sediments of Lake Mariut at very high levels with residue levels significnatly higehr in sediments compared to water samples. Seasonal and spatial variation of their distribution in the water and sediments were observed. Biodegradation results showed superior ability of the isolated bacteria to decompose the investigated pesticides with very high efficiency reaching 100% for most of them. Results also revealed selective ability among the tested bacteria for biodegradtion of different pesticides especially at the lowet concentrations.

El-Bestawy E

2000-01-01

362

Contamination of Dining Tables with Pesticides in Kibirigwi Irrigation Scheme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kibirigwi irrigation scheme is a small holder area in Central Kenya, where the main activity is production of horticultural crops. Pesticides are widely misused. This study investigated the extent of house hold pesticide exposure in 40 randomly selected farms in JUly-August, 1995. Exposure measures collected included pesticide levels on dining table swabs. Fifty coytton clothes measuring 30 cm *30cm were prepared in the laboratory by soaking overnight in methanol. In each of the selected homesteads, the table used for meals was swabbed with the piece of cloth. In the laboratory, the residues chemicals extracted from these swabs using conventional residual analysis procedures and the extracts were analysed by gas liquid chromatography. Information on which pesticide (s) were recently handled in the home and when, were also recorded. Cypermethrin (9/40), malathion (9/40), Diazinon (5/40), dimethoate (4/40), chloropyrifos (4/40) and fenitrothion (1/40) were detected in these samples. The range of individual organophosphate pesticides detected was 0.01-8.7ug/cm2 of table area and for cypermethrin the range was 0.0024 ng-5.8 ng/cm2. It was concluded that farmers and their family members are likely to be contaminated with pesticides from tables either dermally or through contamination of food placed on such tables

363

An optical instrument to test pesticide residues in agricultural products  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticide is one of the indispensability materials in modern agricultural management, however the excessive use of pesticides has threatened the ecological environment and people's health. This paper introduced an optical instrument to test the pesticide residues in agricultural products based on the inhibition rate of organophosphates against acrtyl-cholinesterase (AchE). The instrument consists mainly of a solid light source with 410nm wavelength, a sampling container, an optical sensor, a temperature sensor, and a MCU based data acquisition board. The light illuminated through the liquid in the sampling container, and the absorptivity was determined by the amount of the pesticide residues in the liquid. This paper involves the design of optical testing system, the data acquisition and calibration of the optical sensor, the design of microcontroller-based electrical board. Tests were done to reveal the affection of temperature and reacting time on AchE, to establish the relationship between the amount of methamidophos and dichlorvos with AchE. The results showed that the absorption rate was related to the pesticide residues and it could be concluded that the pesticide residues exceeded the normal level when the inhibition rate was over 50 percent. The instrument has potential application in vegetable markets.

Qiu, Zhengjun; Zheng, Wenzhong; Fang, Hui; He, Yong

2005-10-01

364

A case of methanol intoxication caused by methomyl pesticide ingestion.  

Science.gov (United States)

When clinicians treat patients with pesticide poisoning, they often pay attention only to the chief toxic agent and ignore the toxicity of the pesticide's additives or solvents. Occasionally, however, a solvent (e.g. methanol) may itself be the cause of poisoning. We report a case of acute methanol intoxication that occurred after ingestion of a methomyl pesticide that contained methanol as an additive. A 49-year-old man was brought to the emergency department in an unconscious state after ingestion of 20 ml of a carbamate pesticide (chief ingredient: methomyl; active ingredient: methanol). Upon arrival, he was semicomatose and did not breathe spontaneously; however, his cholinesterase level was within normal limits and cholinergic symptoms were not observed. High anion gap metabolic acidosis was present. His blood ethanol level was 74.8 mg/dL. The urine methanol level was 55.60 mg/dL, and urine ethanol level was 22.0 mg/dL. He was treated with hemodialysis; subsequently, his metabolic acidosis resolved and he returned to normal mental status. We guessed that methanol, as the solvent of the methomyl, had produced the symptoms. When treating pesticide-poisoned patients, clinicians should identify the solvent used in the pesticide, because solvents such as methanol may exacerbate the symptoms of poisoned patients. PMID:23023026

Gil, H W; Hong, J R; Song, H Y; Hong, S Y

2012-12-01

365

Considerations on the Content of Pesticides Residues in Vegetables  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pesticide contamination of vegetables, today, is more and more questionable. Biodegradability and molecular recalcitrance are two properties expressing the capacity of used substances in plant treatments. Therefore, it is preferred the use of those pesticides that decompose from a treatment to another without accumulating thepollutant residues. It is recommended that, when choosing a pesticide which is used in treatments, to keep in mind: no effect dose, tolerable daily intake, tolerable amount of residues, residues’ limit, the maximum limit allowable, daily dose acceptable for the individual, level of tolerance, maximum limit of contamination allowed and themaximum daily intake acceptable for human. In the Laboratory of pesticide residues determination from plants and plant products in Târgu Mure?, pesticide residues were detected in some species of vegetables; methods of analysis used in the laboratory are multiresidual analysis methods developed in the laboratory (method GC x GC - TOF MS. To be mentioned that the pesticides detected values in vegetables have not exceeded the maximum permissible limits.

Florica Morar

2011-06-01

366

Spectroscopic Methods for the Detection of Organophosphate Pesticides – A Preview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Organophosphate pesticides are the ester forms of phosphoric acid usually considered as secure for agriculture uses due to their relatively fast degradation rates. Organophosphorus pesticides have been extensively used in the area of agriculture to manage insect or pests of a number of economically important crops. Organophosphate pesticides are well-known as the inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase activity, not in insects only, but can also affect the nervous system of other organisms as well as humans. Organophosphorus pesticides are not restricted to anticholinesterase action, but comprise genotoxicity and teratogenicity including other environmental and ecological adverse impact. Such severe health and ecological consequences signify a requirement for a better understanding of the fate of organophosphates in the environment. By kept all these things in mind we have written a review on organophosphorus pesticides. In this review we have previewed the different methods of spectroscopic methods of detection including UV-visible, X-ray, Mass analysis, NMR, electrochemical analysis (sensor based and FTIR. Among all these mass and electrochemical studies were flourished till date and considered as advanced techniques for the analysis of other pesticides also.

Vijay Kumar

2013-08-01

367

29 CFR 1917.25 - Fumigants, pesticides, insecticides and hazardous preservatives (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous...  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Fumigants, pesticides, insecticides...substance or atmosphere). 1917.25...25 Fumigants, pesticides, insecticides...substance or atmosphere). (a...where fumigants, pesticides or hazardous preservatives...created a hazardous atmosphere. These...

2010-07-01

368

75 FR 46924 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...  

Science.gov (United States)

...01 mg/kg with final analysis by LC-MS/MS for...40 CFR part 180 for residues of the [[Page 46926...are available for the analysis of residues of dicamba and its relevant...livestock commodities. Pesticide Analytical...

2010-08-04

369

77 FR 66781 - Notice of Filing of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...  

Science.gov (United States)

...make a final determination on these...regulations for residues of pesticides...residues of the insecticide chlorantraniliprole...part 180 for residues of the herbicide...available for the determination of linuron...628 for residues of the insecticide...

2012-11-07

370

78 FR 43115 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...  

Science.gov (United States)

...of regulations for residues of pesticides in or...40 CFR part 180 for residues of the herbicide linuron...available for the determination of linuron in plant...40 CFR part 180 for residues of the insecticide...

2013-07-19

371

77 FR 15012 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...  

Science.gov (United States)

...validated. The method involves solvent extraction followed by liquid- liquid partitioning...0.01 ppm. Aqueous organic solvent extraction, column clean up, and quantitation...the biochemical pesticide polyoxin D zinc salt when used as a fungicide for...

2012-03-14

372

Pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from South America – A Nordic project  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to investigate the amount of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from South America. A total of 724 samples of 46 different fruits and vegetables from eight South American countries were collected in 2007. In 19% of the samples no residues were found, 72% of samples contained pesticide residues at or below MRL, and 8.4% of samples contained pesticide residues above MRL. Thiabendazole, imazalil and chlorpyrifos were the pesticide most frequently found. Thirty-seven pesticides were found with frequencies higher that 1% in the samples. The results emphasize the need for continuous monitoring of pesticide residues, especially in imported fruits and vegetables.

Hjorth, Karen; Johansen, K.

2011-01-01

373

Thin layer chromatography as an alternative method for pesticide analysis in rice grains  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The applicability of thin layer chromatography for the analysis of pesticide residues in grains as an alternative method to gas and high performance liquid chromatography was evaluated. Recoveries of six selected pesticides representing different pesticide classes as well as marker compounds for the four TLC detection methods employed ranged from 60 to 102%. The CVs of most of the pesticides analysed were within the range of CV indicated excepted for pesticide residue analysis. Thin layer chromatography can be a useful tool to analyze pesticide residues in rice grains. (author)

374

The role of private pesticide vendors in preventing access to pesticides for self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 15% to 20% of self-poisoning cases, the pesticides used are purchased from shops just prior to ingestion. We explored how pesticide vendors interacted with customers at risk of self-poisoning to identify interventions to prevent such poisonings. Two strategies were specifically discussed: selling pesticides only to farmers bearing identity cards or customers bearing pesticide 'prescriptions'. Vendors reported refusing to sell pesticides to people thought to be at risk of self-poisoning, but acknowledged the difficulty of distinguishing them from legitimate customers; vendors also stated they did want to help to improve identification of such customers. The community did not blame vendors when pesticides used for self-poison were purchased from their shops. Vendors have already taken steps to restrict access, including selling low toxic products, counselling and asking customer to return the next day. However, there was little support for the proposed interventions of 'identity cards' and 'prescriptions'. Novel public health approaches are required to complement this approach. PMID:23736739

Weerasinghe, Manjula; Pearson, Melissa; Peiris, Ravi; Dawson, Andrew H; Eddleston, Michael; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Agampodi, Suneth; Konradsen, Flemming

2014-04-01

375

Association between environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative diseases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Preliminary studies have shown associations between chronic pesticide exposure in occupational settings and neurological disorders. However, data on the effects of long-term non-occupational exposures are too sparse to allow any conclusions. This study examines the influence of environmental pesticide exposure on a number of neuropsychiatric conditions and discusses their underlying pathologic mechanisms. An ecological study was conducted using averaged prevalence rates of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, cerebral degeneration, polyneuropathies, affective psychosis and suicide attempts in selected Andalusian health districts categorized into areas of high and low environmental pesticide exposure based on the number of hectares devoted to intensive agriculture and pesticide sales per capita. A total of 17,429 cases were collected from computerized hospital records (minimum dataset) between 1998 and 2005. Prevalence rates and the risk of having Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and suicide were significantly higher in districts with greater pesticide use as compared to those with lower pesticide use. The multivariate analyses showed that the population living in areas with high pesticide use had an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts and that males living in these areas had increased risks for polyneuropathies, affective disorders and suicide attempts. In conclusion, this study supports and extends previous findings and provides an indication that environmental exposure to pesticides may affect the human health by increasing the incidence of certain neurological disorders at the level of the general population. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative-psychiatric disorders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts in high exposure areas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Males from areas with high pesticide exposure had a higher risk of polyneuropathy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Males from high exposure areas had a higher risk of affective psychosis and suicide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nerve tissue degeneration due to oxidative damage may underlie the pathomechanism.

Parron, Tesifon [University of Almeria, Department of Neurosciences and Health Sciences, Almeria (Spain); Andalusian Council of Health at Almeria province, Almeria (Spain); Requena, Mar [Andalusian Council of Health at Almeria province, Almeria (Spain); Hernandez, Antonio F., E-mail: ajerez@ugr.es [University of Granada School of Medicine, Granada (Spain); Alarcon, Raquel [Andalusian Council of Health at Almeria province, Almeria (Spain)

2011-11-15

376

Small-Scale Tomato Cultivators’ Perception on Pesticides Usage and Practices in Buea Cameroon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It has been shown that farmers with limited knowledge of the use and safe handling of pesticides may suffer exposure which results in adverse health effects. In Buea, Cameroon, small-scale tomato farmers commonly use pesticides for pest control. Information was obtained from these tomato farmers to determine the extent and types of their pesticide use, their knowledge of pesticide use and effectiveness, and their perception of potential harm resulting from pesticide use. A standardized questionnaire, interviews, field observations and an analytical ranking game were used to describe the pesticide use of 93 tomato farmers. Many farmers (47.6% used pyrethiod and organophosphorus insecticides and identified these chemicals as the most effective in pesticide control; these are WHO Class II pesticides which are the most hazardous to humans. Most farmers (83.8% used knapsack sprayers to apply pesticides, with 76.3% using no or partial personal protective equipment (PPE. It was notable that 55.5% of farmers expressed no concern regarding the wind direction (pesticide drift during spraying. The results showed a significant association between the method of pesticides application and farm size (P < 0.001. Most farmers (85.0% reported at least one symptom of acute pesticide poisoning following spraying. This study revealed that the tomato farmers have a high exposure to pesticides secondary to inadequate knowledge of the safe and judicious use of pesticides. Strategies that provide training on the appropriate use of pesticides, how to reduce exposure to and health risks of pesticides and alternative options of pest management and control are required. The study also raised concerns that further control of the sale and distribution of pesticides may be indicated.

Tinyami Erick Tandi

2014-12-01

377

Effects of single pesticides and binary pesticide mixtures on estrone production in H295R cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to determine whether the human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line H295R can be used as an in vitro test system to investigate the effects of binary pesticide combinations on estrone production as biological endpoint. In the first step ten pesticides selected according to a tiered approach were tested individually. The anilinopyrimidines cyprodinil and pyrimethanil as well as the dicarboximides iprodione and procymidone increased estrone concentration, while the triazoles myclobutanil and tebuconazole as well as the strobilurins azoxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl decreased estrone concentration in the supernatant of H295R cells. The N-methylcarbamate methomyl did not show any effects, and the phthalimide captan reduced estrone concentration unspecifically due to its detrimental impact on cellular viability. When cyprodinil and pyrimethanil, which belong to the same chemical group and increase estrone production, were combined, in most of the cases the overall effect was solely determined by the most potent compound in the mixture (i.e., cyprodinil). When cyprodinil and procymidone, which belong to different chemical groups but increase estrone production, were combined, in most cases an additive effect was observed. When cyprodinil, which increased estrone production, was combined with either myclobutanil or azoxystrobin, which decreased estrone production, the overall effect of the mixture was in most cases either entirely determined by myclobutanil or at least partially modulated by azoxystrobin. In conclusion, H295R cells appear to be an adequate in vitro test system to study the effect of combining two pesticides affecting estrone production. PMID:23708528

Prutner, Wiebke; Nicken, Petra; Haunhorst, Eberhard; Hamscher, Gerd; Steinberg, Pablo

2013-12-01

378

Incorporating ecologically relevant measures of pesticide effect for estimating the compatibility of pesticides and biocontrol agents.  

Science.gov (United States)

The compatibility of biological control agents with pesticides is a central concern in integrated pest management programs. The most common assessments of compatibility consist of simple comparisons of acute toxicity among pest species and select biocontrol agents. A more sophisticated approach, developed by the International Organisation of Biological Control (IOBC), is based on a tiered hierarchy made up of threshold values for mortality and sublethal effects that is used to determine the compatibility of pesticides and biological control agents. However, this method is unable to capture longer term population dynamics, which is often critical to the success of biological control and pest suppression. In this article, we used the delay in population growth index, a measure of population recovery, to investigate the potential impacts that the threshold values for levels of lethal and sublethal effects developed by the IOBC had on three biocontrol agents: sevenspotted lady beetle, Coccinella septempunctata L.; the aphid parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh), and Fopius arisanus (Sonan), a parasitoid of tephritid flies. Based on life histories of these economically important natural enemies, we established a delay of 1-generation time interval as sufficient to disrupt biological control success. We found that delays equivalent to 1-generation time interval were caused by mortality as low as 50% or reductions of offspring as low as 58%, both values in line with thresholds developed by the IOBC. However, combinations of mortality and reduction of offspring lower than these values (from 32 to 43% each) over a simulated 4-mo period caused significant population delays. Furthermore, the species used in these simulations reacted differently to the same levels of effect. The parasitoid D. rapae was the most susceptible species, followed by F. arisanus and C. septempunctata. Our results indicate that it is not possible to generalize about potential long-term impacts of pesticides on biocontrol agents because susceptibility is influenced by differences in life history variables. Additionally, populations of biocontrol agents may undergo significant damage when mortality approaches 50% or when there is mortality of -30% and a 30% reduction in offspring caused by a sublethal effect. Our results suggest that more ecologically relevant measures of effect such as delays in population growth may advance our knowledge of pesticide impacts on populations of beneficial species. PMID:17849847

Stark, John D; Vargas, Roger; Banks, John E

2007-08-01

379

Fate of pesticides in the arid subtropics, Botswana, Southern Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite a history of pesticide usage, few data exist on their concentrations in air and soil of Southern Africa. To add to the understanding of the processes controlling the fate of organic contaminants in arid regions, the levels, spatial trends, and seasonal variability of pesticides were studied in air and soil from Botswana. XAD resin-based passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed at 15 sites across the country from May 2006 to May 2007. Soil samples were collected from the vicinity of nine of the PAS sampling sites. In addition, 27 24-h high-volume air samples were collected in Maun, at the southeastern edge of the Okavango Delta, every two weeks for one year. Levels of pesticides in PAS were low, with ?-endosulfan and lindane being most abundant. Concentrations in soils were extremely low and only soils with high organic carbon contained notable amounts of dieldrin and traces of other pesticides. In particular, air and soil from the Okavango Delta had very low levels even though the area had repeatedly been sprayed with DDT and endosulfan in the past. Air samples from Eastern Botswana, where the majority of the population lives, contained higher levels. Higher air concentrations of ?-endosulfan occurred during summer and higher HCB levels occurred in winter. This seasonality was related with neither minor seasonal changes in temperature nor hydrological seasonal events such as the rainy season or the flooding of the Okavango Delta. Thus, the observed spatial and seasonal patterns are more likely related to pesticide usage pattern than to environmental factors or historical use. High temperature and low organic matter content limit the uptake capacity of most subtropical soils for pesticides. No evidence was found that sorption to dry mineral matter plays a major role. Arid soils in subtropical regions are therefore neither a major reservoir of organic contaminants nor do they constitute a significant long-term source of pesticides to the atmosphere. PMID:20939577

Shunthirasingham, Chubashini; Mmereki, Baagi T; Masamba, Wellington; Oyiliagu, Catherine E; Lei, Ying D; Wania, Frank

2010-11-01

380

75 FR 62738 - Revisions to EPA's Rule on Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides...  

Science.gov (United States)

...persons who submit the results of human research for pesticides to EPA...these amendments as a result of a settlement agreement...and completed human research for pesticides, based...a)(2) of FIFRA requires the Administrator...

2010-10-13

381

78 FR 16243 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR)  

Science.gov (United States)

...considering methods of sampling and analysis for the determination of pesticide residues in food and feed; considering...suitability assessment of methods of analysis for pesticide residues Revision of the Risk Analysis Principles applied by the...

2013-03-14

382

75 FR 74713 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations; Correction  

Science.gov (United States)

...being issued to rescind the cancellation of Sergeant's Pet Care Products' pesticide product, EPA Reg. No. 2517-79...This notice rescinds the cancellation of Sergeant's Pet Care Products' pesticide product, EPA Reg. No....

2010-12-01

383

78 FR 68837 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Notice of Public Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

...and farm worker groups; pesticide users and growers; animal rights groups; pest consultants; State, local, and tribal...the current PPDC: Environmental/public interest and animal rights groups; farm worker organizations; pesticide...

2013-11-15

384

76 FR 58506 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Notice of Public Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

...represented on the PPDC: Pesticide industry and trade associations; environmental/public interest, consumer, and animal rights groups; farm worker organizations; pesticide user, grower, and commodity groups; Federal and...

2011-09-21

385

78 FR 36778 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Notice of Public Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

...and farm worker groups; pesticide users and growers; animal rights groups; pest consultants; State, local, and tribal...the current PPDC: Environmental/public interest and animal rights groups; farm worker organizations; pesticide...

2013-06-19

386

77 FR 68771 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Notice of Public Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

...and farm worker groups; pesticide users and growers; animal rights groups; pest consultants; State, local, and tribal...the current PPDC: Environmental/public interest and animal rights groups; farm worker organizations; pesticide...

2012-11-16

387

76 FR 19095 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Notice of Public Meetings  

Science.gov (United States)

...represented on the PPDC: Pesticide industry and trade associations; environmental/public interest, consumer, and animal rights groups; farm worker organizations; pesticide user, grower, and commodity groups; Federal and State/local/...

2011-04-06

388

75 FR 13276 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Notice of Public Meetings  

Science.gov (United States)

...represented on the PPDC: Pesticide industry and trade associations; environmental/public interest, consumer, and animal rights groups; farm worker organizations; pesticide user, grower, and commodity groups; Federal and State/local/...

2010-03-19

389

75 FR 71693 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Announcement of New Membership and Notice of Public Meetings  

Science.gov (United States)

...represented on the PPDC: Pesticide industry and trade associations; environmental/public interest, consumer, and animal rights groups; farm worker organizations; pesticide user, grower, and commodity groups; Federal and State/local/...

2010-11-24

390

76 FR 22044 - Data Requirements for Antimicrobial Pesticides; Notification to the Secretaries of Agriculture...  

Science.gov (United States)

...importers of such products, or any person or company who seeks to register an antimicrobial, antifoulant coating, ballast water treatment, wood preservative pesticide, or to obtain a tolerance for such a pesticide. Since other entities may...

2011-04-20

391

78 FR 10167 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient  

Science.gov (United States)

...registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the Federal...NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code...to register pesticide products containing an active...Halauxifen-methyl. Product Type: Herbicide. Proposed Uses: Cereal grain crops, including...

2013-02-13

392

77 FR 31356 - Pesticide Products; Receipt of Applications To Register New Uses  

Science.gov (United States)

...FRL-9351-3] Pesticide Products; Receipt of Applications...new uses for pesticide products containing currently...NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code...that addresses multiple products, please indicate to...Cereal [[Page 31357

2012-05-25

393

Characterizing pesticide sorption and degradation in macro scale biopurification systems using column displacement experiments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The efficiency of biopurification systems to treat pesticide-contaminated water was previously studied in microcosms. To validate the obtained results, macrocosm systems were set-up. Four pesticides (linuron, isoproturon, bentazone, and metalaxyl) were continuously applied to ten different organic substrate mixes. Retention of the pesticides was similar and in some cases slightly lower in the macrocosms compared to the microcosms. Differences in retention between the different mixes were however minimal. Moreover, the classification of the retention strength of the pesticides was identical to that observed in microcosms: linuron > isoproturon > metalaxyl > bentazone. Monod kinetics were used to describe delayed degradation, which occurred for isoproturon, metalaxyl and bentazone. No breakthrough of linuron was observed, thus, this pesticide was appointed as the most retained and/or degraded pesticide, followed by isoproturon, metalaxyl and bentazone. Finally, most of the matrix mixes efficient in degrading or retaining pesticides were mixes containing dried cow manure. - Transport of pesticides in macrocosm containing organic substrates.

Wilde, Tineke de [Laboratory of Crop Protection Chemistry, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail: Tineke.DeWilde@UGent.be; Spanoghe, Pieter [Laboratory of Crop Protection Chemistry, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Mertens, Jan; Sniegowksi, Kristel; Ryckeboer, Jaak [Division of Soil and Water Management, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, K.U. Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Jaeken, Peter [PCF-Royal Research Station of Gorsem, De Brede Akker 13, 3800 Sint-Truiden (Belgium); Springael, Dirk [Division of Soil and Water Management, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, K.U. Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

2009-04-15

394

Characterizing pesticide sorption and degradation in macro scale biopurification systems using column displacement experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The efficiency of biopurification systems to treat pesticide-contaminated water was previously studied in microcosms. To validate the obtained results, macrocosm systems were set-up. Four pesticides (linuron, isoproturon, bentazone, and metalaxyl) were continuously applied to ten different organic substrate mixes. Retention of the pesticides was similar and in some cases slightly lower in the macrocosms compared to the microcosms. Differences in retention between the different mixes were however minimal. Moreover, the classification of the retention strength of the pesticides was identical to that observed in microcosms: linuron > isoproturon > metalaxyl > bentazone. Monod kinetics were used to describe delayed degradation, which occurred for isoproturon, metalaxyl and bentazone. No breakthrough of linuron was observed, thus, this pesticide was appointed as the most retained and/or degraded pesticide, followed by isoproturon, metalaxyl and bentazone. Finally, most of the matrix mixes efficient in degrading or retaining pesticides were mixes containing dried cow manure. - Transport of pesticides in macrocosm containing organic substrates

395

40 CFR 158.2173 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Experimental use permit microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table. 158.2173...Experimental use permit microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table. (a) General...how to use this table to determine the toxicology data requirements for a...

2010-07-01

396

40 CFR 158.2083 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides human health assessment data requirements table.  

Science.gov (United States)

...use permit biochemical pesticides human health assessment data requirements table...use permit biochemical pesticides human health assessment data requirements table...use this table to determine the human health assessment data requirements...

2010-07-01

397

40 CFR 165.65 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products in refillable containers.  

Science.gov (United States)

...ii) The written refilling residue removal procedure for the pesticide...container to determine whether a residue removal procedure must be...closures, or other significant defects. (iii) The container has...pesticide product's refilling residue removal procedure before...

2010-07-01

398

40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.  

Science.gov (United States)

...use pesticides to control pests in the maintenance and production of ornamental trees...of restricted use pesticides in the maintenance of public roads, electric powerlines, pipelines, railway rights-of-way or other similar...

2010-07-01

399

Pesticide exposure in farming and forestry and the risk of uveal melanoma  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Since pesticides are disputed risk factors for uveal melanoma, we studied the association between occupational pesticide exposure and uveal melanoma risk in a case-control study from nine European countries.

Behrens, Thomas; Lynge, Elsebeth

2012-01-01

400

40 CFR 155.53 - Conduct of a pesticide's registration review.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Conduct of a pesticide's registration review. 155.53 Section 155.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...REGISTRATION REVIEW Registration Review Procedures § 155.53 Conduct of a pesticide's registration...

2010-07-01

401

Endocrine disrupting pesticides: a leading cause of cancer among rural people in Pakistan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence on the relationship between cancer and occupational exposure to pesticides and endocrine disrupting chemicals is reviewed. In animal studies it has been proved that majority of endocrine disrupting pesticides are carcinogenic. In humans, pesticides have been classified as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Farmers may therefore be at higher risk for acute and chronic health effects associated with pesticides. Human data, however, are limited by the small number of studies that evaluate individual endocrine disrupting pesticide. Cancer of the breast, ovary, prostate, testis, and thyroid are hormone-dependent, which fostered research on the potential risk associated with occupational and environmental exposure to the so-called endocrine-disrupting pesticides. Professional as well as public exposure to pesticides raises cancer risk. Interaction with adjuvant and with other toxicants increases the actual risk. On the other hand, organochlorine pesticides and triazine herbicides require further investigation for a possible etiologic role in some hormone-dependent cancers. PMID:15273660

Ejaz, Sohail; Akram, Waseem; Lim, Chae Woong; Lee, Jong Jin; Hussain, Imtiaz

2004-06-01

402

Pesticide consumption and productivity and the potential of IPM in Bangladesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper analyses trends in consumption, productivity and the determinants of pesticide use in Bangladesh over a 33 year period (1977-2009), including a discussion on the scope to expand Integrated Pest Management (IPM) practices. Pesticide use grew at an alarming rate of 10.0% per year (pGreen Revolution (GR) technology, crop diversification, average farm size and literacy rate are the most significant determinants of pesticide use, whereas research and development (R&D) investment depresses pesticide use. Consistent evidence of excessive pesticide use in Bangladesh was observed. Although the government has shifted focus from pesticide use to IPM, its coverage remains inadequate as only 7.4% of the total farmers are covered after 30 years of effort. Tighter pesticide regulation and its effective implementation, and expansion of IPM through public, private and non-governmental organisation (NGO) stakeholders are suggested to reduce pesticide consumption. PMID:23314122

Rahman, Sanzidur

2013-02-15

403

ASSESSMENT OF CHLORPYRIFOS EXPOSURE BY PASSIVE DOSIMETRY AND BIOMONITORING IN PESTICIDE WORKERS  

Science.gov (United States)

Under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has the authority to regulate the use of pesticides to prevent unreasonable adverse human health effects associated with pesticide exposure. Accordingly, the EPA...

404

77 FR 49792 - FIFRA Pesticide Registration Review and ESA Consultation Processes; Proposal Regarding...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Proposal Regarding Stakeholder Input; Request for...enhance opportunities for stakeholders to provide input during...to be Confidential Business Information (CBI...Proposal for Enhancing Stakeholder Input in the Pesticide...fully formed. This approach has the...

2012-08-17

405

Ultrasonic Induced Decomposition of Methidathion Pesticide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A cost effective method of decomposition was developed for industrial effluents by using ultrasound in combination of H2O2. The process was optimized by studying the decomposition of methidathion pesticide at different frequencies, different ultrasonic wave amplitudes, pH and concentrations of the solutions. It was shown that the rate of sonochemical decomposition was directly linked to the OH° availability in the solution. The degradation was more efficient for the higher frequency because the rates of OH° formation in water saturated with air were more at higher frequency. It was observed that higher the ultrasonic frequency, higher was the energy consumption. This problem of higher energy consumption was resolved by increasing the concentration of H2O2. Ultrasound/H2O2 process gave better decomposition than ultrasound alone. Decomposition of methidathion was effective with ultrasound at greater sound wave amplitude. When the pH was controlled below the pk value of methidathion, significantly better decomposition of methidathion resulted. The decomposition of methidathion appeared to follow first-order reaction kinetics. The reaction rate constant (k was greater at smaller pH and there is an exponential relation between them.

Robina Farooq

2008-01-01

406

Photodegradation of pesticides on plant and soil surfaces.  

Science.gov (United States)

Photodegradation is an abiotic process in the dissipation of pesticides where molecular excitation by absorption of light energy results in various organic reactions, or reactive oxygen species such as OH*, O3, and 1O2 specifically or nonspecifically oxidize the functional groups in a pesticide molecule. In the case of soil photolysis, the heterogeneity of soil together with soil properties varying with meteorological conditions makes photolytic processes difficult to understand. In contrast to solution photolysis, where light is attenuated by solid particles, both absorption and emission profiles of a pesticide are modified through interaction with soil components such as adsorption to clay minerals or solubilization to humic substances. Diffusion of a pesticide molecule results in heterogeneous concentration in soil, and either steric constraint or photoinduced generation of reactive species under the limited mobility sometimes modifies degradation mechanisms. Extensive investigations of meteorological effects on soil moisture and temperature as well as development of an elaborate testing chamber controlling these factors seems to provide better conditions for researchers to examine the photodegradation of pesticides on soil under conditions similar to the real environment. However, the mechanistic analysis of photodegradation has just begun, and there still remain many issues to be clarified. For example, how photoprocesses affect the electronic states of pesticide molecules on soil or how the reactive oxygen species are generated on soil via interaction with clay minerals and humic substances should be investigated in greater detail. From this standpoint, the application of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and usage or development of various probes to trap intermediate species is highly desired. Furthermore, only limited information is yet available on the reactions of pesticides on soil with atmospheric chemical species. For photodegradation on plants, the importance of an emission spectrum of the light source near its surface was clarified. Most photochemical information comes from photolysis in organic solvents or on glass surfaces and/or plant metabolism studies. Epicuticular waxes may be approximated by long-chain hydrocarbons as a very viscous liquid or solid, but the existing form of pesticide molecules in waxes is still obscure. Either coexistence of formulation agents or steric constraint in the rigid medium would cause a change of molecular excitation, deactivation, and photodegradation mechanisms, which should be further investigated to understand the dissipation profiles of a pesticide in or on crops in the field. A thin-layer system with a coat of epicuticular waxes extracted from leaves or isolated cuticles has been utilized as a model, but its application has been very limited. There appear to be gaps in our knowledge about the surface chemistry and photochemistry of pesticides in both rigid media and plant metabolism. Photodegradation studies, for example, by using these models to eliminate contribution from metabolic conversion as much as possible, should be extensively conducted in conjunction with wax chemistry, with the controlling factors being clarified. As with soil surfaces, the effects of atmospheric oxidants should also be investigated. Based on this knowledge, new methods of kinetic analysis or a device simulating the fate of pesticides on these surfaces could be more rationally developed. Concerning soil photolysis, detailed mechanistic analysis of the mobility and fate of pesticides together with volatilization from soil surfaces has been initiated and its spatial distribution with time has been simulated with reasonable precision on a laboratory scale. Although mechanistic analyses have been conducted on penetration of pesticides through cuticular waxes, its combination with photodegradation to simulate the real environment is awaiting further investigation. PMID:15217019

Katagi, Toshiyuki

2004-01-01

407

Effects of ionizing radiation on pesticides in a food irradiation perspective: a bibliographic review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of gamma irradiation on pesticides in solution or in food are reviewed. Degradation of pesticides is generally greater in irradiated aqueous solution than in aliphatic solvents or in food. Degradation products of some pesticides have been identified in organic solvents, but very few studies of this type have been performed on irradiated food. Addition products between molecules of solvent and pesticides have been observed. These results are discussed in a food irradiation perspective

408

Current status of pesticides application and their residue in the water environment in Ireland  

OpenAIRE

Pesticides have been listed by the Irish Environmental Protection Agency as potentially dangerous pollutants that may pose a significant risk to the water environment in the Republic of Ireland (ROI). Although this analysis of pesticides data was based on the existing pesticides application survey in ROI, this study aims to produce a geographical information system profile for the amount of pesticides used in agriculture and the distribution of their use in different parts of the country. The...

Zhao, Y. Q.; Singleton, P.; Meredith, S.; et al.

2013-01-01

409

An Assessment of Regulatory Framework for Monitoring of Pesticides in Sindh Province of Pakistan  

OpenAIRE

Numerous companies have entered the pesticide market in Pakistan due to windfall profits and liberal policies of the government since 1980s, when new agriculture policy was announced and the import and sale of pesticides were shifted to private sector. Easy imports, low prices and availability of a variety of pesticides are the distinct advantages of liberal policies. On the other hand, sale of substandard pesticides is a common problem of farming community due to regulatory and institutional...

Khooharo, A. A.; Memon, R. A.; Memon, M. Y.; Mallah, M. U.

2006-01-01

410

Genetic variation in nucleotide excision repair pathway genes, pesticide exposure and prostate cancer risk  

OpenAIRE

Previous research demonstrates increased prostate cancer risk for pesticide applicators and pesticide manufacturing workers. Although underlying mechanisms are unknown, human biomonitoring studies indicate increased genetic damage (e.g. chromosomal aberrations) with pesticide exposure. Given that the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway repairs a broad range of DNA damage, we evaluated interactions between pesticide exposure and 324 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging 27 NER ge...

Barry, Kathryn Hughes; Koutros, Stella; Andreotti, Gabriella; Sandler, Dale P.; Burdette, Laurie A.; Yeager, Meredith; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Lubin, Jay H.; Ma, Xiaomei; Zheng, Tongzhang; Alavanja, Michael C. R.; Berndt, Sonja I.

2011-01-01

411

Simulation of pesticide leaching in a cracking clay soil with the PEARL model  

OpenAIRE

Testing of pesticide leaching models is important to increase confidence in their use in pesticide registration procedures world-wide. The chromatographic PEARL model was tested against the results of a field leaching study on a cracking clay soil with a tracer (bromide), a mobile pesticide (bentazone) and a moderately sorbing, persistent pesticide (imidacloprid). Input parameters for water flow and solute transport were obtained from site-specific measurements and from literature. The model ...

Scorza, R. P.; Boesten, J. J. T. I.

2005-01-01

412

Laboratory training manual on the use of nuclear techniques in pesticide research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a laboratory training manual on the use of nuclear techniques, and in particular radioisotopes in pesticide research. It is designed to give the scientists involved in pesticide research the basic terms and principles for understanding ionizing radiation: detection and measurement its hazards and safety measures, and some of the more common applications. Laboratory exercises representing the types of experiments that are valuable in pesticide research programmes and field tests which demonstrate the use of radiolabelled pesticides are included

413

The impact of pesticide suicide on the geographic distribution of suicide in Taiwan: a spatial analysis  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Pesticide self-poisoning is the most commonly used suicide method worldwide, but few studies have investigated the national epidemiology of pesticide suicide in countries where it is a major public health problem. This study aims to investigate geographic variations in pesticide suicide and their impact on the spatial distribution of suicide in Taiwan. Methods Smoothed standardized mortality ratios for pesticide suicide (2002-2009) were mapped across Taiwan's 358 districts...

Chang Shu-Sen; Lu Tsung-Hsueh; Ac, Sterne Jonathan; Eddleston Michael; Lin Jin-Jia; Gunnell David

2012-01-01

414

Adverse Effects of Pesticides Residues on Biochemical Markers in Pakistani Tobacco Farmers  

OpenAIRE

Tobacco is an important cash crop of Pakistan and tremendous amount of irrational pesticides are being used to control insect growth. The frequency of plasma pesticide residues above acceptable daily intake (ADI) and its correlation with biochemical markers for assessment of adverse health effects in the tobacco farmers at district Sawabi, Pakistan was determined. Total 109 adult males consisting of 55 tobacco farmers exposed to pesticides and 54 controls were included. Pesticides residues in...

Khan, Dilshad A.; Bhatti, Mahwish M.; Khan, Farooq A.; Naqvi, Syed T.; Karam, A.

2008-01-01

415

Comparative assessment of growth and biodegradation potential of soil isolate in the presence of pesticides  

OpenAIRE

In Pakistan, to increase agricultural production, higher amounts of fertilizers and pesticides are being used. The residues of the applied pesticides stay in the environment and therefore causing contamination of air, water and land. Moreover, agricultural industries are also contributing relatively high quantities of toxic pesticides into the environment. Since most of them have no treatment facilities. These pesticides may be toxic, mutagenic or carcinogenic. They may be bioaccumulated or b...

Jilani, Seema

2013-01-01

416

Eye-safe lidar system for pesticide spray drift measurement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spray drift is one of the main sources of pesticide contamination. For this reason, an accurate understanding of this phenomenon is necessary in order to limit its effects. Nowadays, spray drift is usually studied by using in situ collectors which only allow time-integrated sampling of specific points of the pesticide clouds. Previous research has demonstrated that the light detection and ranging (lidar) technique can be an alternative for spray drift monitoring. This technique enables remote measurement of pesticide clouds with high temporal and distance resolution. Despite these advantages, the fact that no lidar instrument suitable for such an application is presently available has appreciably limited its practical use. This work presents the first eye-safe lidar system specifically designed for the monitoring of pesticide clouds. Parameter design of this system is carried out via signal-to-noise ratio simulations. The instrument is based on a 3-mJ pulse-energy erbium-doped glass laser, an 80-mm diameter telescope, an APD optoelectronic receiver and optomechanically adjustable components. In first test measurements, the lidar system has been able to measure a topographic target located over 2 km away. The instrument has also been used in spray drift studies, demonstrating its capability to monitor the temporal and distance evolution of several pesticide clouds emitted by air-assisted sprayers at distances between 50 and 100 m. PMID:25658395

Gregorio, Eduard; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Sanz, Ricardo; Rosell-Polo, Joan R

2015-01-01

417

Parameterization models for pesticide exposure via crop consumption.  

Science.gov (United States)

An approach for estimating human exposure to pesticides via consumption of six important food crops is presented that can be used to extend multimedia models applied in health risk and life cycle impact assessment. We first assessed the variation of model output (pesticide residues per kg applied) as a function of model input variables (substance, crop, and environmental properties) including their possible correlations using matrix algebra. We identified five key parameters responsible for between 80% and 93% of the variation in pesticide residues, namely time between substance application and crop harvest, degradation half-lives in crops and on crop surfaces, overall residence times in soil, and substance molecular weight. Partition coefficients also play an important role for fruit trees and tomato (Kow), potato (Koc), and lettuce (Kaw, Kow). Focusing on these parameters, we develop crop-specific models by parametrizing a complex fate and exposure assessment framework. The parametric models thereby reflect the framework's physical and chemical mechanisms and predict pesticide residues in harvest using linear combinations of crop, crop surface, and soil compartments. Parametric model results correspond well with results from the complex framework for 1540 substance-crop combinations with total deviations between a factor 4 (potato) and a factor 66 (lettuce). Predicted residues also correspond well with experimental data previously used to evaluate the complex framework. Pesticide mass in harvest can finally be combined with reduction factors accounting for food processing to estimate human exposure from crop consumption. All parametric models can be easily implemented into existing assessment frameworks. PMID:23136826

Fantke, Peter; Wieland, Peter; Juraske, Ronnie; Shaddick, Gavin; Itoiz, Eva Sevigné; Friedrich, Rainer; Jolliet, Olivier

2012-12-01

418

Methodologies for study of the impact of pollutant pesticides  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays the human population is exposed to the contact and to the ingestion of pesticides located in the food and directly in the environment. The consequences for the long-term humanity, can be alarming. In Mexico, the market of these products has gone expanding constant. As consequences for the use, there are mentioned problems like the decrease of the fertility, increase of types of cancer, congenital malformations, diverse types of allergies, mutations genotípicas, serious problems in the nervous central system, disorders of the immunological human system, between others. For the great variety of chemical substances no existing natives set in, as well as great the number of used pesticides, during an analysis one can present a variety of them, interference in a qualitative and quantitative way in the determination. Therefore, it is necessary to standardize analytical methods paragraph the determination of pesticides, principally consider those that should determine shortly time the presence and level that of the pollutant. The presence and level of the pollutant pesticide is needed for the evaluation of the immediate risks towards the health and the environment (water, soil, sediment, air, vegetation and fauna, principally. It is priority to realize investigations to standardize the methods to determine residues of pesticides, considering principally those who should present a minor price, rapidity in the determination, constant conditions of adsorption, which support a good purification of the extracts of the samples, between others. Being necessary an agreement among instances of government and particular laboratories, to work with the same intention.

Rosío T. Amparán-Salido,

2009-04-01

419

Development of a fieldable rapid pesticide exposure analysis sensing system  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the recent interest in organically grown foods, most agricultural crops use multiple pesticides to optimize yield. There are many persons whose health may be affected by the spraying; there is the active applicator and the passive neighbors. In between these extremes are the farm workers who pick the crops anywhere from days to weeks after application. How much pesticide residue are these workers exposed to during a workday and how much is transferred back to the residence? Despite the low vapor pressures, what is the true concentration of pesticides surrounding a person when pesticides adsorbed to particulate matter are included? What is the relationship between the concentration around an individual and the amount adsorbed/ingested? To answer these questions on a statistically significant scale in actual field conditions, a portable, fast, inexpensive measurement device is required. We present herein results obtained using Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) that demonstrate the capability to detect pesticides in the vapor phase as well as the ability of SERS sensors to detect a particular analyte in a synthetic urine matrix. We will also present data collected from CDC quantified urine samples and will present results obtained in a field test wherein SERS sensors wore worn as dosimeters in the field and real-time vapor sampling of the farm workers barracks was performed. The issue of potential interferences will also be discussed.

Spencer, Kevin M.; Clauson, Susan L.; Spencer, Sarah A.; Sylvia, James M.; Vallejos, Quirina M.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

2010-04-01

420

Accelerated remediation of pesticide-contaminated soil with zerovalent iron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High pesticide concentrations in soil from spills or discharges can result in point-source contamination of ground and surface waters. Cost-effective technologies are needed for on-site treatment that meet clean-up goals and restore soil function. Remediation is particularly challenging when a mixture of pesticides is present. Zerovalent iron (Fe0) has been shown to promote reductive dechlorination and nitro group reduction of a wide range of contaminants in soil and water. We employed Fe0 for on-site treatment of soil containing >1000 mg metolachlor, >55 mg alachlor, >64 mg atrazine, >35 mg pendimethalin, and >10 mg chlorpyrifos kg-1. While concentrations were highly variable within the windrowed soil, treatment with 5% (w/w) Fe0 resulted in >60% destruction of the five pesticides within 90 d and increased to >90% when 2% (w/w) Al2(SO4)3 was added to the Fe0. GC/MS analysis confirmed dechlorination of metolachlor and alachlor during treatment. Our observations support the use of Fe0 for ex situ treatment of pesticide-contaminated soil. - Capsule: Zerovalent iron promotes pesticide degradation in highly contaminated soil

421

Pesticide residue in water--a challenging task in India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Modern agriculture practices reveal an increase in use of pesticides to meet the food demand of increasing population which results in contamination of the environment. In India, crop production increased to 100 %, but the cropping area has increased marginally by 20 %. Pesticides have played a major role in achieving the maximum crop production but maximum usage and accumulation of pesticide residues is highly detrimental to aquatic and other ecosystem. Pesticide residues in drinking water have become a major challenge over the last few years. It has been monitored in public water supply resources in National capital territory, i.e., Delhi. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), mainly isomers of hexachlorohexane (HCH), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), endosulphan, endrin, aldrin, dieldrin, and heptachlore, were identified from potable water samples. Results suggested that continuous consumption of contaminated water can pose severe health threats to local residents of this area. Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), Delhi, had found ? and ? isomers of endosulphan residues in the Yamuna river. High concentrations of ?-HCH (0.259 ?g/l) and malathion (2.618 ?g/l) were detected in the surface water samples collected from the river Ganga in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh (UP). High concentration of methyl parathion, endosulfan, and DDT were observed in water samples collected from the river at Bhagalpur, Bihar. The Industrial Toxicology Research Centre (ITRC), Lucknow (UP) study also found 0.5671 ppb concentrations of endosulfan in the river at Allahabad, UP. Similar results were found in other water samples in India. PMID:25638058

Agarwal, Akriti; Prajapati, Rajmani; Singh, Om Pal; Raza, S K; Thakur, L K

2015-02-01

422

Pesticide monitoring in surface water and groundwater using passive samplers  

Science.gov (United States)

Passive samplers as screening devices have been used within a czech national water quality monitoring network since 2002 (SPMD and DGT samplers for non polar substances and metals). The passive sampler monitoring of surface water was extended to polar substances, in 2005. Pesticide and pharmaceutical POCIS samplers have been exposed in surface water at 21 locations and analysed for polar pesticides, perfluorinated compounds, personal care products and pharmaceuticals. Pesticide POCIS samplers in groundwater were exposed at 5 locations and analysed for polar pesticides. The following active substances of plant protection products were analyzed in surface water and groundwater using LC/MS/MS: 2,4,5-T, 2,4-D, Acetochlor, Alachlor, Atrazine, Atrazine_desethyl, Azoxystrobin, Bentazone, Bromacil, Bromoxynil, Carbofuran, Clopyralid, Cyanazin, Desmetryn, Diazinon, Dicamba, Dichlobenil, Dichlorprop, Dimethoat, Diuron, Ethofumesate, Fenarimol, Fenhexamid, Fipronil, Fluazifop-p-butyl, Hexazinone, Chlorbromuron, Chlorotoluron, Imazethapyr, Isoproturon, Kresoxim-methyl, Linuron, MCPA, MCPP, Metalaxyl, Metamitron, Methabenzthiazuron, Methamidophos, Methidathion, Metobromuron, Metolachlor, Metoxuron, Metribuzin, Monolinuron, Nicosulfuron, Phorate, Phosalone, Phosphamidon, Prometryn, Propiconazole, Propyzamide, Pyridate, Rimsulfuron, Simazine, Tebuconazole, Terbuthylazine, Terbutryn, Thifensulfuron-methyl, Thiophanate-methyl and Tri-allate. The POCIS samplers performed very well being able to provide better picture than grab samples. The results show that polar pesticides and also perfluorinated compounds, personal care products and pharmaceuticals as well occur in hydrosphere of the Czech republic. Acknowledgment: Authors acknowledge the financial support of grant No. 2B06095 by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports.

Kodes, V.; Grabic, R.

2009-04-01

423

Silver nanoparticle-based chemiluminescent sensor array for pesticide discrimination.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, we developed a simple, facile, and highly sensitive nanoparticle-based chemiluminescent (CL) sensor array for the discrimination of organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. This CL sensor array is based on simultaneous utilization of the triple-channel properties of the luminol-functionalized silver nanoparticle (Lum-AgNP) and H2O2 CL system containing CL intensity, the time for CL emissions to appear, and the time to reach the CL peak value, which are able to be measured via a single experiment. The triple-channel properties can be simultaneously altered after interaction with pesticides, producing distinct CL response patterns as "fingerprints" related to each specific pesticide, which was subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) to generate a clustering map. Using this sensor array, five organophosphate and carbamate pesticides, including dimethoate, dipterex, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, and carbofuran, have been well-distinguished at a concentration of 24 ?g/mL. A total of 20 unknown pesticide samples have been successfully identified with an accuracy of 95%. The simple strategy of this study is expected to promote the development of functionalized nanomaterial-based sensor arrays. PMID:25751408

He, Yi; Xu, Bo; Li, Wenhao; Yu, Haili

2015-03-25

424

Eye-Safe Lidar System for Pesticide Spray Drift Measurement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spray drift is one of the main sources of pesticide contamination. For this reason, an accurate understanding of this phenomenon is necessary in order to limit its effects. Nowadays, spray drift is usually studied by using in situ collectors which only allow time-integrated sampling of specific points of the pesticide clouds. Previous research has demonstrated that the light detection and ranging (lidar technique can be an alternative for spray drift monitoring. This technique enables remote measurement of pesticide clouds with high temporal and distance resolution. Despite these advantages, the fact that no lidar instrument suitable for such an application is presently available has appreciably limited its practical use. This work presents the first eye-safe lidar system specifically designed for the monitoring of pesticide clouds. Parameter design of this system is carried out via signal-to-noise ratio simulations. The instrument is based on a 3-mJ pulse-energy erbium-doped glass laser, an 80-mm diameter telescope, an APD optoelectronic receiver and optomechanically adjustable components. In first test measurements, the lidar system has been able to measure a topographic target located over 2 km away. The instrument has also been used in spray drift studies, demonstrating its capability to monitor the temporal and distance evolution of several pesticide clouds emitted by air-assisted sprayers at distances between 50 and 100 m.

Eduard Gregorio

2015-02-01

425

Pesticide residue monitoring in Korean agricultural products, 2003-05.  

Science.gov (United States)

Between 2003 and 2005, a total of 11,716 samples were collected and analysed to determine the level of pesticides residues. Multi-residue methods (MRMs) capable of simultaneously determining 250 pesticides were used. Of the 11,716 samples, 89.1% had no detectable residues and 1.7% had violative residues. The detection rates by commodity group were 11.4, 8.6, 0.3, and 0.02% for vegetables, fruit, grain, mushrooms, and the others, respectively. Agricultural products with pesticide residues were pepper, Perilla frutescens, leafy lettuce and spinach in decreasing order. Of the 250 pesticides that were monitored, 70 pesticides were actually found. Procymidone, endosulfan, chlorfenapyr, metalaxyl, and diethofencarb were frequently detected. Of the samples, parsley, Petasites hybridus, Aster scaber and leek had high violative rates of 23.1, 12.6, 8.2, and 7.9%, respectively. From violative samples, procymidone, endosulfan, metalaxyl, diazinon and chlorpyrifos were frequently detected. The violation rates were 1.71, 1.68, and 1.76% in 2003, 2004 and 2005, respectively, and the detection rates were 8.5, 12.0, and 13.3% in 2003, 2004, and 2005, respectively. PMID:24784964

Cho, T H; Kim, B S; Jo, S J; Kang, H G; Choi, B Y; Kim, M Y

2009-01-01

426

Parameterization Models for Pesticide Exposure via Crop Consumption  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An approach for estimating human exposure to pesticides via consumption of six important food crops is presented that can be used to extend multimedia models applied in health risk and life cycle impact assessment. We first assessed the variation of model output (pesticide residues per kg applied) as a function of model input variables (substance, crop, and environmental properties) including their possible correlations using matrix algebra. We identified five key parameters responsible for between 80% and 93% of the variation in pesticide residues, namely time between substance application and crop harvest, degradation half-lives in crops and on crop surfaces, overall residence times in soil, and substance molecular weight. Partition coefficients also play an important role for fruit trees and tomato (Kow), potato (Koc), and lettuce (Kaw, Kow). Focusing on these parameters, we develop crop-specific models by parametrizing a complex fate and exposure assessment framework. The parametric models thereby reflectthe framework’s physical and chemical mechanisms and predict pesticide residues in harvest using linear combinations of crop, crop surface, and soil compartments. Parametric model results correspond well with results from the complex framework for 1540 substance-crop combinations with total deviations between a factor 4 (potato) and a factor 66 (lettuce). Predicted residues also correspond well with experimental data previously used to evaluate the complex framework. Pesticide mass in harvest can finally be combined with reduction factors accounting for food processing to estimate human exposure from crop consumption. All parametric models can be easily implemented into existing assessment frameworks.

Fantke, Peter; Wieland, Peter

2012-01-01

427

A glyphosate-based pesticide impinges on transcription  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Widely spread chemicals used for human benefits may exert adverse effects on health or the environment, the identification of which are a major challenge. The early development of the sea urchin constitutes an appropriate model for the identification of undesirable cellular and molecular targets of pollutants. The widespread glyphosate-based pesticide affected sea urchin development by impeding the hatching process at millimolar range concentration of glyphosate. Glyphosate, the active herbicide ingredient of Roundup, by itself delayed hatching as judged from the comparable effect of different commercial glyphosate-based pesticides and from the effect of pure glyphosate addition to a threshold concentration of Roundup. The surfactant polyoxyethylene amine (POEA), the major component of commercial Roundup, was found to be highly toxic to the embryos when tested alone and therefore could contribute to the inhibition of hatching. Hatching, a landmark of early development, is a transcription-dependent process. Correlatively, the herbicide inhibited the global transcription, which follows fertilization at the 16-cell stage. Transcription inhibition was dose-dependent in the millimolar glyphosate range concentration. A 1257-bp fragment of the hatching enzyme transcript from Sphaerechinus granularis was cloned and sequenced; its transcription was delayed by 2 h in the pesticide-treated embryos. Because transcription is a fundamental basic biological process, the pesticide mabasic biological process, the pesticide may be of health concern by inhalation near herbicide spraying at a concentration 25 times the adverse transcription concentration in the sprayed microdroplets

428

Sampling atmospheric pesticides with SPME: Laboratory developments and field study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To estimate the atmospheric exposure of the greenhouse workers to pesticides, solid phase microextraction (SPME) was used under non-equilibrium conditions. Using Fick's law of diffusion, the concentrations of pesticides in the greenhouse can be calculated using pre-determined sampling rates (SRs). Thus the sampling rates (SRs) of two modes of SPME in the lab and in the field were determined and compared. The SRs for six pesticides in the lab were 20.4-48.3 mL min-1 for the exposed fiber and 0.166-0.929 mL min-1 for the retracted fiber. In field sampling, two pesticides, dichlorvos and cyprodinil were detected with exposed SPME. SR with exposed SPME for dichlorvos in the field (32.4 mL min-1) was consistent with that in the lab (34.5 mL min-1). SR for dichlorvos in the field (32.4 mL min-1) was consistent with that in the lab (34.5 mL min-1). The trends of temporal concentration and the inhalation exposure were also obtained. - SPME was proved to be a powerful and simple tool for determining pesticides' atmospheric concentration

429

Sampling atmospheric pesticides with SPME: Laboratory developments and field study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To estimate the atmospheric exposure of the greenhouse workers to pesticides, solid phase microextraction (SPME) was used under non-equilibrium conditions. Using Fick's law of diffusion, the concentrations of pesticides in the greenhouse can be calculated using pre-determined sampling rates (SRs). Thus the sampling rates (SRs) of two modes of SPME in the lab and in the field were determined and compared. The SRs for six pesticides in the lab were 20.4-48.3 mL min{sup -1} for the exposed fiber and 0.166-0.929 mL min{sup -1} for the retracted fiber. In field sampling, two pesticides, dichlorvos and cyprodinil were detected with exposed SPME. SR with exposed SPME for dichlorvos in the field (32.4 mL min{sup -1}) was consistent with that in the lab (34.5 mL min{sup -1}). SR for dichlorvos in the field (32.4 mL min{sup -1}) was consistent with that in the lab (34.5 mL min{sup -1}). The trends of temporal concentration and the inhalation exposure were also obtained. - SPME was proved to be a powerful and simple tool for determining pesticides' atmospheric concentration.

Wang Junxia [EPCA-Institut des Sciences Moleculaires, UMR 5255 CNRS-Universite Bordeaux 1, ISM, Site universitaire, 24019 Perigueux Cedex (France); Tuduri, Ludovic [EPCA-Institut des Sciences Moleculaires, UMR 5255 CNRS-Universite Bordeaux 1, ISM, Site universitaire, 24019 Perigueux Cedex (France)], E-mail: l.tuduri@ism.u-bordeaux1.fr; Mercury, Maud [EPCA-Institut des Sciences Moleculaires, UMR 5255 CNRS-Universite Bordeaux 1, ISM, Site universitaire, 24019 Perigueux Cedex (France); Universites d' Aix-Marseille I, II et III-CNRS UMR 6264: Laboratoire Chimie Provence, Equipe Instrumentation et Reactivite Atmospherique (IRA), Universite de Provence Centre de Saint Jerome, Avenue Escadrille Normandie Niemen, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Millet, Maurice [Centre de Geochimie de la Surface UMR 7517 CNRS-Universite Louis Pasteur (ULP), LPCA, 1 rue Blessig, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Briand, Olivier [AFSSET, 253 avenue du General Leclerc, 94701 Maisons-Alfort Cedex (France); Montury, Michel [EPCA-Institut des Sciences Moleculaires, UMR 5255 CNRS-Universite Bordeaux 1, ISM, Site universitaire, 24019 Perigueux Cedex (France)

2009-02-15

430

Organochlorine pesticides in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Organochlorine (OC) pesticides were measured in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico during 2000-2001. Concentrations of some OC pesticides (DDTs, chlordanes, toxaphene) were elevated compared with levels in the Great Lakes region, while those of other pesticides were not (hexachlorocyclohexanes, dieldrin). While this suggests southern Mexico as a source region for the former group of chemicals, comparably high levels have also been reported in parts of the southern United States, where their suspected sources are soil emissions (DDTs, toxaphene) and termiticide usage (chlordane). Ratios of p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE and trans-chlordane/cis-chlordane/trans-nonachlor (TC/CC/TN) in Chiapas suggest a mixture of fresh and weathered sources, while congener profiles of toxaphene suggest emission of old residues from soils. This is supported by air parcel back trajectory analysis, which indicated that air masses over Chiapas at the time of sampling had previously passed over areas of continuing or recent use of some OC pesticides as well as areas of past use. - Elevated levels of several organochlorine pesticides were found in the ambient air of southern Mexico

431

[Assessment of the exposure of pest control operators to organophosphorus pesticides. Organophosphorus pesticides in blood and alkyl phosphate metabolites in urine].  

Science.gov (United States)

Pest control operators usually spray pesticides in small areas such as a kitchen in a restaurant and are exposed to various pesticides, especially those of the organophosphorus (OP) type. In order to evaluate their occupational exposure to OP pesticides during the work, OP pesticides in blood and alkyl phosphate metabolites in urine of these operators were analyzed and the relationship between pesticide exposure and analytical results were studied. OP pesticides in blood were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame photometric detector (FPD-GC) after separation of phospholipid in blood with silicagel column chromatography. OP pesticides were not detected in any blood samples (the limit of detection was 1 ng/ml). Dimethylphosphate (DMP) and dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP), being urinary metabolites of OP pesticides, were analyzed by FPD-GC after benzyl derivatization. This method eliminated interfering peaks in gas chromatograms. The ratio of two isomeric derivatives of DMTP was found to be constant. Both DMP and DMTP of the exposed group were significantly higher than those of the non-exposed group, DMP being higher than DMTP. The ratio of DMP to DMTP in the fenitrothion-dichlorvos-exposed group was significantly higher than that in the fenitrothion-exposed group. It was considered that the ratio might reflect a result of pesticide exposure. The urinary metabolites of OP pesticides tended to become lower with the lapse of time since the last exposure. However, small amounts were detected in a few samples even 5 days after the last exposure. PMID:6482065

Saito, I; Hisanaga, N; Takeuchi, Y; Ono, Y; Iwata, M; Masuda, K; Gotoh, M; Matsumoto, T; Fukaya, Y; Okutani, H

1984-01-01

432

Pesticides in the Homes of Farmworkers: Latino Mothers' Perceptions of Risk to Their Children's Health  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticide exposure has been linked with immediate and delayed health effects. Anyone who lives in a farmworker household may be exposed to pesticides. Studies with farmworkers have found generally low levels of awareness of pesticide exposure and prevention. Less is known about the perceptions of nonfarmworkers living with farmworkers. This…

Rao, Pamela; Quandt, Sara A.; Doran, Alicia M.; Snively, Beverly M.; Arcury, Thomas A.

2007-01-01

433

40 CFR 158.2030 - Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.  

Science.gov (United States)

...requirements for a particular pesticide product. Notes that...are required for all pesticide products and are not...active ingredient; Residue of concern=the active...requirements for biochemical pesticides product chemistry... TGAI and EP 4 Analysis and Certified...

2010-07-01

434

Absorption of current use pesticides by snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) eggs in treated soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reptiles often breed within agricultural and urban environments that receive frequent pesticide use. Consequently, their eggs and thus developing embryos may be exposed to pesticides. Our objectives were to determine (i) if turtle eggs are capable of absorbing pesticides from treated soil, and (ii) if pesticide absorption rates can be predicted by their chemical and physical properties. Snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) eggs were incubated in soil that was treated with 10 pesticides (atrazine, simazine, metolachlor, azinphos-methyl, dimethoate, chlorpyrifos, carbaryl, endosulfan (I and II), captan, and chlorothalonil). There were two treatments, consisting of pesticides applied at application rate equivalents of 1.92 or 19.2 kg a.i/ha. Eggs were removed after one and eight days of exposure and analyzed for pesticides using gas chromatography coupled with a mass selective detector (GC-MSD) or high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Absorption of pesticides in eggs from soil increased with both magnitude and duration of exposure. Of the 10 pesticides, atrazine and metolachlor generally had the greatest absorption, while azinphos-methyl had the lowest. Chlorothalonil was below detection limits at both exposure rates. Our preliminary model suggests that pesticides having the highest absorption into eggs tended to have both low sorption to organic carbon or lipids, and high water solubility. For pesticides with high water solubility, high vapor pressure may also increase absorption. As our model is preliminary, confirmatory studies are needed to elucidate pesticide absorption in turtle eggs and the potential risk they may pose to embryonic development. PMID:21862099

Solla, Shane Raymond de; Martin, Pamela Anne

2011-10-01

435

Community exposures to airborne agricultural pesticides in California: ranking of inhalation risks.  

OpenAIRE

We assessed inhalation risks to California communities from airborne agricultural pesticides by probability distribution analysis using ambient air data provided by the California Air Resources Board and the California Department of Pesticide Regulation. The pesticides evaluated include chloropicrin, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate, diazinon, 1,3-dichloropropene, dichlorvos (naled breakdown product), endosulfan, eptam, methidathion, methyl bromide, methyl isot...

Lee, Sharon; Mclaughlin, Robert; Harnly, Martha; Gunier, Robert; Kreutzer, Richard

2002-01-01

436

ENANTIOMERIC COMPOSITION OF CHIRAL PESTICIDES IN HUMAN ADIPOSE TISSUE AND BREAST MILK  

Science.gov (United States)

Examining the enantiomeric patterns of pesticides can provide a sensitive indicator of biological degradation. However, little work has been done to date on chiral pesticides in the human body. This study looks at the enantiomeric patterns of chiral pesticides and their chira...

437

Evaluation of pesticide residues in fruit from Poland and health risk assessment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study an effort has been made to evaluate the residues of insecticides, fungicides and herbicides in fruit fromPolandand their health risks assessed. Accredited multiresidue methods based on gas and liquid chromatography, and spectroscopic technique were used to determine the concentrations above 160 pesticides. A total of 392 samples of 15 different fruit were collected during the May 2010 to October 2012. In 48.2% of samples no residues were found, 45.9% of samples contained pesticide residues at or below the EU MRL, and 5.9% of samples contained pesticide residues above MRL. Sour cherries (66% and apples (63% were the commodities in which pesticide residues the most frequently occurred. Thirty one different pesticides were detected in total. Dithiocarbamate, captan, cyprodinil and boscalid were the pesticide most frequently found. Multiple pesticides ( > 1 pesticide were detected in about 30.1% samples. The dietary intake of residues of some pesticides can pose acute hazards. Data obtained were used for estimating the potential health risks associated with the exposures to these pesticides. The highest estimated daily intakes (EDIs for children were: 22% for dimethoate and 112% for diazinone of the ADI. The most critical commodity was apple, contributing 1.30 to the acute Hazard Index for flusilazole. The results show that despite a high occurrence of pesticide residues in fruit it could not be considered a serious public health problem. Nevertheless, an investigation into continuous monitoring of pesticide residues in fruit is recommended.

B. ?ozowicka

2013-05-01

438

75 FR 22401 - Petition from Pesticide Poisoning Victims United; Notice of Availability  

Science.gov (United States)

...FRL-8822-8] Petition from Pesticide Poisoning Victims United; Notice of Availability AGENCY...2010 petition from Pesticide Poisoning Victims United, a division of the Pitchfork Rebellion...of a petition from Pesticide Poisoning Victims United, a Division of the Pitchfork...

2010-04-28

439

Accumulation of pesticides in pacific chorus frogs (Pseudacris regilla) from California's Sierra Nevada Mountains, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticides are receiving increasing attention as potential causes of amphibian declines, acting singly or in combination with other stressors, but limited information is available on the accumulation of current-use pesticides in tissue. The authors examined potential exposure and accumulation of currently used pesticides in pond-breeding frogs (Pseudacris regilla) collected from 7 high elevations sites in northern California. All sites sampled are located downwind of California's highly agricultural Central Valley and receive inputs of pesticides through precipitation and/or dry deposition. Whole frog tissue, water, and sediment were analyzed for more than 90 current-use pesticides and pesticide degradates using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Two fungicides, pyraclostrobin and tebuconazole, and one herbicide, simazine, were the most frequently detected pesticides in tissue samples. Median pesticide concentration ranged from 13?µg/kg to 235?µg/kg wet weight. Tebuconazole and pyraclostrobin were the only 2 compounds observed frequently in frog tissue and sediment. Significant spatial differences in tissue concentration were observed, which corresponded to pesticide use in the upwind counties. Data generated indicated that amphibians residing in remote locations are exposed to and capable of accumulating current-use pesticides. A comparison of P. regilla tissue concentrations with water and sediment data indicated that the frogs are accumulating pesticides and are potentially a more reliable indicator of exposure to this group of pesticides than either water or sediment.

Smalling, Kelly L.; Fellers, Gary M.; Kleeman, Patrick M.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.

2013-01-01

440

Effect of pesticides on MDA and chlorophyll content of rice leaves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results showed that different concentration of pesticides treatments on different rice varieties had different effect on MDA and chlorophyll of the rice leaves. MDA content of rice leaves and affected time were increased when the concentration of pesticides increased. However, the chlorophyll content change was contrary, it declined with the increasing of concentration of the pesticides

441

NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--PESTICIDES IN WATER ANALYTICAL RESULTS  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pesticides in Water data set contains analytical results for measurements of up to 11 pesticides in 415 water samples over 211 households. Samples were collected at the tap and any additional drinking water source used extensively within each residence. The primary pesticid...

442

ENANTIOMERIC RATIOS AS SOURCE TRACERS OF OC PESTICIDES IN GREAT LAKES AIR  

Science.gov (United States)

Organochlorine (OC) pesticides were used heavily in the cornbelt regions during the 60's and 70's. Volatilization of these pesticides from agricultural soils may be a significant source of contaminants to the atmosphere which may later be deposited in the Great Lakes. Pesticide...

443

Biomonitoring: Uses and Considerations for Assessing Non-Occupational Human Exposure to Pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

Biomonitoring is an important tool that can be used to evaluate human exposure to pesticides by measuring the levels of pesticides, pesticide metabolites, or altered biological structures or functions in biological specimens or tissues (Barr et al., 2005b; Needham et al., 2005, 2...

444

Fatal pesticides poisoning in Morocco (2000–2005 Intoxications mortelles aux pesticides au Maroc (2000–2005  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Acute poisoning by pesticides become more and more frequent, it's an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The aim of our study was to determine the epidemiological profile of fatal pesticide poisoning deaths in Morocco between 2000 and 2005. Materials and methods: A retrospective study, covering the period from January 2000 to December 2005 was based on database of Laboratory of Forensic Toxicology in the National Institute of Health in Morocco included all positives results in pesticides analysis. Cases were analyzed according to the following criteria: gender, age, origine, poisoning type and class of pesticide. Results: In the period of study, from total of 3104 analysis performed in the laboratory, 130 cases (4.2% were related with fatal pesticides poisoning deaths which were classified as a suicide in 23.1% cases, as an uncertain in 75% and accidental in 1.5%. 51% of cases were related to males and 48% to females. The most represented city was Rabat with 55 cases (42.3%. Insecticides (organophosphorus, organochlorine and carbamates were the most frequent cause of fatal pesticides poisoning (75.2%, followed by aluminum phosphide (21.5%, one case of pyrethroid and one case of coumarinic anticoagulant were found. Conclusion: In spite of the effort made in the rules of pesticides in Morocco, the government must develop a strong system which can attribute to prevent this poisoning. Introduction: Les intoxications aigües par les pesticides sont devenues de plus en plus fréquentes. Elles représentent une importante cause de morbidité et de mortalité à travers le monde. L'objectif de notre travail était de tracer un profil épidémiologique des intoxications mortelles par les pesticides au Maroc sur la période entre 2000 et 2005. Matériel et méthodes : Étude rétrospective recouvrant la période de janvier 2000 à décembre 2005, fondée sur les donnés toxicologiques du laboratoire de Toxicologie à l'Institut National d'Hygiène (Maroc. Les cas ont été analysés selon les critères suivants : sexe, âge, origine, type d'intoxication et classe des pesticides incriminés. Résultats: Sur la période étudiée, parmi les 3104 analyses effectuées au laboratoire, 130 cas (4,2 % sont reliés aux intoxications mortelles aux pesticides ; 23,1 % des intoxications aux pesticides sont volontaires, 75 % sont d'origine indéterminée et seulement 1,5 % sont accidentelles. On retrouve 51 % d'hommes et 48 % de femmes. La ville la plus représentée est Rabat avec 55 cas (42,3 %. Les insecticides (organophosphorés, organochlorés et carbamates sont les plus incriminés dans ces intoxications (75,2 % suivis de phosphure d'aluminium (21,5 %. Un cas d'intoxication aux pyréthrinoïdes et un cas de raticide coumarinique sont retrouvés. Conclusion : Malgré les efforts fournis dans la réglementation des pesticides au Maroc, le gouvernement doit développer en collaboration avec tous les organismes concernés un système puissant pour la prévention de ces intoxications.

Ait El Cadi Mina

2009-01-01

445

Determination of pesticide in ground and surface water samples and perception of farmers about pesticides in Sindh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The continuous monitoring of pesticide residues in our food, drinking water, environment and biosphere at large is needed for creating awareness for the trends of level of contamination and building up a data base upon which, future plan could be decided. In this paper monitoring requirements regarding the instrumentations, valid sampling, analytical protocols and its purpose are discussed in detail. Twenty nine water samples were analyzed and 22 were found contaminated with detectable level of 5 pesticides. These samples were found contaminated in the range of 0.0005-0.054 micro g/L. The percentage of detection of Chloropyriphos, Malathion, Dimethoate, Cypermethrin, and Endosulfan was respectively 7%, 14%. 17.8%, 35.8% and 25%. However, none of the samples were found above their Maximum Acceptable Concentrate (MAC) i.e. 0.1 micro g/L and 0.5 micro g/L for single and number of insecticides respectively set by EEC (European Economic Commission). Moreover, a survey of farmers' perceptions in respect of effects on their health with pesticide exposure was conducted to find out farmers' perception for the use of pesticides and how these may affect on their health with, identification of key issues those are relevant to farmers' health for further training to increase farmer's awareness about the use of pesticides. (author)

446

A Compilation of Spatial Datasets to Support a Preliminary Assessment of Pesticides and Pesticide Use on Tribal Lands in Oklahoma  

Science.gov (United States)

This CD-ROM contains spatial datasets that describe natural and anthropogenic features and county-level estimates of agricultural pesticide use and pesticide data for surface-water, groundwater, and biological specimens in the state of Oklahoma. County-level estimates of pesticide use were compiled from the Pesticide National Synthesis Project of the U.S. Geological Survey, National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Pesticide data for surface water, groundwater, and biological specimens were compiled from U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System database. These spatial datasets that describe natural and manmade features were compiled from several agencies and contain information collected by the U.S. Geological Survey. The U.S. Geological Survey datasets were not collected specifically for this compilation, but were previously collected for projects with various objectives. The spatial datasets were created by different agencies from sources with varied quality. As a result, features common to multiple layers may not overlay exactly. Users should check the metadata to determine proper use of these spatial datasets. These data were not checked for accuracy or completeness. If a question of accuracy or completeness arise, the user should contact the originator cited in the metadata.

Mashburn, Shana L.; Winton, Kimberly T.

2010-01-01

447

APPLICATION OF SOKOLKA COMPOST TO PROTECT PESTICIDE GRAVEYARD AREA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the researches in sorption process. Selected waste materials were checked to build a barrier for pesticide migration from existing graveyards. Due to primary researches Sokolka compost was selected for further researches. The sorption barrier was designed by the surface and underground water run-off. The line of the barrier was made around the centre of graveyard, 0.5 meter width and 4.0 meters deep up to the non-permeable ground layer. GC analyses have shown the presence of pesticides in piezometer before the barrier and no pesticides in water outside sorption barrier. Due to researches it was found that prevention barrier was successful.

Katarzyna Ignatowicz

2014-12-01

448

Pesticides Industry Sales and Usage: 1996 and 1997 Market Estimates  

Science.gov (United States)

Released on February 2 by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Pesticide Programs, this report offers information on pesticide use and sales for 1996 and 1997. Based on EPA registration records, USDA reports, and other sources, the 40-page report covers the economic aspects of the pesticide industry rather than health and environmental aspects. It reveals that overall US use, in pounds of active ingredient, went up slightly less than two percent in 1996 and then declined about one percent in 1997. Also, "the use of herbicides and plant growth regulators declined in 1997 by 10 million pounds; nematicides and fumigant use declined by 15 million pounds; and sulfur and oil use increased by 14 million pounds during the same period." Users can read the full text of the report in HTML or .pdf format at the site, which also offers the report for 1994 and 1995.

449

Radiation-Adsorption Purification of bisolute containing pesticide and dye  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation induced decomposition of various organic hydrocarbons such as pesticide (Atrazine) and dye (Cresol Red) in water represents a new and very efficient possibility for elimination of the steadily increasing pollution. Experimental results considering the removal of pesticides and dyes alone and in their mixtures were studied. Adsorption of the remaining part of the under graded pollutants will be carried out using granular activated carbon (GAC) and acrylamide (AAm) graft copolymer onto poly vinylalcohol (PVA).Freundlich model will be used to predict the equilibrium uptake of pesticide and dye in binary and single solutions.the preliminary results show that the method of radiation combined with adsorption using GAC was effective than that of a graft copolymer

450

Environmental applications of the electron-capture detector - pesticides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Employing ECDs for the routine analysis of pesticide residues and other chlorinated organics in biological and environmental substrates usually involves quite a few trade-offs between speed, reliability and sensitivity. Various contaminants including bleed from the septum and liquid phase, oxygen from the atmosphere or carrier gas and excessive amounts of co-extractives markedly affect linearity and detection limits. Also the choice of GC column and amount of preceding clean-up of samples can drastically influence the lifetime (and intervals between rejuvenation) of the foil. Similarly, the choice of derivatization reaction in pesticide residue analysis is crucial since it is utilized for a variety of reasons, but primarily to enhance detection, allow determination of active hydrogen-containing pesticides or their metabolites and for the confirmation of identity. These factors are discussed. (Auth.)

451

Evaluation of pesticide adsorption in gas chromatographic injector and column  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Components in complex matrices can cause variations in chromatographic response during analysis of pesticides by gas chromatography. These variations are related to the competition between analytes and matrix components for adsorption sites in the chromatographic system. The capacity of the pesticid [...] es chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin to be adsorbed in the injector and chromatographic column was evaluated by constructing three isotherms and changing the column heating rate to 10 and 30 ºC min-1. By using ANCOVA to compare the slope of calibration graphs, results showed that the higher the injector temperature (310 ºC) the lower the pesticide adsorption. Also, deltamethrin influenced the adsorption of chlorpyrifos on the column chromatographic.

Gevany Paulino de, Pinho; Flaviano Oliveira, Silvério; Antônio Augusto, Neves; Maria Eliana Lopes Ribeiro de, Queiroz.

452

Evaluation of pesticide adsorption in gas chromatographic injector and column  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Components in complex matrices can cause variations in chromatographic response during analysis of pesticides by gas chromatography. These variations are related to the competition between analytes and matrix components for adsorption sites in the chromatographic system. The capacity of the pesticides chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin to be adsorbed in the injector and chromatographic column was evaluated by constructing three isotherms and changing the column heating rate to 10 and 30 ºC min-1. By using ANCOVA to compare the slope of calibration graphs, results showed that the higher the injector temperature (310 ºC the lower the pesticide adsorption. Also, deltamethrin influenced the adsorption of chlorpyrifos on the column chromatographic.

Gevany Paulino de Pinho

2012-01-01

453

Control of Pesticides 2000 : Chemical Substances and Chemical Preparations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Three different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation have been included in the 2000 analytical chemical authority control: 1) herbicides containing aclonifen, clopyralid, dicamba, quinoclamine, bromoxynil, ioxynil, simazine, and terbuthylazine. 2) Fungicides containing fenpropidin, fluazinam, and kresoximmethyl. 3) Insecticides containing buprofezin and fenazaquin. All products were examined for content of active ingredient. Satisfactory results were found among herbicides containing aclonifen, dicamba, quinoclamine, bromoxynil, and simazine, among fungicides containing fenpropidin, fluazinam, and kresoxim-methyl, and among insecticides containing fenazaquin. Thus, all the eighteen analysed samples of these pesticides complied with the accepted tolerances with respect to content of active ingredients set by the Danish regulation of pesticides. The only product containing buprofezin, one of four samples containing terbuthylazine, one of eleven samples containing clopyralid, and one of four samples containing ioxynil did not comply with the accepted limits of content of active ingredient

Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.

2001-01-01

454

The need for translational research on antidotes for pesticide poisoning.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Pesticide poisoning kills hundreds of thousands of people in the Asia-Pacific region each year. The majority of deaths are from deliberate self-poisoning with organophosphorus pesticides (OP), aluminium phosphide and paraquat. The current response from a public health, medical and research perspective is inadequate. 2. There are few proven or effective treatments; in addition, very little clinical research has been performed to transfer antidotes shown to work in animal studies into clinical practice. 3. The human toxicity of pesticides is poorly studied and better information may inform a more sustained and appropriate regulatory response. Further understanding may also lead to improvements in diagnosis and treatment. 4. The few effective treatments are not being recommended or delivered in an optimal and timely fashion to poisoned patients. A regional approach to facilitate appropriate pricing, packaging and delivery of antidotes is required. PMID:16405459

Buckley, Nick A; Eddleston, Michael; Dawson, Andrew H

2005-11-01

455

Levels of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus Tissues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study investigated the extent of contamination of with p,p- DDT, p,p-DDE, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, lindane ((?-HCH and ?-HCH, dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, endrin aldehyde, endrin ketone, alpha-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, chlordane, heptachlor and methoxychlor in tissues of grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus, obtained from the Gomoa East district of Ghana. The organochlorine pesticide residues in the samples were soxhlet extracted using a mixture of hexane and acetone. The extracts were cleaned up using florisil and analysed using a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron detector (GCECD. The results indicated that all the analyzed samples were contaminated with the studied organochlorine pesticides. Aldrin and heptachlor were the principal contaminants in all the samples. The muscle had the highest pollutant load followed by the liver and then the kidney. The levels of organochlorine pesticide residues detected in all the tissues were below the accepted Maximum Residue Limits (MRL, as adopted by the WHO/FAO Codex Alimentarius Commission (2005.

Sarah Blankson-Arthur

2011-06-01

456

Toxicity and removal of pesticides by selected aquatic plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticides are being detected in water bodies on an increasingly frequent basis. The present study focused on the phytoremediation potential of selected aquatic plants to remove phytosanitary products from contaminated water. We investigated the uptake capacity of Lemna minor (L. minor), Elodea canadensis (E. canadensis) and Cabomba aquatica (C. aquatica) on three pesticides: copper sulphate (fungicide), flazasulfuron (herbicide) and dimethomorph (fungicide). Pesticide toxicity was evaluated by exposing plants to five concentrations (0-1 mg L(-1)) in culture media for 7d using chlorophyll fluorescence as a biomarker. The toxicity of the contaminants was the same for all the aquatic plants studied and occurred in this descending order of toxicity: flazasulfuron>copper>dimethomorph. We found that L. minor had the most efficient uptake capacity, followed by E. canadensis and then C. aquatica. The maximum removal rate (microg g(-1)fresh weight d(-1)) of copper, flazasulfuron and dimethomorph was 30, 27 and 11, respectively. PMID:17980900

Olette, Rachel; Couderchet, Michel; Biagianti, Sylvie; Eullaffroy, Philippe

2008-02-01

457

Interaction between pesticides and humic substances from tropical coastal lagoons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The HS that enter the lagoons with freshwater runoff tend to precipitate with salinity. Experiments were done in laboratory to determine the effect of HS (isolated from coastal lagoons) and humic acids (HA) (Aldrich) on the partition of selected pesticides between water and sediment phases. Due to the accurate results obtained with radio-labelled compounds, 14C-labelled pesticides were used for the experiments. The selected pesticides were: chlorpyrifos (o,o-di-[1-14C]ethyl o-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridil phosphorotioate), DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chloro-[ring-U-14C]-phenyl)ethane) and parathion (o,o-diethyl o-4-nitro-[ring-U-14C]-phenyl phosphorotioate)

458

Does expression of Bt toxin matter in farmer's pesticide use?  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the widespread adoption of Bt cotton, farmers still spray excessive pesticides in their cotton fields. In contrast to scientists who always use high quality seeds in the laboratory and/or experimental fields, farmers may plant low quality seeds with a low expression of Bt toxin. How does the expression of Bt toxin influence farmers' pesticide use? On the basis of a plot-level survey and laboratory test data, this study shows that pesticide use on one cotton plot is influenced not only by the expression of Bt crops in this plot, but also by the average expression in the village in the early stage of the cotton growing season. In other words, high expression of Bt toxin benefits not only the farmers who plant the varieties but also all the other villagers. PMID:24702829

Huang, Jikun; Chen, Ruijian; Qiao, Fangbin; Su, Honghua; Wu, Kongming

2014-05-01

459

Movement of pesticides from the site of application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Important among the data needed to reduce the environmental risks potentially associated with pesticide use is a clear understanding of environmental processes. Much information has been accumulated and this is discussed with special reference to the research being carried out by scientists of the Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture at Beltsville. Physical and chemical properties are important in predicting the environmental fate of a pesticide. Routes of dissipation from the site of application will be influenced by the agricultural system and the method of application. Causes of loss include runoff and a three year study showed the extent of herbicide runoff to the Wye River Estuary. Potential contamination of groundwater by leaching has been recognized as a problem in certain cases and its extent and causes are being extensively studied. Volatilization may be a significant source of loss. Two important factors are the vapour pressure of the pesticide and the nature of the surface. Pesticide volatilization was measured using specially designed sampling equipment. Losses from dry soil surfaces were much smaller than the rapid losses from moist surfaces. Losses were predictable in terms of the vapour pressure of the compound and its interaction with surfaces. Atmospheric movement is important in the transport of pesticides. They may be redeposited on the Earth's surface by a number of mechanisms including rainfall, fog and snowechanisms including rainfall, fog and snow or be adsorbed on particulate matter. A specially constructed sampler was used to collect the liquid and vapour phases of fog. Pesticides, their alteration products, plasticizers, flame retardants, industrial chemicals and combustion products were found in fog samples collected in Maryland and California. Distribution between liquid and vapour phases was not in accordance with Henry's Law and experiments are in progress to measure Henry's Law constants to validate these observations. 26 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

460

Earthworms lost from pesticides application in potato crops  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioturbation from earthworm's activity contributes to soil creep and soil carbon dynamics, and provide enough aeration conditions for agricultural practices all over the world. In developing countries where there is a long term misuse of pesticides for agricultural purposes, lost of these benefits from earthworms activity might already yielded negative effects in the current crop production. Little research has been performed on earthworms avoidance to pesticides in developing countries located in the tropics. Furthermore, the complete avoidance reaction (from attraction to 100% avoidance) from earthworms to most of the pesticides used in potato cultivation in developing countries like Colombia is incomplete as yet. Hence the aim of this study is to assess the lost of earthworm on the soils caused by different concentrations of pesticides and associated agricultural impacts caused by a lost in the soil bioturbation. As a first stage, we have studied earthworm's avoidance to pesticide concentration in a potato agricultural area located in Colombia. Local cultivated Eisenia fetida were exposed to four of the most frequent applied active ingredients in potato crops i.e. carbofuran, mancozeb, methamidophos and chlorpyriphos. Adult earthworm toxicity experimen