WorldWideScience
 
 
1

76 FR 69648 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...of a different factor. 2. Prenatal and postnatal sensitivity...to trifloxystrobin. In the prenatal developmental study in rats...at the limit dose. In the prenatal developmental study in rabbits...neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity testing. Recent changes to 40...

2011-11-09

2

75 FR 33190 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...of a different factor. 2. Prenatal and postnatal sensitivity...to trifloxystrobin. In the prenatal developmental study in rats...at the limit dose. In the prenatal developmental study in rabbits...neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity testing. Recent changes to 40...

2010-06-11

3

77 FR 42654 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerance  

Science.gov (United States)

...Exposure Analysis Modeling System (PRZM/EXAMS), and...Water (SCI- GROW) models, the estimated drinking...the dietary exposure model. 3. From non-dietary...directly targets the immune system. EPA does not believe...carcinogenicity in two adequate rodent carcinogenicity...

2012-07-20

4

77 FR 65827 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...Exposure Analysis Modeling System (PRZM/EXAMS), and...Water (SCI- GROW) models, the estimated drinking...the dietary exposure model. 3. From non-dietary...directly targets the immune system. EPA does not believe...carcinogenicity in two adequate rodent carcinogenicity...

2012-10-31

5

Sensitivity of Venturia inaequalis to trifloxystrobin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The sensitivity of Venturia inaequalis to trifloxystrobin was monitored by both in vitro (spore germination) and in vivo tests (on apple seedlings). There was good correlation between the in vitro and in vivo results. Baseline sensitivity was established with 95 bulk isolates from Europe between 1995 and 1998 which showed a narrow sensitivity range-factor of up to 17 between the least and most sensitive isolates. Monitoring of populations originating from trifloxystrobin-treated and untreated orchards between 1995 and 1999 showed only sensitive isolates and no performance deficiencies were reported. Data also show that trifloxystrobin is not cross-resistant to anilinopyrimidines and triazoles, but is cross-resistant to kresoxim-methyl, another strobilurin which also inhibits the cytochrome bc1 enzyme complex at the Qo-site in the respiration chain of fungal mitochondria (QoI inhibitors). Under experimental conditions from a specific trial site in Switzerland, where trifloxystrobin has been tested since 1994, isolates containing conidia resistant to Qo inhibitors were detected in 1997 and 1999. However no obvious performance deficiencies were reported. Nevertheless these results demonstrate a risk for the development of practical resistance in V inaequalis to Qo inhibitors and therefore a need to apply resistance management principles strictly. PMID:11975172

Färber, Ruth B Küng; Chin, Khoon Min; Leadbitter, Neil

2002-03-01

6

Three years of trials with trifloxystrobine fungicides in cereals in Belgium  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Trifloxystrobine-based fungicides were tested for two years in winter barley and three years in winter wheat in Belgium. One or two applications were compared with other strobilurine based fungicides. The efficacy of the combinations of trifloxystrobine (125 g/ha) + propiconazole (125 g/ha) and trifloxystrobine (125 g/ha) + cyproconazole (80 g/ha) for disease control in winter barley and winter wheat, respectivvely, was confirmed. They allowed yield increases comparable to those obtained w...

Moreau, Jean-marc; Vancutsem, Franc?oise; Bodson, Bernard; Meeus, Patrick

2000-01-01

7

Immunoassays for trifloxystrobin analysis. Part II. Assay development and application to residue determination in food.  

Science.gov (United States)

Immunochemical assays constitute complementary analytical methods for small organic molecule determination. We herein describe the characterisation and optimisation of two competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in different formats using monoclonal antibodies to the Quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicide trifloxystrobin. Antibody selectivity was evaluated using a variety of agrochemicals and the main trifloxystrobin metabolite. Acceptable tolerance of the immunoassay to methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile was observed in all cases, whereas a dissimilar influence of buffer pH and ionic strength was found. Moreover, the influence of Tween 20 over the analytical parameters was studied. The limits of detection of the optimised assays were below 0.1?gL(-1). Excellent recoveries, even at 10?gkg(-1), were obtained when strawberry, tomato, and cucumber samples spiked with trifloxystrobin were analysed. Finally, statistical agreement was found between immunoassay and reference chromatographic results using blind-spiked and in-field treated samples. PMID:24874355

Mercader, Josep V; López-Moreno, Rosario; Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A; Abad-Somovilla, Antonio; Abad-Fuentes, Antonio

2014-11-01

8

Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRL for trifloxystrobin in beans with pods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Germany, hereafter referred to as the Evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from the Landwirtschaftskammer Nordrhein-Westfalen to modify the existing MRL for trifloxystrobin in beans with pods. In order to accommodate for the intended use of trifloxystrobin Germany proposed to raise the existing MRL on beans (with pods from the value of 0.5 mg/kg to 1 mg/kg. Germany drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005 which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive a MRL proposal of 1.0 mg/kg for the intended use on beans with pods. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of trifloxystrobin in the commodity under consideration. Based on the provisional risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the intended use of trifloxystrobin on beans with pods will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

European Food Safety Authority

2013-04-01

9

Persistence and dissipation kinetics of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole in onion and soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The persistence and dissipation kinetics of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole on onion were studied after application of their combination formulation at a standard and double dose of 75 + 150 and 150 + 300 g a.i. ha(-1). The fungicides were extracted with acetone, cleaned-up using activated charcoal (trifloxystrobin) and neutral alumina (tebuconazole). Analysis was carried out by gas chromatograph (GC) and confirmed by gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The recovery was above 80% and limit of quantification (LOQ) 0.05 mg kg(-1) for both fungicides. Initial residue deposits of trifloxystrobin were 0.68 and 1.01 mg kg(-1) and tebuconazole 0.673 and 1.95 mg kg(-1) from standard and double dose treatments, respectively. Dissipation of the fungicides followed first-order kinetics and the half life of degradation was 6-6.6 days. Matured onion bulb (and field soil) harvested after 30 days was free from fungicide residues. These findings suggest recommended safe pre-harvest interval (PHI) of 14 and 25 days for spring onion consumption after treatment of Nativo 75 WG at the standard and double doses, respectively. Matured onion bulbs at harvest were free from fungicide residues. PMID:24813986

Mohapatra, Soudamini

2014-07-01

10

Proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in cereals  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in wheat was organised in 2008. The test material was grown in 2007 and treated in the field with 14 pesticides formulations containing the active substances, alpha-cypermethrin, bifentrin, carbendazim, chlormequat, chlorpyrifos-methyl, difenconazole, epoxiconazole, glyphosate, iprodione, malathion, pirimicarb, prochloraz, spiroxamin and trifloxystrobin. After harvest, the test material was additionally spiked in the laboratory with three pesticides, that where the residues were too low, and axozystrobin. In total, 72 laboratories submitted results and z-scores were calculated for all laboratories and pesticides, except for glyphosate where only five laboratories submitted results and summed weighted z-scores were calculated for the laboratories with a sufficient scope. For several pesticides, the submitted results were strongly depending on the extraction procedure and consequently the assigned values were calculated based on part of the results. Acceptable z-scores were obtained by 56-97% of the participants.

Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Christensen, Hanne Bjerre

2009-01-01

11

Simultaneous detection and degradation patterns of kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin residues in citrus fruits by HPLC combined with QuEChERS.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to investigate the residues, kinetics and dissipation patterns of kresoxim-methyl, (E)-methoxyimino[?-(o-tolyloxy)-o-tolyl]acetate, and trifloxystrobin, methyl(E)-methoxyimino-{(E)-?[1-(?,?,?-trifluoro-m-tolyl)ethylideneaminooxy]-o-tolyl}acetate". A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (LC-UV) method combined with the 'Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe' (QuEChERS) protocol was developed to quantify the levels of kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin residues in citrus. More than 97% of the kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin deposists gradually dissipated from the citrus peels within 15 days. The half-lives of kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin in the peels were in the ranges of 2.63-2.66 d and 3.12-3.15 d, respectively, and the pattern of decline in the peels followed first-order kinetics. The kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin residues in the pulp dissipated below the detectable level of 0.01 mg kg(-1) after 9 days. Kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin were easily decomposed (T1/2 < 30 d), and the observed dissipation patterns could support the application of these two fungicides in the postharvest storage of citrus fruits. PMID:23452212

Zhu, Jie; Dai, Xian J; Fang, Jian J; Zhu, Hua M

2013-01-01

12

The Landau Stream Mesocosm Facility: pesticide mitigation in vegetated flow-through streams.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vegetated treatment systems have the ability to reduce the risk of adverse effects of nonpoint source pesticide pollution in agricultural surface waters, however, flow-through systems have rarely been evaluated. Peak concentrations of a mixture of two insecticides and two fungicides (Indoxacarb, Tebuconazole, Thiacloprid and Trifloxystrobin) were reduced by more than 90% in 45 m experimental stream mesocosms. Plant density and solubility had the highest explanatory power for the response variable reduction of peak concentration (R² = 0.70, p < 0.001). Optimized vegetated streams can be highly effective in reduction of runoff related pesticide peak concentrations. PMID:23397373

Elsaesser, David; Stang, Christoph; Bakanov, Nikita; Schulz, Ralf

2013-06-01

13

Effectiveness of thiophanate-methyl, trifloxystrobin and vinclozolin on canker caused by Phoma exigua Desm. on ash tree seedlings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years several cases of cankers caused by Phoma exigua on ash tree seedlings have been reported in Belgian nurseries, leading to a total loss of the affected crops. Similar symptoms have been observed on ash tree seedlings elsewhere in Europe, notably in France and in Great Britain, but the pathogenicity was never established. Inoculation and re-isolation tests were therefore undertaken and demonstrated the phytopathogenic character of P. exigua on ash. Moreover the effectiveness of three fungicides (thiophanate-methyl, trifloxystrobin, vinclozolin against stem canker of ash tree seedlings was studied. In vitro tests were conducted to evaluate the ability of these fungicides to inhibit mycelium growth and spore germination. The extent to which they reduced the symptoms was estimated in a field trial. The results of this study allowed to get by the Belgian proper authorities the use extension of thiophanate-methyl for the control of canker caused by P. exigua in forest nurseries.

Cuvelier M.

2006-01-01

14

Screening of grapes and wine for azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin fungicides by HPLC with diode array detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Quinone outside Inhibitors (QoI) are one of the most important and recent fungicide groups used in viticulture and also allowed by Integrated Pest Management. Azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin are the main active ingredients for treating downy and powdery mildews that can be present in grapes and wines. In this paper, a method is reported for the analysis of these three QoI-fungicides in grapes and wine. After liquid-liquid extraction and a clean-up on commercial silica cartridges, analysis was by isocratic HPLC with diode array detection (DAD) with a run time of 13 min. Confirmation was by solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME), followed by GC/MS determination. The main validation parameters for the three compounds in grapes and wine were a limit of detection up to 0.073 mg kg(-1), a precision not exceeding 10.0% and an average recovery of 93% +/- 38. PMID:16019828

De Melo Abreu, Susana; Correia, Manuela; Herbert, Paulo; Santos, Lúcia; Alves, Arminda

2005-06-01

15

Rapid gas chromatographic method for the determination of famoxadone, trifloxystrobin and fenhexamid residues in tomato, grape and wine samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trifloxystrobin, fenhexamid and famoxadone belong to the generation of fungicides acting against a broad spectrum of fungi and widely used in Integrated Pest Management strategies in different agricultural crops but mainly in viticulture. In the present work, a gas chromatographic (GC) method for their determination was developed and validated on tomato, grape and wine matrices. The method was based on a simple one step liquid-liquid microextraction with cyclohexane/dichloromethane (9+1, v/v) and determination of fungicides by gas chromatography with nitrogen phosphorous (NP-) and electron capture (EC-) detection, and ion trap mass spectrometry (ITMS) for confirmation. The method was validated by recovery experiments, assessment of matrix effect and calculation of the associated uncertainty. Recoveries for GC-NPD and GC-ECD were found in the range of 81-102% with RSD <12%, while matrix-matched calibration solutions were imposed for quantification. LOQs ranged from 0.005 to 0.05 mg/kg and 0.01 to 0.10 mg/kg for the GC-ECD and GC-NPD, respectively, depending on the sensitivity of each compound with trifloxystrobin being the most sensitive. The expanded uncertainty, calculated for a sample concentration of 0.10 mg/kg, ranged from 4.8 to 13% for the GC-ECD and from 5.4 to 29% for the GC-NPD. The concentration levels for famoxadone residues found in tomato and grape samples from field experiments were clearly below the EU established MRL values, thus causing no problems in terms of food safety. PMID:16950327

Likas, D T; Tsiropoulos, N G; Miliadis, G E

2007-05-25

16

Emerging pesticide metabolites in groundwater and surface water as determined by the application of a multimethod for 150 pesticide metabolites.  

Science.gov (United States)

A recently developed multimethod for the determination of 150 pesticide metabolites was exemplarily applied to 58 samples of groundwater and surface water. 37 of these metabolites were detected in at least two samples with a concentration ?0.025 ?g/L. The detected metabolites were ranked according to their concentration and frequency of detection. Findings are clearly dominated by metabolites of chloroacetanilide herbicides, but metabolites of sulfonylurea and thiocarbamate herbicides and other herbicides (dichlobenil) together with metabolites of some fungicides (tolylfluanid, chlorothalonil, trifloxystrobin) were also prominent. A number of 17 of the ranked metabolites are denoted as emerging metabolites because no reports on their previous detection in groundwater or surface water were found. Most of them, however, were correctly predicted to occur in the summary reports of the European pesticide approval process. Median total concentrations of the analysed pesticide metabolites summed up to 0.62 ?g/L in groundwater and 0.33 ?g/L in surface waters. While the concentration of the individual metabolites is usually low (pesticide (biocide) metabolites were detected. The emerging pesticide metabolites detected in environmental water samples in this study require more extended monitoring. PMID:23863396

Reemtsma, Thorsten; Alder, Lutz; Banasiak, Ursula

2013-10-01

17

Applying pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

Fertilizer is one way to provide crops with the nutrients they need. Pesticides can also be applied to crops to keep them healthy and free of insects. However, applying too much fertilizer or pesticide protection could harm the environment and organisms.

Scott Bauer (USDA-ARS;Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory)

2006-05-23

18

(Pesticide chemistry)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes a trip by L. W. Barnthouse of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), to Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), where he participated in the 7th International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry. He chaired a workshop on experimental systems for determining effects of pesticides on nontarget organisms and gave an oral presentation at a symposium on pesticide risk assessment. Before returning to the United States, Dr. Barnthouse visited the Netherlands Institute for Sea Research in Texel, the Netherlands.

Barnthouse, L.W.

1990-09-04

19

Pesticides: Protecting Workers  

Science.gov (United States)

Protecting workers from potential effects of pesticides is an important role of EPA's Pesticide Program. Workers in several occupations may be exposed to pesticides when they: Prepare pesticides for ...

20

Pesticides in Groundwater  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticides in Groundwater Care to guess how many pounds of pesticides the Nation used in 1964? How ... other locations, where they may cause health problems. Pesticides can contaminate groundwater Pesticide contamination of groundwater is ...

 
 
 
 
21

Pesticide Safety Tips  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticide Safety Tips Resources Questions On Pesticides? National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) 1-800-858-7378 Although pesticides can be useful, they also can be dangerous if used carelessly ...

22

Pesticide Poisoning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed that examining the socio-demographic characteristics of the pesticide poisoning cases in Samsun region where the economy mainly relies on agriculture and comparing it to similar studies; thus contributing the country?s data and the possible measures. 60 pesticide poisoning cases consulted OMU Faculty of Medicine between 01.01.2004 and 31.12.2004 are examined and achieved data are analyzed and presented. Of the 60 cases, 35 (58.3% are females and 25 (41.7 are males and the average age is 21.93 ±17.56 (1-63 years. Pesticide poisoning is most common in summer (55.0% and spring (25.0%. It is stated either by the person himself/herself or by his/her relatives that the intake of the toxic substance is accidental in 36 cases (60.0% and suicidal in 24 cases (40.0%. 25 cases (41.7% are poisoned with organic phosphorus pesticides and 12 cases (20.0% with carbamat-pesticides. Consequently, in order to prevent accidental pesticide poisoning, it is necessary to be very careful with pesticide application especially in rural areas. Substances that are least toxic to human and environment, and are licenced and most effective to pests must be used, spraying period must be short, sensitive people, especially children, must be kept away, personal precautions must be taken for the spraying person and pesticides must be kept away from the reach of children and people at risk. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 169-174

Neva Sataloglu

2007-06-01

23

Pesticide Poisoning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed that examining the socio-demographic characteristics of the pesticide poisoning cases in Samsun region where the economy mainly relies on agriculture and comparing it to similar studies; thus contributing the country?s data and the possible measures. 60 pesticide poisoning cases consulted OMU Faculty of Medicine between 01.01.2004 and 31.12.2004 are examined and achieved data are analyzed and presented. Of the 60 cases, 35 (58.3% are females and 25 (41.7 are males and the average age is 21.93 ±17.56 (1-63 years. Pesticide poisoning is most common in summer (55.0% and spring (25.0%. It is stated either by the person himself/herself or by his/her relatives that the intake of the toxic substance is accidental in 36 cases (60.0% and suicidal in 24 cases (40.0%. 25 cases (41.7% are poisoned with organic phosphorus pesticides and 12 cases (20.0% with carbamat-pesticides. Consequently, in order to prevent accidental pesticide poisoning, it is necessary to be very careful with pesticide application especially in rural areas. Substances that are least toxic to human and environment, and are licenced and most effective to pests must be used, spraying period must be short, sensitive people, especially children, must be kept away, personal precautions must be taken for the spraying person and pesticides must be kept away from the reach of children and people at risk. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(3: 169-174

Neva Sataloglu

2007-06-01

24

Occurrence and distribution study of residues from pesticides applied under controlled conditions in the field during rice processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of an experiment to study the occurrence and distribution of pesticide residues during rice cropping and processing are reported. Four herbicides, nine fungicides, and two insecticides (azoxystrobin, byspiribac-sodium, carbendazim, clomazone, difenoconazole, epoxiconazole, isoprothiolane, kresoxim-methyl, propanil, quinclorac, tebuconazole, thiamethoxam, tricyclazole, trifloxystrobin, ?-cyhalotrin) were applied to an isolated rice-crop plot under controlled conditions, during the 2009-2010 cropping season in Uruguay. Paddy rice was harvested and industrially processed to brown rice, white rice, and rice bran, which were analyzed for pesticide residues using the original QuEChERS methodology and its citrate variation by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS. The distribution of pesticide residues was uneven among the different matrices. Ten different pesticide residues were found in paddy rice, seven in brown rice, and eight in rice bran. The highest concentrations were detected in paddy rice. These results provide information regarding the fate of pesticides in the rice food chain and its safety for consumers. PMID:22497619

Pareja, Lucía; Colazzo, Marcos; Pérez-Parada, Andrés; Besil, Natalia; Heinzen, Horacio; Böcking, Bernardo; Cesio, Verónica; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

2012-05-01

25

Antimicrobial Pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

This newly launched site from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) offers a variety of resources describing how the EPA regulates antimicrobial pesticides. Antimicrobial pesticides are used in a huge variety of household and commercial products to "disinfect, sanitize, reduce, or mitigate growth or development of microbiological organisms" and to "protect inanimate objects (for example floors and walls), industrial processes or systems, surfaces, water, or other chemical substances from contamination, fouling, or deterioration caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime." Intended mainly for a regulatory audience, the site includes Antimicrobials Science Policy Documents, Antimicrobials Registration Policy Documents, Label Review Manual, Chemical/ Registration Number Indexes, and Antimicrobial PR notices.

26

Pesticide Poisoning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, it is aimed that examining the socio-demographic characteristics of the pesticide poisoning cases in Samsun region where the economy mainly relies on agriculture and comparing it to similar studies; thus contributing the country?s data and the possible measures. 60 pesticide poisoning cases consulted OMU Faculty of Medicine between 01.01.2004 and 31.12.2004 are examined and achieved data are analyzed and presented. Of the 60 cases, 35 (58.3%) are females and 25 (41.7) are ...

Neva Sataloglu; Berna Aydin; Ahmet Turla

2007-01-01

27

Pesticide Spray and Dust Drift  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticide Spray and Dust Drift Quick Resources 3/31/14: EPA Response to "Pesticides in the Air – ... works: pesticide volatilization Worker risk assessment Questions on Pesticides? National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) 1-800-858- ...

28

Safe Storage of Pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

Safe Storage of Pesticides Esta página Web está disponible en español Improper pesticide storage and disposal can be hazardous to human health and ... storage needs by buying only the amount of pesticide that you will need in the near future ...

29

Pesticides and Pregnancy  

Science.gov (United States)

... or visit us online at: www.OTISpregnancy.org . Pesticides and Pregnancy This sheet talks about the risks ... advice from your health care provider. What are pesticides? A pesticide is a substance used to prevent ...

30

Antimicrobial Pesticide Products  

Science.gov (United States)

... as of: December 1, 2004 Resources Questions On Pesticides? National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) 1-800-858-7378 On ... Types of Antimicrobial Products For More Information Antimicrobial pesticides are substances or mixtures of substances used to ...

31

Illegal Pesticide Products  

Science.gov (United States)

Illegal Pesticide Products Esta página Web está disponible en español Quick Resources Protect your Business Counterfeit Flea and Tick ... Center (NPIC) 1-800-858-7378 Questions on Pesticides? National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) 1-800-858- ...

32

National Pesticide Information Center  

Science.gov (United States)

National Pesticide Information Center npic@ace.orst.edu 1.800.858.7378 Index A B C D E F ... Your Pest Control Your Pest Integrated Pest Management Pesticide Ingredients Active Ingredients Other/Inert Ingredients Pesticide Products ...

33

Scientific support for preparing an EU position for the 45th Session of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In accordance with Article 43 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, EFSA received a request from the European Commission to provide support for the preparation of the EU position for the 45th session of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR. In 2012, JMPR evaluated 12 active substances regarding the setting of toxicological reference values to be used in consumer risk assessment, 7 new compounds (ametoctradin, chlorfenapyr, dinotefuran, fluxapyroxad, MCPA, picoxystrobin, sedaxane and 4 part of periodic reevaluation (benzoate, fenpropathrin, fenvalerate, glufosinate-ammonium. Regarding the setting of Maximum Residue Limits (CXLs, JMPR assessed 26 substances (ametoctradin, azoxystrobin, buprofezin, carbofuran, chlorfenapyr, chlorothalonil, cycloxydim, cyfluthrin, cyromazine, dichlorvos, dicofol, dinotefuran, fenvalerate, fludioxonil, fluopyram, fluxapyroxad, glufosinate-ammonium, imidacloprid, MCPA, methoxyfenozide, penthiopyrad, phorate, picoxystrobin, sedaxane, spinetoram and trifloxystrobin. EFSA derived comments on the JMPR evaluations regarding the acceptability of the proposed draft Codex MRLs and the toxicological reference values.

European Food Safety Authority

2013-07-01

34

[Pesticide poisoning].  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticide intoxications are mainly accidental with a benign course, such as ingestions of diluted fertilizers or low concentration antivitamin K rodenticides, ant-killing products or granules of molluscicides containing 5% metaldehyde. Voluntary intoxications by chloralose, strychnine, organophosphorus or organochlorine insecticides, concentrated anti-vitamin K products, herbicides such as paraquat, chlorophenoxy compounds, glyphosate or chlorates may be severe. Toxicity is due to active substances but also to solvents or surfactants included in the composition. Analysis done in a toxicology laboratory help in establishing diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Poison centres may be called constantly to help for the evaluation of these intoxications. PMID:10748667

Harry, P

2000-02-15

35

Toxic effects of three strobilurins (trifloxystrobin, azoxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl) on mRNA expression and antioxidant enzymes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) juveniles.  

Science.gov (United States)

The strobilurins are used widely in the world as effective fungicidal agents to control Asian soybean rust. In this study, the early life stage of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), which is one of the most important aquaculture species in China, was chosen to measure the acute toxicity of three common strobilurin-derived fungicides (trifloxystrobin (TFS), azoxystrobin (AZ) and kresoxim-methyl (KM)). As endpoints, normal developmental parameters (lethal concentration (LC??) and average heart rate), expression of relative genes, and three antioxidant enzyme activities in the developing juveniles were recorded during a 48 h exposure. The results revealed that values of LC?? were TFS 0.051 (0.046-0.058) mg L?¹, AZ 0.549 (0.419-0.771) mg L?¹ and KM 0.338 (0.284-0.407) mg L?¹ for juveniles. For the potential toxicity mechanisms, these three fungicides increased catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activity and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, significantly inhibited expressions of three growth-related genes (IGF-1, IGF-2 and GHR) and two energy-related-genes (CCK and PYY), and caused pronounced up-regulation a stress-gene (HSP70). The present study demonstrated potential toxic effects of TFS, AZ and KM on the early development of C. idella. Overall, three strobilurins (TFS, AZ and KM) might cause serious damages to the aquatic species; therefore, their pollution supervision in water ecological environment should be strengthened. PMID:24210350

Liu, Lei; Jiang, Chao; Wu, Zhuo-Qi; Gong, Yu-Xin; Wang, Gao-Xue

2013-12-01

36

Transporte de agrotóxicos em lavoura de arroz irrigado sob três manejos de irrigação Pesticide transport in rice field under three irrigation managements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O cultivo de arroz irrigado no Rio Grande do Sul caracteriza-se pela permanência de lâmina de irrigação sobre o solo, o que ocasiona perdas de agrotóxicos na ocorrência de chuvas; portanto, o adequado manejo de irrigação pode influenciar na redução do transporte destes para o ambiente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes manejos de irrigação no extravasamento da água e no transporte e persistência de clomazone, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, trifloxystrobin e propiconazol em lavoura de arroz irrigado. Os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial consistiram nos manejos de irrigação por inundação contínua, intermitente e por banhos (fator A e pelos agrotóxicos mencionados (fator B. Determinou-se o volume total de água extravasada e a taxa de dissipação e transporte desses agrotóxicos. Devido ao maior armazenamento de água da chuva, quando comparadas com a irrigação contínua, as irrigações intermitente e por banhos proporcionaram diminuição de 53 e 95% do volume de água perdida, resultando, respectivamente, em redução de 49 e 64% na massa total de agrotóxicos transportados para o ambiente, em relação ao total aplicado na lavoura. A massa de agrotóxico transportada não ultrapassou 3% do total aplicado, e as maiores concentrações de agrotóxicos em água ocorreram próximo à sua aplicação. Com base nesses resultados, salienta-se que os manejos de irrigação intermitente e por banhos minimizam o transporte de agrotóxicos para o ambiente.Rice crop in the state of Rio Grande do Sul is characterized by the presence of water layer on the soil, which can cause pesticide runoff during the occurrence of rainfall. Thus, proper irrigation management can reduce pesticide transport into the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different irrigation managements on water runoff, transport and dissipation of clomazone, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, trifloxystrobin, and propiconazol. The treatments were arranged in a factorial scheme and consisted of continuous flooding, intermittent flooding, and flushing irrigation (factor A and by the application of the pesticides listed above (factor B. Total water runoff, and pesticide transport and dissipation rate were evaluated. Due to the larger rainfall storage, compared with continuous flooding, intermittent flooding and flushing irrigation provided a reduction of 53 and 95% of water runoff, resulting, respectively, in a reduction of 49 and 64% of the total mass transported into the environment in relation to the total applied in the field. The pesticide mass transported was lower than 3% of the total amount applied. Based on these results, it could be concluded that intermittent flooding and flushing irrigation minimize pesticide transport into the environment.Since the highest pesticide concentrations occur close to application time, it is of fundamental importance to conduct proper irrigation management providing maximum permanence in the environment.

L.F.D. Martini

2012-12-01

37

75 FR 34448 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on False or Misleading Pesticide Product...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on False or Misleading Pesticide Product Brand Names...Registration Notice (PR Notice) entitled ``False or Misleading Pesticide Product Brand Names...Registration Notice (PR Notice) entitled ``False or Misleading Pesticide Product Brand...

2010-06-17

38

75 FR 28012 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on False or Misleading Pesticide Product...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on False or Misleading Pesticide Product Brand Names...Registration Notice (PR Notice) entitled ``False or Misleading Pesticide Product Brand Names...pesticide product brand names that may be false or misleading, either by themselves...

2010-05-19

39

Safe apples for baby-food production: survey of pesticide treatment regimes leaving minimum residues.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 19 pesticide preparations were used according to agricultural practice in six trials in apple orchards. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), premature Golden Delicious apples collected 64, 50, 36 days before harvest and mature fruit were examined for residues of active ingredients. No residues of triflumuron, triazamate, chlorpyrifos, etofenprox, fenoxycarb, kresoxim-methyl, cyprodinyl, difenoconazole or thiram were detected in the first sampling. Also, the levels of chlorpyrifos-methyl, penconazole, tebuconazole and tolylfluanid dropped during the pre-harvest interval. Detectable residues of pyridaben, thiacloprid, trifloxystrobin and tetraconazole in harvested fruits were below 0.01 mg kg(-1), which is the maximum concentration of residues acceptable by baby-food producers in any raw material. The only residues exceeding this concentration were captan and teflubenzuron. Based on the data, farmers can choose pesticides for optimal treatment of plants, while enabling growth of a safe crop suitable for baby-food production. PMID:17487602

Ticha, Jana; Hajslova, Jana; Kovalczuk, Tomas; Jech, Martin; Honzicek, Jiri; Kocourek, Vladimir; Lansky, Miroslav; Kloutvorova, Jana; Falta, Vladan

2007-06-01

40

Towards the field-scale experiments and numerical modeling of pesticides in tropical soils  

Science.gov (United States)

Intensive use of pesticides in agriculture inevitably poses an increased threat to groundwater. Recent findings of pesticide residues in selected drinking water wells in Hawaii brings further attention to this problem since the primary source for potable water in Hawaii is groundwater from basal or dike-confined aquifers. A challenging research project was carried out at the University of Hawaii to elucidate potential impacts of selected pesticides on groundwater and to understand pesticide behavior in tropical soils. The major outcome of the project will be a recommendation to the Hawaii Department of Agriculture whether to restrict or approve these pesticide products entering Hawaii's agricultural market. Three sites on Oahu, one on Maui, and one on Kauai were selected for field evaluation of leaching. The soil types on Oahu are Wahiawa Oxisol (Poamoho), Molokai Oxisol (Kunia), and Waialua Vertisol (Waimanalo). The soil at Kula, Maui is an andisol (loam of Kula series) and that at Mana, Kauai is a Vertisol of Malama series. Three herbicides (S-metolachlor, imazaquin, sulfometuron methyl), one fungicide (trifloxystrobin), and one insecticide (imidacloprid) were used in our study. In addition, a commonly used herbicide (atrazine) and potassium bromide tracer were applied as reference chemicals. After spraying, the plots were covered with straw to decrease evaporation from bare soil surface and irrigated with aerial sprinklers for a period of 16 weeks. Disturbed soil samples from various depths were taken at regular intervals for pesticide analysis. Water flow dynamics was monitored with TDR probes and tensiometers installed at three depths. Weather data were acquired simultaneously. In-situ measurements of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity were done using a tension disc infiltrometer. Laboratory experiments of soil-water retention, as well as degradation, sorption, and column displacement experiments for the selected pesticides were conducted. Hence, comprehensive a database for mathematical modeling of the pesticide transport was obtained. Results so far indicate that S-metolachlor showed its low leachability and short decay half-life. On the other hand, imidacloprid exhibited its low sorption ability with higher leaching potential and longer half-life. Likewise, transport of bromide seems to be controlled by soil hydrologic properties and water application rates.

Dusek, J.; Ray, C.; Sanda, M.; Vogel, T.; Green, R.; Loo, B.

2004-12-01

 
 
 
 
41

Pesticide Fact Sheet: Fluroxypyr.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after registration of a new chemical.

1998-01-01

42

Pesticide Fact Sheet: Spinosad.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after Registration of a new chemical.

1997-01-01

43

Pesticide Fact Sheet: Flumetsulam.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticides or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after, registration of a new chemical.

1993-01-01

44

Pesticide Fact Sheet: Imazapyr.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after registration of a significantly changed use pattern...

1997-01-01

45

Common Pesticide Questions  

Science.gov (United States)

... with tack: Will the horse think it's a snack? Don't distress over uninvited guests (roaches)! PestiByte ... read our disclaimer | Contact us NPIC provides objective, science-based information about pesticides and pesticide-related topics ...

46

Pesticide exposure - Indian scene  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. India started pesticide production with manufacturing plant for DDT and benzene hexachloride (BHC) (HCH) in the year 1952. In 1958, India was producing over 5000 metric tonnes of pesticides. Currently, there are approximately 145 pesticides registered for use, and production has increased to approximately 85,000 metric tonnes. Rampant use of these chemicals has given rise to several short-term and long-term adverse effects of these chemicals. The first report of poisoning due to pesticides in India came from Kerala in 1958 where, over 100 people died after consuming wheat flour contaminated with parathion. Subsequently several cases of pesticide-poisoning including the Bhopal disaster have been reported. Despite the fact that the consumption of pesticides in India is still very low, about 0.5 kg/ha of pesticides against 6.60 and 12.0 kg/ha in Korea and Japan, respectively, there has been a widespread contamination of food commodities with pesticide residues, basically due to non-judicious use of pesticides. In India, 51% of food commodities are contaminated with pesticide residues and out of these, 20% have pesticides residues above the maximum residue level values on a worldwide basis. It has been observed that their long-term, low-dose exposure are increasingly linked to human health effects such as immune-suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities, and cancer. In this light, problems of pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, use of biotechnology, and biopesticides, and use of pesticides obtained from natural plant sources such as neem extracts are some of the future strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides

2004-05-20

47

Safe Disposal of Pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

Safe Disposal of Pesticides Esta página Web está disponible en español The best way to dispose of small amounts of excess pesticides is ... 1-800-CLEANUP. State and local laws regarding pesticide disposal may be stricter than the Federal requirements ...

48

Pesticide National Synthesis Project  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pesticide National Synthesis Project homepage offers a number of publications and reports on pesticides in the Hydrologic System. The site also features data sets, national maps of pesticide use, and some special topic reports, as well as information on the Project and its staff.

49

Pesticides and children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Prevention and control of damage to health, crops, and property by insects, fungi, and noxious weeds are the major goals of pesticide applications. As with use of any biologically active agent, pesticides have unwanted side-effects. In this review, we will examine the thesis that adverse pesticide effects are more likely to occur in children who are at special developmental and behavioral risk. Children's exposures to pesticides in the rural and urban settings and differences in their exposure patterns are discussed. The relative frequency of pesticide poisoning in children is examined. In this connection, most reported acute pesticide poisonings occur in children younger than age 5. The possible epidemiological relationships between parental pesticide use or exposure and the risk of adverse reproductive outcomes and childhood cancer are discussed. The level of consensus among these studies is examined. Current concerns regarding neurobehavioral toxicity and endocrine disruption in juxtaposition to the relative paucity of toxicant mechanism-based studies of children are explored

2004-07-15

50

pesticides workshop presentation kevin odonnell  

...in the Safe Use of Pesticides Kevin O’Donnell CAFRE • Greenmount...Campus • Enniskillen Campus Industry Training Pesticides Training Safe Use of Pesticides – PA1, PA2a Storage of Pesticides - NSK Sale or Supply of...NSK Sale or Supply of Pesticides – BASIS Cert. PA1 – Foundation Unit...

51

Pesticides: chemicals for survival  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pesticides are chemicals used to control pests such as insects, weeds, plant diseases, nematodes, and rodents. The increased use of pesticides since 1945 has greatly aided the increase in crop production, protected livestock from diseases such as trypanosomiasis, protected man from diseases such as malaria and filarisis, decreased losses of stored grain, and has generally improved man's welfare. Despite the enormous benefits derived from pesticides these chemicals are not problem-free. Many pesticides are toxic to living organisms and interfere with specific biochemical systems. To measure the very small quantities of a pesticide radiolabelled chemicals are frequently essential, particularly to measure changes in the chemical structure of the pesticide, movement of the pesticide in soil, plants, or animals, amounts of pesticide going through various steps in food processing, etc. The use of radiolabelled pesticides is briefly shown for metabolism of the pesticide in crop species, metabolism in ruminant, in chickens and eggs, in soil, and possibly leaching and sorption in soil, hydrolysis, bio-concentration, microbial and photodegradation, and toxicity studies.

Lindquist, D.A. (Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development, Vienna (Austria))

1981-09-01

52

Application of liquid chromatography with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry to the determination of a new generation of pesticides in processed fruits and vegetables.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a method for the sensitive and selective determination of 24 new pesticide residues (azoxystrobin, trifloxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl, fenazaquin, indoxacarb, fenothiocarb, furathiocarb, benfuracarb, imidachloprid, dimethomorph, fenpyroximate, hexythiazox, tebufenpyrad, tebufenozide, difeconazole, fenbuconazole, flusilazole, paclobutrazol, tebuconazole, tetraconazole, bromuconazole, etofenprox, fenhexamid, pyridaben) in apple puree, concentrated lemon juice and tomato puree. A miniaturized extraction-partition procedure requiring small amounts of non-chlorinated solvents was used. The extracts are analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) without any further clean-up step. The pesticides are separated on a reversed-phase polar column using a gradient elution. Fifty-five simultaneous MS-MS transitions of precursor ions were monitored (two or three for each pesticide). Studies at fortification levels of 0.001-0.020 and 0.010-0.200 mg/kg gave mean recoveries ranging from 76 to 106% for all compounds, except for imidacloprid, with (R.S.D.s) < or = 15%. The excellent sensitivity and selectivity of LC-MS-MS method allowed quantitation and identification at low levels also in difficult matrices with a run time of 20 min. With the developed method almost 100 samples of commercial fruit products (nectars, juices, purees) were analyzed. None of samples contained residues higher than 0.010 mg/kg. PMID:15146917

Sannino, Anna; Bolzoni, Luciana; Bandini, Mirella

2004-05-21

53

Validation and global uncertainty of a liquid chromatographic with diode array detection method for the screening of azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl, trifloxystrobin, famoxadone, pyraclostrobin and fenamidone in grapes and wine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl, trifloxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, famoxadone and fenamidone are permitted Q(o) Inhibitor (Q(o)I) fungicides applied to vine in some European countries for the treatment of downy and powdery mildews. In this work, a method is validated for the analysis of these fungicides in grapes and wine. This screening method consists in a simple one step liquid-liquid extraction followed by liquid chromatography (LC) fitted with a diode array detector (DAD). Limits of detection for grapes and wine were below 0.2 mg kg(-1) or mg l(-1), precision was not above 13%, and recoveries were, on average, 95+/-5% for grapes and 104+/-6% for wine. Global uncertainties evaluated in the concentration range from 0.25 to 2.50 mg l(-1) were below 20%. A confirmatory method by gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometry (MS) detection was used. PMID:17723536

de Melo Abreu, Susana; Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo; Garau, Vincenzo Luigi; Alves, Arminda

2006-07-28

54

Screening Pesticides for Neuropathogenicity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pesticides are routinely screened in studies that follow specific guidelines for possible neuropathogenicity in laboratory animals. These tests will detect chemicals that are by themselves strong inducers of neuropathogenesis if the tested strain is susceptible relative to the time of administration and methodology of assessment. Organophosphate induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) is the only known human neurodegenerative disease associated with pesticides and the existing...

Doherty, John D.

2006-01-01

55

77 FR 38285 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pesticide Products; Registration...register pesticide products containing...the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide...77042-2823. Product name: SeaCide...Biochemical insecticide/miticide...protection, Pesticides and...

2012-06-27

56

75 FR 4383 - Pesticide Products: Registration Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pesticide Products: Registration...register pesticide products containing...the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide...92507. Product name: SPLAT...ingredients: Insecticide and (Z...protection, Pesticides and...

2010-01-27

57

77 FR 58045 - Clopyralid; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...residential handlers and short-term...epa.gov/pesticides/trac/science...available in The Pesticide Analytical...standards and agricultural practices...procedure, Agricultural commodities, Pesticides and...

2012-09-19

58

78 FR 33731 - Propamocarb; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...residential handler exposures...epa.gov/pesticides/trac/science...found in the Pesticide Analytical Method...standards and agricultural practices...procedure, Agricultural commodities, Pesticides and...

2013-06-05

59

Health effects of pesticides  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tea industry is one of the most important agro-industry of the country. Wide scale use of pesticides in tea cultivation to protect the crops from insect and fungus has led to buildup of their residues in several parts of tea plant, and around the area. Some of the pesticides are toxic and injurious to health and affect the environment. In India, a large member of pesticides have been registered for use in tea cultivation. But only few are being used currently and for which maximum residue lev...

Seth, P. K.

2003-01-01

60

Introduction to Indoor Air Quality: Pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

... Pesticides An Introduction to Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Pesticides Basic Information on Pollutants and Sources of Indoor ... Pest Control and Pesticide Safety (PDF) . Sources of Pesticides Products used to kill household pests (insecticides, termiticides, ...

 
 
 
 
61

Metolachlor: Pesticide Registration Standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

A comprehensive statement of the Agency's regulatory position on all pesticide products containing the same active ingredient. The document, which discusses metolachlor, describes the data upon which the regulatory position is based, provides the rational...

1980-01-01

62

Pesticide-Exposure Matrix  

Science.gov (United States)

The "Pesticide-exposure Matrix" was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years.

63

Farmers and Pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

Modern pesticides have helped make farming far more productive. But they've also caused countless accidental poisonings. Now, a new study suggests that even the routine use of pesticides can pose serious health risks in the long run.This Science Update also contains in text format details of the research, which leads to these findings presented in the Science Update podcast. It also offers links to the other podcasts topics and resources for further inquiry.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2006-05-23

64

Modelling leaching of pesticides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Denmark 99% of the drinking water is derived from groundwater. This implies that efforts towards improved groundwater protection has high priority among the Danish authorities. Recent findings of pesticides in drinking water supply wells, in streams and in shallow groundwater have set focus on the methods and assumptions used for pesticide registration by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. In particular, the appearance of phenoxy acids in many well boreholes from a few meters up to 80 meters below the soil surface, and in the aquifers below thick moraine clay layers has cast doubt on the applicability of the registration procedure. Very little is known about the rate of degradation occurring in the deeper saturated zone, though it is expected to be negligible for most pesticides due to the anoxic conditions present in this area. Another aspect influencing the risk of pesticide leaching is the time varying interactions between the pesticide properties and the hydrological conditions. Pesticides possessing a combination of properties which is expected to minimize the risk of leaching under conditions characteristic for spring application, may perform totally different if applied during the autumn. (EG) (36 refs.)

Villholth, K. [Water quality Inst., ATV (Denmark); Styczen, M.; Thorsen, M. [Danish Hydralic Inst., ATV (Denmark)

1995-07-01

65

Pesticide Fact Sheet: Canola Oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after Registration of a new chemical.

1998-01-01

66

Pesticide exposure--Indian scene.  

Science.gov (United States)

Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. India started pesticide production with manufacturing plant for DDT and benzene hexachloride (BHC) (HCH) in the year 1952. In 1958, India was producing over 5000 metric tonnes of pesticides. Currently, there are approximately 145 pesticides registered for use, and production has increased to approximately 85,000 metric tonnes. Rampant use of these chemicals has given rise to several short-term and long-term adverse effects of these chemicals. The first report of poisoning due to pesticides in India came from Kerala in 1958 where, over 100 people died after consuming wheat flour contaminated with parathion. Subsequently several cases of pesticide-poisoning including the Bhopal disaster have been reported. Despite the fact that the consumption of pesticides in India is still very low, about 0.5 kg/ha of pesticides against 6.60 and 12.0 kg/ha in Korea and Japan, respectively, there has been a widespread contamination of food commodities with pesticide residues, basically due to non-judicious use of pesticides. In India, 51% of food commodities are contaminated with pesticide residues and out of these, 20% have pesticides residues above the maximum residue level values on a worldwide basis. It has been observed that their long-term, low-dose exposure are increasingly linked to human health effects such as immune-suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities, and cancer. In this light, problems of pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, use of biotechnology, and biopesticides, and use of pesticides obtained from natural plant sources such as neem extracts are some of the future strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides. PMID:15138033

Gupta, P K

2004-05-20

67

On the paradox of pesticides  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paradox of pesticides was observed experimentally, which says that pesticides may dramatically increase the population of a pest when the pest has a natural predator. Here we use a mathematical model to study the paradox. We find that the timing for the application of pesticides is crucial for the resurgence or non-resurgence of the pests. In particular, regularly applying pesticides is not a good idea as also observed in experiments. In fact, the best time to apply pest...

Li, Y. Charles; Yang, Yipeng

2013-01-01

68

Desenvolvimento de métodos analíticos para determinação de agrotóxicos em sedimentos por cromatografia gasosa monodimensional e bidimensional abrangente com micro detector de captura de elétrons Development of analytical methods for pesticides in sediments by monodimensional and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro electron-capture detection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of analytical methods for determination of eight pesticides of different chemical classes (trichlorfon, propanil, fipronil, propiconazole, trifloxystrobin, permethrin, difenoconazole and azoxystrobin in sediments with gas chromatography-micro-electron capture detector (GC/µECD and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detector (GCxGC/µECD is described. These methods were applied to real sediment samples, and the best results were obtained using a 5% diphenyl-methylpolysiloxane column for 1D-GC. For GCxGC the same column was employed in the first dimension and a 50%-phenyl-methylpolysiloxane stationary phase was placed in the second dimension. Due to the superior peak capacity and selectivity of GCxGC, interfering matrix peaks were separated from analytes, showing a better performance of GCxGC.

Juliana Macedo da Silva

2010-01-01

69

Desenvolvimento de métodos analíticos para determinação de agrotóxicos em sedimentos por cromatografia gasosa monodimensional e bidimensional abrangente com micro detector de captura de elétrons / Development of analytical methods for pesticides in sediments by monodimensional and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro electron-capture detection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in english The development of analytical methods for determination of eight pesticides of different chemical classes (trichlorfon, propanil, fipronil, propiconazole, trifloxystrobin, permethrin, difenoconazole and azoxystrobin) in sediments with gas chromatography-micro-electron capture detector (GC/µECD) and [...] comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detector (GCxGC/µECD) is described. These methods were applied to real sediment samples, and the best results were obtained using a 5% diphenyl-methylpolysiloxane column for 1D-GC. For GCxGC the same column was employed in the first dimension and a 50%-phenyl-methylpolysiloxane stationary phase was placed in the second dimension. Due to the superior peak capacity and selectivity of GCxGC, interfering matrix peaks were separated from analytes, showing a better performance of GCxGC.

Silva, Juliana Macedo da; Zini, Cláudia Alcaraz; Caramão, Elina Bastos; Canizares, Ewelin Monica Paturi Navarro; Leal, Karen Alam.

70

Decontaminating pesticide protective clothing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The review of recent work on the mechanisms of soil removal from textiles assists in understanding decontamination of pesticide protective clothing. The current work provides explanatory conclusions about residue retention as a basis of making recommendations for the most effective decontamination procedures. A caution about generalizations: Some pesticides produce very idiosyncratic responses to decontamination. An example is the paraquat/salt response. Other pesticides exhibit noticeable and unique responses to a highly alkaline medium (carbaryl), or to bleach (chlorpyrifos), or are quickly volatilized (methyl parathion). Responses such as these do not apply to other pesticides undergoing decontamination. Given this caution, there are soil, substrate, and solvent responses that do maximize residue removal. Residue removal is less complete as the concentration of pesticide increases. The concentration of pesticide in fabric builds with successive exposures, and the more concentrated the pesticide, the more difficult the removal. Use a prewash product and/or presoak. The surfactant and/or solvent in a prewash product is a booster in residue removal. Residues transfer from contaminated clothing to other clothing during the washing cycle. Use a full washer of water for a limited number of garments to increase residue removal. The hotter the washing temperature, the better. Generally, this means a water temperature of at least 49 degrees C, and preferably 60 degrees C. Select the detergent shown to be more effective for the formulation: heavy-duty liquid detergents for emulsifiable concentrate formulations and powdered phosphate detergents for wettable powder formulations. If the fabric has a soil-repellent finish, use 1.25 times the amount recommended on the detergent label. For water hardness above 300 ppm, an additional amount of powdered phosphate detergent is needed to obtain the same level of residue removal as obtained with the heavy-duty liquid detergent when laundering fabrics with the soil-repellent finish. The mechanical action of agitation increases dislodgement of particulate material. Too many items in the washing apparatus or too low water volume, or both, decrease agitation and soil removal. Bleach can be used if desired. Fabric softener does not affect pesticide absorption or residue removal in laundering. Dry cleaning is not recommended because the solvents used in dry cleaning may be recycled through dilution, filtration, activated charcoal adsorption, or distillation. Pesticides still may be present in recycled solvents and can be transferred from one item to another, or from one load to subsequent loads of dry cleaning. PMID:8419989

Laughlin, J

1993-01-01

71

Transporte de agrotóxicos em lavoura de arroz irrigado sob três manejos de irrigação / Pesticide transport in rice field under three irrigation managements  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O cultivo de arroz irrigado no Rio Grande do Sul caracteriza-se pela permanência de lâmina de irrigação sobre o solo, o que ocasiona perdas de agrotóxicos na ocorrência de chuvas; portanto, o adequado manejo de irrigação pode influenciar na redução do transporte destes para o ambiente. O objetivo de [...] ste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes manejos de irrigação no extravasamento da água e no transporte e persistência de clomazone, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, trifloxystrobin e propiconazol em lavoura de arroz irrigado. Os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial consistiram nos manejos de irrigação por inundação contínua, intermitente e por banhos (fator A) e pelos agrotóxicos mencionados (fator B). Determinou-se o volume total de água extravasada e a taxa de dissipação e transporte desses agrotóxicos. Devido ao maior armazenamento de água da chuva, quando comparadas com a irrigação contínua, as irrigações intermitente e por banhos proporcionaram diminuição de 53 e 95% do volume de água perdida, resultando, respectivamente, em redução de 49 e 64% na massa total de agrotóxicos transportados para o ambiente, em relação ao total aplicado na lavoura. A massa de agrotóxico transportada não ultrapassou 3% do total aplicado, e as maiores concentrações de agrotóxicos em água ocorreram próximo à sua aplicação. Com base nesses resultados, salienta-se que os manejos de irrigação intermitente e por banhos minimizam o transporte de agrotóxicos para o ambiente. Abstract in english Rice crop in the state of Rio Grande do Sul is characterized by the presence of water layer on the soil, which can cause pesticide runoff during the occurrence of rainfall. Thus, proper irrigation management can reduce pesticide transport into the environment. The objective of this study was to eval [...] uate the effect of different irrigation managements on water runoff, transport and dissipation of clomazone, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, trifloxystrobin, and propiconazol. The treatments were arranged in a factorial scheme and consisted of continuous flooding, intermittent flooding, and flushing irrigation (factor A) and by the application of the pesticides listed above (factor B). Total water runoff, and pesticide transport and dissipation rate were evaluated. Due to the larger rainfall storage, compared with continuous flooding, intermittent flooding and flushing irrigation provided a reduction of 53 and 95% of water runoff, resulting, respectively, in a reduction of 49 and 64% of the total mass transported into the environment in relation to the total applied in the field. The pesticide mass transported was lower than 3% of the total amount applied. Based on these results, it could be concluded that intermittent flooding and flushing irrigation minimize pesticide transport into the environment.Since the highest pesticide concentrations occur close to application time, it is of fundamental importance to conduct proper irrigation management providing maximum permanence in the environment.

L.F.D., Martini; L.A., Avila; G.V., Cassol; R., Zanella; S.L.O., Machado; M.S., Marques; M., De Vicari.

72

Pesticide Action Network UK  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pesticide Action Network UK (PAN UK) is a nonprofit organization that "promotes healthy food, agriculture and an environment which will provide food and meet public health needs without dependence on toxic chemicals, and without harm to food producers and agricultural workers.ïÿý Through its website, PAN UK offers a number of downloadable publications including briefings; fact sheets for active ingredients like aldicarb, cypermethrin, methyl parathion, and paraquat; monthly gardening tips, and annual reviews. Site visitors can also search for pesticide-related images and numerous publication listings through the website's Photographic Database and Research Database. The site also contains pesticide-related news, press releases, and information about PAN UK activities in the United Kingdom, Europe, and around the world. Many related links are included as well in such categories as Conferences, Consumer Links, Databases & Resources, Integrated Pest Management, and more.

73

Reducing the impact of pesticides on biological control in Australian vineyards: pesticide mortality and fecundity effects on an indicator species, the predatory mite Euseius victoriensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Laboratory bioassays on detached soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., leaves were used to test 23 fungicides, five insecticides, two acaricides, one herbicide, and two adjuvants on a key Australian predatory mite species Euseius victoriensis (Womersley) in "worst-case scenario" direct overspray assays. Zero- to 48-h-old juveniles, their initial food, and water supply were sprayed to runoff with a Potter tower; spinosad and wettable sulfur residues also were tested. Tests were standardized to deliver a pesticide dose comparable with commercial application of highest label rates at 1,000 liter/ha. Cumulative mortality was assessed 48 h, 4 d, and 7 d after spraying. Fecundity was assessed for 7 d from start of oviposition. No significant mortality or fecundity effects were detected for the following compounds at single-use application at 1,000 liter/ha: azoxystrobin, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subsp. kurstaki, captan, chlorothalonil, copper hydroxide, fenarimol, glyphosate, hexaconazole, indoxacarb, metalaxyl/copper hydroxide, myclobutanil, nonyl phenol ethylene oxide, phosphorous acid, potassium bicarbonate, pyraclostrobin, quinoxyfen, spiroxamine, synthetic latex, tebufenozide, triadimenol, and trifloxystrobin. Iprodione and penconazole had some detrimental effect on fecundity. Canola oil as acaricide (2 liter/100 liter) and wettable sulfur (200 g/100 liter) had some detrimental effect on survival and fecundity and cyprodinil/fludioxonil on survivor. The following compounds were highly toxic (high 48-h mortality): benomyl, carbendazim, emamectin benzoate, mancozeb, spinosad (direct overspray and residue), wettable sulfur (> or = 400 g/100 liter), and pyrimethanil; pyrimethanil had no significant effect on fecundity of surviving females. Indoxacarb safety to E. victoriensis contrasts with its toxicity to key parasitoids and chrysopid predators. Potential impact of findings is discussed. PMID:21309226

Bernard, Martina B; Cole, Peter; Kobelt, Amanda; Horne, Paul A; Altmann, James; Wratten, Stephen D; Yen, Alan L

2010-12-01

74

Pesticides and Eggshell Thinning  

Science.gov (United States)

This lab activity is about toxic substances like pesticides and their effects on biological systems. The activity starts with an introduction of how birds sequester calcium to make an egg. Learners are asked to bring eggshells from home from different kinds of birds, if possible. These shells are prepared for analysis. Learners discover how to prepare a primary acid, neutralize a base, and calculate the percentage of CaCO3 in shell material. These results lead to a discussion of how calcium moves through this biochemical system and how a pesticide can prevent calcium from building eggshell. This resource includes tips, some related to safety; adult supervision recommended.

Tucker, David

2009-01-01

75

On the paradox of pesticides  

CERN Document Server

The paradox of pesticides was observed experimentally, which says that pesticides may dramatically increase the population of a pest when the pest has a natural predator. Here we use a mathematical model to study the paradox. We find that the timing for the application of pesticides is crucial for the resurgence or non-resurgence of the pests. In particular, regularly applying pesticides is not a good idea as also observed in experiments. In fact, the best time to apply pesticides is when the pest population is reasonably high.

Li, Y Charles

2013-01-01

76

Pesticides and Mosquito Control  

Science.gov (United States)

This factsheet from the Environmental Protection Agency includes several summary documents on the problem of mosquito-borne diseases and the pesticides used to control mosquitoes. The resources cover issues from mosquito biology through the EPA's recent findings on the negative health impacts of Malathion.

77

75 FR 11174 - Pesticide Product Registration Approval  

Science.gov (United States)

...FRL-8802-1] Pesticide Product Registration Approval...5) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and...registration for the pesticide product Gonacon Immunocontraceptive...to register the pesticide product, Gonacon...

2010-03-10

78

75 FR 8939 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

...register pesticide products containing an...previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to...the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide...register three new pesticide products containing the...acid derivative insecticide - under...

2010-02-26

79

77 FR 6560 - Pesticide Product Registration Approval  

Science.gov (United States)

...FRL-9334-8] Pesticide Product Registration Approval...to register the pesticide product Contram ST-1...previously registered products pursuant to the...of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and...Division, Office of Pesticide Programs,...

2012-02-08

80

Effects of Urbanization on Water Quality: Pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

... page The effects of urbanization on water quality: Pesticides Pesticides are chemical and biological substances intended to control pests, such as insects, weeds, bacteria, and algae. Pesticides are heavily used on farmland, but in urban ...

 
 
 
 
81

pesticides workshop presentation niea ray thomas  

...Pesticides – Every Drop Counts Ray Thomas...to act synergistically with other pesticides or environmental pollutants. • Throughout the...detected in combination with other pesticides and pollutants at the same...

82

78 FR 49932 - Emamectin; Pesticide Tolerance  

Science.gov (United States)

...exposure to the pesticide chemical residue, including all anticipated...children to the pesticide chemical residue in establishing a tolerance...exposure to the pesticide chemical residue . . . .'' Consistent with...mediated neurotoxicity is a solid hypothesis, data...

2013-08-16

83

78 FR 25396 - Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...htm. Based on the Pesticide Root Zone Model...glyphosate (residential handlers). However, since...www.epa.gov/pesticides/trac/science...practice and procedure, Agricultural commodities, Pesticides and pests,...

2013-05-01

84

78 FR 49927 - Imazapic; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue...potential for repeated handler inhalation exposure...of Concern Once a pesticide's toxicological...practice and procedure, Agricultural commodities, Pesticides and pests,...

2013-08-16

85

77 FR 40806 - Methoxyfenozide; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...action if you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. Potentially...ornamentals. Residential pesticide handlers may be exposed for...practice and procedure, Agricultural commodities, Pesticides and pests,...

2012-07-11

86

77 FR 67771 - Flonicamid; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...TFNG-AM. Based on the Pesticide Root Zone Model...Therefore, residential handler scenarios are not...www.epa.gov/pesticides/trac/science...practice and procedure, Agricultural commodities, Pesticides and pests,...

2012-11-14

87

77 FR 73951 - Pyriproxyfen; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...water models used in pesticide exposure assessment...short-term residential handler dermal and inhalation...www.epa.gov/pesticides/trac/science...practice and procedure, Agricultural commodities, Pesticides and pests,...

2012-12-12

88

75 FR 22245 - Imidacloprid; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...assumption that residential pesticide handlers (i.e., persons who...data in some cases and Pesticide Handler Exposure Database (PHED...practice and procedure, Agricultural commodities, Pesticides and pests, Reporting...

2010-04-28

89

Pesticide toxicosis in the horse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Toxicosis from pesticides rarely occurs in horses and is usually the result of inappropriate pesticide use or handling by humans. Organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides inhibit acetylcholinesterase and are the insecticide class most frequently associated with toxicosis in domestic animals. Metaldehyde is a molluscicide, and zinc phosphide is a rodenticide, both of which have caused toxicosis in horses. All three of these pesticides affect the nervous system of horses and can be fatal if not treated promptly. PMID:11780282

Plumlee, K H

2001-12-01

90

75 FR 69353 - Isoxaben; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...e., residential handler exposure). There is...in areas adjacent to pesticide applications. For residential handlers, dermal and inhalation...practice and procedure, Agricultural commodities, Pesticides and pests,...

2010-11-12

91

Radiation induced microbial pesticide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author)

Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Sang Jae

2000-01-01

92

Tracer work in pesticide research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Innumerable studies on the large number of pesticides being used throughout the world led to some adverse findings on the properties and behavior of these chemicals and their degradation products in revelation to potential toxicity and environmental pollution. However, it is also a fact (difficult to accept as it may) that the use of pesticides as an indirect means of increasing food production cannot yet be dispensed with despite the potential dangers attributed to it. What can be done is to insure its judicious application which means minimizing its effectiveness in controlling pest infestations. To be able to do this it is necessary to know not only what pesticide is to be used against a given pest but also the fate of pesticide after application to a particular environment under prevailing conditions. Knowledge of the distribution and persistence of the parent compounds under metabolites will also help either, to confirm or to dispel the alleged dangers posed by them. Radiotracer methodology is particularly effective for this type of work because it permits highly sensitive analysis with minimum clean-up and permits one to determine even the bound residues which defies ordinary extraction procedures. Some studies made are studies on fate of pesticides in plant after foliar application to plant needs, uptake and translocation of systemic pesticides, fate of pesticides in soil, bioaccumulation of pesticide by aquatic organisms, etc. This particular study is on distribution of pesticide among the components of a rice/fish ecosystem. This project aims to generate data from experiments conducted in a model ecosystem using radiolabelled lindane and carbo-furan. In both cases, results show a decline in extractable species from the recommended dosage of pesticide application although they tend to imbibe a considerable amount of pesticide. It is hoped that depuration in additional experiments will bring useful results. (Auth.)

1989-02-28

93

EPA Pesticide Fact Sheet: Propoxur.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after one of the following actions has occurred: Issuance...

1995-01-01

94

PESTICIDE REMOVAL BY MEMBRANE PROCESSES  

Science.gov (United States)

Approximately 21 billion pounds of pesticides have been applied to United States farmlands since 1964. n agricultural regions, high pesticide concentrations occur in surface and groundwaters because of spring runoff or leaching. ecause many of these compounds pose health risks, t...

95

Toxicity of pesticides to fish. Volume 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book is the first major attempt to review comprehensively all available information on the environmental fate of pesticides and their acute and chronic effects to fish. Topics considered include pesticides in the environment, pesticide residues in fish, uptake and depuration of pesticide residues by fish, and toxicity test and test methodology.

Murty, A.S.

1986-01-01

96

40 CFR 152.175 - Pesticides classified for restricted use.  

Science.gov (United States)

...PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.175 Pesticides classified for restricted... The following uses of pesticide products containing the active...phosphate and biological insecticides ......do...

2010-07-01

97

77 FR 26954 - 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...if you are an agricultural producer, food...manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer...residential handler assessment...chronic dietary pesticide exposures are...procedure, Agricultural commodities, Pesticides and...

2012-05-08

98

Environmental friendly slow-release pesticide formulations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present invention relates to a slow-release pesticide system in agragrian applications that includes but is not limited solely to insecticide, fungicide and herbicide formulations. The system includes a pesticide incorporated into vesicles that is formed by neutral lipids (thereby enhancing the water solubility of the pesticide). The vesicles that incorporate the pesticide are, in turn, adsorbed, on a clay mineral. The formulations are appropriate for pesticide molecules of any type (hydr...

Undabeytia Lo?pez, Toma?s; Maqueda Porras, Celia; Morillo Gonza?lez, Esmeralda; Sa?nchez Verdejo, Trinidad; Nir, Shlomo

2009-01-01

99

PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our objectives were to summarize literature on the association of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with pesticides as a group and to evaluate associations of ALS with specific pesticides. We conducted a meta-analysis of published studies of ALS and pesticides as a group and investigated the association of ALS with specific pesticides, using data from the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a cohort including 84,739 private pesticide applicators and spouses. AHS participants provided informati...

Kamel, Freya; Umbach, David M.; Bedlack, Richard S.; Richards, Marie; Watson, Mary; Alavanja, Michael Cr; Blair, Aaron; Hoppin, Jane A.; Schmidt, Silke; Sandler, Dale P.

2012-01-01

100

77 FR 23713 - Pesticides; Final Guidance on Material Safety Data Sheets as Pesticide Labeling; Request for...  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2012-0176; FRL-9343-9] Pesticides; Final Guidance on Material Safety Data Sheets as Pesticide Labeling; Request for Comment on Paperwork...Agency is announcing the availability of a Pesticide Registration Notice (PR Notice)...

2012-04-20

 
 
 
 
101

76 FR 72404 - Pesticides: Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Non-Dietary Exposure Task...  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0877; FRL-9326-8] Pesticides: Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Non-Dietary...The Agency is announcing the availability of a Pesticide Registration Notice (PR Notice) regarding...

2011-11-23

102

75 FR 62323 - Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Change to...  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2005-0327; FRL-8848-8] RIN 2070-AJ74 Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Change to Labeling...SUMMARY: EPA is amending the pesticide container and containment regulations...

2010-10-08

103

76 FR 21294 - Pesticides; Microbial Pesticide Definitions and Applicability; Clarification and Availability of...  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0670; FRL-8857-7] RIN 2070-AJ80 Pesticides; Microbial Pesticide Definitions and Applicability; Clarification...is also soliciting comment on a draft microbial pesticide test guideline, explaining the deposition...

2011-04-15

104

75 FR 33705 - Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Change to...  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2005-0327; FRL-8830-7] RIN 2070-AJ74 Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Change to Labeling...SUMMARY: EPA is amending the pesticide container and containment regulations...

2010-06-15

105

Pesticide use and application: An Indian scenario  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Agricultural development continues to remain the most important objective of Indian planning and policy. In the process of development of agriculture, pesticides have become an important tool as a plant protection agent for boosting food production. Further, pesticides play a significant role by keeping many dreadful diseases. However, exposure to pesticides both occupationally and environmentally causes a range of human health problems. It has been observed that the pesticides exposures are increasingly linked to immune suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities and cancer. Currently, India is the largest producer of pesticides in Asia and ranks twelfth in the world for the use of pesticides. A vast majority of the population in India is engaged in agriculture and is therefore exposed to the pesticides used in agriculture. Although Indian average consumption of pesticide is far lower than many other developed economies, the problem of pesticide residue is very high in India. Pesticide residue in several crops has also affected the export of agricultural commodities in the last few years. In this context, pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, proper application technologies, and integrated pest management are some of the key strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides. There is a dearth of studies related to these issues in India. Therefore, the thrust of this paper was to review the technology of application of pesticides in India and recommend future strategies for the rational use of pesticides and minimizing the problems related to health and environment.

Abhilash, P.C., E-mail: pcabhilash@gmail.com [Eco-Auditing Group, National Botanical Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh (India); Singh, Nandita, E-mail: nanditasingh8@yahoo.co.in [Eco-Auditing Group, National Botanical Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh (India)

2009-06-15

106

Acute pesticide poisoning and pesticide registration in Central America  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has been for 20 years the most acknowledged international initiative for reducing negative impact from pesticide use in developing countries. We analyzed pesticide use and poisoning in Central America, particularly in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, and evaluated whether registration decisions are based on such data, in accordance with the FAO Code. Extensive use of very hazardous pesticides continues in Central America and so do poisonings with organophosphates, carbamates, endosulfan and paraquat as the main causative agents. Central American governments do not carry out or commission scientific risk assessments. Instead, guidelines from international agencies are followed for risk management through the registration process. Documentation of pesticide poisonings during several decades never induced any decision to ban or restrict a pesticide. However, based on the official surveillance systems, in 2000, the ministers of health of the seven Central American countries agreed to ban or restrict twelve of these pesticides. Now, almost 4 years later, restrictions have been implemented in El Salvador and in Nicaragua public debate is ongoing. Chemical and agricultural industries do not withdraw problematic pesticides voluntarily. In conclusion, the registration processes in Central America do not comply satisfactorily with the FAO Code. However, international regulatory guidelines are important in developing countries, and international agencies should strongly extend its scope and influence, limiting industry involvement. Profound changes in international and national agricultural policies, steering towards sustainable agriculture based on non-chemical pest management, are the only way to reduce poisonings

2005-09-01

107

Evidence for genotoxicity of pesticides in pesticide applicators: a review.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A systematic review of the literature has been conducted and studies reporting investigations of genotoxicity biomarkers in pesticide workers have been assessed with view to establishing whether there was evidence for any risk to those using pesticides approved in the United Kingdom. Each of the studies was evaluated using a set of criteria drawn up by members of the UK Committee of Mutagenicity based upon the guidelines proposed by the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) workin...

Bull, S.; Fletcher, K.; Boobis, A. R.; Battershill, J. M.

2006-01-01

108

Multiresidue determination of pesticides and pesticide metabolites in soil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methods for the multiresidue extraction, cleanup and GC/MS determination of 142 pesticides and pesticide metabolites in soil have been developed. The use of solid phase extraction cartridges makes it possible to clean up the soil sufficiently so that the equivalent of 40 mg. soil may be injected onto the GC capillary column without overloading or harming the column. Combining this clean-up method with chemical ionization ion trap detection allowed for very low limits of detection.

Mogadati, P.S.; Rosen, J.D. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

1995-12-31

109

Pesticide formulations and application systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book discusses pesticide formulations; spraying techniques and/or low and ultra low volume applications employing oil carriers, including subsurface drip irrigation and plant growth regulators; and granule technology.

Kaneko; Spicer

1985-01-01

110

Radiation induced pesticidal microbes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants

2001-01-01

111

Radiation induced pesticidal microbes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants.

Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, D. S

2001-01-01

112

Kombinationseffekter af pesticider  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Resumé: Effekten af 101 tokomponentblandinger og 20 trekomponentblandinger bestående af 22 forskellige pesticider blev undersøgt i 7 forskellige testsystemer. Effekterne af blandingerne blev sammenholdt med pesticidernes virkningsmekanismer/virkemåder med henblik på at undersøge, om det med baggrund i denne viden var muligt prediktere, hvorvidt blandingerne ville udvise additivitet, antagonisme eller synergisme. Endvidere blev undersøgt i hvor vid udstrækning resultaterne fra et testsystem kunne overføres til andre testsystemer. Hovedparten af blandingerne virkede additivt, og der blev generelt fundet en god overensstemmelse imellem terrestriske og akvatiske planter samt Microtox testen og dafnier.

Kudsk, Per; Andersen, Helle Raun

2006-01-01

113

Bulk pesticide storage - state perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

State bulk pesticide storage regulations continue to evolve differentially due, in large part, to the absence of federal regulations. This is about to change because of the pending promulgation of 40 CFR Part 165, as amended in 1988 by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules regarding storage, handling and disposal. Until final adoption of the rules by EPA, states continue to address bulk pesticide storage and handling according to individual state statute, rules and guidelines.

Buzicky, G.

1994-12-31

114

The precautionary principle and pesticides  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In 1998, Greenpeace, Natuur en Milieu(Nature and Environment), Milieudefensie(Environmental Defense), and the National ConsumersUnion presented a report about the possible risks andhazards associated with pesticide residues on fruitsand vegetables. Although these organizationsexplicitly denied having unassailable evidence on theharmful effects of pesticides, they claimed that bynow there are sufficient indications that pesticidesmay indeed lead to such health hazards. They used anappeal to th...

Gremmen, H. G. J.; Belt, H.

2000-01-01

115

Pesticides' influence on wine fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wine quality strongly depends on the grape quality. To obtain high-quality wines, it is necessary to process healthy grapes at the correct ripeness stage and for this reason the farmer has to be especially careful in the prevention of parasite attacks on the grapevine. The most common fungal diseases affecting grape quality are downy and powdery mildew (Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator), and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea). On the other hand, the most dangerous insects are the grape moth (Lobesia botrana), vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus), and the citrus mealybug (Planococcus citri). Farmers fight grape diseases and insects applying pesticides that can be found at harvest time on grapes. The persistence of pesticides depends on the chemical characteristic of the active ingredients as well as on photodegradation, thermodegradation, codistillation, and enzymatic degradation. The pesticide residues on grapes can be transferred to the must and this can influence the selection and development of yeast strains. Moreover, yeasts can also influence the levels of the pesticides in the wine by reducing or adsorbing them on lees. During the fermentative process, yeasts can cause the disappearance of pesticide residues by degradation or absorption at the end of the fermentation when yeasts are deposited as lees. In this chapter, we reviewed the effect of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides on yeasts. We also studied the effect of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation on pesticide residues. PMID:20610173

Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo

2010-01-01

116

76 FR 17644 - Pesticide Product; Registration Application  

Science.gov (United States)

...an application to register a pesticide product containing active ingredients...in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions...3(c)(4) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and...

2011-03-30

117

76 FR 17645 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-1021; FRL-8866-7] Pesticide Products; Registration Applications...an application to register a pesticide product containing the active ingredient...3(c)(4) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and...

2011-03-30

118

75 FR 24694 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

...received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient...in any previously registered pesticide product. Pursuant to the provisions...3(c)(4) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and...

2010-05-05

119

75 FR 19388 - Pesticide Product; Registration Application  

Science.gov (United States)

...an application to register a pesticide product containing an active ingredient...in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions...3(c)(4) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and...

2010-04-14

120

75 FR 80490 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

...received applications to register pesticide products containing active ingredients...in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions...c)(4) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and...

2010-12-22

 
 
 
 
121

76 FR 63298 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

...received applications to register pesticide products containing active ingredients...in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions...c)(4) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and...

2011-10-12

122

75 FR 56105 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0008; FRL-8843-5] Pesticide Products; Registration Applications...applications to register new uses for pesticide products containing currently registered...section 3(c) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and...

2010-09-15

123

75 FR 26754 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

...received applications to register pesticide products containing active ingredients...in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions...c)(4) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and...

2010-05-12

124

Indicator DA4: Pesticides in water  

Pesticides are of concern because of their unacceptability in drinking water, but \\certain pesticides such as pyrethroid insecticides, can have devastating effects \\on ... depending on the crops grown, choice of product used and weather \\patterns.

125

75 FR 3235 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0917; FRL-8805-7] Pesticide Products; Registration Applications...of applications to register pesticide products containing new active ingredients...c)(4) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and...

2010-01-20

126

76 FR 38160 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

...received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient...in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions...c)(4) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and...

2011-06-29

127

77 FR 14362 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2012-0101; FRL-9337-8] Pesticide Products; Registration Applications...of applications to register pesticide products containing new active ingredients...c)(4) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and...

2012-03-09

128

Human and environmental risks of obsolete pesticides  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pesticides have been used worldwide in agriculture to fight pests, to increase output, and control tropical diseases. But when pesticides can no longer be used for their intended purpose (for instance, due to deterioration or age) they become obsolete.

?????????, ???????? ?????????????; ?????????, ???????? ?????????????; Nazemtseva, Yaroslava Oleksandrivna

2013-01-01

129

76 FR 59908 - Chlorantraniliprole; Pesticide Tolerances; Correction  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0888; FRL-8888-3] Chlorantraniliprole; Pesticide Tolerances; Correction...pesticide tolerances for residues of chlorantraniliprole in or on multiple commodities...follows: Sec. [emsp14]180.628 Chlorantraniliprole; tolerances for residues....

2011-09-28

130

77 FR 58493 - Flumioxazin; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...assumption that homeowner handlers wear shorts, short-sleeved...with the use of a pesticide product including...application. Residential handler exposure scenarios...practice and procedure, Agricultural commodities, Pesticides and pests,...

2012-09-21

131

78 FR 3328 - Fluroxypyr; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...assessed for residential handlers of fluroxypyr. The...assessed for residential handlers: Loading and applying...www.epa.gov/pesticides/trac/science...practice and procedure, Agricultural commodities, Pesticides and pests,...

2013-01-16

132

78 FR 20461 - Flumioxazin; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...assumption that homeowner handlers wear shorts, short-sleeved...with the use of a pesticide product including...application. Residential handler exposure scenarios...practice and procedure, Agricultural commodities, Pesticides and pests,...

2013-04-05

133

76 FR 18899 - Indaziflam; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...protective of adult handlers. MOEs calculated for residential handlers ranged from 3,000...performed for a food-use pesticide, if a toxicological...practice and procedure, Agricultural commodities, Pesticides and pests,...

2011-04-06

134

77 FR 64911 - Fluoxastrobin; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...assumptions: Residential handler exposure for adults...the residential handler assessment only includes...www.epa.gov/pesticides/science/residential-exposure-sop...practice and procedure, Agricultural commodities, Pesticides and pests,...

2012-10-24

135

77 FR 52240 - Pendimethalin; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...assumptions: For handlers, it is assumed that...exposures. Residential handlers are assumed to be...www.epa.gov/pesticides/trac/science...practice and procedure, Agricultural commodities, Pesticides and pests,...

2012-08-29

136

Nuclear applications for pesticide residue studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiotracer techniques offer a powerful tool in understanding the fate of pesticides in soil, plant or food and can be utilised to take suitable corrective procedures to minimise the environmental effects of pesticides. 9 refs

1994-03-01

137

Pesticide risks around the home (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticides are substances which kill or deter unwanted pests, such as insects or rodents. These substances can ... avoid an accidental ingestion is to keep all pesticides out of the reach of children.

138

Pesticides in South African fresh waters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Public concern has recently escalated over pesticide contamination of South African aquatic ecosystems. This review of published literature on the occurrence of pesticides within South African freshwater systems indicates that fewer than 50 studies of selected pesticides have been undertaken, with emphasis being on organochlorines. Extensive historical usage has led to the widespread persistence of selected organochlorines. Few studies have established linkages between pesticides, exposure pa...

2012-01-01

139

Pesticide regulations and farm worker safety: the need to improve pesticide regulations in Viet Nam  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Agricultural pesticide use in Viet Nam has more than tripled since 1990. However, pesticide legislation and regulations have not been developed in response to this large increase in usage, as a result of which pesticides pose a serious threat to human health and the environment. This paper identifies the need to improve pesticide regulations in Viet Nam through a comparative analysis of pesticide regulations in Viet Nam and the United States of America, where the rate of acute poisoning am...

Phung, Dung Tri; Connell, Des; Miller, Greg; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

2012-01-01

140

Interactions between algae (Selenastrum capricornutum) and pesticides: implications for managing constructed wetlands for pesticide removal.  

Science.gov (United States)

This laboratory study examined the interactions between an algal species found in wetlands (Selenastrum capricornutum) and two agricultural pesticides (atrazine and lindane). Pesticide additions had a positive effect on the chlorophyll a concentrations of the treatments. The presence of algae decreased the aqueous persistence of both pesticides. It is speculated that the algae either provided sites for pesticide sorption or facilitated pesticide degradation. PMID:12617553

Friesen-Pankratz, Bruce; Doebel, Cecilia; Farenhorst, Annemieke; Goldsborough, L Gordon

2003-03-01

 
 
 
 
141

[EMS for pesticide disposal.doc  

…for Discharge of Pesticide Washings. Site Name: Permit number: Required Records Discharge Date Discharge Date Disposal Date Disposal Date Licensed brand name or chemical composition of pesticide Volume of working strength pesticide to be treated Spreading equipment used What are you using to dilute the…

142

Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 103: cadmium pesticide compounds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after one of the following actions has occurred. (1) Issuance or reissuance of a registration standard, (2) Issuance of each special review document, (3) Registration of a significantly changed use pattern, (4) Registration of a new chemical, or (5) An immediate need for information to resolve controversial issues relating to a specific chemical or use pattern.

1986-09-01

143

Pesticide use in Kentucky reservoir watershed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes information on the types, uses, and amounts of pesticides applied to Kentucky Reservoir and its immediate watershed. Estimates for the quantities and types of the various pesticides used are based primarily on the land uses in the watershed. A listing of commonly used pesticides is included describing their uses, mode of action, and potential toxicological effects. This report will inform the the public and the Kentucky Reservoir Water Resources Task Force of the general extent of pesticide usage and is not an assessment of pesticide impacts. 10 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

Butkus, S.R.

1988-06-01

144

Pesticide loading and rinsate recycling facility guide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This guide has been prepared by staff of the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) and the Minnesota Department of Agriculture (MDA) to complement the consultant`s Pesticide Rinsate Facility Report and generic engineering plans. This guide informs pesticide applicators of the regulatory aspects of the Pesticide Rinsate Facility Report. Guidance are recommended procedures contained in this Guide are not law or rules at this time, but may be in the future. To clarify what is recommendation and what is present law or rule, a table in Appendix 4 lists topics addressed in this guide and a distinction between what is recommended and what is required. Both the guide and the consultant`s report and plans are meant to provide pesticide applicators with the basis for developing pesticide loading, rinsate, and washwater management plan for your business locations. Staff of the MDA and the MCPA are concerned with the improper management of pesticides and pesticide related wastes.

NONE

1988-06-20

145

Pesticides, People, and the Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

If a teacher were to ask his/her students what they do when they find ants or other insects in their homes, their most common response would probably be, "Get the bug spray!" Because students are not only being exposed to pesticides but are also developing patterns of behavior likely to continue throughout their lives. Discussions about…

Miller, Roxanne Greitz

2005-01-01

146

ABIOTIC HYDROLYSIS OF SORBED PESTICIDES  

Science.gov (United States)

The hydrolysis of pesticides that are sorbed to sterilized natural sediments has been investigated in aqueous systems at acid, neutral and alkaline pH's. The results show that the rate constants of pH independent ('neutral') hydrolyses are the same within experimental uncertainti...

147

Patterns of pesticide use and their determinants among wives of farmer pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticide exposure among farmers' wives is poorly characterized. Using questionnaire data from a cohort study of licensed pesticide applicators and their spouses, we investigated patterns of pesticide use among farmers' wives (n = 31,173). Wives reported a wide range of pesticide use: 36% never used pesticides during their lifetimes, whereas the heaviest pesticide users (10%) reported lifetime use of 3 or more agricultural pesticides plus commonly used residential pesticides. We identified 5 ordinal pesticide-use categories and studied factors associated with each category through polytomous logistic regression. Engaging in field work and household hygiene practices that could increase exposure were associated with pesticide use, and associations appeared to strengthen with increasing pesticide use category. Farm women reporting the heaviest pesticide use could exacerbate their exposure by engaging in practices that could increase pesticide contact. PMID:15300138

Kirrane, Ellen F; Hoppin, Jane A; Umbach, David M; Samanic, Claudine; Sandler, Dale P

2004-08-01

148

Pesticides and their effects on wildlife  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

About 560 active ingredients are currently used as pesticides. Applications of these pesticides are made to agricultural lands and other areas inhabited by wildlife. Unfortunately, many agricultural-use pesticides also entail some measure of risk to organisms other than the pest species. Because testing of pesticides prior to registration cannot evaluate all the potential environmental-pesticide-wildlife/fish interactions, current methods of risk assessment do not always provide sufficient safety to nontarget organisms. This is evidenced by die-offs of fish and wildlife from applications of pesticides at environmentally {open_quotes}safe{close_quotes} rates, the linking of population declines of some species with agrochemical use, and observations of survival-threatening behavioral changes in laboratory and field animals exposed to typical field levels of pesticides. It is important to note, however, that the majority of pesticides, when properly applied, have not caused significant injury to wildlife. A brief summary of pesticide effects on wildlife and fish are presented for the common classes of pesticides in use today.

Driver, C.J.

1994-07-01

149

The use and disposal of household pesticides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most pesticides are synthetic chemicals manufactured specifically for their toxic properties to the target species, and widely used globally. Several epidemiological studies in the United States have suggested health concerns arising from the chronic exposure of young children to pesticides in the domestic environment. In the UK very little is currently known about how nonoccupational pesticides are being used or disposed of. Any use of pesticides is a potential risk factor for children's exposure, and any potential exposure is likely to be reduced by the parents' adopting precautionary behaviour when using these pesticide products. This was investigated using a sample of 147 parents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort in and around Bristol, through an in-depth interview between August and November 2001. The results of this study add to the understanding of the underlying behaviour of parents applying pesticide products in the home environment in the UK. Pesticides are readily available, and are normally purchased in do-it-yourself shops and supermarkets and mostly disposed of in domestic waste. Safety was stated by 45% of parents to be the most important factor to consider when buying a pesticide. When buying pesticide products, labels were stated to be the most important source of information about pesticides. However, a third of parents stated they would not follow the product label exactly when using a product, just under half felt labels were both inadequate and hard to understand, and about 10% of parents would not take notice of warnings on the pesticide label. Less than half of parents would use gloves when applying a pesticide, although the use of protective equipment such as gloves during the application of pesticides could greatly reduce the exposure. It is a public health concern that the instructions on the labels of products may not always be understood or followed, and further understanding of user behaviour is needed

2005-01-01

150

76 FR 551 - Pesticide Product Registrations; Conditional Approval  

Science.gov (United States)

...register the pesticide products Spirotetramat...8330 150 OD Insecticide, Ultor...register the pesticide products, Spirotetramat...8330 150 OD Insecticide, Ultor...register the pesticide products, Spirotetramat...8330 150 OD Insecticide,...

2011-01-05

151

75 FR 35805 - Pesticide Product Registrations; Conditional Approvals  

Science.gov (United States)

...FRL-8831-5] Pesticide Product Registrations; Conditional...of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and...registrations for the pesticide products, MON 89034 and MON...in any registered pesticide products at the time of...

2010-06-23

152

75 FR 62387 - Pesticide Product Registrations; Conditional Approval  

Science.gov (United States)

...FRL-8845-8] Pesticide Product Registrations...conditionally register the pesticide products Paladin Technical...previously registered products pursuant to the...of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and...7505P), Office of Pesticide Programs,...

2010-10-08

153

75 FR 8341 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...for Certain Pesticide Registrations...Agency, of products containing the pesticides listed in Table...the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide...cancel these product registrations...containing these pesticides registered...

2010-02-24

154

75 FR 57019 - Pesticide Product Registrations; Conditional Approval  

Science.gov (United States)

...FRL-8844-2] Pesticide Product Registrations...conditionally register the pesticide products Cheminova Flutriafol...previously registered products pursuant to the...of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and...7505P), Office of Pesticide Programs,...

2010-09-17

155

78 FR 59347 - Pesticides; Revised Fee Schedule for Registration Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2013-0621; FRL-9399-5] Pesticides; Revised Fee Schedule for Registration...EPA is publishing a revised list of pesticide registration service fees applicable to specified pesticide applications and tolerance...

2013-09-26

156

75 FR 82011 - Web-Distributed Labeling of Pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

...FRL-8856-4] Web-Distributed Labeling of Pesticides AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...considering an initiative to make portions of pesticide labeling for certain products available...users' comprehension and compliance with pesticide labeling, thereby improving...

2010-12-29

157

76 FR 5711 - Bispyribac-sodium; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...a food-use pesticide, if a toxicological...to simulate agricultural uses and are...aquatic uses of pesticides applied directly...residential handler exposure is...procedure, Agricultural commodities, Pesticides and...

2011-02-02

158

40 CFR 170.235 - Posted pesticide safety information.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standard for Pesticide Handlers § 170.235 Posted pesticide safety information...Requirement. When handlers (except those employed by a commercial pesticide handling establishment) are on an agricultural establishment...

2010-07-01

159

77 FR 41346 - Trinexapac-ethyl; Proposed Pesticide Tolerance  

Science.gov (United States)

...requirement of a pesticide tolerance is, in...regulatory restriction on pesticide residues in food...processors, food handlers, and food retailers...practice and procedure, Agricultural commodities, Pesticides and pests,...

2012-07-13

160

42 CFR 84.1156 - Pesticide respirators; performance requirements; general.  

Science.gov (United States)

...and back-mounted gas mask pesticide respirators will be tested... (f) Bench tests for pesticide respirators. (1)(i...canister or cartridge against carbon tetrachloride. (ii) Canisters...tested as they are used on each pesticide respirator, either...

2009-10-01

 
 
 
 
161

Lifetime Pesticide Use and Telomere Shortening among Male Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Telomere length (TL) in surrogate tissues may be influenced by environmental exposures. Objective: We aimed to determine whether lifetime pesticides use is associated with buccal cell TL. Methods: We examined buccal cell TL in relation to lifetime use of 48 pesticides for 1,234 cancer-free white male pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of 57,310 licensed pesticide applicators. Participants provided detailed information on lifeti...

Hou, Lifang; Andreotti, Gabriella; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Savage, Sharon; Hoppin, Jane A.; Sandler, Dale P.; Barker, Joseph; Zhu, Zhong-zheng; Hoxha, Mirjam; Dioni, Laura; Zhang, Xiao; Koutros, Stella; Freeman, Laura E. Beane; Alavanja, Michael C.

2013-01-01

162

Pattern of pesticide storage before pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Deliberate self-poisoning with agricultural pesticides is the commonest means of suicide in rural Asia. It is mostly impulsive and facilitated by easy access to pesticides. The aim of this large observational study was to investigate the immediate source of pesticides used for self-harm to help inform suicide prevention strategies such as reducing domestic access to pesticides. Methods The study was conducted in a district hospital serving an...

Mohamed Fahim; Manuweera Gamini; Gunnell David; Azher Shifa; Eddleston Michael; Dawson Andrew; Konradsen Flemming

2009-01-01

163

Pesticides: Benefaction or Pandora's Box? A synopsis of the environmental aspects of 243 pesticides  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The report provides an overview of physical, chemical and environmental data of 243 pesticides. The data mentioned are based on confidential information supplied by the manufacturers of the pesticides. For all pesticides mentioned a Final Environmental File, which is public, is derived. Tables with assorted data (sorted from high to low adverse environmental effect) for several environmental items are also included. Differences in environmental aspects per group of pesticid...

Jbhj, Linders; Jw, Jansma; Bjwg, Mensink; Otermann K

2007-01-01

164

Pesticides sensing by surface plasmon resonance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High toxicity of pesticides and their wide use in agriculture, represent a general danger for environmental welfare and could become a real threat to life. Screening of pesticides in the environment has become very important during last years due to low threshold values for pesticides in drinking water. An optical biosensor has been developed for detection of pesticides, based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique. Concentration of the pesticides was measured in liquid or gas. The authors specially originated organic film on a disposable element. A setup on the base of the Kretschmann arrangement was improved by using a computer-controlled angular scanning system. The detection concentration limit of dinitrophenole (DNP) was 10{sup {minus}9} M. Some samples exhibited effect down to 10{sup {minus}11} M of DNP. The results obtained provide reason for further development of SPR sensor as applied to pesticides monitoring.

Kalabina, N.A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Shemyakin Inst. of Bioorganic Chemistry; Ksenevich, T.I.; Beloglazov, A.A.; Nikitin, P.I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). General Physics Inst.

1995-12-31

165

The enzymatic basis for pesticide bioremediation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Enzymes are central to the biology of many pesticides, influencing their modes of action, environmental fates and mechanisms of target species resistance. Since the introduction of synthetic xenobiotic pesticides, enzymes responsible for pesticide turnover have evolved rapidly, in both the target organisms and incidentally exposed biota. Such enzymes are a source of significant biotechnological potential and form the basis of several bioremediation strategies intended to reduce the environmen...

Scott, Colin; Pandey, Gunjan; Hartley, Carol J.; Jackson, Colin J.; Cheesman, Matthew J.; Taylor, Matthew C.; Pandey, Rinku; Khurana, Jeevan L.; Teese, Mark; Coppin, Chris W.; Weir, Kahli M.; Jain, Rakesh K.; Lal, Rup; Russell, Robyn J.; Oakeshott, John G.

2008-01-01

166

Determination of Pesticide Residues in Cannabis Smoke  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study was conducted in order to quantify to what extent cannabis consumers may be exposed to pesticide and other chemical residues through inhaled mainstream cannabis smoke. Three different smoking devices were evaluated in order to provide a generalized data set representative of pesticide exposures possible for medical cannabis users. Three different pesticides, bifenthrin, diazinon, and permethrin, along with the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol, which are readily available...

Nicholas Sullivan; Sytze Elzinga; Raber, Jeffrey C.

2013-01-01

167

Biomarkers of human exposure to pesticides.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For centuries, several hundred pesticides have been used to control insects. These pesticides differ greatly in their mode of action, uptake by the body, metabolism, elimination from the body, and toxicity to humans. Potential exposure from the environment can be estimated by environmental monitoring. Actual exposure (uptake) is measured by the biological monitoring of human tissues and body fluids. Biomarkers are used to detect the effects of pesticides before adverse clinical health effects...

1997-01-01

168

Occupational pesticide exposure among Kenyan agricultural workers.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was part of the Kenyan component of a multi-centre epidemiologic survey, the East African Pesticides Project. The general objective was to assess the health hazards posed by pesticide handling, storage and use in agricultural estates and small farms in selected rural agricultural communities in Kenya where cotton, tobacco, flowers and other horticultural crops are grown, with a view to developing strategies for the prevention and control of pesticide poisoning. 666 agricultural wor...

Ohayo-mitoko, G. J. A.

1997-01-01

169

Sorption of pesticides to aquifer minerals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper summarizes results from a work were the sorption of five pesticides on seven minerals were studied in order to quantify the adsorption to different mineral surfaces. Investigated mineral phases are: quartz, calcite, kaolinite, a-alumina, and three iron oxides (2-line ferrihydrite, goethite, lepidocrocite). Selected pesticides are: atrazine, isoproturon, mecoprop, 2,4-D, and bentazone. The results demonstrate that pesticides adsorb to pure mineral surfaces. However, t...

Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

2012-01-01

170

Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air). For several yea...

2011-01-01

171

Neurotoxicity among pesticide applicators exposed to organophosphates.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES--An epidemiological study of 90 male pesticide applicators licensed in New York was conducted to investigate the effect of exposure to organophosphate pesticides on the peripheral nervous system. METHODS--A cohort of farmers and pesticide applicators from New York State were questioned off season (November 1988-February 1989) and again during the spraying season (April 1989-August 1989) about the presence of several acute signs and symptoms. Short term exposure was validated by mea...

Stokes, L.; Stark, A.; Marshall, E.; Narang, A.

1995-01-01

172

40 CFR 158.2110 - Microbial pesticides data requirements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...including all use patterns, food and nonfood uses for terrestrial...Additional data requirements for genetically modified microbial pesticides. Additional requirements for genetically modified microbial pesticides may...

2010-07-01

173

Application of nuclear techniques in pesticide research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear techniques are commonly used in studying the environmental fate of pesticides in soil, water and other environmental matrices and the metabolism of pesticides in animals and plants, as well as in the identification of the degradation products of pesticides formulations. Stable isotopes such as /sup 13/C and /sup 18/O are used in determining the structure of degradation products of pesticides and in understanding the biochemical mechanisms involved in the transformation. Radioisotopes such as tritium, /sup 14/C and/sup 32/P as traces in pesticides research are well established. A pesticide molecule 'labelled' with radioactive atom can easily be traced among score of natural, non-labelled chemicals found in soil, water, animals or plant tissues and other environmental matrices by using radiation detectors. The labelled pesticide and its degradation products can be separated from other chemicals by chromatographic techniques and their amounts estimated by quantifying the radioactivity associated with them. This technique is very sensitive to minute quantities, is reliable and save time that would otherwise be required for tedious purification procedures. For examples, residues of pesticides, which are tightly bound to an environmental matrix and cannot be extracted with a solvent, can be estimated by using a radiotracer technique. In the present paper formation and study of bound residues of pesticides by using radiotracer techniques will be discussed. (author)

2003-12-01

174

Agricultural soils, pesticides and microbial diversity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pesticide effects on microbial community structure and activity in soil are reviewed, showing that methodological developments within the past few years have generated new possibilities for assessing pesticide effects. The first example is the use of mRNA quantification showing that nitrification processes are indeed very susceptible to some pesticides, and that there is correlation between the mRNA transcript quantity and the nitrification rate. The second example is devoted to pesticides influencing microbial community structures. The emergence of high throughput sequencing techniques now allows a more detailed analysis of which bacterial species are influenced. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Hjelmsø, Mathis Hjort; Jacobsen, Carsten Suhr

2014-01-01

175

Protein phosphorylation pathways disruption by pesticides  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phosphosites in the human proteome represent an excellent source of potential biomarkers of pesticide toxicity. In fact, experimental animal models as well as in vitro studies have revealed phosphorylation disruption associated to metabolic regulation, hormone signaling, neuronal function and differentiation, cell survival and death. Due to their estrogen-mimicking ability, pesticides are considered as prime etiological suspects of increasing tumor incidence. Evidences of alterations in the signal transduction pathways involved in the tumor progression stage of pesticides were also provided. Despite progress in understanding the effect of pesticides on the human phosphorproteome and their health outcomes, it remains a complex issue to be studied. By now, the potential impact of pesticides in epigenetic phosphorylation pathways remains poorly explored. In addition, studies involving pesticides mixtures effects are needed. This review updates and provides a comprehensive discussion on the molecular and biochemical events underlying protein phosphorylation pathway disruption caused by pesticides most frequently detected in human tissues and fluids, such as organochlorine pesticides and organophosphates. The link between epidemiological studies and experimental approaches is also considered. Future challenges, such as micro-array phosphoproteome studies to complement gene expression arrays to understand the mechanisms involved in pesticide toxicology are briefly discussed.

Gladis Magnarelli

2013-10-01

176

Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air. For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health.

Benoit Roig

2011-06-01

177

Agricultural pesticide use in California: pesticide prioritization, use densities, and population distributions for a childhood cancer study.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several studies have suggested an association between childhood cancer and pesticide exposure. California leads the nation in agricultural pesticide use. A mandatory reporting system for all agricultural pesticide use in the state provides information on the active ingredient, amount used, and location. We calculated pesticide use density to quantify agricultural pesticide use in California block groups for a childhood cancer study. Pesticides with similar toxicologic properties (probable car...

Gunier, R. B.; Harnly, M. E.; Reynolds, P.; Hertz, A.; Von Behren, J.

2001-01-01

178

Global pesticide consumption and pollution: with China as a focus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Varieties and consumption of pesticides worldwide have been increasing dramatically as increased human population and crop production. In this process pesticide misuses become more and more serious, which has resulted in heavy environmental pollution and health risk of humans. In order to safeguard human health, threatened species and ecosystems from pesticide pollution, the consumption and pollution of pesticides worldwide especially China were reviewed and documented in present study. Meanwhile, the development trend of pesticide varieties and consumption was also prospected and discussed. It was found that worldwide consumption structure of pesticides has undergone significant changes since 1960s. The proportion of herbicides in pesticide consumption increased rapidly and the consumption of insecticides and fungicides/bactericides declined. China has become the largest pesticide producer and exporter in the world. Pesticide pollution of air, water bodies and soils, and pesticide-induced deaths in China has been serious in past years. Bio-pesticides should be further developed in the future.

WenJun Zhang

2011-08-01

179

Pesticide regulations and farm worker safety: the need to improve pesticide regulations in Viet Nam  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Agricultural pesticide use in Viet Nam has more than tripled since 1990. However, pesticide legislation and regulations have not been developed in response to this large increase in usage, as a result of which pesticides pose a serious threat to human health and the environment. This paper identifies the need to improve pesticide regulations in Viet Nam through a comparative analysis of pesticide regulations in Viet Nam and the United States of America, where the rate of acute poisoning among agricultural workers is much lower than in Viet Nam and where information pertaining to pesticide regulations is made accessible to the public. The analysis identified several measures that would help to improve Viet Nam’s pesticide regulations. These include enhancing pesticide legislation, clarifying the specific roles and active involvement of both the environmental and health sectors; performing a comprehensive risk–benefit evaluation of pesticide registration and management practices; improving regulations on pesticide suspension and cancellation, transport, storage and disposal; developing import and export policies and enhancing pesticide-related occupational safety programmes.

Connell, Des; Miller, Greg; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

2012-01-01

180

Pattern of pesticide storage before pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Deliberate self-poisoning with agricultural pesticides is the commonest means of suicide in rural Asia. It is mostly impulsive and facilitated by easy access to pesticides. The aim of this large observational study was to investigate the immediate source of pesticides used for self-harm to help inform suicide prevention strategies such as reducing domestic access to pesticides. Methods The study was conducted in a district hospital serving an agricultural region of Sri Lanka. Patients who had self-poisoned with pesticides and were admitted to the adult medical wards were interviewed by study doctors following initial resuscitation to identify the source of pesticides they have ingested. Results Of the 669 patients included in the analysis, 425 (63.5% were male; the median age was 26 (IQR 20-36. In 511 (76% cases, the pesticides had been stored either inside or immediately outside the house; among this group only eight patients obtained pesticides that were kept in a locked container. Ten percent (n = 67 of the patients used pesticides stored in the field while 14% (n = 91 purchased pesticides from shops within a few hours of the episode. The most common reasons for choosing the particular pesticide for self-harm were its easy accessibility (n = 311, 46% or its popularity as a suicide agent in their village (n = 290, 43%. Conclusion Three quarters of people who ingested pesticides in acts of self-harm used products that were available within the home or in close proximity; relatively few patients purchased the pesticide for the act. The study highlights the importance of reducing the accessibility of toxic pesticides in the domestic environment.

Eddleston Michael

2009-11-01

 
 
 
 
181

Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 128: Lactofen.  

Science.gov (United States)

The document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after one of the following actions has occurred. Issuance ...

1987-01-01

182

Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 106: Metolachlor.  

Science.gov (United States)

The document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after one of the following actions has occurred. (1) Issua...

1987-01-01

183

Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 21: Carbaryl.  

Science.gov (United States)

The document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after one of the following actions has occurred. (1) Issua...

1985-01-01

184

Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 16: Dicofol.  

Science.gov (United States)

The document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after one of the following actions has occurred. (1) Issua...

1983-01-01

185

Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 32: Bronopol.  

Science.gov (United States)

The document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after one of the following actions has occurred. (1) Issua...

1984-01-01

186

[EMS for pesticide disposal.doc  

…causing water pollution. Very small amounts of pesticide can cause serious pollution problems, even just the amount of residue on a foil seal from a concentrate container. Contents Maintenance and operations checklist Maintenance record Recording form for discharges of pesticide washings List of substances…

187

Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 24: Carbofuran.  

Science.gov (United States)

The document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after one of the following actions has occurred. (1) Issua...

1984-01-01

188

Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 145: Fenvalerate.  

Science.gov (United States)

The document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after one of the following actions has occurred. (1) Issua...

1987-01-01

189

Factors influencing degradation of pesticides in soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Degradation and sorption of six acidic pesticides (2,4-D, dicamba, fluroxypyr, fluazifop-P, metsulfuron-methyl, and flupyrsulfuron-methyl) and four basic pesticides (metribuzin, terbutryn, pirimicarb, and fenpropimorph) were determined in nine temperate soils. Results were submitted to statistical analyses against a wide range of soil and pesticide properties to (i) identify any commonalities in factors influencing rate of degradation and (ii) determine whether there was any link between sorption and degradation processes for the compounds and soils studied. There were some marked differences between the soils in their ability to degrade the different pesticides. The parameters selected to explain variations in degradation rates depended on the soil-pesticide combination. The lack of consistent behavior renders a global approach to prediction of degradation unrealistic. The soil organic carbon content generally had a positive influence on degradation. The relationship between pH and degradation rates depended on the dominant mode of degradation for each pesticide. There were positive relationships between sorption and rate of degradation for metsulfuron-methyl, pirimicarb, and all acidic pesticides considered together (all P < 0.001) and for dicamba and all bases considered together (P < 0.05). No relationship between these processes was observed for the remaining seven individual pesticides. PMID:17488087

Kah, Melanie; Beulke, Sabine; Brown, Colin D

2007-05-30

190

Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 183: Hexazinone.  

Science.gov (United States)

The document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after one of the following actions has occurred: issuance ...

1988-01-01

191

Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 55: Dipropetryn.  

Science.gov (United States)

The document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after one of the following actions has occurred. (1) Issua...

1985-01-01

192

QA/QC in pesticide residue analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper outlines problems related to pesticide residue analysis in a regulatory laboratory that are related to: availability of reference materials, as over 1000 pesticide active ingredients are currently in use and over 400 crops represent a large part of a healthy diet; analysis time; availability of samples in sufficient numbers; uncertainties of the procedures

2001-08-13

193

Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 83: Imazaquin (Scepter).  

Science.gov (United States)

The document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after one of the following actions has occurred. (1) Issua...

1986-01-01

194

Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 149: Propanil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after one of the following actions has occurred. (1) Issua...

1987-01-01

195

Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 133: Brominated Salicylanilide.  

Science.gov (United States)

The document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after one of the following actions has occurred. (1) Issua...

1985-01-01

196

Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 102: Carbon Tetrachloride.  

Science.gov (United States)

The document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after one of the following actions has occurred. (1) Issua...

1986-01-01

197

Investigation of pesticide degradation in surface waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The degradation of organophosphorus and thiocarbamate pesticides was investigated using isotope tracer methods. The hydrolysis (degradation) of ester-type pesticides was studied by radiometric enzyme inhibition method in aqueous medium with "1"4C as tracer. The hydrolysis of S-ethyl-N,N-dipropylthiocarbamate prerequired the oxidation of the parent compound. (Sz.J.)

1980-11-05

198

NATIONAL PESTICIDE INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (NPIRS)  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Pesticide Information Retrieval System (NPIRS) is a collection of pesticide-related databases available through subscription to the Center for Environmental and Regulatory Information Systems, CERIS. The following is a summary of data found in the databases, data sou...

199

Pesticide fact sheet number 20. 2: Amitrole  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. The Fact Sheet is issued on Amitrole for issuance of each special review document.

1992-12-01

200

Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 80: Potassium Permanganate.  

Science.gov (United States)

The document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after one of the following actions has occurred. (1) Issua...

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 2: Cryolite.  

Science.gov (United States)

The document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after one of the following actions has occurred. (1) Issua...

1983-01-01

202

Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 137: Tebuthiuron.  

Science.gov (United States)

The document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after one of the following actions has occurred. (1) Issua...

1987-01-01

203

Reproductive disorders associated with pesticide exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure of men or women to certain pesticides at sufficient doses may increase the risk for sperm abnormalities, decreased fertility, a deficit of male children, spontaneous abortion, birth defects or fetal growth retardation. Pesticides from workplace or environmental exposures enter breast milk. Certain pesticides have been linked to developmental neurobehavioral problems, altered function of immune cells and possibly childhood leukemia. In well-designed epidemiologic studies, adverse reproductive or developmental effects have been associated with mixed pesticide exposure in occupational settings, particularly when personal protective equipment is not used. Every class of pesticides has at least one agent capable of affecting a reproductive or developmental endpoint in laboratory animals or people, including organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, herbicides, fungicides, fumigants and especially organochlorines. Many of the most toxic pesticides have been banned or restricted in developed nations, but high exposures to these agents are still occurring in the most impoverished countries around the globe. Protective clothing, masks and gloves are more difficult to tolerate in hot, humid weather, or may be unavailable or unaffordable. Counseling patients who are concerned about reproductive and developmental effects of pesticides often involves helping them assess their exposure levels, weigh risks and benefits, and adopt practices to reduce or eliminate their absorbed dose. Patients may not realize that by the first prenatal care visit, most disruptions of organogenesis have already occurred. Planning ahead provides the best chance of lowering risk from pesticides and remediating other risk factors before conception. PMID:18032334

Frazier, Linda M

2007-01-01

204

Pesticide Fact Sheets Number 205: Sulfluramid.  

Science.gov (United States)

The document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after one of the following actions has occurred: Issuance ...

1989-01-01

205

THE EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES IN WATER RESOURCES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Environmental pollution is concerned problem all around world due to rapid increase of industrialization and urbanization. Especially, the intensive pesticide use has caused some environmental problems in many countries. The major problem occurred in water resources. Therefore, these resources need to be protected from the contamination of pesticides for future sustainable use.

CUMHUR AYDINALP

2004-07-01

206

Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 62: Clipper (Paclobutrazol).  

Science.gov (United States)

The document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after one of the following actions has occurred. (1) Issua...

1985-01-01

207

Toxicity of pesticides on photosynthesis of diatoms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pakistan being an agricultural country, a large amount of pesticides are used, including organophosphates and synthetic pyrethroids. These pesticides are released through rivers and other tributeries into the coastal environment, thus posing a contiguous threat to marine organisms. In the present study two species of diatoms Amphora and Navicula were selected for the assessment of impact of organ phosphate and pyrethroid toxicity on these primary producers. The study shows that rate of photosynthesis was inhibited in both Amphora and Navicula species exposed to pesticide. The acute toxicity of pesticide was determined by measuring IC50 of the test organisms. IC50 calculated for diatom species depicts that different pesticides had variable effects on the photosynthesis of microalgae. High sensitivity of marine organisms is alarming as it may have implications on the marine ecosystem and fisheries. The results are also useful in setting control limits for the release of these chemicals in nature. (author)

2011-08-01

208

Pesticides: Can We Do Without Them?  

Science.gov (United States)

These are the teaching notes for a case study in which students sift through and organize information on pesticide use presented to them from the perspective of different stakeholders. The case asks a fundamental question, "Can we do without pesticides?", and gives students an opportunity to explore the issues surrounding that question. Developed for an environmental issues course, the case would be appropriate for any introductory course that addresses human-environment interactions. As they pursue the case, students will be able to define the terms pest and pesticide and give specific examples; discuss benefits and harmful effects of pesticide use; discuss implications of banning pesticides; and articulate the ecological, ethical, economic, social, and political issues involved.

Parendes, Laurie; Burris, Scott

209

Pesticide-related health problems and farmworkers.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Migrant and seasonal farmworkers are primarily ethnic minorities who are excluded from federal laws that protect other workers. Farmworkers live and work under substandard conditions that place them at increased risk of pesticide-related illness. 2. Agriculture uses 80% of all pesticides in the U.S. Handlers who mix, load and apply pesticides as well as workers cultivating and harvesting crops sprayed with them are at risk of acute poisoning or even death from their exposures. Drift and run-off of agricultural pesticides pollute the air, soil and water, creating additional hazards to workers' families, community residents, and the environment. 3. Chronic effects, including cancer in adults and children, adverse reproductive outcomes, delayed neuropathy and neurobehavioral effects, are also associated with occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides. PMID:2647086

Moses, M

1989-03-01

210

Pesticide Use Plan (PUP) for Pantex Plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act and its Worker Protection Standard, EPA authority, state regulations, and Texas Department of Agriculture authority make up a complex set of environment compliance requirements. The Pantex Plant northeast of Amarillo, Texas is currently dedicated to the disassembly of nuclear weapons. Ironically large areas of the Pantex Plant Site have been farmed for over 40 years. Pesticides are an integral part of agronomic production practices once economic thresholds for certain pests are exceeded. Horticulture and industrial operations also use pesticides. Pesticides can migrate to several playa lakes onsite, where they may threaten compliance with the Clean Water Act. Plant personnel are aware of the need to provide a chemically safe work environment, protect the public, and ensure an ecologically healthy environment. Thus a PUP has been developed to coordinate all pesticide use, ensure safety of agricultural and industrial workers, and protect the playa habitat. The PUP provides guidelines for pesticide use, notification, training, and safety.

Schoenhals, M.G. [Battelle Pantex, Amarillo, TX (United States)

1995-12-31

211

Clinical and Biochemical Parameters of Children and Adolescents Applying Pesticides  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: The primary agricultural product in Egypt is the cotton crop. Children and adolescents work seasonally in the cotton fields applying pesticides.Objectives: To examine the effect of pesticide exposure on clinical and biochemical parameters in children and adolescents applying pesticides.Methods: Male children currently applying pesticides and aged between 9 and 19 years (n = 50) were recruited for this study. They ...

2010-01-01

212

75 FR 8942 - Maneb; Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...for Certain Pesticide Registrations...Agency, of products containing the pesticide maneb, pursuant...the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide...cancel these product registrations...containing this pesticide registered...

2010-02-26

213

75 FR 70256 - Tralomethrin; Notice of Receipt of Request To Voluntarily Cancel Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Voluntarily Cancel Pesticide Registrations...the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide...registrations of products containing the pesticide tralomethrin...pyrethroid ester insecticide registered...cancel certain pesticide product...

2010-11-17

214

75 FR 8339 - Difenzoquat; Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...for Certain Pesticide Registrations...Agency, of products containing the pesticide difenzoquat...the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide...cancel these product registrations...containing these pesticides registered...

2010-02-24

215

77 FR 59610 - Flonicamid; Applications To Add New Food Uses on Previously Registered Pesticide Products  

Science.gov (United States)

...Registered Pesticide Products AGENCY: Environmental...previously registered pesticide products containing the insecticide, flonicamide, pursuant...previously registered pesticide products containing the insecticide, flonicamid,...

2012-09-28

216

Processing factor for a selected group of pesticides in a wine-making process: distribution of pesticides during grape processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The processing factors (the pesticide concentration found in the wine/pesticide concentration found in grapes) of acetamiprid, azoxistrobin, carbaril, carbendazime, cyprodinil, dimethoate, dimethormorf, imazalil, imidacloprid, kresoxim methyl, penconazole, procymidone and thiabendazole were determined in a wine-making process. Pesticide analysis was performed using a multi-residue method for the determination of different pesticides both in wine and in grapes by extraction with acetonitrile followed by LC/MS. The pesticide distribution was studied for each step of the process, and the pesticide processing factors were calculated and found to vary among the different pesticides studied. pKow was found to affect a pesticide's processing factor; a linear correlation was obtained for all pesticide processing factors, except for dimethoate, which was the most water soluble. However, no correlation was found between the processing factor and the water solubility of pesticides. PMID:23875669

Pazzirota, T; Martin, L; Mezcua, M; Ferrer, C; Fernandez-Alba, A R

2013-01-01

217

Dynamics of pesticides in potato crops.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the behavior of pesticides commonly used on potato in a part of northwestern Spain with a large area devoted to this crop. Experimental potato plots were treated with commercial formulations of two insecticides, a nematicide, a herbicide, and a combination of two fungicides, and the concentrations of the active ingredients were monitored throughout the growing season in the 0-1 and 1-15 cm soil layers, in water dripping off the potato plants, and in the potatoes themselves. The technique used for pesticide determination was gas chromatography with mass selective detection. For potato analyses, pesticide extraction was optimized. The only pesticide ever detected in potato tubers was metalaxyl, the concentration of which never exceeded half the maximum residual limit even when it was applied several times more often than is officially recommended for potato crops. Metalaxyl was also the only pesticide detected in wash-off, apparently due to its being more soluble in water than the other pesticides applied to the growing plants. A mathematical model of pesticide transport in soil was fitted to the experimental data using the program HYDRUS-1D. PMID:16506836

López-Pérez, Gonzalo C; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; López-Periago, Eugenio; Soto-Gonzalez, Benedicto; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gandara, Jesús

2006-03-01

218

Estrogenicity of organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides are considered environmental contaminants, their estrogenic potentials are still ubiquitous and unclear. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the estrogenic activities of nine pesticides (phoxim, malathion, monocrotophos, dimethoate, opunal, fenvalerate, cypermethrin, permethrin, and deltamethrin) using three in vitro methods [E-Screen assay, estrogen receptor (ER) competitive binding assay, and pS2 expression assay]. All the pyrethroid pesticides tested induced MCF-7 cell proliferation significantly, while organophosphorus pesticides did not. The estrogenic potency were ranked as permethrin > fenvalerate > cypermethrin > deltamethrin. The proliferation induced by cypermethrin, permethrin, and deltamethrin was blocked by ICI 182.780, while fenvalerate only partly inhibited it. In addition, pyrethroid pesticides inhibited the binding of [3H]estradiol to ER, while the organophosphorus failed to do so. Fenvalerate, permethrin, and cypermethrin induced pS2 mRNA expression with varying potency, while there were no significant effects in deltamethrin-treated groups. Our findings provide evidence to support the idea that pyrethroid pesticides tested produce an ER-specific, agonist response. Fenvalerate induced MCF-7 cell proliferation by a mechanism not involving ER-mediated pathway. Organophosphorus pesticides tested showed no estrogenic potential. Compared with the pS2 expression assay, E-Screen was a more sensitive and useful assay for screening of the xenoestrogenic chemicals. PMID:12396874

Chen, Haiyan; Xiao, Jigao; Hu, Gang; Zhou, Jianwei; Xiao, Hang; Wang, Xinru

2002-10-11

219

Rhinitis Associated with Pesticide Use Among Private Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Farmers commonly experience rhinitis but the risk factors are not well-characterized. The aim of this study was to analyze cross-sectional data on rhinitis in the past year and pesticide use from 21,958 Iowa and North Carolina farmers in the Agricultural Health Study, enrolled 1993–7, to evaluate pesticide predictors of rhinitis. Polytomous and logistic regression models were used to assess association between pesticide use and rhinitis while controlling for demographics and farm-related ex...

Slager, Rebecca E.; Simpson, Sean L.; Levan, Tricia D.; Poole, Jill A.; Sandler, Dale P.; Hoppin, Jane A.

2010-01-01

220

The Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory: A Quantitative Instrument for the Assessment of Beliefs about Pesticide Risks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent media attention has focused on the risks that agricultural pesticides pose to the environment and human health; thus, these topics provide focal areas for scientists and science educators to enhance public understanding of basic toxicology concepts. This study details the development of a quantitative inventory to gauge pesticide risk beliefs. The goal of the inventory was to characterize misconceptions and knowledge gaps, as well as expert-like beliefs, concerning pesticide risk. This...

Leprevost, Catherine E.; Blanchard, Margaret R.; Gregory Cope, W.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Cytogenetic analysis of Pakistani individuals occupationally exposed to pesticides in a pesticide production industry.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although several cytogenetic biomonitoring studies on workers exposed to pesticides have been reported, there is only limited information on this topic from developing countries where pesticides have been widely used over the years. People in developing countries are at higher risk from exposure, due to poor working conditions and a lack of awareness of the potential hazards during manufacturing and application of the pesticides. The present study has assessed the genotoxic effects of pestici...

Bhalli, Javed A.; Khan, Q. M.; Haq, M. A.; Khalid, A. M.; Nasim, A.

2006-01-01

222

Chiral pesticides: Identification, description, and environmental implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Anthropogenic chemicals, including pesticides, are a major source of contamination and pollution in the environment. Pesticides have many positive uses: increased food production, decreased damage to crops and structures, reduced disease vector populations, and more. Nevertheless, pesticide exposure can pose risks to humans and the environment, so various mitigation strategies are exercised to make them safer, minimize their use, and reduce their unintended environment effects. One strategy that may help achieve these goals relies on the unique properties of chirality or molecular asymmetry. Some common terms related to chirality are defined in Table 1.

Ulrich, Elin M.; Morrison, Candice N.; Goldsmith, Michael R.; Foreman, William T.

2012-01-01

223

Neurobehavioural and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures  

Science.gov (United States)

The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective and neurodevelopmental outcomes amongst occupational (both adolescent and adult workers) and non-occupational populations (children). The symposium discussion highlighted many challenges for researchers concerned with the prevention of neurotoxic illness due to pesticides and generated a number of directions for further research and policy interventions for the protection of human health, highlighting the importance of examining potential long-term effects across the lifespan arising from early adolescent, childhood or pre-natal exposure.

London, Leslie; Beseler, Cheryl; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Bellinger, David C.; Colosio, Claudio; Grandjean, Philippe; Harari, Raul; Kootbodien, Tahira; Kromhout, Hans; Little, Francesca; Meijster, Tim; Moretto, Angelo; Rohlman, Diane S.; Stallones, Lorann

2012-01-01

224

Effects of Pesticides on Biological Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of pesticid both in Turkey and other contries is widespread in order to combat against many pests which cause economical damages. However, pesticides in human pass through skin, respiratory or digestive systems and is metabolized by monooxygenase system dependent upon cytocrome P450 in liver. They also give rise to severe decreases cytochrome P450 and amount of "hem" enzyme activites of glucose-6-phosphatase, pyrophosphatase by stimulating lipid peroxidation on hepatic microsomes. In this study effects of pesticides on biological systems will be presented in genaral terms. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(3.000: 215-228

Ergul Belge Kurutas

2003-06-01

225

The research of Organophosphorus pesticide biosensor characteristic  

Science.gov (United States)

To study the fiber-sensor film applied in detecting Organophosphorus pesticide, methyltriethoxysilane was used as precursor, which was doped by FITC- AchE. Consequently, the excellent Acetylcholinesterase biology sensitivity film was prepared. Physics characteristic of the film and sensitivity of Organophosphorus pesticide were researched. In organophosphorus pesticide residue testing, the experimental results indicated that the linear measurement range could reach 10-7~10-6 mol/L, moreover the detection limit is 10-8 mol/L. The sensor could be applied in biological / chemical research, clinical medicine, environmental protection, food inspection, biochemical preventive war field and so on.

Peng, Yong; Luo, Xixian; Cheng, Yi

2010-05-01

226

Pesticide Environmental Accounting: A method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts. - A method to estimate the external costs of a pesticide application based on the ecotoxicology, environmental behaviour and application rate of an active ingredient

2008-01-01

227

PR notice 86-4. Notice to registrants of pesticides, and applicants for pesticide registration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The document is one in the series of Pesticide Regulatory Notices, usually called PR Notices, which supplement the laws and regulations governing pesticide regulation in the US. These notices clarify, interpret and explain regulatory requirements and policies. They are directed at pesticide registrants and other parties interested in detailed procedures of regulation. This notice announces a new Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) policy regarding incomplete applications for registration of pesticides under section 3 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), 7 USC 136a et seq. This notice also specifies new requirements for submitting applications to the Agency in order to implement this policy.

1986-04-01

228

Pesticides and Food: What You and Your Family Need to Know  

Science.gov (United States)

... Home Pesticides Health and Safety Pesticides and Food Pesticides and Food: What You and Your Family Need ... Know Learn More About... How the Government Regulates Pesticides What the Residue Limits are on Food Why ...

229

Types of pesticides and determination of their residues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pesticide is any material or component used to protect from pests. Its toxic effect is related to the chemical structure, which can be divided into 3 types : 1- Metal pesticides : Sulphur, cupper, zinc, mercury; 2- Vegetal pesticides : advanced and less toxic to the general health; 3- Synthetic organo pesticides : organo chlorine, organophosphorous, carbamate and pyrethroids. Pesticides in the soil undergo biological dissociation according to their concentration and chemical structure. High concentration of the pesticides in the soil may lead to fertility decrease due to destruction of micro-organisms by the pesticides. Many methods are used to analyze the residues of pesticides in plant or soil : 1- Chromatographic methods : Gas chromatography, gas liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography; 2- Spectroscopy methods : spectrophotometer and mass spectrometer; 3- Isotopic methods : based on tracers technique which is the most sensitive and accurate method and can estimate minor amounts of the pesticides. (author)

2010-03-01

230

High risk pesticides in sugar beet protection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to traits of pesticides permitted to use in sugar beet (oral percutaneus and inhalation toxicity, toxicity to wildlife, bees and aquatic organisms, re-entry interval, maximum number of treatments, effects on reproduction do not present health risk in sugar production/technology. However, the danger exists for workers by chronic exposure during the application, especially from pesticide being potential endocrine disruptors (EDS (fentin acetate, benomyl, endosulfan, methomyl, methidathion. EDS can cause sterility or decreased fertility, impaired development, birth defects of the reproductive tract and metabolic disorders. Authors recommend limited application of EDS pesticides (to limit the number of treatments to only one during the vegetation, replacement with pesticides with low risk to humans game and fishes, as well as mandatory submission of re-entry data for registration.

Šovljanski Radmila A.

2006-01-01

231

Treatability Studies of Pesticide Manufacturing Wastewaters: Carbaryl.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of a bench-scale, experimental treatability study of wastewaters from the manufacture of the pesticide carbaryl. Results indicate that both carbaryl manufacturing wastewater (mixed one part in nine parts municipal wastewater) and ...

E. Monnig M. Murphy R. Zweidinger L. Little

1980-01-01

232

PESTICIDE EXPOSURE TO FLORIDA GREENHOUSE APPLICATORS  

Science.gov (United States)

The exposure of pesticide applicators in a commercial greenhouse facility was assessed. Data were collected primarily from five handgunners and a tractor driver. The chemicals applied were fluvalinate, chlorpyrifos, ethazol, dicofol, captan, and chlorothalonil. Potential exposure...

233

Chiral Pesticide Pharmacokinetics: A Range of Values  

Science.gov (United States)

Approximately 30% of pesticides are chiral and used as mixtures of two or more stereoisomers. In biological systems, these stereoisomers can exhibit significantly different pharmacokinetics (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination). In spite of these differences, th...

234

77 FR 56133 - Dinotefuran; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0433; FRL-9359-6] Dinotefuran; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...establishes tolerances for residues of dinotefuran in or on multiple commodities which...tolerances for residues of the insecticide dinotefuran,...

2012-09-12

235

77 FR 70908 - Dinotefuran; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2012-0060; FRL-9365-1] Dinotefuran; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...establishes tolerances for residues of dinotefuran in or on rice grain, egg, and poultry...tolerances for residues of the insecticide dinotefuran...

2012-11-28

236

76 FR 10026 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

...are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311...Active ingredient: Zeta-Cypermethrin. Proposed Uses: Avocado...Acetamiprid. Proposed Use: Food/feed handling...

2011-02-23

237

75 FR 53692 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

...an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code...Active ingredient: Zeta-Cypermethrin. Proposed use: Pistachio...Active ingredient: Zeta-Cypermethrin. Proposed uses:...

2010-09-01

238

Fosetyl-Al (Aliette) Pesticide Registration Standard.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document contains information regarding reregistration of pesticide products containing the subject active ingredient. The document includes how to register under a registration standard, regulatory position and rationale, and summaries of data requi...

1983-01-01

239

A review: radiolabeled synthesis of pesticides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Isotope tracer technique has been widely applied in studies of metabolism, mode action, fate and environmental behavior of pesticides. In such studies, the key point is to obtain suitable radiolabelled compounds. However, the radiotracers, especially the labelled pesticides which are novel compounds with complex structures and longer synthesis routes, are usually unavailable from domestic and /or foreign markets. Therefore, it is essential to explore the synthesis methods of radiolabelled pesticides, which are quite different from the conventional nonradiosynthesis, and are requested to obtain higher yield. This article is a review on current status of choosing the available radionuclide and labelled position, the main synthesis methods and problems in the process of preparing radiolabelled pesticides. (authors)

2010-04-01

240

Pesticide Linked to Testicular Cancer Risk  

Science.gov (United States)

Males exposed to a byproduct of the pesticide DDT may have an increased risk of testicular cancer, according to research published online in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute on April 29, 2008.

 
 
 
 
241

Pesticide Residues in Food: Technologies for Detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report provides a brief assessment of existing, new, and emerging analytical technologies and methods to detect pesticide residues in food and addresses Federal research and programmatic issues relevant to the development and adoption of technologies ...

1988-01-01

242

Phototransformation of pesticides in aqueous solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The role of the light on the transformation of pesticides in water depends on many parameters. Transformations are categorized as being direct or indirect photodegradation. We investigated the influence of the spectroscopic properties of pesticides and their effects on the nature of the photochemical reactions with the oxygen species, adjuvants of formulation, humic acids, and water. Chemical reactions, especially elimination, substitution and hydrolysis, are generally accelerated by light, while other specific reactions such as photo-Fries rearrangement are initiated by it. With organo-halogenated pesticides singlet or triplet states are involved in the scission of the carbon-chlorine bond, while the triplet state is often the first step for the reaction of the other pesticides. In this paper some reactions are presented to illustrate these two types of mechanisms. (orig.)

Meallier, P. [Universite Claude Bernard Lyon, Villeurbanne (France). Lab. de Photochimie Industrielle

1999-06-01

243

Training Program for Pesticide Users: Training Manual.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Consortium for International Crop Protection (CFICP) has developed a practical and informal program to train extensionists and other field personnel who are charged with providing pest and pesticide training to small farmers, vendors, and other pestic...

T. A. Granovsky H. N. Howell C. L. Heep J. I. Grieshop

1985-01-01

244

75 FR 17566 - Flutolanil; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...carcinogenicity in two rodent studies and the lack...level water exposure models in the dietary exposure...GENEEC) (a Tier 1 model) before using Pesticide...Exposure Analysis Modeling System (PRZM/EXAMS) (a Tier 2 model) for a...

2010-04-07

245

Suspended, Cancelled, and Restricted (SCR) Pesticides.  

Science.gov (United States)

The booklet has been compiled for the purpose of summarizing and clarifying actions taken by EPA for pesticides that the Agency has suspended, cancelled, or otherwise restricted because of concern for potentially adverse effects.

1990-01-01

246

77 FR 43524 - Acetamiprid; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0792; FRL-9352-8] Acetamiprid; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...establishes tolerances for residues of acetamiprid in or on multiple commodities which...tolerances for residues of the insecticide acetamiprid, N...

2012-07-25

247

Removal of Pesticides by Reverse Osmosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two types of reverse osmosis membranes - i.e., cellulose acetate (CA) and cross-linked polyethylenimine, designated as NS-100 by OSW, were evaluated for their removal of a wide variety of pesticides, including chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphorus, a...

E. S. K. Chian W. N. Bruce H. H. P. Fang

1974-01-01

248

75 FR 26673 - Clethodim; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0307; FRL-8822-7] Clethodim; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...establishes tolerances for residues of clethodim in or on the raw agricultural commodity...for combined residues of the herbicide clethodim, ((E)-()-2-...

2010-05-12

249

Determination of pesticide residues in cannabis smoke.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was conducted in order to quantify to what extent cannabis consumers may be exposed to pesticide and other chemical residues through inhaled mainstream cannabis smoke. Three different smoking devices were evaluated in order to provide a generalized data set representative of pesticide exposures possible for medical cannabis users. Three different pesticides, bifenthrin, diazinon, and permethrin, along with the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol, which are readily available to cultivators in commercial products, were investigated in the experiment. Smoke generated from the smoking devices was condensed in tandem chilled gas traps and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Recoveries of residues were as high as 69.5% depending on the device used and the component investigated, suggesting that the potential of pesticide and chemical residue exposures to cannabis users is substantial and may pose a significant toxicological threat in the absence of adequate regulatory frameworks. PMID:23737769

Sullivan, Nicholas; Elzinga, Sytze; Raber, Jeffrey C

2013-01-01

250

Pesticides Can We Do Without Them?  

Science.gov (United States)

By simulating a public hearing, this case study requires that students sift through and organize information on pesticide use presented to them from the perspective of different stakeholders. The case asks a fundamental question, Can we do without pesticides?, and gives students an opportunity to explore the ecological, ethical, economic, social, and political issues surrounding that question. Developed for an environmental issues course, the case would be appropriate for any introductory course that addresses human-environment interactions.

Parendes, Laurie A.; Burris, Scott H.

2005-01-01

251

Morbidity in newborns exposed to organophosphorus pesticides  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Insecticides are toxines by which we destroy harmful insects. The most frequent insecticides which are used today are organophosphorus pesticides. This group of compounds make substances whose activity mechanism is based on the inhibition of acetylcho­linesterase in nerve synapsis, thus producing holynergic syndrome, resulting from the accumulation of acetylcholine which developed due to the absence of decomposition under the influence of cholinesterase. In the clinical picture of acute toxication by cholinesterase inhibitors there is a clear difference between muscarinic and nicotine effects. The basic aim of the study was to establish the effects of organophosphorus pesticides present in blood and breast milk of mothers on newborns morbidity. Material and methods. The study group consisted of 18 newborns whose mothers had isolated organophosphorus pesticides in their blood and breast­milk on the third day after delivery, and the control group consisted of 84 newborns whose mothers did not have isolated organophosphorus pesticides in their blood and breastmilk. Results. Morbidity is three times greater, often in combination with some disorders of the central nervous system, and the relative risk for its appearance is eight time greater in newborns exposed to organophosphorus pesticides. Disscusion. Disorders that appear in newborns exposed to pesticides are mutagenic, cancerogenic and neurotoxic and some agenses could disturb the immune system which is reflected in morbidity increase, primarly of the central nervous system. Conclusion. The presence of organophosphorus pesticides in blood and breast milk has negative effects on newborns. In addition to acetylcho­linesterase inhibition, organophosphorus pesticides react by means of other mechanisms as well.

?or?evi? Mom?ilo

2010-01-01

252

Bacillus thuringiensis and Its Pesticidal Crystal Proteins  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the past decade the pesticidal bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis has been the subject of intensive research. These efforts have yielded considerable data about the complex relationships between the structure, mechanism of action, and genetics of the organism’s pesticidal crystal proteins, and a coherent picture of these relationships is beginning to emerge. Other studies have focused on the ecological role of the B. thuringiensis crystal proteins, their performance in agricultural and...

Schnepf, E.; Crickmore, N.; Rie, J.; Lereclus, D.; Baum, J.; Feitelson, J.; Zeigler, D. R.; Dean, D. H.

1998-01-01

253

Influence of Pesticide Legislation on Danish Groundwater  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Groundwater is one of the most important resources in Denmark. It is consumed by private households, agriculture, fisheries, institutions and industry. Agricultural pesticides have been used in Denmark to protect crop yields. Most of the drinking water wells are located close to fields on which pesticides have been intensively applied. To fulfill the aim of Groundwater Directive 2006, Danish groundwater should have “good groundwater chemical status” by 2015. This directive has set up dete...

Inthasen, Prapaporn

2013-01-01

254

Dietary pesticides (99.99% all natural).  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The toxicological significance of exposures to synthetic chemicals is examined in the context of exposures to naturally occurring chemicals. We calculate that 99.99% (by weight) of the pesticides in the American diet are chemicals that plants produce to defend themselves. Only 52 natural pesticides have been tested in high-dose animal cancer tests, and about half (27) are rodent carcinogens; these 27 are shown to be present in many common foods. We conclude that natural and synthetic chemical...

Ames, B. N.; Profet, M.; Gold, L. S.

1990-01-01

255

Pesticides in Soil: Effects on Microorganisms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since their discovery to the present day, pesticides have been an inevitable segment of agricultural production and efforts have been made to synthesize compounds that would share a required efficacy along with selectivity, sufficient persistence on the object of protection and favourable toxicological and ecotoxicological characteristics so as to minimize their effect on the environment.When a pesticide gets into soil after application, it takes part in a number of physical, chemical and biological processes that depend not only on the compound itself, but a number of other factors as well, such as: physical, chemical and biological characteristics of soil; climatic factors, equipment used, method of application, method of storage, handling and disposal of waste, site characteristics (proximity of ground and underground waters, biodiversity and sensitivity of the environment. Microorganisms play an important role in pesticide degradation as they are able to utilize the biogenic elements from those compounds, as well as energy for their physiological processes. On the other hand, pesticides are more or less toxic substances that can have adverse effect on populations of microorganisms and prevent their development, reduce their abundance, deplete their taxonomic complexity and create communities with a lower level of diversity and reduced physiological activity.The article discusses complex interactions between pesticides and microorganisms in soil immediately after application and over the ensuing period. Data on changes in the abundance of some systematic and physiological groups of microorganisms, their microbial biomass and enzymatic activity caused under pesticide activity are discussed as indicators of these processes.

Ljiljana Radivojevi?

2007-01-01

256

Chlorination of organophosphorus pesticides in natural waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Unknown second-order rate constants for the reactions of three organophosphorus pesticides (chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon) with chlorine were determined in the present study, and the influence of pH and temperature was established. It was found that an increase in the pH provides a negative effect on the pesticides degradation rates. Apparent second-order rate constants at 20 oC and pH 7 were determined to be 110.9, 0.004 and 191.6 M-1 s-1 for chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon, respectively. A higher reactivity of chlorine with the phosphorothioate group (chlorpyrifos and diazinon) than with the phosphate moiety (chlorfenvinfos) could explain these results. Intrinsic rate constant for the elementary reactions of chlorine species with chlorpyrifos and diazinon were also calculated, leading to the conclusion that the reaction between hypochlorous acid and the pesticide is predominant at neutral pH. The elimination of these pesticides in surface waters was also investigated. A chlorine dose of 2.5 mg L-1 was enough to oxidize chlorpyrifos and diazinon almost completely, with a formation of trihalomethanes below the EU standard for drinking water. However, the removal of chlorfenvinfos was not appreciable. Therefore, chlorination is a feasible option for the removal of organophosphorus pesticides with phosphorothioate group during oxidation and disinfection processes, but not for the elimination of pesticides with phosphate moiety

2008-05-01

257

Chlorination of organophosphorus pesticides in natural waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Unknown second-order rate constants for the reactions of three organophosphorus pesticides (chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon) with chlorine were determined in the present study, and the influence of pH and temperature was established. It was found that an increase in the pH provides a negative effect on the pesticides degradation rates. Apparent second-order rate constants at 20 {sup o}C and pH 7 were determined to be 110.9, 0.004 and 191.6 M{sup -1} s{sup -1} for chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon, respectively. A higher reactivity of chlorine with the phosphorothioate group (chlorpyrifos and diazinon) than with the phosphate moiety (chlorfenvinfos) could explain these results. Intrinsic rate constant for the elementary reactions of chlorine species with chlorpyrifos and diazinon were also calculated, leading to the conclusion that the reaction between hypochlorous acid and the pesticide is predominant at neutral pH. The elimination of these pesticides in surface waters was also investigated. A chlorine dose of 2.5 mg L{sup -1} was enough to oxidize chlorpyrifos and diazinon almost completely, with a formation of trihalomethanes below the EU standard for drinking water. However, the removal of chlorfenvinfos was not appreciable. Therefore, chlorination is a feasible option for the removal of organophosphorus pesticides with phosphorothioate group during oxidation and disinfection processes, but not for the elimination of pesticides with phosphate moiety.

Acero, Juan L. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)], E-mail: jlacero@unex.es; Benitez, F. Javier; Real, Francisco J.; Gonzalez, Manuel [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)

2008-05-01

258

Chlorination of organophosphorus pesticides in natural waters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unknown second-order rate constants for the reactions of three organophosphorus pesticides (chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon) with chlorine were determined in the present study, and the influence of pH and temperature was established. It was found that an increase in the pH provides a negative effect on the pesticides degradation rates. Apparent second-order rate constants at 20 degrees C and pH 7 were determined to be 110.9, 0.004 and 191.6 M(-1) s(-1) for chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon, respectively. A higher reactivity of chlorine with the phosphorothioate group (chlorpyrifos and diazinon) than with the phosphate moiety (chlorfenvinfos) could explain these results. Intrinsic rate constant for the elementary reactions of chlorine species with chlorpyrifos and diazinon were also calculated, leading to the conclusion that the reaction between hypochlorous acid and the pesticide is predominant at neutral pH. The elimination of these pesticides in surface waters was also investigated. A chlorine dose of 2.5 mg L(-1) was enough to oxidize chlorpyrifos and diazinon almost completely, with a formation of trihalomethanes below the EU standard for drinking water. However, the removal of chlorfenvinfos was not appreciable. Therefore, chlorination is a feasible option for the removal of organophosphorus pesticides with phosphorothioate group during oxidation and disinfection processes, but not for the elimination of pesticides with phosphate moiety. PMID:17904287

Acero, Juan L; Benítez, F Javier; Real, Francisco J; González, Manuel

2008-05-01

259

Understanding Pesticide Behaviour At The Catchment Scale  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticides in stream flow at the outlet of a 142ha catchment in Eastern England (Col- worth, Bedfordshire), have been monitored since October 1999. About 50% of the total catchment is directly controlled within one farm and a rotation of wheat, oil seed rape, grass, linseed, beans and peas is grown. The data from this catchment are being used to investigate the performance of the USDA SWAT contaminant transport pack- age at the catchment scale. Three years of stream flow and climate data are available with a useful set of pesticide application and detection data. Following calibration and validation of the hydrology of the catchment, pesticide modelling was carried out for tebuconazole, terbutryn, and terbuthylazine. This paper reports on the results of a sen- sitivity analysis of the model, and the final calibrated pesticide component. Analysis of the results obtained show that the timing and decay of predicted pesticide concen- trations are correct. It is therefore recommended that SWAT can be used as a tool to understand pesticide behaviour at the catchment scale.

Kannan, N.; White, S. M.; Worrall, F.; Pendlington, D.; Groves, S.

260

Biomarkers of human exposure to pesticides.  

Science.gov (United States)

For centuries, several hundred pesticides have been used to control insects. These pesticides differ greatly in their mode of action, uptake by the body, metabolism, elimination from the body, and toxicity to humans. Potential exposure from the environment can be estimated by environmental monitoring. Actual exposure (uptake) is measured by the biological monitoring of human tissues and body fluids. Biomarkers are used to detect the effects of pesticides before adverse clinical health effects occur. Pesticides and their metabolites are measured in biological samples, serum, fat, urine, blood, or breast milk by the usual analytical techniques. Biochemical responses to environmental chemicals provide a measure of toxic effect. A widely used biochemical biomarker, cholinesterase depression, measures exposure to organophosphorus insecticides. Techniques that measure DNA damage (e.g., detection of DNA adducts) provide a powerful tool in measuring environmental effects. Adducts to hemoglobin have been detected with several pesticides. Determination of chromosomal aberration rates in cultured lymphocytes is an established method of monitoring populations occupationally or environmentally exposed to known or suspected mutagenic-carcinogenic agents. There are several studies on the cytogenetic effects of work with pesticide formulations. The majority of these studies report increases in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and/or sister chromatid exchanges among the exposed workers. Biomarkers will have a major impact on the study of environmental risk factors. The basic aim of scientists exploring these issues is to determine the nature and consequences of genetic change or variation, with the ultimate purpose of predicting or preventing disease. PMID:9255564

Anwar, W A

1997-06-01

 
 
 
 
261

Mapping ecological risk of agricultural pesticide runoff.  

Science.gov (United States)

A screening approach for the EU-scale is introduced and validated that predicts pesticide runoff and related ecological risk for aquatic communities in small agricultural streams. The approach is based on the runoff potential (RP) of stream sites, by a spatially explicit calculation based on pesticide use, precipitation, topography, land use and soil characteristics in the near-stream environment. The underlying simplified model complies with the limited availability and resolution of data at larger scales. RP is transformed to ecological risk by means of a runoff-response relationship between RP and invertebrate community composition that results from a large-scale investigation and considers the influence of landscape-mediated recovery pools. Community composition is expressed as abundance of SPEcies At Risk (SPEAR) i.e. species that are potentially affected by pesticides because of physiological sensitivity to organic pollutants and ecological traits. The SPEAR concept was applied because it provides powerful community descriptors that are independent of habitat parameters and support comparison of pesticide effects between different geographical regions. Raster maps for the EU before the 2004 enlargement indicate that ecological risk from pesticide runoff is potentially low for streams in 34% of the grid cells with non-irrigated arable land (mostly northern countries, predicted effects at 90% of the streams per cell). Field investigations showed that the screening approach produced appropriate estimates of ecological risk from pesticide runoff for selected regions in Finland, France and Germany. PMID:17689592

Schriever, Carola Alexandra; Liess, Matthias

2007-10-01

262

Pesticides: Striking the right balance? | EurActiv  

... Pesticides: Striking the right balance? | EurActiv science-policymaking,cap,climate-environment,sustainability,pesticides EU news & policy debates- across languages - ... Pesticides: Striking the right balance? Agriculture: In brief Fertilisers: Feeding agriculture's growing needs Eating green? Food, drinks ... › LinksDossier Pesticides: Striking the right balance? -A + A Published 03 October 2008, updated 05 November 2012 Tags pesticides ...Debate over the use of pesticides in agriculture is taking a new twist as an EU proposal to substitute the most dangerous substances with safer alternatives encounters opposition ...

263

Pesticide risk assessment in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recognition of potential risks, all pesticides distributed and sold in the United States must fulfil extensive registration requirements for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Registration is a licensing procedure where industry must submit data to demonstrate the safety of pesticidal substances and products before they can be used commercially. The regulatory control of pesticides is unique among chemicals in the U.S. in that testing beyond initial registration may be imposed by the Agency throughout the commercial life of the chemical, as long as there is adequate justification. Registration requirements are gauged to the nature of potential exposures. For instance, more data are generally needed for food use registrations than for non-food uses because of direct consumption of treated foods by the whole U.S. population. Unlike pesticide practices in many countries and authorities, as in the European Community where agricultural pesticides, non-agricultural pesticides and genetically engineered microbial agents are handled by separate directives, all pesticide activities are covered in the U.S. by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. This statute covers pesticide uses on foods and animal feed and a number of non-food applications like forest and horticultural uses, residential lawn care, in-home applications, and disinfectants/sterilants. Traditional inorganic and organic chemicals are covered, as well as biological agents like pheromones. Naturally occurring and genetically altered microorganisms also come under the definition of pesticides, but multicellular animals are exempt from regulation as pesticides. Pesticide registration in the U.S. as in many other countries may be a long-term, resource intensive undertaking. Not uncommonly the process from beginning to complete registration may take 4 to 10 years and cost about $10 million. To meet the responsibilities of reviewing studies, overseeing 400 active ingredients and 35,000 products, and implementing other aspects of the statute, EPA employs about 900 people. Unlike the approval process and actions to cancel pesticides in some countries, in the U.S. they are generally much more transparent. The need for specific test guidelines and the nature of the protocols are debated in the scientific community. Test data adequacy is evaluated according to objective criteria, and study findings are reviewed using standard evaluation procedures and risk assessment guidelines that have been through public comment. Agency risk concerns for a registered pesticide are vetted at a meeting of its Scientific Advisory Panel, a group of technical experts outside of government, where the potential risk case is reviewed and discussed. The meeting is open to the public with opportunity for input from industry, public interest groups, and other parties. Formal Agency regulatory proposals to cancel registered pesticides are published for public review and comment, and there may be several rounds of public involvement before a final decision is reached. Even after a regulatory decision has been made, and unless a settlement has been reached, the Agency is often sued by an environmental group or industry that questions the EPA position; in such situations, the case is then transferred to the court for deliberation. Risks are evaluated for a host of different effects by the pesticide program: acute and chronic, human health and ecological

1992-10-05

264

Use of labelled pesticides in pesticide research studies and problems in the interpretation of the data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The introduction of labelled pesticides has helped to solve number of problems connected with the formation and degradation of pesticides, factors influencing the above, location of the metabolites in the plants etc. However in most of the studies, the active ingredient has been labelled and diluted and applied at the recommended doses. But the efficacy of the pesticide is modified by the method of formulation, nature of fillers, emulsifiers, solvents, size of droplets etc. Hence the utility as well as the limitations in the use of labelled pesticides in the formulations are discussed. Also due to the variations in the half life of the radioisotopes used for labelling, the use of labelled pesticides for long as well as short duration crops has also been indicated. Autoradiography has become an useful tool in studying the movement of pesticide in the plant, and insects and also locating the regions of high concentration of pesticides and their residues. Though useful, the production of artefacts caused by exudation of cell sap, and other exudates, thickness of samples, increasing time of contact in the case of low energy radioisotope labelled compounds etc. have prevented the use of this technique on a wide scale. The problems in the preparation of autoradiographs of the plant specimens treated with labelled pesticides are also discussed. (author)

1978-02-04

265

Dislodgability and leachability of pesticides from products made from recycled plastic pesticide containers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The risk of human and environmental exposure from pesticide in products made from recycled pesticide container plastics, originating from the Canadian prairie provinces, was examined. Products tested contained 100%, 50% and 25% pesticide container plastics, with the diluent being other sources of plastic not used to contain pesticides. Products containing 50% pesticide container plastics released the highest amount of pesticide, with trifuralic being the pesticide released in highest quantity. Average amounts of trifuralin dislodged during a 15 minute period did not exceed 3.6 [mu]g/100 cm[sup 2]. Average levels of trifuralin removed over ten leaching events did not exceed 235 [mu]g/m[sup 2]. Significant decreases in pesticide dislodgability and leaching occurred after the plastics were weathered for one year. Levels of dislodged trifuralin were below acceptable daily intake guidelines, thus posing negligible risk. Levels of trifluralin in leachate did not exceed Canadian guidelines for human and animal drinking water quality, however concentrations did exceed limits established for protection of aquatic life. 24 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

Vandersluis, A.M.

1993-05-01

266

Male Reproduction and Pesticides. Work related and dietary exposure : Pesticides Research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We found no difference in semen quality and male fecundity between traditional and organic farmers. Pesticide use by Danish farmers did not influence the different semen parameters Ã? a spraying season. The dietary pesticide intake in the study group did not entail a risk of measurable reduced semen quality. However, the exposure assessments used were based on the extrernal exposure.

Meyer, Otto A.; Büchert, Arne

1999-01-01

267

Investigation of shredded pesticide containers for recycling possibilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Samples of discarded plastic (mostly polyethylene) pesticide containers, of which ca 250,000 kg/y are collected in Alberta, were examined to determine their recycling potential and to suggest possible products. Testing revealed a wide range of pesticides present. Extrusion and heating of the contaminated samples did not destroy the residual pesticides. Washing these samples with detergent and water, methanol, or dichloromethane lowered the pesticide concentration, but did not remove the pesticides completely from the bulk sample. In most cases, even extensive washing or solvent extraction for extended periods followed by extrusion and rewashing the extrusion products did not remove all the pesticides. The exact concentrations of the pesticides were not determined, but relative concentration levels for the pesticides detected in a particular extract were obtained. The direct measurement of the pesticides present in the plastic itself was performed by mass spectrometric analysis using a solid probe technique. The results indicate that certain pesticides are dissolved into the plastic and are not readily removed by surface washing. Solvent extraction over time indicates that these pesticides will diffuse from the plastic, suggesting that dissolved or hard-to-remove pesticides present in the recycled plastic may result in a slow release of the pesticides from the manufactured products. Preliminary results of the testing were presented at a meeting of potential manufacturers of products made from the discarded containers. As a result, several inquiries were received and one joint research venture proposal is being actively pursued. 8 figs., 3 tabs.

1990-04-18

268

Intoxicación por plaguicidas Pesticide poisoning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los plaguicidas son una de las familias de productos químicos más ampliamente empleadas por el hombre. Se han usado sobre todo para combatir plagas por su acción sobre las cosechas o como vectores de enfermedades transmisibles. Los plaguicidas pueden clasificarse en función de su empleo (insecticidas, fungicidas, herbicidas, raticidas… o de su familia química (organoclorados, organofosforados, carbamatos, piretoides, compuestos bipiridílicos, sales inorgánicas…. Todos ellos son biocidas lo que implica, habitualmente una alta toxicidad humana que ha sido motivo de preocupación desde mitad del siglo XX debido al amplio e indiscriminado empleo de estos productos. La exposición a los plaguicidas puede tener efectos agudos, crónicos y a largo plazo. Algunos compuestos organoclorados (como el DDT fueron los primeros en ser empleado en fumigaciones masivas para combatir la malaria y han debido ser prohibidos debido a su capacidad de bioacumulación y persistencia medioambiental. El peligro representado por la generalizada presencia de estos agentes, se ha demostrado en los numerosos episodios de epidemias tóxicas humanas, productoras de alta morbi-mortalidad, descritas por casi todas las familias químicas: insecticidas y fungicidas organoclorados, insecticidas organofosforados y carbamatos, fungicidas organomercuriales y sales inorgánicas. Estos episodios se han producido sobre todo por vía alimentaria y en el terreno profesional. Otras causas de preocupación sanitaria son su capacidad carcinogénica y de ocasionar alteraciones reproductivas. Se presentan las principales características de algunas de las familias más relevantes.Pesticides are one of the families of chemical products most widely used by man. They have been used above all to combat pests because of their effect on harvests and as vectors of transmissible diseases. Pesticides can be classified according to their use (insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, raticides… or by their chemical family (organochlorates, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, Bipyridilium compounds, inorganic salts…. All of them are biocides, which normally implies a high toxicity for humans, which has been a cause for concern since the mid-XX century due to the widespread and indiscriminate use of these products. Exposure to pesticides can have effects that are acute, chronic and long-term. Some organochlorate compounds (such as DDT were the first to be used in massive fumigations to fight malaria and have had to be banned because of their capacity for bioaccumulation and environmental persistence. The danger represented by the widespread presence of these agents has been demonstrated in numerous episodes of human toxic epidemics, producers of a high morbidity/mortality, described for nearly all chemical families: organochlorate insecticides and fungicides, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, organomercurial fungicides and inorganic salts. These episodes have above all been caused through the ingestion of foodstuffs and in the occupational field. Other causes of health concern are their carcinogenic capacity and occasional reproductive alterations. The principal characteristics of some of the most relevant families are presented.

A. Ferrer

2003-01-01

269

Intoxicación por plaguicidas / Pesticide poisoning  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los plaguicidas son una de las familias de productos químicos más ampliamente empleadas por el hombre. Se han usado sobre todo para combatir plagas por su acción sobre las cosechas o como vectores de enfermedades transmisibles. Los plaguicidas pueden clasificarse en función de su empleo (insecticida [...] s, fungicidas, herbicidas, raticidas…) o de su familia química (organoclorados, organofosforados, carbamatos, piretoides, compuestos bipiridílicos, sales inorgánicas…). Todos ellos son biocidas lo que implica, habitualmente una alta toxicidad humana que ha sido motivo de preocupación desde mitad del siglo XX debido al amplio e indiscriminado empleo de estos productos. La exposición a los plaguicidas puede tener efectos agudos, crónicos y a largo plazo. Algunos compuestos organoclorados (como el DDT) fueron los primeros en ser empleado en fumigaciones masivas para combatir la malaria y han debido ser prohibidos debido a su capacidad de bioacumulación y persistencia medioambiental. El peligro representado por la generalizada presencia de estos agentes, se ha demostrado en los numerosos episodios de epidemias tóxicas humanas, productoras de alta morbi-mortalidad, descritas por casi todas las familias químicas: insecticidas y fungicidas organoclorados, insecticidas organofosforados y carbamatos, fungicidas organomercuriales y sales inorgánicas. Estos episodios se han producido sobre todo por vía alimentaria y en el terreno profesional. Otras causas de preocupación sanitaria son su capacidad carcinogénica y de ocasionar alteraciones reproductivas. Se presentan las principales características de algunas de las familias más relevantes. Abstract in english Pesticides are one of the families of chemical products most widely used by man. They have been used above all to combat pests because of their effect on harvests and as vectors of transmissible diseases. Pesticides can be classified according to their use (insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, rati [...] cides…) or by their chemical family (organochlorates, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, Bipyridilium compounds, inorganic salts…). All of them are biocides, which normally implies a high toxicity for humans, which has been a cause for concern since the mid-XX century due to the widespread and indiscriminate use of these products. Exposure to pesticides can have effects that are acute, chronic and long-term. Some organochlorate compounds (such as DDT) were the first to be used in massive fumigations to fight malaria and have had to be banned because of their capacity for bioaccumulation and environmental persistence. The danger represented by the widespread presence of these agents has been demonstrated in numerous episodes of human toxic epidemics, producers of a high morbidity/mortality, described for nearly all chemical families: organochlorate insecticides and fungicides, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, organomercurial fungicides and inorganic salts. These episodes have above all been caused through the ingestion of foodstuffs and in the occupational field. Other causes of health concern are their carcinogenic capacity and occasional reproductive alterations. The principal characteristics of some of the most relevant families are presented.

A., Ferrer.

270

Characterizing pesticide dissipation in food crops  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ingestion of residues via consumption of food crops is the predominant exposure route of the general population toward pesticides. However, pesticide dissipation in crops constitutes a main source of uncertainty in estimating residues in harvested crop parts and subsequent human exposure. Nevertheless, dissipation is a key mechanism in models assessing pesticide distribution in the cropenvironment and the magnitude of residues in harvest. We provide a consistent framework for characterizing pesticide dissipation in food crops for use in modeling approaches applied in health risk and impact assessment. We collected 4,482 unique dissipation half-lives for 341 substances applied to 182 different crop species and fully characterize these data by describing their variance, distribution and uncertainty as well as by identifying the influence of substance, crop and environmental characteristics. We obtain an overall geo-mean half-life over all data points of 3.9 days with 95% of all half-lives falling within the range between 0.6 and 29 days. Uncertainty in predicting a substance-specific geo-mean half-life varies with varying numbers of available data points with the highest uncertainty associated to pesticides with less than seven reported half-lives. Temperature in air was identified to have a significant influence on dissipation kinetics. We, hence, provide estimated half-lives for a default temperature of 20°C, while introducing a correction term for deviating temperature conditions. Diffusive exchange processes also have a significant influence on pesticide dissipation, wherever these processes dominate dissipation rates compared to degradation. In these cases, we recommend not to use measured dissipation half-lives as basis for estimating degradation, which is recommended in cases, where degradation is dominating. We are currently testing the regression to predict degradation half-lives in crops. By providing mean degradation half-lives at 20°C for more than 300 pesticides, we reduce uncertainty and improve assumptions in current practice of health risk and impact assessments.

Fantke, Peter

2013-01-01

271

TRANSFER EFFICIENCES OF PESTICIDES FROM HOUSEHOLD CERAMIC TILE TO FOODS  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditional assessments of pesticide exposure through diet have focused on contamination during production (e.g., pesticides in agriculture). However, recent residential monitoring studies have demonstrated that a significant portion of total exposure to infants and children ...

272

Improving poisoning diagnosis and surveillance of street pesticides  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english An effective surveillance system is required to reduce pesticide exposures and poisonings, especially from street pesticides (illegal, unlabelled, and decanted agricultural pesticides used predominately for urban household purposes). Poisoning from any pesticide class, not only organophosphates, con [...] stitutes a medically notifiable condition in South Africa. Current practice, however, is to report only organophosphate cases, resulting in severe under-reporting. The lack of data concerning the link between poisonings and street pesticides has led to the mistaken assumption that urban populations are not at risk from significant pesticide exposures and poisonings. Without accurate statistics, healthcare professionals and policy makers are unaware of the contribution of street pesticide poisonings to the overall health burden. Accurate diagnosis is a prerequisite for notification and subsequent surveillance. An algorithm has been developed to enable healthcare professionals to improve the diagnosis and notification of pesticide poisonings.

Hanna-Andrea, Rother.

273

Selective Binding of Organophosphate Pesticides Using Molecular Imprinted Polymers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Molecular Imprinted Polymers (MIPs) have been used for recognition and binding of different compounds. We are developing MIPs to selectively bind organophosphate pesticides and toxic chemical warfare nerve agents. MIPs were made to the pesticide Dichlorvo...

A. M. Saboori R. K. Gordon

2005-01-01

274

SURFACTANT EFFECTS ON PESTICIDE PHOTOCHEMISTRY IN WATER AND SOIL  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of surfactants on the photochemical decomposition of selected pesticides are examined both in aqueous solution and on selected soil surfaces. Typical surfactants usually enhance the rate of pesticide photodecomposition. In solution, increased quantum efficiencies and ...

275

77 FR 12740 - Trinexapac-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...assumption that homeowner handlers wear shorts, short-sleeved...with the use of a pesticide product including...application. Residential handler exposure scenarios...practice and procedure, Agricultural commodities, Pesticides and pests,...

2012-03-02

276

THE EFFECT OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES ON ESTUARINE AMMONIUM OXIDIZERS  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of seven thiophosphorus pesticides and their degradation products on estuarine ammonium oxidizers were examined. Using an axenic, closed-culture, high cell density assay, the pesticides caused little inhibition of ammonium oxidation. However, the degradation product o...

277

Environmental Fates and Impacts of Major Forest Use Pesticides.  

Science.gov (United States)

In January 1980, the Special Pesticide Review Division of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances initiated the 'Forest Use Chemicals Project', the objective of which was to develop guidance for the timber prod...

L. Fargo M. Ghassemi P. Painter P. Painter S. Quinlivan

1981-01-01

278

Catalog of Pesticide Chemical Names and Their Synonyms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The document contains an alphabetical listing of active chemicals. It is an extensive pesticide collection of chemical reference points compiled from 'Acceptable Common Names and Chemical Names for the Ingredient Statement on Pesticide Labels' (EPA-540/9-...

R. Coberly E. H. McAloon E. Regelman

1986-01-01

279

Guidelines for performance standards of pesticides for safe use  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article discusses the efforts to conduct more overall and systematic tests of the dynamics of pesticide residue on agricultural crops in China. A national cooperation group for scientific research on pesticide residue was organized and placed under the direct leadership of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. The ''National Standards for the Safe Use of Pesticides'' is applicable to 29 types of pesticides on 16 kinds of crops. Standards have also been established for the testing of pesticide residue on agricultural crops and in the soil. Topics considered include the selection of experimental pesticides and crops, the design of potted plants and field experiments, the design of simultaneous experiments, the design of test chemicals, the spot survey of residues, a design for testing the pesticide residue in soil, testing and measuring pesticide residue, and the method of gathering test samples.

Fan Defang; Cheng, H.

1983-02-20

280

40 CFR 180.3 - Tolerances for related pesticide chemicals.  

Science.gov (United States)

...arsenic-containing chemicals, metallic dithiocarbamates, cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides...more than one member of the class of dithiocarbamates listed in paragraph (e)(3...pesticides are members of the class of dithiocarbamates: A mixture of 5.2 parts...

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
281

Pesticide Fact Sheet: 'Paecilomyces fumosoroseus' Apopka Strain 97.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after registration of a new chemical.

1998-01-01

282

Pesticide Fact Sheet: 'Beauveria bassiana' Strain ATCC 74040.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after registration of a new chemical.

1998-01-01

283

Pesticide Fact Sheet: 'Bacillus thuringiensis' Subspecies 'israelensis' Strain EG2215.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after registration of a new chemical.

1998-01-01

284

Pesticides, Chromosomal Aberrations, and Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An excessive incidence of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) has been reported among farmers and other occupational groups working with pesticides. Some pesticides exhibit immunotoxic and genotoxic activities. Individuals exposed to pesticides have also been found to have an increased prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities including the t(14;18)(q32;q21), one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities in NHL. Two recent epidemiologic studies reported that the association between pesticide expo...

Chiu, Brian C. -h; Blair, Aaron

2009-01-01

285

Use-Exposure Relationships of Pesticides for Aquatic Risk Assessment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Field-scale environmental models have been widely used in aquatic exposure assessments of pesticides. Those models usually require a large set of input parameters and separate simulations for each pesticide in evaluation. In this study, a simple use-exposure relationship is developed based on regression analysis of stochastic simulation results generated from the Pesticide Root-Zone Model (PRZM). The developed mathematical relationship estimates edge-of-field peak concentrations of pesticides...

Luo, Yuzhou; Spurlock, Frank; Deng, Xin; Gill, Sheryl; Goh, Kean

2011-01-01

286

Public Health Implications of Pesticide Residues in Meat  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. Since then various synthetic pesticides are used for protection of crops and public health. The persistence nature of some of these pesticides led to their accumulation in animal tissues and subsequently causes human dietary exposure to these pesticides through consumption of animal products viz. meat, milk, eggs and seafoods. Scientific evidence suggest that even such low dose but l...

Jadhav V.J. and Waskar V.S.

2011-01-01

287

Parkinson’s disease risk from ambient exposure to pesticides  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Due to the heavy and expanding agricultural use of neurotoxic pesticides suspected to affect dopaminergic neurons, it is imperative to closely examine the role of pesticides in the development of Parkinson’s disease (PD). We focus our investigation on pesticide use in California’s heavily agricultural central valley by utilizing a unique pesticide use reporting system. From 2001 to 2007, we enrolled 362 incident PD cases and 341 controls living in the Central Valley of Cali...

Wang, Anthony; Costello, Sadie; Cockburn, Myles; Zhang, Xinbo; Bronstein, Jeff; Ritz, Beate

2011-01-01

288

Microbial pesticides [data requirements for environmental risk assessment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The market for microbial pesticides is, though slowly, expanding. Therefore more research with these pesticides will be carried out in the near future, not only for agronomical and economical, but also for environmental reasons. As more chemical pesticides are going to be banned, microbial pesticides, with a more environmental friendly image, can be an interesting alternative for farmers. Regulatory agencies therefore need to build up a consistent framework for the requirem...

Bjwg, Mensink; Jbhj, Linders

2007-01-01

289

Photochemical Attenuation of Pesticides in Prairie Potholes  

Science.gov (United States)

Prairie potholes are small, shallow, glacially-derived wetlands scattered across a vast region extending from Midwestern United States into south central Canada known as the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR). They constitute one of the largest inland wetland systems on Earth and play a prominent role in sustaining the regional biodiversity and productivity. Throughout the PPR, historic and contemporary conversion of native prairie for agriculture resulted in a pronounced loss of potholes. Remaining potholes have become interspersed within a matrix of agricultural landscape and trap nonpoint source pollutants such as pesticides from adjacent farmland, which has raised concerns regarding negative impacts on the water quality of downstream water bodies. The fate and persistence of pesticides in potholes, however, remains largely unexplored. Prairie potholes are typically characterized by shallow depth (i.e., large photic zone) and high levels of dissolved organic matter (DOM), making them ideal for photochemical reactions. In this context, we collected pothole water samples from North Dakota to investigate the rates and mechanisms of sunlight-induced attenuation of pesticides. The photodegradation kinetics and pathways of sixteen pesticides in the pothole water were monitored under both simulated and natural sunlight. For most pesticides, photolysis accelerated in the pothole water relative to the buffer control, which pointed to the importance of photosensitized processes (i.e., indirect photolysis). Upon solar irradiation, a mixture of photochemically produced reactive intermediates (PPRIs), such as carbonate radical, hydroxyl radical, singlet oxygen, and triplet-excited state DOM, formed in the pothole water. The major pathways through which pesticides degraded were inferred from the relative contribution attributable to specific PPRIs via quencher experiments. Different classes of pesticides exhibited contrasting photochemical behavior, but singlet oxygen and triplet DOM appeared to exert the largest effects on the overall photodegradation. Furthermore, a suite of second-order rate constants for reactions of pesticides with PPRIs were derived based on the quenching effect on observed reaction rate constants and measured steady-state concentrations of PPRIs. These rate constants may find practical utility for estimating DOM photochemical reaction rates in addition to data traditionally estimated from model compounds. Overall, our work contributed to a systematic evaluation of the potential for photochemical attenuation of pesticides in near-surface pothole water. Given recent incentives to expand agriculture in the PPR for production of organic crops and corn-based biofuels, this research also calls for the need to properly conserve prairie potholes and to develop regionally-specific, sustainable water resource management and land use strategies.

Zeng, T.; Arnold, W. A.

2013-12-01

290

Comparison of Pesticide Root Zone Model Predictions with Observed Concentrations for the Tobacco Pesticide Metalaxyl in Unsaturated Zone Soils.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pesticide root zone model (PRZM) was developed to evaluate pesticide leaching threats to ground water for different crops under varying climatic conditions, soil characteristics, and cropping practices. In the study, PRZM was evaluated to establish it...

R. F. Carsel W. B. Nixon L. G. Ballantine

1986-01-01

291

COMPARISON OF PESTICIDE ROOT ZONE MODEL PREDICTIONS WITH OBSERVED CONCENTRATIONS FOR THE TOBACCO PESTICIDE METALAXYL IN UNSATURATED ZONE SOILS  

Science.gov (United States)

The pesticide root zone model (PRZM) was developed to evaluate pesticide leaching threats to ground water for different crops under varying climatic conditions, soil characteristics, and cropping practices. In the study, PRZM was evaluated to establish its predictive capability b...

292

The aqueous radiation chemistry of pesticides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text: The degradation of pesticides is an important issue affecting the users and the environment. Degradation rates influence the spatial and temporal application rates and the effects on crops sown in subsequent seasons. Free radical reactions have been widely suggested as important in the aqueous degradation chemistry of pesticides and we report direct measurements of free radical reactions of nine pesticides widely used in Australia. Steady-state gamma radiolysis and pulse radiolysis have been used to follow the chemistry of the reactions of OH, H, O{sub 2}{sup -},SO{sub 4}{sup -},CO{sub 2}{sup -},e{sub aq}{sup -} and other radical species with the nine pesticides. HPLC and mass spectrometry were used to determine the reaction products and the spectra and kinetics of the primary radical reactions and their products were followed by pulse radiolysis. Elucidation of the reaction mechanisms and the structures of the radical intermediates formed from the initial radical attacks has been aided by the use of molecular modelling programs to estimate the configuration and electron density of the intermediates. The results, particularly the rate constants for the Initial radical attack, do not suggest that photochemically generated free radicals play a large part in the degradation of these pesticides in the environment

Cornelius, K.; Laurence, G. [The University of Adelaide, SA (Australia). Department of Chemisty

1998-12-31

293

Compound specific isotope analysis of organophosphorus pesticides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) has been established as a tool to study the environmental fate of a wide range of contaminants. In this study, CSIA was developed to analyse the stable carbon isotope signatures of the widely used organophosphorus pesticides: dichlorvos, omethoate and dimethoate. The linearity of the GC-C-IRMS system was tested for target pesticides and led to an acceptable isotope composition within the uncertainty of the instrument. In order to assess the accuracy of the developed method, the effect of the evaporation procedure on measured carbon isotope composition (?(13)C) values was studied and showed that concentration by evaporation of solvents had no significant isotope effect. The CSIA was then applied to investigate isotope fractionation of the hydrolysis and photolysis of selected pesticides. The carbon isotope fractionation of tested pesticides was quantified by the Rayleigh model, which revealed a bulk enrichment factor (?) of -0.2±0.1‰ for hydrolysis of dichlorvos, -1.0±0.1‰ and -3.7±1.1‰ for hydrolysis and photolysis of dimethoate respectively. This study is a first step towards the application of CSIA to trace the transport and degradation of organophosphorus pesticides in the environment. PMID:24997952

Wu, Langping; Yao, Jun; Trebse, Polonca; Zhang, Ning; Richnow, Hans H

2014-09-01

294

Pesticide leaching in macroporous clay soils: field experiment and modeling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Keywords : pesticide leaching, macropores, preferential flow, preferential transport, cracked clay soil, pesticide leaching models, groundwater contamination, inverse modeling, bentazone and imidacloprid. The presence of macropores (i.e. shrinkage cracks, earthworm and root channels) in the unsaturated zone can enhance pesticide leaching to groundwater and therefore increase the risk of groundwater contamination. In this thesis, experimental...

Scorza Ju?nior, R. P.

2002-01-01

295

PESTICIDE SOURCES TO SOIL AND PRINCIPLES OF SPRAY PHYSICS  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past 50 years, organic pesticides have greatly enhanced the production and quality of food, feed, and fiber as well as the control of disease vectors and pests adversely affecting human health and welfare. n this review of the pesticides literature, the pesticide source te...

296

Spatial and temporal analysis of pesticides concentrations in surface water: pesticides atlas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dutch water boards have a well-established program for monitoring pesticide contamination of surface waters. These monitoring data have been processed into a graphic format accessible online and designed to provide insight into pesticide presence in Dutch surface waters and trends over time: the Pesticides Atlas (http://www.pesticidesatlas.nl). With this tool one can easily get maps of where a pesticide is being measured and where it might possibly constitute an environmental problem over the years. Presently, results of the periods 1997/1998 until 2005/2006 are available at the level of individual active ingredients. At a national level, the percentage of pesticides concentrations that exceed the maximum tolerable risk has declined 30% to 38% over the years 2003/2004 compared with 1997/1998. This means that surface water quality in the Netherlands has improved with respect to pesticides, however there are still many locations at which the measured concentrations exceed the environmental quality standards. The results on linking land use to pesticides concentrations were shown to assist in optimization of monitoring programs. By developing the present Internet tool, many new opportunities for environmental risk assessment and risk management were identified, e.g. optimization of monitoring strategies and communication to policymakers. PMID:18941989

Vijver, Martina G; Van 't Zelfde, Maarten; Tamis, Wil L M; Musters, Kees J M; De Snoo, Geert R

2008-11-01

297

Assessing Children’s Dietary Pesticide Exposure: Direct Measurement of Pesticide Residues in 24-Hr Duplicate Food Samples  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: The data presented here are a response to calls for more direct measurements of pesticide residues in foods consumed by children and provide an opportunity to compare direct measures of pesticide residues in foods representing actual consumption with those reported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Pesticide Data Program. Objective: We measured pesticide residues in 24-hr duplicate food samples collected from a group of 46 young children participating in the Children’s Pesti...

Schenck, Frank J.; Pearson, Melanie A.; Wong, Jon W.; Lu, Chensheng Alex

2010-01-01

298

Pesticides and honey bee toxicity - USA*
---
Pesticides et toxicité chez l'abeille - USA
 

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Until 1985 discussions of pesticides and honey bee toxicity in the USA were focused on pesticides applied to crops and the unintentional exposure of foraging bees to them. The recent introduction of arthropod pests of honey bees, Acarapis woodi (1984), Varroa destructor (1987), and Aethina tumida (1997), to the USA have resulted in the intentional introduction of pesticides into beehives to suppress these pests. Both the unintentional and the intentional exposure of honey bees to pesticides h...

2010-01-01

299

Metabolism of pesticides in experimental animals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemistry of organo phosphate compounds was developed extensively by Michaelis, (1903) in Germany. During the second world war, when german authorities were searching for substances suitable for chemical warfare as nerve gases, the interest in organophosphorus compounds as pesticides had been initiated. organophosphorus pesticides including insecticides fungicides and herbicides have great medical and economic importance through their control of diseases and increase of production by the control of agricultural pests. - The organo chlorine pesticides involve the chlorinated ethane derivatives of which ddt is the best Known example. Such compounds have the disadvantage of being very persistent in the environment and tend to accumulate in the biological as well as non biological media (Goodman et al., 1980). They have a greater potential for chronic toxicity

1993-01-01

300

Concentration of organochlorine pesticides in wine corks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wine corks were extracted and analyzed for 23 organochlorine pesticides, including alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), hexachlorobenzene, DDT, DDE and DDD, chlordane, endosulfan, dieldrin, aldrin, and endrin. This was done to investigate the occurrence, concentrations, composition profiles, and possible sources of organochlorine contamination. All groups of compounds were detected in every sample investigated, with the exception of aldrin and endrin. The total concentrations of organochlorine compounds in all samples ranged from 75-120 ng/g lipid, and for most compounds, the concentrations of organochlorines in cork were consistent with published data for other plant tissues. Differences in the relative abundances of the various classes of organochlorine pesticides were substantial and were probably due to differences in the pesticide usage practices of the various regions in which the cork producing trees were grown. PMID:11482662

Strandberg, B; Hites, R A

2001-08-01

 
 
 
 
301

PESTICIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN VEGETABLES FROM Fabaceae FAMILY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the concentration levels of nine pesticides in vegetables of the Fabaceae family. For this purpose we used chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD after the extraction and cleaning. The recoveries are between 96 and 99%. The repeatability of the method, expressed by coefficient of variation is less than 4.7%. The limits of quantification of the method are between 0.2 to 0.3 ppb. Residues of these pesticides are distributed differently in vegetables, depending on the organ of the plant and areas where vegetables were grown. For all the vegetables studied, DDD, DDE and DDT were below the limit of quantification. All concentrations of organochlorine pesticides from the samples studied are located within the limits imposed by the regulations of the European Commission.

Alina Soceanu

2011-09-01

302

Haematologic Indices in Pesticide Factory Workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of pesticides on blood indices of subjects which are exposed to organophosphate toxins. This research was a cohort study which was carried out during 2005 on the employee of a pesticide factory in Golestan province (North of Iran). In this study the sampling from 63 subjects was carried out for two sessions in days 1 and 90. CBC and hematologic indices performed by cell counter instrument. The mean of MCV in phase 1 was 82.8±7.1 fl and in ...

Hamid Reza Joshaghani; Azad Reza Mansourian; Khodaberdi Kalavi; Saideh Salimi

2007-01-01

303

Effects of pesticides on crab cheliped regeneration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mud crab cheliped regeneration bioassay has proven to be a sensitive and reliable bioassay in studies of the potential sublethal effects of pesticides, including teratogenesis, spontaneous autotomy, and duration of the various stages of development. The assay has also been demonstated to be a useful indication of mortality associated with the impact of these chemicals of anthropogenic origin during the megalopal and early postlarval stages of development. Four pesticides were tested here using the cheliped regeneration bioassay technique. Although carbofuran is approximately 5--6 times more toxic than methomyl, both compounds yield very similar results in terms of sublethal effects.

Costlow, J.D. Jr.

1993-01-01

304

Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms, many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence, and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization of the already approved pesticides and the approval of the new compounds in the near future. Thus, new tools or techniques with greater reliability than those already existing are needed to predict the potential hazards of pesticides and thus contribute to reduction of the adverse effects on human health and the environment. On the other hand, the implementation of alternative cropping systems that are less dependent on pesticides, the development of new pesticides with novel modes of action and improved safety profiles, and the improvement of the already used pesticide formulations towards safer formulations (e.g., microcapsule suspensions could reduce the adverse effects of farming and particularly the toxic effects of pesticides. In addition, the use of appropriate and well-maintained spraying equipment along with taking all precautions that are required in all stages of pesticide handling could minimize human exposure to pesticides and their potential adverse effects on the environment.

Christos A. Damalas

2011-05-01

305

Exploration analytique des intoxications par les pesticides Analytical investigation in pesticide intoxication cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Du fait du nombre croissant d'intoxications par les pesticides, il est important de développer des méthodes performantes permettant l'identification et le dosage des molécules appartenant à l'ensemble des classes de pesticides. Dans ce but, nous avons développé une méthode de dosage originale et sensible de 61 pesticides dans les matrices biologiques. Cette méthode utilise une procédure d'extraction solide/liquide sur support polymérique (HLB and MCX OASIS®. Le couplage chromatographie en phase gazeuse/spectrométrie de masse (GC/MS est utilisé pour les pesticides volatils (organophosphorés, organochlorés, phtalimides, uraciles et un couplage chromatographie en phase liquide/spectrométrie de masse (LC/MS pour les pesticides polaires et thermolabiles (carbamates, benzimidazoles. L'acquisition est réalisée en mode fragmentométrique (SIM. Les rendements d'extraction varient selon la nature des pesticides dosés, mais restent satisfaisants pour l'ensemble des pesticides. Les limites de détection (LOD et les limites de quantification (LOQ sont réparties entre 2,5 et 20 ng/ml et de 5 à 50 ng/ml. La linéarité a été étudiée entre les différentes LOQ et 1000 ng/ml pour tous les pesticides étudiés. Les résultats sont reproductibles et répétables, avec une bonne précision et une bonne justesse. Des exemples d'intoxication permettent de montrer l'intérêt diagnostique de ces méthodes : deux cas d'intoxication mortelle à l'endosulfan et au carbofuran ; trois autres d'intoxication aiguë au parathion-éthyle, à la bifenthrine et à l'aldicarbe. Considering the huge use of pesticides on a worldwide basis, pesticides account for a small but increasing number of human acute and severe intoxication. However, intoxication cases attributed to pesticides are not always well diagnosed nor documented. In clinical and forensic toxicology, identification and quantification of the toxicants involved are essential for a good diagnosis. Hence, we developed an original and sensitive multiresidue methods for the detection and quantitation, in human biological matrices, of sixty one pesticides of toxicological significance in human. These methods involved rapid solid-phase extraction using new polymeric support (HLB and MCX OASIS® cartridges. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS was used for volatile (organophosphate, organochlorine, phtalimide, uracil pesticides and liquid chromatography-ionspray®-mass spectrometry (LC/MS for thermolabile and polar pesticides (carbamates, benzimidazoles. Acquisition was performed in the selected ion monitoring (SIM mode. Extraction recovery varied owing to the nature of pesticides but was satisfactory for all. Limits of detection (LODs and limits of quantitation (LOQs ranged respectively from 2.5 to 20 ng/ml and from 5 to 50 ng/ml. An excellent linearity was observed from LOQs up to 1000 ng/ml for all the pesticides studied. The proposed procedures yielded reproducible results with good inter-assay accuracy and precision. A few cases of intoxication are presented to demonstrate the diagnostic interest of these methods : in two cases were determined lethal concentrations of endosulfan and carbofuran ; in three other cases, the procedures helped diagnose intoxication with respectively parathion-ethyl, bifenthrin and aldicarb.

Lacassie Éric

2009-04-01

306

Pesticide pollution remains severe after cleanup of a stockpile of obsolete pesticides at Vikuge, Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

High levels of DDT residues and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were found in soil, well water, and surface water around a collapsed pesticide storage shed at Vikuge Farm, Tanzania. Residues of DDT and HCHs were found at three soil depths down to 50 cm. Surface soil samples contained up to 28% total DDT and 6% total HCH residues. Water samples had concentrations of up to 30 microg L(-1) of organochlorine pesticides. Other compounds detected were aldrin, azinphos-methyl, carbosulfan, gamma-chlordane, chlorprofam, heptachlor, hexazinone, metamitron, metazachlor, pendimethalin, and thiabendazole. Although the visible remains of pesticides have been removed, the remaining soil is itself hazardous waste and poses a risk to the environment and the inhabitants of the surrounding villages. These findings show the necessity to follow up the environmental situation at former storage sites of obsolete stocks of pesticides, and that the environmental problems are not necessarily solved by removing the visible remains. PMID:15666681

Elfvendahl, Sara; Mihale, Matobola; Kishimba, Michael A; Kylin, Henrik

2004-12-01

307

Use of pesticide simulation models for assessing pesticide contamination of surface and groundwater  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two field scale hydrologic and pesticide routing models, CREAMS (Chemicals, Runoff, and Erosion in Agricultural Management Systems) and PRZM (Pesticide Root Zone Model) were used to predict average pesticide concentrations in storm flow and unsaturated subsurface flow after application of forestry herbicides and insecticides. Forest regions in the mountain, Piedmont, and coastal plain physiographic provinces of the South provide important stream sources and groundwater recharge zones for municipal water supplies. Increasing use of herbicides and insecticides in forest management has raised concerns about maintaining future water quality. Thus tools for assessing potential contamination from pesticide use are needed. CREAMS accurately predicted herbicide concentrations in storm flow in mountain watersheds for 2 months. But it is underestimated concentrations for the next 4 months when transport processes not accounted for in the model dominated actual residue movement. PRZM was likewise tested with actual field data on subsurface movement of herbicides in mountain regions and insecticides in deep sands of the coastal plain.

Nutter, W.L.; Bush, P.B.; Neary, D.G.; Dowd, J.F.

1985-01-01

308

77 FR 64990 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Request for Nominations to the Pesticide Program Dialogue...  

Science.gov (United States)

...pesticide users and growers; animal rights groups; pest consultants; State...entrusted with the responsibility to help ensure the safety of the American...Environmental/public interest and animal rights groups; farm worker...

2012-10-24

309

75 FR 13284 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Request for Nominations to the Pesticide Program Dialogue...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Programs (OPP) is entrusted with the responsibility to help ensure the safety of the American food supply, the education...the current PPDC: Environmental/public interest and animal rights groups; farm worker organizations; pesticide...

2010-03-19

310

Public Health Implications of Pesticide Residues in Meat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. Since then various synthetic pesticides are used for protection of crops and public health. The persistence nature of some of these pesticides led to their accumulation in animal tissues and subsequently causes human dietary exposure to these pesticides through consumption of animal products viz. meat, milk, eggs and seafoods. Scientific evidence suggest that even such low dose but long term exposure can cause serious health hazards to human health and environment as well. The reports on occurrence of pesticides residues in animal products manufactured in India are fragmentary, but provide confirmation to the fact Indian consumers do get dietary exposure to these pesticides. The role of Insecticide Act and Prevention of Food Adulteration Act enforced in India for judicious pesticide use and safety of consumers of animal products is discussed. [Vet. World 2011; 4(4.000: 178-182

Jadhav V.J. and Waskar V.S.

2011-08-01

311

Colloid-Facilitated Transport of Pesticide in Undisturbed Soil Columns  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this work was to verify whether facilitated transport enhances the vertical movement of a relatively strongly adsorbing pesticide, and to study whether ionic strength and pH affects the pesticide and particle transport. Experiments were carried out with 20*20 cm undisturbed soil columns taken from the topsoil (sandy loam, typic Hapludalf) from a field under normal cultivation near Røgen, Denmark. The selected pesticide, prochloraz, was applied to the surface as a pulse in solution. Facilitated transport was significant, but was not dominating the transport of the pesticide: about 10% of the pesticide was bound to particles with diameter d > 0.24 ?m. Preferential flow and particle transport were the two most important factors determining the amount of pesticide leached. Decreasing ionic strength and increasing pH promoted leaching of particles and pesticide.

de Jonge, H.; Jacobsen, O. H.; de Jonge, L. W.; Moldrup, P.

1998-03-01

312

ESTIMATION OF THE BURDEN OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN SLOVAK POPULATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pesticides used in the agriculture have to be applied according to the requirements of good agricultural practice and appropriate law. Pesticides leave detectable residues in agricultural crops, raw materials and ecosystem components. Pesticides reach the human population through the food chain. Information on the type and concentration of pesticide residues in food is in Slovakia collected trough the monitoring programs. Health risks associated with pesticides contaminants in human nutrition are very important and are recently studied by several expert groups. Prerequisite programs are necessary to protect public health. Risk analysis and monitoring of the population burden by pesticide contaminants have to be performed in expert level. The general strategy for assessment of toxicity of pesticides is listed by the World health Organisation. Scientific risk assessment is the basis for taking action and making the legislation at national and European community level.doi:10.5219/69

Jozef Sokol

2010-07-01

313

Effects of halving pesticide use on wheat production  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticides pose serious threats to both human health and the environment. In Europe, farmers are encouraged to reduce their use, and in France a recent environmental policy fixed a target of halving the pesticide use by 2018. Organic and integrated cropping systems have been proposed as possible solutions for reducing pesticide use, but the effect of reducing pesticide use on crop yield remains unclear. Here we use a set of cropping system experiments to quantify the yield losses resulting from a reduction of pesticide use for winter wheat in France. Our estimated yield losses resulting from a 50% reduction in pesticide use ranged from 5 to 13% of the yield obtained with the current pesticide use. At the scale of the whole country, these losses would decrease the French wheat production by about 2 to 3 millions of tons, which represent about 15% of the French wheat export.

Hossard, L.; Philibert, A.; Bertrand, M.; Colnenne-David, C.; Debaeke, P.; Munier-Jolain, N.; Jeuffroy, M. H.; Richard, G.; Makowski, D.

2014-03-01

314

Risk mapping of pesticides: the Dutch atlas of pesticide concentrations in surface waters: www.pesticidesatlas.nl.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many pesticides are being measured in surface water. To promote the use of monitoring data in the process of risk mapping, post-registration, and improvement of water quality, a free available Internet tool has been developed to present all measurements of pesticides in surface water on the level of individual active ingredients in a spatial framework: the Dutch pesticides atlas (www.pesticidesatlas.nl). With this communication tool one can easily get maps concerning where a pesticide is being measured, observed and possibly constitutes a problem over the years. Pesticide concentrations are being compared with environmental standards and maps can been made of each pesticide at a national level. The pesticide maps have been linked with GIS land use data. At present statistical correlations can be made between crop areas and pesticides concentrations in the water. Moreover, predictions can be made where a pesticide might be exceeding environmental standards. Policy makers, chemical industry (product stewardship), NGO's and farmers can use the maps as a tool for communication and improving environmental quality. The atlas is also being used to evaluate the effectiveness of pesticide policy over the years. In this contribution the methodological background of the pesticides atlas is presented. PMID:17390772

de Snoo, G R; Tamis, W L M; Vijver, M G; Musters, C; van 't Zelfde, M

2006-01-01

315

[EMS for pesticide disposal.doc  

…ensure it sprays evenly. ( Ideally have trailed, mounted or self propelled sprayers tested annually under the National Sprayer Testing Scheme. ( Ensure all maps are kept up to date with details of surface waters, springs, wells, boreholes and other vulnerable groundwater so pesticide activities are kept…

316

Decontamination of pesticide packing using ionizing radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Brazilian agriculture activities have consumed about 288,000 tons of pesticides per year conditioned in about 107,000,000 packing with weight of approximately 23,000 tons. The discharge of empty plastic packing of pesticides can be an environmental concern causing problems to human health, animals, and plants if done without inspection and monitoring. The objective of this work is to study the ionizing radiation effect in the main pesticides used in Brazil for plastic packing decontamination. Among the commercial pesticides, chlorpyrifos has significant importance because of its wide distribution and extensive use and persistence. The radiation-induced degradation of chlorpyrifos in liquid samples and in polyethylene pack was studied by gamma radiolysis. Packing of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) three layer coextruded, named COEX, contaminated with chlorpyrifos, were irradiated using both a multipurpose Co-60 gamma irradiator and a gamma source with 5000 Ci total activity Gamma cell type. The chemical analysis of the chlorpyrifos was made using a gas chromatography associated to the Mass Spectrometry-GCMS from Shimadzu Model QP 5000. Gamma radiation was efficient for removing chlorpyrifos from the plastic packing, in all studied cases

2007-11-01

317

Decontamination of pesticide packing using ionizing radiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Brazilian agriculture activities have consumed about 288,000 tons of pesticides per year conditioned in about 107,000,000 packing with weight of approximately 23,000 tons. The discharge of empty plastic packing of pesticides can be an environmental concern causing problems to human health, animals, and plants if done without inspection and monitoring. The objective of this work is to study the ionizing radiation effect in the main pesticides used in Brazil for plastic packing decontamination. Among the commercial pesticides, chlorpyrifos has significant importance because of its wide distribution and extensive use and persistence. The radiation-induced degradation of chlorpyrifos in liquid samples and in polyethylene pack was studied by gamma radiolysis. Packing of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) three layer coextruded, named COEX, contaminated with chlorpyrifos, were irradiated using both a multipurpose Co-60 gamma irradiator and a gamma source with 5000 Ci total activity Gamma cell type. The chemical analysis of the chlorpyrifos was made using a gas chromatography associated to the Mass Spectrometry-GCMS from Shimadzu Model QP 5000. Gamma radiation was efficient for removing chlorpyrifos from the plastic packing, in all studied cases.

Duarte, C.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Lineu Prestes 2.242, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: clduarte@ipen.br; Mori, M.N.; Kodama, Yasko; Oikawa, H.; Sampa, M.H.O. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Lineu Prestes 2.242, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2007-11-15

318

76 FR 61592 - Isopyrazam; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0906; FRL-8874-6] Isopyrazam; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...establishes a tolerance for residues of isopyrazam in or on banana. Syngenta Crop Protection...tolerance for residues of the fungicide isopyrazam, in or on banana at 0.05 ppm...

2011-10-05

319

Attempted suicide with a pesticide mixture.  

Science.gov (United States)

An attemped suicide with a pesticide mixture containing pentachlorophenol, benzene hexachloride, dieldrin, metaldehyde phenoxyacetate esters, paraquat, diquat and petroleum distillates, is reported. The prognosis initially seemed hopeless, but the patient was treated successfully by intensive care with early respiratory assistance. PMID:1232651

Hancock, B W; Martin, J F; Ward, J W; Kilpatrick, R

1975-01-01

320

77 FR 13502 - Pyriofenone; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...exposure of infants and children to the pesticide chemical...result to infants and children from aggregate exposure...including infants and children. The liver and kidney were affected by treatment with pyriofenone, and...Clinical signs included vomiting and loose...

2012-03-07

 
 
 
 
321

Pesticidas e abelhas / Pesticides and honey bees  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Após a análise dos critérios de classificação toxicológica (CT) dos pesticidas para as abelhas e da evolução da CT e da legislação específica deste tema, em Portugal, evidencia-se como a ausência de rigor da Autoridade Fitossanitária Nacional (AFN) e das empresas de pesticidas contribui para a muito [...] elevada probabilidade de mortalidade das abelhas pelos pesticidas e conclui-se com propostas de optimização das perspectivas de modificação da actual situação. Abstract in english After the analysis of the criterion of toxicological classification (TC) of pesticides to honeybees and of the evolution of TC and of legislation related to the theme, in Portugal, it is demonstrated how the absence of rigor of the Portuguese Pesticide Regulation Authority (AFN) and of the pesticide [...] s suppliers contribute to the very high probability of mortality of honeybees by pesticides and finally are presented proposals for the optimization of perspectives to modify the actual situation.

Pedro, Amaro; Joana, Godinho.

322

Pesticide Fact Sheet: Canola Oil (October 1998).  

Science.gov (United States)

An exemption from the requirements of a tolerance is established for residues of the biochemical pesticide, canola oil, conforming to the following definition when used as an insecticide in or on all food commodities: Canola oil, also known as low erucic ...

1998-01-01

323

76 FR 38036 - Propylene Oxide; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2005-0253; FRL-8877-7] Propylene Oxide; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY...SUMMARY: This regulation amends the propylene oxide tolerance on ``nut, tree, group...the Agency's proposal to amend the propylene oxide tolerance (40 CFR...

2011-06-29

324

[EMS for pesticide disposal.doc  

…checklist Maintenance record Recording form for discharges of pesticide washings List of substances and storage facilities Training checklist and training record Complaints form for recording complaints about your site from members of the public. Accident and incident recording form Accident management plan…

325

Home and garden pesticides and biocides  

…unused pesticide product you want to get rid of, don't pour it down the toilet, sink or drain because it may end up polluting a watercourse. This can happen even if your drain empties into a sewer, in which case it could also affect the treatment capabilities of the sewage works. Don't put them in the…

326

Radioisotopes in pesticide residues and metabolic studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The increasing use of pesticides and their serious role as environmental contaminants necessitate detailed studies of their metabolism,toxicology and environmental fate.The complex problems which are beyond conventional analytical analysis could,and with great precision,be solved by the use of nuclear techniques.Pesticides labelled with radionuclides(H-3,C-14,P-32 and Cl-36) can be used.Compounds labelled with these radionuclides can be easily measured,in very low concentrations, by use of liquid scintillation counters.Metabolism and distribution of the labelled compounds in the plant can be followed by autoradiography.In this study,supported by the IAEA, the following pesticides were investigated, C-14 DDT, C-14 Endosulfan, C-14 Carbaryl, C-14 Carbofuran, C-14 Amitraz, C-14 Aldicarb and C-14 Butocarboxim. The investigations included :a) study of the binding of these compounds in soils. b) study of the : i) fate and dynamics of aldicarb in cotton plant. ii) fate of amitraz in tomatoes. 'this work is part of the programme of studies of pesticide residues in soil, plants and foods, aproject supported by the international Atomic Energy Commission '.(Author)

1994-03-01

327

76 FR 27268 - Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerance  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0938; FRL-8872-6] Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerance AGENCY: Environmental...established tolerance for residues of glyphosate in or on corn, field, forage. Monsanto...tolerance for residues of the herbicide glyphosate, N-(phosphonomethyl)...

2011-05-11

328

78 FR 60707 - Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0307; FRL-9396-6] Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...tolerance for residues of the herbicide glyphosate in or on canola, seed at 20 parts per...expression from the combined residues of glyphosate only, to the combined residues of...

2013-10-02

329

DERMAL ABSORPTION OF PESTICIDES CALCULATED BY DECONVOLUTION  

Science.gov (United States)

Using published human data on skin-to-urine and blood-to-urine transfer of 12 pesticides and herbicides, the skin-to-blood transfer rates for each compound were estimated by two numerical deconvolution techniques. Regular constrained deconvolution produced an estimated upper limi...

330

78 FR 70864 - Metaldehyde; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...Leaf Petioles [Crop Subgroup 4B...Existing Tolerances [Crop Subgroups 13...toxicological profile is determined...and 100 percent crop treated (PCT...the Pesticide Root Zone Model/Exposure...exposures from treated soil ingestion...OECD) tolerance calculation procedures....

2013-11-27

331

77 FR 59114 - Cyazofamid; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...and 100 percent crop treated (PCT...residue and percent crop treated (PCT...the Pesticide Root Zone Model/Exposure...activity, and soil ingestion. No...residential use profile, adult handler...OECD) tolerance calculation procedures. Additionally...superseded by new crop group or...

2012-09-26

332

78 FR 9322 - Hexythiazox; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...Toxicological Profile EPA has evaluated...toxicological profile is determined...assumed 100 percent crop treated (PCT...residue and percent crop treated (PCT...the Pesticide Root Zone Model/Exposure...incidental ingestion of soil. Details of...diet (MRBD) calculations for...

2013-02-08

333

78 FR 66651 - Imazapyr; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2012-0583; FRL-9401-9] Imazapyr; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...establishes tolerances for residues of imazapyr in or on lentil at 0.2 parts per million...tolerances for residues of the herbicide, imazapyr [2-...

2013-11-06

334

77 FR 27130 - Ametoctradin; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0261; FRL-9339-6] Ametoctradin; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...establishes tolerances for residues of ametoctradin in or on multiple commodities which...tolerances for residues of the fungicide ametoctradin, including its metabolites and...

2012-05-09

335

77 FR 16544 - Pesticide Product Registration Approvals  

Science.gov (United States)

...applications to register two pesticide products, MOI-401 TGAI (EPA File Symbol 84059-U) and MOI-401 EP (EPA File Symbol 84059- L), containing...Conclusions: On July 29, 2011, EPA registered MOI-401 TGAI (EPA Reg. No. 84059-4) for...

2012-03-21

336

77 FR 12295 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

...352- harris.thomas@epa.gov.... (7505P), Office of ILO, 352-IAN, 352-ILI, Pesticide Programs, 352-IAT, 352-IAE...applications. 1. File symbols: DuPont-352-ILA, 352-ILT, 352-ILO, 352-IAN, 352- ILI, 352-IAT, 352-IAE,...

2012-02-29

337

77 FR 38199 - Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0397; FRL-9350-9] Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...establishes tolerances for residues of propiconazole in or on multiple commodities which...tolerances for residues of the fungicide propiconazole, 1-[[2-(2,4-...

2012-06-27

338

76 FR 54127 - Tebuconazole; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...updates another EPA risk assessment on triazole-derived pesticides which can be found in the reregistration docket for propiconazole at http://www.regulations.gov, docket ID number EPA-HQ-OPP-2005-0497. D. Safety Factor for Infants...

2011-08-31

339

78 FR 23497 - Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2012-0246; FRL-9381-8] Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...existing tolerances for residues of propiconazole in or on multiple commodities which...tolerances for residues of the fungicide propiconazole, 1H-1,2,4-Triazole,...

2013-04-19

340

77 FR 75039 - Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0772; FRL-9369-5] Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...establishes tolerances for residues of propiconazole in or on sugarcane, cane. Syngenta...tolerances for residues of the fungicide propiconazole, 1H-1,2,4-Triazole,...

2012-12-19

 
 
 
 
341

76 FR 27261 - Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-1009; FRL-8873-2] Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...establishes tolerances for residues of propiconazole in or on multiple commodities which...time-limited tolerance for residues of propiconazole in or on avocado, in response to...

2011-05-11

342

Pesticides: Improvements Needed To Ensure the Safety of Farmworkers and Their Children. Report to Congressional Requesters.  

Science.gov (United States)

In response to a Congressional request, the General Accounting Office examined issues related to pesticide safety for children in agricultural settings. Pesticides can cause acute, chronic, or delayed-onset illnesses. Children may be exposed to pesticides through farm work; eating pesticide-treated foods; or contact with drift from pesticide

Guerrero, Peter F.

343

Brassinosteroids promote metabolism of pesticides in cucumber.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are known to protect crops from the toxicity of herbicides, fungicides and insecticides. It is shown here that application of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) accelerated metabolism of various pesticides and consequently reduced their residual levels in cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L). Chlorpyrifos, a widely used insecticide, caused significant reductions of net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and quantum yield of PSII (Phi(PSII)) in cucumber leaves. EBR pretreatment alleviated the declines of Pn and Phi(PSII) caused by chlorpyrifos application, and this effect of EBR was associated with reductions of chlorpyrifos residues. To understand how EBR promotes chlorpyrifos metabolism, the effects of EBR on activity and expression of enzymes involved in pesticide metabolism were analyzed. EBR had a positive effect on the activation of glutathione S-transferase (GST), peroxidase (POD), and glutathione reductase (GR) after treatment with chlorpyrifos, although the effect on GR was attenuated at later time points when plants were treated with 1 mM chlorpyrifos. In addition, EBR enhanced the expression of P450 and MRP, which encode P450 monooxygenase and ABC-type transporter, respectively. However, the expression of GST was consistently lower than that of plants treated with only chlorpyrifos. Importantly, the stimulatory effect of EBR on pesticide metabolism was also observed for cypermethrin, chlorothalonil, and carbendazim, which was attributed to the enhanced activity and genes involved in pesticide metabolism. The results suggest that BRs may be promising, environmentally friendly, natural substances suitable for wide application to reduce the risks of human and environment exposure to pesticides. PMID:19694443

Xia, Xiao Jian; Zhang, Yun; Wu, Jing Xue; Wang, Ji Tao; Zhou, Yan Hong; Shi, Kai; Yu, Yun Long; Yu, Jing Quan

2009-09-23

344

Some laboratory blood indicators in tractor drivers exposed to pesticides  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pesticides represent group of extremely different compounds or mixed compounds. They are produced in the form of powder for direct application, powder for suspension, concentrated suspension, concentration of emulsion, and in other forms as well. Influence of pesticides to exposed workers mainly depends on technology of pesticide application use. All poisons, just like pesticides that come in organism in some way and reach the location of their metabolism, accumulation in the body or extraction must get there through blood. Pesticides influence stem cells in bone marrow, then maturation process of blood elements and can damage mature blood cells in blood circulation. The sample encompassed 142 tractor drivers employed in state agricultural unions who were exposed to pesticides during their work. Concerning annual and daily exposure to pesticides in examined persons is determined that daily extent ranged from 3 to 12 hours and annual from 5 to 125 days, 60.93 in average. In the paper are analyzed following blood count parameters: erythrocytes, hemoglobin, leucocytes and thrombocytes The aim of the paper is to investigate whether pesticides influence changed blood count of tractor drivers exposed to pesticides during their work. Analysis of obtained results indicates that exposure to pesticides, like in examined group of workers, has not influenced damage in any of investigated blood count parameter.

Prokeš Bela L.

2010-01-01

345

Pesticide use knowledge and practices: A gender differences in Nepal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is important to understand gender difference on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices for identifying pesticide risks by gender and to recommend more gender-sensitive programs. However, very few studies have been conducted so far in Nepal. This study, thus, interviewed a total of 325 males and 109 females during 2005 to assess gender differences on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices. More than 50% females had never been to school and only <8% individuals were found trained in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Almost all males and females did not smoke, drink and eat during pesticides application and also believed that pesticides are harmful to human health, livestock, plant diversity and their environment. However, there were gender differences on household decision on pesticides to be used (p<0.001), care of wind direction during spraying (p=0.032), prior knowledge on safety measures (p=0.016), reading and understanding of pesticides labels (p<0.001), awareness of the labels (p<0.001) and protective covers. Almost all respondents were aware of negative impacts of pesticide use on human health and environment irrespective of gender; however, females were at higher risk due to lower level of pesticide use safety and awareness. It is strongly recommended to initiate gender-sensitive educational and awareness activities, especially on pesticide use practices and safety precautions

2007-06-01

346

Pesticide Toxicity Index--a tool for assessing potential toxicity of pesticide mixtures to freshwater aquatic organisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticide mixtures are common in streams with agricultural or urban influence in the watershed. The Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) is a screening tool to assess potential aquatic toxicity of complex pesticide mixtures by combining measures of pesticide exposure and acute toxicity in an additive toxic-unit model. The PTI is determined separately for fish, cladocerans, and benthic invertebrates. This study expands the number of pesticides and degradates included in previous editions of the PTI from 124 to 492 pesticides and degradates, and includes two types of PTI for use in different applications, depending on study objectives. The Median-PTI was calculated from median toxicity values for individual pesticides, so is robust to outliers and is appropriate for comparing relative potential toxicity among samples, sites, or pesticides. The Sensitive-PTI uses the 5th percentile of available toxicity values, so is a more sensitive screening-level indicator of potential toxicity. PTI predictions of toxicity in environmental samples were tested using data aggregated from published field studies that measured pesticide concentrations and toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia in ambient stream water. C. dubia survival was reduced to ?50% of controls in 44% of samples with Median-PTI values of 0.1-1, and to 0% in 96% of samples with Median-PTI values >1. The PTI is a relative, but quantitative, indicator of potential toxicity that can be used to evaluate relationships between pesticide exposure and biological condition. PMID:24463251

Nowell, Lisa H; Norman, Julia E; Moran, Patrick W; Martin, Jeffrey D; Stone, Wesley W

2014-04-01

347

Pesticide leaching FOCUS scenarios if only dissolved pesticides degrade: re-assessing the importance of soil water flow  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the pesticide screening policies assume that both dissolved and adsorbed pesticides are subject to transformation (or degradation), it is debatable whether this assumption is correct. Instead, it has been proposed that only dissolved pesticides may degrade, in line with the consensus on other organic contaminants for which only the dissolved or easily accessible fractions are biodegradable. If only dissolved pesticide fractions can degrade, this has major impacts on the pesticide risk assessment in the EU, which so far assumes all pesticide can degrade, whatever their chemical forms. In particular, if only dissolved pesticide degrades, the sorption process becomes completely irrelevant for the long term leached fraction: both regarding its (non)equilibrium and its (non)linearity assumptions. If sorption as such becomes less important, other processes should become more important for the leached fraction, and water flow as the major driving force is a logical candidate. Indeed, the rate of leaching can be shown to depend significantly on the net precipitation, with some prominent adjustments, if sorption becomes less dominant than in the current pesticide screening approaches. It will be shown that the celerity of leaching depends differently on the water flow, than does the leached fraction (which is crucial for pesticide admission policies). Therefore, a reconsideration of EU pesticide screening and admission policies may be necessary.

Te Brake, B.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.; Verhoef, A.

2009-04-01

348

78 FR 55695 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications To Register New Uses  

Science.gov (United States)

...of Pesticide Products; Registration...new uses for pesticide products containing currently...the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide...new uses for pesticide products containing currently...Product Type: Insecticide. Proposed...

2013-09-11

349

75 FR 28019 - Resmethrin; Notice of Receipt of Requests to Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide...of certain products containing the pesticide resmethrin...resmethrin product registrations...class of pesticides. It is a...pyrethroid insecticide. Resmethrin...cancel certain pesticide product registrations...abatement insecticide. III....

2010-05-19

350

77 FR 75631 - Halofenozide; Cancellation Order for All Pesticide Registrations and Termination of All Uses  

Science.gov (United States)

...Order for All Pesticide Registrations...Agency, of products containing...the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide...uses of these product registrations...containing this pesticide registered...Office of Pesticide Programs Regulatory...registrants, of products registered...Technical Insecticide....

2012-12-21

351

75 FR 61750 - Chloroneb; Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations AGENCY...cancellation order for products containing the pesticide chloroneb, pursuant...of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and...are not the last products containing this pesticide registered...

2010-10-06

352

78 FR 3417 - Iodomethane; Cancellation Order for Pesticide Registrations and Label Amendment  

Science.gov (United States)

...Cancellation Order for Pesticide Registrations...Agency, of products containing...the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide...cancel all these product registrations...containing this pesticide registered...registrant of a pesticide product may at...

2013-01-16

353

75 FR 8340 - Maneb; Product Cancellation Order of a Certain Pesticide Registration  

Science.gov (United States)

...of a Certain Pesticide Registration...Agency, of a product containing the pesticide maneb, pursuant...of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide...cancel their product registration...containing this pesticide registered...

2010-02-24

354

75 FR 51053 - Propetamphos; Notice of Receipt of Requests to Voluntarily Cancel Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Voluntarily Cancel Pesticide Registrations...the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide...registrations of products containing the pesticide propetamphos...organophosphate insecticide registered...propetamphos products. Wellmark...propetamphos pesticide product...

2010-08-18

355

76 FR 68750 - Final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Pesticide General Permit for Point...  

Science.gov (United States)

...chemical pesticides that leave a residue from the application of pesticides...administration, regulation, State Solid Waste regulation, and environmental...species, where there are no residues or unintended effects, are...pesticides'' that leave a residue within its definition...

2011-11-07

356

40 CFR Table 1 to Part 455 - List of Organic Pesticide Active Ingredients  

Science.gov (United States)

...List of Organic Pesticide Active Ingredients EPA census code Pesticide code Pesticide name CAS No. 1 10501 Dicofol [1,1-Bis(chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethanol] 00115-32-2 2 51501 Maleic Hydrazide...

2009-01-01

357

75 FR 44240 - Cancellation of Pesticides for Non-Payment of Year 2010 Registration Maintenance Fees  

Science.gov (United States)

...070909-00004 The Dragonfly Carbon Dioxide Canister...those stocks of registered pesticide products which are currently...Administrative practice and procedure, Pesticides and pests. Dated: July 15...Bradbury, Director, Office of Pesticide Programs. [FR Doc....

2010-07-28

358

75 FR 62738 - Revisions to EPA's Rule on Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides...  

Science.gov (United States)

...on Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides; Notification...persons who submit the results of human research for pesticides to EPA. EPA agreed...reviews of proposed and completed human research for pesticides, based on...

2010-10-13

359

76 FR 71880 - Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides; Notification of Submission to...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2070-AJ76 Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides; Notification...325320) who sponsor or conduct human research for pesticides, and to other entities that sponsor or conduct human research for pesticides (NAICS code...

2011-11-21

360

75 FR 5318 - Notice of Receipt of Requests to Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...of Receipt of Requests to Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations AGENCY...request by registrants to voluntarily cancel certain pesticide registrations. DATES...Agency of applications from registrants to cancel one pesticide product with several...

2010-02-02

 
 
 
 
361

78 FR 11881 - Notice of Receipt of Requests To Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...of Receipt of Requests To Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations AGENCY...requests by registrants to voluntarily cancel certain pesticide registrations. EPA...Agency of requests from registrants to cancel 39 pesticide products registered...

2013-02-20

362

78 FR 15949 - Notice of Receipt of Request To Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Notice of Receipt of Request To Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations AGENCY...requests by a registrant to voluntarily cancel certain pesticide registrations. EPA...requests from Spectrum Group (Spectrum) to cancel five pesticide products registered...

2013-03-13

363

75 FR 32766 - Notice of Receipt of Requests to Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...of Receipt of Requests to Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations AGENCY...or Mosquitoes, LLC., to voluntarily cancel the pesticide registration for the product...Mosquitoes, LLC., the registrant, to cancel the pesticide product listed in...

2010-06-09

364

77 FR 58136 - Notice of Receipt of Requests To Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...of Receipt of Requests To Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations AGENCY...requests by registrants to voluntarily cancel certain pesticide registrations. EPA...Agency of requests from registrants to cancel 51 pesticide products registered...

2012-09-19

365

75 FR 4072 - Notice of Receipt of Requests to Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...of Receipt of Requests to Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations AGENCY...request by registrants to voluntarily cancel certain pesticide registrations. DATES...Agency of applications from registrants to cancel 56 pesticide products registered...

2010-01-26

366

75 FR 1775 - Notice of Receipt of Requests to Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...of Receipt of Requests to Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations AGENCY...request by registrants to voluntarily cancel certain pesticide registrations. DATES...Agency of applications from registrants to cancel 81 pesticide products registered...

2010-01-13

367

76 FR 72405 - Notice of Receipt of Requests to Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...of Receipt of Requests to Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations AGENCY...requests by registrants to voluntarily cancel certain pesticide registrations. EPA...Agency of requests from registrants to cancel 28 pesticide products registered...

2011-11-23

368

78 FR 12313 - Notice of Receipt of Requests To Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...of Receipt of Requests To Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations AGENCY...requests by registrants to voluntarily cancel certain pesticide registrations. EPA...Agency of requests from registrants to cancel 25 pesticide products registered...

2013-02-22

369

77 FR 35379 - Notice of Receipt of Requests to Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...of Receipt of Requests to Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations AGENCY...requests by registrants to voluntarily cancel certain pesticide registrations. EPA...Agency of requests from registrants to cancel 122 pesticide products registered...

2012-06-13

370

75 FR 46932 - Notice of Receipt of Requests to Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...of Receipt of Requests to Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations AGENCY...requests by registrants to voluntarily cancel certain pesticide registrations. EPA...Agency of requests from registrants to cancel 33 pesticide products registered...

2010-08-04

371

77 FR 59190 - Halofenozide; Notice of Receipt of Requests To Voluntarily Cancel Pesticide Registrations and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...of Receipt of Requests To Voluntarily Cancel Pesticide Registrations and Terminate...request by registrants to voluntarily cancel pesticide registrations of all products...pesticide halofenozide. The requests would cancel all technical and end-use...

2012-09-26

372

75 FR 69070 - Notice of Receipt of Requests To Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...of Receipt of Requests To Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations AGENCY...requests by registrants to voluntarily cancel certain pesticide registrations. EPA...Agency of requests from registrants to cancel 49 pesticide products registered...

2010-11-10

373

75 FR 57785 - Notice of Receipt of Request to Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Notice of Receipt of Request to Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations AGENCY...request by a registrant to voluntarily cancel certain pesticide registrations. EPA...Agency of a request from a registrant to cancel five pesticide products registered...

2010-09-22

374

76 FR 4692 - Notice of Receipt of Requests To Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...of Receipt of Requests To Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations AGENCY...requests by registrants to voluntarily cancel certain pesticide registrations. EPA...Agency of requests from registrants to cancel 46 pesticide products registered...

2011-01-26

375

Use of lysimeters for determining pesticide fate in agroecosystems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A lysimeter system is presented in which 14C labelled pesticides are applied in accordance with agricultural practice. The long term behaviour of pesticides in the soil-plant system can thus be determined under realistic climatic, cropping and soil conditions. In these experiments, pesticides and their metabolites are measured in soil, soil solutions, plants and drainage water over several growing seasons. In addition, a wind tunnel, combined with sensitive analytical methods, allows the determination of pesticide residues, their metabolites and 14CO2 as the mineralization product released into the air. Complementary standardized laboratory experiments yield information on the role of individual processes leading to binding, bioavailability and translocation. Important conclusions are thus obtained for the appropriate practical use of pesticides. As a final step in the validation of the lysimeter, a large scale experiment is in progress to compare lysimeter and field studies, with emphasis placed on the translocation of pesticides in deeper soil layers and groundwater. (author). Abstract only

1996-07-01

376

The Processes that Determine the Fate of Pesticides in Soil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pesticides are an inevitable part of the environment, because due to the intensive use their remains are frequently detected in nature, particularly in the soil. Regardless the way pesticides get into the soil, their further fate will depend on many factors. Given the complexity of interactions of pesticides and soil, and the fact that the intensity of interaction of the same compound with different soil types is different, the studies of the influence of most important soil parameters on the mentioned interactions are becoming more numerous. In this paper are presented the processes that determine the fate of pesticides in the soil, as well as the factors that affect these processes. A special emphasis is placed on theadsorption processes, since they determine the concentration of free fraction of pesticide molecules, i.e. of pesticide quantity that may participate in detoxification processes including degradation and mobility.

Rada ?urovi?

2011-01-01

377

Characterization of pesticide-?-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes in aqueous solution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The solubility of four different pesticides, "dimethoate", "simazine" "linuron" and "thiram", poorly soluble or non-soluble in water, were measured in water and in aqueous solution of ?-cyclodextrin by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Standard water solutions of pesticides were prepared in the range of concentrations up to the maximum solubility of each pesticide in water. Concentrations of the pesticides were determined as absorbance on the absorption maximum. The obtained results show that the aqueous solution of ?-cyclodextrin was a powerful solubilizer of investigated pesticides due to the formation of inclusion complexes. Effective solubility of some of the pesticides in aqueous ?-cyclodextrin solution was up to three orders of magnitude higher than those in water. Thermodynamic parameters and complex stability constant of the obtained inclusion complexes were determined by the calorimetric measurements.

Petrovi? Goran M.

2005-01-01

378

Stream habitat structure influences macroinvertebrate response to pesticides  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Agricultural pesticide contamination in surface waters is increasingly threatening to impair the surface water ecosystems. Agricultural streams are furthermore often heavily maintained to optimise the transport of water away from fields. The physical habitat degradation that result from heavy stream maintenance probably introduce additional stress that may act in concert with pesticide stress. We surveyed pesticide contamination and macroinvertebrate community structure in 14 streams along a gradient of expected pesticide exposure. A paired-reach approach was applied to differentiate the effects of pesticides between sites with degraded and more undisturbed physical properties. The effect of pesticides on macroinvertebrate communities (measured as the relative abundance of SPEcies At Risk) was increased at stream sites with degraded physical habitats primarily due to the absence of species with specific preferences for habitats with hard substrate. Our findings highlight the importance of considering physicalhabitat degradation in the assessment and mitigation of risk in agricultural streams.

Rasmussen, Jes; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter

2012-01-01

379

Performance of coatings for concrete exposed to pesticides and fertilizer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a result of Congressional amendments for the reauthorization of the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (known as FIFRA 1988), EPA is proposing minimum standards for secondary containment of pesticide bulk containers and for containment structures for certain pesticide dispensing operations. Concrete is the most common secondary containment construction material for pesticides but concrete may be susceptible to migration of spilled pesticides due to its porosity and potential for cracking. The research described here was requested by EPA`s Office of Pesticide Programs to help identify coatings for concrete that could reduce the migration of pesticides through containment structures. At the time of this writing, the study was about half completed. Preliminary results from twelve generic coating types are discussed.

Broder, M.F.; Nguyen, D.T.; Zarate, E.A.

1994-12-31

380

A case study in Bangka Island, Indonesia on the utilization of pesticides in black pepper plantations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Habits and consequences of pesticide use in pepper plantations were studied in Indonesia. The first study was conducted by questioning 117 farmers about their habits in pesticide use and determining pesticide residues on pepper berries on Bangka Island. Meanwhile, the second study was completed by analyzing exposure levels of pesticide in farmers' bodies before and after pesticide application to pepper plantations at Sukamulya, West Java. Risks of pesticide exposure to below ground terrestria...

Wiratno; Taniwiryono, D.; Brink, P. J.; Rietjens, I. M. C. M.; Murk, A. J.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Gender Difference in Safe and Unsafe Practice of Pesticide Handling in Tobacco Farmers of Malaysia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To identify gender difference in safe and unsafe practice of pesticide handling in tobacco farmers of Malaysia, we conducted a 20-item questionnaire interview on storage of pesticide (4 questions), mixing of pesticide (3 questions), use of personal protective equipment and clothing while spraying pesticide (7 questions), activities during and after spraying of pesticide (5 questions), and maintenance of pesticide sprayer (1 question) in 496 tobacco farmers (395 males and 101 females) in Bacho...

Bin Nordin, Rusli; Araki, Shunichi; Sato, Hajime; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Bin Wan Muda, Wan Abdul Manan; Win Kyi, Daw

2001-01-01

382

Influence of different disease control pesticide strategies on multiple pesticide residue levels in apple  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Seven pesticide application strategies were investigated to control apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) and powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) and, at the same time.. fulfil the new quality standards implemented by some German retailers. These demand that pesticide residues should be below 80% of European Maximum Residue Levels (EU MRL) and that the number of residues present at levels above 0.01 mg kg(-1) should be limited to a maximum of four. The strategies fulfilled the requirement to use combinations of different active substances in order to prevent the emergence of resistance to pesticides. The trials were conducted at two sites in Switzerland, in 2007, and all strategies and applications were in accordance with actual practice. Four replicates of apple samples from each strategy were then analysed for pesticide residues. The incidence of infection with apple scab and powdery mildew were monitored during the season in order to evaluate the efficacy of the different strategies. The efficacies of the different strategies against apple scab and powdery mildew were between 84% and 100% successful. In general, the level of pesticide residues found correlated with application rate and time, and no measured residue level exceeded the EU-MRL. The numbers of residues present at > 0.01 mg kg(-1) were between two and five.

Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Rasmussen, Peter Have

2009-01-01

383

Assessing Diet as a Modifiable Risk Factor for Pesticide Exposure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effects of pesticides on the general population, largely as a result of dietary exposure, are unclear. Adopting an organic diet appears to be an obvious solution for reducing dietary pesticide exposure and this is supported by biomonitoring studies in children. However, results of research into the effects of organic diets on pesticide exposure are difficult to interpret in light of the many complexities. Therefore future studies must be carefully designed. While biomonitoring can account...

Liza Oates; Marc Cohen

2011-01-01

384

Association of Pesticide Exposure with Neurologic Dysfunction and Disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Poisoning by acute high-level exposure to certain pesticides has well-known neurotoxic effects, but whether chronic exposure to moderate levels of pesticides is also neurotoxic is more controversial. Most studies of moderate pesticide exposure have found increased prevalence of neurologic symptoms and changes in neurobehavioral performance, reflecting cognitive and psychomotor dysfunction. There is less evidence that moderate exposure is related to deficits in sensory or motor function or per...

Kamel, Freya; Hoppin, Jane A.

2004-01-01

385

Radiochemical synthesis of 14C-labelled pesticides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioisotopic derivatives of pesticides labelled with either 14C or tritium are indispensable experimental tools for toxicology or metabolism studies required for registration of new compounds. The radiochemical synthetic pathways leading to the preparation of 14C-labelled pesticides of high specific activity, good chemical/radiochemical yield, and high radiochemical purity are presented for three groups of pesticides; triazines, aryl-haloids, and organometallic compounds. (N.T.). 10 refs., 1 tab

1994-01-01

386

Pesticide testing in humans: ethics and public policy.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pesticide manufacturers have tested pesticides increasingly in human volunteers over the past decade. The apparent goal of these human studies is to establish threshold levels for symptoms, termed "no observed effect levels." Data from these studies have been submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for consideration in standard setting. There are no required ethical guidelines for studies of pesticides toxicity conducted in humans, no governmental oversight is exercised, a...

Oleskey, Christopher; Fleischman, Alan; Goldman, Lynn; Hirschhorn, Kurt; Landrigan, Philip J.; Lappe?, Marc; Marshall, Mary Faith; Needleman, Herbert; Rhodes, Rosamond; Mccally, Michael

2004-01-01

387

Progress on multi-residue determination of pesticides in food  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Food safety is important for the national economy and the people’s livelihood. Development of new analytical techniques and risk assessment for pesticide residues in foods are beneficial for risk management, risk communication and the health of consumer. This paper reviewed the new sample pretreatment techniques, pesticide multi-residue detection technologies and its applications, to provide certain reference for the development and improvement of pesticide residues detection and risk assessment in food.

ZHU Pan

2013-02-01

388

What's being used at home: a household pesticide survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective. Since very little is known about the health effects that household pesticides have on children, we conducted this survey to identify what pesticides are being used in the home, where they are being used and stored, and what methods are used for their disposal. Methods. In the spring of 1999 we conducted a survey in a community in the state of Arizona, in the United States of America, on the border with Mexico. To be eligible to participate in the survey, households had to have used a pesticide in the 6 mo prior to the survey and to have at least one child under the age of 10 years. We gathered general information on pesticide usage, storage, and disposal, in addition to specific information about each of the pesticides currently being used and/or stored in the home. Results. In the 107 households surveyed, we found 148 pesticide products, for a mean of 1.4 per household. Half of the pesticides were stored less than 4 feet (1.22 m from the ground, at a level a child could reach. Seventy percent of all the pesticides were stored inside the home, with the kitchen being the storage room most often mentioned. The kitchen was also the room where most of the pesticides were used, with 69% of the respondents saying they had used at least one pesticide there. Conclusions. From our research we conclude that it will be important to continue to investigate all avenues of pesticide exposure in order to fully evaluate childhood exposures. Understanding household pesticide use and developing a model of exposure will help in this process. Profiles of the use, storage, and disposal of products will also guide the development of effective education and poison prevention programs in the community.

Bass Judith K.

2001-01-01

389

Antibiotic, Pesticide, and Microbial Contaminants of Honey: Human Health Hazards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Agricultural contamination with pesticides and antibiotics is a challenging problem that needs to be fully addressed. Bee products, such as honey, are widely consumed as food and medicine and their contamination may carry serious health hazards. Honey and other bee products are polluted by pesticides, heavy metals, bacteria and radioactive materials. Pesticide residues cause genetic mutations and cellular degradation and presence of antibiotics might increase resistant human or animal's patho...

Al-waili, Noori; Salom, Khelod; Al-ghamdi, Ahmed; Ansari, Mohammad Javed

2012-01-01

390

Pesticides and inner-city children: exposures, risks, and prevention.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Six million children live in poverty in America's inner cities. These children are at high risk of exposure to pesticides that are used extensively in urban schools, homes, and day-care centers for control of roaches, rats, and other vermin. The organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos and certain pyrethroids are the registered pesticides most heavily applied in cities. Illegal street pesticides are also in use, including tres pasitos (a carbamate), tiza china, and methyl parathion. In New Yo...

Landrigan, P. J.; Claudio, L.; Markowitz, S. B.; Berkowitz, G. S.; Brenner, B. L.; Romero, H.; Wetmur, J. G.; Matte, T. D.; Gore, A. C.; Godbold, J. H.; Wolff, M. S.

1999-01-01

391

Pesticides and public health: integrated methods of mosquito management.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pesticides have a role in public health as part of sustainable integrated mosquito management. Other components of such management include surveillance, source reduction or prevention, biological control, repellents, traps, and pesticide-resistance management. We assess the future use of mosquito control pesticides in view of niche markets, incentives for new product development, Environmental Protection Agency registration, the Food Quality Protection Act, and improved pest management strate...

Rose, R. I.

2001-01-01

392

Fate of pesticide residues on tea from leaf to cup  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This comprehensive review of the fate of pesticides deposited on tea leaves focuses on the wide variations in MRL levels fixed by different agencies viz., EU, EPA, Codex, which may differ by as much as 200 times in individual chemicals. Hence, there is a need for harmonization of pesticide residue limits, which should be agreed to by all the stakeholders. The main factors that determine the pesticide load are the characteristics of chemicals; prevailing field conditions; the process of manufa...

2003-01-01

393

Chitosan based Butyrylcholinesterase Biosensor for the Pesticide Detection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The increasing concern for ground water pollution, due to the use of pesticides in agriculture, requires a strong effort in order to detect pollutants with reliable, economical and rapid methods; some pollutants like pesticides and heavy metals, infact, are very dangerous for human health. Pesticides are highly toxic compounds and some of them are powerfull inhibitors of enzymes involved in nerve functions. It is true that they show low environmental persistence but they have acut toxicity an...

Timur, Suna; Telefoncu, Azmi; Ege University, Faculty Of Science

2001-01-01

394

KINETICS OF BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF LOW LEVEL PESTICIDE WASTEWATER  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pesticides are chemical substances intended to protect food crops and livestock from pests in order to pro-mote agricultural productivity and protect public health. Contamination of soil, air and water and threat to human and animal health are the major constraints in the use of pesticides. Treatment of pesticide contaminated water is, therefore, paramount. Biological treatment provides the most economical option when compared to other treatment methods. The aim of the study was to develop a ...

Ghaly, Abdel E.; Deepika Dave

2012-01-01

395

Environmental Exposure Assessment of Pesticides in Farmworker Homes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Farmworkers and their families are exposed to pesticides both at work and in their homes. Environmental exposure assessment provides a means to evaluate pesticides in the environment and human contact with these chemicals through identification of sources and routes of exposure. To date, a variety of methods have been used to assess pesticide exposure among farmworker families, mostly focusing on dust and handwipe samples. While many of the methods are similar, differences in the collection, ...

Hoppin, Jane A.; Adgate, John L.; Eberhart, Monty; Nishioka, Marcia; Ryan, P. Barry

2006-01-01

396

78 FR 32246 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for New Active Ingredients  

Science.gov (United States)

...received several applications to register pesticide products containing active ingredients not included in any currently registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act...

2013-05-29

397

77 FR 66836 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

...has received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any currently registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide...

2012-11-07

398

78 FR 3422 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

...has received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any currently registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act...

2013-01-16

399

77 FR 75152 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

...has received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any currently registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act...

2012-12-19

400

78 FR 10167 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient  

Science.gov (United States)

...has received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any currently registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act...

2013-02-13

 
 
 
 
401

77 FR 72342 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

...has received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any currently registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act...

2012-12-05

402

Water pollution: Pesticides in Aquatic environments. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the physicochemical and biochemical dynamics of pesticides in aquatic environments. The effects of organophosphorus, organochlorine, and arsenical pesticides on marine, surface, and groundwater ecosystems are discussed. Topics include biological fate and transformation of pesticides in waters, sources of release and transport of pesticides, bioaccumulation and metabolism of pesticides by aquatic organisms, ecological concentration and degradability of pesticides in model ecosystems, and marine ecology. Guidelines for pesticide registration and pesticide effluents are also referenced. (Contains a minimum of 205 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

1993-01-01

403

Ultrasonic destruction of pesticide contaminants in slurries.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of high power ultrasound to destroy pesticide contaminants in sand slurries is reported. Small quantities of DDT, chlordane, atrazine, 2,4,5-T and endosulfan in solvent were added to washed, screened sand and deposited onto the sand by slow evaporation of the solvent. Fifty wt.% slurries for all five pesticides and 20 wt.% slurries of atrazine and 2,4,5-T were sonicated for periods up to 30 min and samples were withdrawn at various intervals and analysed to follow the kinetics of contaminant destruction. Seventy percent destruction of the contaminant was obtained for four of the 50 wt.% slurries with approximately 50% destruction of 2,4,5-T in 10 min of sonication whereas, in the 20 wt.% slurries of atrazine and 2,4,5-T, and 75% and 85% reduction, respectively, was obtained in 10 min. We postulate that better stirring of the slurry will improve these rates of contaminant destruction. PMID:19515599

Collings, A F; Gwan, P B

2010-01-01

404

Determination of chlorinated pesticides in potable water.  

Science.gov (United States)

A procedure is described for monitoring organochlorine pesticides in potable water. Material adsorbed from water on to Amberlite XAD-2 macroreticular resin was eluted with n-hexane and the concentrated eluate was analyzed without further treatment. Electron capture (63Ni) gas chromatography utilizing a column of 4% QF-1 and 2% SE-30 on 80-100 mesh HP Chromosorb W at 180 degrees permitted identification of organochlorine pesticides and indicated the presence of phthalates. Confirmatory qualitative and quantitative analyses were done by specific ion-monitoring mass spectrometry. Levels determined in Ottawa drinking water were 17 ppt alpha-BHC, 1.3 ppt lindane, 0.7 ppt aldrin, and less than 0.05 ppt for each of heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, endrin, chlordane, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDT, and p,p'-DDE. PMID:833236

McNeil, E E; Otson, R; Miles, W F; Rajabalee, F J

1977-02-11

405

Bifunctional surfactants their potential application as pesticides  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, a new class of surfactants that combines two contradictory functions has appeared. They can be used as effective antioxidants protecting model and biological objects against peroxidation and its negative consequences, thanks to the antioxidant functional group incorporated into the hydrophilic part of the molecule. On the other hand, they may be applied as common pesticides thanks to their intensive interaction with biological membranes that leads to destruction and death of the unwanted microorganisms. Both applications depend on the concentration of the bifunctional surfactants (BS used. The work contains results of the studies on a possible pesticide application of the bifunctional surfactants. Planar lipid membranes (BLM were used as model membranes.

Sarapuk J.

2000-09-01

406

Biodegradation of Organophosphate Pesticide by Soil Fungi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study using enrichment technique biodegradation of organophosphorous pesticide, (Chloropyrifos and Ethion was performed. Two fungal isolates Trichoderma harznaium and Rhizopus nodosus isolated from the contaminated soil by enrichment technique, was capable of metabolizing the organophosphorous insecticide (Chloropyriofos and Ethion as a sole carbon source when grown in burkes mineral medium at concentration of 100 PPM respectively. Fungi were able to degrade 70-80% of the parental molecule (technical grade in 21 days period of incubation. Further, efficiency of degradation was increased by 10-20% with the supplementation of 0.1% dextrose to the mineral media. Desertion of Chloropyrifos, Ethion and its metabolites were analyzed by thin layer chromatography and gas Chromatography. It was evident from the result that the isolated fungi could be used to bioremediate the area contaminated with organophosphorous pesticide.

Harish.R

2013-03-01

407

Effect of pesticides on surface ozone concentration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparative study through seasonal variation of surface ozone concentration was carried out recently (1991-1992) at a background area free from expected urban pollutants (Shebin ElKom) and industrial and urban areas (Cairo). Surface ozone concentrations in ppb were generally lower in such area compared with urban or industrial areas studied through the comparative seasonal variations. Notable smog values (>100 ppb) of hourly surface ozone concentrations appeared during summer season in this rural area; during this season, some pesticides were sprayed over cotton and other crops fields in near by agricultural areas. The unexpected jump in the values of diurnal concentrations of surface ozone in that area may be due to the photochemical reactions of these organic pesticides in the atmosphere. 1 fig, 3 tab

1992-11-28

408

Human sperm aneuploidy after exposure to pesticides.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the effect of paternal environmental exposure to pesticides on the frequency of aneuploidy in human sperm. To determine if the chromosome number in germ cells was altered by paternal exposure, multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis was utilized to measure aneuploidy frequencies in the sperm of 40 men (20 exposed, 20 controls). Samples were coded for "blind analysis" to eliminate scorer bias. Aneuploidy and diploidy frequencies were assessed for chromosomes 13, 21, X, and Y. A minimum of 10,000 sperm was scored per donor per chromosome probe with a total of 809,935 sperm scored. Hybridization efficiency was 99%. There were no significant differences in aneuploidy or diploidy frequencies between exposed and control groups, suggesting that the pesticides did not increase the risk of numerical chromosomal abnormalities in these men. PMID:14735496

Smith, Jena L; Garry, Vincent F; Rademaker, Alfred W; Martin, Renée H

2004-03-01

409

Effects of pesticides on Azotobacter chroococcum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studied in this paper were the effects of three concentrations of four different pesticides (two herbicides - Ro-Neet and pyramin, one insecticide - lindan and one fungicide - mankogal on the growth of pure cultures of three Azotobacter chroococcum strains. The lowest and highest concentrations used in the study were ten times lower and ten times higher than the concentration used in actual agricultural practice (in the field respectively. The pesticides had different effects on the growth of the Azotobacter chroococcum strains. All three strains of Azotobacter chroococcum grew unimpeded regardless of the pyramin, Ro-Neet-a and lindan concentration, whereas all three mankogal concentrations caused growth inhibition to occur in the three strains, which can, therefore, be deemed highly susceptible to the fungicide mankogal.

Mrkova?ki Nastasija B.

2002-01-01

410

Microbial inoculant carrier for pesticide degradation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biological degradation of pesticides may be enhanced by using a suitable carrier that sustains microbial growth. The char matrix (TRB Char) was evaluated as a biocarrier, and is produced by three sequential cocurrent gasifications of coal. The nature of TRB Char and the large pores provides an ideal matrix for mixing, drying, and retaining liquid wastes. The macropore structure of TRB Char is also ideal for microbial growth. Plate counts were conducted to monitor the extent of microbial growth following 20 and 504 hours of growth. Additionally, electron micrograph scans showed location of microbial growth on the char particle. By 21 days 10{sup 8} colony forming units per gram of bacteria had grown. The electron micrographs showed that the macropore structure of TRB Char is an ideal shelter for microbial growth throughout the char particle. TRB Char could serve as a biocarrier for pesticide degradation.

Zhixing, Y.; Velagaleti, R.; Gorman, M. [ABC Laboratories, Inc., Columbia, MO (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31

411

Knowledge and beliefs regarding agricultural pesticides in rural Guatemala  

Science.gov (United States)

Throughout Central America, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and the Zamorano Pan-American Agricultural School support a Safe Pesticide Use program. In 1993, a study of results was carried out among farmers and housewives in eastern Guatemala. Aspects of the methodology included: (1) participation of extension workers in all aspects of the study; (2) small, region-focused samples (eight cells, 30 interviews per cell); (3) comparison to control groups of untrained farmers and housewives; (4) a traditional questionnaire for studying acquisition of specific knowledge; and (5) a flexible instrument for building a cognitive map of knowledge and beliefs regarding pesticides. The cognitive map is a step toward applying modern psychocultural scaling, an approach already well developed for medicine and public health, to environmental problems. Positive results detected include progress at learning the meaning of colors on containers that denote toxicity and where to store pesticides. Pesticide application problems detected were mention by farmers of highly toxic, restricted pesticides as appropriate for most pest problems and of insecticides as the correct solution to fungus problems, and the widespread belief that correct pesticide dosage depends on number of pests seen rather than on land or foliage surface. Health-related problems detected were admission by a vast majority of housewives that they apply highly toxic pesticides to combat children's head-lice; low awareness that pesticides cause health problems more serious than nausea, dizziness, and headaches; and a common belief that lemonade and coffee are effective medicines for pesticide poisoning.

Popper, Roger; Andino, Karla; Bustamante, Mario; Hernandez, Beatriz; Rodas, Luis

1996-03-01

412

Biosensor for Pesticides Based on Valerolacton Copolymer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A construction of amperometric biosensor based on immobilized acetycholinesterase and cholin oxidase is described and its application in the detection of organophosphate pesticides through enzyme inhibition measurements is discussed. The bioactive component of the sensor consists of acetycholinesterase or cholin oxidase covalently immobilized on two types new polymeric synthetic membranes. Two types of the copolymers were used for the synthesis of membranes - the copolymer of polyacrylamide a...

Marinkova D.; Yaneva S.; Yotova L.; Mateva R.

2007-01-01

413

Effects of fertilizer and pesticides on concrete  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Concrete is the most common material of construction for secondary containment of fertilizers and pesticides because of its relative low cost and structural properties. Concrete, however, is porous to some products it is designed to contain and is subject to corrosion. In this paper, concrete deterioration mechanisms and corrosion resistant concrete formulation are discussed, as well as exposure tests of various concrete mixes to some common liquid fertilizers and herbicides.

Broder, M.F.; Nguyen, D.T.; Harner, A.L. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, AL (United States)

1994-12-31

414

Acute pesticide poisoning: a proposed classification tool  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cases of acute pesticide poisoning (APP) account for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Developing countries are particularly susceptible due to poorer regulation, lack of surveillance systems, less enforcement, lack of training and inadequate access to information systems. Previous research has demonstrated wide variability in incidence rates for APP. This is possibly due to inconsistent reporting methodology and exclusion of occupational and non-intentional poisonings. The purpo...

2008-01-01

415

Occurrence of organochlorine pesticides in indoor dust  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Organochlorine pesticides are present in the environment and suspected of causing serious health effects. Diet has been the main exposure source, but indoor source release is gaining focus. Within a monitoring study of polychlorinated biphenyls of Danish buildings built during the 1960s and 1970s, we coincidently determined extreme levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) levels in two of ten random samples. This raises concern and further large scale investigations are warranted to confirm this.

Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Mayer, Philipp

2011-01-01

416

New insight into pesticide partition coefficient Kd for modelling pesticide fluvial transport: Application to an agricultural catchment in south-western France  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pesticides applied on crops are leached with rainfall to groundwater and surface water. They threat the aquatic environment and may render water unfit for human consumption. Pesticide partitioning is one of the pesticide fate processes in the environment that should be properly formalised in pesticide fate models. Based on the analysis of 7 pesticide molecules (alachlor, atrazine, atrazine's transformation product deethylatrazine or DEA, isoproturon, tebuconazole and trifluralin) sampled from...

Boithias, Laurie; Sauvage, Sabine; Merlina, Georges; Jean, Se?verine; Probst, Jean-luc; Sanchez-pe?rez, Jose?-miguel

2014-01-01

417

A Guide to Pesticide Regulation in the UK, and the Role of the Advisory Committee On Pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

This "Pesticides Forum Paper" (PF101i), from the UK Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, covers pesticide use, legislation, and regulation within the UK and the greater European Union region. Targeting politicians, journalists, consumer organizations, and the general public, the paper specifically seeks "to explain how pesticides are currently regulated in the UK, what information is used to assess the risks that they might pose, and the roles of the various organizations that participate in the regulatory process."

418

Monitoring pesticides in the Great Barrier Reef.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticide runoff from agriculture poses a threat to water quality in the world heritage listed Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and sensitive monitoring tools are needed to detect these pollutants. This study investigated the utility of passive samplers in this role through deployment during a wet and dry season at river mouths, two near-shore regions and an offshore region. The nearshore marine environment was shown to be contaminated with pesticides in both the dry and wet seasons (average water concentrations of 1.3-3.8 ng L(-1) and 2.2-6.4 ng L(-1), respectively), while no pesticides were detected further offshore. Continuous monitoring of two rivers over 13 months showed waters flowing to the GBR were contaminated with herbicides (diuron, atrazine, hexazinone) year round, with highest average concentrations present during summer (350 ng L(-1)). The use of passive samplers has enabled identification of insecticides in GBR waters which have not been reported in the literature previously. PMID:19818971

Shaw, Melanie; Furnas, Miles J; Fabricius, Katharina; Haynes, David; Carter, Steve; Eaglesham, Geoff; Mueller, Jochen F

2010-01-01

419

Haematologic Indices in Pesticide Factory Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of pesticides on blood indices of subjects which are exposed to organophosphate toxins. This research was a cohort study which was carried out during 2005 on the employee of a pesticide factory in Golestan province (North of Iran. In this study the sampling from 63 subjects was carried out for two sessions in days 1 and 90. CBC and hematologic indices performed by cell counter instrument. The mean of MCV in phase 1 was 82.8±7.1 fl and in second phase the MCV was 80.3±6.7 fl. This drop in MCV statistically was meaningful (paired t-test, mean = 2.5, 95% CI=2.0-2.9, p<0.001. Erythrocyte number, hemoglobin, HCT and MCHC increase in second phase compared to first phase statistically was meaningful. There was not any significant relation between the place of work and variation of red blood cell indices. In regard to the changes in hematologic indices in workers of pesticide factory in a three months period, it seems logical to set up a program to have a routine check on the hematologic indices in working personal engaging in such occupations.

Hamid Reza Joshaghani

2007-01-01

420

Assessment of thyroid function in pesticide formulators.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty male pesticide formulators exposed to the dust and liquid formulation of endosulfan, quinalphos, chlorpyriphos, monocrotophos, lindane, parathion, phorate, and fenvalerate and 20 comparable control subjects from the same area of study were examined for the evaluation of thyroid function tests. The level of TSH was elevated (about 28%) in pesticide formulators as compared to a control group, but the increase was statistically insignificant. Based on the individual TSH measurement, 3 of 30 formulators had isolated elevated levels of TSH and seem to have acquired sub-clinical hypothyroidism; five had TSH values slightly elevated to the upper boarder line (4.03 muIU/ml); and the majority of formulators (N= 22) had TSH values in the normal range varying from 1.29 to 3.9 muIU/ml. Total T3 was suppressed significantly (P< 0.01) in formulators, while marginal decrease (about 7%) was noticed in T4 level. This study indicated thyroid function impairment in few pesticide formulators. PMID:11204551

Zaidi, S S; Bhatnagar, V K; Gandhi, S J; Shah, M P; Kulkarni, P K; Saiyed, H N

2000-09-01

 
 
 
 
421

Storm-driven pesticide dynamics in a catchment system  

Science.gov (United States)

Loss of pesticides from agricultural land in runoff and subsurface flow during rainfall events poses a significant concern for water quality, with adverse effects on drinking water and aquatic life. Pesticide mobilisation and transport is affected by runoff and erosion processes which leads to different flow pathways and pesticide residence times in a catchment. In the soil and sediment environment pesticides can be a significant component of surface water contamination because of their persistence in soil and sediment and that they have a tendency to desorb back into water over time. A lowland agricultural catchment upstream of a drinking-water supply reservoir in the South West of England is being used to investigate pesticide dynamics at the catchment scale during individual storm events. Pesticide concentration in water and suspended sediments were determined from samples taken at incremental changes in stream flow incorporating both rising and falling river levels. The study aims to determine the relative partitioning of pesticides transported in the dissolved phase or adsorbed to sediment. Analyses of soil, sediment and water from across the catchment aids understanding of the interaction between different media and can be used to determine the importance of dissolved and sediment-bound pesticide dynamics during individual storm events. Initial results imply that processes of transport and desorption are occurring in both soils and river and reservoir sediments which are likely to be an important factor for timing of pesticide movement. This suggests soil and sediment are acting as a sustained source of contamination to surface water. However; interactions between these different media are complex. Investigation of the molluscicide metaldehyde, showed this to be present in stream water at concentrations greater than 0.1 µg µl-1 nine months after application. Storm event analysis shows peak pesticide concentration in the stream to coincide with storm hydrograph peaks indicating pesticides are moved directly from hillslopes to the fluvial environment by surface runoff. During storm events, individual pesticide concentrations in streams were found to be greater than 2 µg µl-1 in the dissolved phase. Depending on the compound chemical properties, some pesticides can also be transported adsorbed to sediments. Together, these processes generate elevated concentrations of pesticide in surface water systems and cause contamination by transport and deposition of pesticides in the lower reaches of the catchment.

Harrison, Rebecca; Freer, Jim; Michaelides, Katerina; Hurley, Steven; Howden, Nicholas; Bull, Ian

2013-04-01

422

EMS for pesticide disposal V4 Feb Final  

…on storing pesticides for farmers and other professional users. This can be downloaded at the following link: http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/ais16.pdf MANAGEMENT TOOLKIT FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED BUSINESSES 5. Training Checklist Make sure everyone involved in the use of pesticides has been trained in personal…

423

CORRELATING NEUROBEHAVIORAL PERFORMANCE WITH BIOMARKERS OF ORGANOPHOSPHOROUS PESTICIDE EXPOSURE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is compelling evidence that adverse neurobehavioral effects are associated with occupational organophosphorous pesticide (OP) exposure in humans. Behavioral studies of pesticide applicators, greenhouse workers, agricultural workers and farm residents exposed repeatedly over months or years to low levels of OPs reveal a relatively consistent pattern of neurobehavioral deficits. However, only two studies have demonstrated a link between neurobehavioral performance and current biomarkers o...

Rohlman, Diane S.; Anger, W. Kent; Lein, Pamela J.

2011-01-01

424

EMS for pesticide disposal V4 Feb Final  

…causing water pollution. Very small amounts of pesticide can cause serious pollution problems, even just the amount of residue on a foil seal from a concentrate container. Contents 1. Maintenance and operations checklist 2. Maintenance record 3. Recording form for discharges of pesticide washings 4. List…

425

Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 132: Sodium Salt of Fomesafen.  

Science.gov (United States)

The document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after one of the following actions has occurred. (1) Issua...

1987-01-01

426

ACUTE TOXICITY OF PESTICIDES IN ADULT AND WEANLING RATS  

Science.gov (United States)

LD sub 50 values were determined for 57 pesticides administered by the oral or dermal route to adult male and female Sherman rats. Nine pesticides tested by the oral route (bufencarb, cacodylic acid, dialifor, deltamethrin, dicamba, diquat, quintozene, phoxim, pyrazon) and 4 test...

427

Pesticide Fact Sheet No. 34.2: Phorate.  

Science.gov (United States)

The document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after one of the following actions has occurred. Issuance ...

1988-01-01

428

Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 34.1: Phorate.  

Science.gov (United States)

The document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after one of the following actions has occurred. (1) Issua...

1985-01-01

429

Neurological Effects of Pesticide Use among Farmers in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The intensive use of pesticides has attracted great attention from the Chinese government. However, current regulations have had limited influence on their safe use. Although the acute neurologic effects of pesticides have been well documented, little is known about their cumulative effects. Knowledge of the impact of pesticides on health may convince farmers to minimize their use. We conducted a cross-sectional study in three provinces of China to evaluate the relationship between pesticide exposure and neurological dysfunction. Crop farmers were divided into two groups depending on their level of pesticide exposure. A total of 236 participants were assessed by questionnaire and neurological examination for symptoms and signs of neuropathy. Characteristics of neurologic dysfunction following cumulative low-level exposure were assessed with logistic regression analysis. Farmers exposed to high-level pesticide use had greater risk of developing sensations of numbness or prickling (odds ratio (OR 2.62, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.08–6.36. After adjusting for recent exposure, the risk of numbness or prickling symptoms (OR 2.55, 95% CI: 1.04–6.25 remained statistically significant. Loss of muscle strength and decreased deep tendon reflexes had OR > 2, however, this did not reach statistical significance. These findings suggest that overuse of pesticides increased risk of neurologic dysfunction among farmers, with somatosensory small fibers most likely affected. Measures that are more efficient should be taken to curb excessive use of pesticides.

Yifan Li

2014-04-01

430

Rationale in the design of pesticide metabolism studies using radioisotopes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Numerous physical, chemical and biochemical forces act on pesticides in the environment to regulate their persistence and, to a large extent, determine their environmental and toxicological significance. Radioisotope-aided metabolism studies with pesticides in both target and non-target organisms are important to define the qualitative and quantitative aspects of pesticide degradation involved. Such studies provide valuable information that can be used in a number of ways, including prediction of the nature of potential pesticide interactions with man, estimation of potential residue occurrence in human foods, determination of pesticidal mode of action, and evaluation of potential toxicological effects on non-target species. In designing pesticide metabolism studies that utilize radioisotopes as tracers, the metabolism scientist must exercise careful judgement to ensure that his studies generate data that are scientifically sound and relevant to environmental and human health concerns. Such factors as isotope selection, label position, specific activity, treatment routes, dosage levels, replication, and the utilization of appropriate radiometric and analytical techniques are important considerations to assure the generation of useful data. Because of the very large number of potential pesticide/organism interactions that may be of interest to the metabolism scientist, specific research approaches vary greatly depending on the nature of the study organism and the specific pesticide involved. The rationale often used by metabolism studies in laboratory animals, livestock and poultry, plants, soil and aquatic organisms, arthropods and other pest species, non-target organisms, and for in vitro studies, is considered. (author)

1982-06-11

431

Determination of pesticide residue in selected fruits and vegetable  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food contamination due to indiscriminate use of pesticides has become a serious problem. Fruits samples of tomato, grapes, musk melon, parsimen and vegetable samples of potato, pea, spinach, cabbage and pumpkin ere collected from local market of Peshawar, coming from different regions. All samples were extracted, purified and analyzed for the commonly used pesticides. Dichlorovas, BHC, Atrazine, Daizinon, Methadiathion and Cypermethrin were detected by Gas Chromatography. These pesticides were detected in vegetable samples Id Atrazine were found in potato sample and not detected in other samples. Large concentration of Cypermethrin (44.6) was detected in the pea sample. All the vegetables samples have maximum concentration of pesticides, which is higher than their MRLs, but in pumpkin no one of the above pesticides were detected. In fruits samples, dichlorovas, atrazine, diazinon, methadiathion. Cypermethrin were detected. BHC was not present in fruits samples. All these pesticides were above the MRLs. The study concluded that agriculture crops are highly contaminated due to the uncontrolled use of pesticides in project area and suggested that pesticides should be applied in calculated dose to avoid resistance and persistence due to over and under dose application. (author)

2004-06-07

432

Pesticide use in Latin America: Trends and environmental implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current demand for pesticides in Latin America exceeds US $2000 million in value. Up to 1990, the consumption is expected to rise annually by 7 to 12%. Use of pesticides has been fully accepted in Latin America as a readily available means of pest control. Nevertheless, even today pests are responsible for the loss of 25 to 40% of potential harvests. In banana cultivation, the cost of pesticides accounts for 30 to 35% of production costs. Latin America is in the process of changing over from persistent organochlorines to pesticides which are more sophisticated, more expensive and less persistent. The countries in the region are looking for ecologically acceptable permanent methods of pest control. Integrated pest management will reduce the risks of pesticide use by changing the systems of application. All Latin American countries have legislation on pesticide handling and use. These laws have been or are being harmonized with the International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides published by FAO. The Latin American pesticide industry is dependent on the supply of intermediate compounds and raw materials from developed countries. In addition, it has to deal with high production costs and a lack of research and development. It is far from utilizing the full installed capacity, and only an increase in commercial exchange in the region would make its position less unfavourable. (author). 28 refs, 3 figs, 8 tabs

1987-11-24

433

Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 102.1: Carbon Tetrachloride.  

Science.gov (United States)

The document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after one of the following actions has occurred. Issuance ...

1987-01-01

434

Residential Pesticide Usage in Older Adults Residing in Central California  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information on residential pesticide usage and behaviors that may influence pesticide exposure was collected in three population-based studies of older adults residing in the three Central California counties of Fresno, Kern, and Tulare. We present data from participants in the Study of Use of Products and Exposure Related Behaviors (SUPERB study (N = 153 and from community controls ascertained in two Parkinson’s disease studies, the Parkinson’s Environment and Gene (PEG study (N = 359 and The Center for Gene-Environment Studies in Parkinson’s Disease (CGEP; N = 297. All participants were interviewed by telephone to obtain information on recent and lifetime indoor and outdoor residential pesticide use. Interviews ascertained type of product used, frequency of use, and behaviors that may influence exposure to pesticides during and after application. Well over half of all participants reported ever using indoor and outdoor pesticides; yet frequency of pesticide use was relatively low, and appeared to increase slightly with age. Few participants engaged in behaviors to protect themselves or family members and limit exposure to pesticides during and after treatment, such as ventilating and cleaning treated areas, or using protective equipment during application. Our findings on frequency of use over lifetime and exposure related behaviors will inform future efforts to develop population pesticide exposure models and risk assessment.

Beate Ritz

2011-07-01

435

Pesticide Application and Safety Training. Sale Publication 4070.  

Science.gov (United States)

This guide is intended for use by those preparing to take the California certification examination for commercial pesticide applicators. The first chapter gives brief descriptions and illustrations of types of insect, vertebrate, plant, and microorganism pests. The other chapters cover pesticide classifications and formulations, labels and…

Stimmann, M. W.

436

Pesticide transport via sub-surface drains in Europe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Transport of pesticides from point of application via sub-surface drains can contribute significantly to contamination of surface waters. Results of 23 field drainage experiments undertaken at sites across Europe were collated and analysed by residual maximum likelihood. Both maximum concentration of pesticide in drainflow (n = 167) and seasonal loss of pesticide to drains (n = 97) were significantly related to strength of pesticide sorption to soil, half-life of the pesticide in soil, the interval between application and first drainflow and the clay content of the soil. The statistical models accounted for 71% of the variability in both maximum concentration and seasonal load. Next, the dataset was used to evaluate the current methodology for assessment of aquatic exposure used in pesticide registration in Europe. Simulations for seven compounds with contrasting properties showed a good correspondence with field measurements. Finally, the review examines management approaches to reduce pesticide transport via sub-surface drains. Despite a large amount of work in this area, there are few dependable mitigation options other than to change application rate or timing or to restrict use of a compound in the most vulnerable situations. - Chemical and environmental factors influence pesticide transfer to water via drains.

Brown, Colin D., E-mail: cdb501@york.ac.u [Environment Department, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Beinum, Wendy van, E-mail: w.vanbeinum@csl.gov.u [Food and Environment Research Agency, Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ (United Kingdom)

2009-12-15

437

Cholinergic pesticides cause mushroom body neuronal inactivation in honeybees  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pesticides that target cholinergic neurotransmission are highly effective, but their use has been implicated in insect pollinator population decline. Honeybees are exposed to two widely used classes of cholinergic pesticide: neonicotinoids (nicotinic receptor agonists) and organophosphate miticides (acetylcholinesterase inhibitors). Although sublethal levels of neonicotinoids are known to disrupt honeybee learning and behaviour, the neurophysiological basis of these effects has not been shown...

2013-01-01

438

3431 EA Organo Pesticides a/w3  

The determination of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in waters and complex matrices (2000) Methods for the Examination of Waters and Associated Materials 21 A The determination of organochlorine pesticides in waters by solvent extraction and gas chromatography with electron capture…

439

Pesticides in the air: which stakes?; Les pesticides dans l'air: quels enjeux?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The pesticides presents a real hazard for the public health and the environment. This paper takes stock on the situation in the world, recalls the definition of these pollutants, details the nature and the level of them in the rain water and explains the impacts on the environment and the people. (A.L.B.)

Lamiot, F. [Conseil General Nord Pas de Calais, 62 - Arras (France)

2001-07-01

440

The pesticides travel by clouds; Les pesticides voyagent par les nuages  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the moment where the law on air has to come in application, an increasing number of studies make appear that air is polluted by pesticides. This pollution is transported by clouds and it cannot disappear rapidly. Explications are given in this article. (N.C.)

Anon.

1997-03-01

 
 
 
 
441

Pesticides in Ground Water - Carbon County, Wyoming, 2004-2005  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1991, members of local, State, and Federal governments, as well as industry and interest groups, formed the Ground-water and Pesticide Strategy Committee to prepare the State of Wyoming's generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. Part of this management plan is to sample and analyze Wyoming's ground water for pesticides. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Ground-water and Pesticide Strategy Committee, began statewide implementation of the sampling component of the State of Wyoming's generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. During 2004-2005, baseline monitoring was conducted in Carbon County. This fact sheet describes and summarizes results of the baseline monitoring in Carbon County.

Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Remley, Kendra J.

2006-01-01

442

Pesticide occurrence and distribution in fog collected near Monterey, California  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors analyzed pesticides in air and fog in several fog events sampled near Monterey, CA, to determine whether the uptake of pesticides in advected oceanic fog was different from uptake in fog forming under stagnant inversion conditions in California's Central Valley in the winter. Data for several pesticides common to both ares showed that the pesticide content and distribution were remarkable similar in the two locations. The conversion of organophosphorus insecticides to their corresponding oxons, and aqueous-phase enrichment factors, were also very similar. Evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that enhanced pesticide concentration in fogwater is caused by strongly sorptive nonfilterable particles and colloids in the fog liquid that are derived from atmospheric particles.

Schomburg, C.J.; Glotfelty, D.E. (Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (USA)); Seiber, J.N. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA))

1991-01-01

443

Development of genetically enhanced baculovirus pesticides (Chapter 5). Book chapter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report describes the assessment of the potential environmental impacts of genetically improved viral pesticides, including an evaluation of the properties of the foreign gene product(s) and the biological properties of the altered virus itself. The current field release studies are collecting much of the information which will be needed to assess the environmental safety of these new pesticides. Of primary concern will be the cost-to-benefit ratios as determined by production costs, stability, application, technology, and field efficacy. Despite the improvements afforded through biotechnology, it is clear that viral and other microbial pesticides will only reduce, not eliminate, the agricultural requirements for synthetic pesticides. Even so, biological pesticides are among the best solutions to reducing crop losses in the absence of ecological disturbances and potential health hazards.

Wood, H.A.

1991-01-01

444

A fugacity-based indoor residential pesticide fate model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dermal and non-dietary pathways are potentially significant exposure pathways to pesticides used in residences. Exposure pathways include dermal contact with residues on surfaces, ingestion from hand- and object-to-mouth activities, and absorption of pesticides into food. A limited amount of data has been collected on pesticide concentrations in various residential compartments following an application. But models are needed to interpret this data and make predictions about other pesticides based on chemical properties. In this paper, we propose a mass-balance compartment model based on fugacity principles. We include air (both gas phase and aerosols), carpet, smooth flooring, and walls as model compartments. Pesticide concentrations on furniture and toys, and in food, are being added to the model as data becomes available. We determine the compartmental fugacity capacity and mass transfer-rate coefficient for wallboard as an example. We also present the framework and equations needed for a dynamic mass-balance model.

Bennett, Deborah H.; Furtaw, Edward J.; McKone, Thomas E.

2002-06-01

445

Enantioselectivity in environmental risk assessment of modern chiral pesticides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chiral pesticides comprise a new and important class of environmental pollutants nowadays. With the development of industry, more and more chiral pesticides will be introduced into the market. But their enantioselective ecotoxicology is not clear. Currently used synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphates, acylanilides, phenoxypropanoic acids and imidazolinones often behave enantioselectively in agriculture use and they always pose unpredictable enantioselective ecological risks on non-target organisms or human. It is necessary to explore the enantioselective toxicology and ecological fate of these chiral pesticides in environmental risk assessment. The enantioselective toxicology and the fate of these currently widely used pesticides have been discussed in this review article. - Chiral pesticides could pose unpredictable enantioselective toxicity on non-target organisms.

Ye Jing [MOE Key Lab of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhao Meirong [Research Center of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Liu Jing [MOE Key Lab of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Liu Weiping, E-mail: wliu@zju.edu.c [MOE Key Lab of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Research Center of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China)

2010-07-15

446

Influence of Some Pesticides on Humoral and Cellular Immunity of Exposed Workers in Pesticides Industries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pesticide poisoning is a major public health problem in developing countries. In most of these countries organophosphate pesticides constitute the most widely used pesticides. The main toxicity of OPs is neurotoxicity, which is caused by the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. OPs also affect the immune response, including effects on cellular and humoral immunity. Our study examined the effect of organophosphorus compounds on humoral and cellular immunity of exposed workers in pesticides industries. The study was conducted into 40 subjects. They were 2 groups; 20 exposed workers from Gharbeia and Kafr Elsheikh at 2008 and 2009 and 20 unexposed individuals as a control group at the same period of time. We examined some immune parameters; pseudocholinesterase, WBCs count, CD4%, CD8%, CD4/CD8, CD56%, Interleukin 2, IgG and IgM. Also we take history and clinical examination for them. We reported a highly significant decrease in pseudo cholinesterase level among the exposed group in comparison to the control group, highly significant increase in percentage of CD8 in the exposed group in comparison to control group, highly significant decrease in CD4 / CD8 ratio in the exposed group in comparison to control group, highly significant decrease in percentage of CD56 in the exposed group in comparison to control group and a highly significant increase in IgG level in the exposed group in comparison to control group. On the other hand, we reported no significant change in white blood cells count between the exposed and control groups, no significant change in percentage of CD4 among the exposed and control group, no significant change in Interleukin 2 level among the exposed and control group and no significant change in IgM level among the exposed and control group. We concluded that pesticides extensively affect the humoral and cellular immune system of occupationally exposed workers.

2010-01-01

447

Water Pollution with Special Reference to Pesticide Contamination in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pesticides belong to a category of chemicals used worldwide as herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, ro-denticides, molluscicides, nematicides, and plant growth regulators in order to control weeds, pests and dis-eases in crops as well as for health care of humans and animals. The positive aspect of application of pesti-cides renders enhanced crop/food productivity and drastic reduction of vector-borne diseases. However, their unregulated and indiscriminate applications have raised serious concerns about the entire environment in general and the health of humans, birds and animals in particular. Despite ban on application of some of the environmentally persistent and least biodegradable pesticides (like organochlorines in many countries, their use is ever on rise. Pesticides cause serious health hazards to living systems because of their rapid fat solu-bility and bioaccumulation in non-target organisms. Even at low concentration, pesticides may exert several adverse effects, which could be monitored at biochemical, molecular or behavioral levels. The factors af-fecting water pollution with pesticides and their residues include drainage, rainfall, microbial activity, soil temperature, treatment surface, application rate as well as the solubility, mobility and half life of pesticides. In India organochlorine insecticides such as DDT and HCH constitute more than 70% of the pesticides used at present. Reports from Delhi, Bhopal and other cities and some rural areas have indicated presence of sig-nificant level of pesticides in fresh water systems as well as bottled drinking mineral water samples. The ef-fects of pesticides pollution in riverine systems and drinking water in India has been discussed in this review.

Anju Agrawal

2010-05-01

448

Pesticide poisoning: a major health problem in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acute pesticide poisoning is a major public health problem in Sri Lanka. In several agricultural districts, it precedes all other causes of death in government hospitals. Most of the acute poisoning cases are intentional (suicide) and occur among young adults, mainly males. Poisoning due to occupational exposure is also common, but less well documented. In an irrigation area in Sri Lanka a very high incidence of serious pesticide poisoning was observed, with 68% due to intentional ingestion of liquid pesticides. It is argued that the easy availability and widespread use of highly hazardous pesticides is the most important reason for this high number of poisoning cases. The frequent application of highly hazardous pesticides in high concentrations was often irrational and posed serious health and financial risks to the farmers. Sales promotion activities and credit facilities promoted this excessive pesticide use, which was not counteracted by an agricultural extension service. Hazardous practices when spraying pesticides were due to the impossibility of applying recommended protective measures under the local conditions, rather than to lack of knowledge. Current emphasis on programs that promote the safe use of pesticides through education and training of farmers will be ineffective in Sri Lanka because knowledge is already high and most poisoning cases are intentional. Instead, enforcement of legislation to restrict availability of the most hazardous pesticides would result in an immediate health benefit. Improved agricultural extension services to promote alternative non-chemical methods of pest control is the most important strategy, in the long term, to prevent acute pesticide poisoning. PMID:9460829

Van der Hoek, W; Konradsen, F; Athukorala, K; Wanigadewa, T

1998-01-01

449

Association between environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative diseases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preliminary studies have shown associations between chronic pesticide exposure in occupational settings and neurological disorders. However, data on the effects of long-term non-occupational exposures are too sparse to allow any conclusions. This study examines the influence of environmental pesticide exposure on a number of neuropsychiatric conditions and discusses their underlying pathologic mechanisms. An ecological study was conducted using averaged prevalence rates of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, cerebral degeneration, polyneuropathies, affective psychosis and suicide attempts in selected Andalusian health districts categorized into areas of high and low environmental pesticide exposure based on the number of hectares devoted to intensive agriculture and pesticide sales per capita. A total of 17,429 cases were collected from computerized hospital records (minimum dataset) between 1998 and 2005. Prevalence rates and the risk of having Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and suicide were significantly higher in districts with greater pesticide use as compared to those with lower pesticide use. The multivariate analyses showed that the population living in areas with high pesticide use had an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts and that males living in these areas had increased risks for polyneuropathies, affective disorders and suicide attempts. In conclusion, this study supports and extends previous findings and provides an indication that environmental exposure to pesticides may affect the human health by increasing the incidence of certain neurological disorders at the level of the general population. -- Highlights: ? Environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative–psychiatric disorders. ? Increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts in high exposure areas. ? Males from areas with high pesticide exposure had a higher risk of polyneuropathy. ? Males from high exposure areas had a higher risk of affective psychosis and suicide. ? Nerve tissue degeneration due to oxidative damage may underlie the pathomechanism.

2011-11-01

450

Modeling complexity in simulating pesticide fate in a rice paddy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Modeling approaches for pesticide regulation are required to provide generic and conservative evaluations on pesticide fate and exposure based on limited data. This study investigates the modeling approach for pesticide simulation in a rice paddy, by developing a component-based modeling system and characterizing the dependence of pesticide concentrations on individual fate processes. The developed system covers the modeling complexity from a "base model" which considers only the essential processes of water management, water-sediment exchange, and aquatic dissipation, to a "full model" for all commonly simulated processes. Model capability and performance were demonstrated by case studies with 5 pesticides in 13 rice fields of the California's Sacramento Valley. With registrant-submitted dissipation half-lives, the base model conservatively estimated dissolved pesticide concentrations within one order of magnitude of measured data. The full model simulations were calibrated to characterize the key model parameters and processes varying with chemical properties and field conditions. Metabolism in water was identified as an important process in predicting pesticide fate in all tested rice fields. Relative contributions of metabolism, hydrolysis, direct aquatic photolysis, and volatilization to the overall pesticide dissipation were significantly correlated to the model sensitivities to the corresponding physicochemical properties and half-lives. While modeling results were sensitive to metabolism half-lives in water for all fields, significances of metabolism in sediment and water-sediment exchange were only observed for pesticides with pre-flooding applications or with rapid dissipation in sediment. Results suggest that, in addition to the development of regional modeling scenarios for rice production, the registrant-submitted maximum values for the aquatic dissipation half-lives could be used for evaluating pesticide for regulatory purposes. PMID:23021519

Luo, Yuzhou; Spurlock, Frank; Gill, Sheryl; Goh, Kean S

2012-12-01

451

Disposal of unwanted pesticides in Stellenbosch, South Africa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Unwanted pesticides in developing countries are major environmental health threats. This study followed-up a previous audit of unwanted and obsolete pesticides on farms in a rural district of South Africa six years after a National Retrieval Project (NPR) was undertaken. Methods: A descriptive survey of 37 farms that had been in possession of unwanted pesticides in a 1995 survey and a purposive sample of 34 neighbouring farms, was carried out. The survey data included farm details; details of unwanted pesticide stocks, volumes of empty containers and safety and hygiene of pesticide stores. In addition, management was asked if they had been informed about and participated in the 1997 NPR and similarly whether they were aware of the retrieval planned by the African Stockpiles Programme (ASP). Results: Forty (56%) farms were in possession of obsolete pesticides of which 24 (59%) were farms that had unwanted stocks in the previous survey. There were more than 9 tonnes of these pesticides, 50% more than in the previous survey, including 20 chemicals banned, withdrawn or restricted in South Africa or classified as WHO Class I toxicity. Over 2800 kg of pesticides (30%) were not identifiable. None of the farms participated in the NPR, although 47 knew of the initiative. Only six farmers (9%) knew of the ASP initiative. Fifty-nine farms (83%) had empty containers on the premises. Most pesticide stores (67%) had floors contaminated with chemicals. Conclusion: The survey found that despite the NPR, the problem of unwanted pesticides in the study area and probably throughout South Africa has deteriorated. National and international policies should control the problem at source and encourage more sustainable agriculture

2006-05-15

452

Decontamination of spills and residues of some pesticides and of protective clothing worn during the handling of the pesticides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Users of pesticides may have waste or surplus quantities or spills for disposal. One alternative is to deactivate the pesticide at the handling site by using a straightforward chemical reaction. This option can be practical for those who use relatively small quantities of a large variety of pesticides, for example, greenhouse workers, small farmers, and agricultural researchers. This paper describes practical on-site methods for the disposal of spills or small waste quantities of five commonly used pesticides, Diazinon, Chlorpyrifos, Iprodione, 2,4-D, and Captan. These have been tested in the laboratory for the rate of disappearance of the pesticide, the degree of conversion to nontoxic products, the nature and identity of the products, the practicality of the method, and the ease of reproducibility. Methods selected were shown to be safe for the operator, reliable, and reproducible. Greater than 99% of the starting material had to be reacted under reasonable conditions and length of time. Detailed descriptions of the reactions are presented, so that they can be performed with reproducible results. Protective clothing worn during the handling and application of pesticides may become contaminated. Simple laundering does not always remove all of the pesticide residues. Thus, chronic dermal exposure may result from the pesticide-contaminated clothing. Appropriate methods of laundering using specific pretreatments have been determined. 7 refs.

Armour, M.A.; Nelson, C.; Sather, P. Briker, Y. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)] [and others

1996-12-31

453

78 FR 6274 - Withdrawal of Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various Commodities  

Science.gov (United States)

...a pesticide petition (PP 0E7754) by Quimica Agronomica de Mexico, S. de R.L...Gowan Company (U.S. agent on behalf of Quimica Agronomica de Mexico) notified EPA that...of pesticide petition (PP 0E7755) by Quimica Agronomica de Mexico, S. de...

2013-01-30

454

Pesticide Use and Self-Reported Symptoms of Acute Pesticide Poisoning among Aquatic Farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Organophosphates and carbamates (OPs/CMs) are known for their acetylcholinesterase inhibiting character. A cross-sectional study of pesticide handling practices and self-perceived symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning was conducted using questionnaire-based interviews with 89 pesticide sprayers in Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE) Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority of the farmers (88%) had experienced symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning, and this was significantly associated with the number of hours spent spraying with OPs/CMs (OR = 1.14, CI 95%: 1.02-1.28). The higher educated farmers reduced their risk of poisoning by 55% for each extra personal protective measure they adapted (OR = 0.45, CI 95%: 0.22-0.91). These findings suggest that improving safe pesticide management practices among the farmers and enforcing the effective banning of the most toxic pesticides will considerably reduce the number of acute pesticide poisoning episodes.

Jensen, Hanne Klith; Konradsen, Flemming

2011-01-01

455

Pesticide use and self-reported symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning among aquatic farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Organophosphates and carbamates (OPs/CMs) are known for their acetylcholinesterase inhibiting character. A cross-sectional study of pesticide handling practices and self-perceived symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning was conducted using questionnaire-based interviews with 89 pesticide sprayers in Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE) Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority of the farmers (88%) had experienced symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning, and this was significantly associated with the number of hours spent spraying with OPs/CMs (OR = 1.14, CI 95%: 1.02-1.28). The higher educated farmers reduced their risk of poisoning by 55% for each extra personal protective measure they adapted (OR = 0.45, CI 95%: 0.22-0.91). These findings suggest that improving safe pesticide management practices among the farmers and enforcing the effective banning of the most toxic pesticides will considerably reduce the number of acute pesticide poisoning episodes.

Jensen, Hanne Klith; Konradsen, Flemming

2011-01-01

456

Microsoft Word - WFD - GW - 7 - Chemical diffuse source pressures - pesticides.DOC  

...Basin Management Plans – Groundwater Classification Pesticides December 2009 WFD-GW-7...groundwater bodies with respect to pesticides. 2.0 Background The WFD...lines. Point source impact from pesticides can also occur where pesticides are disposed off inappropriately. In...

457

Pesticide Safety for Farmworkers = Uso Seguro de Pesticidas para los Trabajadores del Campo.  

Science.gov (United States)

A booklet for farmworkers and employers uses illustrations and simple text in English and Spanish to inform about the dangers, precautions, and use of pesticides. Topics covered include methods of pesticide absorption; signs/symptoms of pesticide poisoning; first aid; residues; appropriate work clothes; safe and unsafe pesticide practices; how to…

Poli, Bonnie; Fluker, Sam S.

458

Pesticide Residues and Bees - A Risk Assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

Bees are essential pollinators of many plants in natural ecosystems and agricultural crops alike. In recent years the decline and disappearance of bee species in the wild and the collapse of honey bee colonies have concerned ecologists and apiculturalists, who search for causes and solutions to this problem. Whilst biological factors such as viral diseases, mite and parasite infections are undoubtedly involved, it is also evident that pesticides applied to agricultural crops have a negative impact on bees. Most risk assessments have focused on direct acute exposure of bees to agrochemicals from spray drift. However, the large number of pesticide residues found in pollen and honey demand a thorough evaluation of all residual compounds so as to identify those of highest risk to bees. Using data from recent residue surveys and toxicity of pesticides to honey and bumble bees, a comprehensive evaluation of risks under current exposure conditions is presented here. Standard risk assessments are complemented with new approaches that take into account time-cumulative effects over time, especially with dietary exposures. Whilst overall risks appear to be low, our analysis indicates that residues of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides pose the highest risk by contact exposure of bees with contaminated pollen. However, the synergism of ergosterol inhibiting fungicides with those two classes of insecticides results in much higher risks in spite of the low prevalence of their combined residues. Risks by ingestion of contaminated pollen and honey are of some concern for systemic insecticides, particularly imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and the mixtures of cyhalothrin and ergosterol inhibiting fungicides. More attention should be paid to specific residue mixtures that may result in synergistic toxicity to bees.

Sanchez-Bayo, Francisco; Goka, Koichi

2014-01-01

459

Farming, Reported Pesticide Use, and Prostate Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

Prostate cancer is the leading cancer type diagnosed in American men and is the second leading cancer diagnosed in men worldwide. Although studies have been conducted to investigate the association between prostate cancer and exposure to pesticides and/or farming, the results have been inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis to summarize the association of farming and prostate cancer. The PubMed database was searched to identify all published case–control studies that evaluated farming as an occupational exposure by questionnaire or interview and prostate cancer. Ten published and two unpublished studies were included in this analysis, yielding 3,978 cases and 7,393 controls. Prostate cancer cases were almost four times more likely to be farmers compared with controls with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH; meta odds ratio [OR], crude = 3.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.96–7.48, Q-test p value = .352; two studies); similar results were obtained when non-BPH controls were considered, but with moderate heterogeneity between studies (meta OR crude = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.16–1.64, Q-test p value = .216, I2 = 31% [95% CI = 0–73]; five studies). Reported pesticide exposure was inversely associated with prostate cancer (meta OR crude = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.49–0.96, Q-test p value = .331; four studies), whereas no association with exposure to fertilizers was observed. Our findings confirm that farming is a risk factor for prostate cancer, but this increased risk may not be due to exposure to pesticides.

Ragin, Camille; Davis-Reyes, Brionna; Tadesse, Helina; Daniels, Dennis; Bunker, Clareann H.; Jackson, Maria; Ferguson, Trevor S.; Patrick, Alan L.; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K.; Taioli, Emanuela

2013-01-01

460

Improved alginate based slow release pesticide formulations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Use of poly(ethylene imine) treated Ca-alginates was investigated for the preparation of slow release formulations of dichlobenil, propanil and carbofuran. It was demonstrated that release of pesticides from the alginate granules was markedly retarded by post-treatment of the Ca-alginate beads with polyamine. The release profile depended on the post-treatment procedure: type and concentration of the polyamine, pH and duration. Retardation of herbicide release up to 1 year was attained. (author). 11 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

1987-11-24

 
 
 
 
461

Handbook of pesticides. Spravochnik po pestitsidam  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book makes an attempt to describe the most important properties of pesticides that have been approved for use in the USSR and that are being used or studied in other countries. The book is divided into four sections in which the words and terms are arranged in Russian alphabetical order. Section 1 furnishes definitions for the most important concepts and terms encountered in the book. Herbicides and plant growth regulators are described in Section 2, while Section 3 discusses chemicals used for protecting plants against pests. Section 4 deals with fungicides, bactericides, and seed-treatment agents.

Melnikov, N.N.; Novozhilov, K.V.; Belan, S.R.; Pylova, T.N.

1985-01-01

462

Disposal of obsolete pesticides, the case of Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethiopia has accumulated obsolete pesticide stocks since pesticides were first imported in the 1960s due to prolonged storage of pesticides, inappropriate storage conditions because of poor storage facilities, the lack of trained staff and lack of national legislation for pesticide registration and monitoring system of pesticide use in the country. The first pesticide inventory conducted in 1995 led by FAO in collaboration with the government of Ethiopia had identified about 426 tonnes of obsolete pesticides mainly on state-owned agricultural farms and held by the Ministry of Health. However, these stocks have increased to over 1500 tonnes (including 200 active ingredients) as found in a detailed inventory conducted in 1999. The stocks included organochlorines (258.3 tonnes), organophosphates (155.4 tonnes), carbamates (58.5 tonnes), coumarines (14.9 tonnes), inorganics (30.2 tonnes), others (257.2 tonnes), mixed pesticides (70.4 tonnes) and unknown pesticides (307.1 tonnes) including both liquid and solid state formulations. The obsolete organochlorine pesticides stocks were mostly pesticides such as chlordane, DDT, dieldrin and lindane that are banned or restricted in most countries. The highest amount of a single active ingredient found was the organophosphate insecticide pirimiphos methyl (172.1 tonnes). All these stocks were disposed of in the first phase of disposal in Finland (during 2000-2003) by the hazardous waste management company Ekokem at a cost of about US$ 4.44 million. Another 1000 tonnes of obsolete pesticides have been identified and are currently being eliminated in a second disposal phase at a total cost of US$ 8,135,500. Along with the disposal process, a number of activities are being implemented to prevent future pesticides accumulation. These activities include the development and enforcement of pesticide policy, the implementation of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and Integrated Vector Management (IVM), capacity building in terms of providing professional trainings, creating awareness among stakeholders on the environmental and human health hazard posed by obsolete pesticides as well as other actions to prevent their accumulation and enforcement of national legislations and policies related to pesticides use. However, pesticide use in the country is increasing. For instance, 12 years of pesticides import data (1996-2007) by the Ministry of Agriculture shows that 2973 tonnes of pesticides were imported between 1996-1998, 3670 tonnes between 1999-2001, 5079 tonnes between 2002-2004 and 8302 tonnes between 2005-2007. Moreover, 6 years of insecticide import data (1996/97-2001/02) by the Ministry of Health shows that around 919 tonnes of insecticides were imported between 1996/97-1997/98, 812 tonnes between 1998/99-1999/00 and 970 tonnes between 2000/01-2001/02 for malaria and other vector borne diseases control. PMID:19073344

Haylamicheal, Israel D; Dalvie, Mohamed A

2009-04-01

463

Impacts of pesticides in a Central California estuary.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent and past studies have documented the prevalence of pyrethroid and organophosphate pesticides in urban and agricultural watersheds in California. While toxic concentrations of these pesticides have been found in freshwater systems, there has been little research into their impacts in marine receiving waters. Our study investigated pesticide impacts in the Santa Maria River estuary, which provides critical habitat to numerous aquatic, terrestrial, and avian species on the central California coast. Runoff from irrigated agriculture constitutes a significant portion of Santa Maria River flow during most of the year, and a number of studies have documented pesticide occurrence and biological impacts in this watershed. Our study extended into the Santa Maria watershed coastal zone and measured pesticide concentrations throughout the estuary, including the water column and sediments. Biological effects were measured at the organism and community levels. Results of this study suggest the Santa Maria River estuary is impacted by current-use pesticides. The majority of water samples were highly toxic to invertebrates (Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca), and chemistry evidence suggests toxicity was associated with the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos, pyrethroid pesticides, or mixtures of both classes of pesticides. A high percentage of sediment samples were also toxic in this estuary, and sediment toxicity occurred when mixtures of chlorpyrifos and pyrethroid pesticides exceeded established toxicity thresholds. Based on a Relative Benthic Index, Santa Maria estuary stations where benthic macroinvertebrate communities were assessed were degraded. Impacts in the Santa Maria River estuary were likely due to the proximity of this system to Orcutt Creek, the tributary which accounts for most of the flow to the lower Santa Maria River. Water and sediment samples from Orcutt Creek were highly toxic to invertebrates due to mixtures of the same pesticides measured in the estuary. This study suggests that the same pyrethroid and organophosphate pesticides that have been shown to cause water and sediment toxicity in urban and agriculture water bodies throughout California, have the potential to affect estuarine habitats. The results establish baseline data in the Santa Maria River estuary to allow evaluation of ecosystem improvement as management initiatives to reduce pesticide runoff are implemented in this watershed. PMID:24464329

Anderson, Brian; Phillips, Bryn; Hunt, John; Siegler, Katie; Voorhees, Jennifer; Smalling, Kelly; Kuivila, Kathy; Hamilton, Mary; Ranasinghe, J Ananda; Tjeerdema, Ron

2014-03-01

464

Headache caused by handling the pesticide Antracol Combi WP 76: a case report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report on headache caused by the pesticide Antracol Combi WP 76. A headache caused by handling of pesticides should be distinguishable from migraine and headaches from other causes. This 29-year-old woman, who handled pesticides, presented with very strong headache with nausea and vomiting. Poisoning by this pesticide cannot be proven toxicologically, and there is no antidote. Following isolation from the pesticide and abundant hydration, the pain gradually decreased. History, clinical sig...

Titlic, Marina; Jukic, Ivana; Tonkic, Ante; Punda, Ante

2007-01-01

465

The effects of pesticide mixtures on degradation of pendimethalin in soils  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most agronomic situations involve a sequence of herbicide, fungicide, and insecticide application. On the other hand, use of pesticidal combinations has become a standard practice in the production of many agricultural crops. One of the most important processes influencing the behavior of a pesticide in the environment is its degradation in soil. It is known that due to several pesticide applications in one vegetation season, the pesticide may be present in mixtures with other pesticides or x...

Swarcewicz, Maria K.; Gregorczyk, Andrzej

2012-01-01

466

Effects of pesticides on fauna and flora  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The complexities of environmental interactions in the transport, transformation and biological effects of widespread, low level chemical contaminants confound the ability of current methods to predict the possible health and environmental impacts of both new and old chemicals. We cannot transfer with certainty the knowledge gained in the laboratory of the behaviour and effects of a single chemical study in isolated living species to that gained in a natural ecosystem. However, over the past years the environmental monitoring programmes have undergone rapid conceptual and technological advancement. Environmental monitoring plays an essential role in the evaluation and management of pesticides and other anthropogenic chemicals. In the absence of effective environmental monitoring, detection of serious environmental contamination and threats to human health caused by chemical pollutants may occur only after critical and irreversible damage has been done. Between 1976 and 1987 the ecosystematic effects caused by various herbicides and insecticides were analysed. The regenerative power of the tropical ecosystems, after having been treated with insecticides, does not only depend on the type of pesticide or its formulation and concentration, but also in a decisive way on the proportions of sprayed and unsprayed areas and the ecophysiological capacity of different organisms in the tropical food chains. (author). 19 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

1987-11-24

467

Agriculture, pesticides, food security and food safety  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Decades ago, agrochemicals were introduced aiming at enhancing crop yields and at protecting crops from pests. Due to adaptation and resistance developed by pests to chemicals, every year higher amounts and new chemical compounds are used to protect crops, causing undesired side effects and raising the costs of food production. Eventually, new techniques, including genetically modified organisms (GMOs) resistant to pests, could halt the massive spread of agrochemicals in agriculture fields. Biological chemical-free agriculture is gaining also more and more support but it is still not able to respond to the need for producing massive amounts of food. The use of agrochemicals, including pesticides, remains a common practice especially in tropical regions and South countries. Cheap compounds, such as DDT, HCH and lindane, that are environmentally persistent, are today banned from agriculture use in developed countries, but remain popular in developing countries. As a consequence, persistent residues of these chemicals contaminate food and disperse in the environment. Coordinated efforts are needed to increase the production of food but with a view to enhanced food quality and safety as well as to controlling residues of persistent pesticides in the environment.

Carvalho, Fernando P. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, P-2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)]. E-mail: carvalho@itn.pt

2006-11-15

468

Organophosphorus pesticides residues in Italian raw milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs), widely used in agriculture, can cause toxic effects to humans and animals. The main purpose of the present work was to determine the contamination in raw milk by the main organophosphorus pesticides used in Italy and to evaluate the opportunity to start specific procedures of risk management along the milk production chain. The samples, collected in 4 Italian dairy plants directly from the tank trucks during the delivering, were representative of 920 tonnes of raw milk. The isolation of the OPPs (acephate, chlorpyriphos, chlorpyriphos-methyl, diazinon, methamidophos, methidathion, phorate, pirimiphos-methyl) was performed by liquid partition followed by clean-up with solid phase extraction. The analyses were carried out by dual column gas chromatography using two nitrogen-phosphorus detectors. Among the 135 samples analysed, 37 were positive in traces and 10 showed an OPP contamination ranging from 5 to 18 microg/kg. The higher results were recorded in the samples collected during the autumn-winter period. The main pollutants detected were acephate and chlorpyriphos. In every positive sample found, the OPP contamination was lower than the maximum residue level (MRL) fixed by the European Commission. PMID:16566853

Pagliuca, Giampiero; Serraino, Andrea; Gazzotti, Teresa; Zironi, Elisa; Borsari, Andrea; Rosmini, Roberto

2006-08-01

469

Contamination of wells by pesticides and nitrate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes both point- and non-point sources of agricultural related pollutants to the ground water system. Preventing contamination of wells by pesticides and nitrate requires an understanding of how contaminants reach the well, so that appropriate corrective measures can be taken. Misidentifying the cause or route of contamination can lead to the adoption of inappropriate and ineffective protection practices, costing money and causing hardships for farmers without correcting the problem. When pesticides and nitrates are detected in wells, often the leaching of contaminants from treated farm fields is the assumed cause. However, a recent survey showed that 47 percent of farmers mixed and loaded herbicides within 100 feet of their wells. It also showed that 58 percent of the farmers mixed and loaded chemicals at the farmstead instead of hauling water to individual fields for mixing or flushing out the tanks. The paper goes on to describe the older, poorly designed wells which are common to agricultural areas and often the primary avenue for point-source contamination. The paper culminates by making suggestions on how simple changes in farm practices can do a lot to help protect wells, although reconstruction of existing wells along with proper installation of new wells, will also play an important role.

Fawcett, R.S.

1990-07-01

470

Determination of pesticide residues in cereal grains  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The applicability of the TLC for determination of pesticide residues in cereal grains was studied using corn, rice and wheat as representative commodities and atrazine, captan, chlorpyrifos, chlortoluron, diazinon, diuron, fenitrothion, metoxuron, prochloraz, triforine as representative compounds. Following the extraction with ethyl acetate the efficiency of extraction was tested with Bio-Rad SX-3 gel, GPC, silica gel, florisil and RP-18 reverse phase silica cartridge. The GPC alone or in combination with silica or florisil cleanup were the most suitable for cleanup of the extracts. The TLC elution characteristics of 131 pesticide active ingredients were tested with eight elution systems. The detectability of the selected compounds was determined with six detection methods including two chemical and four bioassay procedures. In addition to the basic methods, the non-toxic Penicillium cyclopium fungi spore inhibition was introduced and it was found very sensitive for some fungicide compounds. The minimum detectable quantities of the tested compounds ranged from 1 ng to 100 ng. The average recoveries from rice and wheat ranged from 78% to 89%, and the limits of quantitation, LOQ, were between 0.01 and 0.2 mg/kg for the selected ten compounds. (author)

2005-07-01

471

Assessing diet as a modifiable risk factor for pesticide exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of pesticides on the general population, largely as a result of dietary exposure, are unclear. Adopting an organic diet appears to be an obvious solution for reducing dietary pesticide exposure and this is supported by biomonitoring studies in children. However, results of research into the effects of organic diets on pesticide exposure are difficult to interpret in light of the many complexities. Therefore future studies must be carefully designed. While biomonitoring can account for differences in overall exposure it cannot necessarily attribute the source. Due diligence must be given to appropriate selection of participants, target pesticides and analytical methods to ensure that the data generated will be both scientifically rigorous and clinically useful, while minimising the costs and difficulties associated with biomonitoring studies. Study design must also consider confounders such as the unpredictable nature of chemicals and inter- and intra-individual differences in exposure and other factors that might influence susceptibility to disease. Currently the most useful measures are non-specific urinary metabolites that measure a range of organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides. These pesticides are in common use, frequently detected in population studies and may provide a broader overview of the impact of an organic diet on pesticide exposure than pesticide-specific metabolites. More population based studies are needed for comparative purposes and improvements in analytical methods are required before many other compounds can be considered for assessment. PMID:21776202

Oates, Liza; Cohen, Marc

2011-06-01

472

Potential developmental neurotoxicity of pesticides used in Europe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Pesticides used in agriculture are designed to protect crops against unwanted species, such as weeds, insects, and fungus. Many compounds target the nervous system of insect pests. Because of the similarity in brain biochemistry, such pesticides may also be neurotoxic to humans. Concerns have been raised that the developing brain may be particularly vulnerable to adverse effects of neurotoxic pesticides. Current requirements for safety testing do not include developmental neurotoxicity. We therefore undertook a systematic evaluation of published evidence on neurotoxicity of pesticides in current use, with specific emphasis on risks during early development. Epidemiologic studies show associations with neurodevelopmental deficits, but mainly deal with mixed exposures to pesticides. Laboratory experimental studies using model compounds suggest that many pesticides currently used in Europe – including organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, ethylenebisdithiocarbamates, and chlorophenoxy herbicides – can cause neurodevelopmental toxicity. Adverse effects on brain development can be severe and irreversible. Prevention should therefore be a public health priority. The occurrence of residues in food and other types of human exposures should be prevented with regard to the pesticide groups that are known to be neurotoxic. For other substances, given their widespread use and the unique vulnerability of the developing brain, the general lack of data on developmental neurotoxicity calls for investment in targeted research. While awaiting more definite evidence, existing uncertainties should be considered in light of the need for precautionary action to protect brain development.

Grandjean