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Sample records for fr11jn10r trifloxystrobin pesticide

  1. 76 FR 69648 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ...consideration to exposure of infants and children to the pesticide...no harm will result to infants and children from aggregate...consumers, including infants and children. Trifloxystrobin...dermal sensitizer. In repeated dose tests in rats, the...

  2. 77 FR 65827 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ...consideration to exposure of infants and children to the pesticide...no harm will result to infants and children from aggregate...consumers, including infants and children. Trifloxystrobin...dermal sensitizer. In repeated dose tests in rats, the...

  3. 75 FR 33190 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ...consideration to exposure of infants and children to the pesticide...no harm will result to infants and children from aggregate...consumers, including infants and children. Trifloxystrobin...dermal sensitizer. In repeated dose tests in rats, the...

  4. 77 FR 42654 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ...consideration to exposure of infants and children to the pesticide...no harm will result to infants and children from aggregate...consumers, including infants and children. Trifloxystrobin...dermal sensitizer. In repeated dose tests in rats, the...

  5. 77 FR 12727 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ...tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311...part 180 through the Government Printing Office's e-CFR site...

  6. Comparative study on disappearance trends of captan and trifloxystrobin residues on fruit and apple tree leaves using internal normalisation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sad?o, Stanis?aw; Duda, Magdalena; Piechowicz, Bartosz; Ja?wa, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    Supervised field trials were carried out in a commercial orchard in 2011. The purpose of the study was to assess the usefulness of the comparative method to examine the mechanism of disappearance of pesticide residues. Captan and trifloxystrobin residues were determined with the use of gas chromatograph equipped with a micro-electron capture detector. Disappearance trends of captan and trifloxystrobin residues in fruit and leaves were estimated using the method of internal normalisation, and based on that, the courses of concentration changes of these substances on fruit and leaves and the amount of these substances in one apple were established. The initial deposits of trifloxystrobin on leaves and fruits dropped by 50% within 8 and 4 days after treatment, respectively, in both varieties, whereas captan residues dropped by 50% within 29 days in leaves and 7 days in apples of the Olive Yellow varieties. PMID:23710563

  7. Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherma, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    This review is devoted to methods for the determination of residues of pesticides and some related industrial chemicals. Topics include: residue methods, sampling, chromatography, organochlorine pesticides, organophosphorus pesticides, carbamate insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, pyrethrins, fumigants, and related chemicals. (MVL)

  8. Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or cause harm to crops, people, or animals. Pesticides can help get rid of them. Pesticides are not just insect killers. They also include ... mildew, germs, and more. Many household products contain pesticides. Pesticides can protect your health by killing germs, ...

  9. Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skinned produce, or rinse it with lots of warm water mixed with salt and lemon juice or vinegar. ... chap 161. Chey H, Buchanan S. Toxins in everyday life. Prim Care . ... effects of common home, lawn, and garden pesticides. Pediatr ...

  10. Risk assessment of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole residues on Allium cepa l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurmail Singh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A supervised field trial was conducted to study the persistence and therefore to evaluate the risk assessment of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole residues on onion. A combined formulation of trifloxystrobin 25 % + tebuconazole 50% (Nativo 75WG was applied on onion crop @ 300 and 600 g ha-1, which resulted in active application @ 75.0 and 150.0 g.a.ha-1 with respect to trifloxystrobin and @ 150.0 and 300 g.a.ha-1 with respect to tebuconazole. The average initial deposits of trifloxystrobin on onion were 0.52 and 0.82 mg kg-1 following three applications of Nativo 75 WG at the recommended and the double of the recommended dose, respectively. Similarly, the average initial deposits of tebuconazole were 0.76 and 1.32 mg kg-1 at the two dosages, respectively. The residues dissipated more than 60% at both dosages after 3 days. The half-life (t1/2 of trifloxystrobin was 1.86 and 1.18 days, while for tebuconazole 2.13 and 1.98 days, for single and double dosages, respectively. Mature onion collected at harvest did not reveal the presence of trifloxystrobin or its metabolite, CGA 32113, at a detection limit of 0.05 mg kg-1. An assessment of the intake of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole, resulting from the consumption of onion, and its comparison with acceptable daily intake revealed that recommended application of Nativo 75WG (trifloxystrobin 25%+ tebuconazole 50% is quite safe from the consumer point of view.

  11. Track of fate and primary metabolism of trifloxystrobin in rice paddy ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Mengchao; Li, Shuying; Wang, Quansheng; Wei, Peng; Liu, Yanan; Zhu, Guonian; Wang, Mengcen

    2015-06-15

    Trifloxystrobin, a strobilurin fungicide, has been widely applied to control fungal diseases in various crops, especially in rice cultivation. However, its residual profile in rice paddy that was highly linked to its ecological risk still remains poorly understood. To elucidate the fate and primary metabolism of trifloxystrobin in rice paddy, a simple and efficient analytical method was developed using the DisQuE extraction kit combined with GC-?ECD and GC-EI-MS/MS analyses. As a result, methodological recoveries of trifloxystrobin fortified in paddy water, soil and rice straw ranging from 0.005 to 2 mg kg(-1) (mg L(-1) for water) were acquired from 87.6% to 109.1% with relative standard deviation (RSD) from 1.9% to 9.5% (n=5), and the limit of detection (LOD, signal to noise (S/N)=3) and the limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N=10) were 6.3×10(-4) mg L(-1) and 2.09×10(-3) mg L(-1), respectively, which indicates the favorable accuracy, precision and sensitivity of the method for effective monitoring of the trace amounts of residual trifloxystrobin in the rice paddy. Furthermore, dissipation of residual trifloxystrobin was in accordance with the first-order rate equation, showing the half-lives from 0.7 to 7.5 days, illustrating that trifloxystrobin generally degraded in a rapid rate in the rice paddy. Additionally, trifloxystrobin acid identified as the primary metabolite of trifloxystrobin in the rice paddy via GC-EI-MS/MS analysis was found to be dominantly accumulated in the paddy water and maintained up to 2.41 mg L(-1) within 14 days, suggesting that long-term and frequent application of this fungicide may pose a high risk towards aquatic organisms in surrounding aqueous ecosystems through paddy drainage. Taken together, our data serve as a useful tool for monitoring residual trifloxystrobin in rice paddy ecosystem and also provide a basis for in-depth understanding of environmental behavior and ecological risk posed by this fungicide. PMID:25770954

  12. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRL for trifloxystrobin in cane fruit

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-01-01

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, Germany, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS), received an application from Bayer CropScience Deutschland GmbH to modify the existing MRL for the active substance trifloxystrobin in cane fruit. In order to accommodate for the intended use of trifloxystrobin Germany proposed to raise the existing MRLfrom the limit of quantification of 0.02* mg/kg to 3 mg/kg. Germany drafted an evaluation report in accordance wit...

  13. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for trifloxystrobin in spring onions and globe artichokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Italy, hereafter referred to as the Evaluating Member State Italy (EMS Italy, received an application from Bayer CropScience to modify the existing MRL for trifloxystrobin in globe artichokes. Belgium, hereafter referred to as the Evaluating Member State Belgium (EMS Belgium, compiled an application to modify the existing MRL for trifloxystrobin in spring onions. In order to accommodate the intended uses of trifloxystrobin on these crops, the Evaluating Member States proposed to raise the existing MRLs for trifloxystrobin from the limit of quantification (LOQ of 0.02 mg/kg to 0.2 mg/kg in globe artichokes and to 0.1 mg/kg in spring onions. The evaluation reports were drafted in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005 and were submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. The available residue trials data confirm the MRL proposals for trifloxystrobin in spring onions and globe artichokes as derived by the Evaluating Member States. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of trifloxystrobin in the commodities under consideration. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the intended use of trifloxystrobin on spring onions and globe artichokes will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  14. Potential toxic effect of trifloxystrobin on cellular microstructure, mRNA expression and antioxidant enzymes in Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu-Feng; Liu, Lei; Gong, Yu-Xin; Zhu, Bin; Liu, Guang-Lu; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of trifloxystrobin that one strobilurin used widely in the world as an effective fungicidal agent to control Asian soybean rust on aquatic unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris. We determined the potential toxic effect of trifloxystrobin on C. vulgaris, and found median inhibition concentration (IC(50)) value 255.58 (95% confidence interval, 207.81-330.29)?gL(-1). In addition, the algal cells were obviously depressed or shrunk at different concentrations by electron microscopy. In the study, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay showed changes in transcript abundances of three photosynthetic genes, psaB, psbC, and rbcL, and one energy gene, ATPs. The results showed that trifloxystrobin reduced the transcript abundances of the three genes and enhanced expression of ATPs after 48 and 96 h. The lowest abundances of psaB, psbC and rbcL transcripts in response to trifloxystrobin exposure were 58%, 79% and 60% of those of the control, respectively. For the potential toxic influences, trifloxystrobin could decrease the soluble protein and total antioxidant contents (T-AOC), and increase superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activity with a gradual concentration-response relationship. Overall, the present study demonstrated that trifloxystrobin could affect the activities of antioxidant enzymes, disrupts photosynthesis in C. vulgaris, and damage cellular structure. PMID:24762415

  15. Proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Christensen, Hanne Bjerre

    2009-01-01

    A proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in wheat was organised in 2008. The test material was grown in 2007 and treated in the field with 14 pesticides formulations containing the active substances, alpha-cypermethrin, bifentrin, carbendazim, chlormequat, chlorpyrifos-methyl, difenconazole, epoxiconazole, glyphosate, iprodione, malathion, pirimicarb, prochloraz, spiroxamin and trifloxystrobin. After harvest, the test material was additionally spiked in the laboratory with three pesticides, that where the residues were too low, and axozystrobin. In total, 72 laboratories submitted results and z-scores were calculated for all laboratories and pesticides, except for glyphosate where only five laboratories submitted results and summed weighted z-scores were calculated for the laboratories with a sufficient scope. For several pesticides, the submitted results were strongly depending on the extraction procedure and consequently the assigned values were calculated based on part of the results. Acceptable z-scores were obtained by 56-97% of the participants.

  16. Persistence and dissipation kinetics of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole in onion and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Soudamini

    2014-01-01

    The persistence and dissipation kinetics of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole on onion were studied after application of their combination formulation at a standard and double dose of 75 + 150 and 150 + 300 g a.i. ha(-1). The fungicides were extracted with acetone, cleaned-up using activated charcoal (trifloxystrobin) and neutral alumina (tebuconazole). Analysis was carried out by gas chromatograph (GC) and confirmed by gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The recovery was above 80% and limit of quantification (LOQ) 0.05 mg kg(-1) for both fungicides. Initial residue deposits of trifloxystrobin were 0.68 and 1.01 mg kg(-1) and tebuconazole 0.673 and 1.95 mg kg(-1) from standard and double dose treatments, respectively. Dissipation of the fungicides followed first-order kinetics and the half life of degradation was 6-6.6 days. Matured onion bulb (and field soil) harvested after 30 days was free from fungicide residues. These findings suggest recommended safe pre-harvest interval (PHI) of 14 and 25 days for spring onion consumption after treatment of Nativo 75 WG at the standard and double doses, respectively. Matured onion bulbs at harvest were free from fungicide residues. PMID:24813986

  17. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRL for trifloxystrobin in cane fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Germany, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Bayer CropScience Deutschland GmbH to modify the existing MRL for the active substance trifloxystrobin in cane fruit. In order to accommodate for the intended use of trifloxystrobin Germany proposed to raise the existing MRLfrom the limit of quantification of 0.02* mg/kg to 3 mg/kg. Germany drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive an MRL proposal of 3 mg/kg for the proposed use on cane fruit. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of trifloxystrobin on cane fruit will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  18. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for trifloxystrobin in horseradish, parsley root and purslane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Belgium, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS Belgium, compiled an application to modify the existing MRLs for trifloxystrobin in horseradish, parsley root and purslane. In order to accommodate for the intended uses of trifloxystrobin, Belgium proposed to raise the existing MRLs from the limit of quantification of 0.02* mg/kg to 0.08 mg/kg for horseradish, from 0.04 mg/kg to 0.08 mg/kg for parsley root and from 0.02* mg/kg to 10 mg/kg for purslane. The EMS drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive MRL proposals for the NEU intended uses on horseradish and parsley root, while for purslane the data were found to be insufficient to derive a robust MRL proposal. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of trifloxystrobin in the commodities under consideration. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of trifloxystrobin on horseradish and parsley root will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  19. Assessment of trifloxystrobin uptake kinetics, developmental toxicity and mRNA expression in rare minnow embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bin; Liu, Guang-Lu; Liu, Lei; Ling, Fei; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2015-02-01

    Trifloxystrobin (TFS) is the widely used strobilurin fungicide. However, little information is so far available regarding the uptake kinetics and developmental toxicity of TFS to fish. The present study was conducted to investigate the uptake kinetics, potential environment risk and toxicity of TFS on Gobiocypris rarus embryos. Results revealed that increased malformation, decreased body length and heart rate, affected spontaneous movement and swimming speed provide a gradual concentration-dependent manner; values of 144 h LC50 (median lethal concentration) and EC50 (median effective concentration) were 1.11 and 0.86 ?g L(-1). Continuous exposure to TFS resulted in a steady accumulation with no evidence of elimination. Enzyme activities were significantly changed; reactive oxygen species and DNA damage were significantly induced after TFS treatment. Certain genes related to cell apoptosis (p53), metabolism (cyp1a), stress response (hsp70) and blood vessels (vezf1) development were all significantly up-regulated. This is the first study to define uptake kinetics and to focus on behavioral consequences, physiological changes and mRNA expression following TFS exposure in the early life stages of fish. Our results suggest that TFS is highly toxic to fish embryos. PMID:25240160

  20. Desenvolvimento de métodos analíticos para determinação de agrotóxicos em sedimentos por cromatografia gasosa monodimensional e bidimensional abrangente com micro detector de captura de elétrons Development of analytical methods for pesticides in sediments by monodimensional and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro electron-capture detection

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Macedo da Silva; Cláudia Alcaraz Zini; Elina Bastos Caramão; Ewelin Monica Paturi Navarro Canizares; Karen Alam Leal

    2010-01-01

    The development of analytical methods for determination of eight pesticides of different chemical classes (trichlorfon, propanil, fipronil, propiconazole, trifloxystrobin, permethrin, difenoconazole and azoxystrobin) in sediments with gas chromatography-micro-electron capture detector (GC/µECD) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detector (GCxGC/µECD) is described. These methods were applied to real sediment samples, and the best results were obtai...

  1. Influence of pesticides on yeasts colonizing leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadkertiová, Renata; Sláviková, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The effect of nine different pesticides on the growth of yeasts isolated from the leaves of fruit and forest trees was investigated. Four insecticides (with the active ingredients: thiacloprid, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, and thiamethoxam) and five fungicides (with the effective substances: bitertanol, kresoxim-methyl, mancozeb, trifloxystrobin, and cupric oxychloride) were tested. The concentrations of chemicals were those recommended by the manufacturers for the spraying of trees. The yeast strains isolated from the leaves of fruit trees were not sensitive to any of the insecticides. The majority of yeast strains isolated from the leaves of forest trees were either not sensitive or only to a small extent. While Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Pichia anomala were not affected by any insecticide, the strains of Cryptococcus laurentii and Rhodotorula glutinis showed the highest sensitivity. The effects of fungicides on the growth of isolated yeasts were more substantial. The fungicide Dithane DG (mancozeb) completely inhibited the growth of all yeasts. All strains isolated from fruit tree leaves were more resistant to the tested fungicides than those isolated from the leaves of forest trees. The most resistant strains from the leaves of fruit trees belonged to the species Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia anomala, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas Cryptococcus albidus and C. laurentii, originating from the leaves of forest trees, showed the highest sensitivity to fungicides. PMID:22351984

  2. Pesticide Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides generally include herbicides, insecticides and fungicides that play an important role in maintaining worldwide food and fiber production by controlling weeds that compete for water and nutrients or by eliminating pests that reduce yields. In the future, the role of pesticides and fertili...

  3. National Pesticide Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find local pesticide & pest control information People and Pets Human Health Animal Health Safe Use Practices Pest Control Pets and Pesticides Pesticide Incidents Science and Regulation Toxicology ...

  4. Obsolete pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Several hundred tons of obsolete pesticide stocks worldwide will pose a threat to humans and the environment until the year 2030 in some regions, unless funding for waste disposal is significantly increased, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) said in a message directed to donor governments and industry on May 24.“Deadly chemicals are contaminating the soils, groundwater, irrigation, and drinking water,” said Amemayehu Wodageneh, senior expert on obsolete pesticides for FAO. “These ‘forgotten’ stocks are a serious risk, [and] they could cause an environmental tragedy in rural areas and big cities. There is hardly any developing country that is not affected by the hazards of obsolete pesticides.”

  5. Pesticide pollution of multiple drinking water sources in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: evidence from two provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, N D G; Sebesvari, Z; Amelung, W; Renaud, F G

    2015-06-01

    Pollution of drinking water sources with agrochemicals is often a major threat to human and ecosystem health in some river deltas, where agricultural production must meet the requirements of national food security or export aspirations. This study was performed to survey the use of different drinking water sources and their pollution with pesticides in order to inform on potential exposure sources to pesticides in rural areas of the Mekong River delta, Vietnam. The field work comprised both household surveys and monitoring of 15 frequently used pesticide active ingredients in different water sources used for drinking (surface water, groundwater, water at public pumping stations, surface water chemically treated at household level, harvested rainwater, and bottled water). Our research also considered the surrounding land use systems as well as the cropping seasons. Improper pesticide storage and waste disposal as well as inadequate personal protection during pesticide handling and application were widespread amongst the interviewed households, with little overall risk awareness for human and environmental health. The results show that despite the local differences in the amount and frequency of pesticides applied, pesticide pollution was ubiquitous. Isoprothiolane (max. concentration 8.49 ?g L(-1)), fenobucarb (max. 2.32 ?g L(-1)), and fipronil (max. 0.41 ?g L(-1)) were detected in almost all analyzed water samples (98 % of all surface samples contained isoprothiolane, for instance). Other pesticides quantified comprised butachlor, pretilachlor, propiconazole, hexaconazole, difenoconazole, cypermethrin, fenoxapro-p-ethyl, tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin, azoxystrobin, quinalphos, and thiamethoxam. Among the studied water sources, concentrations were highest in canal waters. Pesticide concentrations varied with cropping season but did not diminish through the year. Even in harvested rainwater or purchased bottled water, up to 12 different pesticides were detected at concentrations exceeding the European Commission's parametric guideline values for individual or total pesticides in drinking water (0.1 and 0.5 ?g L(-1); respectively). The highest total pesticide concentration quantified in bottled water samples was 1.38 ?g L(-1). Overall, we failed to identify a clean water source in the Mekong Delta with respect to pesticide pollution. It is therefore urgent to understand further and address drinking water-related health risk issues in the region. PMID:25572267

  6. Pesticide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neva Sataloglu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed that examining the socio-demographic characteristics of the pesticide poisoning cases in Samsun region where the economy mainly relies on agriculture and comparing it to similar studies; thus contributing the country?s data and the possible measures. 60 pesticide poisoning cases consulted OMU Faculty of Medicine between 01.01.2004 and 31.12.2004 are examined and achieved data are analyzed and presented. Of the 60 cases, 35 (58.3% are females and 25 (41.7 are males and the average age is 21.93 ±17.56 (1-63 years. Pesticide poisoning is most common in summer (55.0% and spring (25.0%. It is stated either by the person himself/herself or by his/her relatives that the intake of the toxic substance is accidental in 36 cases (60.0% and suicidal in 24 cases (40.0%. 25 cases (41.7% are poisoned with organic phosphorus pesticides and 12 cases (20.0% with carbamat-pesticides. Consequently, in order to prevent accidental pesticide poisoning, it is necessary to be very careful with pesticide application especially in rural areas. Substances that are least toxic to human and environment, and are licenced and most effective to pests must be used, spraying period must be short, sensitive people, especially children, must be kept away, personal precautions must be taken for the spraying person and pesticides must be kept away from the reach of children and people at risk. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(3: 169-174

  7. Occurrence and distribution study of residues from pesticides applied under controlled conditions in the field during rice processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Lucía; Colazzo, Marcos; Pérez-Parada, Andrés; Besil, Natalia; Heinzen, Horacio; Böcking, Bernardo; Cesio, Verónica; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2012-05-01

    The results of an experiment to study the occurrence and distribution of pesticide residues during rice cropping and processing are reported. Four herbicides, nine fungicides, and two insecticides (azoxystrobin, byspiribac-sodium, carbendazim, clomazone, difenoconazole, epoxiconazole, isoprothiolane, kresoxim-methyl, propanil, quinclorac, tebuconazole, thiamethoxam, tricyclazole, trifloxystrobin, ?-cyhalotrin) were applied to an isolated rice-crop plot under controlled conditions, during the 2009-2010 cropping season in Uruguay. Paddy rice was harvested and industrially processed to brown rice, white rice, and rice bran, which were analyzed for pesticide residues using the original QuEChERS methodology and its citrate variation by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS. The distribution of pesticide residues was uneven among the different matrices. Ten different pesticide residues were found in paddy rice, seven in brown rice, and eight in rice bran. The highest concentrations were detected in paddy rice. These results provide information regarding the fate of pesticides in the rice food chain and its safety for consumers. PMID:22497619

  8. Scientific support for preparing an EU position for the 45th Session of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 43 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, EFSA received a request from the European Commission to provide support for the preparation of the EU position for the 45th session of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR. In 2012, JMPR evaluated 12 active substances regarding the setting of toxicological reference values to be used in consumer risk assessment, 7 new compounds (ametoctradin, chlorfenapyr, dinotefuran, fluxapyroxad, MCPA, picoxystrobin, sedaxane and 4 part of periodic reevaluation (benzoate, fenpropathrin, fenvalerate, glufosinate-ammonium. Regarding the setting of Maximum Residue Limits (CXLs, JMPR assessed 26 substances (ametoctradin, azoxystrobin, buprofezin, carbofuran, chlorfenapyr, chlorothalonil, cycloxydim, cyfluthrin, cyromazine, dichlorvos, dicofol, dinotefuran, fenvalerate, fludioxonil, fluopyram, fluxapyroxad, glufosinate-ammonium, imidacloprid, MCPA, methoxyfenozide, penthiopyrad, phorate, picoxystrobin, sedaxane, spinetoram and trifloxystrobin. EFSA derived comments on the JMPR evaluations regarding the acceptability of the proposed draft Codex MRLs and the toxicological reference values.

  9. Pesticides and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... and advice fromyour health care provider. What are pesticides? A pesticide is a substance used to prevent ...

  10. Residential Exposure to Pesticides

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the association between residential pesticide use and childhood cancers. Exposure to indoor pesticides was significantly associated with ... the researchers did not find any significant childhood cancer risk with exposure to outdoor pesticides; however, exposure ...

  11. Agricultural pesticide residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracer techniques used in the elucidation of the pathways and fate of pesticides in agriculture are reviewed. Such studies include investigating the uptake of labelled pesticides into plants in lysimeter and micro-ecosystem experiments, the translocations of pesticides in the soil, the degradation of pesticides in the soil, the biological availability of soil-applied substances and the bound pesticide residues in the soil. The use of macro- and microautoradiography and double and triple labelling is also described. (U.K.)

  12. Safe apples for baby-food production: survey of pesticide treatment regimes leaving minimum residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticha, Jana; Hajslova, Jana; Kovalczuk, Tomas; Jech, Martin; Honzicek, Jiri; Kocourek, Vladimir; Lansky, Miroslav; Kloutvorova, Jana; Falta, Vladan

    2007-06-01

    A total of 19 pesticide preparations were used according to agricultural practice in six trials in apple orchards. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), premature Golden Delicious apples collected 64, 50, 36 days before harvest and mature fruit were examined for residues of active ingredients. No residues of triflumuron, triazamate, chlorpyrifos, etofenprox, fenoxycarb, kresoxim-methyl, cyprodinyl, difenoconazole or thiram were detected in the first sampling. Also, the levels of chlorpyrifos-methyl, penconazole, tebuconazole and tolylfluanid dropped during the pre-harvest interval. Detectable residues of pyridaben, thiacloprid, trifloxystrobin and tetraconazole in harvested fruits were below 0.01 mg kg(-1), which is the maximum concentration of residues acceptable by baby-food producers in any raw material. The only residues exceeding this concentration were captan and teflubenzuron. Based on the data, farmers can choose pesticides for optimal treatment of plants, while enabling growth of a safe crop suitable for baby-food production. PMID:17487602

  13. 78 FR 63938 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ...0.015 ppm; wheat, forage at 30 ppm; wheat, grain at 0.10 ppm; wheat, hay at 15 ppm; and wheat, straw at 9 ppm. Adequate enforcement analytical...fungicide trifloxystrobin (benzeneacetic acid, (E,E)-[alpha]-...

  14. Toxic effects of three strobilurins (trifloxystrobin, azoxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl) on mRNA expression and antioxidant enzymes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Jiang, Chao; Wu, Zhuo-Qi; Gong, Yu-Xin; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2013-12-01

    The strobilurins are used widely in the world as effective fungicidal agents to control Asian soybean rust. In this study, the early life stage of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), which is one of the most important aquaculture species in China, was chosen to measure the acute toxicity of three common strobilurin-derived fungicides (trifloxystrobin (TFS), azoxystrobin (AZ) and kresoxim-methyl (KM)). As endpoints, normal developmental parameters (lethal concentration (LC??) and average heart rate), expression of relative genes, and three antioxidant enzyme activities in the developing juveniles were recorded during a 48 h exposure. The results revealed that values of LC?? were TFS 0.051 (0.046-0.058) mg L?¹, AZ 0.549 (0.419-0.771) mg L?¹ and KM 0.338 (0.284-0.407) mg L?¹ for juveniles. For the potential toxicity mechanisms, these three fungicides increased catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activity and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, significantly inhibited expressions of three growth-related genes (IGF-1, IGF-2 and GHR) and two energy-related-genes (CCK and PYY), and caused pronounced up-regulation a stress-gene (HSP70). The present study demonstrated potential toxic effects of TFS, AZ and KM on the early development of C. idella. Overall, three strobilurins (TFS, AZ and KM) might cause serious damages to the aquatic species; therefore, their pollution supervision in water ecological environment should be strengthened. PMID:24210350

  15. Residential Exposure to Pesticides

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the researchers did not find any significant childhood cancer risk with exposure to outdoor pesticides; however, exposure to ... cancers in general. The study authors concluded that cancer risks are related to the type of pesticides used ...

  16. Pesticides and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to pesticides may increase the risk for birthdefects over that ...

  17. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  18. Pesticide Instrumental Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This workshop was the evaluation of the pesticides impact on the vegetable matrix with the purpose to determine the analysis by GC / M S. The working material were lettuce matrix, chard and a mix of green leaves and pesticides.

  19. Residential Exposure to Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/Residential_Exposure_091415.html Residential Exposure to Pesticides HealthDay News Video - September 15, 2015 To use ... please enable JavaScript. Play video: Residential Exposure to Pesticides For closed captioning, click the CC button on ...

  20. Residential Exposure to Pesticides

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Latest Health News ? Residential Exposure to Pesticides URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videos/news/Residential_Exposure_091415.html Residential Exposure to Pesticides ...

  1. Pesticide exposure - Indian scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. India started pesticide production with manufacturing plant for DDT and benzene hexachloride (BHC) (HCH) in the year 1952. In 1958, India was producing over 5000 metric tonnes of pesticides. Currently, there are approximately 145 pesticides registered for use, and production has increased to approximately 85,000 metric tonnes. Rampant use of these chemicals has given rise to several short-term and long-term adverse effects of these chemicals. The first report of poisoning due to pesticides in India came from Kerala in 1958 where, over 100 people died after consuming wheat flour contaminated with parathion. Subsequently several cases of pesticide-poisoning including the Bhopal disaster have been reported. Despite the fact that the consumption of pesticides in India is still very low, about 0.5 kg/ha of pesticides against 6.60 and 12.0 kg/ha in Korea and Japan, respectively, there has been a widespread contamination of food commodities with pesticide residues, basically due to non-judicious use of pesticides. In India, 51% of food commodities are contaminated with pesticide residues and out of these, 20% have pesticides residues above the maximum residue level values on a worldwide basis. It has been observed that their long-term, low-dose exposure are increasingly linked to human health effects such as immune-suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities, and cancer. In this light, problems of pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, use of biotechnology, and biopesticides, and use of pesticides obtained from natural plant sources such as neem extracts are some of the future strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides

  2. Pesticides: chemicals for survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticides are chemicals used to control pests such as insects, weeds, plant diseases, nematodes, and rodents. The increased use of pesticides since 1945 has greatly aided the increase in crop production, protected livestock from diseases such as trypanosomiasis, protected man from diseases such as malaria and filarisis, decreased losses of stored grain, and has generally improved man's welfare. Despite the enormous benefits derived from pesticides these chemicals are not problem-free. Many pesticides are toxic to living organisms and interfere with specific biochemical systems. To measure the very small quantities of a pesticide radiolabelled chemicals are frequently essential, particularly to measure changes in the chemical structure of the pesticide, movement of the pesticide in soil, plants, or animals, amounts of pesticide going through various steps in food processing, etc. The use of radiolabelled pesticides is shortly shown for metabolism of the pesticide in crop species, metabolism in ruminant, in chickens and eggs, in soil, and possibly leaching and sorption in soil, hydrolysis, bio-concentration, microbial and photodegradation, and toxicity studies

  3. Pesticide reducing instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars-Bo; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Andersen, Martin; Bjørner, Thomas B.; Hauch, Jens; Topping, Chis J.

    2005-01-01

    For decades the concerns about the impact of modern agriculture’s use of pesticides have been one of the most debated issues within Danish environmental politics. Several action plans have aimed at reducing the use of pesticides, but the scientific basis of these has not been well justified. The aim of this paper is to analyze the effectiveness of different instruments targeting unilateral pesticide reductions in Danish agriculture as well as whether the benefit from further reductions exceeds t...

  4. Control of Pesticides 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    2002-01-01

    The analytical chemical authority control on pesticide products on the Danish market performed in 2001 is reported. Samples of selected groups of pesticides have been collected from the market and analysed to verify whether the actual contents of the respective active ingredients in the products comply with the label-claimed content. The tolerance of deviation from the label-claimed content of active ingredient is set by the Danish pesticide regulation. Three different groups of products covered...

  5. Control of Pesticides 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, Teddy; Petersen, Kitty Kastalag; Christoffersen, Christel

    2008-01-01

    The analytical chemical authority control of pesticide products on the Danish market in 2006 is described in this report. Samples of selected groups of pesticides have been collected from the market and analysed to verify whether the actual contents of the respective active ingredients in the products comply with the labelled content. The tolerance of deviation from the labelled content of active ingredient is set by the Danish Statutory Order on pesticides. In addition to the examination of the...

  6. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Information System contains information concerning all pesticide products registered in the United States. It includes registrant name and...

  7. 75 FR 28012 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on False or Misleading Pesticide Product...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0282; FRL-8824-8] Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on False or Misleading Pesticide Product Brand Names AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)....

  8. 78 FR 3418 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Web-Distributed Labeling for Pesticide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2012-0906; FRL-9374-4] Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Web- Distributed Labeling for Pesticide Products AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION:...

  9. Pesticide Registration Information System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PRISM provides an integrated, web portal for all pesticide related data, communications, registrations and transactions for OPP and its stakeholders, partners and...

  10. The Danish Pesticide Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Branth; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2015-01-01

    This case study analyses the effects of the Danish pesticide tax (1996-2013) on agriculture which was introduced as an ad valorem tax in 1996, doubled in 1998, and redesigned in 2013 as a tax based on the toxicity of the pesticides. The Danish pesticide taxes probably represent the world’s highest pesticide taxes on agriculture, which makes it interesting to analyze how effective they have been. Here the effects of the ad valorem tax (1996-2013) are analyzed. The case study demonstrates the chal...

  11. Agricultural pesticide residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utilization of tracer techniques in the study of agricultural pesticide residues is reviewed under the following headings: lysimeter experiments, micro-ecosystems, translocation in soil, degradation of pesticides in soil, biological availability of soil-applied substances, bound residues in the soil, use of macro- and microautography, double and triple labelling, use of tracer labelling in animal experiments. (U.K.)

  12. Residential Exposure to Pesticides

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... news/Residential_Exposure_091415.html Residential Exposure to Pesticides HealthDay News Video - September 15, 2015 To use ... please enable JavaScript. Play video: Residential Exposure to Pesticides For closed captioning, click the CC button on ...

  13. Pesticider 2 i overfladevand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyeland, B.; Kvamm, B. L.

    2001-01-01

    DMU har den 29. september 1999 afholdt en metodeafprøvning: Pesticider 2 i overfladevand. Der var tilmeldt 17 danske og udenlandske laboratorier i metodeafprøvningen. Prøvningen omfattede 32 pesticider i overfladevand fra en sjællandsk sø. Koncentrationsniveauet for hver komponent var på 0,025 - 0,205 µg/l. Resultaterne blev vurderet ud fra et statistisk program baseret på ISO Guide 5725

  14. Residential Exposure to Pesticides

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Transcript Preventive measures should be taken to reduce children’s exposure to pesticides at home. That’s the conclusion ... these dangers and make every effort to limit children’s exposure to pesticides. I’m Dr. Cindy Haines ...

  15. Pesticide Residues in Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    This indicator describes the number of pesticide residues detected in fruits, vegetables, grains, meat, and dairy products from across the country and the number of residues exceeding the EPA tolerance for a given pesticide-commodity pair from 1994 to 2009. This information pr...

  16. Desenvolvimento de métodos analíticos para determinação de agrotóxicos em sedimentos por cromatografia gasosa monodimensional e bidimensional abrangente com micro detector de captura de elétrons Development of analytical methods for pesticides in sediments by monodimensional and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro electron-capture detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Macedo da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of analytical methods for determination of eight pesticides of different chemical classes (trichlorfon, propanil, fipronil, propiconazole, trifloxystrobin, permethrin, difenoconazole and azoxystrobin in sediments with gas chromatography-micro-electron capture detector (GC/µECD and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detector (GCxGC/µECD is described. These methods were applied to real sediment samples, and the best results were obtained using a 5% diphenyl-methylpolysiloxane column for 1D-GC. For GCxGC the same column was employed in the first dimension and a 50%-phenyl-methylpolysiloxane stationary phase was placed in the second dimension. Due to the superior peak capacity and selectivity of GCxGC, interfering matrix peaks were separated from analytes, showing a better performance of GCxGC.

  17. Desenvolvimento de métodos analíticos para determinação de agrotóxicos em sedimentos por cromatografia gasosa monodimensional e bidimensional abrangente com micro detector de captura de elétrons / Development of analytical methods for pesticides in sediments by monodimensional and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro electron-capture detection

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana Macedo da, Silva; Cláudia Alcaraz, Zini; Elina Bastos, Caramão; Ewelin Monica Paturi Navarro, Canizares; Karen Alam, Leal.

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english The development of analytical methods for determination of eight pesticides of different chemical classes (trichlorfon, propanil, fipronil, propiconazole, trifloxystrobin, permethrin, difenoconazole and azoxystrobin) in sediments with gas chromatography-micro-electron capture detector (GC/µECD) and [...] comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detector (GCxGC/µECD) is described. These methods were applied to real sediment samples, and the best results were obtained using a 5% diphenyl-methylpolysiloxane column for 1D-GC. For GCxGC the same column was employed in the first dimension and a 50%-phenyl-methylpolysiloxane stationary phase was placed in the second dimension. Due to the superior peak capacity and selectivity of GCxGC, interfering matrix peaks were separated from analytes, showing a better performance of GCxGC.

  18. Residential Exposure to Pesticides

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at home. That’s the conclusion of a new study in the journal Pediatrics. Researchers analyzed data from 16 previous studies that looked at the association between residential pesticide ...

  19. The Danish Pesticide Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Branth; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted

    2015-01-01

    This case study analyses the effects of the Danish pesticide tax (1996-2013) on agriculture which was introduced as an ad valorem tax in 1996, doubled in 1998, and redesigned in 2013 as a tax based on the toxicity of the pesticides. The Danish pesticide taxes probably represent the world’s highest pesticide taxes on agriculture, which makes it interesting to analyze how effective they have been. Here the effects of the ad valorem tax (1996-2013) are analyzed. The case study demonstrates the challenges of choosing an optimal tax design in a complex political setting where, additionally, not all individuals in the target group necessarily react to the economic incentives as predicted by economic modeling. It also demonstrates that a small first green-tax-step over time might develop into a better tax design.

  20. What Is a Pesticide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration. Fertilizers, nutrients, and other substances used to promote plant survival and health are not considered plant growth regulators and thus are not pesticides. Biological control agents, except for certain microorganisms, are exempted ...

  1. Residential Exposure to Pesticides

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home ? Latest Health News ? Residential Exposure to Pesticides URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/ ... On the other hand, the researchers did not find any significant childhood cancer risk with exposure to ...

  2. Residential Exposure to Pesticides

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... new study in the journal Pediatrics. Researchers analyzed data from 16 previous studies that looked at the ... concluded that cancer risks are related to the type of pesticides used and the location of application ...

  3. Pesticide-Exposure Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    The "Pesticide-exposure Matrix" was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years.

  4. Transporte de agrotóxicos em lavoura de arroz irrigado sob três manejos de irrigação / Pesticide transport in rice field under three irrigation managements

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.F.D., Martini; L.A., Avila; G.V., Cassol; R., Zanella; S.L.O., Machado; M.S., Marques; M., De Vicari.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo de arroz irrigado no Rio Grande do Sul caracteriza-se pela permanência de lâmina de irrigação sobre o solo, o que ocasiona perdas de agrotóxicos na ocorrência de chuvas; portanto, o adequado manejo de irrigação pode influenciar na redução do transporte destes para o ambiente. O objetivo de [...] ste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes manejos de irrigação no extravasamento da água e no transporte e persistência de clomazone, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, trifloxystrobin e propiconazol em lavoura de arroz irrigado. Os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial consistiram nos manejos de irrigação por inundação contínua, intermitente e por banhos (fator A) e pelos agrotóxicos mencionados (fator B). Determinou-se o volume total de água extravasada e a taxa de dissipação e transporte desses agrotóxicos. Devido ao maior armazenamento de água da chuva, quando comparadas com a irrigação contínua, as irrigações intermitente e por banhos proporcionaram diminuição de 53 e 95% do volume de água perdida, resultando, respectivamente, em redução de 49 e 64% na massa total de agrotóxicos transportados para o ambiente, em relação ao total aplicado na lavoura. A massa de agrotóxico transportada não ultrapassou 3% do total aplicado, e as maiores concentrações de agrotóxicos em água ocorreram próximo à sua aplicação. Com base nesses resultados, salienta-se que os manejos de irrigação intermitente e por banhos minimizam o transporte de agrotóxicos para o ambiente. Abstract in english Rice crop in the state of Rio Grande do Sul is characterized by the presence of water layer on the soil, which can cause pesticide runoff during the occurrence of rainfall. Thus, proper irrigation management can reduce pesticide transport into the environment. The objective of this study was to eval [...] uate the effect of different irrigation managements on water runoff, transport and dissipation of clomazone, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, trifloxystrobin, and propiconazol. The treatments were arranged in a factorial scheme and consisted of continuous flooding, intermittent flooding, and flushing irrigation (factor A) and by the application of the pesticides listed above (factor B). Total water runoff, and pesticide transport and dissipation rate were evaluated. Due to the larger rainfall storage, compared with continuous flooding, intermittent flooding and flushing irrigation provided a reduction of 53 and 95% of water runoff, resulting, respectively, in a reduction of 49 and 64% of the total mass transported into the environment in relation to the total applied in the field. The pesticide mass transported was lower than 3% of the total amount applied. Based on these results, it could be concluded that intermittent flooding and flushing irrigation minimize pesticide transport into the environment.Since the highest pesticide concentrations occur close to application time, it is of fundamental importance to conduct proper irrigation management providing maximum permanence in the environment.

  5. PESTICIDE PRODUCT INFORMATION SYSTEM (PPIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS) contains information concerning all pesticide products registered in the United States. It includes registrant name and address, chemical ingredients, toxicity category, product names, distributor brand names, site/pest uses, pestic...

  6. Human Health Benchmarks for Pesticides

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Advanced testing methods now allow pesticides to be detected in water at very low levels. These small amounts of pesticides detected in drinking water or source...

  7. Radionuclides in pesticide research. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    467 papers on tracer techniques in pesticide research published through the years 1970 to 1974 are categorized according to type of pesticide and considering uptake, tanslocation, and metabolism of the various compounds applied

  8. On the paradox of pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Y. Charles; Yang, Yipeng

    2013-01-01

    The paradox of pesticides was observed experimentally, which says that pesticides may dramatically increase the population of a pest when the pest has a natural predator. Here we use a mathematical model to study the paradox. We find that the timing for the application of pesticides is crucial for the resurgence or non-resurgence of the pests. In particular, regularly applying pesticides is not a good idea as also observed in experiments. In fact, the best time to apply pest...

  9. Decontaminating pesticide protective clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, J

    1993-01-01

    The review of recent work on the mechanisms of soil removal from textiles assists in understanding decontamination of pesticide protective clothing. The current work provides explanatory conclusions about residue retention as a basis of making recommendations for the most effective decontamination procedures. A caution about generalizations: Some pesticides produce very idiosyncratic responses to decontamination. An example is the paraquat/salt response. Other pesticides exhibit noticeable and unique responses to a highly alkaline medium (carbaryl), or to bleach (chlorpyrifos), or are quickly volatilized (methyl parathion). Responses such as these do not apply to other pesticides undergoing decontamination. Given this caution, there are soil, substrate, and solvent responses that do maximize residue removal. Residue removal is less complete as the concentration of pesticide increases. The concentration of pesticide in fabric builds with successive exposures, and the more concentrated the pesticide, the more difficult the removal. Use a prewash product and/or presoak. The surfactant and/or solvent in a prewash product is a booster in residue removal. Residues transfer from contaminated clothing to other clothing during the washing cycle. Use a full washer of water for a limited number of garments to increase residue removal. The hotter the washing temperature, the better. Generally, this means a water temperature of at least 49 degrees C, and preferably 60 degrees C. Select the detergent shown to be more effective for the formulation: heavy-duty liquid detergents for emulsifiable concentrate formulations and powdered phosphate detergents for wettable powder formulations. If the fabric has a soil-repellent finish, use 1.25 times the amount recommended on the detergent label. For water hardness above 300 ppm, an additional amount of powdered phosphate detergent is needed to obtain the same level of residue removal as obtained with the heavy-duty liquid detergent when laundering fabrics with the soil-repellent finish. The mechanical action of agitation increases dislodgement of particulate material. Too many items in the washing apparatus or too low water volume, or both, decrease agitation and soil removal. Bleach can be used if desired. Fabric softener does not affect pesticide absorption or residue removal in laundering. Dry cleaning is not recommended because the solvents used in dry cleaning may be recycled through dilution, filtration, activated charcoal adsorption, or distillation. Pesticides still may be present in recycled solvents and can be transferred from one item to another, or from one load to subsequent loads of dry cleaning. PMID:8419989

  10. On the paradox of pesticides

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Y Charles

    2013-01-01

    The paradox of pesticides was observed experimentally, which says that pesticides may dramatically increase the population of a pest when the pest has a natural predator. Here we use a mathematical model to study the paradox. We find that the timing for the application of pesticides is crucial for the resurgence or non-resurgence of the pests. In particular, regularly applying pesticides is not a good idea as also observed in experiments. In fact, the best time to apply pesticides is when the pest population is reasonably high.

  11. Residential Exposure to Pesticides

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools You ... Products Lymphoma Pesticides About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  12. Residential Exposure to Pesticides

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Latest Health News ? Residential Exposure to Pesticides URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videos/news/ ...

  13. Residential Exposure to Pesticides

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & ... Leukemia Household Products Lymphoma Pesticides About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get email updates Subscribe to ...

  14. Control of pesticides 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    2005-01-01

    Four different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation were included in the 2003 analytical chemical authority control: 1) Herbicides containing clodinafop- propargyl, clomazone, fluroxypyr and glyphosate. 2) Fungicides containing bitertanol, fuberidazole, fenhexamid and pencycuron. 3) Insecticides containing cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, methoprene and cyromazine. 4) Plant growth regulators containing 1-napthylacetic acid. All products were examined for the cont...

  15. Kombinationseffekter af pesticider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudsk, Per; Andersen, Helle Raun; Cedergreen, Nina; Mathiassen, Solveig Kopp; Møhlenberg, Flemming; Streibig, Jens Carl; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

    2006-01-01

    Resumé: Effekten af 101 tokomponentblandinger og 20 trekomponentblandinger bestående af 22 forskellige pesticider blev undersøgt i 7 forskellige testsystemer. Effekterne af blandingerne blev sammenholdt med pesticidernes virkningsmekanismer/virkemåder med henblik på at undersøge, om det med baggrund i denne viden var muligt prediktere, hvorvidt blandingerne ville udvise additivitet, antagonisme eller synergisme. Endvidere blev undersøgt i hvor vid udstrækning resultaterne fra et testsystem kunne...

  16. Control of Pesticides 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    2001-01-01

    Three different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation have been included in the 2000 analytical chemical authority control: 1) herbicides containing aclonifen, clopyralid, dicamba, quinoclamine, bromoxynil, ioxynil, simazine, and terbuthylazine. 2) Fungicides containing fenpropidin, fluazinam, and kresoximmethyl. 3) Insecticides containing buprofezin and fenazaquin. All products were examined for content of active ingredient. Satisfactory results were found among herbicides cont...

  17. Residential Exposure to Pesticides

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... significantly associated with an increased risk of childhood leukemia and lymphoma. The risk of these malignancies rose ... matters to you. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Childhood Leukemia Household Products Lymphoma Pesticides About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  18. Residential Exposure to Pesticides

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with an increased risk of childhood leukemia and lymphoma. The risk of these malignancies rose with the ... Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Childhood Leukemia Household Products Lymphoma Pesticides About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us ...

  19. Residential Exposure to Pesticides

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... health news that matters to you. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Childhood Leukemia Household Products Lymphoma Pesticides About ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  20. 76 FR 59909 - Amisulbrom; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ...Imported Grape and Tomato'' at page 23 in...of Concern Once a pesticide's toxicological...from drinking water. Pesticide residues in drinking...imported grapes and tomatoes and there are no pesticide registrations in...

  1. 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP) covers discharges of biological pesticides, and chemical pesticides that leave a residue, in areas where EPA is the...

  2. Soil column leaching of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    In this review, I address the practical and theoretical aspects of pesticide soil mobility.I also address the methods used to measure mobility, and the factors that influence it, and I summarize the data that have been published on the column leaching of pesticides.Pesticides that enter the unsaturated soil profile are transported downwards by the water flux, and are adsorbed, desorbed, and/or degraded as they pass through the soil. The rate of passage of a pesticide through the soil depends on the properties of the pesticide, the properties of the soil and the prevailing environmental conditions.Because large amounts of many different pesticides are used around the world, they and their degradates may sometimes contaminate groundwater at unacceptable levels.It is for this reason that assessing the transport behavior and soil mobility of pesticides before they are sold into commerce is important and is one indispensable element that regulators use to assess probable pesticide safety. Both elementary soil column leaching and sophisticated outdoor lysimeter studies are performed to measure the leaching potential for pesticides; the latter approach more reliably reflects probable field behavior, but the former is useful to initially profile a pesticide for soil mobility potential.Soil is physically heterogeneous. The structure of soil varies both vertically and laterally, and this variability affects the complex flow of water through the soil profile, making it difficult to predict with accuracy. In addition, macropores exist in soils and further add to the complexity of how water flow occurs. The degree to which soil is tilled, the density of vegetation on the surface, and the type and amounts of organic soil amendments that are added to soil further affect the movement rate of water through soil, the character of soil adsorption sites and the microbial populations that exist in the soil. Parameters that most influence the rate of pesticide mobility in soil are persistence (DT50) of the pesticide, and its sorption/desorption(Koc) characteristics. These parameters may vary for the same pesticide from geographic site-to-site and with soil depth. The interactions that normally occur between pesticides and dissolved organic matter (DOM) or WDC are yet other factors that may complicate pesticide leaching behavior.The soil mobility of pesticides is normally tested both in the laboratory and in the field. Lab studies are initially performed to give researchers a preliminary appraisal of the relative mobility of a pesticide. Later, field lysimeter studies can be performed to provide more natural leaching conditions that emulate the actual field use pattern. Lysimeter studies give the most reliable information on the leaching behavior of a pesticide under field conditions, but these studies are time-consuming and expensive and cannot be performed everywhere. It is for this reason that the laboratory soil column leaching approach is commonly utilized to profile the mobility of a pesticide,and appraise how it behaves in different soils, and relative to other pesticides.Because the soil structure is chemically and physically heterogenous, different pesticide tests may produce variable DT50 and Koc values; therefore, initial pesticide mobility testing is undertaken in homogeneously packed columns that contain two or more soils and are eluted at constant flow rates. Such studies are done in duplicate and utilize a conservative tracer element. By fitting an appropriate mathematical model to the breakthrough curve of the conservative tracer selected,researchers determine key mobility parameters, such as pore water velocity, the column-specific dispersion coefficient, and the contribution of non equilibrium transport processes. Such parameters form the basis for estimating the probable transport and degradation rates that will be characteristic of the tested pesticide. Researchers also examine how a pesticide interacts with soil DOM and WDC, and what contribution from facilitated transport to mobility is made as a result of the effects of

  3. The legacy of pesticide pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Cedergreen, Nina; McKnight, Ursula S.; Kreuger, Jenny; Jacobsen, Dean; Astrup Kristensen, Esben; Friberg, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    We revealed a history of legacy pesticides in water and sediment samples from 19 small streams across an agricultural landscape. Dominant legacy compounds included organochlorine pesticides, such as DDT and lindane, the organophosphate chlorpyrifos and triazine herbicides such as terbutylazine and simazine which have long been banned in the EU. The highest concentrations of legacy pesticides were found in streams draining catchments with a large proportion of arable farmland suggesting that they...

  4. Radiation induced microbial pesticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author)

  5. Radiation induced microbial pesticide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Sang Jae

    2000-01-01

    To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author)

  6. Bacterial Degradation of Pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Berith Elkær

    2012-01-01

    This PhD project was carried out as part of the Microbial Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Water Resources (MIRESOWA) project, funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research (grant number 2104-08-0012). The environment is contaminated with various xenobiotic compounds e.g. pesticides. Bioaugmentation i.e. addition of specific degrader organisms, has been suggested as an environmentally friendly and economically competitive strategy for cleaning polluted sites. Several organisms have bee...

  7. Control of Pesticides 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    2005-01-01

    Four different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation were included in the 2004 analytical chemical authority control: 1) Herbicides containing bentazone, dicamba, dichlorprop-P, mecoprop-P, MCPA, foramsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methylsodium, rimsulfuron and triasulfuron. 2) Fungicides containing hymexazol. 3) Insecticides and molluscicides containing imidacloprid and methiocarb. 4) Rodenticides containing coumatetralyl. All samples were examined for the content of the respective act...

  8. 77 FR 74003 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... required to register pesticides. The following list of North American Industrial Classification System... prevention, and in heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration systems. All of these...

  9. Tracer work in pesticide research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innumerable studies on the large number of pesticides being used throughout the world led to some adverse findings on the properties and behavior of these chemicals and their degradation products in revelation to potential toxicity and environmental pollution. However, it is also a fact (difficult to accept as it may) that the use of pesticides as an indirect means of increasing food production cannot yet be dispensed with despite the potential dangers attributed to it. What can be done is to insure its judicious application which means minimizing its effectiveness in controlling pest infestations. To be able to do this it is necessary to know not only what pesticide is to be used against a given pest but also the fate of pesticide after application to a particular environment under prevailing conditions. Knowledge of the distribution and persistence of the parent compounds under metabolites will also help either, to confirm or to dispel the alleged dangers posed by them. Radiotracer methodology is particularly effective for this type of work because it permits highly sensitive analysis with minimum clean-up and permits one to determine even the bound residues which defies ordinary extraction procedures. Some studies made are studies on fate of pesticides in plant after foliar application to plant needs, uptake and translocation of systemic pesticides, fate of pesticides in soil, bioaccumulation of pesticide by aquatic organisms, etc. This particular study is on distribution of pesticide among the components of a rice/fish ecosystem. This project aims to generate data from experiments conducted in a model ecosystem using radiolabelled lindane and carbo-furan. In both cases, results show a decline in extractable species from the recommended dosage of pesticide application although they tend to imbibe a considerable amount of pesticide. It is hoped that depuration in additional experiments will bring useful results. (Auth.)

  10. Pesticide Degradation in Thermal Foggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermal foggers are used in many parts of the world for vector control. Since thermal foggers use heat to create and help propel adulticide clouds, there is reason to examine the stability of pesticides in both diesel and water-based formulations. This study examined the degradation of 5 pesticide...

  11. Quality control of pesticide products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In light of an established need for more efficient analytical procedures, this publication, which documents the findings of an IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on “Quality Control of Pesticide Products”, simplifies the existing protocol for pesticide analysis while simultaneously upholding existing standards of quality. This publication includes both a report on the development work done in the CRP and a training manual for use by pesticide analysis laboratories. Based on peer reviewed and internationally recognized methods published by the Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC) and the Collaborative International Pesticides Analytical Council (CIPAC), this report provides laboratories with versatile tools to enhance the analysis of pesticide chemicals and to extend the scope of available analytical repertoires. Adoption of the proposed analytical methodologies promises to reduce laboratories’ use of solvents and the time spent on reconfiguration and set-up of analytical equipment

  12. METABOLISM OF PESTICIDES BY PLANTS AND PROKARYOTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The metabolism of pesticides by plants is a key factor in the susceptibility and tolerance of a species to a given pesticide, whereas metabolism by prokaryotes is often a key determinant in the environmental fate of that pesticide. Thus, understanding pesticide metabolism in both groups of organisms...

  13. Fact Sheets on Pesticides in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Coalition against the Misuse of Pesticides, Washington, DC.

    This document consists of a collection of fact sheets about the use of pesticides in schools and how to reduce it. The sheets are: (1) "Alternatives to Using Pesticides in Schools: What Is Integrated Pest Management?"; (2) "Health Effects of 48 Commonly Used Pesticides in Schools"; (3) "The Schooling of State Pesticide Laws--2002 Update: A Review…

  14. The Greening of Pesticide–Environment Interactions: Some Personal Observations

    OpenAIRE

    John E. Casida

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pesticide–environment interactions are bidirectional. The environment alters pesticides by metabolism and photodegradation, and pesticides in turn change the environment through nontarget or secondary effects.

  15. 75 FR 33705 - Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Change to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2005-0327; FRL-8830-7] RIN 2070-AJ74 Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Change to Labeling...SUMMARY: EPA is amending the pesticide container and containment regulations...

  16. 75 FR 62323 - Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Change to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2005-0327; FRL-8848-8] RIN 2070-AJ74 Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Change to Labeling...SUMMARY: EPA is amending the pesticide container and containment regulations...

  17. 76 FR 21294 - Pesticides; Microbial Pesticide Definitions and Applicability; Clarification and Availability of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0670; FRL-8857-7] RIN 2070-AJ80 Pesticides; Microbial Pesticide Definitions and Applicability; Clarification...is also soliciting comment on a draft microbial pesticide test guideline, explaining the deposition...

  18. 77 FR 23713 - Pesticides; Final Guidance on Material Safety Data Sheets as Pesticide Labeling; Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2012-0176; FRL-9343-9] Pesticides; Final Guidance on Material Safety Data Sheets as Pesticide Labeling; Request for Comment on Paperwork...Agency is announcing the availability of a Pesticide Registration Notice (PR Notice)...

  19. 40 CFR 168.22 - Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA section 24(c) registrations...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATEMENTS OF ENFORCEMENT...

  20. 77 FR 52610 - Pesticides; Microbial Pesticide Definitions and Applicability; Clarification and Availability of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0670; FRL-9338-9] RIN 2070-AJ80 Pesticides; Microbial Pesticide Definitions and Applicability; Clarification...announcing the availability of a final microbial pesticide test guideline that further explains the...

  1. 76 FR 72404 - Pesticides: Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Non-Dietary Exposure Task...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0877; FRL-9326-8] Pesticides: Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Non-Dietary...The Agency is announcing the availability of a Pesticide Registration Notice (PR Notice) regarding...

  2. PESTICIDE APPLICATION TECHNICS IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?uro Banaj

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The academic textbook Pesticide application tehnics improvement is the result of several-year recording theoretical models, numerous practical tests, and data collection relating to technical systems in plant protection and its environment in the narrowest sense. In this first edition, the authors cover the area they have dealt with for many years. The authors aimed to present complete and clear methods how to solve specific problems in the agricultural practice management, plant protection, and direct practice application – ‘‘Know- How'', with as many as possible useful data. References used, along with local ones, are mostly American and from Western Europe. This textbook is intended for those who already use the agricultural technique in plant protection and those who are just acquiring the basics of technical systems proper application in daily practice, regardless the size of the agricultural farm. The authors covered in details and explained some bases of physics logic, analysis, and synthesis of specific laws while using pesticides due to extremely importance in understanding the problem area.

  3. Pesticide use and application: An Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural development continues to remain the most important objective of Indian planning and policy. In the process of development of agriculture, pesticides have become an important tool as a plant protection agent for boosting food production. Further, pesticides play a significant role by keeping many dreadful diseases. However, exposure to pesticides both occupationally and environmentally causes a range of human health problems. It has been observed that the pesticides exposures are increasingly linked to immune suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities and cancer. Currently, India is the largest producer of pesticides in Asia and ranks twelfth in the world for the use of pesticides. A vast majority of the population in India is engaged in agriculture and is therefore exposed to the pesticides used in agriculture. Although Indian average consumption of pesticide is far lower than many other developed economies, the problem of pesticide residue is very high in India. Pesticide residue in several crops has also affected the export of agricultural commodities in the last few years. In this context, pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, proper application technologies, and integrated pest management are some of the key strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides. There is a dearth of studies related to these issues in India. Therefore, the thrust of this paper was to review the technology of application of pesticides in India and recommend future strategies for the rational use of pesticides and minimizing the problems related to health and environment.

  4. Acute pesticide poisoning and pesticide registration in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has been for 20 years the most acknowledged international initiative for reducing negative impact from pesticide use in developing countries. We analyzed pesticide use and poisoning in Central America, particularly in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, and evaluated whether registration decisions are based on such data, in accordance with the FAO Code. Extensive use of very hazardous pesticides continues in Central America and so do poisonings with organophosphates, carbamates, endosulfan and paraquat as the main causative agents. Central American governments do not carry out or commission scientific risk assessments. Instead, guidelines from international agencies are followed for risk management through the registration process. Documentation of pesticide poisonings during several decades never induced any decision to ban or restrict a pesticide. However, based on the official surveillance systems, in 2000, the ministers of health of the seven Central American countries agreed to ban or restrict twelve of these pesticides. Now, almost 4 years later, restrictions have been implemented in El Salvador and in Nicaragua public debate is ongoing. Chemical and agricultural industries do not withdraw problematic pesticides voluntarily. In conclusion, the registration processes in Central America do not comply satisfactorily with the FAO Code. However, international regulatory guidelines are important in developing countries, and international agencies should strongly extend its scope and influence, limiting industry involvement. Profound changes in international and national agricultural policies, steering towards sustainable agriculture based on non-chemical pest management, are the only way to reduce poisonings

  5. 40 CFR 158.2010 - Biochemical pesticides data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides data requirements. 158.2010 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides §...

  6. 40 CFR 158.2110 - Microbial pesticides data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides data requirements. 158.2110 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2110...

  7. Pesticides (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the environment. Chemicals: Messing Around in Nature's Lab (Johns Hopkins University Ecohealth) - An introduction to pesticides, their use by farmers, and their impact on crops, soil quality, beneficial organisms, ecosystems, and our health. Enviro- ...

  8. Radiation induced pesticidal microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, D. S

    2001-01-01

    To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants.

  9. Radiation induced pesticidal microbes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants

  10. Challenges in Regulating Pesticide Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Debra Denton; Bruce Hammock; Craig Wheelock; Jason Belden; Michael Lydy

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces the field of mixture toxicity and the challenges in regulating pesticide mixtures. Even though pesticides are unique chemical stressors designed to have biological activity that can affect a number of nontarget species, they are intentionally placed into the environment in large quantities. Currently, methods and terminology for evaluating mixture toxicity are poorly established. The most common approach used is the assumption of additive concentration, with the concentr...

  11. Canadian pesticide air sampling campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Y.; Harner, T.; Blanchard, P.; Li, Y.F.; Aulagnier, F. [Environment Canada, Gatineau, PQ (Canada). Meteorological Service of Canada; Tuduri, L. [Laboratoire de Physico Toxicochimie des Systemes Naturels, Talence (France). Equipe Perigourdine de Chimie Appliquee; Waite, D.; Belzer, W. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environmental Conservation Branch; Murphy, C. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environmental Protection Service

    2005-07-01

    Although pesticides are widely used in Canada, little is known about the presence, distribution, and fate of currently used pesticides (CUPs) in the Canadian atmosphere. This paper provided details of a campaign conducted in 2003 to provide information on air and precipitation levels of CUPs. The objective of the campaign was to create pesticide emission inventories and to identify important pesticide issues related to environmental fate, exposure, and risk assessment in order to develop effective pesticide policies. A Canadian atmospheric network for currently used pesticides was established, which was then followed by an intensive field study in the Canadian prairies. Air samples were collected weekly using high volume PS-1 samplers with polyurethane foam (PUF) XAD sandwiches and glass fibre filters. Precipitation samples were collected each month using MIC samplers equipped with XAD columns. Passive air samplers were deployed at many of the sites for periods of 1 to 3 months. Results of the study showed relatively high concentrations of endosulfan at all sites. High levels of chloropyrifos, malathion, and carbofurans were also detected from air samples. High concentrations of lindane were also observed. Alachlor, metochlor, and trifluralin concentrations were detected in most Ontario and Quebec air and rainfall samples. Eleven target pesticides were detected from air samples during the prairie study. High concentrations of triallate were observed, and good correlations between air concentration trends and dry deposition trends were seen for triallate, 2,4-D, MCPA, dicamba, and bromoxynil. Results of the campaign are now being modelled using a simplified gridded pesticide emission and residue model. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Pesticides' influence on wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Wine quality strongly depends on the grape quality. To obtain high-quality wines, it is necessary to process healthy grapes at the correct ripeness stage and for this reason the farmer has to be especially careful in the prevention of parasite attacks on the grapevine. The most common fungal diseases affecting grape quality are downy and powdery mildew (Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator), and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea). On the other hand, the most dangerous insects are the grape moth (Lobesia botrana), vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus), and the citrus mealybug (Planococcus citri). Farmers fight grape diseases and insects applying pesticides that can be found at harvest time on grapes. The persistence of pesticides depends on the chemical characteristic of the active ingredients as well as on photodegradation, thermodegradation, codistillation, and enzymatic degradation. The pesticide residues on grapes can be transferred to the must and this can influence the selection and development of yeast strains. Moreover, yeasts can also influence the levels of the pesticides in the wine by reducing or adsorbing them on lees. During the fermentative process, yeasts can cause the disappearance of pesticide residues by degradation or absorption at the end of the fermentation when yeasts are deposited as lees. In this chapter, we reviewed the effect of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides on yeasts. We also studied the effect of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation on pesticide residues. PMID:20610173

  13. 40 CFR 152.175 - Pesticides classified for restricted use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticides classified for restricted...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.175 Pesticides classified for restricted use. The following uses of pesticide products containing...

  14. 40 CFR 158.2000 - Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2000 Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability. This subpart applies to all biochemical pesticides as defined in paragraphs...

  15. 40 CFR 158.2110 - Microbial pesticides data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides data requirements...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2110 Microbial pesticides data requirements. (a) For all microbial pesticides. (1) The following § 158.2120 through §...

  16. 40 CFR 158.2100 - Microbial pesticides definition and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2100 Microbial pesticides definition and applicability. (a) This subpart applies to all living or dead microbial pesticides...

  17. 40 CFR 158.2010 - Biochemical pesticides data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides data...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2010 Biochemical pesticides... required to support registration of biochemical pesticides. Sections 158.2080 through 158.2084 identify...

  18. 77 FR 74003 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. General Information A. Does this...data and labeling for ``mold-related'' pesticide...for products used for mold remediation, on nonporous and porous...residual activity, for mold prevention, and in...

  19. Challenges in Regulating Pesticide Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Denton

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the field of mixture toxicity and the challenges in regulating pesticide mixtures. Even though pesticides are unique chemical stressors designed to have biological activity that can affect a number of nontarget species, they are intentionally placed into the environment in large quantities. Currently, methods and terminology for evaluating mixture toxicity are poorly established. The most common approach used is the assumption of additive concentration, with the concentrations adjusted for potency to a reference toxicant. Using this approach, the joint action of pesticides that have similar chemical structures and modes of toxic action can be predicted. However, this approach and other modeling techniques often provide little insight into the observed toxicity produced by mixtures of pesticides from different classes. Particularly difficult to model are mixtures that involve a secondary toxicant that changes the toxicokinetics of a primary toxicant. This may result in increased activation or a change in the persistence of the primary toxicant within the organism and may be responsible for a several-fold increase or decrease in toxicity. At present, the ecological effects caused by mixtures of pesticides are given little consideration in the regulatory process. However, mixtures are being considered in relation to human health in the pesticide registration process, setting a precedent that could be followed for ecological protection. Additionally, pesticide mixtures may be regulated through toxicity testing of surface water under the Clean Water Act. The limits of our basic knowledge of how mixtures interact are compromising both these avenues for regulating mixtures. We face many challenges to adequately protecting the environment from mixture toxicity; these challenges include understanding the interactions of toxicants within an organism, identifying the mixtures that most commonly occur and cause adverse effects, and developing a regulatory structure capable of minimizing environmental impacts.

  20. 78 FR 42693 - Hexythiazox; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ...As to residue levels in food, EPA used tolerance level...are appropriate for a food-use pesticide based...CT were assumed for all food commodities. 2. Dietary exposure...pesticides/trac/science/trac6a05.pdf....

  1. 75 FR 31785 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ...EPA received the following pesticide registration applications...fruiting vegetables (including tomato), oilseed crops (including...fruiting vegetables (including tomato), oat, oilseed crops (including...Environmental protection, Pesticides and pest. Dated: May...

  2. Agricultural Pesticides May Affect Kids' Breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_156037.html Agricultural Pesticides May Affect Kids' Breathing Early exposure to organophosphates ... 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Early exposure to widely used pesticides may harm children's lungs, a new study says. ...

  3. Pesticide risks around the home (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides are substances which kill or deter unwanted pests, such as insects or rodents. These substances can ... avoid an accidental ingestion is to keep all pesticides out of the reach of children.

  4. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality: Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Greener Living Health and Safety Land and Cleanup Pesticides Waste Water Science & Technology Air Climate Change Ecosystems Health Land, Waste and Cleanup Pesticides Substances and Toxics Sustainable Practices Water Laws & Regulations ...

  5. 40 CFR 158.2080 - Experimental use permit data requirements-biochemical pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...use permit data requirements-biochemical pesticides. 158.2080 Section 158.2080 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides §...

  6. The Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbom, Annette Elisabeth; Brüsch, Walter Michael; Juhler, Rene K.; Ernstsen, Vibeke; Gudmundsson, Lasse; Kjær, Jeanne; Plauborg, Finn; Grant, Ruth; Nyegaard, Per; Olsen, Preben

    2010-01-01

    In 1998, the Danish Parliament initiated the Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme (PLAP), an intensive monitoring programme aimed at evaluating the leaching risk of pesticides under field conditions. The objective of the PLAP is to improve the scientific foundation for decision-making in the Danish regulation of pesticides. The specific aim is to analyse whether pesticides applied in accordance with current regulations leach to groundwater in unacceptable concentrations. The programme current...

  7. Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Ye; Jeremy Beach; Jonathan W. Martin; Ambikaipakan Senthilselvan

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occup...

  8. Pesticide regulations and farm worker safety: the need to improve pesticide regulations in Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Phung, Dung Tri; Connell, Des; Miller, Greg; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural pesticide use in Viet Nam has more than tripled since 1990. However, pesticide legislation and regulations have not been developed in response to this large increase in usage, as a result of which pesticides pose a serious threat to human health and the environment. This paper identifies the need to improve pesticide regulations in Viet Nam through a comparative analysis of pesticide regulations in Viet Nam and the United States of America, where the rate of acute poisoning among...

  9. 77 FR 10962 - Flazasulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ...the legal limit for a pesticide chemical residue in...aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue, including...exposure through drinking water and in residential settings...and children to the pesticide chemical residue in...in inflammatory cell infiltration, hepatocellular...

  10. Pesticides: Food and environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticides are an integral part of modern agriculture, also in most developing countries. Although the annual average consumption of active ingredients in agriculture may be below 0.1 kg a.i./ha, most countries now consume more than 2 kg a.i./ha; some of the intensively cropped regions in South-East Asia are exposed to even higher amounts. Inherent contamination of the environment follows if rules and regulations are not strictly adhered to. The search for safer, less persistent and more specific pesticides and examination of the fate of applied pesticides in various regions of the world were the main themes of the symposium. Special emphasis was placed on the use of nuclear techniques, especially on labelled compounds in research. The Proceedings include all the papers and posters that were presented. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Reduction of substituted benzonitrile pesticides.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sokolová, Romana; Hromadová, Magdaléna; Fiedler, Jan; Pospíšil, Lubomír; Giannarelli, S.; Valášek, Michal

    2008-01-01

    Ro?. 622, ?. 2 (2008), s. 211-218. ISSN 1572-6657 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA400400505; GA MŠk OC 140; GA MŠk LC510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : benzonitrile pesticides * polarography * voltammetry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.484, year: 2008

  12. Pesticides and their effects on wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driver, C.J.

    1994-07-01

    About 560 active ingredients are currently used as pesticides. Applications of these pesticides are made to agricultural lands and other areas inhabited by wildlife. Unfortunately, many agricultural-use pesticides also entail some measure of risk to organisms other than the pest species. Because testing of pesticides prior to registration cannot evaluate all the potential environmental-pesticide-wildlife/fish interactions, current methods of risk assessment do not always provide sufficient safety to nontarget organisms. This is evidenced by die-offs of fish and wildlife from applications of pesticides at environmentally {open_quotes}safe{close_quotes} rates, the linking of population declines of some species with agrochemical use, and observations of survival-threatening behavioral changes in laboratory and field animals exposed to typical field levels of pesticides. It is important to note, however, that the majority of pesticides, when properly applied, have not caused significant injury to wildlife. A brief summary of pesticide effects on wildlife and fish are presented for the common classes of pesticides in use today.

  13. The use and disposal of household pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most pesticides are synthetic chemicals manufactured specifically for their toxic properties to the target species, and widely used globally. Several epidemiological studies in the United States have suggested health concerns arising from the chronic exposure of young children to pesticides in the domestic environment. In the UK very little is currently known about how nonoccupational pesticides are being used or disposed of. Any use of pesticides is a potential risk factor for children's exposure, and any potential exposure is likely to be reduced by the parents' adopting precautionary behaviour when using these pesticide products. This was investigated using a sample of 147 parents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort in and around Bristol, through an in-depth interview between August and November 2001. The results of this study add to the understanding of the underlying behaviour of parents applying pesticide products in the home environment in the UK. Pesticides are readily available, and are normally purchased in do-it-yourself shops and supermarkets and mostly disposed of in domestic waste. Safety was stated by 45% of parents to be the most important factor to consider when buying a pesticide. When buying pesticide products, labels were stated to be the most important source of information about pesticides. However, a third of parents stated they would not follow the product label exactly when using a product, just under half felt labels were both inadequate and hard to understand, and about 10% of parents would not take notice of warnings on the pesticide label. Less than half of parents would use gloves when applying a pesticide, although the use of protective equipment such as gloves during the application of pesticides could greatly reduce the exposure. It is a public health concern that the instructions on the labels of products may not always be understood or followed, and further understanding of user behaviour is needed

  14. 40 CFR 158.2150 - Microbial pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides nontarget... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2150 Microbial pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate...

  15. 40 CFR 158.2060 - Biochemical pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides nontarget... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2060 Biochemical pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate...

  16. 40 CFR 158.2080 - Experimental use permit data requirements-biochemical pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements-biochemical pesticides. 158.2080 Section 158.2080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2080 Experimental use permit data requirements—biochemical pesticides. (a) Sections...

  17. 40 CFR 158.2172 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides residue data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides residue data requirements table. 158.2172 Section 158.2172 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2172 Experimental use permit microbial pesticides residue data requirements table. (a)...

  18. 40 CFR 158.2082 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides residue data requirements table. 158.2082 Section 158.2082 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2082 Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table. (a)...

  19. Pesticide Environmental Accounting: a method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, A W; Mumford, J D

    2008-01-01

    The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts. PMID:17604888

  20. PESTICIDE ASSESSMENT TOOL FOR RATING INVESTIGATIONS OF TRANSPORT (PATRIOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pesticide Assessment Tool for Rating Investigations of Transport (PATRIOT) is designed to provide rapid analyses of ground water vulnerability to pesticides on a regional, state, or local level. PATRIOT assesses ground water vulnerability by quantifying pesticide leaching pot...

  1. 40 CFR 152.175 - Pesticides classified for restricted use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticides classified for restricted use. 152.175 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES...

  2. 75 FR 82011 - Web-Distributed Labeling of Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ...FRL-8856-4] Web-Distributed Labeling of Pesticides AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...considering an initiative to make portions of pesticide labeling for certain products available...users' comprehension and compliance with pesticide labeling, thereby improving...

  3. 75 FR 48672 - Pesticides; Revised Fee Schedule for Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0599; FRL-8840-7] Pesticides; Revised Fee Schedule for Registration...EPA is publishing a revised list of pesticide registration service fees applicable to specified pesticide applications and tolerance...

  4. 78 FR 59347 - Pesticides; Revised Fee Schedule for Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2013-0621; FRL-9399-5] Pesticides; Revised Fee Schedule for Registration...EPA is publishing a revised list of pesticide registration service fees applicable to specified pesticide applications and tolerance...

  5. 78 FR 26935 - Data Requirements for Antimicrobial Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ...Data Requirements for Antimicrobial Pesticides; Final Rule Federal Register / Vol...Data Requirements for Antimicrobial Pesticides AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...data requirements for antimicrobial pesticide products to reflect current...

  6. A mobile App for military operational entomology pesticide applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple field studies conducted for the Deployed War Fighter Protection (DWFP) research program have generated over 80 specific guidance points for innovative combinations of pesticide application equipment, pesticide formulations, and application techniques for aerosol and residual pesticide treat...

  7. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...The pesticide product is an antimicrobial pesticide as defined in FIFRA...least one of the following antimicrobial product use categories...water systems; antifouling coatings; wood preservatives; or...will EPA determine if an antimicrobial pesticide product...

  8. Pattern of pesticide storage before pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Fahim; Manuweera, Gamini; Gunnell, David; Azher, Shifa; Eddleston, Michael; Dawson, Andrew; Konradsen, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deliberate self-poisoning with agricultural pesticides is the commonest means of suicide in rural Asia. It is mostly impulsive and facilitated by easy access to pesticides. The aim of this large observational study was to investigate the immediate source of pesticides used for self-harm to help inform suicide prevention strategies such as reducing domestic access to pesticides. METHODS: The study was conducted in a district hospital serving an agricultural region of Sri Lanka. Patien...

  9. Managing Pesticide Risks for Non-Target Ecosystems with Pesticide Risk Indicators: a Multicriteria Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Travisi, Chiara Maria; Nijkamp, Peter; Vighi, Marco; GIACOMELLI, PAOLO

    2004-01-01

    In the search for effective pesticide risk management tools, the design of pesticide risk indicators is nowadays receiving increasing attention as a complement to more established regulatory strategies. In the present paper, we apply some recently developed pesticide risk indices and test their potential for management purposes. A pilot approach is proposed, which explores pesticide worst-case hazard scenarios at different space-time scales by means of a set of 5 ecotoxicological risk indices...

  10. Pesticide poisoning in the developing world--a minimum pesticides list

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eddleston, Michael; Karalliedde, Lakshman; Buckley, Nick; Fernando, Ravindra; Hutchinson, Gerard; Isbister, Geoff; Konradsen, Flemming; Murray, Douglas; Piola, Juan Carlos; Senanayake, Nimal; Sheriff, Rezvi; Singh, Surjit; Siwach, S B; Smit, Lidwien

    2002-01-01

    In parts of the developing world, pesticide poisoning causes more deaths than infectious diseases. Use of pesticides is poorly regulated and often dangerous; their easy availability also makes them a popular method of self-harm. In 1985, the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) produced a voluntary code of conduct for the pesticide industry in an attempt to limit the harmful effects of pesticides. Unfortunately, a lack of adequate government resources in the developing world makes this cod...

  11. Pesticides: Benefaction or Pandora's Box? A synopsis of the environmental aspects of 243 pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Linders JBHJ; Jansma JW; Mensink BJWG; Otermann K

    2007-01-01

    The report provides an overview of physical, chemical and environmental data of 243 pesticides. The data mentioned are based on confidential information supplied by the manufacturers of the pesticides. For all pesticides mentioned a Final Environmental File, which is public, is derived. Tables with assorted data (sorted from high to low adverse environmental effect) for several environmental items are also included. Differences in environmental aspects per group of pesticid...

  12. Chiral pesticides: identification, description, and environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Elin M; Morrison, Candice N; Goldsmith, Michael R; Foreman, William T

    2012-01-01

    Of the 1,693 pesticides considered in this review, 1,594 are organic chemicals, 47 are inorganic chemicals, 53 are of biological origin (largely non chemical; insect,fungus, bacteria, virus, etc.), and 2 have an undetermined structure. Considering that the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs found 1,252 pesticide active ingredients(EPA Pesticides Customer Service 2011), we consider this dataset to be comprehensive; however, no direct comparison of the compound lists was undertaken. Of all pesticides reviewed, 482 (28%) are chiral; 30% are chiral when considering only the organic chemical pesticides. A graph of this distribution is shown in Fig. 7a. Each pesticide is classified with up to three pesticidal utilities (e.g., fungicide, plant growth regulator, rodenticide, etc.), taken first from the Pesticide Manual as a primary source, and the Compendium of Common Pesticide Names website as a secondary source. Of the chiral pesticides, 195 (34%) are insecticides (including attractants, pheromones, and repellents), 150 (27%) are herbicides (including plant growth regulators and herbicide safeners), 104 (18%) are fungicides, and 55 (10%)are acaricides. The distribution of chiral pesticides by utility is shown in Fig. 7b,including categories of pesticides that make up 3%t or less of the usage categories.Figure 7c shows a similar distribution of non chiral pesticide usage categories. Of the chiral pesticides, 270 (56%) have one chiral feature, 105 (22%) have two chiral features, 30 (6.2%) have three chiral features, and 29 (6.0%) have ten or more chiral features.Chiral chemicals pose many difficulties in stereospecific synthesis, characterization, and analysis. When these compounds are purposely put into the environment,even more interesting complications arise in tracking, monitoring, and predicting their fate and risks. More than 475 pesticides are chiral, as are other chiral contaminants such as pharmaceuticals, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, synthetic musks, and their degradates (Kallenborn and Hiihnerfuss 2001;Heeb et al. 2007; Hihnerfuss and Shah 2009). The stereoisomers of pesticides can have widely different efficacy, toxicity to nontarget organisms, and metabolic rates in biota. For these reasons, it is important to first be aware of likely fate and effect differences, to incorporate molecular asymmetry insights into research projects, and to study the individual stereoisomers of the applied pesticide material.With the advent of enantioselective chromatography techniques, the chirality of pesticides has been increasingly studied. While the ChirBase (Advanced ChemistryDevelopment 1997-2010) database does not include all published chiral analytical separations, it does contain more than 3,500 records for 146 of the 482 chiral pesticides (30%). The majority of the records are found in the liquid chromatography database (2,677 or 76%), followed by the gas chromatography database (652 or 18%),and the capillary electrophoresis database (203 or 6%). The finding that only 30% of the chiral pesticides covered in this review have entries in ChirBase highlights the need for expanded efforts to develop additional enantioselective chromatographic methods. Other techniques (e.g., nuclear magnetic resonance and other spectroscopy)are available for investigation of chiral compounds, but often are not utilized because of cost, complexity, or simply not recognizing that a pesticide is chiral.In this review, we have listed and have briefly described the general nature of chiral fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, and other miscellaneous classes. A data-set generated for this review contains 1,693 pesticides, the number of enantioselective separation records in ChirBase, pesticide usage class, SMILES structure string and counts of stereogenic centers. This dataset is publically available for download at the following website: http://www.epa.gov/heasd/products/products.html. With the information herein coupled to the publically accessible dataset, we can begin to develop the tools to handle molecular asymmetry as

  13. Molecular encapsulation of pesticides with cyclodextrins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of organic pesticide substances can be complexed with cyclodextrins. The complex formation (molecular encapsulation) of pesticides in most cases results in the improvement of the physical, chemical stability, wettability and aqueous solubility of those rather lipophylic molecules. These novel formulations improve the physical and chemical properties of the known pesticides without the formation of any chemical bonds, i.e. new molecule is not formed. The cyclodextrin complexation thus improve the bioavailability of pesticides which in general leads to the possible reduction of applied doses to reach the required biological response. The advantages and limits of the utilization of cyclodextrin pesticide inclusion complexes in novel formulations will be presented on selected examples of different pesticide cyclodextrin complexes. (author). 6 refs, 20 figs, 1 tab

  14. 40 CFR 168.22 - Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA section 24(c) registrations. 168.22 Section 168.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATEMENTS...

  15. 76 FR 18995 - Pesticides; Regulation to Clarify Labeling of Pesticides for Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0607; FRL-8862-2] RIN 2070-AJ53 Pesticides; Regulation to Clarify Labeling of Pesticides for Export AGENCY: Environmental Protection...to revise the regulations on labeling of pesticides and devices intended for export....

  16. Determination of Pesticide Residues in Cannabis Smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Sullivan; Sytze Elzinga; Raber, Jeffrey C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted in order to quantify to what extent cannabis consumers may be exposed to pesticide and other chemical residues through inhaled mainstream cannabis smoke. Three different smoking devices were evaluated in order to provide a generalized data set representative of pesticide exposures possible for medical cannabis users. Three different pesticides, bifenthrin, diazinon, and permethrin, along with the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol, which are readily available...

  17. Pesticides reduce regional biodiversity of stream invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    BEKETOV, MIKHAIL A; Kefford, Ben J.; Schäfer, Ralf B.; Liess, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The biodiversity crisis is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity, but our understanding of the drivers remains limited. Thus, after decades of studies and regulation efforts, it remains unknown whether to what degree and at what concentrations modern agricultural pesticides cause regional-scale species losses. We analyzed the effects of pesticides on the regional taxa richness of stream invertebrates in Europe (Germany and France) and Australia (southern Victoria). Pesticides caused ...

  18. Rosemaund Pesticide Transport Study 1987-1993

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, R.D.J.; Matthiessen, P.; Williams, R. J.; Brook, D.N.; Clare, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    This report comprised the results, conclusions and recommendations of a project in the early 1990s to study the pesticide concentrations in soil and water that resulted from normal use of agrochemicals on arable crops at a farm in the Rosemaund catchment. The main purpose of the project was to monitor the water-borne transfer of pesticides from fields into the stream draining the catchment. It concluded that at least some of the environmental degradation in the stream was due to pesticides

  19. Genetic Alterations in Pesticide Exposed Bolivian Farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; González, Ana Rosa; Ascarrunz, Maria Eugenia; Tirado, Noemi; Takahashi, Catharina; Lafuente, Erika; Santos, Raquel A Dos; Bailon, Natalia; Cervantes, Rafael; O, Huici; Bælum, Jesper; Lander, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    Background: Pesticides are of concern in Bolivia because of increasing use. Frequent intoxications have been demonstrated due to use of very toxic pesticides, insufficient control of distribution and sale and little knowledge among farmers of protective measures and hygienic procedures. Method: Questionnaires were applied and blood tests taken from 81 volunteers from La Paz County, of whom 48 were pesticide exposed farmers and 33 non-exposed controls. Sixty males and 21 females participated with...

  20. Monitoring of pesticides in human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After establishing proper analytical methodology for multiple pesticide residues, cotton-growing areas of Multan Division of Pakistan were surveyed and 40 samples of human milk from cotton pickers were collected during two crop seasons. Screening of these samples showed 72.5% contamination with 19 different pesticides/metabolites. The most frequently occurring pesticides were DDT and its metabolites, dimethoate, cyhalothrin, monocrotophos, profenofos and quinalphos. (author)

  1. 75 FR 60452 - Notice of Filing of Several Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ...at Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division...agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...of pesticides in or on food commodities. Further...commodities, Feed additives, Food additives, Pesticides...Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention...

  2. 78 FR 70007 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of a Pesticide Chemical in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ...Greenway, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division...agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...a pesticide in or on food commodities. Further...commodities, Feed additives, Food additives, Pesticides...Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention...

  3. 78 FR 1798 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ...Burnett, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division...agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...of pesticides in or on food commodities. Further...commodities, Feed additives, Food additives, Pesticides...Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention...

  4. Sorption of pesticides to aquifer minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes results from a work were the sorption of five pesticides on seven minerals were studied in order to quantify the adsorption to different mineral surfaces. Investigated mineral phases are: quartz, calcite, kaolinite, a-alumina, and three iron oxides (2-line ferrihydrite, goethite, lepidocrocite). Selected pesticides are: atrazine, isoproturon, mecoprop, 2,4-D, and bentazone. The results demonstrate that pesticides adsorb to pure mineral surfaces. However, the size of the adsorption depends on the type of pesticide and the type of mineral.

  5. Application of nuclear techniques in pesticide research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear techniques are commonly used in studying the environmental fate of pesticides in soil, water and other environmental matrices and the metabolism of pesticides in animals and plants, as well as in the identification of the degradation products of pesticides formulations. Stable isotopes such as /sup 13/C and /sup 18/O are used in determining the structure of degradation products of pesticides and in understanding the biochemical mechanisms involved in the transformation. Radioisotopes such as tritium, /sup 14/C and/sup 32/P as traces in pesticides research are well established. A pesticide molecule 'labelled' with radioactive atom can easily be traced among score of natural, non-labelled chemicals found in soil, water, animals or plant tissues and other environmental matrices by using radiation detectors. The labelled pesticide and its degradation products can be separated from other chemicals by chromatographic techniques and their amounts estimated by quantifying the radioactivity associated with them. This technique is very sensitive to minute quantities, is reliable and save time that would otherwise be required for tedious purification procedures. For examples, residues of pesticides, which are tightly bound to an environmental matrix and cannot be extracted with a solvent, can be estimated by using a radiotracer technique. In the present paper formation and study of bound residues of pesticides by using radiotracer techniques will be discussed. (author)

  6. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Roig

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air. For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health.

  7. Losses of pesticides from agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaching of the phenoxy acid herbicides dichlorprop, 2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)propionic acid, and MCPA, (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid, through natural field soils with drainage water was examined after spraying two soil types (sand and clay) in late autumn and early summer. Phenoxy acids were detected in drainage water after all four spray treatments. The highest concentrations (15 to 23 ?g/L) were found in drainage water from the sandy soil when sprayed under unfavourable conditions for microbial degradation. Despite more favourable conditions for degradation during the summer, small amounts of phenoxy acids were also detected in drainage water shortly after spraying (4 to 9 days); from the clay soil, dichlorprop was detectable for 2 weeks. Between June 1985 and September 1987 a total of 258 water samples were taken in streams from May to September and analysed for 90 pesticides. Seventeen compounds were identified, including ten herbicides, two fungicides and five insecticides. The most frequently found pesticides were the phenoxy acids dichlorprop and MCPA, with the highest concentrations at the time of spraying (May to June), but detectable amounts were still found in the off-spraying season. Throughout the 3 years, positive samples of one or several compounds of phenoxy acids occurred in 37% of the water samples taken in May, 78% in June, 57% in July, 24% in August and 18% in September. The maximum measured concentration of total content of phenoxy acids in one single stream was 25 ?g/L in June 1985. Along with the phenoxy acids, the herbicide atrazine was found in some streams over the whole sampling season. In watersheds where only smaller parts of the area are devoted to agricultural production, no pesticides were found, or only small amounts were detected on single occasions. These investigations indicate that under certain conditions pesticide residues arising from normal agricultural use may contribute to diffuse (non-point) pollution of the aquatic environment. (author). 27 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  8. Global pesticide consumption and pollution: with China as a focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Varieties and consumption of pesticides worldwide have been increasing dramatically as increased human population and crop production. In this process pesticide misuses become more and more serious, which has resulted in heavy environmental pollution and health risk of humans. In order to safeguard human health, threatened species and ecosystems from pesticide pollution, the consumption and pollution of pesticides worldwide especially China were reviewed and documented in present study. Meanwhile, the development trend of pesticide varieties and consumption was also prospected and discussed. It was found that worldwide consumption structure of pesticides has undergone significant changes since 1960s. The proportion of herbicides in pesticide consumption increased rapidly and the consumption of insecticides and fungicides/bactericides declined. China has become the largest pesticide producer and exporter in the world. Pesticide pollution of air, water bodies and soils, and pesticide-induced deaths in China has been serious in past years. Bio-pesticides should be further developed in the future.

  9. Pattern of pesticide storage before pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddleston Michael

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deliberate self-poisoning with agricultural pesticides is the commonest means of suicide in rural Asia. It is mostly impulsive and facilitated by easy access to pesticides. The aim of this large observational study was to investigate the immediate source of pesticides used for self-harm to help inform suicide prevention strategies such as reducing domestic access to pesticides. Methods The study was conducted in a district hospital serving an agricultural region of Sri Lanka. Patients who had self-poisoned with pesticides and were admitted to the adult medical wards were interviewed by study doctors following initial resuscitation to identify the source of pesticides they have ingested. Results Of the 669 patients included in the analysis, 425 (63.5% were male; the median age was 26 (IQR 20-36. In 511 (76% cases, the pesticides had been stored either inside or immediately outside the house; among this group only eight patients obtained pesticides that were kept in a locked container. Ten percent (n = 67 of the patients used pesticides stored in the field while 14% (n = 91 purchased pesticides from shops within a few hours of the episode. The most common reasons for choosing the particular pesticide for self-harm were its easy accessibility (n = 311, 46% or its popularity as a suicide agent in their village (n = 290, 43%. Conclusion Three quarters of people who ingested pesticides in acts of self-harm used products that were available within the home or in close proximity; relatively few patients purchased the pesticide for the act. The study highlights the importance of reducing the accessibility of toxic pesticides in the domestic environment.

  10. ANIMAL MODELS OF CHRONIC PESTICIDE NEUROTOXICITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a wealth of literature on neurotoxicological outcomes of acute and short-term exposure to pesticides in laboratory animals, but there are relatively few studies of- long-term exposure. Many reports in the literature describing ;chronic' exposures to pesticides are, in fa...

  11. Investigation of pesticide degradation in surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degradation of organophosphorus and thiocarbamate pesticides was investigated using isotope tracer methods. The hydrolysis (degradation) of ester-type pesticides was studied by radiometric enzyme inhibition method in aqueous medium with 14C as tracer. The hydrolysis of S-ethyl-N,N-dipropylthiocarbamate prerequired the oxidation of the parent compound. (Sz.J.)

  12. Hormonforstyrrende effekter af kombinationer af pesticider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Hass, Ulla; Nellemann, Christine; Birkhøj, Mia; Jarfelt, Kirsten; Dalgaard, Majken; Lam, Henrik Rye; Jacobsen, Helene; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva; Andersen, Helle Raun

    2004-01-01

    Resumé: Hvad sker der, når vi mennesker udsættes for en cocktail af hormonforstyrrende pesticider gennem kosten? Miljøstyrelsen har undersøgt pesticidblandinger i cellekulturer og i dyreforsøg for at vurdere samspillet mellem stofferne. Undersøgelserne har fokuseret på østrogene og antiandrogene effekter, som har varieret fra komplekse funktionelle og morfologiske forandringer til ændringer på molekylært niveau. Undersøgelserne viser, at pesticider, der virker via samme virkningsmekanisme, virke...

  13. Carbamate pesticide induced toxic epidermal necrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendran N.; Chitfambalam P; Jayaraman A

    2001-01-01

    A 36-year-old male alleged to have consumed carbamate pesticide liquid (Baygon@) developed toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) within twenty-four hours of intake. Though drugs have been commonly incriminated as offending agents for TEN, carbamate pesticide was found to be the causative agent in our case.

  14. QA/QC in pesticide residue analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines problems related to pesticide residue analysis in a regulatory laboratory that are related to: availability of reference materials, as over 1000 pesticide active ingredients are currently in use and over 400 crops represent a large part of a healthy diet; analysis time; availability of samples in sufficient numbers; uncertainties of the procedures

  15. 33 CFR 274.4 - Pesticide management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticide management. 274.4... DEFENSE PEST CONTROL PROGRAM FOR CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Project Operation § 274.4 Pesticide management. (a... control management personnel prior to advertisement of the contract and procurement of services....

  16. 76 FR 27268 - Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ...World Health Organization food standards program, and it is recognized as an international food safety standards-setting...N-acetyl glyphosate is found in genetically modified (GMO) glyphosate-resistant...any pesticide residues in food. The Agency understands the...that the pesticide meets the safety standard imposed by...

  17. Neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    London, Leslie; Beseler, Cheryl; Bouchard, Maryse F; Bellinger, David C; Colosio, Claudio; Grandjean, Philippe; Harari, Raul; Kootbodien, Tahira; Kromhout, Hans; Little, Francesca; Meijster, Tim; Moretto, Angelo; Rohlman, Diane S; Stallones, Lorann

    2012-01-01

    The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective and neurodevelopmental outcomes among occupational (both adolescent and adult workers) and non-occupational populations (children). The symposium discussion highlighted many challenges for researchers co...

  18. Residential exposures to pesticides and childhood leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Like many chemicals, carcinogenicity of pesticides is poorly characterised in humans, especially in children, so that the present knowledge about childhood leukaemia risk derives primarily from epidemiological studies. Overall, case-control studies published in the last decade have reported positive associations with home use of insecticides, mostly before the child's birth, while findings for herbicides are mixed. Previous studies relied solely on self-reports, therefore lacking information on active ingredients and effects of potential recall bias. Few series to date have examined the influence of children's genetic susceptibility related to transport and metabolism of pesticides. To overcome these limitations, investigators of the Northern California Childhood Leukaemia Study (NCCLS) have undertaken, in collaboration with a multidisciplinary team, a comprehensive assessment of residential pesticide exposure, including: (1) quality control of self-reports; (2) home pesticide inventory and linkage to the Environmental Protection Agency to obtain data on active ingredients; (3) collection and laboratory analyses of ?600 home dust samples for over 60 pesticides and (4) geographic information studies using California environmental databases to assess exposure to agricultural pesticides. The NCCLS is also conducting large-scale geno-typing to evaluate the role of genes in xenobiotic pathways relevant to the transport and metabolism of pesticides. A better quantification of children's exposures to pesticides at home is critical to the evaluation of childhood leukaemia risk, especially for future gene-environment interaction studies. (authors)

  19. Applications of Metabonomics in Pesticide Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pan; Wu, Yi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Metabonomic studies quantitatively measure the small molecule metabolites and their intermediates in the biological samples (serum, urine or tissue extracts) and have gained wide applications in many fields, especially in toxicology. Pesticides are extensively used around the world and pesticide toxicity has become a serious threat to human health. Metabonomic approach has been applied in many aspects of pesticide toxicology research such as eco-environmental toxicity studies, biomarker identification, and mechanism of toxicity studies. Both whole organism animal models and cell culture models are used for metabonomic studies on pesticide toxicology. In the literature, metabonomic analyses on the toxicity of over thirty common pesticides, including insecticides, herbicides and fungicides, have been carried out using magnetic resonance spectroscopy or mass spectrometry. The combined toxicity of pesticides or pesticide with heavy metals was also investigated with metabonomic approach. In this article, recent progresses made in applying metabonomic approach in pesticide toxicology are thoroughly reviewed and the challenges with application of this approach are also discussed. PMID:26279326

  20. Toxicity of pesticides on photosynthesis of diatoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan being an agricultural country, a large amount of pesticides are used, including organophosphates and synthetic pyrethroids. These pesticides are released through rivers and other tributeries into the coastal environment, thus posing a contiguous threat to marine organisms. In the present study two species of diatoms Amphora and Navicula were selected for the assessment of impact of organ phosphate and pyrethroid toxicity on these primary producers. The study shows that rate of photosynthesis was inhibited in both Amphora and Navicula species exposed to pesticide. The acute toxicity of pesticide was determined by measuring IC50 of the test organisms. IC50 calculated for diatom species depicts that different pesticides had variable effects on the photosynthesis of microalgae. High sensitivity of marine organisms is alarming as it may have implications on the marine ecosystem and fisheries. The results are also useful in setting control limits for the release of these chemicals in nature. (author)

  1. An EPA Modeling Dashboard for Ecological Assessment of Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA registers pesticides for use in the US and approves imported pesticides under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Before a pesticide can be registered, the EPA must assess whether the pesticide can be used without eing harmful to humans or pos...

  2. 40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides. 171.3 Section 171.3 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.3...

  3. 40 CFR 161.55 - Agricultural vs. non-agricultural pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Agricultural vs. non-agricultural pesticides. 161.55 Section 161.55...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES General Provisions §...

  4. 75 FR 78240 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ...Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...regulations in 40 CFR part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on...

  5. 76 FR 10584 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ...Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...regulations in 40 CFR part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on...

  6. 75 FR 57942 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ...Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...regulations in 40 CFR part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on...

  7. 75 FR 28009 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ...Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...regulations in 40 CFR part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on...

  8. 77 FR 75082 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ...Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...of regulations in 40 CFR part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on...

  9. 75 FR 46924 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ...Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...regulations in 40 CFR part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on...

  10. 75 FR 66092 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ...Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...regulations in 40 CFR part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on...

  11. 75 FR 13277 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ...Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...regulations in 40 CFR part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on...

  12. 75 FR 14154 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ...Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...regulations in 40 CFR part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on...

  13. 75 FR 35801 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ...Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...regulations in 40 CFR part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on...

  14. 40 CFR 152.10 - Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for a pesticidal purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Products that are not pesticides... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.10 Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for...

  15. 75 FR 32463 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or... establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities... part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA...

  16. 76 FR 10584 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or... establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities... part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA...

  17. 75 FR 46924 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or... establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities... establishment or modification of regulations in 40 CFR part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide...

  18. 75 FR 48667 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or... establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities... part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA...

  19. 78 FR 11126 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals... for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments must be received on... CFR part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. The Agency...

  20. 76 FR 3885 - Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on... modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments... 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA...

  1. 76 FR 22067 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 174 and 180 Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide... for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments must be received on... part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. The...

  2. 77 FR 50661 - Notice of Filing of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Notice of Filing of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide... for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments must be received on...), requesting the establishment or modification of regulations in 40 CFR 180 for residues of pesticide...

  3. 75 FR 5790 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or... establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities... regulations in 40 CFR part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...

  4. 76 FR 69692 - Withdrawal of a Pesticide Petition for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... 23, 2010 (75 FR 57942) (FRL-8845-4), which announced the submission of a pesticide petition (PP... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Withdrawal of a Pesticide Petition for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on... establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...

  5. 78 FR 33785 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals... for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments must be received on... CFR Part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. The Agency...

  6. 76 FR 61647 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 174 and 180 Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide... for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments must be received on... part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. The...

  7. 75 FR 60452 - Notice of Filing of Several Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... AGENCY Notice of Filing of Several Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on... of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments must... part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA has determined...

  8. 78 FR 13295 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals... for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments must be received on... CFR part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. The Agency...

  9. 75 FR 11171 - Notice of Filing of Several Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... AGENCY Notice of Filing of Several Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on... of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments must... residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA has determined that the...

  10. 76 FR 55329 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals... for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments must be received on... part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. The...

  11. 75 FR 14154 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or... establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities... part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA...

  12. 77 FR 20334 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 174 and 180 Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide... for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments must be received on... or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. The Agency...

  13. 75 FR 13277 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or... establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities... part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA...

  14. 78 FR 3377 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide... for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments must be received on... CFR part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. The Agency...

  15. 75 FR 864 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or... establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities... part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA...

  16. 76 FR 82238 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals... for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments must be received on... part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. The...

  17. 75 FR 80489 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or... establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities... part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA...

  18. 75 FR 54629 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or... establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities... part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA...

  19. 75 FR 57942 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or... establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities... part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA...

  20. Adsorption of pesticides onto quartz, calcite, kaolinite, and ?-alumina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Madsen, L.

    2001-01-01

    The fate of pesticides in aquifers is influenced by the small but not insignificant adsorption of pesticides to mineral surfaces. Batch experiments with five pesticides and four minerals were conducted to quantify the contributions to adsorption from different mineral surfaces and compare adsorption characteristics of selected pesticides. Investigated mineral phases included quartz, calcite, kaolinite, and alpha -alumina. Selected pesticides comprised atrazine (6-chloro-N-2-ethyl-N-4-isopropyl-1...

  1. DNA methylation alterations in response to pesticide exposure in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiao; Wallace, Andrew D.; DU, PAN; Kibbe, Warren A.; Jafari, Nadereh; Xie, Hehuang; Lin, Simon; Baccarelli, Andrea; Soares, Marcelo Bento; Hou, Lifang

    2012-01-01

    Although pesticides are subject to extensive carcinogenicity testing before regulatory approval, pesticide exposure has repeatedly been associated with various cancers. This suggests that pesticides may cause cancer via non-mutagenicity mechanisms. The present study provides evidence to support the hypothesis that pesticide-induced cancer may be mediated in part by epigenetic mechanisms. We examined whether exposure to 7 commonly used pesticides (i.e., fonofos, parathion, terbufos, chlorpyrif...

  2. From pesticides to genetically modified plants : history, economics and politics

    OpenAIRE

    Zadoks, J.C.; Waibel, H.

    2000-01-01

    Two technologies of crop protection are compared, crop protection by pesticides and by Genetically Modified Plants (GMPs). The history of pesticides provides lessons relevant to the future of GMPs; (1) high pesticide usage is counter-productive, (2) the technology requires intensive regulation and (3) has nonetheless many external effects which strongly reduce its social benefits, (4) early calculations on net benefits of pesticides were over-optimistic, and (5) intensive use of pesticides ma...

  3. PESTLCI – A PESTICIDE DISTRIBUTION MODEL FOR LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the presented work is to develop a model for distribution of pesticides into the environment following application to the field. Based on input of required substance characteristics and applied quantities for the pesticides, the model will estimate the emissions to the air, water, soil and groundwater compartments for use in life cycle inventory analysis of agricultural product systems. The model is called PESTLCI and it builds on an already existing model by Hauschild, 2000 /2/ to which a number of amendments are introduced inspired by existing work on hazard and risk characterisation and assessment of pesticide applications. The report therefore starts with a review of the work reported by the CAPER project as described in / / in order to locate new methods amenable for: 1. Handling of pesticide screening in LCA 2. Distribution modelling of pesticides in LCA 3. Evaluation of human exposure in LCA Following the review of existing methods, a number of modifications and new modules are developed and integrated into the existing method for pesticide distribution modelling to arrive at PESTLCI. Finally, PESTLCI is tested on three pesticide applications and the results compared to the results obtained with the old model. PESTLCI is available as a Excel© spreadsheet (Danish Xp version) model.

  4. Urbanisation shapes behavioural responses to a pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüzün, Nedim; Debecker, Sara; Op de Beeck, Lin; Stoks, Robby

    2015-06-01

    The degree of urbanisation is rapidly increasing worldwide. Due to anthropogenic impact, urban populations are exposed to higher levels of contaminants and higher temperatures. Despite this, urbanisation is a largely overlooked spatial component in ecotoxicology. We tested in a common garden rearing experiment whether replicated urban and rural populations of the damselfly Coenagrion puella differ in their vulnerability to sublethal levels of a widespread pesticide, chlorpyrifos, in terms of ecologically relevant behaviours (exploration behaviour, activity, boldness and food intake), and to what extent these patterns are affected by temperature (20 and 24°C). Except boldness, all behaviours were affected by previous pesticide exposure. While the pesticide did not affect exploration behaviour at 20°C, it was associated with increased exploration at 24°C, which may reflect an increased toxicity of chlorpyrifos at higher temperatures. Importantly, rural and urban larvae showed consistently different, sometimes even opposite behavioural responses to pesticide exposure. When exposed to the pesticide, rural larvae decreased activity and food intake at both temperatures; urban larvae instead increased activity at both temperatures and only reduced food intake at the high temperature. This suggests that urban larvae were less affected by the pesticide, which would be consistent with a scenario of local adaptation to higher contaminant levels. Our results highlight that urbanisation may be an important factor to arrive at a spatially explicit ecological risk assessment, and may be an ignored reason why studies on the same species may generate widely different vulnerabilities to pesticides. PMID:25863029

  5. The Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory: A Quantitative Instrument for the Assessment of Beliefs about Pesticide Risks

    OpenAIRE

    W. Gregory Cope; Blanchard, Margaret R.; Catherine E. LePrevost

    2011-01-01

    Recent media attention has focused on the risks that agricultural pesticides pose to the environment and human health; thus, these topics provide focal areas for scientists and science educators to enhance public understanding of basic toxicology concepts. This study details the development of a quantitative inventory to gauge pesticide risk beliefs. The goal of the inventory was to characterize misconceptions and knowledge gaps, as well as expert-like beliefs, concerning pesticide risk. This...

  6. Organophosphate Pesticide Exposure and Work in Pome Fruit: Evidence for the Take-Home Pesticide Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Coronado, Gloria D.; Vigoren, Eric M.; Thompson, Beti; Griffith, William C; Faustman, Elaine M.

    2006-01-01

    Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are commonly used in the United States, and farmworkers are at risk for chronic exposure. Using a sample of 218 farmworkers in 24 communities and labor camps in eastern Washington State, we examined the association between agricultural crop and OP pesticide metabolite concentrations in urine samples of adult farmworkers and their children and OP pesticide residues in house and vehicle dust samples. Commonly reported crops were apples (71.6%), ...

  7. Chiral pesticides: Identification, description, and environmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Elin M.; Morrison, Candice N.; Goldsmith, Michael R.; Foreman, William T.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic chemicals, including pesticides, are a major source of contamination and pollution in the environment. Pesticides have many positive uses: increased food production, decreased damage to crops and structures, reduced disease vector populations, and more. Nevertheless, pesticide exposure can pose risks to humans and the environment, so various mitigation strategies are exercised to make them safer, minimize their use, and reduce their unintended environment effects. One strategy that may help achieve these goals relies on the unique properties of chirality or molecular asymmetry. Some common terms related to chirality are defined in Table 1.

  8. Neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    London, Leslie; Beseler, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective and neurodevelopmental outcomes among occupational (both adolescent and adult workers) and non-occupational populations (children). The symposium discussion highlighted many challenges for researchers concerned with the prevention of neurotoxic illness due to pesticides and generated a number of directions for further research and policy interventions for the protection of human health, highlighting the importance of examining potential long-term effects across the lifespan arising from early adolescent, childhood or prenatal exposure.

  9. 77 FR 64990 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Request for Nominations to the Pesticide Program Dialogue...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ...environmental, consumer, and farm worker groups; pesticide users and growers; animal rights groups; pest consultants; State...Environmental/public interest and animal rights groups; farm worker organizations;...

  10. Long-term lessons on pesticide leaching obtained via the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbom, A. E.; Olsen, P.; Plauborg, F.; Grant, R.; Juhler, R. K.; Brüsch, W.; Kjær, J.

    2014-12-01

    To avoid any unacceptable influence on the environment posed by pesticides and their degradation products, all pesticides used in the European Union needs authorization. The authorization procedure includes assessing the leaching risk of both pesticides and their degradation products to the groundwater. There are shortcomings to the procedure, however, as revealed by the results of the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme from the period 1990/2000 to 2012 (app. twelve years). This monitoring program has for this period assessed leaching into groundwater via the variably-saturated zone of 43 pesticides applied in accordance with current regulations on sandy and loamy agricultural fields, and 47 of their degradation products. Three types of leaching scenario were not fully captured by the authorization procedure: i) long-term leaching of degradation products of pesticides applied on potato crops cultivated in sandy soils, ii) leaching of strongly sorbing pesticides after autumn application on loamy soils, and iii) leaching of various pesticides and their degradation products following early summer application on loamy soils. The monitoring data revealed that the authorization procedure was unable to predict leaching scenarios for a number of pesticides in hydrogeological settings dominated by rapid preferential transport via e.g. biopores that bypasses the retardation (sorption and degradation) of the plow layer. Such settings are primarily present in the autumn, but can also occur during the early summer in connection with the formation of a structural seal on the soil surface.

  11. Pesticide Environmental Accounting: A method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, A.W. [Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY (United Kingdom)], E-mail: a.w.leach@imperial.ac.uk; Mumford, J.D. [Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY (United Kingdom)], E-mail: j.mumford@imperial.ac.uk

    2008-01-15

    The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts. - A method to estimate the external costs of a pesticide application based on the ecotoxicology, environmental behaviour and application rate of an active ingredient.

  12. The Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory: A Quantitative Instrument for the Assessment of Beliefs about Pesticide Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Gregory Cope

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent media attention has focused on the risks that agricultural pesticides pose to the environment and human health; thus, these topics provide focal areas for scientists and science educators to enhance public understanding of basic toxicology concepts. This study details the development of a quantitative inventory to gauge pesticide risk beliefs. The goal of the inventory was to characterize misconceptions and knowledge gaps, as well as expert-like beliefs, concerning pesticide risk. This study describes the development and field testing of the Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory with an important target audience: pesticide educators in a southeastern U.S. state. The 19-item, Likert-type inventory was found to be psychometrically sound with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.780 and to be a valuable tool in capturing pesticide educators’ beliefs about pesticide risk, assessing beliefs in four key categories. The Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory could be useful in exploring beliefs about pesticide risks and in guiding efforts to address misconceptions held by a variety of formal and informal science learners, educators, practitioners, the agricultural labor force, and the general public.

  13. Pesticide Environmental Accounting: A method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts. - A method to estimate the external costs of a pesticide application based on the ecotoxicology, environmental behaviour and application rate of an active ingredient

  14. 40 CFR 158.2030 - Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides §...

  15. 40 CFR 158.2170 - Experimental use permit data requirements-microbial pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...use permit data requirements-microbial pesticides. 158.2170 Section 158.2170 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2170...

  16. 40 CFR 158.2140 - Microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table. 158...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2140...

  17. 40 CFR 158.2130 - Microbial pesticides residue data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides residue data requirements table. 158...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2130...

  18. 40 CFR 158.2150 - Microbial pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2150...

  19. 40 CFR 158.2120 - Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2120...

  20. 40 CFR 158.2060 - Biochemical pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides §...

  1. 40 CFR 158.2160 - Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2160...

  2. 40 CFR 158.2050 - Biochemical pesticides human health assessment data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides human health assessment data requirements...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides §...

  3. 78 FR 25396 - Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ...to residue levels in food, EPA assumed tolerance...proposed and existing commodities. iii. Cancer. Based...were assumed for all food commodities. 2. Dietary exposure...pesticides/trac/science/trac6a05.pdf....

  4. 77 FR 60311 - Chlorantraniliprole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ...1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals...As to residue levels in food, EPA assumed tolerance...CT were assumed for all food commodities. 2. Dietary exposure...pesticides/trac/science/trac6a05.pdf....

  5. 76 FR 44815 - Chlorantraniliprole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ...assumed for all food commodities. 2. Dietary...pesticides/trac/science/trac6a05...the risk from food and water and...Environmental Science Center, 701...with U.S. food safety standards...crops and animal commodities. These...

  6. 77 FR 38199 - Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ...common mechanism of toxicity for the conazoles...common mechanism of toxicity, see EPA's Web site...pesticide. This class of compounds can form the common...available propiconazole toxicity data to determine whether...heavy metals, or halogenated aromatic...

  7. 77 FR 75039 - Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ...common mechanism of toxicity for the conazoles...common mechanism of toxicity, see EPA's Web site...pesticide. This class of compounds can form the common...available propiconazole toxicity data to determine whether...heavy metals, or halogenated aromatic...

  8. TREATMENT OF SEASONAL PESTICIDES IN SURFACE WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous pesticides were monitored in surface waters in agricultural areas. Atrazine, alachlor, metolachlor, cyanazine, metribuzin, carbofuran, linuron, and simazine were found in the influent to three water treatment plants in storm runoff following their application. Studies at...

  9. 76 FR 69642 - Flutriafol; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ...tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311...part 180 through the Government Printing Office's e-CFR site...

  10. 78 FR 19130 - Clothianidin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ...respectively, under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311...part 180 through the Government Printing Office's e-CFR site...

  11. 77 FR 14291 - Penthiopyrad; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ...tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311...part 180 through the Government Printing Office's e-CFR site...

  12. 76 FR 18906 - Mancozeb; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ...tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311...part 180 through the Government Printing Office's e-CFR site...

  13. 75 FR 60321 - Spinosad; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ...tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311...part 180 through the Government Printing Office's e-CFR site...

  14. 75 FR 81878 - Imazosulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ...tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311...part 180 through the Government Printing Office's e-CFR site...

  15. 76 FR 69653 - Abamectin (avermectin); Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ...tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311...part 180 through the Government Printing Office's e-CFR site...

  16. 75 FR 35653 - Thiamethoxam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ...tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311...part 180 through the Government Printing Office's e-CFR site...

  17. 77 FR 73951 - Pyriproxyfen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ...tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311...part 180 through the Government Printing Office's e-CFR site...

  18. 78 FR 67048 - Prothioconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ...tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311...part 180 through the Government Printing Office's e-CFR site...

  19. 76 FR 17644 - Pesticide Product; Registration Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ...Gina Casciano, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (7511P), Office...you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer...Matthews, Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division, Office of...

  20. 75 FR 10259 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ...is: Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division...agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...Proposed Uses: All food commodities. Contact...Proposed Uses: All food commodities. Contact...Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention...

  1. 75 FR 4383 - Pesticide Products: Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ...Casciano, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division...agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...classification/Use: Food Use, Outdoor Use (G...classification/Use: Food Use, Outdoor Use (G...Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention...

  2. 75 FR 6656 - Pesticide Product; Registration Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ...Shanaz Bacchus, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (7511P), Office...you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer...Acting Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division, Office of...

  3. 75 FR 3235 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ...Adams, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division...agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS...For use in or on all food commodities. List of...Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention...

  4. 75 FR 11175 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ...Leader, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (7511P...benmhend.driss@epa.gov. Pollution Prevention 5481-LAO Division...an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division,...

  5. 75 FR 71695 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ...John Fournier, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (7511P), Office...you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer...Acting Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division, Office of...

  6. 78 FR 18504 - Emamectin Benzoate; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ...pistachios) and cottonseed oil. Pesticide Data Program (PDP...pistachios) and cottonseed oil. DEEM default processing factors...preparation-reduction factors for washing, cooking, etc. may have resulted...with a clear LOAEL) seen after repeated dosing but is used...

  7. PESTICIDE POISONINGS REPORTED BY FLORIDA CITRUS FIELDWORKERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a 1981 survey of 1811 Florida citrus fieldworkers, 25 pesticide related poisoning incidents involving 29 fieldworkers were reported. Suspected poisonings were categorized into possible and confirmed poisonings, and from these reports it was possible to project an estimated 438...

  8. 76 FR 11344 - Difenoconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0823; FRL-8864-9] Difenoconazole; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...establishes tolerances for residues of difenoconazole in or on mango and wax jambu. Syngenta...tolerances for residues of the fungicide, difenoconazole,...

  9. 76 FR 82157 - Difenoconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0959; FRL-9328-6] Difenoconazole; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...establishes tolerances for residues of difenoconazole in or on oat and rye commodities...tolerances for residues of the fungicide, difenoconazole,...

  10. 78 FR 76561 - Endothall; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ...pesticide chemical residue in or on a food) only if EPA determines that...studies clearly demonstrate that local irritation (portal of entry...rule directly regulates growers, food processors, food handlers, and food...

  11. 75 FR 50902 - Mancozeb; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ...mancozeb by a State for special local needs under FIFRA section 24...pesticide chemical residue in or on a food) only if EPA determines that...rule directly regulates growers, food processors, food handlers, and food...

  12. 76 FR 27261 - Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ...propiconazole by a State for special local needs under FIFRA section 24...pesticide chemical residue in or on a food) only if EPA determines that...rule directly regulates growers, food processors, food handlers, and food...

  13. 78 FR 66649 - Spirotetramat; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ...from 0.30 ppm to 2.5 ppm, papaya from 2.5 ppm to 0.40 ppm...commodities, Pesticides and pests, Reporting and recordkeeping...entries for ``feijoa,'' ``papaya,'' and ``Spanish lime...2.5 * * * * *...

  14. LES PESTICIDES : TOXICITE, RESIDUS ET ANALYSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed BENZINE

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Les pesticides chimiques de synthèse se sont révélés très efficaces et fiables dans la protection des plantes et ont largement contribué à l’augmentation des rendements. Mais ces derniers temps, la question d’une limitation de l’utilisation des pesticides est de plus en plus posée car la société accepte de moins en moins l’éventualité de risques pour la santé humaine et pour l’environnement. Par conséquent, il est dans l’intérêt de tous les partenaires de la filière alimentaire que les Limites Maximales Résiduelles (LMR soient respectées. Les LMR sont fixées légalement pour chaque pesticide. La DJA et l’ArfD sont utilisées comme des seuils de référence de prudence toxicologique pour s’assurer que toutes les LMR sont sûres d’un point de vue de la santé humaine. Les techniques chromatographiques ont largement contribué pour le dosage des résidus des pesticides.

  15. 77 FR 27130 - Ametoctradin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ...consideration to exposure of infants and children to the pesticide...no harm will result to infants and children from aggregate...consumers, including infants and children. In toxicity...ametoctradin, no single dose or repeated dose study...

  16. 75 FR 69353 - Isoxaben; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ...consideration to exposure of infants and children to the pesticide...no harm will result to infants and children from aggregate...consumers, including infants and children. Isoxaben...identified for isoxaben in repeated-dose studies are the...

  17. Pesticides in the agricultural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In most countries, regulations to control the use of pesticides require data from a hierarchical series of tests in order to assess their environmental acceptability. The test sequence begins with laboratory measurements, which are followed by field studies intended to confirm the predictions made from the laboratory results. Frequently, such predictions are not confirmed, largely because controlled laboratory conditions are too far removed from those that occur in the field. There is increasing interest in the potential of lysimeter systems to replace many of the laboratory tests. They enable test, including those using radiolabelled compounds, to be conducted outdoors under closely monitored conditions. The results to data are encouraging, but more work is required to validate such systems. (author). 33 refs

  18. Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Agents Allergens & Irritants Cigarette Smoke Cockroaches Dust Mites Pets & Animals Pollen Resources Arsenic Environmental Agents Arsenic Bisphenol ... Questions Role of Environmental Chemicals in Diabetes and Obesity: A National Toxicology Program Workshop Report A Watchful ...

  19. Une innovation agroécologique : la séquestration des pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WOIGNIER, Thierry

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aux Antilles françaises, la pollution des sols et des ressources en eau par la chlordécone, un pesticide organochloré longtemps utilisé dans les bananeraies, représente un problème environnemental, sanitaire et socio-économique majeur pour les pouvoirs publics. En effet, aucune méthode simple et efficace de dépollution n'existe actuellement face à cette molécule résistante. Focus sur une solution agroécologique alternative à la dépollution : la séquestration des pesticides dans le sol par ajout de matière organique.

  20. Effects of pesticides on Azotobacter chroococcum

    OpenAIRE

    Mrkova?ki Nastasija B.; ?a?i? Nikola A.; Mili? Vera M.

    2002-01-01

    Studied in this paper were the effects of three concentrations of four different pesticides (two herbicides - Ro-Neet and pyramin, one insecticide - lindan and one fungicide - mankogal) on the growth of pure cultures of three Azotobacter chroococcum strains. The lowest and highest concentrations used in the study were ten times lower and ten times higher than the concentration used in actual agricultural practice (in the field) respectively. The pesticides had different effects on the growth ...

  1. PESTLCI – A PESTICIDE DISTRIBUTION MODEL FOR LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the presented work is to develop a model for distribution of pesticides into the environment following application to the field. Based on input of required substance characteristics and applied quantities for the pesticides, the model will estimate the emissions to the air, water, soil and groundwater compartments for use in life cycle inventory analysis of agricultural product systems. The model is called PESTLCI and it builds on an already existing model by Hauschild, 2000 /2/ to wh...

  2. Morbidity in newborns exposed to organophosphorus pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?or?evi? Mom?ilo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Insecticides are toxines by which we destroy harmful insects. The most frequent insecticides which are used today are organophosphorus pesticides. This group of compounds make substances whose activity mechanism is based on the inhibition of acetylcho­linesterase in nerve synapsis, thus producing holynergic syndrome, resulting from the accumulation of acetylcholine which developed due to the absence of decomposition under the influence of cholinesterase. In the clinical picture of acute toxication by cholinesterase inhibitors there is a clear difference between muscarinic and nicotine effects. The basic aim of the study was to establish the effects of organophosphorus pesticides present in blood and breast milk of mothers on newborns morbidity. Material and methods. The study group consisted of 18 newborns whose mothers had isolated organophosphorus pesticides in their blood and breast­milk on the third day after delivery, and the control group consisted of 84 newborns whose mothers did not have isolated organophosphorus pesticides in their blood and breastmilk. Results. Morbidity is three times greater, often in combination with some disorders of the central nervous system, and the relative risk for its appearance is eight time greater in newborns exposed to organophosphorus pesticides. Disscusion. Disorders that appear in newborns exposed to pesticides are mutagenic, cancerogenic and neurotoxic and some agenses could disturb the immune system which is reflected in morbidity increase, primarly of the central nervous system. Conclusion. The presence of organophosphorus pesticides in blood and breast milk has negative effects on newborns. In addition to acetylcho­linesterase inhibition, organophosphorus pesticides react by means of other mechanisms as well.

  3. Earthworm tolerance to residual agricultural pesticide contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givaudan, Nicolas; Binet, Françoise; Le Bot, Barbara; Wiegand, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates if acclimatization to residual pesticide contamination in agricultural soils is reflected in detoxification, antioxidant enzyme activities and energy budget of earthworms. Five fields within a joint agricultural area exhibited different chemical and farming histories from conventional cultivation to organic pasture. Soil multiresidual pesticide analysis revealed up to 9 molecules including atrazine up to 2.4 ng g -1 dry soil. Exposure history of endogeic Aporrectodea cali...

  4. Pesticides in Soil: Effects on Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Radivojevi?

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery to the present day, pesticides have been an inevitable segment of agricultural production and efforts have been made to synthesize compounds that would share a required efficacy along with selectivity, sufficient persistence on the object of protection and favourable toxicological and ecotoxicological characteristics so as to minimize their effect on the environment.When a pesticide gets into soil after application, it takes part in a number of physical, chemical and biological processes that depend not only on the compound itself, but a number of other factors as well, such as: physical, chemical and biological characteristics of soil; climatic factors, equipment used, method of application, method of storage, handling and disposal of waste, site characteristics (proximity of ground and underground waters, biodiversity and sensitivity of the environment. Microorganisms play an important role in pesticide degradation as they are able to utilize the biogenic elements from those compounds, as well as energy for their physiological processes. On the other hand, pesticides are more or less toxic substances that can have adverse effect on populations of microorganisms and prevent their development, reduce their abundance, deplete their taxonomic complexity and create communities with a lower level of diversity and reduced physiological activity.The article discusses complex interactions between pesticides and microorganisms in soil immediately after application and over the ensuing period. Data on changes in the abundance of some systematic and physiological groups of microorganisms, their microbial biomass and enzymatic activity caused under pesticide activity are discussed as indicators of these processes.

  5. Environmental exposure to pesticides and respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mamane

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory effects of environmental exposure to pesticides are debated. Here we aimed to review epidemiological studies published up until 2013, using the PubMed database. 20 studies dealing with respiratory health and non-occupational pesticide exposure were identified, 14 carried out on children and six on adults. In four out of nine studies in children with biological measurements, mothers' dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE blood levels during pregnancy were associated with asthma and wheezing in young children. An association was also found between permethrin in indoor air during pregnancy and wheezing in children. A significant association between asthma and DDE measured in children's blood (aged 7–10?years was observed in one study. However, in three studies, no association was found between asthma or respiratory infections in children and pesticide levels in breast milk and/or infant blood. Lastly, in three out of four studies where post-natal pesticide exposure of children was assessed by parental questionnaire an association with respiratory symptoms was found. Results of the fewer studies on pesticide environmental exposure and respiratory health of adults were much less conclusive: indeed, the associations observed were weak and often not significant. In conclusion, further studies are needed to confirm whether there is a respiratory risk associated with environmental exposure to pesticides.

  6. Occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mamane

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to review the available literature regarding the link between occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory symptoms or diseases. Identification of epidemiological studies was performed using PubMed. 41 articles were included, 36 regarding agricultural workers and five regarding industry workers. Among the 15 cross-sectional studies focusing on respiratory symptoms and agricultural pesticide exposure, 12 found significant associations with chronic cough, wheeze, dyspnoea, breathlessness or chest tightness. All four studies on asthma found a relationship with occupational exposure, as did all three studies on chronic bronchitis. The four studies that performed spirometry reported impaired respiratory function linked to pesticide exposure, suggestive of either obstructive or restrictive syndrome according to the chemical class of pesticide. 12 papers reported results from cohort studies. Three out of nine found a significant relationship with increased risk of wheeze, five out of nine with asthma and three out of three with chronic bronchitis. In workers employed in pesticide production, elevated risks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (two studies out of three and impaired respiratory function suggestive of an obstructive syndrome (two studies out of two were reported. In conclusion, this article suggests that occupational exposure to pesticides is associated with an increased risk of respiratory symptoms, asthma and chronic bronchitis, but the causal relationship is still under debate.

  7. 40 CFR 158.2170 - Experimental use permit data requirements-microbial pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements-microbial pesticides. 158.2170 Section 158.2170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2170 Experimental use permit data requirements—microbial pesticides. (a) For all microbial pesticides. (1)...

  8. Pesticide risk assessment in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recognition of potential risks, all pesticides distributed and sold in the United States must fulfil extensive registration requirements for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Registration is a licensing procedure where industry must submit data to demonstrate the safety of pesticidal substances and products before they can be used commercially. The regulatory control of pesticides is unique among chemicals in the U.S. in that testing beyond initial registration may be imposed by the Agency throughout the commercial life of the chemical, as long as there is adequate justification. Registration requirements are gauged to the nature of potential exposures. For instance, more data are generally needed for food use registrations than for non-food uses because of direct consumption of treated foods by the whole U.S. population. Unlike pesticide practices in many countries and authorities, as in the European Community where agricultural pesticides, non-agricultural pesticides and genetically engineered microbial agents are handled by separate directives, all pesticide activities are covered in the U.S. by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. This statute covers pesticide uses on foods and animal feed and a number of non-food applications like forest and horticultural uses, residential lawn care, in-home applications, and disinfectants/sterilants. Traditional inorganic and organic chemicals are covered, as well as biological agents like pheromones. Naturally occurring and genetically altered microorganisms also come under the definition of pesticides, but multicellular animals are exempt from regulation as pesticides. Pesticide registration in the U.S. as in many other countries may be a long-term, resource intensive undertaking. Not uncommonly the process from beginning to complete registration may take 4 to 10 years and cost about $10 million. To meet the responsibilities of reviewing studies, overseeing 400 active ingredients and 35,000 products, and implementing other aspects of the statute, EPA employs about 900 people. Unlike the approval process and actions to cancel pesticides in some countries, in the U.S. they are generally much more transparent. The need for specific test guidelines and the nature of the protocols are debated in the scientific community. Test data adequacy is evaluated according to objective criteria, and study findings are reviewed using standard evaluation procedures and risk assessment guidelines that have been through public comment. Agency risk concerns for a registered pesticide are vetted at a meeting of its Scientific Advisory Panel, a group of technical experts outside of government, where the potential risk case is reviewed and discussed. The meeting is open to the public with opportunity for input from industry, public interest groups, and other parties. Formal Agency regulatory proposals to cancel registered pesticides are published for public review and comment, and there may be several rounds of public involvement before a final decision is reached. Even after a regulatory decision has been made, and unless a settlement has been reached, the Agency is often sued by an environmental group or industry that questions the EPA position; in such situations, the case is then transferred to the court for deliberation. Risks are evaluated for a host of different effects by the pesticide program: acute and chronic, human health and ecological

  9. Use of labelled pesticides in pesticide research studies and problems in the interpretation of the data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of labelled pesticides has helped to solve number of problems connected with the formation and degradation of pesticides, factors influencing the above, location of the metabolites in the plants etc. However in most of the studies, the active ingredient has been labelled and diluted and applied at the recommended doses. But the efficacy of the pesticide is modified by the method of formulation, nature of fillers, emulsifiers, solvents, size of droplets etc. Hence the utility as well as the limitations in the use of labelled pesticides in the formulations are discussed. Also due to the variations in the half life of the radioisotopes used for labelling, the use of labelled pesticides for long as well as short duration crops has also been indicated. Autoradiography has become an useful tool in studying the movement of pesticide in the plant, and insects and also locating the regions of high concentration of pesticides and their residues. Though useful, the production of artefacts caused by exudation of cell sap, and other exudates, thickness of samples, increasing time of contact in the case of low energy radioisotope labelled compounds etc. have prevented the use of this technique on a wide scale. The problems in the preparation of autoradiographs of the plant specimens treated with labelled pesticides are also discussed. (author)

  10. Intoxicación por plaguicidas / Pesticide poisoning

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Ferrer.

    Full Text Available Los plaguicidas son una de las familias de productos químicos más ampliamente empleadas por el hombre. Se han usado sobre todo para combatir plagas por su acción sobre las cosechas o como vectores de enfermedades transmisibles. Los plaguicidas pueden clasificarse en función de su empleo (insecticida [...] s, fungicidas, herbicidas, raticidas…) o de su familia química (organoclorados, organofosforados, carbamatos, piretoides, compuestos bipiridílicos, sales inorgánicas…). Todos ellos son biocidas lo que implica, habitualmente una alta toxicidad humana que ha sido motivo de preocupación desde mitad del siglo XX debido al amplio e indiscriminado empleo de estos productos. La exposición a los plaguicidas puede tener efectos agudos, crónicos y a largo plazo. Algunos compuestos organoclorados (como el DDT) fueron los primeros en ser empleado en fumigaciones masivas para combatir la malaria y han debido ser prohibidos debido a su capacidad de bioacumulación y persistencia medioambiental. El peligro representado por la generalizada presencia de estos agentes, se ha demostrado en los numerosos episodios de epidemias tóxicas humanas, productoras de alta morbi-mortalidad, descritas por casi todas las familias químicas: insecticidas y fungicidas organoclorados, insecticidas organofosforados y carbamatos, fungicidas organomercuriales y sales inorgánicas. Estos episodios se han producido sobre todo por vía alimentaria y en el terreno profesional. Otras causas de preocupación sanitaria son su capacidad carcinogénica y de ocasionar alteraciones reproductivas. Se presentan las principales características de algunas de las familias más relevantes. Abstract in english Pesticides are one of the families of chemical products most widely used by man. They have been used above all to combat pests because of their effect on harvests and as vectors of transmissible diseases. Pesticides can be classified according to their use (insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, rati [...] cides…) or by their chemical family (organochlorates, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, Bipyridilium compounds, inorganic salts…). All of them are biocides, which normally implies a high toxicity for humans, which has been a cause for concern since the mid-XX century due to the widespread and indiscriminate use of these products. Exposure to pesticides can have effects that are acute, chronic and long-term. Some organochlorate compounds (such as DDT) were the first to be used in massive fumigations to fight malaria and have had to be banned because of their capacity for bioaccumulation and environmental persistence. The danger represented by the widespread presence of these agents has been demonstrated in numerous episodes of human toxic epidemics, producers of a high morbidity/mortality, described for nearly all chemical families: organochlorate insecticides and fungicides, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, organomercurial fungicides and inorganic salts. These episodes have above all been caused through the ingestion of foodstuffs and in the occupational field. Other causes of health concern are their carcinogenic capacity and occasional reproductive alterations. The principal characteristics of some of the most relevant families are presented.

  11. Intoxicación por plaguicidas Pesticide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ferrer

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Los plaguicidas son una de las familias de productos químicos más ampliamente empleadas por el hombre. Se han usado sobre todo para combatir plagas por su acción sobre las cosechas o como vectores de enfermedades transmisibles. Los plaguicidas pueden clasificarse en función de su empleo (insecticidas, fungicidas, herbicidas, raticidas… o de su familia química (organoclorados, organofosforados, carbamatos, piretoides, compuestos bipiridílicos, sales inorgánicas…. Todos ellos son biocidas lo que implica, habitualmente una alta toxicidad humana que ha sido motivo de preocupación desde mitad del siglo XX debido al amplio e indiscriminado empleo de estos productos. La exposición a los plaguicidas puede tener efectos agudos, crónicos y a largo plazo. Algunos compuestos organoclorados (como el DDT fueron los primeros en ser empleado en fumigaciones masivas para combatir la malaria y han debido ser prohibidos debido a su capacidad de bioacumulación y persistencia medioambiental. El peligro representado por la generalizada presencia de estos agentes, se ha demostrado en los numerosos episodios de epidemias tóxicas humanas, productoras de alta morbi-mortalidad, descritas por casi todas las familias químicas: insecticidas y fungicidas organoclorados, insecticidas organofosforados y carbamatos, fungicidas organomercuriales y sales inorgánicas. Estos episodios se han producido sobre todo por vía alimentaria y en el terreno profesional. Otras causas de preocupación sanitaria son su capacidad carcinogénica y de ocasionar alteraciones reproductivas. Se presentan las principales características de algunas de las familias más relevantes.Pesticides are one of the families of chemical products most widely used by man. They have been used above all to combat pests because of their effect on harvests and as vectors of transmissible diseases. Pesticides can be classified according to their use (insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, raticides… or by their chemical family (organochlorates, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, Bipyridilium compounds, inorganic salts…. All of them are biocides, which normally implies a high toxicity for humans, which has been a cause for concern since the mid-XX century due to the widespread and indiscriminate use of these products. Exposure to pesticides can have effects that are acute, chronic and long-term. Some organochlorate compounds (such as DDT were the first to be used in massive fumigations to fight malaria and have had to be banned because of their capacity for bioaccumulation and environmental persistence. The danger represented by the widespread presence of these agents has been demonstrated in numerous episodes of human toxic epidemics, producers of a high morbidity/mortality, described for nearly all chemical families: organochlorate insecticides and fungicides, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, organomercurial fungicides and inorganic salts. These episodes have above all been caused through the ingestion of foodstuffs and in the occupational field. Other causes of health concern are their carcinogenic capacity and occasional reproductive alterations. The principal characteristics of some of the most relevant families are presented.

  12. Characterizing pesticide dissipation in food crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Juraske, R.

    2013-01-01

    Ingestion of residues via consumption of food crops is the predominant exposure route of the general population toward pesticides. However, pesticide dissipation in crops constitutes a main source of uncertainty in estimating residues in harvested crop parts and subsequent human exposure. Nevertheless, dissipation is a key mechanism in models assessing pesticide distribution in the cropenvironment and the magnitude of residues in harvest. We provide a consistent framework for characterizing pesticide dissipation in food crops for use in modeling approaches applied in health risk and impact assessment. We collected 4,482 unique dissipation half-lives for 341 substances applied to 182 different crop species and fully characterize these data by describing their variance, distribution and uncertainty as well as by identifying the influence of substance, crop and environmental characteristics. We obtain an overall geo-mean half-life over all data points of 3.9 days with 95% of all half-lives falling within the range between 0.6 and 29 days. Uncertainty in predicting a substance-specific geo-mean half-life varies with varying numbers of available data points with the highest uncertainty associated to pesticides with less than seven reported half-lives. Temperature in air was identified to have a significant influence on dissipation kinetics. We, hence, provide estimated half-lives for a default temperature of 20°C, while introducing a correction term for deviating temperature conditions. Diffusive exchange processes also have a significant influence on pesticide dissipation, wherever these processes dominate dissipation rates compared to degradation. In these cases, we recommend not to use measured dissipation half-lives as basis for estimating degradation, which is recommended in cases, where degradation is dominating. We are currently testing the regression to predict degradation half-lives in crops. By providing mean degradation half-lives at 20°C for more than 300 pesticides, we reduce uncertainty and improve assumptions in current practice of health risk and impact assessments.

  13. 75 FR 62387 - Pesticide Product Registrations; Conditional Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ...conditionally register the following pesticide products: 1. Paladin Technical...to grow fruiting vegetable (tomato, pepper, and eggplant...to grow fruiting vegetable (tomato, pepper, and eggplant...protection, Chemicals, Pests and pesticides. Dated: September 27,...

  14. Metabolism of pesticides after dermal exposure to amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding how pesticide exposure to non-target species influences toxicity is necessary to accurately assess the ecological risks these compounds pose. Aquatic, terrestrial, and arboreal amphibians are often exposed to pesticides during their agricultural application resultin...

  15. Home Pesticide Use Tied to Child Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home Pesticide Use Tied to Child Cancer Risk Indoor insecticides may increase chances of leukemia or lymphoma a bit, ... issue of Pediatrics , do not prove that chemical pesticides directly contribute to the cancers. And if they ...

  16. 76 FR 11456 - Pesticide Reregistration Performance Measures and Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ...Pesticide Reregistration Performance Measures and Goals AGENCY: Environmental...progress in meeting its performance measures and goals for pesticide reregistration...comment due to technical difficulties and cannot contact...

  17. Children's exposure to pesticides used in homes and farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saller, Jeremy; Reyes, Priscilla; Maldonado, Pedro A; Gibbs, Shawn G; Byrd, Theresa L

    2007-03-01

    Commercial and residential use of pesticides is common in El Paso, Texas, especially in agricultural areas. Recently, concerns have arisen about the type of pesticides used by residents because of the ease with which methyl parathion can be obtained from the neighboring border city of Juarez in Chihuahua, Mexico. Survey data were collected regarding residents' perceptions about pesticide safety and use of pesticides, and their preferred source of health information. The authors assessed the number of respondents who were using the illegal pesticide methyl parathion, known locally as polvo de avion (airplane dust) as well as their beliefs concerning the safety and efficacy of pesticides. The study found that 88.7 percent (133 of 150) used some type of pesticide, and of these, 9.8 percent (13 of 133) reported using methyl parathion. Biological/environmental testing would be useful to assess use of methyl parathion and to determine the types of pesticides used by local farmers. PMID:17390899

  18. 77 FR 72223 - Clodinafop-Propargyl; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ...Guideline 870.7800) for pesticide registration. This study...with tandem mass spectrometry detection (LC/MS/MS), Enviro-Test...since they use a different detection system. Therefore, the...to eliminate tolerances and pesticides altogether. The Agency...

  19. Influence of Combinations of Pesticides and Fertilizers on Aquatic Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Ganapati Hegde; Mahesh Mandya; Sushma S. Gokarnakar; Vinodbabu N. Babu; Vijayakumar N. Shivaramaiah; Sannanegunda V. Krishnamurthy

    2014-01-01

    We have examined the effects of environmentally realistic concentrations of widely used pesticides and fertilizers for rice paddy in Western Ghats regions of India on chlorophyll and zooplankton production using a laboratory mesocosm. Malathion (100 ?g·L-1), Cypermethrin (25 ?g·L-1), Nitrate-nitrogen (8 mg·L-1) and Phosphate-phosphorus (8 mg·L-1) in different combinations such as pesticide-pesticide and pesticide-fertilizer were tested in fully factorial manner for a...

  20. Overuse or underuse? An observation of pesticide use in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Hu, Ruifa; Shi, Guanming; Jin, Yanhong; Robson, Mark G; Huang, Xusheng

    2015-12-15

    Pesticide use has experienced a dramatic increase worldwide, especially in China, where a wide variety of pesticides are used in large amounts by farmers to control crop pests. While Chinese farmers are often criticized for pesticide overuse, this study shows the coexistence of overuse and underuse of pesticide based on the survey data of pesticide use in rice, cotton, maize, and wheat production in three provinces in China. A novel index amount approach is proposed to convert the amount of multiple pesticides used to control the same pest into an index amount of a referenced pesticide. We compare the summed index amount with the recommended dosage range of the referenced pesticide to classify whether pesticides are overused or underused. Using this new approach, the following main results were obtained. Pesticide overuse and underuse coexist after examining a total of 107 pesticides used to control up to 54 crop pests in rice, cotton, maize, and wheat production. In particular, pesticide overuse in more than half of the total cases for 9 crop pest species is detected. In contrast, pesticide underuse accounts for more than 20% of the total cases for 11 pests. We further indicate that the lack of knowledge and information on pesticide use and pest control among Chinese farmers may cause the coexistence of pesticide overuse and underuse. Our analysis provides indirect evidence that the commercialized agricultural extension system in China probably contributes to the coexistence of overuse and underuse. To improve pesticide use, it is urgent to reestablish the monitoring and forecasting system regarding pest control in China. PMID:26296070

  1. How to minimise direct pesticide load on bees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Jens Erik; Navntoft, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring, warning and decision support systems (MWD systems) may be profitable solutions to crop protection problems, and at the same time they may reduce the use of pesticides and the pesticide load on human health, non-target organisms and ground water resources. This presentation describes a simple method to pinpoint pesticide problems that causes the highest regional pesticide load (regional hot spots) to various non-target organisms. Finally the potential of MWD systems to reduce the pest...

  2. Trends of Pesticide Exposure and Related Cases in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Jinky Leilanie; Cosca, Katherine Z.; Del mundo, Jocelyn

    2010-01-01

    The study aims to provide a comprehensive trend of pesticide poisoning cases in the Philippines as well as pesticide exposures, and risk factors related to the adverse effects of pesticide. Records were gathered from the National Poison Control and Management Center (NPCMC), the Philippine General Hospital, De La Salle Medical Center, and other hospitals, and reviewed research studies conducted in the Philippines. Based on hospital surveys, the number of pesticide cases as well...

  3. Acute pesticide poisoning--a global public health problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    Acute pesticide poisoning has become a major public health problem worldwide, following the intensification of agriculture and the promotion of agro-chemicals in low and middle income countries, with more than 300,000 deaths each year. The easy availability of highly toxic pesticides in the homes of farming communities has made pesticides the preferred means of suicide with an extremely high case fatality. Similarly, the extensive use of pesticides exposes the community to both long-term and acu...

  4. Modeling the Factors Impacting Pesticide Concentrations in Groundwater Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Binning, Philip John; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effect of pumping, hydrogeology, and pesticide characteristics on pesticide concentrations in production wells using a reactive transport model in two conceptual hydrogeologic systems; a layered aquifer with and without a stream present. The pumping rate can significantly affect the pesticide breakthrough time and maximum concentration at the well. The effect of the pumping rate on the pesticide concentration depends on the hydrogeology of the aquifer; in a layered aquife...

  5. Global pesticide consumption and pollution: with China as a focus

    OpenAIRE

    WenJun Zhang; FuBin Jiang; JianFeng Ou

    2011-01-01

    Varieties and consumption of pesticides worldwide have been increasing dramatically as increased human population and crop production. In this process pesticide misuses become more and more serious, which has resulted in heavy environmental pollution and health risk of humans. In order to safeguard human health, threatened species and ecosystems from pesticide pollution, the consumption and pollution of pesticides worldwide especially China were reviewed and documented in present study. Meanw...

  6. Pesticides et toxicité chez l'abeille - USA

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Reed M.; Ellis, Marion D.; Mullin, Christopher A.; Frazier, Maryann

    2010-01-01

    Until 1985 discussions of pesticides and honey bee toxicity in the USA were focused on pesticides applied to crops and the unintentional exposure of foraging bees to them. The recent introduction of arthropod pests of honey bees, Acarapis woodi (1984), Varroa destructor (1987), and Aethina tumida (1997), to the USA have resulted in the intentional introduction of pesticides into beehives to suppress these pests. Both the unintentional and the intentional exposure of honey bees to pesticides h...

  7. Some laboratory blood indicators in tractor drivers exposed to pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Prokeš Bela L.

    2010-01-01

    Pesticides represent group of extremely different compounds or mixed compounds. They are produced in the form of powder for direct application, powder for suspension, concentrated suspension, concentration of emulsion, and in other forms as well. Influence of pesticides to exposed workers mainly depends on technology of pesticide application use. All poisons, just like pesticides that come in organism in some way and reach the location of their metabolism, accumulation in the body or ex...

  8. 75 FR 54629 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ...pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA has determined that the...residues of pesticides in or on food commodities. Further information on the...Chemistry Branch, Environmental Science Center, 701 Mapes Rd.,...

  9. 75 FR 11171 - Notice of Filing of Several Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ...at Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division...agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...T\\, in or on all food commodities. The petitioner...commodities, Feed additives, Food additives, Pesticides...Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention...

  10. 76 FR 33183 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ...Mendelsohn, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division...agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...in corn, in or on the food and feed commodities...commodities, Feed additives, Food additives, Pesticides...Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention...

  11. 76 FR 3885 - Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ...Mendelsohn, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division...agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...in corn, in or on the food and feed commodities...commodities, Feed additives, Food additives, Pesticides...Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention...

  12. 76 FR 36479 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ...regulations for residues of pesticides in or on food commodities...or mass spectrometry (MS) detections. The limit of detection (LOD) for each analyte of...additives, Food additives, Pesticides and pests, Reporting...

  13. PESTICIDE SOURCES TO SOIL AND PRINCIPLES OF SPRAY PHYSICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past 50 years, organic pesticides have greatly enhanced the production and quality of food, feed, and fiber as well as the control of disease vectors and pests adversely affecting human health and welfare. n this review of the pesticides literature, the pesticide source te...

  14. PESTICIDE SOIL SORPTION PARAMETERS: THEORY, MEASUREMENT, USES, LIMITATIONS AND RELIABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soil sorption coefficient Kd and the soil organic carbon sorption coefficient Koc of pesticides are basic parameters used worldwide in describing the environmental behavior of pesticides. They are a measure of the strength of sorption of pesticides to soils and other geosorbent surfaces at the ...

  15. 77 FR 76979 - Pesticides; Revisions to Minimum Risk Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0305; FRL-9339-1] RIN 2070-AJ79 Pesticides; Revisions to Minimum Risk Exemption...exemption from regulation for minimum risk pesticides. EPA is proposing to reorganize these...ingredients are permitted in minimum risk pesticide products. EPA is also proposing...

  16. EXTRACTION OF PESTICIDES AND OTHER TOXIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS FROM SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The determination of pesticides, particularly newer classes of pesticides, and other toxic organic chemicals in environmental samples presents challenging analytical problems. For instance, some of the newer classes of pesticides must be analyzed at trace levels; they can affect plant growth at conc...

  17. Assessing Children’s Dietary Pesticide Exposure: Direct Measurement of Pesticide Residues in 24-Hr Duplicate Food Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Schenck, Frank J.; Pearson, Melanie A.; Wong, Jon W.; Lu, Chensheng Alex

    2010-01-01

    Background: The data presented here are a response to calls for more direct measurements of pesticide residues in foods consumed by children and provide an opportunity to compare direct measures of pesticide residues in foods representing actual consumption with those reported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Pesticide Data Program. Objective: We measured pesticide residues in 24-hr duplicate food samples collected from a group of 46 young children participating in the Children’s Pestici...

  18. Pesticide Use and Self-Reported Symptoms of Acute Pesticide Poisoning among Aquatic Farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Anders Dalsgaard; Jørgen Holm Petersen; Erik Jørs; Flemming Konradsen; Hanne Klith Jensen

    2010-01-01

    Organophosphates and carbamates (OPs/CMs) are known for their acetylcholinesterase inhibiting character. A cross-sectional study of pesticide handling practices and self-perceived symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning was conducted using questionnaire-based interviews with 89 pesticide sprayers in Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE) Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority...

  19. International safety assessment of pesticides: dithiocarbamate pesticides, ETU, and PTU--a review and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettorazzi, G; Almeida, W F; Burin, G J; Jaeger, R B; Puga, F R; Rahde, A F; Reyes, F G; Schvartsman, S

    For the last 30 years the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) has carried out toxicological evaluations and safety assessments of dithiocarbamate pesticides, continuously adjusting previous appraisals in the light of new data and advances in the understanding of the principles and mechanisms of toxic action of these compounds. The historical narrative of the evaluative process is followed by an account of the present international safety assessment status of the dithiocarbamate pesticides so far examined by the JMPR. They are ferbam, mancozeb, maneb, metiram, nabam, propineb, thiram, zineb, ziram, and the associated substances, ethylenethiourea (ETU) and propylenethiourea (PTU). PMID:8732882

  20. Summary of Validation of Multi-Pesticide Methods for Various Pesticide Formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The validation of multi-pesticide methods applicable for various types of pesticide formulations is treated. In a worked-out practical example, i.e. lambda cyhalothrin, the theoretical considerations outlined in the General Guidance section are put into practice. GC conditions, selection of an internal standard and criteria for an acceptable repeatability of injections are outlined, followed by sample preparation, calibration, batch analysis and confirmation of results through comparison using different separation columns. Complete sets of data are displayed in tabular form for other pesticide active ingredients and real formulations. (author)

  1. PESTICIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN VEGETABLES FROM Fabaceae FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Soceanu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the concentration levels of nine pesticides in vegetables of the Fabaceae family. For this purpose we used chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD after the extraction and cleaning. The recoveries are between 96 and 99%. The repeatability of the method, expressed by coefficient of variation is less than 4.7%. The limits of quantification of the method are between 0.2 to 0.3 ppb. Residues of these pesticides are distributed differently in vegetables, depending on the organ of the plant and areas where vegetables were grown. For all the vegetables studied, DDD, DDE and DDT were below the limit of quantification. All concentrations of organochlorine pesticides from the samples studied are located within the limits imposed by the regulations of the European Commission.

  2. 76 FR 2110 - Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ...FRL-8860-9] Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues...regulations for residues of pesticides in or on food commodities...radish; fruit, stone; and tomato. The petitioner believes...additives, Food additives, Pesticides and pests, Reporting...

  3. 76 FR 17374 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... commodities (RACs) published in the Federal Register of April 19, 2000 (65 FR 20972) (FRL-6554-3). Contact... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 174 and 180 Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide... filings of pesticide petitions requesting the establishment or modification of regulations for residues...

  4. 75 FR 65321 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ...regulations for residues of pesticides in or on food commodities...and livestock commodities. Pesticide Analytical Manual (PAM...chromatography with electron capture detection (GC/ECD), that are sufficient...CFR 180.920 when used as a pesticide inert ingredient in...

  5. 76 FR 69690 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ...FRL-9325-1] Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...regulations for residues of pesticides in or on food commodities...partition, clean-up and detection of residues by gas...

  6. 75 FR 78240 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or... establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities..., proposing the establishment or modification of regulations in 40 CFR part 174 or part 180 for residues...

  7. 77 FR 75082 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... expression in the Federal Register of June 29, 2011 (76 FR 38035) (FRL- 8877-2). There are two enforcement... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide... for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments must be received...

  8. Suspected poisoning of domestic animals by pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Rivolta, Marina; Davanzo, Franca

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out by reviewing all suspected cases of domestic animal poisoning attributed to pesticides, reported to the Milan Poison Control Centre (MPCC) between January 2011 and December 2013. During this period, pesticides were found to be responsible for 37.3% of all suspected poisoning enquiries received (815). The most commonly species involved was the dog (71.1% of calls) followed by the cat (15.8%), while a limited number of cases involved horses, goats and sheep. Most cases of exposure (47.1%) resulted in mild to moderate clinical signs. The outcome was reported in 59.9% of these cases, with death occurring in 10.4% of them. Insecticides (40.8%) proved to be the most common group of pesticides involved and exposure to pyrethrins-pyrethroids accounted for the majority of calls. According to the MPCC data, there has been a decrease in the number of suspected poisonings cases attributed to pesticides that have been banned by the EU, including aldicarb, carbofuran, endosulfan and paraquat. In contrast, there has been an increase of suspected poisoning cases attributed to the neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and acetamiprid, probably due to their widespread use in recent years. Cases of suspected poisoning that involved exposure to rodenticides accounted for 27.6% of calls received by the MPCC and anticoagulant rodenticides were the primary cause of calls, with many cases involving brodifacoum and bromadiolone. Herbicides were involved in 14.2% of calls related to pesticides and glyphosate was the main culprit in cases involving dogs, cats, horses, goats and sheep. As far as exposure to molluscicides (11.5%) and fungicides (5.9%), most of the cases involved dogs and the suspected poisoning agents were metaldehyde and copper compounds respectively. The data collected are useful in determining trends in poisoning episodes and identifying newly emerging toxicants, thus demonstrating the prevalence of pesticides as causative agents in animal poisonings. PMID:26367188

  9. Haematologic Indices in Pesticide Factory Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Reza Joshaghani; Azad Reza Mansourian; Khodaberdi Kalavi; Saideh Salimi

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of pesticides on blood indices of subjects which are exposed to organophosphate toxins. This research was a cohort study which was carried out during 2005 on the employee of a pesticide factory in Golestan province (North of Iran). In this study the sampling from 63 subjects was carried out for two sessions in days 1 and 90. CBC and hematologic indices performed by cell counter instrument. The mean of MCV in phase 1 was 82.8±7.1 fl and in s...

  10. Effects of pesticides on crab cheliped regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costlow, J.D. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The mud crab cheliped regeneration bioassay has proven to be a sensitive and reliable bioassay in studies of the potential sublethal effects of pesticides, including teratogenesis, spontaneous autotomy, and duration of the various stages of development. The assay has also been demonstated to be a useful indication of mortality associated with the impact of these chemicals of anthropogenic origin during the megalopal and early postlarval stages of development. Four pesticides were tested here using the cheliped regeneration bioassay technique. Although carbofuran is approximately 5--6 times more toxic than methomyl, both compounds yield very similar results in terms of sublethal effects.

  11. Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Damalas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms, many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence, and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization of the already approved pesticides and the approval of the new compounds in the near future. Thus, new tools or techniques with greater reliability than those already existing are needed to predict the potential hazards of pesticides and thus contribute to reduction of the adverse effects on human health and the environment. On the other hand, the implementation of alternative cropping systems that are less dependent on pesticides, the development of new pesticides with novel modes of action and improved safety profiles, and the improvement of the already used pesticide formulations towards safer formulations (e.g., microcapsule suspensions could reduce the adverse effects of farming and particularly the toxic effects of pesticides. In addition, the use of appropriate and well-maintained spraying equipment along with taking all precautions that are required in all stages of pesticide handling could minimize human exposure to pesticides and their potential adverse effects on the environment.

  12. Landscape parameters driving aquatic pesticide exposure and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticide contamination is considered one of the reasons streams fail to achieve good ecological and chemical status, the main objectives of the Water Framework Directive. However, little is known on the interaction of different pesticide sources and landscape parameters and the resulting impairment of macroinvertebrate communities. We evaluated the potential effects of diffuse and point sources of pesticides using macroinvertebrate monitoring data from 663 sites in central Germany. Additionally, we investigated forested upstream reaches and structural quality as landscape parameters potentially mitigating or amplifying the effects of pesticides. Diffuse pesticide pollution and forested upstream reaches were the most important parameters affecting macroinvertebrate communities (pesticide-specific indicator SPEARpesticides). Our results indicate that forested upstream reaches and riparian buffer strips at least 5 m in width can mitigate the effects and exposure of pesticides. In addition, we developed a screening approach that allows an initial, cost-effective identification of sites of concern. Highlights: • Pesticide sources and landscape parameters important for holistic risk assessment. • Riparian buffer strips of at least 5 m in width can reduce diffuse pesticide input. • Forested upstream reaches enhance recovery of pesticide-affected communities. • Screening approach allows quick and cost-effective identification of problem sites. -- Our results show the interaction of different pesticide sources and landscape parameters and the resulting impairment of macroinvertebrate communities

  13. Assessing pesticide exposure of the aquatic environment in tropical catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Frederik; Zurbrügg, Christian; Eggen, Rik; Castillo, Luisa; Ruepert, Clemens; Stamm, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Today, pesticides are intensively used in agriculture across the globe. Worldwide about 2.4×106 tons of pesticides are used annually on 1.6×109 ha of arable land. This yields a global average use of pesticides of 1.53 kg ha-1 year-1. Available data suggest that the use in the agricultural sector will continue to grow. Recently it was estimated that within the last decade, the world pesticide market increased by 93% and the Brazilian market alone by 190%. Though pesticides are intensively used in many low and middle income countries (LAMICs), scientifically sound data of amounts and types of pesticide use and the resulting impact on water quality are lacking in many of these countries. Therefore it is highly relevant to: i) identify risk areas where pesticides affect environmental health, ii) understand the environmental behavior of pesticides in vulnerable tropical ecosystems; and iii) develop possible mitigation options to reduce their exposure to ecosystems and humans. Here we present a project that will focus on assessing pesticide exposure of the aquatic environment and humans in tropical catchments of LAMICs. A catchment in the Zarcero province in Costa Rica will be the test case. Pesticide exposure will be assessed by passive sampling. In order to cover a broad range of compounds of possible use, two sampling devices will be used: SDB membranes for collecting polar compounds and silicon sheets for accumulating apolar pesticides. Extracts will be subsequently analysed by GC-MSMS and LC-HRMS.

  14. Pesticide transport simulation in a tropical catchment by SWAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of agrochemicals in Southeast Asia is increasing in rate, variety and toxicity with alarming speed. Understanding the behavior of these different contaminants within the environment require comprehensive monitoring programs as well as accurate simulations with hydrological models. We used the SWAT hydrological model to simulate the fate of three different pesticides, one of each usage type (herbicide, fungicide and insecticide) in a mountainous catchment in Northern Thailand. Three key parameters were identified: the sorption coefficient, the decay coefficient and the coefficient controlling pesticide percolation. We yielded satisfactory results simulating pesticide load dynamics during the calibration period (NSE: 0.92–0.67); the results during the validation period were also acceptable (NSE: 0.61–0.28). The results of this study are an important step in understanding the modeling behavior of these pesticides in SWAT and will help to identify thresholds of worst-case scenarios in order to assess the risk for the environment. - Highlights: • We performed a global LH-sensitivity analysis of all pesticide related parameters. • Key physical parameters are associated to percolation, degradation and sorption. • We simulated the measured loads of three different pesticides. • We performed an uncertainty analysis of all pesticide simulations. • All Pesticides differed considerably in their sensitivity and simulation behavior. - Pesticide load simulations of three pesticides were modeled by SWAT, providing clues on how to handle pesticides in future SWAT studies

  15. 75 FR 13284 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Request for Nominations to the Pesticide Program Dialogue...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ...FIFRA); the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic...pesticide laws by the Food Quality Protection Act...consultants; State, local, and Tribal governments...health organizations; food processors; and the public....

  16. Public Health Implications of Pesticide Residues in Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadhav V.J. and Waskar V.S.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. Since then various synthetic pesticides are used for protection of crops and public health. The persistence nature of some of these pesticides led to their accumulation in animal tissues and subsequently causes human dietary exposure to these pesticides through consumption of animal products viz. meat, milk, eggs and seafoods. Scientific evidence suggest that even such low dose but long term exposure can cause serious health hazards to human health and environment as well. The reports on occurrence of pesticides residues in animal products manufactured in India are fragmentary, but provide confirmation to the fact Indian consumers do get dietary exposure to these pesticides. The role of Insecticide Act and Prevention of Food Adulteration Act enforced in India for judicious pesticide use and safety of consumers of animal products is discussed. [Vet. World 2011; 4(4.000: 178-182

  17. Incident Diabetes and Pesticide Exposure among Licensed Pesticide Applicators: Agricultural Health Study 1993 – 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, M. P.; Kame, F.; Saldana, T. M.; Alavanja, M. C. R.; Sandler, D. P.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to certain environmental toxicants may be associated with increased risk of developing diabetes. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between lifetime exposure to specific agricultural pesticides and diabetes incidence among pesticide applicators. The study included 33,457 licensed applicators, predominantly non-Hispanic white males, enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study. Incident diabetes was self-reported in a 5-year follow-up interview (1999–2003), giving 1,176 diabetic...

  18. Agricultural pesticide usage and prioritization in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Eun Shil; Jeong, Mihye; Lee, Won Jin

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to review agricultural pesticide usage and trends and to identify hazardous pesticides for regulation, in terms of public health, in South Korea. The authors collected data on usage and trends of agricultural pesticides through agriculture-related databases. Criteria from the US Environmental Protection Agency classification for carcinogenicity, World Health Organization classification for acute toxicity, and European Union prioritization list for endocrine-disrupting chemicals were used for the hazard categorization of identified individual active ingredients. Pesticides to be prioritized among all pesticides used in South Korea between 2007 and 2011 were selected by taking into account the volume of usage, toxicity, and epidemiological evidence. Annual agricultural use of pesticides has increased rapidly from the 1970s to 1990s in South Korea, but has declined since 2001. The quantity of pesticides used in 2011 was reported as 19,131 tons, and was comprised of 34.7% insecticides, 28.0% fungicides, and 27.1% herbicides. The 50 pesticides with the greatest volume of usage accounted for 82.6% of the total volume of pesticides used between 2007 and 2011, with the most-used active ingredient being machine oil, followed by mancozeb and then paraquat. Organophosphates were the most used among the top 50 pesticides. A total of 24 pesticides were selected for recommendation of intensive regulation in South Korea. In conclusion, the authors described the usage and trends of overall agricultural pesticides, which would serve as a fundamental step forward in managing pesticide in terms of public health. Intensive efforts are required for the prevention of potential health effects from the 24 identified pesticides. PMID:24959760

  19. Pesticide impact on aquatic invertebrates identified with Chemcatcher® passive samplers and the SPEAR(pesticides) index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münze, Ronald; Orlinskiy, Polina; Gunold, Roman; Paschke, Albrecht; Kaske, Oliver; Beketov, Mikhail A; Hundt, Matthias; Bauer, Coretta; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Möder, Monika; Liess, Matthias

    2015-12-15

    Pesticides negatively affect biodiversity and ecosystem function in aquatic environments. In the present study, we investigated the effects of pesticides on stream macroinvertebrates at 19 sites in a rural area dominated by forest cover and arable land in Central Germany. Pesticide exposure was quantified with Chemcatcher® passive samplers equipped with a diffusion-limiting membrane. Ecological effects on macroinvertebrate communities and on the ecosystem function detritus breakdown were identified using the indicator system SPEARpesticides and the leaf litter degradation rates, respectively. A decrease in the abundance of pesticide-vulnerable taxa and a reduction in leaf litter decomposition rates were observed at sites contaminated with the banned insecticide Carbofuran (Toxic Units?-2.8), confirming the effect thresholds from previous studies. The results show that Chemcatcher® passive samplers with a diffusion-limiting membrane reliably detect ecologically relevant pesticide pollution, and we suggest Chemcatcher® passive samplers and SPEARpesticides as a promising combination to assess pesticide exposure and effects in rivers and streams. PMID:26282741

  20. 76 FR 50904 - Thiamethoxam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ...are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311...part 180 through the Government Printing Office's e-CFR site http...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0602 (food/feed commodities in...

  1. 77 FR 59558 - Sulfentrazone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0758; FRL-9363-3] Sulfentrazone; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY...tolerances for residues of sulfentrazone in or on succulent soybeans...if you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or...residues of the herbicide sulfentrazone (N-[2,4-...

  2. 77 FR 52236 - Thifensulfuron Methyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ...to exposure of infants and children to the pesticide chemical...will result to infants and children from aggregate exposure to...consumers, including infants and children. Thifensulfuron methyl has...gains, or organ weights (a reflection of the lower body...

  3. 76 FR 76304 - Saflufenacil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ...to exposure of infants and children to the pesticide chemical...will result to infants and children from aggregate exposure to...consumers, including infants and children. Saflufenacil has low acute...changes and was considered a reflection of a mild and...

  4. Radioisotopes in pesticide residues and metabolic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing use of pesticides and their serious role as environmental contaminants necessitate detailed studies of their metabolism,toxicology and environmental fate.The complex problems which are beyond conventional analytical analysis could,and with great precision,be solved by the use of nuclear techniques.Pesticides labelled with radionuclides(H-3,C-14,P-32 and Cl-36) can be used.Compounds labelled with these radionuclides can be easily measured,in very low concentrations, by use of liquid scintillation counters.Metabolism and distribution of the labelled compounds in the plant can be followed by autoradiography.In this study,supported by the IAEA, the following pesticides were investigated, C-14 DDT, C-14 Endosulfan, C-14 Carbaryl, C-14 Carbofuran, C-14 Amitraz, C-14 Aldicarb and C-14 Butocarboxim. The investigations included :a) study of the binding of these compounds in soils. b) study of the : i) fate and dynamics of aldicarb in cotton plant. ii) fate of amitraz in tomatoes. 'this work is part of the programme of studies of pesticide residues in soil, plants and foods, aproject supported by the international Atomic Energy Commission '.(Author)

  5. 75 FR 71697 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ...305-5614; Biopesticides and Pollution 87301-R gross.anna...agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...20001(on behalf of DSM Food Specialities BV; P...20001(on behalf of DSM Food Specialities BV, P...Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention...

  6. 77 FR 16544 - Pesticide Product Registration Approvals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ...at Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division...agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...allow for new use on all food commodities. These submissions...67702-33) for use on all food commodities to control...Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention...

  7. 78 FR 44444 - Mancozeb; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... May 2, 2012 (77 FR 25954) (FRL-9346-1), EPA issued a document pursuant to FFDCA section 408(d)(3), 21... September 28, 2012 (77 FR 59578) (FRL- 9364-6), EPA issued a document pursuant to FFDCA section 408(d)(3... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Mancozeb; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  8. 75 FR 50902 - Mancozeb; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ..., 2009, (74 FR 47504) (FRL-8431- 4) in a document titled ``Mancozeb, Maneb, Metiram, and Thiram; Proposed...) 305-5805. II. Summary of Petitioned-For Tolerance In the Federal Register of March 15, 2006 (71 FR... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Mancozeb; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  9. Decontamination of pesticide packing using ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian agriculture activities have consumed about 288,000 tons of pesticides per year conditioned in about 107,000,000 packing with weight of approximately 23,000 tons. The discharge of empty plastic packing of pesticides can be an environmental concern causing problems to human health, animals, and plants if done without inspection and monitoring. The objective of this work is to study the ionizing radiation effect in the main pesticides used in Brazil for plastic packing decontamination. Among the commercial pesticides, chlorpyrifos has significant importance because of its wide distribution and extensive use and persistence. The radiation-induced degradation of chlorpyrifos in liquid samples and in polyethylene pack was studied by gamma radiolysis. Packing of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) three layer coextruded, named COEX, contaminated with chlorpyrifos, were irradiated using both a multipurpose Co-60 gamma irradiator and a gamma source with 5000 Ci total activity Gamma cell type. The chemical analysis of the chlorpyrifos was made using a gas chromatography associated to the Mass Spectrometry-GCMS from Shimadzu Model QP 5000. Gamma radiation was efficient for removing chlorpyrifos from the plastic packing, in all studied cases

  10. 76 FR 34877 - Difenoconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0296; FRL-8876-4] Difenoconazole; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...establishes tolerances for residues of difenoconazole in or on aspirated grain fractions...tolerances for residues of the fungicide difenoconazole, in or on carrot at 0.45...

  11. 76 FR 22045 - Fluopicolide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ...305-5805. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Janet Whitehurst, Office of Pesticide Programs...305-6129; e-mail address: whitehurst.janet@epa.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION...characterized and only occurred at a dose level near the limit dose. Protection of the...

  12. 75 FR 22240 - Cyprodinil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... in dogs were limited to decreased body-weight gain, decreased food consumption and decreased food... food-use pesticide, if a toxicological study has indicated the possibility of an effect of concern... request a hearing on those objections. You must file your objection or request a hearing on...

  13. 78 FR 13252 - Pyroxasulfone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... body weight, body weight gain, and food consumption and increased kidney weight, cardiomyopathy, and... performed for a food-use pesticide, if a toxicological study has indicated the possibility of an effect of... this regulation and may also request a hearing on those objections. You must file your objection...

  14. Utilization of poultry litter for pesticide bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural chemical products such as pesticides have been used to increase crop production, especially in undeveloped countries. Poultry litter, the combination of feces and bedding materials, has also been used as an alternative to improve soil quality for crop production. However, information re...

  15. 76 FR 61592 - Isopyrazam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ...residues of isopyrazam in or on banana. Syngenta Crop Protection, Inc., requested this...a pesticide petition (PP 9E7606) by Syngenta Crop Protection, Inc., P.O. Box...a summary of the petition prepared by Syngenta Crop Protection, Inc., the...

  16. 77 FR 70908 - Dinotefuran; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ...consideration to exposure of infants and children to the pesticide...no harm will result to infants and children from aggregate...consumers, including infants and children. Dinotefuran...only observed at high doses. Nervous system toxicity...nervous system seen after repeated dosing....

  17. 75 FR 60327 - Fluoxastrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ...consideration to exposure of infants and children to the pesticide...no harm will result to infants and children from aggregate...consumers, including infants and children. Fluoxastrobin...low toxicity following repeated administration in all...the chronic reference dose (RfD). The...

  18. 78 FR 21267 - Dinotefuran; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ...consideration to exposure of infants and children to the pesticide...no harm will result to infants and children from aggregate...consumers, including infants and children. Dinotefuran...only observed at high doses. Nervous system toxicity...nervous system seen after repeated dosing....

  19. 78 FR 32146 - Triforine; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ...consideration to exposure of infants and children to the pesticide...no harm will result to infants and children from aggregate...consumers, including infants and children. The principal...hematopoietic system following repeated oral dosing, and the...dermal toxicity study at dose levels greater than...

  20. 78 FR 44440 - Imazosulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ...consideration to exposure of infants and children to the pesticide...no harm will result to infants and children from aggregate...consumers, including infants and children. The toxicology...effects of single or repeated dosing were observed...the respective limit doses. The primary...

  1. Quality Control of Selected Pesticides with HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory data obtained on two different HPLC separation columns and detection by UV and DAD under repeatability conditions are presented and discussed. The behaviour of pesticides on different HPLC columns under gradient and isocratic conditions is evaluated concerning the applicability of respective methodologies. Representative chromatograms of real formulations and “empty” formlants are given for illustration. (author)

  2. Quality Control Of Selected Pesticides With GC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The practical quality control of selected pesticides with GC is treated. Detailed descriptions are given on materials and methods used, including sample preparation and GC operating conditions. The systematic validation of multi methods is described, comprising performance characteristics in routine analysis, like selectivity, specificity etc. This is illustrated by chromatograms, calibration curves and tables derived from real laboratory data. (author)

  3. 40 CFR 158.2050 - Biochemical pesticides human health assessment data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides human health... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2050 Biochemical pesticides human health assessment data requirements table. (a) General....

  4. Pesticides: Improvements Needed To Ensure the Safety of Farmworkers and Their Children. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Peter F.

    In response to a Congressional request, the General Accounting Office examined issues related to pesticide safety for children in agricultural settings. Pesticides can cause acute, chronic, or delayed-onset illnesses. Children may be exposed to pesticides through farm work; eating pesticide-treated foods; or contact with drift from pesticide

  5. 40 CFR 158.2070 - Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides product... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2070 Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements. Product performance data must be developed...

  6. 40 CFR 158.2030 - Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides product... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2030 Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table. (a) General. (1)...

  7. 40 CFR 158.2040 - Biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides residue data... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2040 Biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table. (a) General. Sections 158.100 through 158.130 describe how to...

  8. 40 CFR 158.2140 - Microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides toxicology data... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2140 Microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table. (a) General. Sections 158.100 through 158.130 describe how...

  9. 40 CFR 158.510 - Tiered testing options for nonfood pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides. 158.510 Section 158.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Toxicology § 158.510 Tiered testing options for nonfood pesticides. For nonfood use pesticides only, applicants have two options for generating and...

  10. 40 CFR 158.2130 - Microbial pesticides residue data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides residue data... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2130 Microbial pesticides residue data requirements table. (a) General. Sections 158.100 through 158.130 describe how to...

  11. 40 CFR 158.2160 - Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides product... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2160 Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements. Product performance data must be developed...

  12. 40 CFR 158.2120 - Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides product analysis... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2120 Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table. (a) General. Sections 158.100 through...

  13. Occupational exposure through spraying remedial pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrod, A N; Rimmer, D A; Robertshaw, L; Jones, T

    1998-04-01

    A total of 20 surveys at 15 sites of remedial in-situ timber and masonry treatment took place in the latter half of 1996. Two of these surveys concerned wall washes (biocides), the remainder were non-agricultural pesticides. The purpose was to measure the surface deposition and inhalation exposure of the operatives to the pesticide spray fluids used. The diluted spray fluids were found to have significantly different concentrations from those intended by the sprayer. The pesticides were applied at pressures between 320 and 1050 kPa. Deposition rates for spray fluid on coveralls covered a wide range, with more than 30 fold difference between the median and the highest results (median 209 mg/minute; range 27.4 to 6550 mg/min). Contamination of coveralls occurred in all surveys, with the pesticide getting beneath the coveralls in 95% of surveys, with a median 5% contamination beneath the overall. The averaged and normalised deposition pattern was 75% legs, 11% arms, 12% torso and 2% head. Exposure of hands to pesticide (expressed as spray fluid) beneath protective gloves occurred in 89% of surveys (median 5.78 mg/minute; range 0.23 to 358 mg/min) and contamination of socks by spray fluid in 78% of surveys (median 2.08 mg/minute; range 0.12 to 260 mg/min). Exposure by inhalation to spray fluid was measurable in 72% of surveys (median 53.5 mg/m3 TWA; range 4.33 to 1320 mg/m3; 2 data excluded). Inhalation exposure and deposition on coveralls rose markedly at spray pressures above 700 kPa (100 psi). PMID:9684556

  14. Pesticide dissipation in soils as a model for xenobiotic behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the older 'hard' pesticides such as DDT dissipation meant primarily redistribution and bioaccumulation. For the majority of the pesticides currently being used, dissipation refers to all the degradation and transfer processes involved in the ultimate fate of chemicals in the environment. The degradation processes include non-biological, chemical and photochemical decomposition and biological decomposition by organisms and microorganisms. The transfer processes include pesticide sorption by soil colloids; diffusion of volatile pesticides into the atmosphere; movement downwards of pesticides into the soil in percolating waters, movement upwards with capillary water, and movement off the soil surface into surface waters; and absorption, exudation and bioaccumulation of pesticides by organisms. Knowledge of key pesticide and soil properties is necessary in understanding the fate and behaviour of pesticides. Key pesticide properties are symbolized by the acronym SILVER, which stands for solubility in water, ionizability, longevity (persistence), extractability in organic solvents, and the reactive groups present. The key soil properties are symbolized by the acronym SCOOP, which stands for structure (such as fragipans or macropores), clay type and amount, organic matter content, oxide (hydrous) content, and the pH of the system. These properties have been used in computer models to predict pesticide dissipation in soil and the environment. The greatest weakness of the models has been the inability to simulate real world conditions. (author). 41 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  15. Pesticide use knowledge and practices: A gender differences in Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to understand gender difference on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices for identifying pesticide risks by gender and to recommend more gender-sensitive programs. However, very few studies have been conducted so far in Nepal. This study, thus, interviewed a total of 325 males and 109 females during 2005 to assess gender differences on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices. More than 50% females had never been to school and only <8% individuals were found trained in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Almost all males and females did not smoke, drink and eat during pesticides application and also believed that pesticides are harmful to human health, livestock, plant diversity and their environment. However, there were gender differences on household decision on pesticides to be used (p<0.001), care of wind direction during spraying (p=0.032), prior knowledge on safety measures (p=0.016), reading and understanding of pesticides labels (p<0.001), awareness of the labels (p<0.001) and protective covers. Almost all respondents were aware of negative impacts of pesticide use on human health and environment irrespective of gender; however, females were at higher risk due to lower level of pesticide use safety and awareness. It is strongly recommended to initiate gender-sensitive educational and awareness activities, especially on pesticide use practices and safety precautions

  16. 78 FR 16243 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ...Commission: Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR) AGENCY: Office of the Under...Session of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR) of the Codex Alimentarius Commission...trade. The Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues is responsible for establishing...

  17. Safe Use of Pesticides, Guidelines. Occupational Safety and Health Series No. 38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This document provides guidance on the safe use of pesticides in agricultural work. General principles are given and followed by more detailed safety requirements for the various pesticide application techniques. Finally, the medical aspects of pesticides are considered. (BB)

  18. 75 FR 44181 - Mevinphos; Proposed Data Call-in Order for Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ...summer squash, tomatoes, and watermelon...of a family of pesticides known as the organophosphates...cucumbers, lettuce, tomatoes, and strawberries...review program for pesticides registered under...tolerances for pesticide residues in or...Processing Study (tomatoes) (Test...

  19. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES...

  20. 40 CFR 152.30 - Pesticides that may be transferred, sold, or distributed without registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticides that may be transferred, sold, or distributed...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES...

  1. 40 CFR 158.510 - Tiered testing options for nonfood pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...false Tiered testing options for nonfood pesticides. 158.510 Section 158.510 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Toxicology § 158.510 Tiered...

  2. 76 FR 5735 - Revisions to EPA's Rule on Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ...Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...who conduct or support research with pesticides involving intentional exposure of human...submit the results of human research with pesticides to EPA. The proposed amendments...

  3. 76 FR 49318 - Import Tolerances; Order Denying ABC's Petition to Revoke Import Tolerances for Various Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ...Revoke Import Tolerances for Various Pesticides AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...petition requesting that EPA revoke all pesticide ``import'' tolerances for cadusafos...INFORMATION CONTACT: Richard Dumas, Pesticide Re-evaluation Division...

  4. 19 CFR 12.112 - Notice of arrival of pesticides and devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Notice of arrival of pesticides and devices. 12.112 Section 12...TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Pesticides and Devices § 12.112 Notice of arrival of pesticides and devices. (a) General....

  5. 40 CFR 152.25 - Exemptions for pesticides of a character not requiring FIFRA regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides of a character not requiring FIFRA regulation...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES...

  6. 78 FR 10538 - Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ...Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...who conduct or support research with pesticides involving intentional exposure of human...submit the results of human research with pesticides to EPA. The amendments broaden...

  7. 40 CFR 158.2083 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides human health assessment data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...biochemical pesticides human health assessment. The test notes...Biochemical Pesticides Human Health Assessment Data Requirements...biochemical pesticides human health assessment as referenced in...test material is corrosive to skin or has pH ...

  8. Taiwanese farm workers' pesticide knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and clothing practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chen-Yu; Black, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess Taiwanese fruit farm workers' knowledge, attitudes, behaviours, and clothing practices regarding pesticide activities. Seventy-seven fruit farm workers from four districts of Tainan City, Taiwan completed the questionnaire. Results indicated that farmer workers had a good overall level of knowledge of the adverse effects of pesticides on human health and most had experienced symptoms of pesticide poisoning. Farm workers' attitudes toward pesticide use and handling indicated that they saw pesticides useful in controlling pests. Farm workers indicated the limited availability of comfortable clothing designed for a hot and humid climate while still providing sufficient protection was the main reason for not wearing personal protective clothing (PPC) and personal protective equipment (PPE). Emphasis on safety precautions is needed when using pesticides, and the importance of PPC and PPE is essential for the health of farm workers. PMID:25761364

  9. Pesticides in Ground Water of Wyoming, 1995-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Bartos, Timothy T.; Hallberg, Laura L.

    2009-01-01

    In 1991, members of local, State, and Federal governments, as well as industry and interest groups, formed the Ground-water and Pesticides Strategy Committee (GPSC) to prepare the State of Wyoming Generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. Little existing information was available describing pesticide occurrence in ground water; therefore, statewide baseline ground-water sampling was considered a high priority by the GPSC. The GPSC identified 20 pesticides and degradates for baseline ground-water sampling (referred to herein as focal pesticides). Sampling focused on the State's most vulnerable ground water (Wyoming Ground-water and Pesticides Strategy Committee, 1999) as determined by Hamerlinck and Arneson (1998; fig. 1). Ground-water vulnerability is based on inherent sensitivity of the hydrogeology (such as a shallow water table or highly permeable aquifer materials) and overlying land use.

  10. Radiation pollution control - - destruction of chlorinated pesticides in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticides are being used on an increasing scale in agriculture and in insect control programmes, with the result that both the muncipal as well as industrial waste waters are showing the persistent presence of pesticides. These pesticides have extreme chemical resistance and therefore cannot be removed by conventional water treatment. Use of radiation for destruction of some organochloride pesticides, namely, BHC, DDT, aldrin, endrin, chlordane, heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide in water has been investigated at different doses of 60Co gamma radiation. Saturated solutions of pesticides in water were air-saturated and used in the studies. Their contents in the solutions were estimated by GLC. Studies show that all the chlorinated pesticides are destroyed by gamma radiation in aqueous medium. The observed chemical reactivity is ascribed to the generation of highly free reactive radicals in water due to gamma radiation. (M.G.B.)

  11. Pesticide residues in locally available cereals and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegetable samples (pechay, cabbage, lettuce, green beans and tomatoes) bought from public markets in the Metro Manila area were analyzed for pesticide residues using gas chromatography. The samples analyzed in 1968-69 contained high levels of chlorinated pesticides such as DDT, Aldrin, Endrin, and Thiodan, while in the samples analyzed in January 1976, no chlorinated and organophosphate pesticides were detected. Cereal samples (rice, corn and sorghum) were obtained from the National Grains Authority and analyzed for pesticide residues and bromine residues. Total bromine residues was determined by neutron activation analysis. In most of the samples analyzed, the concentrations of pesticide residues were below the tolerance levels set by the FAO/WHO Committee on Pesticide Residues in Foods. An exception was one rice sample from Thailand, the bromine residue content (110ppm) of which exceeds the tolerance level of 50ppm

  12. The Processes that Determine the Fate of Pesticides in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rada ?urovi?

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are an inevitable part of the environment, because due to the intensive use their remains are frequently detected in nature, particularly in the soil. Regardless the way pesticides get into the soil, their further fate will depend on many factors. Given the complexity of interactions of pesticides and soil, and the fact that the intensity of interaction of the same compound with different soil types is different, the studies of the influence of most important soil parameters on the mentioned interactions are becoming more numerous. In this paper are presented the processes that determine the fate of pesticides in the soil, as well as the factors that affect these processes. A special emphasis is placed on theadsorption processes, since they determine the concentration of free fraction of pesticide molecules, i.e. of pesticide quantity that may participate in detoxification processes including degradation and mobility.

  13. Determination of Pesticide Residues in Fresh and Greenhouse Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Azizi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the public concerns about serious health risks from pesticide, the occurrences of 105 pesticide residues including Organochlorine, Organophosphorus, Organonitrogen, Dicarboximides, Strobilurin, Triazine, Pyrethroids were assessed using a descriptive method in 25 fresh and greenhouse vegetable samples (fresh carrot, greenhouse tomato and cucumber. Ethyl acetate was used for extraction of pesticides from samples and the extract was cleaned up by Envicarb Solid Phase Extraction column chromatography. Pesticide residues were identified and quantified using gas chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry detector. The mean recoveries and limit of detection of the pesticides in samples were respectively 61.67-117% and the reproducibility of relative standard deviation values for the pesticides was 3.49-14.55%. Our data demonstrated that 80% of the total analyzed samples contained detectable residues including trifluralin, permethrin, chlorpyrifos, fenvalerate, fenpropathrin and iprodione, which were below the accepted maximum residue limits (MRLS adopted by FAO/WHO Codex Commision Alimentarius.

  14. Influence of different disease control pesticide strategies on multiple pesticide residue levels in apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Naef, A.

    2009-01-01

    Seven pesticide application strategies were investigated to control apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) and powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) and, at the same time.. fulfil the new quality standards implemented by some German retailers. These demand that pesticide residues should be below 80% of European Maximum Residue Levels (EU MRL) and that the number of residues present at levels above 0.01 mg kg(-1) should be limited to a maximum of four. The strategies fulfilled the requirement to use combinations of different active substances in order to prevent the emergence of resistance to pesticides. The trials were conducted at two sites in Switzerland, in 2007, and all strategies and applications were in accordance with actual practice. Four replicates of apple samples from each strategy were then analysed for pesticide residues. The incidence of infection with apple scab and powdery mildew were monitored during the season in order to evaluate the efficacy of the different strategies. The efficacies of the different strategies against apple scab and powdery mildew were between 84% and 100% successful. In general, the level of pesticide residues found correlated with application rate and time, and no measured residue level exceeded the EU-MRL. The numbers of residues present at > 0.01 mg kg(-1) were between two and five.

  15. Economic analysis of pesticide use and environmental spillovers under a dynamic production environment

    OpenAIRE

    Skevas, T

    2012-01-01

    Pesticides are used in agriculture to protect crops from pests and diseases, with indiscriminate pesticide use having several adverse effects on the environment. In an era of an increasing public awareness on pesticides’ environmental spillovers, the EU is trying to update its pesticide policy by using economic incentives, aiming at reducing pesticide use and environmental spillovers. This dissertation focuses on assessing how pesticide use and its related environmental spillovers are affecti...

  16. Assessing Diet as a Modifiable Risk Factor for Pesticide Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Cohen; Liza Oates

    2011-01-01

    The effects of pesticides on the general population, largely as a result of dietary exposure, are unclear. Adopting an organic diet appears to be an obvious solution for reducing dietary pesticide exposure and this is supported by biomonitoring studies in children. However, results of research into the effects of organic diets on pesticide exposure are difficult to interpret in light of the many complexities. Therefore future studies must be carefully designed. While biomonitoring can account...

  17. Stream habitat structure influences macroinvertebrate response to pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Friberg, Nikolai; Kronvang, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural pesticide contamination in surface waters is increasingly threatening to impair the surface water ecosystems. Agricultural streams are furthermore often heavily maintained to optimise the transport of water away from fields. The physical habitat degradation that result from heavy stream maintenance probably introduce additional stress that may act in concert with pesticide stress. We surveyed pesticide contamination and macroinvertebrate community structure in 14 streams along a gra...

  18. Association of Pesticide Exposure with Neurologic Dysfunction and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kamel, Freya; Hoppin, Jane A

    2004-01-01

    Poisoning by acute high-level exposure to certain pesticides has well-known neurotoxic effects, but whether chronic exposure to moderate levels of pesticides is also neurotoxic is more controversial. Most studies of moderate pesticide exposure have found increased prevalence of neurologic symptoms and changes in neurobehavioral performance, reflecting cognitive and psychomotor dysfunction. There is less evidence that moderate exposure is related to deficits in sensory or motor function or per...

  19. Computer program for distance learning of pesticide application technology

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Maia; Joao P.A.R. Cunha

    2011-01-01

    Distance learning presents great potential for mitigating field problems on pesticide application technology. Thus, due to the lack of teaching material about pesticide spraying technology in the Portuguese language and the increasing availability of distance learning, this study developed and evaluated a computer program for distance learning about the theory of pesticide spraying technology using the tools of information technology. The modules comprising the course, named Pulverizar, were:...

  20. Fungal degradation of pesticides - construction of microbial consortia for bioremediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard-Jensen, Lea

    2012-01-01

    Pesticides are used worldwide on agricultural land as well as in urban areas. This use has often led to contamination of the environment with serious effects on our natural resources. Frequent pesticide use and spills have led to deterioration of soil quality and pesticide leaching has resulted in groundwater contamination. New technologies are therefore needed for cleaning up contaminated soil and water resources. This PhD was part of the project entitled Microbial Remediation of Contaminated S...

  1. Pesticides and public health: integrated methods of mosquito management.

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, R. I.

    2001-01-01

    Pesticides have a role in public health as part of sustainable integrated mosquito management. Other components of such management include surveillance, source reduction or prevention, biological control, repellents, traps, and pesticide-resistance management. We assess the future use of mosquito control pesticides in view of niche markets, incentives for new product development, Environmental Protection Agency registration, the Food Quality Protection Act, and improved pest management strate...

  2. Hydraulically active biopores stimulate pesticide mineralization in agricultural subsoil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badawi, Nora; Johnsen, Anders R.; Brandt, Kristian Koefoed; Sørensen, Jan; Aamand, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Soil biopores can serve as preferential flow paths for downward transport of inorganic nutrients and organic compounds. Pesticides may also be transported down through the subsoil in biopores, thereby posing a threat to the groundwater resource. However, biopores may also constitute hot spots for microbially-mediated pesticide mineralization, thereby reducing the risk of pesticide leaching. To investigate this we identified hydraulically active biopores in a test plot of an agricultural field by...

  3. Towards a Strategic Approaches in Alternative Tests for Pesticide Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Yoonjeong; KIM, Ji-Eun; Jeong, Sang-Hee; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2014-01-01

    Pesticides have provided significant benefits including plant disease control and increased crop yields since people developed and utilized them. However, pesticide use is associated with many adverse effects, which necessitate precise toxicological tests and risk assessment. Most of these methods are based on animal studies, but considerations of animal welfare and ethics require the development of alternative methods for the evaluation of pesticide toxicity. Although the usage of laboratory...

  4. Pesticide leaching in macroporous clay soils: field experiment and modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Scorza Júnior, R.P.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords : pesticide leaching, macropores, preferential flow, preferential transport, cracked clay soil, pesticide leaching models, groundwater contamination, inverse modeling, bentazone and imidacloprid. The presence of macropores (i.e. shrinkage cracks, earthworm and root channels) in the unsaturated zone can enhance pesticide leaching to groundwater and therefore increase the risk of groundwater contamination. In this thesis, experimental and modeling approaches were used to obtain a bette...

  5. The use of parasites as bioindicators of pesticide exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Sabo, Rastislav; Sabová, Lucia; Legáth, Jaroslav

    2009-01-01

    Organisms used in risk assessment of pesticides must be the most sensitive ones to pesticides exposure. The aim of this study was to observe the effect of two commercial pesticide products (containing glyphosate and tolylfluanid) to larval stages of parasites Cooperia curticei, Ostertagia circumcincta, Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus axei. There were two concentrations tested for each product vs. control group. Larvae (500 individuals/Petri dish) were incubated at 27 °C and observed...

  6. Radiochemical synthesis of 14C-labelled pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopic derivatives of pesticides labelled with either 14C or tritium are indispensable experimental tools for toxicology or metabolism studies required for registration of new compounds. The radiochemical synthetic pathways leading to the preparation of 14C-labelled pesticides of high specific activity, good chemical/radiochemical yield, and high radiochemical purity are presented for three groups of pesticides; triazines, aryl-haloids, and organometallic compounds. (N.T.). 10 refs., 1 tab

  7. Farming on the treadmill : agricultural change and pesticide pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, N.

    1994-01-01

    The thesis examines the pollution of water by pesticides in Britain, an issue of public and political concern since the late 1980s as the results of extensive water monitoring, required under the EC's Drinking Water Directive have highlighted the spread and levels of contamination. The study explores the co-evolution of post-war agricultural policy and pesticide usage and examines how pesticide pollution of water has been constructed as a 'problem' and how this has been contest...

  8. Progress on multi-residue determination of pesticides in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Pan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Food safety is important for the national economy and the people’s livelihood. Development of new analytical techniques and risk assessment for pesticide residues in foods are beneficial for risk management, risk communication and the health of consumer. This paper reviewed the new sample pretreatment techniques, pesticide multi-residue detection technologies and its applications, to provide certain reference for the development and improvement of pesticide residues detection and risk assessment in food.

  9. Note on pesticide residues as a function of formulation used

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total quantities of pesticides needed for adequate pest control may be minimized by the correct choice of methods of formulation and application. This will diminish the total burden of residues in the environment but not necessarily in the crop. Radiolabelled pesticides are useful for small-scale and laboratory tests to elucidate the principles which determine the behaviour of pesticides in the environment and to check analytical methods used for field-scale tests. (author)

  10. KINETICS OF BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF LOW LEVEL PESTICIDE WASTEWATER

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel E Ghaly; Deepika Dave

    2012-01-01

    Pesticides are chemical substances intended to protect food crops and livestock from pests in order to pro-mote agricultural productivity and protect public health. Contamination of soil, air and water and threat to human and animal health are the major constraints in the use of pesticides. Treatment of pesticide contaminated water is, therefore, paramount. Biological treatment provides the most economical option when compared to other treatment methods. The aim of the study was to develop a ...

  11. Indicators to identify the source of pesticide contamination to groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorling, Lærke; Brüsch, Walter; Tuxen, Nina; Roost, Sandra; Aisopou, Angeliki; Binning, Philip John; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Smith, Katrine; Svendsen, Tove; Olesen, Ida H.

    2015-01-01

    In Denmark groundwater is synonym with drinking water. The mainstream Danish political approach favors prevention and action at source over advanced treatments of polluted groundwater. The main pollutants are nitrate and pesticides. Pesticides in groundwater can originate from either diffuse or point sources. Point sources are characterized by high pesticide concentrations leaching from small areas, while diffuse sources are characterized by low concentrations over large areas. Some source types...

  12. Neonicotinoid pesticides severely affect honey bee queens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Geoffrey R; Troxler, Aline; Retschnig, Gina; Roth, Kaspar; Yañez, Orlando; Shutler, Dave; Neumann, Peter; Gauthier, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Queen health is crucial to colony survival of social bees. Recently, queen failure has been proposed to be a major driver of managed honey bee colony losses, yet few data exist concerning effects of environmental stressors on queens. Here we demonstrate for the first time that exposure to field-realistic concentrations of neonicotinoid pesticides during development can severely affect queens of western honey bees (Apis mellifera). In pesticide-exposed queens, reproductive anatomy (ovaries) and physiology (spermathecal-stored sperm quality and quantity), rather than flight behaviour, were compromised and likely corresponded to reduced queen success (alive and producing worker offspring). This study highlights the detriments of neonicotinoids to queens of environmentally and economically important social bees, and further strengthens the need for stringent risk assessments to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem services that are vulnerable to these substances. PMID:26459072

  13. Neonicotinoid pesticides severely affect honey bee queens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Geoffrey R.; Troxler, Aline; Retschnig, Gina; Roth, Kaspar; Yañez, Orlando; Shutler, Dave; Neumann, Peter; Gauthier, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Queen health is crucial to colony survival of social bees. Recently, queen failure has been proposed to be a major driver of managed honey bee colony losses, yet few data exist concerning effects of environmental stressors on queens. Here we demonstrate for the first time that exposure to field-realistic concentrations of neonicotinoid pesticides during development can severely affect queens of western honey bees (Apis mellifera). In pesticide-exposed queens, reproductive anatomy (ovaries) and physiology (spermathecal-stored sperm quality and quantity), rather than flight behaviour, were compromised and likely corresponded to reduced queen success (alive and producing worker offspring). This study highlights the detriments of neonicotinoids to queens of environmentally and economically important social bees, and further strengthens the need for stringent risk assessments to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem services that are vulnerable to these substances. PMID:26459072

  14. Effect of pesticides on surface ozone concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative study through seasonal variation of surface ozone concentration was carried out recently (1991-1992) at a background area free from expected urban pollutants (Shebin ElKom) and industrial and urban areas (Cairo). Surface ozone concentrations in ppb were generally lower in such area compared with urban or industrial areas studied through the comparative seasonal variations. Notable smog values (>100 ppb) of hourly surface ozone concentrations appeared during summer season in this rural area; during this season, some pesticides were sprayed over cotton and other crops fields in near by agricultural areas. The unexpected jump in the values of diurnal concentrations of surface ozone in that area may be due to the photochemical reactions of these organic pesticides in the atmosphere. 1 fig, 3 tab

  15. 75 FR 77635 - Cancellation Orders for Certain Pesticide Registrations: Ethofumesate and Monosodium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ...Orders for Certain Pesticide Registrations: Ethofumesate and Monosodium Methanearsonate (MSMA); Correction AGENCY: Environmental...2010, concerning the voluntary cancellation of affected monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA) pesticide products. This...

  16. 76 FR 22044 - Data Requirements for Antimicrobial Pesticides; Notification to the Secretaries of Agriculture...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ...environmental fate and effects of antimicrobial pesticide products. ADDRESSES...antifoulants (NAICS 32551), antimicrobial pesticides (NAICS 32561...who seeks to register an antimicrobial, antifoulant coating, ballast water...

  17. Optical characteristics of pesticides measured by terahertz time domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Giyoung; Son, Joo-Hiuk

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we measured the optical characteristics of pesticides by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Pesticide samples were prepared as pellets that were mixed with polyethylene powder and placed in the center of the path of a terahertz electromagnetic (EM) wave in the spectroscopy system. The absorbance of each sample showed obvious differences in absorption peaks. From this result, we showed that these pesticide products had resonance modes in the terahertz range, and this method can be used to make a sensor that is able to measure low concentrations of pesticides in farm produce.

  18. Health effects of common home, lawn, and garden pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, Catherine J; Solomon, Gina M; Brock-Utne, Alice C

    2007-02-01

    Children encounter pesticide products and their residues where they live and play and in the food supply. Pesticide exposure affects pediatric health both acutely and chronically; effects range from mild and subtle to severe. Pediatricians play an important role in identifying and reducing significant pesticide exposure in their patients by taking an exposure history to clarify the extent and types of exposures that may have occurred during acute care and preventive care visits. Developing knowledge about the toxicity of various chemicals, identifying reliable resources for pesticide information, and providing a common-sense approach toward recommending the safest practical alternatives is necessary. PMID:17306684

  19. National survey of pesticides in groundwater in New Zealand : 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 133 wells throughout New Zealand were sampled for the 2002 National Survey of Pesticides in Groundwater. The survey objectives were to provide a national overview of pesticides in New Zealand's groundwater systems, to examine changes with time from earlier surveys, and to examine factors linked with pesticide contamination. The samples were screened for atrazine in the laboratory using an ELISA test kit and, as a result of this screening, samples positive for atrazine were analysed for 58 different pesticides using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). Blind duplicate samples (6%) and quality control samples (17% of the negative ELISA screen samples) were also analysed by GCMS. Three regional councils carried out their own pesticide surveys around the same time but submitted the samples for analysis to a different laboratory. Their results are included to give a national perspective. Pesticides were detected in 28 wells (21%), with 13 wells (10%) having two or more pesticides detected. There were one or more wells with pesticides detected in nine of the 15 regions. No pesticides were detected in wells from the Northland, Hawke's Bay, Manawatu-Wanganui, Taranaki, Wellington, and West Coast regions. None of the wells in the 2002 survey had pesticides at levels above the maximum acceptable value (MAV) for drinking water (Ministry of Health 2000). Twenty-one different pesticides were detected, including two triazine metabolites, usually at very low concentrations. Only three detections were at levels exceeding 1 mg m3. Thirty-nine out of the 58 pesticide detections (67%) belonged to the triazine group. As would be expected there were significant differences between wells with and without detected pesticides in factors associated with well or screen depth, and depth of water above the screen. In addition, lower groundwater temperatures and higher nitrate levels were associated with the increased detection of pesticides. A comparison with earlier surveys indicates that pesticide detections have been relatively stable over the past 12 years. After an adjustment to common reporting limits (reporting limits were substantially lower during later surveys), the overall frequency of pesticide detections were as follows: 1990 (7%), 1994 (13.6%), 1998 (11%), and 2002 (9%). (author). 22 refs., 4 tabs

  20. Biodegradation of Organophosphate Pesticide by Soil Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Harish.R; Supreeth.M; Jyoti Bala Chauhan

    2013-01-01

    In this study using enrichment technique biodegradation of organophosphorous pesticide, (Chloropyrifos and Ethion) was performed. Two fungal isolates Trichoderma harznaium and Rhizopus nodosus isolated from the contaminated soil by enrichment technique, was capable of metabolizing the organophosphorous insecticide (Chloropyriofos and Ethion) as a sole carbon source when grown in burkes mineral medium at concentration of 100 PPM respectively. Fungi were able to degrade 70-80% of the parental m...

  1. Occurrence of organochlorine pesticides in indoor dust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Mayer, Philipp; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Vorkamp, Katrin; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole Lundsgaard

    2011-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides are present in the environment and suspected of causing serious health effects. Diet has been the main exposure source, but indoor source release is gaining focus. Within a monitoring study of polychlorinated biphenyls of Danish buildings built during the 1960s and 1970s, we coincidently determined extreme levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) levels in two of ten random samples. This raises concern and further large scale investigations are warranted to confi...

  2. Occurrence of organochlorine pesticides in indoor dust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Mayer, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides are present in the environment and suspected of causing serious health effects. Diet has been the main exposure source, but indoor source release is gaining focus. Within a monitoring study of polychlorinated biphenyls of Danish buildings built during the 1960s and 1970s, we coincidently determined extreme levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) levels in two of ten random samples. This raises concern and further large scale investigations are warranted to confirm this.

  3. Dietary exposures to selected metals and pesticides.

    OpenAIRE

    MacIntosh, D L; Spengler, J D; Ozkaynak, H.; L. Tsai; Ryan, P B

    1996-01-01

    Average daily dietary exposures to 11 contaminants were estimated for approximately 120,000 U.S. adults by combining data on annual diet, as measured by a food frequency questionnaire, with contaminant residue data for table-ready foods that were collected as part of the annual U.S. Food and Drug Administration Total Diet Study. The contaminants included in the analysis were four heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury), three organophosphate pesticides (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathio...

  4. Haematologic Indices in Pesticide Factory Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Joshaghani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of pesticides on blood indices of subjects which are exposed to organophosphate toxins. This research was a cohort study which was carried out during 2005 on the employee of a pesticide factory in Golestan province (North of Iran. In this study the sampling from 63 subjects was carried out for two sessions in days 1 and 90. CBC and hematologic indices performed by cell counter instrument. The mean of MCV in phase 1 was 82.8±7.1 fl and in second phase the MCV was 80.3±6.7 fl. This drop in MCV statistically was meaningful (paired t-test, mean = 2.5, 95% CI=2.0-2.9, p<0.001. Erythrocyte number, hemoglobin, HCT and MCHC increase in second phase compared to first phase statistically was meaningful. There was not any significant relation between the place of work and variation of red blood cell indices. In regard to the changes in hematologic indices in workers of pesticide factory in a three months period, it seems logical to set up a program to have a routine check on the hematologic indices in working personal engaging in such occupations.

  5. Persistentorganic pollutants in Colombia: quantificationand diagnosisfororganochlorine pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto García Ubaque

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To meet Colombia commitments with Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs, the country carried out identification and quantification of organochlorine pesticide stocks, in order to update and consolidate information on storage sites and contaminated soils. Methodology proposed by the United Nations program for development (UNDP was used and covered the following stages: (a consultation of secondary information available in previous inventories, (b review activities related to these products life cycle, (c location of warehouses and sites of destruction or burial and (d visit a sample of identified sites. Colombia has 159?812 kg of DDT in stock and it was estimated 88 629 m3 of contaminated soil by POPs pesticides. It were unable to identify a vast underreporting quantities of pesticides used and contaminated sites, not only in the country, but in inventories in other countries of the region; reflecting that the reported results are partial and contamination from unidentified sources may occur. It is important to intensify activities of research and innovation not only for wastes and contaminated soils treatment, but for agricultural production and crop protection.

  6. Pesticide leaching through sandy and loamy fields e Long-term lessons learnt from the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbom, Annette Elisabeth; Olsen, Preben; Plauborg, Finn; Grant, Ruth; Juhler, René K.; Brüsch, Walter; Kjær, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    The European Union authorization procedure for pesticides includes assessment of the leaching risk posed by pesticides and their degradation products aimed at avoiding any unacceptable influence on the environment, in particular contamination of water, including drinking water and groundwater. The procedure has shortcomings, however, as revealed by the past 11years of monitoring results from the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme. This monitoring programme have assessed leaching to t...

  7. Applicability and modelling of nanofiltration and reverse osmosis for remediation of groundwater polluted with pesticides and pesticide transformation products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik Tækker; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2014-01-01

    The main body of research on pesticide removal with membranes has looked at pesticides used for pest control, but during transport from surface to groundwater aquifers, pesticides are transformed. Therefore the real polluting compounds are often transformation products, and this vastly increases the total number of pollutants in need of treatment, which also creates a need for a simple way of predicting expected rejections to avoid the daunting task of investigating all these experimentally. In ...

  8. 76 FR 2110 - Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... adverse human health impacts or environmental effects from exposure to the pesticides discussed in this... potassium hypochlorite, in or on apple; artichoke; asparagus; brussel sprouts; carrot; cauliflower;...

  9. 78 FR 70906 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ...: Olga Odiott, Registration Division (7505P), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection... address: odiott.olga@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. General Information A. Does this action...

  10. Adsorption of pesticides onto quartz, calcite, kaolinite, and ?-alumina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2001-01-01

    The fate of pesticides in aquifers is influenced by the small but not insignificant adsorption of pesticides to mineral surfaces. Batch experiments with five pesticides and four minerals were conducted to quantify the contributions to adsorption from different mineral surfaces and compare adsorption characteristics of selected pesticides. Investigated mineral phases included quartz, calcite, kaolinite, and alpha -alumina. Selected pesticides comprised atrazine (6-chloro-N-2-ethyl-N-4-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine isoproturon [3-(4-isopropyl-phenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea)], mecoprop [(RS)-2-(4-chloro-2-methyl phenoxy)propionic acid], 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), and bentazone [3-isopropyl-1H-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-4-(3H)-one 2,2-dioxide]. Specific surface area and mineral surface charge proved to be important for the adsorption of these pesticides. Detectable adsorption of the anionic pesticides (mecoprop, 2,4-D, and bentazone) was only measured when positive sites were present on the mineral surface. However, when CaCl2 was added as an electrolyte, a detect able adsorption of mecoprop and 2,4-D was also measured on kaolinite (which exhibits a negative surface charge), probably due to formation of Ca-pesticide-surface complexes. Adsorption of the uncharged pesticides (atrazine and isoproturon) was detected only on kaolinite. The lack of adsorption on alpha -alumina indicates that the uncharged pesticides have a greater affinity for the silanol surface sites (= SiOH) than for the aluminol surface sites (= AIOH) in kaolinite. No measurable effect of ionic strength was found for the uncharged pesticides. The results indicate that quartz and calcite play a smaller role than clay minerals.

  11. On-Line Pesticide Training with Narrated Powerpoint Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven B.

    2015-01-01

    UMaine Cooperative Extension is the primary educational delivery organization for pesticide recertification credits in Maine. Shrinking budgets and staff numbers are making traditional face-to-face delivery increasingly difficult to maintain. To address this issue, on-line pesticide applicator recertification training credits were developed. The…

  12. Pesticide use in Latin America: Trends and environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current demand for pesticides in Latin America exceeds US $2000 million in value. Up to 1990, the consumption is expected to rise annually by 7 to 12%. Use of pesticides has been fully accepted in Latin America as a readily available means of pest control. Nevertheless, even today pests are responsible for the loss of 25 to 40% of potential harvests. In banana cultivation, the cost of pesticides accounts for 30 to 35% of production costs. Latin America is in the process of changing over from persistent organochlorines to pesticides which are more sophisticated, more expensive and less persistent. The countries in the region are looking for ecologically acceptable permanent methods of pest control. Integrated pest management will reduce the risks of pesticide use by changing the systems of application. All Latin American countries have legislation on pesticide handling and use. These laws have been or are being harmonized with the International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides published by FAO. The Latin American pesticide industry is dependent on the supply of intermediate compounds and raw materials from developed countries. In addition, it has to deal with high production costs and a lack of research and development. It is far from utilizing the full installed capacity, and only an increase in commercial exchange in the region would make its position less unfavourable. (author). 28 refs, 3 figs, 8 tabs

  13. Radiotracer studies of pesticide residues in food plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Researches using radiotracers as means for the rapid generation of background data critical for the efficient and safe use of pesticides at the Pesticide Toxicology and Chemistry Laboratory of the National Crop Protection Center, University of the Philippines, Los Banos, Laguna are described. Methodologies as well as results and discussions of the researches done are given. (ELC) 4 tabs.; 11 figs.; 16 refs

  14. 40 CFR 273.3 - Applicability-pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... collection program. (b) Pesticides not covered under 40 CFR part 273. The requirements of this part do not... are managed by farmers in compliance with 40 CFR 262.70. (40 CFR 262.70 addresses pesticides disposed... label, providing the container is triple rinsed in accordance with 40 CFR 261.7(b)(3)); (2)...

  15. Analysis of organophosphorus pesticides using FT-NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid and highly selective method of the identification of 23 kinds of organophosphorus pesticides was develop by using 31P FT-NMR with 1H complete decoupling method. Chemical shifts referenced by 85 % H3PO4 were within -4 to 100 ppm, and there was no overlapping among the organophosphorus pesticides used in this experiment. (author)

  16. Rationale in the design of pesticide metabolism studies using radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous physical, chemical and biochemical forces act on pesticides in the environment to regulate their persistence and, to a large extent, determine their environmental and toxicological significance. Radioisotope-aided metabolism studies with pesticides in both target and non-target organisms are important to define the qualitative and quantitative aspects of pesticide degradation involved. Such studies provide valuable information that can be used in a number of ways, including prediction of the nature of potential pesticide interactions with man, estimation of potential residue occurrence in human foods, determination of pesticidal mode of action, and evaluation of potential toxicological effects on non-target species. In designing pesticide metabolism studies that utilize radioisotopes as tracers, the metabolism scientist must exercise careful judgement to ensure that his studies generate data that are scientifically sound and relevant to environmental and human health concerns. Such factors as isotope selection, label position, specific activity, treatment routes, dosage levels, replication, and the utilization of appropriate radiometric and analytical techniques are important considerations to assure the generation of useful data. Because of the very large number of potential pesticide/organism interactions that may be of interest to the metabolism scientist, specific research approaches vary greatly depending on the nature of the study organism and the specific pesticide involved. The rationale often used by metabolism studies in laboratory animals, livestock and poultry, plants, soil and aquatic organisms, arthropods and other pest species, non-target organisms, and for in vitro studies, is considered. (author)

  17. Development of pesticide use maps for South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    James M., Dabrowski.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Over 3000 pesticides are registered for use in South Africa. Many studies have highlighted the movement of pesticides to agricultural crops from the point of application into non-target environments, particularly surface and groundwater resources. Exposure to pesticides can lead to serious human hea [...] lth and environmental effects. It is therefore important to identify critical areas where specific pesticides may result in a high risk of exposure to humans or the environment. Crop specific pesticide use data were obtained from a market research company and integrated into a geographical information system detailing the distribution of agricultural crops in South Africa as determined by an agricultural census performed in 2002. By estimating the total application of a specific pesticide to all crops produced in a magisterial district, it was possible to generate maps which provide an estimate of the application rate of over 200 pesticides per magisterial district. These maps were intersected with an agricultural land-cover map to provide a refined map giving details of the spatial distribution of pesticide use across the country. These maps are the first of their kind in South Africa and provide a spatial overview of the likely distribution of specific active ingredients based on the distribution of crops throughout the country. While there are a number of limitations and uncertainties associated with the data used to produce these maps, these are not unique to South Africa, and similar methodologies have been applied in more developed countries.

  18. 75 FR 60113 - Pesticide Science Policy; Notice of Withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ...tests commodities in the U.S. food supply for pesticide residues...exposure to pesticide residues in food. However, due to the time...Union, through the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA...Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention. [FR Doc....

  19. Neurological Effects of Pesticide Use among Farmers in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The intensive use of pesticides has attracted great attention from the Chinese government. However, current regulations have had limited influence on their safe use. Although the acute neurologic effects of pesticides have been well documented, little is known about their cumulative effects. Knowledge of the impact of pesticides on health may convince farmers to minimize their use. We conducted a cross-sectional study in three provinces of China to evaluate the relationship between pesticide exposure and neurological dysfunction. Crop farmers were divided into two groups depending on their level of pesticide exposure. A total of 236 participants were assessed by questionnaire and neurological examination for symptoms and signs of neuropathy. Characteristics of neurologic dysfunction following cumulative low-level exposure were assessed with logistic regression analysis. Farmers exposed to high-level pesticide use had greater risk of developing sensations of numbness or prickling (odds ratio (OR 2.62, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.08–6.36. After adjusting for recent exposure, the risk of numbness or prickling symptoms (OR 2.55, 95% CI: 1.04–6.25 remained statistically significant. Loss of muscle strength and decreased deep tendon reflexes had OR > 2, however, this did not reach statistical significance. These findings suggest that overuse of pesticides increased risk of neurologic dysfunction among farmers, with somatosensory small fibers most likely affected. Measures that are more efficient should be taken to curb excessive use of pesticides.

  20. Analysis of pesticide residues Or a needle in a barn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about the analysis of pesticide residues as well as the study of soil, air, water and organisms. The solvents used depend on the matrix, types of pesticides, analysis and the equipment. The chromatography engaged with mass spectrometry is one of the most used techniques.

  1. Male Reproduction and Pesticides. Work related and dietary exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Solveig B.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Juhler, René K.; Meyer, Otto A.; Jensen, Nina Due; Büchert, Arne; Ovesen, Lars; Larsen, John Christian; Givercman, Aleksander; Ernst, Erik; Spanò, Marcello

    1999-01-01

    We found no difference in semen quality and male fecundity between traditional and organic farmers. Pesticide use by Danish farmers did not influence the different semen parameters Ø a spraying season. The dietary pesticide intake in the study group did not entail a risk of measurable reduced semen quality. However, the exposure assessments used were based on the extrernal exposure.

  2. Pesticide Application and Safety Training. Sale Publication 4070.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimmann, M. W.

    This guide is intended for use by those preparing to take the California certification examination for commercial pesticide applicators. The first chapter gives brief descriptions and illustrations of types of insect, vertebrate, plant, and microorganism pests. The other chapters cover pesticide classifications and formulations, labels and…

  3. Residential Pesticide Usage in Older Adults Residing in Central California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate Ritz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Information on residential pesticide usage and behaviors that may influence pesticide exposure was collected in three population-based studies of older adults residing in the three Central California counties of Fresno, Kern, and Tulare. We present data from participants in the Study of Use of Products and Exposure Related Behaviors (SUPERB study (N = 153 and from community controls ascertained in two Parkinson’s disease studies, the Parkinson’s Environment and Gene (PEG study (N = 359 and The Center for Gene-Environment Studies in Parkinson’s Disease (CGEP; N = 297. All participants were interviewed by telephone to obtain information on recent and lifetime indoor and outdoor residential pesticide use. Interviews ascertained type of product used, frequency of use, and behaviors that may influence exposure to pesticides during and after application. Well over half of all participants reported ever using indoor and outdoor pesticides; yet frequency of pesticide use was relatively low, and appeared to increase slightly with age. Few participants engaged in behaviors to protect themselves or family members and limit exposure to pesticides during and after treatment, such as ventilating and cleaning treated areas, or using protective equipment during application. Our findings on frequency of use over lifetime and exposure related behaviors will inform future efforts to develop population pesticide exposure models and risk assessment.

  4. Residential Pesticide Usage in Older Adults Residing in Central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armes, Mary N.; Liew, Zeyan; Wang, Anthony; Wu, Xiangmei; Bennett, Deborah H.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Ritz, Beate

    2011-01-01

    Information on residential pesticide usage and behaviors that may influence pesticide exposure was collected in three population-based studies of older adults residing in the three Central California counties of Fresno, Kern, and Tulare. We present data from participants in the Study of Use of Products and Exposure Related Behaviors (SUPERB) study (N = 153) and from community controls ascertained in two Parkinson’s disease studies, the Parkinson’s Environment and Gene (PEG) study (N = 359) and The Center for Gene-Environment Studies in Parkinson’s Disease (CGEP; N = 297). All participants were interviewed by telephone to obtain information on recent and lifetime indoor and outdoor residential pesticide use. Interviews ascertained type of product used, frequency of use, and behaviors that may influence exposure to pesticides during and after application. Well over half of all participants reported ever using indoor and outdoor pesticides; yet frequency of pesticide use was relatively low, and appeared to increase slightly with age. Few participants engaged in behaviors to protect themselves or family members and limit exposure to pesticides during and after treatment, such as ventilating and cleaning treated areas, or using protective equipment during application. Our findings on frequency of use over lifetime and exposure related behaviors will inform future efforts to develop population pesticide exposure models and risk assessment. PMID:21909294

  5. PESTICIDES IN SOIL: BENEFITS AND LIMITATIONS TO SOIL HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides are important components of many agricultural management systems and their effects on soil and its ability to process them should be included when evaluating soil quality. Pesticides help maintain agricultural productivity by controlling pests, however, management thresholds must be esta...

  6. Modeling the Factors Impacting Pesticide Concentrations in Groundwater Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Binning, Philip John

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effect of pumping, hydrogeology, and pesticide characteristics on pesticide concentrations in production wells using a reactive transport model in two conceptual hydrogeologic systems; a layered aquifer with and without a stream present. The pumping rate can significantly affect the pesticide breakthrough time and maximum concentration at the well. The effect of the pumping rate on the pesticide concentration depends on the hydrogeology of the aquifer; in a layered aquifer, a high pumping rate resulted in a considerably different breakthrough than a low pumping rate, while in an aquifer with a stream the effect of the pumping rate was insignificant. Pesticide application history and properties have also a great impact on the effect of the pumping rate on the concentration at the well. The findings of the study show that variable pumping rates can generate temporal variability in the concentration at the well, which helps understanding the results of groundwater monitoring programs. Theresults are used to provide guidance on the design of pumping and regulatory changes for the long-term supply of safe groundwater. The fate of selected pesticides is examined, for example, if the application of bentazone in a region with a layered aquifer stops today, the concentration at the well can continue to increase for 20?years if a low pumping rate is applied. This study concludes that because of the rapid response of the pesticide concentration at the drinking water well due to changes in pumping, wellhead management is important for managing pesticide concentrations.

  7. Use of nuclear techniques in the study of pesticide problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extensive use of pesticides has brought into focus certain problems like toxicity, persistence and accumulation of residues in plant parts and the persistent chemicals have posed additional problems. Role of nuclear techniques, which offer an important tool to get speedy and accurate information on some of these problems for judicious and efficient use of pesticides is discussed in this paper. (author)

  8. 40 CFR 273.3 - Applicability-pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...person conducting the recall decides to discard (e.g., burn the pesticide for energy...waste on the date the generator decides to discard it. (d) Pesticides that are not wastes...recall: (i) Has not made a decision to discard (e.g., burn for energy...

  9. Modeling the Factors Impacting Pesticide Concentrations in Groundwater Wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Binning, Philip J; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Bjerg, Poul L

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effect of pumping, hydrogeology, and pesticide characteristics on pesticide concentrations in production wells using a reactive transport model in two conceptual hydrogeologic systems; a layered aquifer with and without a stream present. The pumping rate can significantly affect the pesticide breakthrough time and maximum concentration at the well. The effect of the pumping rate on the pesticide concentration depends on the hydrogeology of the aquifer; in a layered aquifer, a high pumping rate resulted in a considerably different breakthrough than a low pumping rate, while in an aquifer with a stream the effect of the pumping rate was insignificant. Pesticide application history and properties have also a great impact on the effect of the pumping rate on the concentration at the well. The findings of the study show that variable pumping rates can generate temporal variability in the concentration at the well, which helps understanding the results of groundwater monitoring programs. The results are used to provide guidance on the design of pumping and regulatory changes for the long-term supply of safe groundwater. The fate of selected pesticides is examined, for example, if the application of bentazone in a region with a layered aquifer stops today, the concentration at the well can continue to increase for 20 years if a low pumping rate is applied. This study concludes that because of the rapid response of the pesticide concentration at the drinking water well due to changes in pumping, wellhead management is important for managing pesticide concentrations. PMID:25243476

  10. Determination of pesticide residue in selected fruits and vegetable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food contamination due to indiscriminate use of pesticides has become a serious problem. Fruits samples of tomato, grapes, musk melon, parsimen and vegetable samples of potato, pea, spinach, cabbage and pumpkin ere collected from local market of Peshawar, coming from different regions. All samples were extracted, purified and analyzed for the commonly used pesticides. Dichlorovas, BHC, Atrazine, Daizinon, Methadiathion and Cypermethrin were detected by Gas Chromatography. These pesticides were detected in vegetable samples Id Atrazine were found in potato sample and not detected in other samples. Large concentration of Cypermethrin (44.6) was detected in the pea sample. All the vegetables samples have maximum concentration of pesticides, which is higher than their MRLs, but in pumpkin no one of the above pesticides were detected. In fruits samples, dichlorovas, atrazine, diazinon, methadiathion. Cypermethrin were detected. BHC was not present in fruits samples. All these pesticides were above the MRLs. The study concluded that agriculture crops are highly contaminated due to the uncontrolled use of pesticides in project area and suggested that pesticides should be applied in calculated dose to avoid resistance and persistence due to over and under dose application. (author)

  11. PESTICIDE SPRAY PENETRATION AND THERMAL COMFORT OF PROTECTIVE APPAREL FOR PESTICIDE APPLICATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of protective apparel to serve as a barrier from dermal exposure is considered vital for providing some measure of protection for those who work with and around pesticides. his research is aimed at ultimately providing recommendations for types of protective apparel for p...

  12. Pesticide transport with runoff from creeping bentgrass turf: Relationship of pesticide properties to mass transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Pamela J; Horgan, Brian P; Rittenhouse, Jennifer L

    2010-06-01

    The off-site transport of pesticides with runoff is both an agronomic and environmental concern, resulting from reduced control of target pests in the area of application and contamination of surrounding ecosystems. Experiments were designed to measure the quantity of pesticides in runoff from creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris) turf managed as golf course fairway to gain a better understanding of factors that influence chemical availability and mass transport. Less than 1 to 23% of applied chloropyrifos, flutolanil, mecoprop-p (MCPP), dimethylamine salt of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), or dicamba was measured in edge-of-plot runoff when commercially available pesticide formulations were applied at label rates 23 +/- 9 h prior to simulated precipitation (62 +/- 13 mm). Time differential between hollow tine core cultivation and runoff did not significantly influence runoff volumes or the percentage of applied chemicals transported in the runoff. With the exception of chlorpyrifos, all chemicals of interest were detected in the initial runoff samples and throughout the runoff events. Chemographs of the five pesticides followed trends in agreement with mobility classifications associated with their soil organic carbon partition coefficient (K(OC).) Data collected from the present study provides information on the transport of chemicals with runoff from turf, which can be used in model simulations to predict nonpoint source pollution potentials and estimate ecological risks. PMID:20821562

  13. Incorporating Ecologically Relevant Measures of Pesticide Effect for Estimating the Compatibility of Pesticides and Biocontrol Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The compatibility of biological control agents with pesticides is a central concern in integrated pest management programs. The most common assessments of compatibility consist of simple comparisons of acute toxicity among pest species and select biocontrol agents. A more sophisticated approach, d...

  14. SERS-based pesticide detection by using nanofinger sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ansoon; Barcelo, Steven J; Li, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Simple, sensitive, and rapid detection of trace levels of extensively used and highly toxic pesticides are in urgent demand for public health. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based sensor was designed to achieve ultrasensitive and simple pesticide sensing. We developed a portable sensor system composed of high performance and reliable gold nanofinger sensor strips and a custom-built portable Raman spectrometer. Compared to the general procedure and previously reported studies that are limited to laboratory settings, our analytical method is simple, sensitive, rapid, and cost-effective. Based on the SERS results, the chemical interaction of two pesticides, chlorpyrifos (CPF) and thiabendazole (TBZ), with gold nanofingers was studied to determine a fingerprint for each pesticide. The portable SERS-sensor system was successfully demonstrated to detect CPF and TBZ pesticides within 15 min with a detection limit of 35 ppt in drinking water and 7 ppb on apple skin, respectively. PMID:25490192

  15. Enantioselectivity in environmental risk assessment of modern chiral pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiral pesticides comprise a new and important class of environmental pollutants nowadays. With the development of industry, more and more chiral pesticides will be introduced into the market. But their enantioselective ecotoxicology is not clear. Currently used synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphates, acylanilides, phenoxypropanoic acids and imidazolinones often behave enantioselectively in agriculture use and they always pose unpredictable enantioselective ecological risks on non-target organisms or human. It is necessary to explore the enantioselective toxicology and ecological fate of these chiral pesticides in environmental risk assessment. The enantioselective toxicology and the fate of these currently widely used pesticides have been discussed in this review article. - Chiral pesticides could pose unpredictable enantioselective toxicity on non-target organisms.

  16. SERS-based pesticide detection by using nanofinger sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ansoon; Barcelo, Steven J.; Li, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Simple, sensitive, and rapid detection of trace levels of extensively used and highly toxic pesticides are in urgent demand for public health. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based sensor was designed to achieve ultrasensitive and simple pesticide sensing. We developed a portable sensor system composed of high performance and reliable gold nanofinger sensor strips and a custom-built portable Raman spectrometer. Compared to the general procedure and previously reported studies that are limited to laboratory settings, our analytical method is simple, sensitive, rapid, and cost-effective. Based on the SERS results, the chemical interaction of two pesticides, chlorpyrifos (CPF) and thiabendazole (TBZ), with gold nanofingers was studied to determine a fingerprint for each pesticide. The portable SERS-sensor system was successfully demonstrated to detect CPF and TBZ pesticides within 15 min with a detection limit of 35 ppt in drinking water and 7 ppb on apple skin, respectively.

  17. A fugacity-based indoor residential pesticide fate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Deborah H.; Furtaw, Edward J.; McKone, Thomas E.

    2002-06-01

    Dermal and non-dietary pathways are potentially significant exposure pathways to pesticides used in residences. Exposure pathways include dermal contact with residues on surfaces, ingestion from hand- and object-to-mouth activities, and absorption of pesticides into food. A limited amount of data has been collected on pesticide concentrations in various residential compartments following an application. But models are needed to interpret this data and make predictions about other pesticides based on chemical properties. In this paper, we propose a mass-balance compartment model based on fugacity principles. We include air (both gas phase and aerosols), carpet, smooth flooring, and walls as model compartments. Pesticide concentrations on furniture and toys, and in food, are being added to the model as data becomes available. We determine the compartmental fugacity capacity and mass transfer-rate coefficient for wallboard as an example. We also present the framework and equations needed for a dynamic mass-balance model.

  18. Monitoring of pesticide residues in human blood from Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anupama; Gill, Jatinder Paul Singh; Bedi, Jasbir Singh

    2015-05-01

    In the present study, the current levels of pesticide residues were studied in the human populace of Punjab state. A total of 111 human blood samples were analyzed by gas chromatography and pesticide residues were detected in 35 % of the blood sample(s). Residues of alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p' DDD), p,p' dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p' DDE), p,p' dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p' DDT), ?-endosulfan, monocrotophos, profenophos and phosalone were found in human blood samples with mean levels of 1.11, 5.89, 0.51, 3.88, 0.39, 34.90, 0.79, 0.39 and 6.76 ng ml(-1), respectively, with ?-endosulfan as a leading pesticide residue. A paradigm shift in the pattern of the pesticide usage was observed with a shift from organochlorine pesticides to organophosphates. PMID:25773703

  19. Influence of Some Pesticides on Humoral and Cellular Immunity of Exposed Workers in Pesticides Industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticide poisoning is a major public health problem in developing countries. In most of these countries organophosphate pesticides constitute the most widely used pesticides. The main toxicity of OPs is neurotoxicity, which is caused by the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. OPs also affect the immune response, including effects on cellular and humoral immunity. Our study examined the effect of organophosphorus compounds on humoral and cellular immunity of exposed workers in pesticides industries. The study was conducted into 40 subjects. They were 2 groups; 20 exposed workers from Gharbeia and Kafr Elsheikh at 2008 and 2009 and 20 unexposed individuals as a control group at the same period of time. We examined some immune parameters; pseudocholinesterase, WBCs count, CD4%, CD8%, CD4/CD8, CD56%, Interleukin 2, IgG and IgM. Also we take history and clinical examination for them. We reported a highly significant decrease in pseudo cholinesterase level among the exposed group in comparison to the control group, highly significant increase in percentage of CD8 in the exposed group in comparison to control group, highly significant decrease in CD4 / CD8 ratio in the exposed group in comparison to control group, highly significant decrease in percentage of CD56 in the exposed group in comparison to control group and a highly significant increase in IgG level in the exposed group in comparison to control group. On the other hand, we reported no significant change in white blood cells count between the exposed and control groups, no significant change in percentage of CD4 among the exposed and control group, no significant change in Interleukin 2 level among the exposed and control group and no significant change in IgM level among the exposed and control group. We concluded that pesticides extensively affect the humoral and cellular immune system of occupationally exposed workers.

  20. Disposal of unwanted pesticides in Stellenbosch, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Unwanted pesticides in developing countries are major environmental health threats. This study followed-up a previous audit of unwanted and obsolete pesticides on farms in a rural district of South Africa six years after a National Retrieval Project (NPR) was undertaken. Methods: A descriptive survey of 37 farms that had been in possession of unwanted pesticides in a 1995 survey and a purposive sample of 34 neighbouring farms, was carried out. The survey data included farm details; details of unwanted pesticide stocks, volumes of empty containers and safety and hygiene of pesticide stores. In addition, management was asked if they had been informed about and participated in the 1997 NPR and similarly whether they were aware of the retrieval planned by the African Stockpiles Programme (ASP). Results: Forty (56%) farms were in possession of obsolete pesticides of which 24 (59%) were farms that had unwanted stocks in the previous survey. There were more than 9 tonnes of these pesticides, 50% more than in the previous survey, including 20 chemicals banned, withdrawn or restricted in South Africa or classified as WHO Class I toxicity. Over 2800 kg of pesticides (30%) were not identifiable. None of the farms participated in the NPR, although 47 knew of the initiative. Only six farmers (9%) knew of the ASP initiative. Fifty-nine farms (83%) had empty containers on the premises. Most pesticide stores (67%) had floors contaminated with chemicals. Conclusion: The survey found that despite the NPR, the problem of unwanted pesticides in the study area and probably throughout South Africa has deteriorated. National and international policies should control the problem at source and encourage more sustainable agriculture

  1. DNA methylation alterations in response to pesticide exposure in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Wallace, Andrew D; Du, Pan; Kibbe, Warren A; Jafari, Nadereh; Xie, Hehuang; Lin, Simon; Baccarelli, Andrea; Soares, Marcelo Bento; Hou, Lifang

    2012-08-01

    Although pesticides are subject to extensive carcinogenicity testing before regulatory approval, pesticide exposure has repeatedly been associated with various cancers. This suggests that pesticides may cause cancer via nonmutagenicity mechanisms. The present study provides evidence to support the hypothesis that pesticide-induced cancer may be mediated in part by epigenetic mechanisms. We examined whether exposure to seven commonly used pesticides (i.e., fonofos, parathion, terbufos, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion, and phorate) induces DNA methylation alterations in vitro. We conducted genome-wide DNA methylation analyses on DNA samples obtained from the human hematopoietic K562 cell line exposed to ethanol (control) and several organophosphate pesticides (OPs) using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip. Bayesian-adjusted t-tests were used to identify differentially methylated gene promoter CpG sites. In this report, we present our results on three pesticides (fonofos, parathion, and terbufos) that clustered together based on principle component analysis and hierarchical clustering. These three pesticides induced similar methylation changes in the promoter regions of 712 genes, while also exhibiting their own OP-specific methylation alterations. Functional analysis of methylation changes specific to each OP, or common to all three OPs, revealed that differential methylation was associated with numerous genes that are involved in carcinogenesis-related processes. Our results provide experimental evidence that pesticides may modify gene promoter DNA methylation levels, suggesting that epigenetic mechanisms may contribute to pesticide-induced carcinogenesis. Further studies in other cell types and human samples are required, as well as determining the impact of these methylation changes on gene expression. PMID:22847954

  2. Association between environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary studies have shown associations between chronic pesticide exposure in occupational settings and neurological disorders. However, data on the effects of long-term non-occupational exposures are too sparse to allow any conclusions. This study examines the influence of environmental pesticide exposure on a number of neuropsychiatric conditions and discusses their underlying pathologic mechanisms. An ecological study was conducted using averaged prevalence rates of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, cerebral degeneration, polyneuropathies, affective psychosis and suicide attempts in selected Andalusian health districts categorized into areas of high and low environmental pesticide exposure based on the number of hectares devoted to intensive agriculture and pesticide sales per capita. A total of 17,429 cases were collected from computerized hospital records (minimum dataset) between 1998 and 2005. Prevalence rates and the risk of having Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and suicide were significantly higher in districts with greater pesticide use as compared to those with lower pesticide use. The multivariate analyses showed that the population living in areas with high pesticide use had an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts and that males living in these areas had increased risks for polyneuropathies, affective disorders and suicide attempts. In conclusion, this study supports and extends previous findings and provides an indication that environmental exposure to pesticides may affect the human health by increasing the incidence of certain neurological disorders at the level of the general population. -- Highlights: ? Environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative–psychiatric disorders. ? Increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts in high exposure areas. ? Males from areas with high pesticide exposure had a higher risk of polyneuropathy. ? Males from high exposure areas had a higher risk of affective psychosis and suicide. ? Nerve tissue degeneration due to oxidative damage may underlie the pathomechanism.

  3. 75 FR 35801 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... published in the Federal Register of January 27, 2010 (75 FR 4274) (FRL-8807-2). A method validation was..., as published in the Federal Register of January 27, 2010 (75 FR 4274) (FRL-8807-2). A method... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in...

  4. Pesticide leaching through sandy and loamy fields e Long-term lessons learnt from the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbom, Annette Elisabeth; Olsen, Preben

    2015-01-01

    The European Union authorization procedure for pesticides includes assessment of the leaching risk posed by pesticides and their degradation products aimed at avoiding any unacceptable influence on the environment, in particular contamination of water, including drinking water and groundwater. The procedure has shortcomings, however, as revealed by the past 11years of monitoring results from the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme. This monitoring programme have assessed leaching to the groundwater via the variably saturated zone of 43 pesticides applied in accordance with current regulations on sandy and loamy agricultural fields, as well as 47 of their degradation products. Three types of leaching scenario were not fully captured by the authorization procedure: i) long-term leaching of degradation products of pesticides applied to potatoes crops cultivated on sandy soils; ii) leaching of strongly sorbing pesticides after autumn application on loamy soils; and iii) leaching of various pesticides and their degradation products following early summer application on loamy soils. The monitoring data revealed that the authorization procedure was unable to predict leaching scenarios of a number of pesticides in hydrogeological settings dominated by rapid preferential transport bypassing the retarding plough layer. Such settings are primarily present during the autumn but can also occur during the early summer in connection with the formation of a structural seal on the soil surface.

  5. 77 FR 59577 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... preamble for FR Doc. 2012-17899, published in the Federal Register of Wednesday, July 25, 2012 (77 FR 43562... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals... tolerances for residues of the herbicide pyroxasulfone and its metabolites in or on wheat (grain,...

  6. 75 FR 11173 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... preamble for FR Doc. 2010-2382 published in the Federal Register of Thursday, February 4, 2010 (75 FR 5790... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or... tolerances in 40 CFR part 180 for residues of the ``insecticide'' fluazifop-p-butyl in various...

  7. 77 FR 66781 - Notice of Filing of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 174 and 180 Notice of Filing of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of... regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments must be received...), requesting the establishment or modification of regulations in 40 CFR part 174 and part 180 for residues...

  8. Decontamination of spills and residues of some pesticides and of protective clothing worn during the handling of the pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armour, M.A.; Nelson, C.; Sather, P. Briker, Y. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Users of pesticides may have waste or surplus quantities or spills for disposal. One alternative is to deactivate the pesticide at the handling site by using a straightforward chemical reaction. This option can be practical for those who use relatively small quantities of a large variety of pesticides, for example, greenhouse workers, small farmers, and agricultural researchers. This paper describes practical on-site methods for the disposal of spills or small waste quantities of five commonly used pesticides, Diazinon, Chlorpyrifos, Iprodione, 2,4-D, and Captan. These have been tested in the laboratory for the rate of disappearance of the pesticide, the degree of conversion to nontoxic products, the nature and identity of the products, the practicality of the method, and the ease of reproducibility. Methods selected were shown to be safe for the operator, reliable, and reproducible. Greater than 99% of the starting material had to be reacted under reasonable conditions and length of time. Detailed descriptions of the reactions are presented, so that they can be performed with reproducible results. Protective clothing worn during the handling and application of pesticides may become contaminated. Simple laundering does not always remove all of the pesticide residues. Thus, chronic dermal exposure may result from the pesticide-contaminated clothing. Appropriate methods of laundering using specific pretreatments have been determined. 7 refs.

  9. 40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... applicators of pesticides. 171.3 Section 171.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.3 Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides. (a) Procedure. Categories of applicators (other than private) using or...

  10. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 274 - Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Handling of Pesticides A Appendix A to Part 274 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Appendix A to Part 274—Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Pesticides 1. Follow the label on each... permitted while pesticides are being handled. 4. All pesticides must be handled in well-vetilated areas...

  11. #2) Enantiomer Specific Measurements of Current-use Pesticides in Aquatic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research has shown that current-use pesticides can enter urban and agricultural watersheds and adversely affect aquatic organisms. A potential cause may be higher concentrations of the more toxic pesticide enantiomer present in the pesticide mixture. The presence of pesticide ena...

  12. 40 CFR 161.55 - Agricultural vs. non-agricultural pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides. 161.55 Section 161.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES General Provisions § 161.55 Agricultural vs. non-agricultural pesticides. Section 25(a)(1) of FIFRA instructs...

  13. Decision Support and Web-based Implementation of Algorithms for the Ecological Assessment of Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA registers pesticides for use in the US and approves imported pesticides under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Before a pesticide can be registered, the EPA must assess whether the pesticide can be used without being harmful to humans or po...

  14. 40 CFR 152.30 - Pesticides that may be transferred, sold, or distributed without registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticides that may be transferred... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.30 Pesticides that may be transferred, sold, or distributed without...

  15. 19 CFR 12.112 - Notice of arrival of pesticides and devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of arrival of pesticides and devices. 12...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Pesticides and Devices § 12.112 Notice of arrival of pesticides and devices. (a) General. An importer desiring to import pesticides or devices into...

  16. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  17. Selecting Pesticides and Nonchemical Alternatives: Green Thumbs' Rules of Thumb Decision Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieshop, James I.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A sample of 78 (of 320) home gardeners use rules of thumb (heuristics) to choose between chemical pesticides and nonchemical alternatives. Pesticides rank low in 24 choice attributes where alternatives rank high, and vice versa. Gender, age, and years of pesticide use correlate with pesticide selection. (SK)

  18. 40 CFR 165.81 - Scope of stationary pesticide containers included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of stationary pesticide... Structures § 165.81 Scope of stationary pesticide containers included. (a) What is a stationary pesticide container? A stationary pesticide container is a refillable container that is fixed at a single facility...

  19. Enantiomer Specific Measurements of Current-use Pesticides in Aquatic Systems (#2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research has shown that current-use pesticides can enter urban and agricultural watersheds and adversely affect aquatic organisms. A potential cause may be higher concentrations of the more toxic pesticide enantiomer present in the pesticide mixture. The presence of pesticide ena...

  20. 78 FR 16243 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... on Pesticide Residues (CCPR) AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary for Food Safety, USDA. ACTION... at the 45th Session of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR) of the Codex Alimentarius... Committee on Pesticide Residues is responsible for establishing maximum limits for pesticide residues...

  1. Regulation of pesticide degradation in the detritusphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, Holger; Poll, Christian; Ingwersen, Joachim; Ditterich, Franziska; Gebala, Aurelia; Kandeler, Ellen; Streck, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    The detritusphere is a microbial hot spot of C turnover and degradation of pesticides in soils. We aimed at an improved understanding of the regulation mechanisms, which are responsible for stimulated degradation of the herbicide MCPA (2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid) in response to increased C availability in the detritusphere. We combined a microcosm experiment with biogeochemical modeling and linked genetic information on abundances of total bacteria, fungi and specific pesticide degraders in soil to the coupled biogeochemical dynamics of C and MCPA. As a result of diffusive and convective C transport from litter into the adjacent soil we found increased dissolved organic C (DOC) in soil up to a 6 mm distance to litter (detritusphere). In the detritusphere, we observed increased microbial C and accelerated MCPA degradation. These dynamics were accurately reproduced by the model. Whereas the observed increase of bacteria and pesticide degrader populations in the detritusphere was simulated satisfactorily, the model could not reproduce the steep increase of fungi indicated by the fungal marker gene. Our simulations suggest that bacterial MCPA degraders mostly benefited from high-quality DOC, whereas fungal activity and growth were specifically stimulated by low-quality DOC. According to the simulations, MCPA was predominantly degraded via fungal co-metabolism. Our study demonstrates that biogeochemical processes in soil hotspots are regulated by the interaction of transport processes and microbial dynamics. It further reveals that mathematical modelling is as powerful tool to gain comprehensive insight into the microbial regulation of matter cycling in soil. Genetic information has a high potential to parameterize and evaluate complex mechanistic models, but model approaches must be improved based on extended information on gene dynamics at the cellular level.

  2. Improved alginate based slow release pesticide formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of poly(ethylene imine) treated Ca-alginates was investigated for the preparation of slow release formulations of dichlobenil, propanil and carbofuran. It was demonstrated that release of pesticides from the alginate granules was markedly retarded by post-treatment of the Ca-alginate beads with polyamine. The release profile depended on the post-treatment procedure: type and concentration of the polyamine, pH and duration. Retardation of herbicide release up to 1 year was attained. (author). 11 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  3. Amperometric biosensor for pesticide methamidophos assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohanka, Miroslav; Kuca, Kamil; Jun, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Amperometric biosensor based on enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7) was tested for pesticide methamidophos assay. Biosensor consists from four screen printed platinum electrodes on ceramic strip. AChE was physically adsorbed onto the electrode surface. The measuring principle was based on the inhibition of AChE activity in the presence of methamidophos. The proposed method limit of detection was 2.45 nM, responding to 3.46 pg of methamidophos detected absolutely when we consider the sample volume. PMID:18290547

  4. Exposure assessment of the cumulative intake of pesticides with dissimilar mode of action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette

    Risk assessment of pesticides is currently based on the no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for effects of single compounds. However, humans might be exposed to a mixture of pesticides at the same time and the exposure could occur from more pesticides with endocrine disrupting effects. In this study the effects of combined exposure from four endocrine disrupting pesticides have been investigated (procymidone, mancozeb, tebuconazole, and prochloraz). The four pesticides have dissimilar mode of actions. On the background of the potency for each pesticide to a given effect, a relative potency factor and the cumulative acute exposure of the pesticides have been estimated.

  5. The effects of pesticide mixtures on degradation of pendimethalin in soils

    OpenAIRE

    Swarcewicz, Maria K.; Gregorczyk, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Most agronomic situations involve a sequence of herbicide, fungicide, and insecticide application. On the other hand, use of pesticidal combinations has become a standard practice in the production of many agricultural crops. One of the most important processes influencing the behavior of a pesticide in the environment is its degradation in soil. It is known that due to several pesticide applications in one vegetation season, the pesticide may be present in mixtures with other pesticides or x...

  6. Atoms in agriculture: Nuclear techniques in ''controlled-release'' pesticide research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effective way to reduce environmental losses of pesticides is by using controlled-release (CR) technology. In the CR pesticide formulation, a pesticide and an excipient (usually a polymeric matrix) are combined to allow delivery of the pesticide to the target at controlled rates over a specific period of time. The article reports about CR pesticide research carried out at the Seibersdorf Laboratories. Figs

  7. Exposure assessment of the cumulative intake of pesticides with dissimilar mode of action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christiansen, Sofie; Hass, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    Risk assessment of pesticides is currently based on the no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for effects of single compounds. However, humans might be exposed to a mixture of pesticides at the same time and the exposure could occur from more pesticides with endocrine disrupting effects. In this study the effects of combined exposure from four endocrine disrupting pesticides have been investigated (procymidone, mancozeb, tebuconazole, and prochloraz). The four pesticides have dissimilar mod...

  8. Sources, occurrence and predicted aquatic impact of legacy and contemporary pesticides in streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Rasmussen, Jes J.; Kronvang, Brian; Binning, Philip John; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2015-01-01

    We couple current findings of pesticides in surface and groundwater to the history of pesticide usage, focusing on the potential contribution of legacy pesticides to the predicted ecotoxicological impact on benthic macroinvertebrates in headwater streams. Results suggest that groundwater, in addition to precipitation and surface runoff, is an important source of pesticides (particularly legacy herbicides) entering surface water. In addition to current-use active ingredients, legacy pesticides, m...

  9. Effect of handling and processing on pesticide residues in food- a review

    OpenAIRE

    Bajwa, Usha; Sandhu, Kulwant Singh

    2011-01-01

    Pesticides are one of the major inputs used for increasing agricultural productivity of crops. The pesticide residues, left to variable extent in the food materials after harvesting, are beyond the control of consumer and have deleterious effect on human health. The presence of pesticide residues is a major bottleneck in the international trade of food commodities. The localization of pesticides in foods varies with the nature of pesticide molecule, type and portion of food material and envir...

  10. Effects of pesticides on fauna and flora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complexities of environmental interactions in the transport, transformation and biological effects of widespread, low level chemical contaminants confound the ability of current methods to predict the possible health and environmental impacts of both new and old chemicals. We cannot transfer with certainty the knowledge gained in the laboratory of the behaviour and effects of a single chemical study in isolated living species to that gained in a natural ecosystem. However, over the past years the environmental monitoring programmes have undergone rapid conceptual and technological advancement. Environmental monitoring plays an essential role in the evaluation and management of pesticides and other anthropogenic chemicals. In the absence of effective environmental monitoring, detection of serious environmental contamination and threats to human health caused by chemical pollutants may occur only after critical and irreversible damage has been done. Between 1976 and 1987 the ecosystematic effects caused by various herbicides and insecticides were analysed. The regenerative power of the tropical ecosystems, after having been treated with insecticides, does not only depend on the type of pesticide or its formulation and concentration, but also in a decisive way on the proportions of sprayed and unsprayed areas and the ecophysiological capacity of different organisms in the tropical food chains. (author). 19 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

  11. Biological implications of pesticides : studies with lindane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects of metabolism of lindane, a pesticide, are investigated. These aspects have a bearing on the toxicity assessment of the pesticide. Young adult male Wistar rats were administered a single dose of Aroclor 1254(50 mg/kg body wt.) by stomach tube, 48 h prior to sacrifice for induction of microsomal enzymes. For metabolic transformation studies, liver slices of decapitated rats were suspended in Krebs-Ringer phosphate buffer containing 1 ?Ci of U-14C-lindane and 10 mg of cephalosporin antibiotic 'keflin'. After incubation for 60 min, radioactivity was measured and metabolites were isolated and identified by gas chromatography. The mutagenicity of lindane and hexachlorobenzene was also examined using the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome mutagenicity test of Ames and others (1975). Data on the incorporation of radioactivity from labelled lindane into hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorophenol and notably carbon dioxide in the presence of a wide-spectrum antibiotic indicate that liver enzymes are involved in the breakdown of aromatic ring of lindane yielding CO2, excluding the possibility of any role of intestinal flora in metabolism of lindane. As to mutagenicity, the findings in different experiments were not consistent, and no firm conclusion could be drawn. (M.G.B.)

  12. Bees prefer foods containing neonicotinoid pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Sébastien C.; Tiedeken, Erin Jo; Simcock, Kerry L.; Derveau, Sophie; Mitchell, Jessica; Softley, Samantha; Stout, Jane C.; Wright, Geraldine A.

    2015-05-01

    The impact of neonicotinoid insecticides on insect pollinators is highly controversial. Sublethal concentrations alter the behaviour of social bees and reduce survival of entire colonies. However, critics argue that the reported negative effects only arise from neonicotinoid concentrations that are greater than those found in the nectar and pollen of pesticide-treated plants. Furthermore, it has been suggested that bees could choose to forage on other available flowers and hence avoid or dilute exposure. Here, using a two-choice feeding assay, we show that the honeybee, Apis mellifera, and the buff-tailed bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, do not avoid nectar-relevant concentrations of three of the most commonly used neonicotinoids, imidacloprid (IMD), thiamethoxam (TMX), and clothianidin (CLO), in food. Moreover, bees of both species prefer to eat more of sucrose solutions laced with IMD or TMX than sucrose alone. Stimulation with IMD, TMX and CLO neither elicited spiking responses from gustatory neurons in the bees' mouthparts, nor inhibited the responses of sucrose-sensitive neurons. Our data indicate that bees cannot taste neonicotinoids and are not repelled by them. Instead, bees preferred solutions containing IMD or TMX, even though the consumption of these pesticides caused them to eat less food overall. This work shows that bees cannot control their exposure to neonicotinoids in food and implies that treating flowering crops with IMD and TMX presents a sizeable hazard to foraging bees.

  13. Determination of pesticide residues in cereal grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applicability of the TLC for determination of pesticide residues in cereal grains was studied using corn, rice and wheat as representative commodities and atrazine, captan, chlorpyrifos, chlortoluron, diazinon, diuron, fenitrothion, metoxuron, prochloraz, triforine as representative compounds. Following the extraction with ethyl acetate the efficiency of extraction was tested with Bio-Rad SX-3 gel, GPC, silica gel, florisil and RP-18 reverse phase silica cartridge. The GPC alone or in combination with silica or florisil cleanup were the most suitable for cleanup of the extracts. The TLC elution characteristics of 131 pesticide active ingredients were tested with eight elution systems. The detectability of the selected compounds was determined with six detection methods including two chemical and four bioassay procedures. In addition to the basic methods, the non-toxic Penicillium cyclopium fungi spore inhibition was introduced and it was found very sensitive for some fungicide compounds. The minimum detectable quantities of the tested compounds ranged from 1 ng to 100 ng. The average recoveries from rice and wheat ranged from 78% to 89%, and the limits of quantitation, LOQ, were between 0.01 and 0.2 mg/kg for the selected ten compounds. (author)

  14. Agriculture, pesticides, food security and food safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando P. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, P-2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)]. E-mail: carvalho@itn.pt

    2006-11-15

    Decades ago, agrochemicals were introduced aiming at enhancing crop yields and at protecting crops from pests. Due to adaptation and resistance developed by pests to chemicals, every year higher amounts and new chemical compounds are used to protect crops, causing undesired side effects and raising the costs of food production. Eventually, new techniques, including genetically modified organisms (GMOs) resistant to pests, could halt the massive spread of agrochemicals in agriculture fields. Biological chemical-free agriculture is gaining also more and more support but it is still not able to respond to the need for producing massive amounts of food. The use of agrochemicals, including pesticides, remains a common practice especially in tropical regions and South countries. Cheap compounds, such as DDT, HCH and lindane, that are environmentally persistent, are today banned from agriculture use in developed countries, but remain popular in developing countries. As a consequence, persistent residues of these chemicals contaminate food and disperse in the environment. Coordinated efforts are needed to increase the production of food but with a view to enhanced food quality and safety as well as to controlling residues of persistent pesticides in the environment.

  15. Agriculture, pesticides, food security and food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decades ago, agrochemicals were introduced aiming at enhancing crop yields and at protecting crops from pests. Due to adaptation and resistance developed by pests to chemicals, every year higher amounts and new chemical compounds are used to protect crops, causing undesired side effects and raising the costs of food production. Eventually, new techniques, including genetically modified organisms (GMOs) resistant to pests, could halt the massive spread of agrochemicals in agriculture fields. Biological chemical-free agriculture is gaining also more and more support but it is still not able to respond to the need for producing massive amounts of food. The use of agrochemicals, including pesticides, remains a common practice especially in tropical regions and South countries. Cheap compounds, such as DDT, HCH and lindane, that are environmentally persistent, are today banned from agriculture use in developed countries, but remain popular in developing countries. As a consequence, persistent residues of these chemicals contaminate food and disperse in the environment. Coordinated efforts are needed to increase the production of food but with a view to enhanced food quality and safety as well as to controlling residues of persistent pesticides in the environment

  16. Reduced plant uptake of pesticides with biochar additions to soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang-Yang; Ying, Guang-Guo; Kookana, Rai S

    2009-07-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of two types of biochars in reducing the bioavailability of two soil-applied insecticides (chlorpyrifos and carbofuran) to Spring onion (Allium cepa). The biochars prepared from the pyrolysis of Eucalyptus spp. wood chips at 450 and 850 degrees C (BC850) were thoroughly mixed into the soil to achieve 0%, 0.1%, 0.5% and 1% by soil weight. A spring onion crop was grown for 5 wk in the biochar-amended soils spiked with 50 mgkg(-1) of each pesticide. The loss of both pesticides due to degradation and or sequestration in soils decreased significantly with increasing amounts of biochars in soil. Over 35 d, 86-88% of the pesticides were lost from the control soil, whereas it was only 51% of carbofuran and 44% of chlorpyrifos from the soil amended with 1.0% BC850. Despite greater persistence of the pesticide residues in biochar-amended soils, the plant uptake of pesticides decreased markedly with increasing biochar content of the soil. With 1% of BC850 soil amendment, the total plant residues for chlorpyrifos and carbofuran decreased to 10% and 25% of that in the control treatment, respectively. The BC850 was particularly effective in reducing phytoavailability of both pesticides from soil, due to its high affinity for and ability to sequester pesticide residues. PMID:19419749

  17. Nanoporous clay with carbon sink and pesticide trapping properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woignier, T.; Duffours, L.; Colombel, P.; Dieudonné, P.

    2015-07-01

    A thorough understanding of the mechanisms and factors involved in the dynamics of organic carbon in soils is required to identify and enhance natural sinks for greenhouse gases. Some tropical soils, such as Andosols, have 3-6 fold higher concentrations of organic carbon than other kinds of soils containing classical clays. In the tropics, toxic pesticides permanently pollute soils and contaminate crops, water resources, and ecosystems. However, not all soils are equal in terms of pesticide contamination or in their ability to transfer pollution to the ecosystem. Andosols are generally more polluted than the other kinds of soils but, surprisingly, they retain and trap more pesticides, thereby reducing the transfer of pesticides to ecosystems, water resources, and crops. Andosols thus have interesting environmental properties in terms of soil carbon sequestration and pesticide retention. Andosols contain a nano porous clay (allophane) with unique structures and physical properties compared to more common clays; these are large pore volume, specific surface area, and a tortuous and fractal porous arrangement. The purpose of this mini review is to discuss the importance of the allophane fractal microstructure for carbon sequestration and pesticide trapping in the soil. We suggest that the tortuous microstructure (which resembles a labyrinths) of allophane aggregates and the associated low accessibility partly explain the poor availability of soil organic matter and of any pesticides trapped in andosols.

  18. Pesticide residue quantification analysis by hyperspectral imaging sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yuan-Hsun; Lo, Wei-Sheng; Guo, Horng-Yuh; Kao, Ching-Hua; Chou, Tau-Meu; Chen, Junne-Jih; Wen, Chia-Hsien; Lin, Chinsu; Chen, Hsian-Min; Ouyang, Yen-Chieh; Wu, Chao-Cheng; Chen, Shih-Yu; Chang, Chein-I.

    2015-05-01

    Pesticide residue detection in agriculture crops is a challenging issue and is even more difficult to quantify pesticide residue resident in agriculture produces and fruits. This paper conducts a series of base-line experiments which are particularly designed for three specific pesticides commonly used in Taiwan. The materials used for experiments are single leaves of vegetable produces which are being contaminated by various amount of concentration of pesticides. Two sensors are used to collected data. One is Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The other is a hyperspectral sensor, called Geophysical and Environmental Research (GER) 2600 spectroradiometer which is a batteryoperated field portable spectroradiometer with full real-time data acquisition from 350 nm to 2500 nm. In order to quantify data with different levels of pesticide residue concentration, several measures for spectral discrimination are developed. Mores specifically, new measures for calculating relative power between two sensors are particularly designed to be able to evaluate effectiveness of each of sensors in quantifying the used pesticide residues. The experimental results show that the GER is a better sensor than FTIR in the sense of pesticide residue quantification.

  19. Quantitative and economical assessment of effectiveness of electrostatic pesticide spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrostatic pesticide spraying (EPS) improves the adhesion characteristics of the pesticide solution to agricultural crops. If the adhesion characteristics are improved, the requisite amount of the pesticide to be sprayed can be reduced in comparison with the conventional spraying method that uses non-charged pesticide. In this research, disease (rust) control experiments were carried out to substantiate the effectiveness of the EPS from a statistical point of view. We sprayed pesticide to potted Japanese pear trees under calm condition. The numbers of the rust lesions on the pear leaves were counted at fixed intervals after spraying to investigate the difference of the results of the disease control. The t-tests were carried out for the populations of the various spraying times and applied voltages. It was statistically-derived that EPS can reduce the amounts of pesticide to be sprayed by 50 % in comparison with the non-EPS method. It is also estimated from the results that about 55,000 kL year?1 of pesticides can be reduced for the Japanese pear cultivation in Tottori prefecture. Also, this means that the expense of the pear cultivation can be reduced by about 240 million yen (3 million USD) every year in Tottori prefecture by introducing EPS.

  20. Pesticides and human chronic diseases: Evidences, mechanisms, and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Along with the wide use of pesticides in the world, the concerns over their health impacts are rapidly growing. There is a huge body of evidence on the relation between exposure to pesticides and elevated rate of chronic diseases such as different types of cancers, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson, Alzheimer, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), birth defects, and reproductive disorders. There is also circumstantial evidence on the association of exposure to pesticides with some other chronic diseases like respiratory problems, particularly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular disease such as atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease, chronic nephropathies, autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematous and rheumatoid arthritis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and aging. The common feature of chronic disorders is a disturbance in cellular homeostasis, which can be induced via pesticides' primary action like perturbation of ion channels, enzymes, receptors, etc., or can as well be mediated via pathways other than the main mechanism. In this review, we present the highlighted evidence on the association of pesticide's exposure with the incidence of chronic diseases and introduce genetic damages, epigenetic modifications, endocrine disruption, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response (UPR), impairment of ubiquitin proteasome system, and defective autophagy as the effective mechanisms of action. - Highlights: ? There is a link between exposure to pesticides and incidence of chronic diseases. ? Genotoxicity and proteotoxicity are two main involved mechanisms. ? Epigenetic knowledge may help diagnose the relationships. ? Efficient policies on safe use of pesticides should be set up