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Sample records for fr11jn10r trifloxystrobin pesticide

  1. 75 FR 33190 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    2010-06-11

    ... trifloxystrobin in or on corn, field, forage; corn, sweet, forage; and corn, sweet, stover. Bayer CropScience... Tolerance In the Federal Register of August 19, 2009 (74 FR 41898) (FRL-8426- 7), EPA issued a notice... million (ppm); corn, sweet, forage at 7.0 ppm; and corn, sweet, stover at 4.0 ppm. That notice...

  2. 77 FR 42654 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerance

    2012-07-20

    ... April 4, 2012 (77 FR 20334) (FRL-9340- 4), EPA issued a notice pursuant to FFDCA section 408(d)(3), 21 U... final rule published in the Federal Register of June 11, 2010 (75 FR 33190) (FRL-8829-2), and at http... review under Executive Order 12866, entitled ``Regulatory Planning and Review'' (58 FR 51735, October...

  3. 76 FR 39396 - Pesticide Products; Receipt of Applications to Register New Uses

    2011-07-06

    ... Nisso America Inc., 45 Broadway, Suite 2120, New York, NY 10006. Active ingredient: Acetamiprid.... Alexander Drive Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Active ingredient: Trifloxystrobin. Proposed Use: Globe... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Receipt of Applications to Register New Uses AGENCY: Environmental...

  4. Risk assessment of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole residues on Allium cepa l.

    Gurmail Singh; Reenu Takker; Gurminder Singh Chahil; Gaganjyot; Sanjay Kumar Sahoo; Balwinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    A supervised field trial was conducted to study the persistence and therefore to evaluate the risk assessment of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole residues on onion. A combined formulation of trifloxystrobin 25 % + tebuconazole 50% (Nativo 75WG) was applied on onion crop @ 300 and 600 g ha-1, which resulted in active application @ 75.0 and 150.0 g.a.ha-1 with respect to trifloxystrobin and @ 150.0 and 300 g.a.ha-1 with respect to tebuconazole. The average initial deposits of trifloxystrobin ...

  5. Pesticides

    ... rodents, noxious weeds, and insects. Pesticides help prevent crop loss and, potentially, human disease. According to the ... pesticides. DO NOT mix pesticides. DO NOT set traps or place bait in areas where children or ...

  6. Risk assessment of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole residues on Allium cepa l.

    Gurmail Singh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A supervised field trial was conducted to study the persistence and therefore to evaluate the risk assessment of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole residues on onion. A combined formulation of trifloxystrobin 25 % + tebuconazole 50% (Nativo 75WG was applied on onion crop @ 300 and 600 g ha-1, which resulted in active application @ 75.0 and 150.0 g.a.ha-1 with respect to trifloxystrobin and @ 150.0 and 300 g.a.ha-1 with respect to tebuconazole. The average initial deposits of trifloxystrobin on onion were 0.52 and 0.82 mg kg-1 following three applications of Nativo 75 WG at the recommended and the double of the recommended dose, respectively. Similarly, the average initial deposits of tebuconazole were 0.76 and 1.32 mg kg-1 at the two dosages, respectively. The residues dissipated more than 60% at both dosages after 3 days. The half-life (t1/2 of trifloxystrobin was 1.86 and 1.18 days, while for tebuconazole 2.13 and 1.98 days, for single and double dosages, respectively. Mature onion collected at harvest did not reveal the presence of trifloxystrobin or its metabolite, CGA 32113, at a detection limit of 0.05 mg kg-1. An assessment of the intake of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole, resulting from the consumption of onion, and its comparison with acceptable daily intake revealed that recommended application of Nativo 75WG (trifloxystrobin 25%+ tebuconazole 50% is quite safe from the consumer point of view.

  7. Removal of famoxadone, fluquinconazole and trifloxystrobin residues in red wines: effects of clarification and filtration processes.

    Oliva, Jose; Payá, Paula; Cámara, Miguel Angel; Barba, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    The effects of six clarification agents [egg albumin, blood albumin, bentonite + gelatine, charcoal, polyvinylpolypyrrolidine (PVPP) and silica gel] on the removal of residues of three fungicides (famoxadone, fluquinconazole and trifloxystrobin) applied directly to a racked red wine, elaborated from Monastrell variety grapes from the D.O. Region of Jumilla (Murcia, Spain) were studied. The clarified wines were filtered with 0.45 microm nylon filters to determine the influence of this winemaking process in the disappearance of fungicide residues. Analytical determination of fluquinconazole and trifloxystrobin was performed by gas chromatography with electron captor detector (ECD), while that of famoxadone using an HPLC equipped with a diode array detector (DAD). Generally, trifloxystrobin is the fungicide that is the lowest persistent one in wines, except in the egg albumin study whereas, the most persistent one is fluquinconazole. The elimination depends on the nature of the active ingredient, though the water stability in the presence of light within it has more influence than the solubility and polarity of the product itself. The most effective clarifying agents were the charcoal and PVPP. The silica gel and bentonite plus gelatine were not enough to reduce considerably the residual contents in the wine clarified with them. In general terms, filtration is not an effective step in the elimination of wine residues. The greatest removal after filtration is obtained in wines clarified with egg albumine and bentonite plus gelatine, and the lowest in those clarified with PVPP. PMID:17763033

  8. Study on the Synthesis of Trifloxystrobin%肟菌酯合成新工艺

    柴兵; 闻冲; 陈晓东; 李宗成

    2013-01-01

    [目的]为避免使用剧毒品氰化钠,研究了一种有效制备肟菌酯的新方法.[方法]以邻甲基苯胺为原料,经过重氮化反应、甲基化反应、溴代反应,最后与间三氟甲基苯乙酮肟缩合得到目标产物肟菌酯.[结果]产品的含量大于97%(HPLC-外标法),总产率达31%.[结论]该法避免使用氰化钠,各步反应收率也较好,有进一步研究的价值.%[Aims] In order to avoid using high toxic reagent-sodium cyanide, a new efficient method was reported for preparing trifloxystrobin. [Methods] 2-Methyl aniline was used as starting material, followed by diazotization, methylation, bromination and condensation with 3'-(trifluoromethyl) acetophenone oxime, to get the target compound-trifloxystrobin. [Results] The purity of the product was over 97% (HPLC-External Standard Method), the overall yield was 31%. [Conclusions] This reported route can avoid the use of sodium cyanide with good yield of each step, which was worthy for further research.

  9. Proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in cereals

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Christensen, Hanne Bjerre; Herrmann, Susan Strange

    2009-01-01

    A proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in wheat was organised in 2008. The test material was grown in 2007 and treated in the field with 14 pesticides formulations containing the active substances, alpha-cypermethrin, bifentrin, carbendazim, chlormequat, chlorpyrifos......-methyl, difenconazole, epoxiconazole, glyphosate, iprodione, malathion, pirimicarb, prochloraz, spiroxamin and trifloxystrobin. After harvest, the test material was additionally spiked in the laboratory with three pesticides, that where the residues were too low, and axozystrobin. In total, 72 laboratories submitted...... results and z-scores were calculated for all laboratories and pesticides, except for glyphosate where only five laboratories submitted results and summed weighted z-scores were calculated for the laboratories with a sufficient scope. For several pesticides, the submitted results were strongly depending on...

  10. Antimicrobial Pesticides

    ... US EPA US Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Pesticides Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us You are here: EPA Home » Pesticides » Antimicrobial Pesticides Antimicrobial Pesticides News and Highlights Disinfection Hierarchy Workshop - October 7 ...

  11. Desenvolvimento de métodos analíticos para determinação de agrotóxicos em sedimentos por cromatografia gasosa monodimensional e bidimensional abrangente com micro detector de captura de elétrons Development of analytical methods for pesticides in sediments by monodimensional and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro electron-capture detection

    Juliana Macedo da Silva; Cláudia Alcaraz Zini; Elina Bastos Caramão; Ewelin Monica Paturi Navarro Canizares; Karen Alam Leal

    2010-01-01

    The development of analytical methods for determination of eight pesticides of different chemical classes (trichlorfon, propanil, fipronil, propiconazole, trifloxystrobin, permethrin, difenoconazole and azoxystrobin) in sediments with gas chromatography-micro-electron capture detector (GC/µECD) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detector (GCxGC/µECD) is described. These methods were applied to real sediment samples, and the best results were obtai...

  12. Pesticides residues in the Prochilodus costatus (Valenciennes, 1850) fish caught in the São Francisco River, Brazil.

    Oliveira, Fabiano A; Reis, Lilian P G; Soto-Blanco, Benito; Melo, Marília M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of pesticides in the fish Prochilodus costatus caught in São Francisco River, one of most important rivers in Brazil. Thirty-six fish were captured in three different areas, and samples of the dorsal muscle and pooled viscera were collected for toxicological analysis. We evaluated the presence of 150 different classes of insecticides, fungicides, herbicides and acaricides by multiresidue analysis technique using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), with the limit of detection of 5 ppb. In this study, organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides were detected at the highest levels in the caught fish. Among the 41 organophosphorus pesticides surveyed, nine types were detected (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dichlorvos, disulfoton, ethion, etrimfos, phosalone, phosmet and pyrazophos) in the muscle, viscera pool, or both in 22 (61.1%) fish. Sampled tissues of 20 (55.6%) fish exhibited at least one of the eight evaluated carbamate pesticides and their metabolites: aldicarb, aldicarb sulfoxide, carbaryl, carbofuran, carbosulfan, furathiocarb, methomyl and propoxur. Fungicides (carbendazim, benalaxyl, kresoxim-methyl, trifloxystrobin, pyraclostrobin and its metabolite BF 500 pyraclostrobin), herbicides (pyridate and fluasifop p-butyl), acaricide (propargite) and pyrethroid (flumethrin) were also detected. In conclusion, P. costatus fish caught in the São Francisco River contained residues of 17 different pesticides, in both muscles and the viscera pool, indicating heavy environmental contamination by pesticides in the study area. PMID:25844860

  13. 75%肟菌酯·戊唑醇水分散粒剂防治香蕉黑星病的应用效果%Control effect of trifloxystrobin · tebuconazole WG against banana freckle disease

    宋晓兵; 彭埃天; 凌金锋; 陈霞; 程保平; 黄永辉

    2012-01-01

    75% trifloxystrobin o tebuconazole WG is an efficient fungicide and up-to-date product from Bayer CropScience, Germany. The results of control effect tests of 75% trifloxystrobin o tebuconazole WG in fields in 2010 and 2011 showed that application of this fungicide (1:2 500) for 4 times gave a control effect of 75.13% - 78. 73% against banana freckle disease. These results demonstrated that 75% trifloxystrobin·tebuconazole WG had a better control effect against banana freckle disease than 430 g/L tebuconazole SC (1: 000) , 50% trifloxystrobin WG (1:5 000) and 250 g/L difenoconazole EC (1:1 500), and it was worthy to be popularized in banana orchards.%肟菌酯·戊唑醇混配剂是德国拜耳作物科学公司近年开发的新杀菌剂,2010-2011年进行了该药剂对香蕉黑星病的防治效果试验.两年的试验结果表明,75%肟菌酯·戊唑醇水分散粒剂是防治香蕉黑星病的优良杀菌剂,2 500倍液施药4次对香蕉黑星病防治效果达到75.13%~78.73%,优于3个对照药剂430 g/L戊唑醇悬浮剂2000倍液、50%肟菌酯水分散粒剂5000倍液及250 g/L苯醚甲环唑乳油1500倍液施药4次后的防效,值得在香蕉产区推广应用.

  14. Organic Pesticide Ingredients

    ... Control a pest Integrated Pest Management What are pesticides? Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides ... Other types of pesticides Disponible en español Organic Pesticide Ingredients Organic foods are not necessarily pesticide-free. ...

  15. Pesticides and Human Health

    ... Control a pest Integrated Pest Management What are pesticides? Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides ... Rodenticides Other types of pesticides Disponible en español Pesticides and Human Health Pesticides have a specific purpose ...

  16. Pesticide Movement

    Pesticides generally include herbicides, insecticides and fungicides that play an important role in maintaining worldwide food and fiber production by controlling weeds that compete for water and nutrients or by eliminating pests that reduce yields. In the future, the role of pesticides and fertili...

  17. Pesticide pollution of multiple drinking water sources in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: evidence from two provinces.

    Chau, N D G; Sebesvari, Z; Amelung, W; Renaud, F G

    2015-06-01

    Pollution of drinking water sources with agrochemicals is often a major threat to human and ecosystem health in some river deltas, where agricultural production must meet the requirements of national food security or export aspirations. This study was performed to survey the use of different drinking water sources and their pollution with pesticides in order to inform on potential exposure sources to pesticides in rural areas of the Mekong River delta, Vietnam. The field work comprised both household surveys and monitoring of 15 frequently used pesticide active ingredients in different water sources used for drinking (surface water, groundwater, water at public pumping stations, surface water chemically treated at household level, harvested rainwater, and bottled water). Our research also considered the surrounding land use systems as well as the cropping seasons. Improper pesticide storage and waste disposal as well as inadequate personal protection during pesticide handling and application were widespread amongst the interviewed households, with little overall risk awareness for human and environmental health. The results show that despite the local differences in the amount and frequency of pesticides applied, pesticide pollution was ubiquitous. Isoprothiolane (max. concentration 8.49 μg L(-1)), fenobucarb (max. 2.32 μg L(-1)), and fipronil (max. 0.41 μg L(-1)) were detected in almost all analyzed water samples (98 % of all surface samples contained isoprothiolane, for instance). Other pesticides quantified comprised butachlor, pretilachlor, propiconazole, hexaconazole, difenoconazole, cypermethrin, fenoxapro-p-ethyl, tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin, azoxystrobin, quinalphos, and thiamethoxam. Among the studied water sources, concentrations were highest in canal waters. Pesticide concentrations varied with cropping season but did not diminish through the year. Even in harvested rainwater or purchased bottled water, up to 12 different pesticides were detected at

  18. What Is a Pesticide?

    ... Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Basic Information about Pesticide Ingredients Pesticide products contain both "active" and "inert" ingredients: What is a Pesticide? A pesticide is any substance or mixture of ...

  19. Obsolete pesticides

    Showstack, Randy

    Several hundred tons of obsolete pesticide stocks worldwide will pose a threat to humans and the environment until the year 2030 in some regions, unless funding for waste disposal is significantly increased, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) said in a message directed to donor governments and industry on May 24.“Deadly chemicals are contaminating the soils, groundwater, irrigation, and drinking water,” said Amemayehu Wodageneh, senior expert on obsolete pesticides for FAO. “These ‘forgotten’ stocks are a serious risk, [and] they could cause an environmental tragedy in rural areas and big cities. There is hardly any developing country that is not affected by the hazards of obsolete pesticides.”

  20. Safe apples for baby-food production: survey of pesticide treatment regimes leaving minimum residues.

    Ticha, Jana; Hajslova, Jana; Kovalczuk, Tomas; Jech, Martin; Honzicek, Jiri; Kocourek, Vladimir; Lansky, Miroslav; Kloutvorova, Jana; Falta, Vladan

    2007-06-01

    A total of 19 pesticide preparations were used according to agricultural practice in six trials in apple orchards. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), premature Golden Delicious apples collected 64, 50, 36 days before harvest and mature fruit were examined for residues of active ingredients. No residues of triflumuron, triazamate, chlorpyrifos, etofenprox, fenoxycarb, kresoxim-methyl, cyprodinyl, difenoconazole or thiram were detected in the first sampling. Also, the levels of chlorpyrifos-methyl, penconazole, tebuconazole and tolylfluanid dropped during the pre-harvest interval. Detectable residues of pyridaben, thiacloprid, trifloxystrobin and tetraconazole in harvested fruits were below 0.01 mg kg(-1), which is the maximum concentration of residues acceptable by baby-food producers in any raw material. The only residues exceeding this concentration were captan and teflubenzuron. Based on the data, farmers can choose pesticides for optimal treatment of plants, while enabling growth of a safe crop suitable for baby-food production. PMID:17487602

  1. Applying Pesticides Safely

    Latimer, Joyce G.

    2009-01-01

    Proper use of pesticides is essential for your safety and for that of the environment. Pesticides must be used correctly to be effective. This publication reviews the key factors in the proper use of pesticides.

  2. National Pesticide Information Center

    National Pesticide Information Center npic@ace.orst.edu 1.800.858.7378 Index A B C D E F ... Your Pest Control Your Pest Integrated Pest Management Pesticide Ingredients Active Ingredients Other/Inert Ingredients Pesticide Products ...

  3. Towards the field-scale experiments and numerical modeling of pesticides in tropical soils

    Dusek, J.; Ray, C.; Sanda, M.; Vogel, T.; Green, R.; Loo, B.

    2004-12-01

    Intensive use of pesticides in agriculture inevitably poses an increased threat to groundwater. Recent findings of pesticide residues in selected drinking water wells in Hawaii brings further attention to this problem since the primary source for potable water in Hawaii is groundwater from basal or dike-confined aquifers. A challenging research project was carried out at the University of Hawaii to elucidate potential impacts of selected pesticides on groundwater and to understand pesticide behavior in tropical soils. The major outcome of the project will be a recommendation to the Hawaii Department of Agriculture whether to restrict or approve these pesticide products entering Hawaii's agricultural market. Three sites on Oahu, one on Maui, and one on Kauai were selected for field evaluation of leaching. The soil types on Oahu are Wahiawa Oxisol (Poamoho), Molokai Oxisol (Kunia), and Waialua Vertisol (Waimanalo). The soil at Kula, Maui is an andisol (loam of Kula series) and that at Mana, Kauai is a Vertisol of Malama series. Three herbicides (S-metolachlor, imazaquin, sulfometuron methyl), one fungicide (trifloxystrobin), and one insecticide (imidacloprid) were used in our study. In addition, a commonly used herbicide (atrazine) and potassium bromide tracer were applied as reference chemicals. After spraying, the plots were covered with straw to decrease evaporation from bare soil surface and irrigated with aerial sprinklers for a period of 16 weeks. Disturbed soil samples from various depths were taken at regular intervals for pesticide analysis. Water flow dynamics was monitored with TDR probes and tensiometers installed at three depths. Weather data were acquired simultaneously. In-situ measurements of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity were done using a tension disc infiltrometer. Laboratory experiments of soil-water retention, as well as degradation, sorption, and column displacement experiments for the selected pesticides were conducted. Hence, comprehensive

  4. Pesticides poisoning

    Pesticides are chemical toxicants which are used to kill by their toxic actions, the pest organisms, known to incur significant economic losses or threaten human life, his health and that of his domesticated animals. These toxicants are seldom species-specific. The presence of these or their metabolites may scientific be vouched not only in the environment they are used, but in the entire ecosystem, in the subsoil, in the underwater reservoirs and in the food chain of all non-target species including man, his friends i.e. predator and parasite organisms which be uses against the pests, and in his cherished domesticated animals. In the present paper a survey is made of different groups of toxic chemicals generally used to manage pests, in the ecosystem, food chain and tissues and body parts of non-target species including man and the ones dear to him. Toxicology and biochemistry of these toxic materials and their important metabolites are also briefly discussed with special reference to ways and means through which these poison the above non-target species. (author)

  5. Pesticide Instrumental Analysis

    This workshop was the evaluation of the pesticides impact on the vegetable matrix with the purpose to determine the analysis by GC / M S. The working material were lettuce matrix, chard and a mix of green leaves and pesticides.

  6. Pesticides and Pregnancy

    Pesticides and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to pesticides may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  7. Pesticide Product Label System

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  8. Pesticide exposure - Indian scene

    Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. India started pesticide production with manufacturing plant for DDT and benzene hexachloride (BHC) (HCH) in the year 1952. In 1958, India was producing over 5000 metric tonnes of pesticides. Currently, there are approximately 145 pesticides registered for use, and production has increased to approximately 85,000 metric tonnes. Rampant use of these chemicals has given rise to several short-term and long-term adverse effects of these chemicals. The first report of poisoning due to pesticides in India came from Kerala in 1958 where, over 100 people died after consuming wheat flour contaminated with parathion. Subsequently several cases of pesticide-poisoning including the Bhopal disaster have been reported. Despite the fact that the consumption of pesticides in India is still very low, about 0.5 kg/ha of pesticides against 6.60 and 12.0 kg/ha in Korea and Japan, respectively, there has been a widespread contamination of food commodities with pesticide residues, basically due to non-judicious use of pesticides. In India, 51% of food commodities are contaminated with pesticide residues and out of these, 20% have pesticides residues above the maximum residue level values on a worldwide basis. It has been observed that their long-term, low-dose exposure are increasingly linked to human health effects such as immune-suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities, and cancer. In this light, problems of pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, use of biotechnology, and biopesticides, and use of pesticides obtained from natural plant sources such as neem extracts are some of the future strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides

  9. Pesticides and children

    Prevention and control of damage to health, crops, and property by insects, fungi, and noxious weeds are the major goals of pesticide applications. As with use of any biologically active agent, pesticides have unwanted side-effects. In this review, we will examine the thesis that adverse pesticide effects are more likely to occur in children who are at special developmental and behavioral risk. Children's exposures to pesticides in the rural and urban settings and differences in their exposure patterns are discussed. The relative frequency of pesticide poisoning in children is examined. In this connection, most reported acute pesticide poisonings occur in children younger than age 5. The possible epidemiological relationships between parental pesticide use or exposure and the risk of adverse reproductive outcomes and childhood cancer are discussed. The level of consensus among these studies is examined. Current concerns regarding neurobehavioral toxicity and endocrine disruption in juxtaposition to the relative paucity of toxicant mechanism-based studies of children are explored

  10. Pesticides: chemicals for survival

    Pesticides are chemicals used to control pests such as insects, weeds, plant diseases, nematodes, and rodents. The increased use of pesticides since 1945 has greatly aided the increase in crop production, protected livestock from diseases such as trypanosomiasis, protected man from diseases such as malaria and filarisis, decreased losses of stored grain, and has generally improved man's welfare. Despite the enormous benefits derived from pesticides these chemicals are not problem-free. Many pesticides are toxic to living organisms and interfere with specific biochemical systems. To measure the very small quantities of a pesticide radiolabelled chemicals are frequently essential, particularly to measure changes in the chemical structure of the pesticide, movement of the pesticide in soil, plants, or animals, amounts of pesticide going through various steps in food processing, etc. The use of radiolabelled pesticides is shortly shown for metabolism of the pesticide in crop species, metabolism in ruminant, in chickens and eggs, in soil, and possibly leaching and sorption in soil, hydrolysis, bio-concentration, microbial and photodegradation, and toxicity studies

  11. Desenvolvimento de métodos analíticos para determinação de agrotóxicos em sedimentos por cromatografia gasosa monodimensional e bidimensional abrangente com micro detector de captura de elétrons Development of analytical methods for pesticides in sediments by monodimensional and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro electron-capture detection

    Juliana Macedo da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of analytical methods for determination of eight pesticides of different chemical classes (trichlorfon, propanil, fipronil, propiconazole, trifloxystrobin, permethrin, difenoconazole and azoxystrobin in sediments with gas chromatography-micro-electron capture detector (GC/µECD and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detector (GCxGC/µECD is described. These methods were applied to real sediment samples, and the best results were obtained using a 5% diphenyl-methylpolysiloxane column for 1D-GC. For GCxGC the same column was employed in the first dimension and a 50%-phenyl-methylpolysiloxane stationary phase was placed in the second dimension. Due to the superior peak capacity and selectivity of GCxGC, interfering matrix peaks were separated from analytes, showing a better performance of GCxGC.

  12. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with solidification of floating organic droplets for simultaneous extraction of pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplets (DLLME-SFO) has been applied to the extraction of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and pesticides from water samples. The PPCPs included bisphenol A, sodium diclofenac, gemfibrozil, furosemide, glibenclamide, nifedipine, nimesulide, propylparaben and triclocarban. The pesticides included 2,4-D, atrazine, azoxystrobin, cyproconazole, clomazone, dichloran, difenoconazole, diuron, epoxiconazole, fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, fipronil, iprodione, irgarol, propanil, propiconazole, tebuconazole, and trifloxystrobin. The type and volume of extraction solvent, type and volume of disperser solvent, ionic strength and pH were optimized. All species were then quantified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 50 to 500 ng L−1, and the linearity ranged from the LOQ of each compound up to 10,000 ng L−1. Recoveries ranged from 63 to 120 %, with relative standard deviations lower than 14 %. It is making use of a low-toxicity and affordable extraction solvent (1-dodecanol) and was successfully applied to the analysis of surface water samples. (author)

  13. Pesticide exposure in children.

    2012-12-01

    This statement presents the position of the American Academy of Pediatrics on pesticides. Pesticides are a collective term for chemicals intended to kill unwanted insects, plants, molds, and rodents. Children encounter pesticides daily and have unique susceptibilities to their potential toxicity. Acute poisoning risks are clear, and understanding of chronic health implications from both acute and chronic exposure are emerging. Epidemiologic evidence demonstrates associations between early life exposure to pesticides and pediatric cancers, decreased cognitive function, and behavioral problems. Related animal toxicology studies provide supportive biological plausibility for these findings. Recognizing and reducing problematic exposures will require attention to current inadequacies in medical training, public health tracking, and regulatory action on pesticides. Ongoing research describing toxicologic vulnerabilities and exposure factors across the life span are needed to inform regulatory needs and appropriate interventions. Policies that promote integrated pest management, comprehensive pesticide labeling, and marketing practices that incorporate child health considerations will enhance safe use. PMID:23184103

  14. Pesticides (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    ... Pesticides Climate Change Climate Change Home What is Climate Change ... Pesticides The Basics Pesticides are substances we use to control or kill pests. Pests can be weeds, insects, rodents, or bacteria — anything we don’t want ...

  15. Pesticides and childhood cancers.

    Daniels, J L; Olshan, A.F.; Savitz, D A

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the possible association between pesticides and the risk of childhood cancers, epidemiologic studies published between 1970 and 1996 were critically reviewed. Thirty-one studies investigated whether occupational or residential exposure to pesticides by either parents or children was related to increased risk of childhood cancer. In general, the reported relative risk estimates were modest. Risk estimates appeared to be stronger when pesticide exposure was measured in more detail. ...

  16. Pesticides and childhood cancer.

    Zahm, S H; Ward, M H

    1998-01-01

    Children are exposed to potentially carcinogenic pesticides from use in homes, schools, other buildings, lawns and gardens, through food and contaminated drinking water, from agricultural application drift, overspray, or off-gassing, and from carry-home exposure of parents occupationally exposed to pesticides. Parental exposure during the child's gestation or even preconception may also be important. Malignancies linked to pesticides in case reports or case-control studies include leukemia, n...

  17. Control of Pesticides 2000

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    Three different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation have been included in the 2000 analytical chemical authority control: 1) herbicides containing aclonifen, clopyralid, dicamba, quinoclamine, bromoxynil, ioxynil, simazine, and terbuthylazine. 2) Fungicides containing fenpropidin......, fluazinam, and kresoxim-methyl, and among insecticides containing fenazaquin. Thus, all the eighteen analysed samples of these pesticides complied with the accepted tolerances with respect to content of active ingredients set by the Danish regulation of pesticides. The only product containing buprofezin...

  18. The Danish Pesticide Tax

    Pedersen, Anders Branth; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2015-01-01

    This case study analyses the effects of the Danish pesticide tax (1996-2013) on agriculture which was introduced as an ad valorem tax in 1996, doubled in 1998, and redesigned in 2013 as a tax based on the toxicity of the pesticides. The Danish pesticide taxes probably represent the world’s highest...... pesticide taxes on agriculture, which makes it interesting to analyze how effective they have been. Here the effects of the ad valorem tax (1996-2013) are analyzed. The case study demonstrates the challenges of choosing an optimal tax design in a complex political setting where, additionally, not all...

  19. Screening Pesticides for Neuropathogenicity

    Doherty, John D.

    2006-01-01

    Pesticides are routinely screened in studies that follow specific guidelines for possible neuropathogenicity in laboratory animals. These tests will detect chemicals that are by themselves strong inducers of neuropathogenesis if the tested strain is susceptible relative to the time of administration and methodology of assessment. Organophosphate induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) is the only known human neurodegenerative disease associated with pesticides and the existing...

  20. Pesticides in Ground Water

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  1. Pesticider 2 i overfladevand

    Nyeland, B.; Kvamm, B. L.

    DMU har den 29. september 1999 afholdt en metodeafprøvning: Pesticider 2 i overfladevand. Der var tilmeldt 17 danske og udenlandske laboratorier i metodeafprøvningen. Prøvningen omfattede 32 pesticider i overfladevand fra en sjællandsk sø. Koncentrationsniveauet for hver komponent var på 0,025 - 0...

  2. Pesticide Sector Performed Well

    Wang Lvxian

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Further output growth in the first half of 2007 According to data from the National Bureau of Statistics of China, the output of pesticides (usually refering to pure pesticide technical) in China was 856 thousand tons in the first half of 2007, an increase of 25.6% over the same period of 2006.

  3. PESTICIDES: BENEFITS AND HAZARDS

    Ivan Maksymiv

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are an integral part of modern life used to prevent growth of unwanted living  organisms. Despite the fact that scientific statements coming from many toxicological works provide indication on the low risk of the pesticides and their residues, the community especially last years is deeply concerned about massive application of pesticides in diverse fields. Therefore evaluation of hazard risks particularly in long term perspective is very important. In the fact there are at least two clearly different approaches for evaluation of pesticide using: the first one is defined as an objective or probabilistic risk assessment, while the second one is the potential economic and agriculture benefits. Therefore, in this review the author has considered scientifically based assessment of positive and negative effects of pesticide application and discusses possible approaches to find balance between them.

  4. Control of Pesticides 2006

    Krongaard, Teddy; Petersen, Kitty Kastalag; Christoffersen, Christel

    The analytical chemical authority control of pesticide products on the Danish market in 2006 is described in this report. Samples of selected groups of pesticides have been collected from the market and analysed to verify whether the actual contents of the respective active ingredients...... in the products comply with the labelled content. The tolerance of deviation from the labelled content of active ingredient is set by the Danish Statutory Order on pesticides. In addition to the examination of the content of active ingredients, all collected samples are examined for the content of octylphenol...... ethoxylates (OPEO) and nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEO). The industry and the Danish authorities have agreed on removing these compounds from all Danish-sold pesticide formulations produced after June 2000. Four different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation were included in the 2006...

  5. Control of Pesticides 2001

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    The analytical chemical authority control on pesticide products on the Danish market performed in 2001 is reported. Samples of selected groups of pesticides have been collected from the market and analysed to verify whether the actual contents of the respective active ingredients in the products...... comply with the label-claimed content. The tolerance of deviation from the label-claimed content of active ingredient is set by the Danish pesticide regulation. Three different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation have been included in the 2001 analytical chemical authority control: 1....... Satisfactory results were found among herbicides containing pendimethalin and methabenzthiazuron, among fungicides containing azaconazole, tolylfluanid, propamocarb and cyprodinil, and among insecticides containing amitraz, phosalone and diflubenzuron. Thus, the twelve analysed samples of these pesticides...

  6. Reducing the impact of pesticides on biological control in Australian vineyards: pesticide mortality and fecundity effects on an indicator species, the predatory mite Euseius victoriensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Bernard, Martina B; Cole, Peter; Kobelt, Amanda; Horne, Paul A; Altmann, James; Wratten, Stephen D; Yen, Alan L

    2010-12-01

    Laboratory bioassays on detached soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., leaves were used to test 23 fungicides, five insecticides, two acaricides, one herbicide, and two adjuvants on a key Australian predatory mite species Euseius victoriensis (Womersley) in "worst-case scenario" direct overspray assays. Zero- to 48-h-old juveniles, their initial food, and water supply were sprayed to runoff with a Potter tower; spinosad and wettable sulfur residues also were tested. Tests were standardized to deliver a pesticide dose comparable with commercial application of highest label rates at 1,000 liter/ha. Cumulative mortality was assessed 48 h, 4 d, and 7 d after spraying. Fecundity was assessed for 7 d from start of oviposition. No significant mortality or fecundity effects were detected for the following compounds at single-use application at 1,000 liter/ha: azoxystrobin, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subsp. kurstaki, captan, chlorothalonil, copper hydroxide, fenarimol, glyphosate, hexaconazole, indoxacarb, metalaxyl/copper hydroxide, myclobutanil, nonyl phenol ethylene oxide, phosphorous acid, potassium bicarbonate, pyraclostrobin, quinoxyfen, spiroxamine, synthetic latex, tebufenozide, triadimenol, and trifloxystrobin. Iprodione and penconazole had some detrimental effect on fecundity. Canola oil as acaricide (2 liter/100 liter) and wettable sulfur (200 g/100 liter) had some detrimental effect on survival and fecundity and cyprodinil/fludioxonil on survivor. The following compounds were highly toxic (high 48-h mortality): benomyl, carbendazim, emamectin benzoate, mancozeb, spinosad (direct overspray and residue), wettable sulfur (> or = 400 g/100 liter), and pyrimethanil; pyrimethanil had no significant effect on fecundity of surviving females. Indoxacarb safety to E. victoriensis contrasts with its toxicity to key parasitoids and chrysopid predators. Potential impact of findings is discussed. PMID:21309226

  7. Pesticide Registration Information System

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PRISM provides an integrated, web portal for all pesticide related data, communications, registrations and transactions for OPP and its stakeholders, partners and...

  8. Pesticide-Exposure Matrix

    The "Pesticide-exposure Matrix" was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years.

  9. Evaluation System for Pesticides (ESPE). 1. Agricultural pesticides

    Emans HJB; Beek MA; Linders JBHJ

    1992-01-01

    In this report a risk assessment or evaluation system for agricultural pesticides is presented, which estimates the hazards for man and environment resulting from the use of these pesticides. The evaluation system has also been placed within the context of the Uniform System for the Evaluation of Substances (USES). The evaluation system for pesticides (ESPE) is divided in three parts: 1) emission of the pesticide ; 2) distribution over and within the different environmental compartments and c...

  10. Pesticide Movement in Response to Furrow Irrigation and Pesticide Parameters

    Peralta, Richard C.; Hill, Robert W.; Deer, Howard

    1991-01-01

    Production of adequate supplies of food and fiber currently requires that pesticides be used to limit crop losses from insects, pathogens, weeds and other pests. The term pesticide refers to a large number ofchemical compounds. Pesticides include acaricides, fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, nematicides, algicides, arboricides, zoocides, and many more.

  11. Human Health Benchmarks for Pesticides

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Advanced testing methods now allow pesticides to be detected in water at very low levels. These small amounts of pesticides detected in drinking water or source...

  12. Decontaminating pesticide protective clothing.

    Laughlin, J

    1993-01-01

    The review of recent work on the mechanisms of soil removal from textiles assists in understanding decontamination of pesticide protective clothing. The current work provides explanatory conclusions about residue retention as a basis of making recommendations for the most effective decontamination procedures. A caution about generalizations: Some pesticides produce very idiosyncratic responses to decontamination. An example is the paraquat/salt response. Other pesticides exhibit noticeable and unique responses to a highly alkaline medium (carbaryl), or to bleach (chlorpyrifos), or are quickly volatilized (methyl parathion). Responses such as these do not apply to other pesticides undergoing decontamination. Given this caution, there are soil, substrate, and solvent responses that do maximize residue removal. Residue removal is less complete as the concentration of pesticide increases. The concentration of pesticide in fabric builds with successive exposures, and the more concentrated the pesticide, the more difficult the removal. Use a prewash product and/or presoak. The surfactant and/or solvent in a prewash product is a booster in residue removal. Residues transfer from contaminated clothing to other clothing during the washing cycle. Use a full washer of water for a limited number of garments to increase residue removal. The hotter the washing temperature, the better. Generally, this means a water temperature of at least 49 degrees C, and preferably 60 degrees C. Select the detergent shown to be more effective for the formulation: heavy-duty liquid detergents for emulsifiable concentrate formulations and powdered phosphate detergents for wettable powder formulations. If the fabric has a soil-repellent finish, use 1.25 times the amount recommended on the detergent label. For water hardness above 300 ppm, an additional amount of powdered phosphate detergent is needed to obtain the same level of residue removal as obtained with the heavy-duty liquid detergent when

  13. Pesticide exposure--Indian scene.

    Gupta, P K

    2004-05-20

    Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. India started pesticide production with manufacturing plant for DDT and benzene hexachloride (BHC) (HCH) in the year 1952. In 1958, India was producing over 5000 metric tonnes of pesticides. Currently, there are approximately 145 pesticides registered for use, and production has increased to approximately 85,000 metric tonnes. Rampant use of these chemicals has given rise to several short-term and long-term adverse effects of these chemicals. The first report of poisoning due to pesticides in India came from Kerala in 1958 where, over 100 people died after consuming wheat flour contaminated with parathion. Subsequently several cases of pesticide-poisoning including the Bhopal disaster have been reported. Despite the fact that the consumption of pesticides in India is still very low, about 0.5 kg/ha of pesticides against 6.60 and 12.0 kg/ha in Korea and Japan, respectively, there has been a widespread contamination of food commodities with pesticide residues, basically due to non-judicious use of pesticides. In India, 51% of food commodities are contaminated with pesticide residues and out of these, 20% have pesticides residues above the maximum residue level values on a worldwide basis. It has been observed that their long-term, low-dose exposure are increasingly linked to human health effects such as immune-suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities, and cancer. In this light, problems of pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, use of biotechnology, and biopesticides, and use of pesticides obtained from natural plant sources such as neem extracts are some of the future strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides. PMID:15138033

  14. Pesticides and earthworms. A review

    Pelosi, Céline; Barot, Sebastien; Capowiez, Yvan; Hedde, Mickaël; Vandenbulcke, Franck

    2014-01-01

    International audience Earthworms provide key soil functions that favour many positive ecosystem services. These services are important for agroecosystem sustainability but can be degraded by intensive cultural practices such as use of pesticides. Many literature reports have investigated the effect of pesticides on earthworms. Here, we review those reports to assess the relevance of the indicators of earthworm response to pesticides, to assess their sensitivity to pesticides, and to highl...

  15. In Case of Pesticide Emergency

    ... Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us In Case of Pesticide Emergency If someone has swallowed or inhaled a pesticide or gotten it in the eye or on ... for help with first aid information. The National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) (1-800-858-7378) also ...

  16. Shanghai Pesticide Research Institute (SPRI)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Shanghai Pesticide Research Institute (SPRI), established in 1963, is the first professional pesticide institute in China. After being approved by the Science & Technology Committee of PRC, it became the base for Shanghai Branch of National Pesticide R&D South center.

  17. Pesticide reducing instruments

    Jacobsen, Lars-Bo; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Andersen, Martin;

    2005-01-01

    the cost and to calculate general economic and sectoral consequences. This CGE model is linked to an agricultural sector model calculating the optimal use of land, and the agricultural sector model is then linked to a biological agent based simulation model (ABM) calculating changes in the population...... the collaboration and linkage of very different research disciplines and modeling tools. In the paper we combine several analytical tools in search of an effective pesticide instrument and an optimal application of such an instrument. The tools under considerations are firstly a CGE model used for evaluating...... of a key species of farmland bird, caused to changes in production and landscape. The results from the agricultural sector model are also used in evaluation of pesticide usage and the leaching of pesticides to ground water. First we analyze the implication of three different scenarios in all of the above...

  18. Control of Pesticides 2004

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    Four different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation were included in the 2004 analytical chemical authority control: 1) Herbicides containing bentazone, dicamba, dichlorprop-P, mecoprop-P, MCPA, foramsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methylsodium, rimsulfuron and triasulfuron. 2) Fungicides...... coumatetralyl and one out of four contained dicamba complied with the accepted tolerance limits with respect to the content of the active ingredient as specified in Danish Statutory Order on pesticides. None of the examined samples contained OPEO, but one of the samples contained NPEO. On three products...

  19. Bacterial Degradation of Pesticides

    Knudsen, Berith Elkær

    This PhD project was carried out as part of the Microbial Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Water Resources (MIRESOWA) project, funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research (grant number 2104-08-0012). The environment is contaminated with various xenobiotic compounds e.g. pesticides......D student, to construct fungal-bacterial consortia in order to potentially stimulate pesticide degradation thereby increasing the chance of successful bioaugmentation. The results of the project are reported in three article manuscripts, included in this thesis. In manuscript I, the mineralization of 2...

  20. Control of pesticides 2003

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    Four different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation were included in the 2003 analytical chemical authority control: 1) Herbicides containing clodinafop- propargyl, clomazone, fluroxypyr and glyphosate. 2) Fungicides containing bitertanol, fuberidazole, fenhexamid and pencycuron...... containing methoprene complied with the accepted tolerance limits with respect to the content of the active ingredient as specified in Danish Statutory Order on pesticides. None of the 44 examined samples contained OPEO, but 5 of the samples contained NPEO. Three of these five samples were produced before...

  1. On the paradox of pesticides

    Li, Y. Charles; Yang, Yipeng

    2013-01-01

    The paradox of pesticides was observed experimentally, which says that pesticides may dramatically increase the population of a pest when the pest has a natural predator. Here we use a mathematical model to study the paradox. We find that the timing for the application of pesticides is crucial for the resurgence or non-resurgence of the pests. In particular, regularly applying pesticides is not a good idea as also observed in experiments. In fact, the best time to apply pesticides is when the...

  2. INNOVATION AND REGULATION IN THE PESTICIDE INDUSTRY

    Ollinger, Michael; Fernandez-Cornejo, Jorge

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of pesticide regulation on the number of new pesticide registrations and pesticide toxicity. Results suggest that regulation adversely affects new pesticide introductions but encourages the development of pesticides with fewer toxic side effects. The estimated regression model implies that a 10% increase in regulatory costs (about $1.5 million per pesticide) causes a 5% reduction in the number of pesticides with higher toxicity.

  3. Kombinationseffekter af pesticider

    Kudsk, Per; Andersen, Helle Raun; Cedergreen, Nina;

    Resumé: Effekten af 101 tokomponentblandinger og 20 trekomponentblandinger bestående af 22 forskellige pesticider blev undersøgt i 7 forskellige testsystemer. Effekterne af blandingerne blev sammenholdt med pesticidernes virkningsmekanismer/virkemåder med henblik på at undersøge, om det med...

  4. Postharvest Phytosanitary Pesticide Treatments

    This book chapter by Neil Heather and Guy Hallman, in “Pest Management and Phytosanitary Trade Barriers,” CABI Press, covers the use of non-gaseous pesticides. Their use as phytosanitary treatments for edibles has never been great and is diminishing. They may still have promise for non-consumed pr...

  5. Radiation induced microbial pesticide

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Sang Jae

    2000-01-01

    To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author)

  6. Radiation induced microbial pesticide

    To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author)

  7. 76 FR 63298 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    2011-10-12

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing active ingredients not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions...

  8. 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP) covers discharges of biological pesticides, and chemical pesticides that leave a residue, in areas where EPA is the...

  9. 76 FR 38160 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    2011-06-29

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to...

  10. 75 FR 80490 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    2010-12-22

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing active ingredients not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions...

  11. 75 FR 71695 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    2010-11-24

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register new uses for pesticide products containing... Pesticide Programs (OPP) Regulatory Public Docket (7502P), Environmental Protection Agency,...

  12. 75 FR 11884 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    2010-03-12

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide...: Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) Regulatory Public Docket (7502P), Environmental Protection...

  13. 75 FR 32767 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    2010-06-09

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide...: Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) Regulatory Public Docket (7502P), Environmental Protection...

  14. 77 FR 14362 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    2012-03-09

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register pesticide products... by the docket identification (ID) number and the file symbol for the pesticide of interest as...

  15. 75 FR 24694 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    2010-05-05

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide product. Pursuant to the...

  16. 77 FR 38285 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    2012-06-27

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register pesticide products...), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Washington,...

  17. Choice of pesticide fate models

    The choice of a pesticide fate model at field scale is linked to the available input data. The article describes the available pesticide fate models at a field scale and the guidelines for the choice of the suitable model as function of the data input requested

  18. Quality control of pesticide products

    In light of an established need for more efficient analytical procedures, this publication, which documents the findings of an IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on “Quality Control of Pesticide Products”, simplifies the existing protocol for pesticide analysis while simultaneously upholding existing standards of quality. This publication includes both a report on the development work done in the CRP and a training manual for use by pesticide analysis laboratories. Based on peer reviewed and internationally recognized methods published by the Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC) and the Collaborative International Pesticides Analytical Council (CIPAC), this report provides laboratories with versatile tools to enhance the analysis of pesticide chemicals and to extend the scope of available analytical repertoires. Adoption of the proposed analytical methodologies promises to reduce laboratories’ use of solvents and the time spent on reconfiguration and set-up of analytical equipment

  19. Pesticide Productivity: Of Bugs and Biases

    Norwood, F. Bailey; Marra, Michele C.

    2003-01-01

    Pesticide productivity is both important and difficult to measure. Typically, pesticide marginal products are estimated without information on the pest pressure. Three theoretical models are developed which suggest absence of such information may cause an underestimation of pesticide productivity. Using application frequency variables as a proxy for pest populations, we show that pesticide marginal products are higher when pest pressure is accounted for.

  20. Sprinkler irrigation-pesticide best management systems

    Ranjha, A. Y.; Peralta, R. C.; Hill, R. W.; Requena, A. M.; Deer, H. M.; Ehteshami, M.

    1992-01-01

    The relative reduction in potential groundwater contamination due to pesticides at several sites in Utah was determined by comparing alternative irrigation system designs, water management practices, and pesticides. Alternative sprinkler irrigation distribution coefficients were used to estimate irrigation application depths. The movement of pesticides through soils following sprinkler irrigations was simulated with a one-dimensional model. Pesticide contamination of groundwater can be reduce...

  1. Fact Sheets on Pesticides in Schools.

    National Coalition against the Misuse of Pesticides, Washington, DC.

    This document consists of a collection of fact sheets about the use of pesticides in schools and how to reduce it. The sheets are: (1) "Alternatives to Using Pesticides in Schools: What Is Integrated Pest Management?"; (2) "Health Effects of 48 Commonly Used Pesticides in Schools"; (3) "The Schooling of State Pesticide Laws--2002 Update: A Review…

  2. PESTICIDE APPLICATION TECHNICS IMPROVEMENT

    Đuro Banaj

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The academic textbook Pesticide application tehnics improvement is the result of several-year recording theoretical models, numerous practical tests, and data collection relating to technical systems in plant protection and its environment in the narrowest sense. In this first edition, the authors cover the area they have dealt with for many years. The authors aimed to present complete and clear methods how to solve specific problems in the agricultural practice management, plant protection, and direct practice application – ‘‘Know- How'', with as many as possible useful data. References used, along with local ones, are mostly American and from Western Europe. This textbook is intended for those who already use the agricultural technique in plant protection and those who are just acquiring the basics of technical systems proper application in daily practice, regardless the size of the agricultural farm. The authors covered in details and explained some bases of physics logic, analysis, and synthesis of specific laws while using pesticides due to extremely importance in understanding the problem area.

  3. 75 FR 13284 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Request for Nominations to the Pesticide Program Dialogue...

    2010-03-19

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Request for Nominations to the Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs is inviting nominations of qualified...

  4. Pesticide use and application: An Indian scenario

    Agricultural development continues to remain the most important objective of Indian planning and policy. In the process of development of agriculture, pesticides have become an important tool as a plant protection agent for boosting food production. Further, pesticides play a significant role by keeping many dreadful diseases. However, exposure to pesticides both occupationally and environmentally causes a range of human health problems. It has been observed that the pesticides exposures are increasingly linked to immune suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities and cancer. Currently, India is the largest producer of pesticides in Asia and ranks twelfth in the world for the use of pesticides. A vast majority of the population in India is engaged in agriculture and is therefore exposed to the pesticides used in agriculture. Although Indian average consumption of pesticide is far lower than many other developed economies, the problem of pesticide residue is very high in India. Pesticide residue in several crops has also affected the export of agricultural commodities in the last few years. In this context, pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, proper application technologies, and integrated pest management are some of the key strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides. There is a dearth of studies related to these issues in India. Therefore, the thrust of this paper was to review the technology of application of pesticides in India and recommend future strategies for the rational use of pesticides and minimizing the problems related to health and environment.

  5. Pesticide use and application: An Indian scenario

    Abhilash, P.C., E-mail: pcabhilash@gmail.com [Eco-Auditing Group, National Botanical Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh (India); Singh, Nandita, E-mail: nanditasingh8@yahoo.co.in [Eco-Auditing Group, National Botanical Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2009-06-15

    Agricultural development continues to remain the most important objective of Indian planning and policy. In the process of development of agriculture, pesticides have become an important tool as a plant protection agent for boosting food production. Further, pesticides play a significant role by keeping many dreadful diseases. However, exposure to pesticides both occupationally and environmentally causes a range of human health problems. It has been observed that the pesticides exposures are increasingly linked to immune suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities and cancer. Currently, India is the largest producer of pesticides in Asia and ranks twelfth in the world for the use of pesticides. A vast majority of the population in India is engaged in agriculture and is therefore exposed to the pesticides used in agriculture. Although Indian average consumption of pesticide is far lower than many other developed economies, the problem of pesticide residue is very high in India. Pesticide residue in several crops has also affected the export of agricultural commodities in the last few years. In this context, pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, proper application technologies, and integrated pest management are some of the key strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides. There is a dearth of studies related to these issues in India. Therefore, the thrust of this paper was to review the technology of application of pesticides in India and recommend future strategies for the rational use of pesticides and minimizing the problems related to health and environment.

  6. Radiation induced pesticidal microbes

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, D. S

    2001-01-01

    To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants.

  7. Radiation induced pesticidal microbes

    To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants

  8. 77 FR 64990 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Request for Nominations to the Pesticide Program Dialogue...

    2012-10-24

    ... groups; pesticide users and growers; animal rights groups; pest consultants; State, local, and tribal...: Environmental/public interest and animal rights groups; farm worker organizations; pesticide industry and...

  9. Challenges in Regulating Pesticide Mixtures

    Debra Denton; Bruce Hammock; Craig Wheelock; Jason Belden; Michael Lydy

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces the field of mixture toxicity and the challenges in regulating pesticide mixtures. Even though pesticides are unique chemical stressors designed to have biological activity that can affect a number of nontarget species, they are intentionally placed into the environment in large quantities. Currently, methods and terminology for evaluating mixture toxicity are poorly established. The most common approach used is the assumption of additive concentration, with the concentr...

  10. Pesticide movement and water management

    Ehteshami, Majid; Peralta, R C

    1989-01-01

    Agricultural chemicals are essential components of agricultural production systems in the United states. Pesticides control weeds, insects, and have had an important role in increasing agricultural productivity in the last 50 years, despite diminishing crop land acreage. The benefits of chemicals use options in agriculture must be balanced against potential contamination of surface water and ground water resources. This study shows the effect of water management practices on pesticide movemen...

  11. Hazardous pesticides in Central America.

    Wesseling, C; Aragón, A; Castillo, L; Corriols, M; Chaverri, F; de la Cruz, E; Keifer, M; Monge, P; Partanen, T J; Ruepert, C; van Wendel de Joode, B

    2001-01-01

    Pesticides are an extensively documented occupational and environmental hazard in Central America. Yet, severe problems persist. Toxic pesticide use in the Region increased during 1985-1999. High exposure levels and ineffectiveness of personal protective equipment evidence the difficulties for risk reduction. Acute poisonings remain a severe problem. Delayed and/or long-lasting health effects include dermatoses, cancer, and genotoxic, neurotoxic, and respiratory effects. The use of hazardous pesticides persists through deficiencies in government-driven assessment and risk management; excessive focus on regional harmonization; short-term economic interests; strong links between industry and governments; aggressive marketing; weak trade unions; and failure of universities to reach decision makers. Regulation based on local data is lacking. An agreement of the Ministries of Health for restricting the most toxic pesticides in Central America has potential for progress. The most effective way to reduce risk is to greatly reduce pesticide use. Actions needed include development of multidisciplinary strategies for local studies on health and environmental impact of pesticides; development of sustainable nonchemical agricultural technologies; evaluation of interventions; extending and sharing of expertise within the Region; strengthening of unions and communities; and redefining the role of industry toward development of safer products, with responsible marketing and reliable information. PMID:11783858

  12. Pesticides' influence on wine fermentation.

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Wine quality strongly depends on the grape quality. To obtain high-quality wines, it is necessary to process healthy grapes at the correct ripeness stage and for this reason the farmer has to be especially careful in the prevention of parasite attacks on the grapevine. The most common fungal diseases affecting grape quality are downy and powdery mildew (Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator), and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea). On the other hand, the most dangerous insects are the grape moth (Lobesia botrana), vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus), and the citrus mealybug (Planococcus citri). Farmers fight grape diseases and insects applying pesticides that can be found at harvest time on grapes. The persistence of pesticides depends on the chemical characteristic of the active ingredients as well as on photodegradation, thermodegradation, codistillation, and enzymatic degradation. The pesticide residues on grapes can be transferred to the must and this can influence the selection and development of yeast strains. Moreover, yeasts can also influence the levels of the pesticides in the wine by reducing or adsorbing them on lees. During the fermentative process, yeasts can cause the disappearance of pesticide residues by degradation or absorption at the end of the fermentation when yeasts are deposited as lees. In this chapter, we reviewed the effect of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides on yeasts. We also studied the effect of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation on pesticide residues. PMID:20610173

  13. Use of pesticides in Kazakhstan

    The Republic of Kazakhstan has 210 regional stations, 19 provincial stations and one co-ordinating government research and production station, all known as Republic Stations for Plant Protection. These stations have the following functions: they control pesticide use and development, and monitor pest populations; they inform and teach farmers the methods for controlling insect pests, diseases and weeds, and the rules for safe pesticide use; and they continually monitor the presence or spread of any adverse effects in order to make short and long term prognoses, which are then used to determine the pesticide requirements. The major functions of these government stations is to control the timely distribution of pesticides and their safe and timely application, so that regulations for their use can be monitored and control over technology maintained. The co-ordinating station evaluates all projects, provides documentation on the use and storage of pesticides, controls field trials carried out by foreign companies on the Republic's territory and regulates pesticide usage during campaigns against insect pests, diseases and weeds. The regional and district subdivisions of these government stations promote integrated pest management for protecting harvests. (author)

  14. 40 CFR 158.2010 - Biochemical pesticides data requirements.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides data...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2010 Biochemical pesticides... required to support registration of biochemical pesticides. Sections 158.2080 through 158.2084 identify...

  15. 40 CFR 158.2110 - Microbial pesticides data requirements.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides data requirements...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2110 Microbial pesticides data requirements. (a) For all microbial pesticides. (1) The following § 158.2120 through §...

  16. 40 CFR 158.2000 - Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2000 Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability. This subpart applies to all biochemical pesticides as defined in paragraphs...

  17. 40 CFR 158.2100 - Microbial pesticides definition and applicability.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2100 Microbial pesticides definition and applicability. (a) This subpart applies to all living or dead microbial pesticides...

  18. 40 CFR 152.175 - Pesticides classified for restricted use.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticides classified for restricted...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.175 Pesticides classified for restricted use. The following uses of pesticide products containing...

  19. 76 FR 552 - Pesticides; Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Residential Exposure...

    2011-01-05

    ... AGENCY Pesticides; Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Residential Exposure Joint... the potential risks to people from exposure to the pesticide in and around the home. The REJV was... the availability of a Pesticide Registration Notice (PR Notice) regarding the data development...

  20. 76 FR 72404 - Pesticides: Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Non-Dietary Exposure Task...

    2011-11-23

    ... AGENCY Pesticides: Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Non-Dietary Exposure Task... registration, the Agency evaluates the potential risks to people from exposure to the pesticide in and around... the availability of a Pesticide Registration Notice (PR Notice) regarding the data development...

  1. Pesticides Linked to Raised Risk of ALS

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158737.html Pesticides Linked to Raised Risk of ALS One toxin ... MONDAY, May 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to pesticides and other chemicals may increase the risk for ...

  2. Pesticides Linked to Raised Risk of ALS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158737.html Pesticides Linked to Raised Risk of ALS One toxin ... MONDAY, May 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to pesticides and other chemicals may increase the risk for ...

  3. Pesticide risks around the home (image)

    Pesticides are substances which kill or deter unwanted pests, such as insects or rodents. These substances can ... avoid an accidental ingestion is to keep all pesticides out of the reach of children.

  4. Neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures

    London, Leslie; Beseler, Cheryl; Bouchard, Maryse F;

    2012-01-01

    The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective ...

  5. Organochlorine Pesticides in the Environment

    Stickel, L.F.

    1968-01-01

    Each year for nearly 20 years, thousands of pounds of persistent organochlorine pesticides have been applied to outdoor areas in many countries. These compounds may last for a very long time in the environment, and be carried by wind, water, and animals to places far distant from where they are used. As a result, most living organisms now contain organochlorine residues. This paper constitutes a selective review of the literature concerning the occurrence, distribution, and effects of organochlorines in the environment. Highest concentrations generally occur in carnivorous species. Thus predatory and fish-eating birds ordinarily have higher residues than do herbivores; quantities are similar in birds of similar habits in different countries. Any segment of the ecosystem - marshland, pond, forest, or field - receives various amounts and kinds of pesticides at irregular intervals. The different animals absorb, detoxify, store, and excrete pesticides at different rates. Different degrees of magnification of pesticide residues by living organisms in an environment are the practical result of many interactions that are far more complex than implied by the statement of magnification up the food chain. These magnifications may be millions of times from water to mud or only a few times from food to first consumer. Direct mortality of wild animals as an aftermath of recommended pesticide treatments has been recorded in the literature of numerous countries. However, accidents and carelessness also accompany pesticide use on a percentage basis and are a part of the problem. More subtle effects on the size and species composition of populations are more difficult to perceive in time to effect remedies. The possibility of ecological effects being mediated through changes in physiology and behavior has received some attention and has resulted in some disquieting findings. These include discovery of the activity of organochlorines in stimulating the breakdown of hormones or in

  6. UNWANTED AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDES: STATE DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

    Centner, Terence J.

    1997-01-01

    Millions of pounds of unwanted pesticides have accumulated in barns throughout our country. The potential environmental and health risks posed by this situation has garnered public attention and governmental action. The federal government has revised its Universal Waste Rule so that it is easier to dispose of unwanted pesticides rather than simply banned pesticides. Nearly every state has initiated efforts to collect and dispose of accumulated pesticides in a safe manner. While the possession...

  7. Pesticides in Schools: Reducing the Risks.

    New York State Office of the Attorney General, Albany.

    This report presents findings of state-wide use of pesticides in New York public schools along with a description of the survey, information about the potential dangers of these chemicals, and the steps schools and communities can take to minimize pesticide use. Findings show that 87 percent of New York's schools use pesticides that contain…

  8. 75 FR 66095 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    2010-10-27

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide...) number for the pesticide of interest, specified within Unit II., by one of the following methods:...

  9. 75 FR 51045 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    2010-08-18

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide....regulations.gov . Follow the on-line instructions for submitting comments. Mail: Office of Pesticide...

  10. 75 FR 76463 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    2010-12-08

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide....regulations.gov . Follow the on-line instructions for submitting comments. Mail: Office of Pesticide...

  11. Pesticide Residues in Food: Your Daily Dose.

    Mott, Lawrie

    1985-01-01

    Extensive use of pesticides during food production has created concerns for certain involuntary risks. Examines these concerns: government role in control and monitoring pesticide use, proposals for reform, and how consumer awareness might be an effective pressure for finding remedies. A table listing produce and pesticide residues is included.…

  12. 77 FR 16544 - Pesticide Product Registration Approvals

    2012-03-21

    ... of receipt published on April 14, 2010 (75 FR 19388; FRL- 8808-5). One comment was received during... AGENCY Pesticide Product Registration Approvals AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... pesticide products and amended registrations for currently existing pesticide products. FOR...

  13. 75 FR 24695 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    2010-05-05

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide....regulations.gov . Follow the on-line instructions for submitting comments. Mail: Office of Pesticide...

  14. Pesticides: Food and environmental implications

    Pesticides are an integral part of modern agriculture, also in most developing countries. Although the annual average consumption of active ingredients in agriculture may be below 0.1 kg a.i./ha, most countries now consume more than 2 kg a.i./ha; some of the intensively cropped regions in South-East Asia are exposed to even higher amounts. Inherent contamination of the environment follows if rules and regulations are not strictly adhered to. The search for safer, less persistent and more specific pesticides and examination of the fate of applied pesticides in various regions of the world were the main themes of the symposium. Special emphasis was placed on the use of nuclear techniques, especially on labelled compounds in research. The Proceedings include all the papers and posters that were presented. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. State governance of pesticide use and trade in Vietnam

    Pham Van Hoi; A P J Mol; Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam is facing serious challenges with respect to the amount and toxicity of the pesticides used. With hardly any domestic pesticides production, Vietnam experienced an exponential growth of both the quantity and the value of imported pesticides in recent years. And the increasing import of newly formulated (and safer) pesticides has not replaced or reduced the highly toxic pesticides with low efficacy. The improper use of pesticides by farmers (too high dosages, cocktailing of pesticides,...

  16. Simulating pesticide transport in urbanized catchments: a new spatially-distributed dynamic pesticide runoff model

    Tang, Ting; Seuntjens, Piet; van Griensven, Ann; Bronders, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Urban areas can significantly contribute to pesticide contamination in surface water. However, pesticide behaviours in urban areas, particularly on hard surfaces, are far less studied than those in agricultural areas. Pesticide application on hard surfaces (e.g. roadsides and walkways) is of particular concern due to the high imperviousness and therefore high pesticide runoff potential. Experimental studies have shown that pesticide behaviours on and interactions with hard surfaces are important factors controlling the pesticide runoff potential, and therefore the magnitude and timing of peak concentrations in surface water. We conceptualized pesticide behaviours on hard surfaces and incorporated the conceptualization into a new pesticide runoff model. The pesticide runoff model was implemented in a catchment hydrological model WetSpa-Python (Water and Energy Transfer between Soil, Plants and Atmosphere, Python version). The conceptualization for pesticide processes on hard surfaces accounts for the differences in pesticide behaviour on different hard surfaces. Four parameters are used to describe the partitioning and wash-off of each pesticide on hard surfaces. We tested the conceptualization using experimental dataset for five pesticides on two types of hard surfaces, namely concrete and asphalt. The conceptualization gave good performance in accounting for the wash-off pattern for the modelled pesticides and surfaces, according to quantitative evaluations using the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and percent bias. The resulting pesticide runoff model WetSpa-PST (WetSpa for PeSTicides) can simulate pesticides and their metabolites at the catchment scale. Overall, it includes four groups of pesticide processes, namely pesticide application, pesticide interception by plant foliage, pesticide processes on land surfaces (including partitioning, degradation and wash-off on hard surface; partitioning, dissipation, infiltration and runoff in soil) and pesticide processes in

  17. Pesticide mass budget in a stormwater wetland.

    Maillard, Elodie; Imfeld, Gwenaël

    2014-01-01

    Wetlands are reactive landscape zones that provide ecosystem services, including the improvement of water quality. Field studies distinguishing pesticide degradation from retention to evaluate the sink and source functions of wetlands are scarce. This study evaluated based on a complete mass budget the partitioning, retention, and degradation of 12 pesticides in water, suspended solids, sediments, and organisms in a wetland receiving contaminated runoff. The mass budget showed the following: (i) dissolved pesticides accounted for 95% of the total load entering the wetland and the pesticide partitioning between the dissolved phase and the suspended solids varied according to the molecules, (ii) pesticides accumulated primarily in the dithiocarbamates were degraded under oxic conditions in spring, whereas glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) degradation occurred under reducing conditions during the summer. The complete pesticide mass budget indicates the versatility of the pesticide sink and source functions of wetland systems. PMID:25003558

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL EQUITY AND PESTICIDE EXPOSURE

    Although people of color and low-income groups bear a disproportionate share of the health risks from exposure to pesticides, research attention has been meager, and data on acute and chronic health effects related to their toxic exposures are generally lacking. ncreased resource...

  19. Chiral Synthons in Pesticide Syntheses

    Feringa, Bernard

    1988-01-01

    The use of chiral synthons in the preparation of enantiomerically pure pesticides is described in this chapter. Several routes to chiral synthons based on asymmetric synthesis or on natural products are illustrated. Important sources of chiral building blocks are reviewed. Furthermore the implicatio

  20. Pesticides, People, and the Environment

    Miller, Roxanne Greitz

    2005-01-01

    If a teacher were to ask his/her students what they do when they find ants or other insects in their homes, their most common response would probably be, "Get the bug spray!" Because students are not only being exposed to pesticides but are also developing patterns of behavior likely to continue throughout their lives. Discussions about…

  1. COMMUNICATING THE RISKS OF PESTICIDE EXPOSURE TO AGRICULTURAL WORKERS

    The goals of the USEPA pesticide worker safety program are to protect human health and the environment by ensuring the competency of pesticide applicators to minimize pesticide exposure to occupational pesticide users and agricultural field workers, to assure use of pesticides, a...

  2. 40 CFR 170.230 - Pesticide safety training for handlers.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticide safety training for handlers...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Pesticide Handlers § 170.230 Pesticide safety... of restricted-use pesticides under part 171 of this chapter. (2) A handler who satisfies the...

  3. Pesticides and their effects on wildlife

    Driver, C.J.

    1994-07-01

    About 560 active ingredients are currently used as pesticides. Applications of these pesticides are made to agricultural lands and other areas inhabited by wildlife. Unfortunately, many agricultural-use pesticides also entail some measure of risk to organisms other than the pest species. Because testing of pesticides prior to registration cannot evaluate all the potential environmental-pesticide-wildlife/fish interactions, current methods of risk assessment do not always provide sufficient safety to nontarget organisms. This is evidenced by die-offs of fish and wildlife from applications of pesticides at environmentally {open_quotes}safe{close_quotes} rates, the linking of population declines of some species with agrochemical use, and observations of survival-threatening behavioral changes in laboratory and field animals exposed to typical field levels of pesticides. It is important to note, however, that the majority of pesticides, when properly applied, have not caused significant injury to wildlife. A brief summary of pesticide effects on wildlife and fish are presented for the common classes of pesticides in use today.

  4. The use and disposal of household pesticides

    Most pesticides are synthetic chemicals manufactured specifically for their toxic properties to the target species, and widely used globally. Several epidemiological studies in the United States have suggested health concerns arising from the chronic exposure of young children to pesticides in the domestic environment. In the UK very little is currently known about how nonoccupational pesticides are being used or disposed of. Any use of pesticides is a potential risk factor for children's exposure, and any potential exposure is likely to be reduced by the parents' adopting precautionary behaviour when using these pesticide products. This was investigated using a sample of 147 parents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort in and around Bristol, through an in-depth interview between August and November 2001. The results of this study add to the understanding of the underlying behaviour of parents applying pesticide products in the home environment in the UK. Pesticides are readily available, and are normally purchased in do-it-yourself shops and supermarkets and mostly disposed of in domestic waste. Safety was stated by 45% of parents to be the most important factor to consider when buying a pesticide. When buying pesticide products, labels were stated to be the most important source of information about pesticides. However, a third of parents stated they would not follow the product label exactly when using a product, just under half felt labels were both inadequate and hard to understand, and about 10% of parents would not take notice of warnings on the pesticide label. Less than half of parents would use gloves when applying a pesticide, although the use of protective equipment such as gloves during the application of pesticides could greatly reduce the exposure. It is a public health concern that the instructions on the labels of products may not always be understood or followed, and further understanding of user behaviour is needed

  5. The Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme

    Rosenbom, Annette Elisabeth; Brüsch, Walter Michael; Juhler, Rene K.;

    In 1998, the Danish Parliament initiated the Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme (PLAP), an intensive monitoring programme aimed at evaluating the leaching risk of pesticides under field conditions. The objective of the PLAP is to improve the scientific foundation for decision-making in the...... Danish regulation of pesticides. The specific aim is to analyse whether pesticides applied in accordance with current regulations leach to groundwater in unacceptable concentrations. The programme currently evaluates the leaching risk of 41 pesticides and 40 degradation products at five agricultural...... report covers the period May 1999-June 2009 and presents the monitoring results from the five agricultural sites presently monitored. The main focus is on evaluating the leaching risk of the pesticides applied during 2007....

  6. Managing Pesticide Risks for Non-Target Ecosystems with Pesticide Risk Indicators: a Multicriteria Approach

    Travisi, Chiara Maria; NIJKAMP Peter; Vighi, Marco; Giacomelli, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    In the search for effective pesticide risk management tools, the design of pesticide risk indicators is nowadays receiving increasing attention as a complement to more established regulatory strategies. In the present paper, we apply some recently developed pesticide risk indices and test their potential for management purposes. A pilot approach is proposed, which explores pesticide worst-case hazard scenarios at different space-time scales by means of a set of 5 ecotoxicological risk indices...

  7. A mobile App for military operational entomology pesticide applications

    Multiple field studies conducted for the Deployed War Fighter Protection (DWFP) research program have generated over 80 specific guidance points for innovative combinations of pesticide application equipment, pesticide formulations, and application techniques for aerosol and residual pesticide treat...

  8. AFFINITY OF THE ALLIGATOR ESTROGEN RECEPTOR FOR SERUM PESTICIDE CONTAMINANTS

    Top predators, like the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) bioaccumulate and biomagnify persistent pollutants, such as organochlorine pesticides. In a recently published study, several pesticides and pesticide metabolites not previously reported in alligator eggs wer...

  9. Reduction of substituted benzonitrile pesticides

    Sokolová, Romana; Hromadová, Magdaléna; Fiedler, Jan; Pospíšil, Lubomír; Giannarelli, S.; Valášek, Michal

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 622, č. 2 (2008), s. 211-218. ISSN 1572-6657 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400505; GA MŠk OC 140; GA MŠk LC510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : benzonitrile pesticides * polarography * voltammetry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.484, year: 2008

  10. Pesticides reduce regional biodiversity of stream invertebrates

    Beketov, Mikhail A.; Kefford, Ben J.; Schäfer, Ralf B.; Liess, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The biodiversity crisis is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity, but our understanding of the drivers remains limited. Thus, after decades of studies and regulation efforts, it remains unknown whether to what degree and at what concentrations modern agricultural pesticides cause regional-scale species losses. We analyzed the effects of pesticides on the regional taxa richness of stream invertebrates in Europe (Germany and France) and Australia (southern Victoria). Pesticides caused ...

  11. The enzymatic basis for pesticide bioremediation

    Scott, Colin; Pandey, Gunjan; Hartley, Carol J.; Jackson, Colin J.; Cheesman, Matthew J.; Taylor, Matthew C.; Pandey, Rinku; Khurana, Jeevan L.; Teese, Mark; Coppin, Chris W; Weir, Kahli M.; Jain, Rakesh K.; Lal, Rup; Russell, Robyn J.; Oakeshott, John G.

    2008-01-01

    Enzymes are central to the biology of many pesticides, influencing their modes of action, environmental fates and mechanisms of target species resistance. Since the introduction of synthetic xenobiotic pesticides, enzymes responsible for pesticide turnover have evolved rapidly, in both the target organisms and incidentally exposed biota. Such enzymes are a source of significant biotechnological potential and form the basis of several bioremediation strategies intended to reduce the environmen...

  12. Governing pesticide in vegetable production in Vietnam

    Hoi, Van, P.

    2010-01-01

    The economic liberalization in Vietnam, initiated in the middle of the 1980s, contributed to the further intensification and expansion of private actor-engagement in agriculture and food-supply. Vietnamese farmers, who already considered applying pesticides the most effective manner to protect their vegetable crops from pests and disease attacks, started using more pesticides. Pesticide use in agriculture has, therefore, increased astonishingly in recent decades which causes increasing anxiet...

  13. Monitoring of pesticides in human milk

    After establishing proper analytical methodology for multiple pesticide residues, cotton-growing areas of Multan Division of Pakistan were surveyed and 40 samples of human milk from cotton pickers were collected during two crop seasons. Screening of these samples showed 72.5% contamination with 19 different pesticides/metabolites. The most frequently occurring pesticides were DDT and its metabolites, dimethoate, cyhalothrin, monocrotophos, profenofos and quinalphos. (author)

  14. Pests and pesticides, risk and risk aversion

    Pannell, David J.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical and applied literature on risk in decision making for agricultural pest control is reviewed. Risk can affect pesticide decision making either because of risk aversion or because of its influence on expected profit. It is concluded that risk does not necessarily lead to increased pesticide use by individual farmers. Uncertainty about some variables, such as pest density and pest mortality, does lead to higher optimal pesticide use under risk aversion. However, uncertainty about oth...

  15. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review

    Benoit Roig; Olivier Thomas; Aghleb Bartegi; Wissem Mnif; Aicha Bouaziz; Aziza Ibn Hadj Hassine

    2011-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air). For several yea...

  16. 40 CFR 158.2174 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data...

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data requirements table. 158.2174 Section 158.2174 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2174 Experimental use permit microbial pesticides...

  17. 40 CFR 158.2080 - Experimental use permit data requirements-biochemical pesticides.

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements-biochemical pesticides. 158.2080 Section 158.2080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2080 Experimental use permit data requirements—biochemical pesticides. (a) Sections...

  18. 40 CFR 158.2173 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table.

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides toxicology data requirements table. 158.2173 Section 158.2173 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2173 Experimental use permit microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table....

  19. 40 CFR 158.2081 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides product chemistry data requirements table. 158.2081 Section 158.2081 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2081 Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data...

  20. Pattern of pesticide storage before pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    Mohamed, Fahim; Manuweera, Gamini; Gunnell, David;

    2009-01-01

    outside the house; among this group only eight patients obtained pesticides that were kept in a locked container. Ten percent (n = 67) of the patients used pesticides stored in the field while 14% (n = 91) purchased pesticides from shops within a few hours of the episode. The most common reasons for...

  1. Pesticides: Benefaction or Pandora's Box? A synopsis of the environmental aspects of 243 pesticides

    Linders JBHJ; Jansma JW; Mensink BJWG; Otermann K; ACT

    1994-01-01

    The report provides an overview of physical, chemical and environmental data of 243 pesticides. The data mentioned are based on confidential information supplied by the manufacturers of the pesticides. For all pesticides mentioned a Final Environmental File, which is public, is derived. Tables with

  2. 40 CFR 168.22 - Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA...

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA section 24(c) registrations. 168.22 Section 168.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATEMENTS...

  3. PESTICIDE USE AND HUMAN HEALTH IN NORTHWESTERN JAMAICA

    Ncube, Ngqabutho; Bessler, Patricia; Jolly, Pauline E; Tint, Kyaw; Fogo, Christopher; Binns, Alvin; Jolly, Curtis M.

    2007-01-01

    A number of studies have detected high levels of pesticide residues in surface water and aquatic life in Jamaica and acute pesticide poisoning is believed to be widespread there. Despite efforts by the Jamaican government to create awareness of the dangers of pesticides and adopt safe a pesticide disposal method, many farmers still display poor pesticide handling and disposal practices. The objectives of this study were to 1) describe pesticide use by farmers in northwestern Jamaica including...

  4. Characterizing pesticide dissipation in food crops

    Fantke, Peter; Juraske, R.; Jolliet, O.

    2013-01-01

    Ingestion of residues via consumption of food crops is the predominant exposure route of the general population toward pesticides. However, pesticide dissipation in crops constitutes a main source of uncertainty in estimating residues in harvested crop parts and subsequent human exposure. Neverth......Ingestion of residues via consumption of food crops is the predominant exposure route of the general population toward pesticides. However, pesticide dissipation in crops constitutes a main source of uncertainty in estimating residues in harvested crop parts and subsequent human exposure...

  5. Earthworm tolerance to residual agricultural pesticide contamination

    Givaudan, Nicolas; Binet, Françoise; Le Bot, Barbara;

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates if acclimatization to residual pesticide contamination in agricultural soils is reflected in detoxification, antioxidant enzyme activities and energy budget of earthworms. Five fields within a joint agricultural area exhibited different chemical and farming histories from...... of soluble glutathione-S-transferases (sGST) and catalase increased with soil pesticide contamination in A. caliginosa. Pesticide stress was reflected in depletion of energy reserves in A. chlorotica. Acute exposure of pre-adapted and naïve A. caliginosa to pesticides (fungicide Opus ®, 0.1 μg active...

  6. Sorption of pesticides to aquifer minerals

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes results from a work were the sorption of five pesticides on seven minerals were studied in order to quantify the adsorption to different mineral surfaces. Investigated mineral phases are: quartz, calcite, kaolinite, a-alumina, and three iron oxides (2-line ferrihydrite......, goethite, lepidocrocite). Selected pesticides are: atrazine, isoproturon, mecoprop, 2,4-D, and bentazone. The results demonstrate that pesticides adsorb to pure mineral surfaces. However, the size of the adsorption depends on the type of pesticide and the type of mineral....

  7. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review

    Benoit Roig

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air. For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health.

  8. Pesticide poisoning in the developing world--a minimum pesticides list

    Eddleston, Michael; Karalliedde, Lakshman; Buckley, Nick;

    2002-01-01

    In parts of the developing world, pesticide poisoning causes more deaths than infectious diseases. Use of pesticides is poorly regulated and often dangerous; their easy availability also makes them a popular method of self-harm. In 1985, the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) produced a...... voluntary code of conduct for the pesticide industry in an attempt to limit the harmful effects of pesticides. Unfortunately, a lack of adequate government resources in the developing world makes this code ineffective, and thousands of deaths continue today. WHO has recommended that access to highly toxic...... pesticides be restricted--where this has been done, suicide rates have fallen. Since an Essential Drugs List was established in 1977, use of a few essential drugs has rationalised drug use in many regions. An analogous Minimum Pesticides List would identify a restricted number of less dangerous pesticides to...

  9. Global pesticide consumption and pollution: with China as a focus

    WenJun Zhang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Varieties and consumption of pesticides worldwide have been increasing dramatically as increased human population and crop production. In this process pesticide misuses become more and more serious, which has resulted in heavy environmental pollution and health risk of humans. In order to safeguard human health, threatened species and ecosystems from pesticide pollution, the consumption and pollution of pesticides worldwide especially China were reviewed and documented in present study. Meanwhile, the development trend of pesticide varieties and consumption was also prospected and discussed. It was found that worldwide consumption structure of pesticides has undergone significant changes since 1960s. The proportion of herbicides in pesticide consumption increased rapidly and the consumption of insecticides and fungicides/bactericides declined. China has become the largest pesticide producer and exporter in the world. Pesticide pollution of air, water bodies and soils, and pesticide-induced deaths in China has been serious in past years. Bio-pesticides should be further developed in the future.

  10. Pattern of pesticide storage before pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    Eddleston Michael

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deliberate self-poisoning with agricultural pesticides is the commonest means of suicide in rural Asia. It is mostly impulsive and facilitated by easy access to pesticides. The aim of this large observational study was to investigate the immediate source of pesticides used for self-harm to help inform suicide prevention strategies such as reducing domestic access to pesticides. Methods The study was conducted in a district hospital serving an agricultural region of Sri Lanka. Patients who had self-poisoned with pesticides and were admitted to the adult medical wards were interviewed by study doctors following initial resuscitation to identify the source of pesticides they have ingested. Results Of the 669 patients included in the analysis, 425 (63.5% were male; the median age was 26 (IQR 20-36. In 511 (76% cases, the pesticides had been stored either inside or immediately outside the house; among this group only eight patients obtained pesticides that were kept in a locked container. Ten percent (n = 67 of the patients used pesticides stored in the field while 14% (n = 91 purchased pesticides from shops within a few hours of the episode. The most common reasons for choosing the particular pesticide for self-harm were its easy accessibility (n = 311, 46% or its popularity as a suicide agent in their village (n = 290, 43%. Conclusion Three quarters of people who ingested pesticides in acts of self-harm used products that were available within the home or in close proximity; relatively few patients purchased the pesticide for the act. The study highlights the importance of reducing the accessibility of toxic pesticides in the domestic environment.

  11. Aquatic Macrophyte Risk Assessment for Pesticides

    Maltby, L.; Arnold, D.; Arts, G.H.P.; Davies, J.; Heimbach, F.; Pickl, C.; Poulsen, V.

    2009-01-01

    Given the essential role that primary producers play in aquatic ecosystems, it is imperative that the potential risk of pesticides to the structure and functioning of aquatic plants is adequately assessed. This book discusses the assessment of the risk of pesticides with herbicidal activity to aquat

  12. 33 CFR 274.4 - Pesticide management.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticide management. 274.4... DEFENSE PEST CONTROL PROGRAM FOR CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Project Operation § 274.4 Pesticide management. (a... control management personnel prior to advertisement of the contract and procurement of services....

  13. 75 FR 31785 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    2010-06-04

    ..., sunflower, wheat, and triticale seed. 4. File Symbol: 7969-GNI. Product name: BAS 700 03 F. Active... Fluxapyroxad, an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide product. Pursuant to the..., an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide product. Pursuant to...

  14. Toxicity of Pesticides. Agrichemical Fact Sheet 2.

    Hock, Winand K.

    This fact sheet gives the acute oral and dermal toxicity (LD 50) of over 250 pesticides in lab animals. The chemicals are categorized as fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, or miscellaneous compounds. One or more trade names are given for each pesticide. In addition, a brief explanation of toxicity determination is given. (BB)

  15. Interaction of pesticides with natural organic material

    Wershaw, R. L.; Burcar, P.J.; Goldberg, M.C.

    1969-01-01

    Two examples of the interaction of pesticides with natural organic materials have been investigated. Sodium humate solubilizes DDT in water and humic acid strongly sorbs 2,4,5-T. These two types of interactions are indicative of the types that one would expect when any organic pesticide is applied to a natural soil-water system.

  16. Carbamate pesticide induced toxic epidermal necrolysis

    Rajendran N

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A 36-year-old male alleged to have consumed carbamate pesticide liquid (Baygon@ developed toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN within twenty-four hours of intake. Though drugs have been commonly incriminated as offending agents for TEN, carbamate pesticide was found to be the causative agent in our case.

  17. 75 FR 71697 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    2010-11-24

    ...-RR) was published in a separate notice (see 75 FR 11175; March 10, 2010; FRL-8811-6). File symbol... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing...

  18. Residential exposures to pesticides and childhood leukaemia

    Like many chemicals, carcinogenicity of pesticides is poorly characterised in humans, especially in children, so that the present knowledge about childhood leukaemia risk derives primarily from epidemiological studies. Overall, case-control studies published in the last decade have reported positive associations with home use of insecticides, mostly before the child's birth, while findings for herbicides are mixed. Previous studies relied solely on self-reports, therefore lacking information on active ingredients and effects of potential recall bias. Few series to date have examined the influence of children's genetic susceptibility related to transport and metabolism of pesticides. To overcome these limitations, investigators of the Northern California Childhood Leukaemia Study (NCCLS) have undertaken, in collaboration with a multidisciplinary team, a comprehensive assessment of residential pesticide exposure, including: (1) quality control of self-reports; (2) home pesticide inventory and linkage to the Environmental Protection Agency to obtain data on active ingredients; (3) collection and laboratory analyses of ∼600 home dust samples for over 60 pesticides and (4) geographic information studies using California environmental databases to assess exposure to agricultural pesticides. The NCCLS is also conducting large-scale geno-typing to evaluate the role of genes in xenobiotic pathways relevant to the transport and metabolism of pesticides. A better quantification of children's exposures to pesticides at home is critical to the evaluation of childhood leukaemia risk, especially for future gene-environment interaction studies. (authors)

  19. QA/QC in pesticide residue analysis

    This paper outlines problems related to pesticide residue analysis in a regulatory laboratory that are related to: availability of reference materials, as over 1000 pesticide active ingredients are currently in use and over 400 crops represent a large part of a healthy diet; analysis time; availability of samples in sufficient numbers; uncertainties of the procedures

  20. Genetic Alterations in Pesticide Exposed Bolivian Farmers

    Jørs, Erik; Gonzáles, Ana Rosa; Ascarrunz, Maria Eugenia; Tirado, Noemi; Takahashi, Catharina; Lafuente, Erika; Dos Santos, Raquel A; Bailon, Natalia; Cervantes, Rafael; O, Huici; Bælum, Jesper; Lander., Flemming

    2007-01-01

    Background Pesticides are of concern in Bolivia because of increasing use. Frequent intoxications have been demonstrated due to use of very toxic pesticides, insufficient control of distribution and sale and little knowledge among farmers of protective measures and hygienic procedures. Method Questionnaires were applied and blood tests taken from 81 volunteers from La Paz County, of whom 48 were pesticide exposed farmers and 33 non-exposed controls. Sixty males and 21 females participated with a mean age of 37.3 years (range 17–76). Data of exposure and possible genetic damage were collected and evaluated by well known statistical methods, controlling for relevant confounders. To measure genetic damage chromosomal aberrations and the comet assay analysis were performed. Results Pesticide exposed farmers had a higher degree of genetic damage compared to the control group. The number of chromosomal aberrations increased with the intensity of pesticide exposure. Females had a lower number of chromosomal aberrations than males, and people living at altitudes above 2500 metres seemed to exhibit more DNA damage measured by the comet assay. Conclusions Bolivian farmers showed signs of genotoxic damage, probably related to exposure to pesticides. Due to the potentially negative long term health effects of genetic damage on reproduction and the development of cancer, preventive measures are recommended. Effective control with imports and sales, banning of the most toxic pesticides, education and information are possible measures, which could help preventing the negative effects of pesticides on human health and the environment. PMID:19662224

  1. Toxicity of pesticides on photosynthesis of diatoms

    Pakistan being an agricultural country, a large amount of pesticides are used, including organophosphates and synthetic pyrethroids. These pesticides are released through rivers and other tributeries into the coastal environment, thus posing a contiguous threat to marine organisms. In the present study two species of diatoms Amphora and Navicula were selected for the assessment of impact of organ phosphate and pyrethroid toxicity on these primary producers. The study shows that rate of photosynthesis was inhibited in both Amphora and Navicula species exposed to pesticide. The acute toxicity of pesticide was determined by measuring IC50 of the test organisms. IC50 calculated for diatom species depicts that different pesticides had variable effects on the photosynthesis of microalgae. High sensitivity of marine organisms is alarming as it may have implications on the marine ecosystem and fisheries. The results are also useful in setting control limits for the release of these chemicals in nature. (author)

  2. Pesticide Toxicity Index: a tool for assessing potential toxicity of pesticide mixtures to freshwater aquatic organisms

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Norman, Julia E.; Moran, Patrick W.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Stone, Wesley W.

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide mixtures are common in streams with agricultural or urban influence in the watershed. The Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) is a screening tool to assess potential aquatic toxicity of complex pesticide mixtures by combining measures of pesticide exposure and acute toxicity in an additive toxic-unit model. The PTI is determined separately for fish, cladocerans, and benthic invertebrates. This study expands the number of pesticides and degradates included in previous editions of the PTI from 124 to 492 pesticides and degradates, and includes two types of PTI for use in different applications, depending on study objectives. The Median-PTI was calculated from median toxicity values for individual pesticides, so is robust to outliers and is appropriate for comparing relative potential toxicity among samples, sites, or pesticides. The Sensitive-PTI uses the 5th percentile of available toxicity values, so is a more sensitive screening-level indicator of potential toxicity. PTI predictions of toxicity in environmental samples were tested using data aggregated from published field studies that measured pesticide concentrations and toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia in ambient stream water. C. dubia survival was reduced to ≤ 50% of controls in 44% of samples with Median-PTI values of 0.1–1, and to 0% in 96% of samples with Median-PTI values > 1. The PTI is a relative, but quantitative, indicator of potential toxicity that can be used to evaluate relationships between pesticide exposure and biological condition.

  3. Microbial pesticides [data requirements for environmental risk assessment

    Mensink BJWG; Linders JBHJ; CSR

    1997-01-01

    The market for microbial pesticides is, though slowly, expanding. Therefore more research with these pesticides will be carried out in the near future, not only for agronomical and economical, but also for environmental reasons. As more chemical pesticides are going to be banned, microbial pesticid

  4. An EPA Modeling Dashboard for Ecological Assessment of Pesticides

    The EPA registers pesticides for use in the US and approves imported pesticides under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Before a pesticide can be registered, the EPA must assess whether the pesticide can be used without eing harmful to humans or pos...

  5. 33 CFR 274.7 - Authorization of pesticide use.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authorization of pesticide use... of pesticide use. (a) Programs approved in § 274.6(b) must be those as described on the pesticide label. Pesticide uses which are different from the registered use, require amendment of the...

  6. 76 FR 61647 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    2011-10-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 174 and 180 Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide... for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments must be received on... part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. The...

  7. 76 FR 82238 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    2011-12-30

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals... for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments must be received on... part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. The...

  8. 78 FR 13295 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    2013-02-27

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals... for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments must be received on... CFR part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. The Agency...

  9. 76 FR 3885 - Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...

    2011-01-21

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on... modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments... 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA...

  10. 75 FR 14154 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    2010-03-24

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or... establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities... part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA...

  11. 76 FR 2110 - Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...

    2011-01-12

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on... modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments... 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA has determined that...

  12. 75 FR 65321 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    2010-10-22

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or... establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities... part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA...

  13. 75 FR 60452 - Notice of Filing of Several Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...

    2010-09-30

    ... AGENCY Notice of Filing of Several Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on... of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments must... part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA has determined...

  14. 40 CFR 152.10 - Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for a pesticidal purpose.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Products that are not pesticides... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.10 Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for...

  15. 75 FR 54629 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    2010-09-08

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or... establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities... part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA...

  16. 75 FR 80489 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    2010-12-22

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or... establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities... part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA...

  17. Pesticides in Brazilian freshwaters: a critical review.

    Albuquerque, A F; Ribeiro, J S; Kummrow, F; Nogueira, A J A; Montagner, C C; Umbuzeiro, G A

    2016-07-13

    The widespread use of pesticides in agriculture can lead to water contamination and cause adverse effects on non-target organisms. Brazil has been the world's top pesticide market consumer since 2008, with 381 approved pesticides for crop use. This study provides a comprehensive literature review on the occurrence of pesticide residues in Brazilian freshwaters. We searched for information in official agency records and peer-reviewed scientific literature. Risk quotients were calculated to assess the potential risk posed to aquatic life by the individual pesticides based on their levels of water contamination. Studies about the occurrence of pesticides in freshwaters in Brazil are scarce and concentrated in few sampling sites in 5 of the 27 states. Herbicides (21) accounted for the majority of the substances investigated, followed by fungicides (11), insecticides (10) and plant growth regulators (1). Insecticides are the class of major concern. Brazil would benefit from the implementation of a nationwide pesticide freshwater monitoring program to support preventive, remediation and enforcement actions. PMID:27367607

  18. Dynamics of pesticides in potato crops.

    López-Pérez, Gonzalo C; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; López-Periago, Eugenio; Soto-Gonzalez, Benedicto; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gandara, Jesús

    2006-03-01

    This study investigated the behavior of pesticides commonly used on potato in a part of northwestern Spain with a large area devoted to this crop. Experimental potato plots were treated with commercial formulations of two insecticides, a nematicide, a herbicide, and a combination of two fungicides, and the concentrations of the active ingredients were monitored throughout the growing season in the 0-1 and 1-15 cm soil layers, in water dripping off the potato plants, and in the potatoes themselves. The technique used for pesticide determination was gas chromatography with mass selective detection. For potato analyses, pesticide extraction was optimized. The only pesticide ever detected in potato tubers was metalaxyl, the concentration of which never exceeded half the maximum residual limit even when it was applied several times more often than is officially recommended for potato crops. Metalaxyl was also the only pesticide detected in wash-off, apparently due to its being more soluble in water than the other pesticides applied to the growing plants. A mathematical model of pesticide transport in soil was fitted to the experimental data using the program HYDRUS-1D. PMID:16506836

  19. Characteristics of pesticide pyrotechnic smoke devices.

    Roff, M W; Griffiths, L K; Gobeau, N; Johnson, P D; Pickering, D; Rimmer, D A; Saunders, C J; Wheeler, J P

    2006-10-01

    Pesticide smoke generating products are widely used by amateurs and professionals but there is little published information available about their burn and deposition characteristics to enable the risks associated with using these devices to be assessed. This paper investigates their burn characteristics, deposition patterns, pesticide air concentrations and potential exposure to operators. Thirteen firings were carried out in different spaces with different ventilation conditions. Three types of devices were investigated: dicloran, permethrin and red dye. Pesticide air concentrations increased after firing, reaching a maximum determined by the room volume in approximately 10 min and decreasing exponentially as a result of ventilation and deposition. Ejected pesticide was present in the aerosol phase but there were only occasional traces of vapour. Settlement of pesticide was affected by surface orientation, height, sampling material and the pesticide-to-space volume ratio. The manufacturer's recommended treatment period for dicloran of 4 h followed by half an hour of ventilation may be insufficient to reduce pesticide to safe levels for re-entry under very calm conditions. PMID:16984945

  20. Urbanisation shapes behavioural responses to a pesticide.

    Tüzün, Nedim; Debecker, Sara; Op de Beeck, Lin; Stoks, Robby

    2015-06-01

    The degree of urbanisation is rapidly increasing worldwide. Due to anthropogenic impact, urban populations are exposed to higher levels of contaminants and higher temperatures. Despite this, urbanisation is a largely overlooked spatial component in ecotoxicology. We tested in a common garden rearing experiment whether replicated urban and rural populations of the damselfly Coenagrion puella differ in their vulnerability to sublethal levels of a widespread pesticide, chlorpyrifos, in terms of ecologically relevant behaviours (exploration behaviour, activity, boldness and food intake), and to what extent these patterns are affected by temperature (20 and 24°C). Except boldness, all behaviours were affected by previous pesticide exposure. While the pesticide did not affect exploration behaviour at 20°C, it was associated with increased exploration at 24°C, which may reflect an increased toxicity of chlorpyrifos at higher temperatures. Importantly, rural and urban larvae showed consistently different, sometimes even opposite behavioural responses to pesticide exposure. When exposed to the pesticide, rural larvae decreased activity and food intake at both temperatures; urban larvae instead increased activity at both temperatures and only reduced food intake at the high temperature. This suggests that urban larvae were less affected by the pesticide, which would be consistent with a scenario of local adaptation to higher contaminant levels. Our results highlight that urbanisation may be an important factor to arrive at a spatially explicit ecological risk assessment, and may be an ignored reason why studies on the same species may generate widely different vulnerabilities to pesticides. PMID:25863029

  1. Modeling of pesticide emissions from agricultural ecosystems

    Li, Rong

    2012-04-01

    Pesticides are applied to crops and soils to improve agricultural yields, but the use of pesticides has become highly regulated because of concerns about their adverse effects on human health and environment. Estimating pesticide emission rates from soils and crops is a key component for risk assessment for pesticide registration, identification of pesticide sources to the contamination of sensitive ecosystems, and appreciation of transport and fate of pesticides in the environment. Pesticide emission rates involve processes occurring in the soil, in the atmosphere, and on vegetation surfaces and are highly dependent on soil texture, agricultural practices, and meteorology, which vary significantly with location and/or time. To take all these factors into account for simulating pesticide emissions from large agricultural ecosystems, this study coupled a comprehensive meteorological model with a dynamic pesticide emission model. The combined model calculates hourly emission rates from both emission sources: current applications and soil residues resulting from historical use. The coupled modeling system is used to compute a gridded (36 × 36 km) hourly toxaphene emission inventory for North America for the year 2000 using a published U.S. toxaphene residue inventory and a Mexican toxaphene residue inventory developed using its historical application rates and a cropland inventory. To my knowledge, this is the first such hourly toxaphene emission inventory for North America. Results show that modeled emission rates have strong diurnal and seasonal variations at a given location and over the entire domain. The simulated total toxaphene emission from contaminated agricultural soils in North America in 2000 was about 255 t, which compares reasonably well to a published annual estimate. Most emissions occur in spring and summer, with domain-wide emission rates in April, May and, June of 36, 51, and 35 t/month, respectively. The spatial distribution of emissions depends

  2. Effects of Pesticides on Biological Systems

    Ergul Belge Kurutas

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of pesticid both in Turkey and other contries is widespread in order to combat against many pests which cause economical damages. However, pesticides in human pass through skin, respiratory or digestive systems and is metabolized by monooxygenase system dependent upon cytocrome P450 in liver. They also give rise to severe decreases cytochrome P450 and amount of "hem" enzyme activites of glucose-6-phosphatase, pyrophosphatase by stimulating lipid peroxidation on hepatic microsomes. In this study effects of pesticides on biological systems will be presented in genaral terms. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(3.000: 215-228

  3. Chiral pesticides: Identification, description, and environmental implications

    Ulrich, Elin M.; Morrison, Candice N.; Goldsmith, Michael R.; Foreman, William T.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic chemicals, including pesticides, are a major source of contamination and pollution in the environment. Pesticides have many positive uses: increased food production, decreased damage to crops and structures, reduced disease vector populations, and more. Nevertheless, pesticide exposure can pose risks to humans and the environment, so various mitigation strategies are exercised to make them safer, minimize their use, and reduce their unintended environment effects. One strategy that may help achieve these goals relies on the unique properties of chirality or molecular asymmetry. Some common terms related to chirality are defined in Table 1.

  4. Choosing Organic Pesticides over Synthetic Pesticides May Not Effectively Mitigate Environmental Risk in Soybeans

    Christine A Bahlai; Yingen Xue; McCreary, Cara M.; Schaafsma, Arthur W.; Hallett, Rebecca H.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selection of pesticides with small ecological footprints is a key factor in developing sustainable agricultural systems. Policy guiding the selection of pesticides often emphasizes natural products and organic-certified pesticides to increase sustainability, because of the prevailing public opinion that natural products are uniformly safer, and thus more environmentally friendly, than synthetic chemicals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report the results of a study examining t...

  5. Pesticides

    ... Health Dioxins Endocrine Disruptors Reproductive Health Related Links Profile: Report on Carcinogens: Captafol Share This Page: Page Options: Request Translation Services Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Google+ Reddit Email Evernote More Increase ...

  6. Pesticides

    ... and Rousseaux's Handbook of Toxicologic Pathology . 3rd ed. Elsevier Academic Press; 2013:chap 42. Heindel JJ, Zoeller ... Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 153. Karr CJ, Solomon GM, ...

  7. Pesticides

    ... Club ACMT Grand Rounds Medical Toxicology LLSA JMT Peer Reviewer Webinar Resident-Medical Student Webinars 2015 Fellows-in-Training Research Webinar Other Enduring Education PEHSU National Classroom Chemical Agents of Opportunity Webinars Podcasts Public Health ...

  8. Pesticide Environmental Accounting: A method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications

    Leach, A.W. [Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY (United Kingdom)], E-mail: a.w.leach@imperial.ac.uk; Mumford, J.D. [Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY (United Kingdom)], E-mail: j.mumford@imperial.ac.uk

    2008-01-15

    The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts. - A method to estimate the external costs of a pesticide application based on the ecotoxicology, environmental behaviour and application rate of an active ingredient.

  9. Pesticide Environmental Accounting: A method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications

    The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts. - A method to estimate the external costs of a pesticide application based on the ecotoxicology, environmental behaviour and application rate of an active ingredient

  10. Management of pesticide residues in China

    CHEN Zeng-long; DONG Feng-shou; XU Jun; LIU Xin-gang; ZHENG Yong-quan

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviewed management of pesticide residues in China including laws and regulations, the supervision system, the standard system, and the quality and safety of agricultural products. The process of establishment and international-ization of standards for pesticide residues were also discussed. Results indicate that the progress of the management of pesticide residues has been steadily made in China. However, the folowing aspects which refer to updates to regulations, supervising efifciency, standard system, risk assessment, international cooperation and communication, should be further improved. China should draw lessons from international experience, and then establish its own management system, which focuses on pesticides controls by strictly folowing relevant laws and technical standards to ensure the quality and safety of agricultural products.

  11. Jiangsu Pesticide Research Institute Company Ltd.

    2007-01-01

    @@ Jiangsu Pesticide Research Institute Company Ltd. was established on June 22, 2005, with the registered capital of RMB 40.4 million. Its business includes R&D, manufacture and market of agrochemicals.

  12. Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning : cases and developments

    Aardema, H.; Ligtenberg, J. J. M.; Peters-Polman, O. M.; Tulleken, J. E.; Zijlstra, J. G.; Meertens, John H. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Self-poisoning with organophosphate pesticides is a major health problem world-wide. Through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, organophosphorus poisoning is characterised by the clinical picture of acute cholinergic crisis. Other manifestations are the intermediate neurotoxic syndrome and dela

  13. Neonatal outcome following exposure to organophosphorous pesticides

    Đorđević M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine the neonatal outcome in mothers and children exposed to organophosphorous pesticides (OP. We found that 22.4% pregnant women were exposed to organophosphorous pesticides. OP pesticide concentration was higher in breast milk, newborn sera than maternal sera. Newborn parameters such as birth weight, birth length, head circumference, Apgar score and presence of meconium, as well as gestational age of delivery, showed no significant difference between the two groups. However, postpartum weight loss, hospitalization duration, levels of newborn bilirubin and glycaemia differed significantly between the two groups. Morbidity and presence of CNS disorders were six times and more than twelve times higher, respectively, in the OP-exposed than in the OP pesticide non-exposed group.

  14. Comportement des pesticides ionisables dans les sols

    Kah, Mélanie; Brown, Colin D.

    2007-01-01

    Ionisable pesticides can be partially ionised within the range of natural soil pH and this strongly influences their reactivity in soils. This group includes important, worldwide contaminants of groundwater and surface waters. It is essential that their specific behaviour is recognised within risk assessment procedures. Experiments were carried out with ten pesticides (six acids and four bases) and nine arable soils (range in pH, texture and organic matter content) to advance the understandin...

  15. Occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory health

    Ali Mamane; Isabelle Baldi; Jean-François Tessier; Chantal Raherison; Ghislaine Bouvier

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to review the available literature regarding the link between occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory symptoms or diseases. Identification of epidemiological studies was performed using PubMed. 41 articles were included, 36 regarding agricultural workers and five regarding industry workers. Among the 15 cross-sectional studies focusing on respiratory symptoms and agricultural pesticide exposure, 12 found significant associations with chronic cough, wheeze, dyspno...

  16. High risk pesticides in sugar beet protection

    Šovljanski Radmila A.; Klokočar-Šmit Zlata D.; Inđić Dušanka V.

    2006-01-01

    According to traits of pesticides permitted to use in sugar beet (oral percutaneus and inhalation toxicity, toxicity to wildlife, bees and aquatic organisms, re-entry interval, maximum number of treatments, effects on reproduction) do not present health risk in sugar production/technology. However, the danger exists for workers by chronic exposure during the application, especially from pesticide being potential endocrine disruptors (EDS) (fentin acetate, benomyl, endosulfan, methomyl, methid...

  17. Effects of Pesticides on Biological Systems

    Ergul Belge Kurutas; Metin Kilinc

    2003-01-01

    The use of pesticid both in Turkey and other contries is widespread in order to combat against many pests which cause economical damages. However, pesticides in human pass through skin, respiratory or digestive systems and is metabolized by monooxygenase system dependent upon cytocrome P450 in liver. They also give rise to severe decreases cytochrome P450 and amount of "hem" enzyme activites of glucose-6-phosphatase, pyrophosphatase by stimulating lipid peroxidation on hepatic microsomes. In ...

  18. Morbidity in newborns exposed to organophosphorus pesticides

    Đorđević Momčilo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Insecticides are toxines by which we destroy harmful insects. The most frequent insecticides which are used today are organophosphorus pesticides. This group of compounds make substances whose activity mechanism is based on the inhibition of acetylcho­linesterase in nerve synapsis, thus producing holynergic syndrome, resulting from the accumulation of acetylcholine which developed due to the absence of decomposition under the influence of cholinesterase. In the clinical picture of acute toxication by cholinesterase inhibitors there is a clear difference between muscarinic and nicotine effects. The basic aim of the study was to establish the effects of organophosphorus pesticides present in blood and breast milk of mothers on newborns morbidity. Material and methods. The study group consisted of 18 newborns whose mothers had isolated organophosphorus pesticides in their blood and breast­milk on the third day after delivery, and the control group consisted of 84 newborns whose mothers did not have isolated organophosphorus pesticides in their blood and breastmilk. Results. Morbidity is three times greater, often in combination with some disorders of the central nervous system, and the relative risk for its appearance is eight time greater in newborns exposed to organophosphorus pesticides. Disscusion. Disorders that appear in newborns exposed to pesticides are mutagenic, cancerogenic and neurotoxic and some agenses could disturb the immune system which is reflected in morbidity increase, primarly of the central nervous system. Conclusion. The presence of organophosphorus pesticides in blood and breast milk has negative effects on newborns. In addition to acetylcho­linesterase inhibition, organophosphorus pesticides react by means of other mechanisms as well.

  19. Types of pesticides and determination of their residues

    The pesticide is any material or component used to protect from pests. Its toxic effect is related to the chemical structure, which can be divided into 3 types : 1- Metal pesticides : Sulphur, cupper, zinc, mercury; 2- Vegetal pesticides : advanced and less toxic to the general health; 3- Synthetic organo pesticides : organo chlorine, organophosphorous, carbamate and pyrethroids. Pesticides in the soil undergo biological dissociation according to their concentration and chemical structure. High concentration of the pesticides in the soil may lead to fertility decrease due to destruction of micro-organisms by the pesticides. Many methods are used to analyze the residues of pesticides in plant or soil : 1- Chromatographic methods : Gas chromatography, gas liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography; 2- Spectroscopy methods : spectrophotometer and mass spectrometer; 3- Isotopic methods : based on tracers technique which is the most sensitive and accurate method and can estimate minor amounts of the pesticides. (author)

  20. Farmers’ Exposure to Pesticides: Toxicity Types and Ways of Prevention

    Christos A. Damalas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic pesticides are extensively used in agriculture to control harmful pests and prevent crop yield losses or product damage. Because of high biological activity and, in certain cases, long persistence in the environment, pesticides may cause undesirable effects to human health and to the environment. Farmers are routinely exposed to high levels of pesticides, usually much greater than those of consumers. Farmers’ exposure mainly occurs during the preparation and application of the pesticide spray solutions and during the cleaning-up of spraying equipment. Farmers who mix, load, and spray pesticides can be exposed to these chemicals due to spills and splashes, direct spray contact as a result of faulty or missing protective equipment, or even drift. However, farmers can be also exposed to pesticides even when performing activities not directly related to pesticide use. Farmers who perform manual labor in areas treated with pesticides can face major exposure from direct spray, drift from neighboring fields, or by contact with pesticide residues on the crop or soil. This kind of exposure is often underestimated. The dermal and inhalation routes of entry are typically the most common routes of farmers’ exposure to pesticides. Dermal exposure during usual pesticide handling takes place in body areas that remain uncovered by protective clothing, such as the face and the hands. Farmers’ exposure to pesticides can be reduced through less use of pesticides and through the correct use of the appropriate type of personal protective equipment in all stages of pesticide handling.

  1. Pesticides in Soil: Effects on Microorganisms

    Ljiljana Radivojević

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery to the present day, pesticides have been an inevitable segment of agricultural production and efforts have been made to synthesize compounds that would share a required efficacy along with selectivity, sufficient persistence on the object of protection and favourable toxicological and ecotoxicological characteristics so as to minimize their effect on the environment.When a pesticide gets into soil after application, it takes part in a number of physical, chemical and biological processes that depend not only on the compound itself, but a number of other factors as well, such as: physical, chemical and biological characteristics of soil; climatic factors, equipment used, method of application, method of storage, handling and disposal of waste, site characteristics (proximity of ground and underground waters, biodiversity and sensitivity of the environment. Microorganisms play an important role in pesticide degradation as they are able to utilize the biogenic elements from those compounds, as well as energy for their physiological processes. On the other hand, pesticides are more or less toxic substances that can have adverse effect on populations of microorganisms and prevent their development, reduce their abundance, deplete their taxonomic complexity and create communities with a lower level of diversity and reduced physiological activity.The article discusses complex interactions between pesticides and microorganisms in soil immediately after application and over the ensuing period. Data on changes in the abundance of some systematic and physiological groups of microorganisms, their microbial biomass and enzymatic activity caused under pesticide activity are discussed as indicators of these processes.

  2. Occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory health

    Ali Mamane

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to review the available literature regarding the link between occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory symptoms or diseases. Identification of epidemiological studies was performed using PubMed. 41 articles were included, 36 regarding agricultural workers and five regarding industry workers. Among the 15 cross-sectional studies focusing on respiratory symptoms and agricultural pesticide exposure, 12 found significant associations with chronic cough, wheeze, dyspnoea, breathlessness or chest tightness. All four studies on asthma found a relationship with occupational exposure, as did all three studies on chronic bronchitis. The four studies that performed spirometry reported impaired respiratory function linked to pesticide exposure, suggestive of either obstructive or restrictive syndrome according to the chemical class of pesticide. 12 papers reported results from cohort studies. Three out of nine found a significant relationship with increased risk of wheeze, five out of nine with asthma and three out of three with chronic bronchitis. In workers employed in pesticide production, elevated risks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (two studies out of three and impaired respiratory function suggestive of an obstructive syndrome (two studies out of two were reported. In conclusion, this article suggests that occupational exposure to pesticides is associated with an increased risk of respiratory symptoms, asthma and chronic bronchitis, but the causal relationship is still under debate.

  3. Environmental exposure to pesticides and respiratory health

    Ali Mamane

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory effects of environmental exposure to pesticides are debated. Here we aimed to review epidemiological studies published up until 2013, using the PubMed database. 20 studies dealing with respiratory health and non-occupational pesticide exposure were identified, 14 carried out on children and six on adults. In four out of nine studies in children with biological measurements, mothers' dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE blood levels during pregnancy were associated with asthma and wheezing in young children. An association was also found between permethrin in indoor air during pregnancy and wheezing in children. A significant association between asthma and DDE measured in children's blood (aged 7–10 years was observed in one study. However, in three studies, no association was found between asthma or respiratory infections in children and pesticide levels in breast milk and/or infant blood. Lastly, in three out of four studies where post-natal pesticide exposure of children was assessed by parental questionnaire an association with respiratory symptoms was found. Results of the fewer studies on pesticide environmental exposure and respiratory health of adults were much less conclusive: indeed, the associations observed were weak and often not significant. In conclusion, further studies are needed to confirm whether there is a respiratory risk associated with environmental exposure to pesticides.

  4. 40 CFR 158.2084 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data...

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data requirements table. 158.2084 Section 158.2084 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2084 Experimental use permit biochemical...

  5. 40 CFR 180.555 - Trifloxystrobin; tolerances for residues.

    2010-07-01

    ..., meat byproducts 0.1 Citrus, dried pulp 1.0 Citrus, oil 38 Corn, field, forage 6.0 Corn, field, grain 0..., sweet, cannery waste 0.6 Corn, sweet, forage 7.0 Corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed 0.04 Corn, sweet, stover 4.0 Egg 0.04 Fruit, citrus, group 10 0.6 Fruit, pome 0.5 Fruit, stone, group 12...

  6. Pesticide risk assessment in the United States

    In recognition of potential risks, all pesticides distributed and sold in the United States must fulfil extensive registration requirements for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Registration is a licensing procedure where industry must submit data to demonstrate the safety of pesticidal substances and products before they can be used commercially. The regulatory control of pesticides is unique among chemicals in the U.S. in that testing beyond initial registration may be imposed by the Agency throughout the commercial life of the chemical, as long as there is adequate justification. Registration requirements are gauged to the nature of potential exposures. For instance, more data are generally needed for food use registrations than for non-food uses because of direct consumption of treated foods by the whole U.S. population. Unlike pesticide practices in many countries and authorities, as in the European Community where agricultural pesticides, non-agricultural pesticides and genetically engineered microbial agents are handled by separate directives, all pesticide activities are covered in the U.S. by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. This statute covers pesticide uses on foods and animal feed and a number of non-food applications like forest and horticultural uses, residential lawn care, in-home applications, and disinfectants/sterilants. Traditional inorganic and organic chemicals are covered, as well as biological agents like pheromones. Naturally occurring and genetically altered microorganisms also come under the definition of pesticides, but multicellular animals are exempt from regulation as pesticides. Pesticide registration in the U.S. as in many other countries may be a long-term, resource intensive undertaking. Not uncommonly the process from beginning to complete registration may take 4 to 10 years and cost about $10 million. To meet the responsibilities of reviewing studies, overseeing 400 active ingredients and 35

  7. Spatial and temporal analysis of pesticides concentrations in surface water: Pesticides atlas

    Vijver, M.G.; Zelfde, van 't M.; Tamis, W.L.M.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2008-01-01

    Dutch water boards have a well-established program for monitoring pesticide contamination of surface waters. These monitoring data have been processed into a graphic format accessible online and designed to provide insight into pesticide presence in Dutch surface waters and trends over time: the Pes

  8. 75 FR 33744 - Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Proposed...

    2010-06-15

    ... ``Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment'' (71 FR 47330... ``significant regulatory action'' under Executive Order 12866, entitled Regulatory Planning and Review (58 FR... (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999), because it would not have substantial direct effects on the States,...

  9. Variability of atmospheric pesticide concentrations between urban and rural areas during intensive pesticide application

    Scheyer, Anne; Morville, Stéphane; Mirabel, Philippe; Millet, Maurice

    Intensive pesticide use leads to the contamination of water, soil and atmosphere. Atmospheric transport is responsible for pesticide dispersal over long distances. In this study, we evaluate the local dispersal of pesticides from agricultural to urban areas. For this purpose, three high-volume samplers, each equipped with a glass fiber filter and XAD-2 resin for the sampling of particulate and gas phase have been placed in a south-west transect (predominant wind direction) characteristic of rural and urban areas. The urban site (Strasbourg centre) is situated in the middle of two rural sites. Samples were taken simultaneously at three sites during pesticide treatments in autumn and spring 2002-2003. Sampling took place for 24 h at a flow rate of 10-15 m 3 h -1. The pesticides studied were those commonly used in the Alsace region for all crops (maize, cereal, vines …). Many of the pesticides analysed in atmospheric samples were not detected or observed very episodically at very low concentrations. For metolachlor, alachlor, trifluralin, atrazine and diflufenican, higher concentrations were observed, essentially during the application of these compounds. Moreover, some "spraying peaks" were observed for alachlor in the south rural site (near crops) at a level of 31 ng m -3 on 16-17 May 2003. These results show site and time dependence of atmospheric contamination by pesticides. A limited dispersal was also observed especially in the urban area during the application periods of pesticides.

  10. Pesticide Transport with Runoff from Creeping Bentgrass Turf: Relationship of Pesticide Properties to Mass Transport

    The off-site transport of pesticides with runoff is both an agronomic and environmental concern resulting from reduced control of target pests in the area of application and contamination of surrounding ecosystems. Experiments were designed to measure the quantity of pesticides in runoff from creepi...

  11. Pesticide toxicity index for freshwater aquatic organisms

    Munn, Mark D.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program is designed to assess current water-quality conditions, changes in water quality over time, and the effects of natural and human factors on water quality for the Nation's streams and ground-water resources. For streams, one of the most difficult parts of the assessment is to link chemical conditions to effects on aquatic biota, particularly for pesticides, which tend to occur in streams as complex mixtures with strong seasonal patterns. A Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) was developed that combines pesticide exposure of aquatic biota (measured concentrations of pesticides in stream water) with toxicity estimates (standard endpoints from laboratory bioassays) to produce a single index value for a sample or site. The development of the PTI was limited to pesticide compounds routinely measured in NAWQA studies and to toxicity data readily available from existing databases. Qualifying toxicity data were found for one or more types of test organisms for 75 of the 83 pesticide compounds measured in NAWQA samples, but with a wide range of bioassays per compound (1 to 65). There were a total of 2,824 bioassays for the 75 compounds, including 287 48-hour EC50 values (concentration at which 50 percent of test organisms exhibit a nonlethal response) for freshwater cladocerans, 585 96-hour LC50 values (concentration lethal to 50 percent of test organisms) for freshwater benthic invertebrates, and 1,952 96-hour LC50 values for freshwater fish. The PTI for a particular sample is the sum of toxicity quotients (measured concentration divided by the median toxicity concentration from bioassays) for each detected pesticide. The PTI can be calculated for specific groups of pesticides and for specific taxonomic groups.While the PTI does not determine whether water in a sample is toxic, its values can be used to rank or compare the toxicity of samples or sites on a relative basis for use in further analysis or

  12. 40 CFR 158.2170 - Experimental use permit data requirements-microbial pesticides.

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements-microbial pesticides. 158.2170 Section 158.2170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2170 Experimental use permit data requirements—microbial pesticides. (a) For all microbial pesticides. (1)...

  13. FREQUENCY ANALYSIS OF PESTICIDE CONCENTRATIONS FOR RISK ASSESSMENT (FRANCO MODEL)

    This report describes a method for statistically characterizing the occurrence and duration of pesticide concentrations in surface waters receiving runoff from agricultural lands. The characterization bridges the gap between simulated instream pesticide modeling and the risk asse...

  14. Metabolism of pesticides after dermal exposure to amphibians

    Understanding how pesticide exposure to non-target species influences toxicity is necessary to accurately assess the ecological risks these compounds pose. Aquatic, terrestrial, and arboreal amphibians are often exposed to pesticides during their agricultural application resultin...

  15. ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDE DEGRADATION PATHWAYS DURING DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    The objective of this work was to investigate organophosphorus (OP) pesticide transformation pathways as a class in the presence of aqueous chlorine. Seven priority OP pesticides were examined for their reactivity with aqueous chlorine: chlorpyrifos (CP), parathion (PA), diazino...

  16. IMPROVED SILICA GEL CLEANUP METHOD FOR ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES

    Quantitative recovery of some organophosphorus pesticide residues has not been possible with existing silica gel-cleanup procedures. The authors have developed a modification that permits quantitative recovery of all organophosphorus pesticides tested, except those with a carbama...

  17. Photochemical Attenuation of Pesticides in Prairie Potholes

    Zeng, T.; Arnold, W. A.

    2013-12-01

    Prairie potholes are small, shallow, glacially-derived wetlands scattered across a vast region extending from Midwestern United States into south central Canada known as the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR). They constitute one of the largest inland wetland systems on Earth and play a prominent role in sustaining the regional biodiversity and productivity. Throughout the PPR, historic and contemporary conversion of native prairie for agriculture resulted in a pronounced loss of potholes. Remaining potholes have become interspersed within a matrix of agricultural landscape and trap nonpoint source pollutants such as pesticides from adjacent farmland, which has raised concerns regarding negative impacts on the water quality of downstream water bodies. The fate and persistence of pesticides in potholes, however, remains largely unexplored. Prairie potholes are typically characterized by shallow depth (i.e., large photic zone) and high levels of dissolved organic matter (DOM), making them ideal for photochemical reactions. In this context, we collected pothole water samples from North Dakota to investigate the rates and mechanisms of sunlight-induced attenuation of pesticides. The photodegradation kinetics and pathways of sixteen pesticides in the pothole water were monitored under both simulated and natural sunlight. For most pesticides, photolysis accelerated in the pothole water relative to the buffer control, which pointed to the importance of photosensitized processes (i.e., indirect photolysis). Upon solar irradiation, a mixture of photochemically produced reactive intermediates (PPRIs), such as carbonate radical, hydroxyl radical, singlet oxygen, and triplet-excited state DOM, formed in the pothole water. The major pathways through which pesticides degraded were inferred from the relative contribution attributable to specific PPRIs via quencher experiments. Different classes of pesticides exhibited contrasting photochemical behavior, but singlet oxygen and triplet

  18. Pesticide Exposure and Child Neurodevelopment: Summary and Implications

    Liu, Jianghong; Schelar, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Widely used around the world, pesticides play an important role in protecting health, crops, and property. However, pesticides may also have detrimental effects on human health, with young children among the particularly vulnerable. Recent research suggests that even low levels of pesticide exposure can affect young children’s neurological and behavioral development. Evidence shows a link between pesticides and neonatal reflexes, psychomotor and mental development, and attention-deficit hyper...

  19. Risk Preferences and Pesticide Use by Cotton Farmers in China

    Elaine Liu; JiKun Huang

    2013-01-01

    Despite insect-resistant Bt cotton has been lauded for its ability to reduce the use of pesticides, studies have shown that Chinese Bt cotton farmers continue to use excessive amounts of pesticides. Using results from a survey and an artefactual field experiment, we find that farmers who are more risk averse use greater quantities of pesticides. We also find that farmers who are more loss averse use lesser quantities of pesticides. This result is consistent with our conceptual framework and s...

  20. Parkinson’s disease risk from ambient exposure to pesticides

    Wang, Anthony; Costello, Sadie; Cockburn, Myles; Zhang, Xinbo; Bronstein, Jeff ,; Ritz, Beate

    2011-01-01

    Due to the heavy and expanding agricultural use of neurotoxic pesticides suspected to affect dopaminergic neurons, it is imperative to closely examine the role of pesticides in the development of Parkinson’s disease (PD). We focus our investigation on pesticide use in California’s heavily agricultural central valley by utilizing a unique pesticide use reporting system. From 2001 to 2007, we enrolled 362 incident PD cases and 341 controls living in the Central Valley of Californ...

  1. Some laboratory blood indicators in tractor drivers exposed to pesticides

    Prokeš Bela L.

    2010-01-01

    Pesticides represent group of extremely different compounds or mixed compounds. They are produced in the form of powder for direct application, powder for suspension, concentrated suspension, concentration of emulsion, and in other forms as well. Influence of pesticides to exposed workers mainly depends on technology of pesticide application use. All poisons, just like pesticides that come in organism in some way and reach the location of their metabolism, accumulation in the body or ex...

  2. Determinants of Agricultural Pesticide Concentrations in Carpet Dust

    Gunier, Robert B.; Ward, Mary H.; Airola, Matthew; Bell, Erin M.; Colt, Joanne; Nishioka, Marcia; Buffler, Patricia A.; Reynolds, Peggy; Rull, Rudolph P.; Hertz, Andrew; Metayer, Catherine; Nuckols, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Residential proximity to agricultural pesticide applications has been used as a surrogate for exposure in epidemiologic studies, although little is known about the relationship with levels of pesticides in homes. Objective: We identified determinants of concentrations of agricultural pesticides in dust. Methods: We collected samples of carpet dust and mapped crops within 1,250 m of 89 residences in California. We measured concentrations of seven pesticides used extensively in agri...

  3. Use-Exposure Relationships of Pesticides for Aquatic Risk Assessment

    Luo, Yuzhou; Spurlock, Frank; Deng, Xin; Gill, Sheryl; Goh, Kean

    2011-01-01

    Field-scale environmental models have been widely used in aquatic exposure assessments of pesticides. Those models usually require a large set of input parameters and separate simulations for each pesticide in evaluation. In this study, a simple use-exposure relationship is developed based on regression analysis of stochastic simulation results generated from the Pesticide Root-Zone Model (PRZM). The developed mathematical relationship estimates edge-of-field peak concentrations of pesticides...

  4. Public Health Implications of Pesticide Residues in Meat

    Jadhav V.J. and Waskar V.S.

    2011-01-01

    Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. Since then various synthetic pesticides are used for protection of crops and public health. The persistence nature of some of these pesticides led to their accumulation in animal tissues and subsequently causes human dietary exposure to these pesticides through consumption of animal products viz. meat, milk, eggs and seafoods. Scientific evidence suggest that even such low dose but l...

  5. Global pesticide consumption and pollution: with China as a focus

    WenJun Zhang; FuBin Jiang; JianFeng Ou

    2011-01-01

    Varieties and consumption of pesticides worldwide have been increasing dramatically as increased human population and crop production. In this process pesticide misuses become more and more serious, which has resulted in heavy environmental pollution and health risk of humans. In order to safeguard human health, threatened species and ecosystems from pesticide pollution, the consumption and pollution of pesticides worldwide especially China were reviewed and documented in present study. Meanw...

  6. Pesticides, Chromosomal Aberrations, and Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

    Chiu, Brian C. -H.; Blair, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    An excessive incidence of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) has been reported among farmers and other occupational groups working with pesticides. Some pesticides exhibit immunotoxic and genotoxic activities. Individuals exposed to pesticides have also been found to have an increased prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities including the t(14;18)(q32;q21), one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities in NHL. Two recent epidemiologic studies reported that the association between pesticide exposu...

  7. Pesticides et toxicité chez l'abeille - USA

    Johnson, Reed M.; Ellis, Marion D.; Mullin, Christopher A.; Frazier, Maryann

    2010-01-01

    Until 1985 discussions of pesticides and honey bee toxicity in the USA were focused on pesticides applied to crops and the unintentional exposure of foraging bees to them. The recent introduction of arthropod pests of honey bees, Acarapis woodi (1984), Varroa destructor (1987), and Aethina tumida (1997), to the USA have resulted in the intentional introduction of pesticides into beehives to suppress these pests. Both the unintentional and the intentional exposure of honey bees to pesticides h...

  8. Procedures for Removal of Pesticides from the Environment

    Đokić, M.; Bilandžić, N.; Briški, F.

    2012-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used in food production, and it is believed that more than 1000 types of pesticides are in use. Organochlorines and organophosphorous pesticides are used in large quantities due to their efficacy and low cost. These persistent organic pollutants remain in the soil, silt, and sediment long after application, and enter into watercourses, finding their way directly into the food chain. Today, the following procedures are used to remove pesticides from polluted localities: l...

  9. Assessing pesticide pollution risk: from field to watershed

    Houdart, Marie; Tixier, P.; Lassoudière, A.; Saudubray, F.

    2009-01-01

    Pesticides used for intensive agricultural production threaten the water resources of the French West Indies. For example, the pesticide chlordecone was used until the nineties in banana fields. Operational and simple tools are needed to assess the potential risk of pollution by pesticides. Here, we propose a method to assess the spatial variability of pollution risk on a watershed scale. This method proceeds in four steps: (1) surveying practices; (2) determining the pesticide load for each ...

  10. Pesticide use and off-site risk assessment

    Yang, X.

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide use and off-site risk assessment: a case study of glyphosate fate in Chinese Loess soil Xiaomei Yang Abstract: Repeated applications of pesticide may contaminate the soil and water, threatening their quality within the environmental system and beyond it through water erosion related processes and leaching. Taking into account the situation of intense farming, pesticide use and erosion in China, and in the loess area in particular, this study aims to further the science of pesticide...

  11. A new crop of concerns: Congress investigates pesticide safety.

    Taylor, D. A.

    2000-01-01

    A March 2000 report by the General Accounting Office, Pesticides: Improvements Needed to Ensure the Safety of Farmworkers and Their Children, states that much remains unknown about the risks faced by children in agriculture, and that enforcement of pesticide protection standards for farmworkers is patchy and unsystematic. Many cases of farmworkers' pesticide-related illnesses go unreported, leaving health workers with an inadequate basis for tracking patterns and fine-tuning pesticide standar...

  12. Clinical and Biochemical Parameters of Children and Adolescents Applying Pesticides

    O Hendy; M Abou Salem; G Abdel Rasoul; D Rohlman; A. Ismail

    2010-01-01

    Background: The primary agricultural product in Egypt is the cotton crop. Children and adolescents work seasonally in the cotton fields applying pesticides.Objectives: To examine the effect of pesticide exposure on clinical and biochemical parameters in children and adolescents applying pesticides.Methods: Male children currently applying pesticides and aged between 9 and 19 years (n = 50) were recruited for this study. They were asked to complete work, health, and exposure questionnaires; ex...

  13. COMPARISON OF PESTICIDE ROOT ZONE MODEL PREDICTIONS WITH OBSERVED CONCENTRATIONS FOR THE TOBACCO PESTICIDE METALAXYL IN UNSATURATED ZONE SOILS

    The pesticide root zone model (PRZM) was developed to evaluate pesticide leaching threats to ground water for different crops under varying climatic conditions, soil characteristics, and cropping practices. In the study, PRZM was evaluated to establish its predictive capability b...

  14. 75 FR 60113 - Pesticide Science Policy; Notice of Withdrawal

    2010-09-29

    ...EPA announces the withdrawal of the pesticide science policy document ``Use of the Pesticide Data Program (PDP) in Acute Risk Assessment.'' In estimating dietary exposure to pesticides, the Agency uses a variety of data and different models. This science policy document was developed to explain a particular statistical methodology, known as decomposition, for using information from the U.S.......

  15. Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in the Processing of Pressed Cheese

    Dorin Ţibulcă; Mirela Jimborean; Dan Sălăgean; Ariana Caraba

    2015-01-01

    The persistence of pesticide residues in food and environment determined UN institutions to track their presence and establish rules of tolerance in foodstuffs of animal origin. Pesticide use leads to their presence as residue in foods. The research objectives were to establish the level of organo-chlorine pesticides in raw milk and their evolution during the process of obtaining pressed cheese.

  16. Ocular toxicity from pesticide exposure: A recent review

    Jaga, Kushik; Dharmani, Chandrabhan

    2006-01-01

    Toxic effects on eyes result from exposure to pesticides via inhalation, ingestion, dermal contact and ocular exposure. Exposure of unprotected eyes to pesticides results in the absorption in ocular tissue and potential ocular toxicity. Recent literature on the risks of ocular toxicity from pesticide exposure is limited.

  17. 21 CFR 582.99 - Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals.

    2010-04-01

    ... § 582.99 Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. Adjuvants, identified and used in accordance with 40 CFR 180.1001(c) and (d), which are added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower or applicator prior to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. 582.99...

  18. 21 CFR 182.99 - Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals.

    2010-04-01

    ....99 Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. Adjuvants, identified and used in accordance with 40 CFR 180.1001 (c) and (d), which are added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower or applicator prior to... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. 182.99...

  19. Pesticide Substitution: Combining Food Safety with Environmental Quality

    Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Various pesticides are authorized for use on agricultural food crops. Despite regulatory risk assessments aiming at ensuring consumer and environmental safety, pesticides contribute to human and environmental impacts. Guidance is needed to optimize pesticide use practice and minimize human and en...

  20. 21 CFR 570.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 570.19... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.19 Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. When pesticide chemical residues occur in processed foods due to the use...

  1. 7 CFR 29.427 - Pesticide residue standards.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pesticide residue standards. 29.427 Section 29.427... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.427 Pesticide residue standards. The maximum concentration of residues of the following pesticides allowed in flue-cured or burley tobacco, expressed...

  2. 42 CFR 84.1156 - Pesticide respirators; performance requirements; general.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pesticide respirators; performance requirements... DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1156 Pesticide respirators; performance requirements;...

  3. 21 CFR 170.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 170.19... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.19 Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. When pesticide chemical residues occur in processed foods due to the use...

  4. 29 CFR 1440.1 - Arbitration of pesticide data disputes.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arbitration of pesticide data disputes. 1440.1 Section 1440... ARBITRATION OF PESTICIDE DATA DISPUTES § 1440.1 Arbitration of pesticide data disputes. (a) Persons requesting... in writing to the appropriate American Arbitration Association Regional Office. Such requests...

  5. Effects of pesticides aerial applications on rice quality

    Aerial application of pesticides has become an important research topic in recent years. This research investigated the effects of two types of commercial pesticides on the rice quality under low volume aerial application. It could provide guidance for the pesticide application and choose the right ...

  6. Summary of Validation of Multi-Pesticide Methods for Various Pesticide Formulations

    The validation of multi-pesticide methods applicable for various types of pesticide formulations is treated. In a worked-out practical example, i.e. lambda cyhalothrin, the theoretical considerations outlined in the General Guidance section are put into practice. GC conditions, selection of an internal standard and criteria for an acceptable repeatability of injections are outlined, followed by sample preparation, calibration, batch analysis and confirmation of results through comparison using different separation columns. Complete sets of data are displayed in tabular form for other pesticide active ingredients and real formulations. (author)

  7. International safety assessment of pesticides: dithiocarbamate pesticides, ETU, and PTU--a review and update.

    Vettorazzi, G; Almeida, W F; Burin, G J; Jaeger, R B; Puga, F R; Rahde, A F; Reyes, F G; Schvartsman, S

    For the last 30 years the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) has carried out toxicological evaluations and safety assessments of dithiocarbamate pesticides, continuously adjusting previous appraisals in the light of new data and advances in the understanding of the principles and mechanisms of toxic action of these compounds. The historical narrative of the evaluative process is followed by an account of the present international safety assessment status of the dithiocarbamate pesticides so far examined by the JMPR. They are ferbam, mancozeb, maneb, metiram, nabam, propineb, thiram, zineb, ziram, and the associated substances, ethylenethiourea (ETU) and propylenethiourea (PTU). PMID:8732882

  8. Assessing Children’s Dietary Pesticide Exposure: Direct Measurement of Pesticide Residues in 24-Hr Duplicate Food Samples

    Schenck, Frank J.; Pearson, Melanie A.; Wong, Jon W.; Lu, Chensheng Alex

    2010-01-01

    Background: The data presented here are a response to calls for more direct measurements of pesticide residues in foods consumed by children and provide an opportunity to compare direct measures of pesticide residues in foods representing actual consumption with those reported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Pesticide Data Program. Objective: We measured pesticide residues in 24-hr duplicate food samples collected from a group of 46 young children participating in the Children’s Pestici...

  9. Pesticides and respiratory symptoms among farmers

    Faria Neice Müller Xavier

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Despite the intensive use of pesticides in agriculture there are few studies assessing the risk of respiratory conditions from this exposure. The study aimed at quantifying the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among farmers and evaluating its relationship with occupational use of pesticides and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,379 farmers from two municipalities of Southern Brazil in 1996. Frequency and type of chemical exposure and pesticide poisoning were recorded for both sexes. All subjects aged 15 years or older with at least 15 weekly hours of agricultural activity were interviewed. An adapted questionnaire developed by the American Thoracic Society was used for the assessment of respiratory symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out. RESULTS: More than half (55% of interviewees were male. The prevalence of asthma symptoms was 12% and chronic respiratory disease symptoms was 22%. Higher odds ratios for both asthma (OR=1.51; 95% CI: 1.07-2.14 and chronic respiratory disease (OR=1.34; 95% CI 1.00-1.81 symptoms were found in women. Logistic regression analysis identified associations between many forms of exposure to pesticides and increased respiratory symptoms. Occurrence of pesticide poisoning was associated with higher prevalence of asthma symptoms (OR=1.54; 95% CI: 1.04-2.58 and chronic respiratory disease symptoms (OR=1.57; 95% CI: 1.08-2.28. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of causality limitations, the study results provide evidence that farming exposure to pesticides is associated with higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, especially when the exposure is above two days per month.

  10. Use of fungi in bioremediation of pesticides

    Fragoeiro, Silvia

    2005-01-01

    Eight isolates (7 species) of white rot fungi were grown on soil extract agar amended with 0, 5 10 and 20 mg l- simazine, trifluralin and dieldrin, individually and as a mixture, under two different water regimes (-0.7 and -2.8 MPa water potential). The best isolates were T.versicolor (R26 and R101) and P.ostreatus, exhibiting good tolerance to the pesticides and water stress and the ability to degrade lignin and produce laccase in the presence of these pesticides. As a res...