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Sample records for fr11jn10r trifloxystrobin pesticide

  1. 76 FR 69648 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ...consideration to exposure of infants and children to the pesticide...no harm will result to infants and children from aggregate...consumers, including infants and children. Trifloxystrobin...dermal sensitizer. In repeated dose tests in rats, the...

  2. 77 FR 65827 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ...consideration to exposure of infants and children to the pesticide...no harm will result to infants and children from aggregate...consumers, including infants and children. Trifloxystrobin...dermal sensitizer. In repeated dose tests in rats, the...

  3. 75 FR 33190 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ...consideration to exposure of infants and children to the pesticide...no harm will result to infants and children from aggregate...consumers, including infants and children. Trifloxystrobin...dermal sensitizer. In repeated dose tests in rats, the...

  4. 77 FR 42654 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ...consideration to exposure of infants and children to the pesticide...no harm will result to infants and children from aggregate...consumers, including infants and children. Trifloxystrobin...dermal sensitizer. In repeated dose tests in rats, the...

  5. 77 FR 12727 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ...tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311...part 180 through the Government Printing Office's e-CFR site...

  6. 77 FR 65827 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. The following list of North American Industrial Classification System... July, 25 2012 (77 FR 43565) (FRL-9353- 6), EPA issued a notice pursuant to FFDCA section 408(d)(3), 21... beet, subgroup 1B'' in the Federal Register of January 2, 2008 (73 FR 52). Inadvertently, EPA failed...

  7. Field dissipation of trifloxystrobin and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid in soil and apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Wu, Junxue; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Hongyan

    2015-01-01

    The dissipation of trifloxystrobin and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid in apples and soil was studied, and the half-life (DT??) was estimated in a field study carried out at three different locations for apples and four different locations for soil. Trifloxystrobin was sprayed on apples at 127 g a.i./ha for the dissipation study. Samples of apple and soil for the dissipation experiment were collected at time intervals of 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 30, and 45 days after treatment. The quantification of residues was done by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The DT?? of trifloxystrobin ranged from 0.54 to 8.8 and 4.8 to 9.5 days in soil and apples at different latitude sites. Photolysis may be the main dissipation pathway for trifloxystrobin, and the number of sunshine hours may be the main factor affecting the trifloxystrobin dissipation rate in the field. For trifloxystrobin acid residues in soil and apples, it first increased and then began decreasing. It was indicated that the risk of trifloxystrobin application in shorter sunshine hour area should be considered. PMID:25380713

  8. Comparative study on disappearance trends of captan and trifloxystrobin residues on fruit and apple tree leaves using internal normalisation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sad?o, Stanis?aw; Duda, Magdalena; Piechowicz, Bartosz; Ja?wa, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    Supervised field trials were carried out in a commercial orchard in 2011. The purpose of the study was to assess the usefulness of the comparative method to examine the mechanism of disappearance of pesticide residues. Captan and trifloxystrobin residues were determined with the use of gas chromatograph equipped with a micro-electron capture detector. Disappearance trends of captan and trifloxystrobin residues in fruit and leaves were estimated using the method of internal normalisation, and based on that, the courses of concentration changes of these substances on fruit and leaves and the amount of these substances in one apple were established. The initial deposits of trifloxystrobin on leaves and fruits dropped by 50% within 8 and 4 days after treatment, respectively, in both varieties, whereas captan residues dropped by 50% within 29 days in leaves and 7 days in apples of the Olive Yellow varieties. PMID:23710563

  9. Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherma, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    This review is devoted to methods for the determination of residues of pesticides and some related industrial chemicals. Topics include: residue methods, sampling, chromatography, organochlorine pesticides, organophosphorus pesticides, carbamate insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, pyrethrins, fumigants, and related chemicals. (MVL)

  10. Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or cause harm to crops, people, or animals. Pesticides can help get rid of them. Pesticides are not just insect killers. They also include ... mildew, germs, and more. Many household products contain pesticides. Pesticides can protect your health by killing germs, ...

  11. Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skinned produce, or rinse it with lots of warm water mixed with salt and lemon juice or vinegar. ... chap 161. Chey H, Buchanan S. Toxins in everyday life. Prim Care . ... effects of common home, lawn, and garden pesticides. Pediatr ...

  12. Risk assessment of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole residues on Allium cepa l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurmail Singh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A supervised field trial was conducted to study the persistence and therefore to evaluate the risk assessment of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole residues on onion. A combined formulation of trifloxystrobin 25 % + tebuconazole 50% (Nativo 75WG was applied on onion crop @ 300 and 600 g ha-1, which resulted in active application @ 75.0 and 150.0 g.a.ha-1 with respect to trifloxystrobin and @ 150.0 and 300 g.a.ha-1 with respect to tebuconazole. The average initial deposits of trifloxystrobin on onion were 0.52 and 0.82 mg kg-1 following three applications of Nativo 75 WG at the recommended and the double of the recommended dose, respectively. Similarly, the average initial deposits of tebuconazole were 0.76 and 1.32 mg kg-1 at the two dosages, respectively. The residues dissipated more than 60% at both dosages after 3 days. The half-life (t1/2 of trifloxystrobin was 1.86 and 1.18 days, while for tebuconazole 2.13 and 1.98 days, for single and double dosages, respectively. Mature onion collected at harvest did not reveal the presence of trifloxystrobin or its metabolite, CGA 32113, at a detection limit of 0.05 mg kg-1. An assessment of the intake of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole, resulting from the consumption of onion, and its comparison with acceptable daily intake revealed that recommended application of Nativo 75WG (trifloxystrobin 25%+ tebuconazole 50% is quite safe from the consumer point of view.

  13. Track of fate and primary metabolism of trifloxystrobin in rice paddy ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Mengchao; Li, Shuying; Wang, Quansheng; Wei, Peng; Liu, Yanan; Zhu, Guonian; Wang, Mengcen

    2015-06-15

    Trifloxystrobin, a strobilurin fungicide, has been widely applied to control fungal diseases in various crops, especially in rice cultivation. However, its residual profile in rice paddy that was highly linked to its ecological risk still remains poorly understood. To elucidate the fate and primary metabolism of trifloxystrobin in rice paddy, a simple and efficient analytical method was developed using the DisQuE extraction kit combined with GC-?ECD and GC-EI-MS/MS analyses. As a result, methodological recoveries of trifloxystrobin fortified in paddy water, soil and rice straw ranging from 0.005 to 2 mg kg(-1) (mg L(-1) for water) were acquired from 87.6% to 109.1% with relative standard deviation (RSD) from 1.9% to 9.5% (n=5), and the limit of detection (LOD, signal to noise (S/N)=3) and the limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N=10) were 6.3×10(-4) mg L(-1) and 2.09×10(-3) mg L(-1), respectively, which indicates the favorable accuracy, precision and sensitivity of the method for effective monitoring of the trace amounts of residual trifloxystrobin in the rice paddy. Furthermore, dissipation of residual trifloxystrobin was in accordance with the first-order rate equation, showing the half-lives from 0.7 to 7.5 days, illustrating that trifloxystrobin generally degraded in a rapid rate in the rice paddy. Additionally, trifloxystrobin acid identified as the primary metabolite of trifloxystrobin in the rice paddy via GC-EI-MS/MS analysis was found to be dominantly accumulated in the paddy water and maintained up to 2.41 mg L(-1) within 14 days, suggesting that long-term and frequent application of this fungicide may pose a high risk towards aquatic organisms in surrounding aqueous ecosystems through paddy drainage. Taken together, our data serve as a useful tool for monitoring residual trifloxystrobin in rice paddy ecosystem and also provide a basis for in-depth understanding of environmental behavior and ecological risk posed by this fungicide. PMID:25770954

  14. Residue levels and dissipation behaviors for trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole in mango fruit and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Soudamini

    2015-03-01

    An evaluation of residue levels of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole was carried out on mango fruits after treatments with the combined formulation, trifloxystrobin (25 % w/w) and tebuconazole (50 % w/w), at standard and double doses of 250?+?500 and 500?+?1000 g a.i. ha(-1), respectively. Extraction and purification of the mango fruit samples were carried out by the QuEChERS method after validating the analytical parameters. Determination of the fungicides was carried out by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) for both fungicides were 0.015 ?g mL(-1) and 0.05 mg kg(-1), respectively. The residue levels of trifloxystrobin for standard and double-dose treatments were 0.492 and 0.901 mg kg(-1) and for tebuconazole were 0.535 and 1.124 mg kg(-1), respectively. A faster dissipation of tebuconazole in mango fruit was observed compared with that for tebuconazole. Dissipation of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole in mango followed first-order kinetics, and the half-lives were 9 and 6 days, respectively. The preharvest intervals (PHI), the time taken for the combined residues of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole to dissipate to their permissible levels (maximum residue limits), were 14 and 20 days for standard and double doses, respectively. At harvest, mature mango fruit and soil were free from fungicide residues. PMID:25663402

  15. Dissipation and residues of trifloxystrobin and its metabolite in rice under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Puyu; Wang, Lin; Hao, Xianghong; Han, Lijun

    2014-12-01

    Residue analysis of trifloxystrobin and its metabolite (CGA 321113) in rice matrices, paddy water, and soil was developed using the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method was used to evaluate the dissipation rate of trifloxystrobin and CGA 321113 in rice seedling, soil, and paddy water as well as the residual level in harvest rice (grain, hull, straw) and soil. The results demonstrated that the dissipation half-lives of trifloxystrobin in rice seedling, soil, and water were 1.9 d to 4.7 d, 0.35 d to 0.54 d, and 0.28 d to 0.51 d, respectively. The final total residue of trifloxystrobin and CGA 321113 was highest in rice hull and lowest in paddy soil. The highest total residues in husked rice, rice hull, straw, and paddy soil at 28 d after spraying were 0.39 mg kg(-1), 3.82 mg kg(-1), 0.29 mg kg(-1), and 0.15 mg kg(-1), respectively. According to the final residue data and the maximum residue limits of trifloxystrobin in rice grain and straw (Codex Alimentarius) and in rice hull (US Environmental Protection Agency), 28 d could be recommended as the preharvest interval for trifloxystrobin application in the rice field. The data show that CGA 321113 constitutes a small amount of the final total residues in rice matrices, whereas it is much higher than its parent compound in soil samples. PMID:25158269

  16. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRL for trifloxystrobin in cane fruit

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-01-01

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, Germany, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS), received an application from Bayer CropScience Deutschland GmbH to modify the existing MRL for the active substance trifloxystrobin in cane fruit. In order to accommodate for the intended use of trifloxystrobin Germany proposed to raise the existing MRLfrom the limit of quantification of 0.02* mg/kg to 3 mg/kg. Germany drafted an evaluation report in accordance wit...

  17. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRL for trifloxystrobin in beans with pods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Germany, hereafter referred to as the Evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from the Landwirtschaftskammer Nordrhein-Westfalen to modify the existing MRL for trifloxystrobin in beans with pods. In order to accommodate for the intended use of trifloxystrobin Germany proposed to raise the existing MRL on beans (with pods from the value of 0.5 mg/kg to 1 mg/kg. Germany drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005 which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive a MRL proposal of 1.0 mg/kg for the intended use on beans with pods. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of trifloxystrobin in the commodity under consideration. Based on the provisional risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the intended use of trifloxystrobin on beans with pods will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  18. Potential toxic effect of trifloxystrobin on cellular microstructure, mRNA expression and antioxidant enzymes in Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu-Feng; Liu, Lei; Gong, Yu-Xin; Zhu, Bin; Liu, Guang-Lu; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of trifloxystrobin that one strobilurin used widely in the world as an effective fungicidal agent to control Asian soybean rust on aquatic unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris. We determined the potential toxic effect of trifloxystrobin on C. vulgaris, and found median inhibition concentration (IC(50)) value 255.58 (95% confidence interval, 207.81-330.29)?gL(-1). In addition, the algal cells were obviously depressed or shrunk at different concentrations by electron microscopy. In the study, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay showed changes in transcript abundances of three photosynthetic genes, psaB, psbC, and rbcL, and one energy gene, ATPs. The results showed that trifloxystrobin reduced the transcript abundances of the three genes and enhanced expression of ATPs after 48 and 96 h. The lowest abundances of psaB, psbC and rbcL transcripts in response to trifloxystrobin exposure were 58%, 79% and 60% of those of the control, respectively. For the potential toxic influences, trifloxystrobin could decrease the soluble protein and total antioxidant contents (T-AOC), and increase superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activity with a gradual concentration-response relationship. Overall, the present study demonstrated that trifloxystrobin could affect the activities of antioxidant enzymes, disrupts photosynthesis in C. vulgaris, and damage cellular structure. PMID:24762415

  19. Dissipation, residues, and safety evaluation of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole on ginseng and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Chunwei; Gao, Jie; Liu, Chang; Cui, Lili; Li, Aijun

    2015-06-01

    Supervised field trials at two locations in 2012 and 2013 were conducted to evaluate the dissipation, terminal residues, and safety evaluation of Nativo 75 water dispersible granule (WG) (25 % trifloxystrobin + 50 % tebuconazole) on ginseng and soil following foliar application at a recommended dose 150 (50 + 100) and 1.5 times of the recommended dosage 225 (75 + 150) g a.i. ha(-1). The average recoveries of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole at three spiking levels in ginseng root, stem, and leaf and in soil were in the ranges of 81.0-96.8 % and 80.2-97.5 % with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 4.92-13.13 % and 4.67-8.35 %, respectively. The half-lives of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole were 5.92-9.76 days and 4.59-7.53 days, respectively. The terminal residues were all below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of EU, USA, Canada, Japan, and South Korea. The food safety was evaluated by comparing the estimated daily intake (IEDI) with its acceptable daily intake (ADI). IEDI values calculated from residue data were found to be far less than the ADI on ginseng. Therefore, it would be unlikely to cause health problems induced by Nativo 75 WG use on ginseng at a dosage of 150-225 g a.i. ha(-1). PMID:25963765

  20. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRL for trifloxystrobin in cane fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Germany, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Bayer CropScience Deutschland GmbH to modify the existing MRL for the active substance trifloxystrobin in cane fruit. In order to accommodate for the intended use of trifloxystrobin Germany proposed to raise the existing MRLfrom the limit of quantification of 0.02* mg/kg to 3 mg/kg. Germany drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive an MRL proposal of 3 mg/kg for the proposed use on cane fruit. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of trifloxystrobin on cane fruit will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  1. Proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Christensen, Hanne Bjerre

    2009-01-01

    A proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in wheat was organised in 2008. The test material was grown in 2007 and treated in the field with 14 pesticides formulations containing the active substances, alpha-cypermethrin, bifentrin, carbendazim, chlormequat, chlorpyrifos-methyl, difenconazole, epoxiconazole, glyphosate, iprodione, malathion, pirimicarb, prochloraz, spiroxamin and trifloxystrobin. After harvest, the test material was additionally spiked in the laboratory with three pesticides, that where the residues were too low, and axozystrobin. In total, 72 laboratories submitted results and z-scores were calculated for all laboratories and pesticides, except for glyphosate where only five laboratories submitted results and summed weighted z-scores were calculated for the laboratories with a sufficient scope. For several pesticides, the submitted results were strongly depending on the extraction procedure and consequently the assigned values were calculated based on part of the results. Acceptable z-scores were obtained by 56-97% of the participants.

  2. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for trifloxystrobin in horseradish, parsley root and purslane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Belgium, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS Belgium, compiled an application to modify the existing MRLs for trifloxystrobin in horseradish, parsley root and purslane. In order to accommodate for the intended uses of trifloxystrobin, Belgium proposed to raise the existing MRLs from the limit of quantification of 0.02* mg/kg to 0.08 mg/kg for horseradish, from 0.04 mg/kg to 0.08 mg/kg for parsley root and from 0.02* mg/kg to 10 mg/kg for purslane. The EMS drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive MRL proposals for the NEU intended uses on horseradish and parsley root, while for purslane the data were found to be insufficient to derive a robust MRL proposal. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of trifloxystrobin in the commodities under consideration. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of trifloxystrobin on horseradish and parsley root will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  3. Comparison of the residue persistence of trifloxystrobin (25 %) + tebuconazole (50 %) on gherkin and soil at two locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Soudamini

    2015-12-01

    Residue study of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole on gherkin was carried out at two locations (Bangalore and Gouribiddunur, India) after applications at the standard and double doses of 75?+?150 and of 150?+?300 g ha(-1) of the formulated product, trifloxystrobin (25 %)?+?tebuconazole (50 %) (Nativo 75 WG). The fungicides were determined by gas chromatography (GC) and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Extraction and purification of the samples were carried out by Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) method after validating the analytical parameters. Initial residues of trifloxystrobin on gherkin fruits were 0.335 and 0.65 mg kg(-1) at Bangalore, and 0.34 and 0.615 mg kg(-1) at Gouribiddunur. Tebuconazole residues were 0.842 and 1.682 mg kg(-1) at Bangalore, and 0.71 and 1.34 mg kg(-1) at Gouribiddunur. Residue dissipation of the fungicides followed first-order rate kinetics. Trifloxystrobin residues dissipated at the half-life of 2.9-3.7 days, and tebuconazole at 3.2 days. At the standard dose treatment, trifloxystrobin residues dissipated to below the maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.2 mg kg(-1) (European Union) within 3 days at both the locations. Residues of the metabolite CGA 321113 was less than the limit of quantification (LOQ; 0.05 mg kg(-1)) on all sampling days. Tebuconazole residues dissipated to below its MRL (0.05 mg kg(-1)) within 14 and 11 days, at Bangalore and Gouribiddunur, respectively. From the two trials, it was concluded that the required pre-harvest interval (PHI) for the combination formulation was 14 days. Application of Nativo 75 WG should be given before flowering to allow the residues to dissipate below the MRLs at harvest. PMID:26603299

  4. Simultaneous detection and degradation patterns of kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin residues in citrus fruits by HPLC combined with QuEChERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Dai, Xian J; Fang, Jian J; Zhu, Hua M

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the residues, kinetics and dissipation patterns of kresoxim-methyl, (E)-methoxyimino[?-(o-tolyloxy)-o-tolyl]acetate, and trifloxystrobin, methyl(E)-methoxyimino-{(E)-?[1-(?,?,?-trifluoro-m-tolyl)ethylideneaminooxy]-o-tolyl}acetate". A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (LC-UV) method combined with the 'Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe' (QuEChERS) protocol was developed to quantify the levels of kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin residues in citrus. More than 97% of the kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin deposists gradually dissipated from the citrus peels within 15 days. The half-lives of kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin in the peels were in the ranges of 2.63-2.66 d and 3.12-3.15 d, respectively, and the pattern of decline in the peels followed first-order kinetics. The kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin residues in the pulp dissipated below the detectable level of 0.01 mg kg(-1) after 9 days. Kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin were easily decomposed (T1/2 dissipation patterns could support the application of these two fungicides in the postharvest storage of citrus fruits. PMID:23452212

  5. Assessment of trifloxystrobin uptake kinetics, developmental toxicity and mRNA expression in rare minnow embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bin; Liu, Guang-Lu; Liu, Lei; Ling, Fei; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2015-02-01

    Trifloxystrobin (TFS) is the widely used strobilurin fungicide. However, little information is so far available regarding the uptake kinetics and developmental toxicity of TFS to fish. The present study was conducted to investigate the uptake kinetics, potential environment risk and toxicity of TFS on Gobiocypris rarus embryos. Results revealed that increased malformation, decreased body length and heart rate, affected spontaneous movement and swimming speed provide a gradual concentration-dependent manner; values of 144 h LC50 (median lethal concentration) and EC50 (median effective concentration) were 1.11 and 0.86 ?g L(-1). Continuous exposure to TFS resulted in a steady accumulation with no evidence of elimination. Enzyme activities were significantly changed; reactive oxygen species and DNA damage were significantly induced after TFS treatment. Certain genes related to cell apoptosis (p53), metabolism (cyp1a), stress response (hsp70) and blood vessels (vezf1) development were all significantly up-regulated. This is the first study to define uptake kinetics and to focus on behavioral consequences, physiological changes and mRNA expression following TFS exposure in the early life stages of fish. Our results suggest that TFS is highly toxic to fish embryos. PMID:25240160

  6. Monitoring pesticide residues in greenhouse tomato by combining acetonitrile-based extraction with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Armindo; Cunha, Sara C; Mansilha, Catarina; Aguiar, Ana; Pinho, Olívia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2012-12-01

    A multiclass and multiresidue method for pesticide analysis in tomato was validated. Extraction and pre-concentration of the pesticide residues from acetonitrile extracts was performed by using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) technique, followed by gas chromatography-mass detection. DLLME was performed using carbon tetrachloride as extractive solvent and acetonitrile extract as dispersive solvent, in order to increase enrichment factor of the extraction procedure. Validation parameters indicated the suitability of the method for routine analyses of thirty pesticides in a large number of samples. In general, pesticide recoveries ranged between 70% and 110% and repeatability ranged between 1% and 20%. The proposed method was applied to the monitoring of pesticides in tomatoes grown during winter in greenhouses. Among the compounds considered in this work, cyprodinil was found in tomato at concentrations of 0.33mg/kg, other pesticides like azoxystrobin, fenhexanid, tolyfluanid, ?-cyhalothrin and trifloxystrobin were also detected, but, not quantified. PMID:22953826

  7. Desenvolvimento de métodos analíticos para determinação de agrotóxicos em sedimentos por cromatografia gasosa monodimensional e bidimensional abrangente com micro detector de captura de elétrons Development of analytical methods for pesticides in sediments by monodimensional and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro electron-capture detection

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Macedo da Silva; Cláudia Alcaraz Zini; Elina Bastos Caramão; Ewelin Monica Paturi Navarro Canizares; Karen Alam Leal

    2010-01-01

    The development of analytical methods for determination of eight pesticides of different chemical classes (trichlorfon, propanil, fipronil, propiconazole, trifloxystrobin, permethrin, difenoconazole and azoxystrobin) in sediments with gas chromatography-micro-electron capture detector (GC/µECD) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detector (GCxGC/µECD) is described. These methods were applied to real sediment samples, and the best results were obtai...

  8. Influence of pesticides on yeasts colonizing leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadkertiová, Renata; Sláviková, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The effect of nine different pesticides on the growth of yeasts isolated from the leaves of fruit and forest trees was investigated. Four insecticides (with the active ingredients: thiacloprid, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, and thiamethoxam) and five fungicides (with the effective substances: bitertanol, kresoxim-methyl, mancozeb, trifloxystrobin, and cupric oxychloride) were tested. The concentrations of chemicals were those recommended by the manufacturers for the spraying of trees. The yeast strains isolated from the leaves of fruit trees were not sensitive to any of the insecticides. The majority of yeast strains isolated from the leaves of forest trees were either not sensitive or only to a small extent. While Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Pichia anomala were not affected by any insecticide, the strains of Cryptococcus laurentii and Rhodotorula glutinis showed the highest sensitivity. The effects of fungicides on the growth of isolated yeasts were more substantial. The fungicide Dithane DG (mancozeb) completely inhibited the growth of all yeasts. All strains isolated from fruit tree leaves were more resistant to the tested fungicides than those isolated from the leaves of forest trees. The most resistant strains from the leaves of fruit trees belonged to the species Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia anomala, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas Cryptococcus albidus and C. laurentii, originating from the leaves of forest trees, showed the highest sensitivity to fungicides. PMID:22351984

  9. Pesticide Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides generally include herbicides, insecticides and fungicides that play an important role in maintaining worldwide food and fiber production by controlling weeds that compete for water and nutrients or by eliminating pests that reduce yields. In the future, the role of pesticides and fertili...

  10. National Pesticide Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find local pesticide & pest control information People and Pets Human Health Animal Health Safe Use Practices Pest Control Pets and Pesticides Pesticide Incidents Science and Regulation Toxicology ...

  11. Obsolete pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Several hundred tons of obsolete pesticide stocks worldwide will pose a threat to humans and the environment until the year 2030 in some regions, unless funding for waste disposal is significantly increased, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) said in a message directed to donor governments and industry on May 24.“Deadly chemicals are contaminating the soils, groundwater, irrigation, and drinking water,” said Amemayehu Wodageneh, senior expert on obsolete pesticides for FAO. “These ‘forgotten’ stocks are a serious risk, [and] they could cause an environmental tragedy in rural areas and big cities. There is hardly any developing country that is not affected by the hazards of obsolete pesticides

  12. Occurrence and distribution study of residues from pesticides applied under controlled conditions in the field during rice processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Lucía; Colazzo, Marcos; Pérez-Parada, Andrés; Besil, Natalia; Heinzen, Horacio; Böcking, Bernardo; Cesio, Verónica; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2012-05-01

    The results of an experiment to study the occurrence and distribution of pesticide residues during rice cropping and processing are reported. Four herbicides, nine fungicides, and two insecticides (azoxystrobin, byspiribac-sodium, carbendazim, clomazone, difenoconazole, epoxiconazole, isoprothiolane, kresoxim-methyl, propanil, quinclorac, tebuconazole, thiamethoxam, tricyclazole, trifloxystrobin, ?-cyhalotrin) were applied to an isolated rice-crop plot under controlled conditions, during the 2009-2010 cropping season in Uruguay. Paddy rice was harvested and industrially processed to brown rice, white rice, and rice bran, which were analyzed for pesticide residues using the original QuEChERS methodology and its citrate variation by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS. The distribution of pesticide residues was uneven among the different matrices. Ten different pesticide residues were found in paddy rice, seven in brown rice, and eight in rice bran. The highest concentrations were detected in paddy rice. These results provide information regarding the fate of pesticides in the rice food chain and its safety for consumers. PMID:22497619

  13. Pesticide pollution of multiple drinking water sources in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: evidence from two provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, N D G; Sebesvari, Z; Amelung, W; Renaud, F G

    2015-06-01

    Pollution of drinking water sources with agrochemicals is often a major threat to human and ecosystem health in some river deltas, where agricultural production must meet the requirements of national food security or export aspirations. This study was performed to survey the use of different drinking water sources and their pollution with pesticides in order to inform on potential exposure sources to pesticides in rural areas of the Mekong River delta, Vietnam. The field work comprised both household surveys and monitoring of 15 frequently used pesticide active ingredients in different water sources used for drinking (surface water, groundwater, water at public pumping stations, surface water chemically treated at household level, harvested rainwater, and bottled water). Our research also considered the surrounding land use systems as well as the cropping seasons. Improper pesticide storage and waste disposal as well as inadequate personal protection during pesticide handling and application were widespread amongst the interviewed households, with little overall risk awareness for human and environmental health. The results show that despite the local differences in the amount and frequency of pesticides applied, pesticide pollution was ubiquitous. Isoprothiolane (max. concentration 8.49 ?g L(-1)), fenobucarb (max. 2.32 ?g L(-1)), and fipronil (max. 0.41 ?g L(-1)) were detected in almost all analyzed water samples (98 % of all surface samples contained isoprothiolane, for instance). Other pesticides quantified comprised butachlor, pretilachlor, propiconazole, hexaconazole, difenoconazole, cypermethrin, fenoxapro-p-ethyl, tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin, azoxystrobin, quinalphos, and thiamethoxam. Among the studied water sources, concentrations were highest in canal waters. Pesticide concentrations varied with cropping season but did not diminish through the year. Even in harvested rainwater or purchased bottled water, up to 12 different pesticides were detected at concentrations exceeding the European Commission's parametric guideline values for individual or total pesticides in drinking water (0.1 and 0.5 ?g L(-1); respectively). The highest total pesticide concentration quantified in bottled water samples was 1.38 ?g L(-1). Overall, we failed to identify a clean water source in the Mekong Delta with respect to pesticide pollution. It is therefore urgent to understand further and address drinking water-related health risk issues in the region. PMID:25572267

  14. Antimicrobial Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to information about these products for the public: Design for the Environment antimicrobial pesticide pilot: moving toward ... Staff Directory Planning, Budget and Results Jobs and Internships Headquarters Offices Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers ...

  15. Scientific support for preparing an EU position for the 45th Session of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 43 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, EFSA received a request from the European Commission to provide support for the preparation of the EU position for the 45th session of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR. In 2012, JMPR evaluated 12 active substances regarding the setting of toxicological reference values to be used in consumer risk assessment, 7 new compounds (ametoctradin, chlorfenapyr, dinotefuran, fluxapyroxad, MCPA, picoxystrobin, sedaxane and 4 part of periodic reevaluation (benzoate, fenpropathrin, fenvalerate, glufosinate-ammonium. Regarding the setting of Maximum Residue Limits (CXLs, JMPR assessed 26 substances (ametoctradin, azoxystrobin, buprofezin, carbofuran, chlorfenapyr, chlorothalonil, cycloxydim, cyfluthrin, cyromazine, dichlorvos, dicofol, dinotefuran, fenvalerate, fludioxonil, fluopyram, fluxapyroxad, glufosinate-ammonium, imidacloprid, MCPA, methoxyfenozide, penthiopyrad, phorate, picoxystrobin, sedaxane, spinetoram and trifloxystrobin. EFSA derived comments on the JMPR evaluations regarding the acceptability of the proposed draft Codex MRLs and the toxicological reference values.

  16. Pesticides and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... and advice fromyour health care provider. What are pesticides? A pesticide is a substance used to prevent ...

  17. Residential Exposure to Pesticides

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the association between residential pesticide use and childhood cancers. Exposure to indoor pesticides was significantly associated with ... the researchers did not find any significant childhood cancer risk with exposure to outdoor pesticides; however, exposure ...

  18. Applying Pesticides Safely

    OpenAIRE

    Latimer, Joyce G.

    2009-01-01

    Proper use of pesticides is essential for your safety and for that of the environment. Pesticides must be used correctly to be effective. This publication reviews the key factors in the proper use of pesticides.

  19. Toxic effects of three strobilurins (trifloxystrobin, azoxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl) on mRNA expression and antioxidant enzymes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Jiang, Chao; Wu, Zhuo-Qi; Gong, Yu-Xin; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2013-12-01

    The strobilurins are used widely in the world as effective fungicidal agents to control Asian soybean rust. In this study, the early life stage of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), which is one of the most important aquaculture species in China, was chosen to measure the acute toxicity of three common strobilurin-derived fungicides (trifloxystrobin (TFS), azoxystrobin (AZ) and kresoxim-methyl (KM)). As endpoints, normal developmental parameters (lethal concentration (LC??) and average heart rate), expression of relative genes, and three antioxidant enzyme activities in the developing juveniles were recorded during a 48 h exposure. The results revealed that values of LC?? were TFS 0.051 (0.046-0.058) mg L?¹, AZ 0.549 (0.419-0.771) mg L?¹ and KM 0.338 (0.284-0.407) mg L?¹ for juveniles. For the potential toxicity mechanisms, these three fungicides increased catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activity and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, significantly inhibited expressions of three growth-related genes (IGF-1, IGF-2 and GHR) and two energy-related-genes (CCK and PYY), and caused pronounced up-regulation a stress-gene (HSP70). The present study demonstrated potential toxic effects of TFS, AZ and KM on the early development of C. idella. Overall, three strobilurins (TFS, AZ and KM) might cause serious damages to the aquatic species; therefore, their pollution supervision in water ecological environment should be strengthened. PMID:24210350

  20. Safe apples for baby-food production: survey of pesticide treatment regimes leaving minimum residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticha, Jana; Hajslova, Jana; Kovalczuk, Tomas; Jech, Martin; Honzicek, Jiri; Kocourek, Vladimir; Lansky, Miroslav; Kloutvorova, Jana; Falta, Vladan

    2007-06-01

    A total of 19 pesticide preparations were used according to agricultural practice in six trials in apple orchards. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), premature Golden Delicious apples collected 64, 50, 36 days before harvest and mature fruit were examined for residues of active ingredients. No residues of triflumuron, triazamate, chlorpyrifos, etofenprox, fenoxycarb, kresoxim-methyl, cyprodinyl, difenoconazole or thiram were detected in the first sampling. Also, the levels of chlorpyrifos-methyl, penconazole, tebuconazole and tolylfluanid dropped during the pre-harvest interval. Detectable residues of pyridaben, thiacloprid, trifloxystrobin and tetraconazole in harvested fruits were below 0.01 mg kg(-1), which is the maximum concentration of residues acceptable by baby-food producers in any raw material. The only residues exceeding this concentration were captan and teflubenzuron. Based on the data, farmers can choose pesticides for optimal treatment of plants, while enabling growth of a safe crop suitable for baby-food production. PMID:17487602

  1. 78 FR 63938 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ...0.015 ppm; wheat, forage at 30 ppm; wheat, grain at 0.10 ppm; wheat, hay at 15 ppm; and wheat, straw at 9 ppm. Adequate enforcement analytical...fungicide trifloxystrobin (benzeneacetic acid, (E,E)-[alpha]-...

  2. PESTICIDE USE REPORT DATABASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This dataset summarizes pesticide use in California for year 1990-96 as extracted from the Pesticide Use Report (PUR) by county. The PUR is a comprehensive database of Pesticide Use in the state of California supplied by the DPR (California Department of Pesticide Regulation).

  3. Agricultural pesticide residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracer techniques used in the elucidation of the pathways and fate of pesticides in agriculture are reviewed. Such studies include investigating the uptake of labelled pesticides into plants in lysimeter and micro-ecosystem experiments, the translocations of pesticides in the soil, the degradation of pesticides in the soil, the biological availability of soil-applied substances and the bound pesticide residues in the soil. The use of macro- and microautoradiography and double and triple labelling is also described. (U.K.)

  4. Pesticides poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticides are chemical toxicants which are used to kill by their toxic actions, the pest organisms, known to incur significant economic losses or threaten human life, his health and that of his domesticated animals. These toxicants are seldom species-specific. The presence of these or their metabolites may scientific be vouched not only in the environment they are used, but in the entire ecosystem, in the subsoil, in the underwater reservoirs and in the food chain of all non-target species including man, his friends i.e. predator and parasite organisms which be uses against the pests, and in his cherished domesticated animals. In the present paper a survey is made of different groups of toxic chemicals generally used to manage pests, in the ecosystem, food chain and tissues and body parts of non-target species including man and the ones dear to him. Toxicology and biochemistry of these toxic materials and their important metabolites are also briefly discussed with special reference to ways and means through which these poison the above non-target species. (author)

  5. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  6. Pesticide Instrumental Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This workshop was the evaluation of the pesticides impact on the vegetable matrix with the purpose to determine the analysis by GC / M S. The working material were lettuce matrix, chard and a mix of green leaves and pesticides.

  7. Residential Exposure to Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/Residential_Exposure_091415.html Residential Exposure to Pesticides HealthDay News Video - September 15, 2015 To use ... please enable JavaScript. Play video: Residential Exposure to Pesticides For closed captioning, click the CC button on ...

  8. Residential Exposure to Pesticides

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Latest Health News ? Residential Exposure to Pesticides URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videos/news/Residential_Exposure_091415.html Residential Exposure to Pesticides ...

  9. Pesticides and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to pesticides may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  10. Pesticide exposure - Indian scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. India started pesticide production with manufacturing plant for DDT and benzene hexachloride (BHC) (HCH) in the year 1952. In 1958, India was producing over 5000 metric tonnes of pesticides. Currently, there are approximately 145 pesticides registered for use, and production has increased to approximately 85,000 metric tonnes. Rampant use of these chemicals has given rise to several short-term and long-term adverse effects of these chemicals. The first report of poisoning due to pesticides in India came from Kerala in 1958 where, over 100 people died after consuming wheat flour contaminated with parathion. Subsequently several cases of pesticide-poisoning including the Bhopal disaster have been reported. Despite the fact that the consumption of pesticides in India is still very low, about 0.5 kg/ha of pesticides against 6.60 and 12.0 kg/ha in Korea and Japan, respectively, there has been a widespread contamination of food commodities with pesticide residues, basically due to non-judicious use of pesticides. In India, 51% of food commodities are contaminated with pesticide residues and out of these, 20% have pesticides residues above the maximum residue level values on a worldwide basis. It has been observed that their long-term, low-dose exposure are increasingly linked to human health effects such as immune-suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities, and cancer. In this light, problems of pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, use of biotechnology, and biopesticides, and use of pesticides obtained from natural plant sources such as neem extracts are some of the future strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides

  11. Pesticides and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevention and control of damage to health, crops, and property by insects, fungi, and noxious weeds are the major goals of pesticide applications. As with use of any biologically active agent, pesticides have unwanted side-effects. In this review, we will examine the thesis that adverse pesticide effects are more likely to occur in children who are at special developmental and behavioral risk. Children's exposures to pesticides in the rural and urban settings and differences in their exposure patterns are discussed. The relative frequency of pesticide poisoning in children is examined. In this connection, most reported acute pesticide poisonings occur in children younger than age 5. The possible epidemiological relationships between parental pesticide use or exposure and the risk of adverse reproductive outcomes and childhood cancer are discussed. The level of consensus among these studies is examined. Current concerns regarding neurobehavioral toxicity and endocrine disruption in juxtaposition to the relative paucity of toxicant mechanism-based studies of children are explored

  12. Pesticides: chemicals for survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticides are chemicals used to control pests such as insects, weeds, plant diseases, nematodes, and rodents. The increased use of pesticides since 1945 has greatly aided the increase in crop production, protected livestock from diseases such as trypanosomiasis, protected man from diseases such as malaria and filarisis, decreased losses of stored grain, and has generally improved man's welfare. Despite the enormous benefits derived from pesticides these chemicals are not problem-free. Many pesticides are toxic to living organisms and interfere with specific biochemical systems. To measure the very small quantities of a pesticide radiolabelled chemicals are frequently essential, particularly to measure changes in the chemical structure of the pesticide, movement of the pesticide in soil, plants, or animals, amounts of pesticide going through various steps in food processing, etc. The use of radiolabelled pesticides is shortly shown for metabolism of the pesticide in crop species, metabolism in ruminant, in chickens and eggs, in soil, and possibly leaching and sorption in soil, hydrolysis, bio-concentration, microbial and photodegradation, and toxicity studies

  13. Pesticides (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Pesticides The Basics Pesticides are substances we use to control or kill ... t want to have around. Show more Sometimes pesticides work too well. They may not only harm ...

  14. Pesticides and childhood cancers.

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, J L; A.F. Olshan; Savitz, D A

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the possible association between pesticides and the risk of childhood cancers, epidemiologic studies published between 1970 and 1996 were critically reviewed. Thirty-one studies investigated whether occupational or residential exposure to pesticides by either parents or children was related to increased risk of childhood cancer. In general, the reported relative risk estimates were modest. Risk estimates appeared to be stronger when pesticide exposure was measured in more detail. ...

  15. Control of Pesticides 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    Three different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation have been included in the 2000 analytical chemical authority control: 1) herbicides containing aclonifen, clopyralid, dicamba, quinoclamine, bromoxynil, ioxynil, simazine, and terbuthylazine. 2) Fungicides containing fenpropidin......, fluazinam, and kresoxim-methyl, and among insecticides containing fenazaquin. Thus, all the eighteen analysed samples of these pesticides complied with the accepted tolerances with respect to content of active ingredients set by the Danish regulation of pesticides. The only product containing buprofezin...

  16. The Danish Pesticide Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Branth; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2015-01-01

    This case study analyses the effects of the Danish pesticide tax (1996-2013) on agriculture which was introduced as an ad valorem tax in 1996, doubled in 1998, and redesigned in 2013 as a tax based on the toxicity of the pesticides. The Danish pesticide taxes probably represent the world’s highest...... pesticide taxes on agriculture, which makes it interesting to analyze how effective they have been. Here the effects of the ad valorem tax (1996-2013) are analyzed. The case study demonstrates the challenges of choosing an optimal tax design in a complex political setting where, additionally, not all...

  17. The Danish Pesticide Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Branth; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2015-01-01

    This case study analyses the effects of the Danish pesticide tax (1996-2013) on agriculture which was introduced as an ad valorem tax in 1996, doubled in 1998, and redesigned in 2013 as a tax based on the toxicity of the pesticides. The Danish pesticide taxes probably represent the world’s highest...... pesticide taxes on agriculture, which makes it interesting to analyze how effective they have been. Here the effects of the ad valorem tax (1996-2013) are analyzed. The case study demonstrates the challenges of choosing an optimal tax design in a complex political setting where, additionally, not all...

  18. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Information System contains information concerning all pesticide products registered in the United States. It includes registrant name and...

  19. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Information System contains information concerning all pesticide products registered in the United States. It includes registrant name and...

  20. 75 FR 28012 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on False or Misleading Pesticide Product...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0282; FRL-8824-8] Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on False or Misleading Pesticide Product Brand Names AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)....

  1. 78 FR 3418 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Web-Distributed Labeling for Pesticide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2012-0906; FRL-9374-4] Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Web- Distributed Labeling for Pesticide Products AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION:...

  2. Agricultural pesticide residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utilization of tracer techniques in the study of agricultural pesticide residues is reviewed under the following headings: lysimeter experiments, micro-ecosystems, translocation in soil, degradation of pesticides in soil, biological availability of soil-applied substances, bound residues in the soil, use of macro- and microautography, double and triple labelling, use of tracer labelling in animal experiments. (U.K.)

  3. Pesticide Residues in Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    This indicator describes the number of pesticide residues detected in fruits, vegetables, grains, meat, and dairy products from across the country and the number of residues exceeding the EPA tolerance for a given pesticide-commodity pair from 1994 to 2009. This information pr...

  4. Citizen's Guide to Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    This guide provides suggestions on pest control and safety rules for pesticide use at home. Pest prevention may be possible by modification of pest habitat: removal of food and water sources, removal or destruction of pest shelter and breeding sites, and good horticultural practices that reduce plant stress. Nonchemical alternatives to pesticides…

  5. Residential Exposure to Pesticides

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... news/Residential_Exposure_091415.html Residential Exposure to Pesticides HealthDay News Video - September 15, 2015 To use ... please enable JavaScript. Play video: Residential Exposure to Pesticides For closed captioning, click the CC button on ...

  6. Residential Exposure to Pesticides

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Transcript Preventive measures should be taken to reduce children’s exposure to pesticides at home. That’s the conclusion ... these dangers and make every effort to limit children’s exposure to pesticides. I’m Dr. Cindy Haines ...

  7. Pesticider 2 i overfladevand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyeland, B.; Kvamm, B. L.

    DMU har den 29. september 1999 afholdt en metodeafprøvning: Pesticider 2 i overfladevand. Der var tilmeldt 17 danske og udenlandske laboratorier i metodeafprøvningen. Prøvningen omfattede 32 pesticider i overfladevand fra en sjællandsk sø. Koncentrationsniveauet for hver komponent var på 0,025 - 0...

  8. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  9. Desenvolvimento de métodos analíticos para determinação de agrotóxicos em sedimentos por cromatografia gasosa monodimensional e bidimensional abrangente com micro detector de captura de elétrons Development of analytical methods for pesticides in sediments by monodimensional and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro electron-capture detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Macedo da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of analytical methods for determination of eight pesticides of different chemical classes (trichlorfon, propanil, fipronil, propiconazole, trifloxystrobin, permethrin, difenoconazole and azoxystrobin in sediments with gas chromatography-micro-electron capture detector (GC/µECD and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detector (GCxGC/µECD is described. These methods were applied to real sediment samples, and the best results were obtained using a 5% diphenyl-methylpolysiloxane column for 1D-GC. For GCxGC the same column was employed in the first dimension and a 50%-phenyl-methylpolysiloxane stationary phase was placed in the second dimension. Due to the superior peak capacity and selectivity of GCxGC, interfering matrix peaks were separated from analytes, showing a better performance of GCxGC.

  10. Desenvolvimento de métodos analíticos para determinação de agrotóxicos em sedimentos por cromatografia gasosa monodimensional e bidimensional abrangente com micro detector de captura de elétrons / Development of analytical methods for pesticides in sediments by monodimensional and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro electron-capture detection

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana Macedo da, Silva; Cláudia Alcaraz, Zini; Elina Bastos, Caramão; Ewelin Monica Paturi Navarro, Canizares; Karen Alam, Leal.

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english The development of analytical methods for determination of eight pesticides of different chemical classes (trichlorfon, propanil, fipronil, propiconazole, trifloxystrobin, permethrin, difenoconazole and azoxystrobin) in sediments with gas chromatography-micro-electron capture detector (GC/µECD) and [...] comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detector (GCxGC/µECD) is described. These methods were applied to real sediment samples, and the best results were obtained using a 5% diphenyl-methylpolysiloxane column for 1D-GC. For GCxGC the same column was employed in the first dimension and a 50%-phenyl-methylpolysiloxane stationary phase was placed in the second dimension. Due to the superior peak capacity and selectivity of GCxGC, interfering matrix peaks were separated from analytes, showing a better performance of GCxGC.

  11. PESTICIDES: BENEFITS AND HAZARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Maksymiv

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are an integral part of modern life used to prevent growth of unwanted living  organisms. Despite the fact that scientific statements coming from many toxicological works provide indication on the low risk of the pesticides and their residues, the community especially last years is deeply concerned about massive application of pesticides in diverse fields. Therefore evaluation of hazard risks particularly in long term perspective is very important. In the fact there are at least two clearly different approaches for evaluation of pesticide using: the first one is defined as an objective or probabilistic risk assessment, while the second one is the potential economic and agriculture benefits. Therefore, in this review the author has considered scientifically based assessment of positive and negative effects of pesticide application and discusses possible approaches to find balance between them.

  12. Control of Pesticides 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, Teddy; Petersen, Kitty Kastalag; Christoffersen, Christel

    The analytical chemical authority control of pesticide products on the Danish market in 2006 is described in this report. Samples of selected groups of pesticides have been collected from the market and analysed to verify whether the actual contents of the respective active ingredients in the...... products comply with the labelled content. The tolerance of deviation from the labelled content of active ingredient is set by the Danish Statutory Order on pesticides. In addition to the examination of the content of active ingredients, all collected samples are examined for the content of octylphenol...... ethoxylates (OPEO) and nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEO). The industry and the Danish authorities have agreed on removing these compounds from all Danish-sold pesticide formulations produced after June 2000. Four different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation were included in the 2006...

  13. Control of Pesticides 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    The analytical chemical authority control on pesticide products on the Danish market performed in 2001 is reported. Samples of selected groups of pesticides have been collected from the market and analysed to verify whether the actual contents of the respective active ingredients in the products...... comply with the label-claimed content. The tolerance of deviation from the label-claimed content of active ingredient is set by the Danish pesticide regulation. Three different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation have been included in the 2001 analytical chemical authority control: 1....... Satisfactory results were found among herbicides containing pendimethalin and methabenzthiazuron, among fungicides containing azaconazole, tolylfluanid, propamocarb and cyprodinil, and among insecticides containing amitraz, phosalone and diflubenzuron. Thus, the twelve analysed samples of these pesticides...

  14. The legacy of pesticide pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Cedergreen, Nina; McKnight, Ursula S.; Kreuger, Jenny; Jacobsen, Dean; Astrup Kristensen, Esben; Friberg, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    We revealed a history of legacy pesticides in water and sediment samples from 19 small streams across an agricultural landscape. Dominant legacy compounds included organochlorine pesticides, such as DDT and lindane, the organophosphate chlorpyrifos and triazine herbicides such as terbutylazine and...... water samples from agriculturally impacted streams was significantly higher when legacy pesticides were included compared to when they were omitted. Legacy pesticides did not significantly change the predicted toxicity of water samples to algae or fish. However, pesticide concentrations in bed sediment...

  15. 77 FR 74003 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... destroy mold or mildew growth on hard, nonporous and porous surfaces in indoor environments (hereinafter... AGENCY Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With Mold... Registration Notice (PR Notice) titled ``Guidance on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products with Mold-Related...

  16. Transporte de agrotóxicos em lavoura de arroz irrigado sob três manejos de irrigação / Pesticide transport in rice field under three irrigation managements

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.F.D., Martini; L.A., Avila; G.V., Cassol; R., Zanella; S.L.O., Machado; M.S., Marques; M., De Vicari.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo de arroz irrigado no Rio Grande do Sul caracteriza-se pela permanência de lâmina de irrigação sobre o solo, o que ocasiona perdas de agrotóxicos na ocorrência de chuvas; portanto, o adequado manejo de irrigação pode influenciar na redução do transporte destes para o ambiente. O objetivo de [...] ste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes manejos de irrigação no extravasamento da água e no transporte e persistência de clomazone, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, trifloxystrobin e propiconazol em lavoura de arroz irrigado. Os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial consistiram nos manejos de irrigação por inundação contínua, intermitente e por banhos (fator A) e pelos agrotóxicos mencionados (fator B). Determinou-se o volume total de água extravasada e a taxa de dissipação e transporte desses agrotóxicos. Devido ao maior armazenamento de água da chuva, quando comparadas com a irrigação contínua, as irrigações intermitente e por banhos proporcionaram diminuição de 53 e 95% do volume de água perdida, resultando, respectivamente, em redução de 49 e 64% na massa total de agrotóxicos transportados para o ambiente, em relação ao total aplicado na lavoura. A massa de agrotóxico transportada não ultrapassou 3% do total aplicado, e as maiores concentrações de agrotóxicos em água ocorreram próximo à sua aplicação. Com base nesses resultados, salienta-se que os manejos de irrigação intermitente e por banhos minimizam o transporte de agrotóxicos para o ambiente. Abstract in english Rice crop in the state of Rio Grande do Sul is characterized by the presence of water layer on the soil, which can cause pesticide runoff during the occurrence of rainfall. Thus, proper irrigation management can reduce pesticide transport into the environment. The objective of this study was to eval [...] uate the effect of different irrigation managements on water runoff, transport and dissipation of clomazone, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, trifloxystrobin, and propiconazol. The treatments were arranged in a factorial scheme and consisted of continuous flooding, intermittent flooding, and flushing irrigation (factor A) and by the application of the pesticides listed above (factor B). Total water runoff, and pesticide transport and dissipation rate were evaluated. Due to the larger rainfall storage, compared with continuous flooding, intermittent flooding and flushing irrigation provided a reduction of 53 and 95% of water runoff, resulting, respectively, in a reduction of 49 and 64% of the total mass transported into the environment in relation to the total applied in the field. The pesticide mass transported was lower than 3% of the total amount applied. Based on these results, it could be concluded that intermittent flooding and flushing irrigation minimize pesticide transport into the environment.Since the highest pesticide concentrations occur close to application time, it is of fundamental importance to conduct proper irrigation management providing maximum permanence in the environment.

  17. The Danish Pesticide Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Branth; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted

    2015-01-01

    This case study analyses the effects of the Danish pesticide tax (1996-2013) on agriculture which was introduced as an ad valorem tax in 1996, doubled in 1998, and redesigned in 2013 as a tax based on the toxicity of the pesticides. The Danish pesticide taxes probably represent the world’s highest pesticide taxes on agriculture, which makes it interesting to analyze how effective they have been. Here the effects of the ad valorem tax (1996-2013) are analyzed. The case study demonstrates the challenges of choosing an optimal tax design in a complex political setting where, additionally, not all individuals in the target group necessarily react to the economic incentives as predicted by economic modeling. It also demonstrates that a small first green-tax-step over time might develop into a better tax design.

  18. What Is a Pesticide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... registration" or license that permits a pesticide's distribution, sale, and use only after the company meets the ... Business Sector By Topic Compliance Enforcement Laws and Executive Orders Policy and Guidance Regulations About EPA Administrator ...

  19. Pesticide Registration Information System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PRISM provides an integrated, web portal for all pesticide related data, communications, registrations and transactions for OPP and its stakeholders, partners and...

  20. Residential Exposure to Pesticides

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at home. That’s the conclusion of a new study in the journal Pediatrics. Researchers analyzed data from 16 previous studies that looked at the association between residential pesticide ...

  1. Pesticide-Exposure Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    The "Pesticide-exposure Matrix" was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years.

  2. Residential Exposure to Pesticides

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home ? Latest Health News ? Residential Exposure to Pesticides URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/ ... On the other hand, the researchers did not find any significant childhood cancer risk with exposure to ...

  3. Pesticide reducing instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars-Bo; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Andersen, Martin; Bjørner, Thomas B.; Hauch, Jens; Topping, Chis J.

    For decades the concerns about the impact of modern agriculture’s use of pesticides have been one of the most debated issues within Danish environmental politics. Several action plans have aimed at reducing the use of pesticides, but the scientific basis of these has not been well justified. The...... aim of this paper is to analyze the effectiveness of different instruments targeting unilateral pesticide reductions in Danish agriculture as well as whether the benefit from further reductions exceeds the social costs. The last issue is a novel feature of this paper since it requires the...... collaboration and linkage of very different research disciplines and modeling tools. In the paper we combine several analytical tools in search of an effective pesticide instrument and an optimal application of such an instrument. The tools under considerations are firstly a CGE model used for evaluating the...

  4. Respiratory Protection against Pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt, Burak; AKBABA, Muhsin

    2015-01-01

    Although the respiratory (breathing) system tolerates exposure to a limited degree, some chemicals can impair or destroy portions of it. For many pesticides, the respiratory system is the quickest and most direct route into the circulatory system, allowing rapid transport throughout the body. Thus, it is important to follow the pesticide label and follow directions for control of exposure, especially when respiratory protection is specified. A respirator is a safety device covering at least t...

  5. Genotoxicity of chlororganic pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Kazakhstan there are the warehouses of the obsolete pesticides and their container which should be buried in special burial grounds or neutralized to minimize dangerous genetic and ecological risks. The results of two yr of research were identification of substances stored in 64 former warehouses of pesticides. 64 former warehouses (in the 10 areas of Almaty oblast) are on distance of 250 km from a large city of Almaty (the former capital of Kazakhstan). A total of 352,6 ton of obsolete pesticides and 250 ton of their container were disposed. We determined the residues of DDT metabolites (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and HCH isomers (hexachlorocyclohexane) in soil around pesticides warehouses where their concentrations exceed MAC (maximum concentration limit) in tens - hundreds times. To analyze a genotoxicity of chlororganic pesticides we used their concentrations that were found in soil from former warehouses. The analysis of structural mutations of chromosomes was carried out by metaphase method in I mitoses meristem cells of barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.). It was ascertained that HCH isomers and DDT metabolites have genotoxic effect exceeding spontaneous mutation in 5-7 times. High contaminations by pesticides on soil around of warehouses and their ability to induce chromosome aberrations in plant cells indicate that warehouses are a new centre of contamination by POP's (proof organic pollutants). (author)

  6. Human Health Benchmarks for Pesticides

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Advanced testing methods now allow pesticides to be detected in water at very low levels. These small amounts of pesticides detected in drinking water or source...

  7. Radionuclides in pesticide research. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    467 papers on tracer techniques in pesticide research published through the years 1970 to 1974 are categorized according to type of pesticide and considering uptake, tanslocation, and metabolism of the various compounds applied

  8. Pesticides and earthworms : a review

    OpenAIRE

    Pelosi, C.; Barot, Sébastien; Capowiez, Y.; Hedde, M.; F. Vandenbulcke

    2014-01-01

    Earthworms provide key soil functions that favour many positive ecosystem services. These services are important for agroecosystem sustainability but can be degraded by intensive cultural practices such as use of pesticides. Many literature reports have investigated the effect of pesticides on earthworms. Here, we review those reports to assess the relevance of the indicators of earthworm response to pesticides, to assess their sensitivity to pesticides, and to highlight the remainin...

  9. Control of pesticides 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    Four different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation were included in the 2003 analytical chemical authority control: 1) Herbicides containing clodinafop- propargyl, clomazone, fluroxypyr and glyphosate. 2) Fungicides containing bitertanol, fuberidazole, fenhexamid and pencycuron...... containing methoprene complied with the accepted tolerance limits with respect to the content of the active ingredient as specified in Danish Statutory Order on pesticides. None of the 44 examined samples contained OPEO, but 5 of the samples contained NPEO. Three of these five samples were produced before...

  10. Control of Pesticides 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    Four different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation were included in the 2004 analytical chemical authority control: 1) Herbicides containing bentazone, dicamba, dichlorprop-P, mecoprop-P, MCPA, foramsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methylsodium, rimsulfuron and triasulfuron. 2) Fungicides...... coumatetralyl and one out of four contained dicamba complied with the accepted tolerance limits with respect to the content of the active ingredient as specified in Danish Statutory Order on pesticides. None of the examined samples contained OPEO, but one of the samples contained NPEO. On three products, the...

  11. Bacterial Degradation of Pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Berith Elkær

    This PhD project was carried out as part of the Microbial Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Water Resources (MIRESOWA) project, funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research (grant number 2104-08-0012). The environment is contaminated with various xenobiotic compounds e.g. pesticides......D student, to construct fungal-bacterial consortia in order to potentially stimulate pesticide degradation thereby increasing the chance of successful bioaugmentation. The results of the project are reported in three article manuscripts, included in this thesis. In manuscript I, the mineralization of 2...

  12. On the paradox of pesticides

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Y Charles

    2013-01-01

    The paradox of pesticides was observed experimentally, which says that pesticides may dramatically increase the population of a pest when the pest has a natural predator. Here we use a mathematical model to study the paradox. We find that the timing for the application of pesticides is crucial for the resurgence or non-resurgence of the pests. In particular, regularly applying pesticides is not a good idea as also observed in experiments. In fact, the best time to apply pesticides is when the pest population is reasonably high.

  13. On the paradox of pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Y. Charles; Yang, Yipeng

    2013-01-01

    The paradox of pesticides was observed experimentally, which says that pesticides may dramatically increase the population of a pest when the pest has a natural predator. Here we use a mathematical model to study the paradox. We find that the timing for the application of pesticides is crucial for the resurgence or non-resurgence of the pests. In particular, regularly applying pesticides is not a good idea as also observed in experiments. In fact, the best time to apply pesticides is when the...

  14. Residential Exposure to Pesticides

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools You ... Products Lymphoma Pesticides About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  15. Residential Exposure to Pesticides

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & ... Leukemia Household Products Lymphoma Pesticides About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get email updates Subscribe to ...

  16. Residential Exposure to Pesticides

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Latest Health News ? Residential Exposure to Pesticides URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videos/news/ ...

  17. Residential Exposure to Pesticides

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... significantly associated with an increased risk of childhood leukemia and lymphoma. The risk of these malignancies rose ... matters to you. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Childhood Leukemia Household Products Lymphoma Pesticides About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  18. Residential Exposure to Pesticides

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with an increased risk of childhood leukemia and lymphoma. The risk of these malignancies rose with the ... Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Childhood Leukemia Household Products Lymphoma Pesticides About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us ...

  19. Residential Exposure to Pesticides

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... health news that matters to you. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Childhood Leukemia Household Products Lymphoma Pesticides About ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  20. Kombinationseffekter af pesticider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudsk, Per; Andersen, Helle Raun; Cedergreen, Nina; Mathiassen, Solveig Kopp; Møhlenberg, Flemming; Streibig, Jens Carl; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

    Resumé: Effekten af 101 tokomponentblandinger og 20 trekomponentblandinger bestående af 22 forskellige pesticider blev undersøgt i 7 forskellige testsystemer. Effekterne af blandingerne blev sammenholdt med pesticidernes virkningsmekanismer/virkemåder med henblik på at undersøge, om det med...

  1. Soil column leaching of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    In this review, I address the practical and theoretical aspects of pesticide soil mobility.I also address the methods used to measure mobility, and the factors that influence it, and I summarize the data that have been published on the column leaching of pesticides.Pesticides that enter the unsaturated soil profile are transported downwards by the water flux, and are adsorbed, desorbed, and/or degraded as they pass through the soil. The rate of passage of a pesticide through the soil depends on the properties of the pesticide, the properties of the soil and the prevailing environmental conditions.Because large amounts of many different pesticides are used around the world, they and their degradates may sometimes contaminate groundwater at unacceptable levels.It is for this reason that assessing the transport behavior and soil mobility of pesticides before they are sold into commerce is important and is one indispensable element that regulators use to assess probable pesticide safety. Both elementary soil column leaching and sophisticated outdoor lysimeter studies are performed to measure the leaching potential for pesticides; the latter approach more reliably reflects probable field behavior, but the former is useful to initially profile a pesticide for soil mobility potential.Soil is physically heterogeneous. The structure of soil varies both vertically and laterally, and this variability affects the complex flow of water through the soil profile, making it difficult to predict with accuracy. In addition, macropores exist in soils and further add to the complexity of how water flow occurs. The degree to which soil is tilled, the density of vegetation on the surface, and the type and amounts of organic soil amendments that are added to soil further affect the movement rate of water through soil, the character of soil adsorption sites and the microbial populations that exist in the soil. Parameters that most influence the rate of pesticide mobility in soil are persistence (DT50) of the pesticide, and its sorption/desorption(Koc) characteristics. These parameters may vary for the same pesticide from geographic site-to-site and with soil depth. The interactions that normally occur between pesticides and dissolved organic matter (DOM) or WDC are yet other factors that may complicate pesticide leaching behavior.The soil mobility of pesticides is normally tested both in the laboratory and in the field. Lab studies are initially performed to give researchers a preliminary appraisal of the relative mobility of a pesticide. Later, field lysimeter studies can be performed to provide more natural leaching conditions that emulate the actual field use pattern. Lysimeter studies give the most reliable information on the leaching behavior of a pesticide under field conditions, but these studies are time-consuming and expensive and cannot be performed everywhere. It is for this reason that the laboratory soil column leaching approach is commonly utilized to profile the mobility of a pesticide,and appraise how it behaves in different soils, and relative to other pesticides.Because the soil structure is chemically and physically heterogenous, different pesticide tests may produce variable DT50 and Koc values; therefore, initial pesticide mobility testing is undertaken in homogeneously packed columns that contain two or more soils and are eluted at constant flow rates. Such studies are done in duplicate and utilize a conservative tracer element. By fitting an appropriate mathematical model to the breakthrough curve of the conservative tracer selected,researchers determine key mobility parameters, such as pore water velocity, the column-specific dispersion coefficient, and the contribution of non equilibrium transport processes. Such parameters form the basis for estimating the probable transport and degradation rates that will be characteristic of the tested pesticide. Researchers also examine how a pesticide interacts with soil DOM and WDC, and what contribution from facilitated transport to mobility is made as a result of the effects of

  2. 76 FR 59909 - Amisulbrom; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ...Imported Grape and Tomato'' at page 23 in...of Concern Once a pesticide's toxicological...from drinking water. Pesticide residues in drinking...imported grapes and tomatoes and there are no pesticide registrations in...

  3. 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP) covers discharges of biological pesticides, and chemical pesticides that leave a residue, in areas where EPA is the...

  4. Radiation induced microbial pesticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author)

  5. Radiation induced microbial pesticide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Sang Jae

    2000-01-01

    To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author)

  6. Tracer work in pesticide research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innumerable studies on the large number of pesticides being used throughout the world led to some adverse findings on the properties and behavior of these chemicals and their degradation products in revelation to potential toxicity and environmental pollution. However, it is also a fact (difficult to accept as it may) that the use of pesticides as an indirect means of increasing food production cannot yet be dispensed with despite the potential dangers attributed to it. What can be done is to insure its judicious application which means minimizing its effectiveness in controlling pest infestations. To be able to do this it is necessary to know not only what pesticide is to be used against a given pest but also the fate of pesticide after application to a particular environment under prevailing conditions. Knowledge of the distribution and persistence of the parent compounds under metabolites will also help either, to confirm or to dispel the alleged dangers posed by them. Radiotracer methodology is particularly effective for this type of work because it permits highly sensitive analysis with minimum clean-up and permits one to determine even the bound residues which defies ordinary extraction procedures. Some studies made are studies on fate of pesticides in plant after foliar application to plant needs, uptake and translocation of systemic pesticides, fate of pesticides in soil, bioaccumulation of pesticide by aquatic organisms, etc. This particular study is on distribution of pesticide among the components of a rice/fish ecosystem. This project aims to generate data from experiments conducted in a model ecosystem using radiolabelled lindane and carbo-furan. In both cases, results show a decline in extractable species from the recommended dosage of pesticide application although they tend to imbibe a considerable amount of pesticide. It is hoped that depuration in additional experiments will bring useful results. (Auth.)

  7. Choice of pesticide fate models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The choice of a pesticide fate model at field scale is linked to the available input data. The article describes the available pesticide fate models at a field scale and the guidelines for the choice of the suitable model as function of the data input requested

  8. Quality control of pesticide products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In light of an established need for more efficient analytical procedures, this publication, which documents the findings of an IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on “Quality Control of Pesticide Products”, simplifies the existing protocol for pesticide analysis while simultaneously upholding existing standards of quality. This publication includes both a report on the development work done in the CRP and a training manual for use by pesticide analysis laboratories. Based on peer reviewed and internationally recognized methods published by the Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC) and the Collaborative International Pesticides Analytical Council (CIPAC), this report provides laboratories with versatile tools to enhance the analysis of pesticide chemicals and to extend the scope of available analytical repertoires. Adoption of the proposed analytical methodologies promises to reduce laboratories’ use of solvents and the time spent on reconfiguration and set-up of analytical equipment

  9. Progress in studies on genotoxicity of pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticides are playing an important role in food production and food security. However, the ecoenvironment and human being could be impacted by improper use of some pesticides. An increasing attention has been paid to genotoxicity of pesticide and a progress has been made in recent years. The methodology, results, and probable mechanisms of genotoxicity of pesticide are reviewed in this article. (authors)

  10. METABOLISM OF PESTICIDES BY PLANTS AND PROKARYOTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The metabolism of pesticides by plants is a key factor in the susceptibility and tolerance of a species to a given pesticide, whereas metabolism by prokaryotes is often a key determinant in the environmental fate of that pesticide. Thus, understanding pesticide metabolism in both groups of organisms...

  11. Fact Sheets on Pesticides in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Coalition against the Misuse of Pesticides, Washington, DC.

    This document consists of a collection of fact sheets about the use of pesticides in schools and how to reduce it. The sheets are: (1) "Alternatives to Using Pesticides in Schools: What Is Integrated Pest Management?"; (2) "Health Effects of 48 Commonly Used Pesticides in Schools"; (3) "The Schooling of State Pesticide Laws--2002 Update: A Review…

  12. PESTICIDE APPLICATION TECHNICS IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?uro Banaj

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The academic textbook Pesticide application tehnics improvement is the result of several-year recording theoretical models, numerous practical tests, and data collection relating to technical systems in plant protection and its environment in the narrowest sense. In this first edition, the authors cover the area they have dealt with for many years. The authors aimed to present complete and clear methods how to solve specific problems in the agricultural practice management, plant protection, and direct practice application – ‘‘Know- How'', with as many as possible useful data. References used, along with local ones, are mostly American and from Western Europe. This textbook is intended for those who already use the agricultural technique in plant protection and those who are just acquiring the basics of technical systems proper application in daily practice, regardless the size of the agricultural farm. The authors covered in details and explained some bases of physics logic, analysis, and synthesis of specific laws while using pesticides due to extremely importance in understanding the problem area.

  13. Environmental friendly slow-release pesticide formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Undabeytia López, Tomás; Maqueda Porras, Celia; Morillo González, Esmeralda; Sánchez Verdejo, Trinidad; Nir, Shlomo

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a slow-release pesticide system in agragrian applications that includes but is not limited solely to insecticide, fungicide and herbicide formulations. The system includes a pesticide incorporated into vesicles that is formed by neutral lipids (thereby enhancing the water solubility of the pesticide). The vesicles that incorporate the pesticide are, in turn, adsorbed, on a clay mineral. The formulations are appropriate for pesticide molecules of any type (hydr...

  14. 76 FR 21294 - Pesticides; Microbial Pesticide Definitions and Applicability; Clarification and Availability of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0670; FRL-8857-7] RIN 2070-AJ80 Pesticides; Microbial Pesticide Definitions and Applicability; Clarification...is also soliciting comment on a draft microbial pesticide test guideline, explaining the deposition...

  15. 77 FR 23713 - Pesticides; Final Guidance on Material Safety Data Sheets as Pesticide Labeling; Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2012-0176; FRL-9343-9] Pesticides; Final Guidance on Material Safety Data Sheets as Pesticide Labeling; Request for Comment on Paperwork...Agency is announcing the availability of a Pesticide Registration Notice (PR Notice)...

  16. 40 CFR 168.22 - Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA section 24(c) registrations...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATEMENTS OF ENFORCEMENT...

  17. 77 FR 52610 - Pesticides; Microbial Pesticide Definitions and Applicability; Clarification and Availability of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0670; FRL-9338-9] RIN 2070-AJ80 Pesticides; Microbial Pesticide Definitions and Applicability; Clarification...announcing the availability of a final microbial pesticide test guideline that further explains the...

  18. 76 FR 72404 - Pesticides: Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Non-Dietary Exposure Task...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0877; FRL-9326-8] Pesticides: Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Non-Dietary...The Agency is announcing the availability of a Pesticide Registration Notice (PR Notice) regarding...

  19. Better ways of using pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary role of agriculture is to produce a reliable supply of wholesome food to feed the world's population, safely and without adverse effects on the environment. Pesticides have a crucial part to play in reducing the loss of food during production and after harvesting, and this article discusses how the use of pesticides can be made more efficient. Two particular examples of safer and more effective pesticide delivery systems are described, relating to tsetse fly control in Africa and to the control of weeds in a rice paddy or rice-fish mixed ecosystem. 45 refs, 6 figs

  20. Pesticide use and application: An Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural development continues to remain the most important objective of Indian planning and policy. In the process of development of agriculture, pesticides have become an important tool as a plant protection agent for boosting food production. Further, pesticides play a significant role by keeping many dreadful diseases. However, exposure to pesticides both occupationally and environmentally causes a range of human health problems. It has been observed that the pesticides exposures are increasingly linked to immune suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities and cancer. Currently, India is the largest producer of pesticides in Asia and ranks twelfth in the world for the use of pesticides. A vast majority of the population in India is engaged in agriculture and is therefore exposed to the pesticides used in agriculture. Although Indian average consumption of pesticide is far lower than many other developed economies, the problem of pesticide residue is very high in India. Pesticide residue in several crops has also affected the export of agricultural commodities in the last few years. In this context, pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, proper application technologies, and integrated pest management are some of the key strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides. There is a dearth of studies related to these issues in India. Therefore, the thrust of this paper was to review the technology of application of pesticides in India and recommend future strategies for the rational use of pesticides and minimizing the problems related to health and environment.

  1. Evidence for genotoxicity of pesticides in pesticide applicators: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Bull, S; Fletcher, K.; Boobis, A. R.; Battershill, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    KEYWORDS CLASSIFICATION: Agriculture;Animals;biomarkers of exposure & effect: field studies;Benzimidazoles;Environmental Exposure;Environmental Monitoring;Evaluation;Herbicides;Humans;methods;Mutagens;Occupational Exposure;prevention & control;Pesticides;Protective Devices;Safety;toxicity;Toxicology.

  2. 40 CFR 152.10 - Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for a pesticidal purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION... defoliate, desiccate or regulate the growth of plants, is not considered to be a pesticide. The...

  3. Acute pesticide poisoning and pesticide registration in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has been for 20 years the most acknowledged international initiative for reducing negative impact from pesticide use in developing countries. We analyzed pesticide use and poisoning in Central America, particularly in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, and evaluated whether registration decisions are based on such data, in accordance with the FAO Code. Extensive use of very hazardous pesticides continues in Central America and so do poisonings with organophosphates, carbamates, endosulfan and paraquat as the main causative agents. Central American governments do not carry out or commission scientific risk assessments. Instead, guidelines from international agencies are followed for risk management through the registration process. Documentation of pesticide poisonings during several decades never induced any decision to ban or restrict a pesticide. However, based on the official surveillance systems, in 2000, the ministers of health of the seven Central American countries agreed to ban or restrict twelve of these pesticides. Now, almost 4 years later, restrictions have been implemented in El Salvador and in Nicaragua public debate is ongoing. Chemical and agricultural industries do not withdraw problematic pesticides voluntarily. In conclusion, the registration processes in Central America do not comply satisfactorily with the FAO Code. However, international regulatory guidelines are important in developing countries, and international agencies should strongly extend its scope and influence, limiting industry involvement. Profound changes in international and national agricultural policies, steering towards sustainable agriculture based on non-chemical pest management, are the only way to reduce poisonings

  4. Radiation induced pesticidal microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, D. S

    2001-01-01

    To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants.

  5. Radiation induced pesticidal microbes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants

  6. 77 FR 64990 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Request for Nominations to the Pesticide Program Dialogue...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... groups; pesticide users and growers; animal rights groups; pest consultants; State, local, and tribal...: Environmental/public interest and animal rights groups; farm worker organizations; pesticide industry and...

  7. Challenges in Regulating Pesticide Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Debra Denton; Bruce Hammock; Craig Wheelock; Jason Belden; Michael Lydy

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces the field of mixture toxicity and the challenges in regulating pesticide mixtures. Even though pesticides are unique chemical stressors designed to have biological activity that can affect a number of nontarget species, they are intentionally placed into the environment in large quantities. Currently, methods and terminology for evaluating mixture toxicity are poorly established. The most common approach used is the assumption of additive concentration, with the concentr...

  8. Canadian pesticide air sampling campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Y.; Harner, T.; Blanchard, P.; Li, Y.F.; Aulagnier, F. [Environment Canada, Gatineau, PQ (Canada). Meteorological Service of Canada; Tuduri, L. [Laboratoire de Physico Toxicochimie des Systemes Naturels, Talence (France). Equipe Perigourdine de Chimie Appliquee; Waite, D.; Belzer, W. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environmental Conservation Branch; Murphy, C. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environmental Protection Service

    2005-07-01

    Although pesticides are widely used in Canada, little is known about the presence, distribution, and fate of currently used pesticides (CUPs) in the Canadian atmosphere. This paper provided details of a campaign conducted in 2003 to provide information on air and precipitation levels of CUPs. The objective of the campaign was to create pesticide emission inventories and to identify important pesticide issues related to environmental fate, exposure, and risk assessment in order to develop effective pesticide policies. A Canadian atmospheric network for currently used pesticides was established, which was then followed by an intensive field study in the Canadian prairies. Air samples were collected weekly using high volume PS-1 samplers with polyurethane foam (PUF) XAD sandwiches and glass fibre filters. Precipitation samples were collected each month using MIC samplers equipped with XAD columns. Passive air samplers were deployed at many of the sites for periods of 1 to 3 months. Results of the study showed relatively high concentrations of endosulfan at all sites. High levels of chloropyrifos, malathion, and carbofurans were also detected from air samples. High concentrations of lindane were also observed. Alachlor, metochlor, and trifluralin concentrations were detected in most Ontario and Quebec air and rainfall samples. Eleven target pesticides were detected from air samples during the prairie study. High concentrations of triallate were observed, and good correlations between air concentration trends and dry deposition trends were seen for triallate, 2,4-D, MCPA, dicamba, and bromoxynil. Results of the campaign are now being modelled using a simplified gridded pesticide emission and residue model. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Use of pesticides in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Republic of Kazakhstan has 210 regional stations, 19 provincial stations and one co-ordinating government research and production station, all known as Republic Stations for Plant Protection. These stations have the following functions: they control pesticide use and development, and monitor pest populations; they inform and teach farmers the methods for controlling insect pests, diseases and weeds, and the rules for safe pesticide use; and they continually monitor the presence or spread of any adverse effects in order to make short and long term prognoses, which are then used to determine the pesticide requirements. The major functions of these government stations is to control the timely distribution of pesticides and their safe and timely application, so that regulations for their use can be monitored and control over technology maintained. The co-ordinating station evaluates all projects, provides documentation on the use and storage of pesticides, controls field trials carried out by foreign companies on the Republic's territory and regulates pesticide usage during campaigns against insect pests, diseases and weeds. The regional and district subdivisions of these government stations promote integrated pest management for protecting harvests. (author)

  10. Pesticides' influence on wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Wine quality strongly depends on the grape quality. To obtain high-quality wines, it is necessary to process healthy grapes at the correct ripeness stage and for this reason the farmer has to be especially careful in the prevention of parasite attacks on the grapevine. The most common fungal diseases affecting grape quality are downy and powdery mildew (Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator), and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea). On the other hand, the most dangerous insects are the grape moth (Lobesia botrana), vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus), and the citrus mealybug (Planococcus citri). Farmers fight grape diseases and insects applying pesticides that can be found at harvest time on grapes. The persistence of pesticides depends on the chemical characteristic of the active ingredients as well as on photodegradation, thermodegradation, codistillation, and enzymatic degradation. The pesticide residues on grapes can be transferred to the must and this can influence the selection and development of yeast strains. Moreover, yeasts can also influence the levels of the pesticides in the wine by reducing or adsorbing them on lees. During the fermentative process, yeasts can cause the disappearance of pesticide residues by degradation or absorption at the end of the fermentation when yeasts are deposited as lees. In this chapter, we reviewed the effect of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides on yeasts. We also studied the effect of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation on pesticide residues. PMID:20610173

  11. 40 CFR 158.2010 - Biochemical pesticides data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides data requirements. 158.2010 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides §...

  12. 40 CFR 158.2110 - Microbial pesticides data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides data requirements. 158.2110 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2110...

  13. 77 FR 74003 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. General Information A. Does this...data and labeling for ``mold-related'' pesticide...for products used for mold remediation, on nonporous and porous...residual activity, for mold prevention, and in...

  14. 40 CFR 158.2100 - Microbial pesticides definition and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2100 Microbial pesticides definition and applicability. (a) This subpart applies to all living or dead microbial pesticides...

  15. 40 CFR 158.2010 - Biochemical pesticides data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides data...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2010 Biochemical pesticides... required to support registration of biochemical pesticides. Sections 158.2080 through 158.2084 identify...

  16. 40 CFR 158.2000 - Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2000 Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability. This subpart applies to all biochemical pesticides as defined in paragraphs...

  17. 40 CFR 158.2110 - Microbial pesticides data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides data requirements...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2110 Microbial pesticides data requirements. (a) For all microbial pesticides. (1) The following § 158.2120 through §...

  18. Challenges in Regulating Pesticide Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Denton

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the field of mixture toxicity and the challenges in regulating pesticide mixtures. Even though pesticides are unique chemical stressors designed to have biological activity that can affect a number of nontarget species, they are intentionally placed into the environment in large quantities. Currently, methods and terminology for evaluating mixture toxicity are poorly established. The most common approach used is the assumption of additive concentration, with the concentrations adjusted for potency to a reference toxicant. Using this approach, the joint action of pesticides that have similar chemical structures and modes of toxic action can be predicted. However, this approach and other modeling techniques often provide little insight into the observed toxicity produced by mixtures of pesticides from different classes. Particularly difficult to model are mixtures that involve a secondary toxicant that changes the toxicokinetics of a primary toxicant. This may result in increased activation or a change in the persistence of the primary toxicant within the organism and may be responsible for a several-fold increase or decrease in toxicity. At present, the ecological effects caused by mixtures of pesticides are given little consideration in the regulatory process. However, mixtures are being considered in relation to human health in the pesticide registration process, setting a precedent that could be followed for ecological protection. Additionally, pesticide mixtures may be regulated through toxicity testing of surface water under the Clean Water Act. The limits of our basic knowledge of how mixtures interact are compromising both these avenues for regulating mixtures. We face many challenges to adequately protecting the environment from mixture toxicity; these challenges include understanding the interactions of toxicants within an organism, identifying the mixtures that most commonly occur and cause adverse effects, and developing a regulatory structure capable of minimizing environmental impacts.

  19. 75 FR 31785 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ...EPA received the following pesticide registration applications...fruiting vegetables (including tomato), oilseed crops (including...fruiting vegetables (including tomato), oat, oilseed crops (including...Environmental protection, Pesticides and pest. Dated: May...

  20. 78 FR 42693 - Hexythiazox; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ...As to residue levels in food, EPA used tolerance level...are appropriate for a food-use pesticide based...CT were assumed for all food commodities. 2. Dietary exposure...pesticides/trac/science/trac6a05.pdf....

  1. Agricultural Pesticides May Affect Kids' Breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_156037.html Agricultural Pesticides May Affect Kids' Breathing Early exposure to organophosphates ... 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Early exposure to widely used pesticides may harm children's lungs, a new study says. ...

  2. Nuclear applications for pesticide residue studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotracer techniques offer a powerful tool in understanding the fate of pesticides in soil, plant or food and can be utilised to take suitable corrective procedures to minimise the environmental effects of pesticides. 9 refs

  3. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality: Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Greener Living Health and Safety Land and Cleanup Pesticides Waste Water Science & Technology Air Climate Change Ecosystems Health Land, Waste and Cleanup Pesticides Substances and Toxics Sustainable Practices Water Laws & Regulations ...

  4. Pesticide runoff from greenhouse production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseth, Roger; Haarstad, Ketil

    2010-01-01

    A research has been undertaken studying pesticide residues in water from greenhouses and the use of soils and filter materials to reduce such losses. The pesticides detected in water samples collected downstream greenhouses include 9 fungicides, 5 herbicides and 4 insecticides. 10 compounds from flower and vegetable productions were frequently found to exceed environmental risk levels, and with a few exceptions the compounds were found in higher concentrations than those typically found in agricultural runoff. Some compounds were found in high concentrations (>1 microg/l) in undiluted runoff from greenhouses producing vegetables. Nutrient concentrations in the runoff were also sporadically very high, with phosphorous values varying between 0.85 and 7.4 mg P/l, and nitrogen values between 7.5 and 41.4 mg N/l. Undiluted runoff from the productions showed values of 60 mg P/l and 300 mg N/l. High values of pesticides correlated with high values of nutrients, especially P. Column experiments using a sandy agricultural soil and stock solutions of non-polar and slightly polar pesticides mixed with a complex binder and nutrients showed a significant reduction for nearly all of the compounds used, indicating that transport through soil will reduce the concentrations of the studied pesticides. The pesticide adsorption capacity of the filter materials pine bark, peat, Sphagnum moss, compost, oat straw, ferrous sand and clay soil were tested in batch and column experiments. Adsorption were studied contacting the filter materials with aqueous solutions containing greenhouse production pesticides. The batch experiments showed that pine bark and peat, both combining a high content of organic matter with a low ph, provided the highest adsorption for most of the tested pesticides. Sphagnum moss, compost and oat straw also showed high adsorption for most of the pesticides, while the mineral filters provided the lowest adsorption (30-55%). Further column experiments confirmed these results, displaying the best removal efficiency in the organic materials, varying from 200 microg/g in compost, to 500 microg/g in moss, straw and pine bark. PMID:20351415

  5. Pesticide regulations and farm worker safety: the need to improve pesticide regulations in Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Phung, Dung Tri; Connell, Des; Miller, Greg; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural pesticide use in Viet Nam has more than tripled since 1990. However, pesticide legislation and regulations have not been developed in response to this large increase in usage, as a result of which pesticides pose a serious threat to human health and the environment. This paper identifies the need to improve pesticide regulations in Viet Nam through a comparative analysis of pesticide regulations in Viet Nam and the United States of America, where the rate of acute poisoning among...

  6. 77 FR 10962 - Flazasulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ...the legal limit for a pesticide chemical residue in...aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue, including...exposure through drinking water and in residential settings...and children to the pesticide chemical residue in...in inflammatory cell infiltration, hepatocellular...

  7. Pesticides: Food and environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticides are an integral part of modern agriculture, also in most developing countries. Although the annual average consumption of active ingredients in agriculture may be below 0.1 kg a.i./ha, most countries now consume more than 2 kg a.i./ha; some of the intensively cropped regions in South-East Asia are exposed to even higher amounts. Inherent contamination of the environment follows if rules and regulations are not strictly adhered to. The search for safer, less persistent and more specific pesticides and examination of the fate of applied pesticides in various regions of the world were the main themes of the symposium. Special emphasis was placed on the use of nuclear techniques, especially on labelled compounds in research. The Proceedings include all the papers and posters that were presented. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. 40 CFR 158.2080 - Experimental use permit data requirements-biochemical pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...use permit data requirements-biochemical pesticides. 158.2080 Section 158.2080 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides §...

  9. Pesticide use in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecobichon, D J

    2001-03-01

    Chemical pesticides have been a boon to equatorial, developing nations in their efforts to eradicate insect-borne, endemic diseases, to produce adequate food and to protect forests, plantations and fibre (wood, cotton, clothing, etc.). Controversy exists over the global dependence on such agents, given their excessive use/misuse, their volatility, long-distance transport and eventual environmental contamination in colder climates. Many developing countries are in transitional phases with migration of the agricultural workforce to urban centres in search of better-paying jobs, leaving fewer people responsible for raising traditional foods for themselves and for the new, industrialized workforce. Capable of growing two or three crops per year, these same countries are becoming "breadbaskets" for the world, exporting nontraditional agricultural produce to regions having colder climates and shorter growing seasons, thereby earning much needed international trade credits. To attain these goals, there has been increased reliance on chemical pesticides. Many older, nonpatented, more toxic, environmentally persistent and inexpensive chemicals are used extensively in developing nations, creating serious acute health problems and local and global environmental contamination. There is growing public concern in these countries that no one is aware of the extent of pesticide residue contamination on local, fresh produce purchased daily or of potential, long-term, adverse health effects on consumers. Few developing nations have a clearly expressed "philosophy" concerning pesticides. There is a lack of rigorous legislation and regulations to control pesticides as well as training programs for personnel to inspect and monitor use and to initiate training programs for pesticide consumers. PMID:11246121

  10. Reduction of substituted benzonitrile pesticides.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sokolová, Romana; Hromadová, Magdaléna; Fiedler, Jan; Pospíšil, Lubomír; Giannarelli, S.; Valášek, Michal

    2008-01-01

    Ro?. 622, ?. 2 (2008), s. 211-218. ISSN 1572-6657 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA400400505; GA MŠk OC 140; GA MŠk LC510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : benzonitrile pesticides * polarography * voltammetry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.484, year: 2008

  11. Pesticides and their effects on wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driver, C.J.

    1994-07-01

    About 560 active ingredients are currently used as pesticides. Applications of these pesticides are made to agricultural lands and other areas inhabited by wildlife. Unfortunately, many agricultural-use pesticides also entail some measure of risk to organisms other than the pest species. Because testing of pesticides prior to registration cannot evaluate all the potential environmental-pesticide-wildlife/fish interactions, current methods of risk assessment do not always provide sufficient safety to nontarget organisms. This is evidenced by die-offs of fish and wildlife from applications of pesticides at environmentally {open_quotes}safe{close_quotes} rates, the linking of population declines of some species with agrochemical use, and observations of survival-threatening behavioral changes in laboratory and field animals exposed to typical field levels of pesticides. It is important to note, however, that the majority of pesticides, when properly applied, have not caused significant injury to wildlife. A brief summary of pesticide effects on wildlife and fish are presented for the common classes of pesticides in use today.

  12. The use and disposal of household pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most pesticides are synthetic chemicals manufactured specifically for their toxic properties to the target species, and widely used globally. Several epidemiological studies in the United States have suggested health concerns arising from the chronic exposure of young children to pesticides in the domestic environment. In the UK very little is currently known about how nonoccupational pesticides are being used or disposed of. Any use of pesticides is a potential risk factor for children's exposure, and any potential exposure is likely to be reduced by the parents' adopting precautionary behaviour when using these pesticide products. This was investigated using a sample of 147 parents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort in and around Bristol, through an in-depth interview between August and November 2001. The results of this study add to the understanding of the underlying behaviour of parents applying pesticide products in the home environment in the UK. Pesticides are readily available, and are normally purchased in do-it-yourself shops and supermarkets and mostly disposed of in domestic waste. Safety was stated by 45% of parents to be the most important factor to consider when buying a pesticide. When buying pesticide products, labels were stated to be the most important source of information about pesticides. However, a third of parents stated they would not follow the product label exactly when using a product, just under half felt labels were both inadequate and hard to understand, and about 10% of parents would not take notice of warnings on the pesticide label. Less than half of parents would use gloves when applying a pesticide, although the use of protective equipment such as gloves during the application of pesticides could greatly reduce the exposure. It is a public health concern that the instructions on the labels of products may not always be understood or followed, and further understanding of user behaviour is needed

  13. Evolved pesticide tolerance in amphibians: Predicting mechanisms based on pesticide novelty and mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jessica; Jones, Devin K; Mattes, Brian M; Cothran, Rickey D; Relyea, Rick A; Hoverman, Jason T

    2015-11-01

    We examined 10 wood frog populations distributed along an agricultural gradient for their tolerance to six pesticides (carbaryl, malathion, cypermethrin, permethrin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam) that differed in date of first registration (pesticide novelty) and mode-of-action (MOA). Our goals were to assess whether: 1) tolerance was correlated with distance to agriculture for each pesticide, 2) pesticide novelty predicted the likelihood of evolved tolerance, and 3) populations display cross-tolerance between pesticides that share and differ in MOA. Wood frog populations located close to agriculture were more tolerant to carbaryl and malathion than populations far from agriculture. Moreover, the strength of the relationship between distance to agriculture and tolerance was stronger for older pesticides compared to newer pesticides. Finally, we found evidence for cross-tolerance between carbaryl and malathion (two pesticides that share MOA). This study provides one of the most comprehensive approaches for understanding patterns of evolved tolerance in non-pest species. PMID:26142751

  14. Pesticide Environmental Accounting: a method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, A W; Mumford, J D

    2008-01-01

    The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts. PMID:17604888

  15. Molecular encapsulation of pesticides with cyclodextrins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of organic pesticide substances can be complexed with cyclodextrins. The complex formation (molecular encapsulation) of pesticides in most cases results in the improvement of the physical, chemical stability, wettability and aqueous solubility of those rather lipophylic molecules. These novel formulations improve the physical and chemical properties of the known pesticides without the formation of any chemical bonds, i.e. new molecule is not formed. The cyclodextrin complexation thus improve the bioavailability of pesticides which in general leads to the possible reduction of applied doses to reach the required biological response. The advantages and limits of the utilization of cyclodextrin pesticide inclusion complexes in novel formulations will be presented on selected examples of different pesticide cyclodextrin complexes. (author). 6 refs, 20 figs, 1 tab

  16. Managing Pesticide Risks for Non-Target Ecosystems with Pesticide Risk Indicators: a Multicriteria Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Travisi, Chiara Maria; Nijkamp, Peter; Vighi, Marco; Giacomelli, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    In the search for effective pesticide risk management tools, the design of pesticide risk indicators is nowadays receiving increasing attention as a complement to more established regulatory strategies. In the present paper, we apply some recently developed pesticide risk indices and test their potential for management purposes. A pilot approach is proposed, which explores pesticide worst-case hazard scenarios at different space-time scales by means of a set of 5 ecotoxicological risk indices...

  17. Pattern of pesticide storage before pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Fahim; Manuweera, Gamini; Gunnell, David; Azher, Shifa; Eddleston, Michael; Dawson, Andrew; Konradsen, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deliberate self-poisoning with agricultural pesticides is the commonest means of suicide in rural Asia. It is mostly impulsive and facilitated by easy access to pesticides. The aim of this large observational study was to investigate the immediate source of pesticides used for self-harm to help inform suicide prevention strategies such as reducing domestic access to pesticides. METHODS: The study was conducted in a district hospital serving an agricultural region of Sri Lanka. Patien...

  18. Pattern of pesticide storage before pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Eddleston Michael; Azher Shifa; Gunnell David; Manuweera Gamini; Mohamed Fahim; Dawson Andrew; Konradsen Flemming

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Deliberate self-poisoning with agricultural pesticides is the commonest means of suicide in rural Asia. It is mostly impulsive and facilitated by easy access to pesticides. The aim of this large observational study was to investigate the immediate source of pesticides used for self-harm to help inform suicide prevention strategies such as reducing domestic access to pesticides. Methods The study was conducted in a district hospital serving an agricultural region of Sri Lan...

  19. Pesticides: Benefaction or Pandora's Box? A synopsis of the environmental aspects of 243 pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Linders JBHJ; Jansma JW; Mensink BJWG; Otermann K

    2007-01-01

    The report provides an overview of physical, chemical and environmental data of 243 pesticides. The data mentioned are based on confidential information supplied by the manufacturers of the pesticides. For all pesticides mentioned a Final Environmental File, which is public, is derived. Tables with assorted data (sorted from high to low adverse environmental effect) for several environmental items are also included. Differences in environmental aspects per group of pesticid...

  20. 40 CFR 152.175 - Pesticides classified for restricted use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticides classified for restricted use. 152.175 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES...

  1. 75 FR 82011 - Web-Distributed Labeling of Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ...FRL-8856-4] Web-Distributed Labeling of Pesticides AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...considering an initiative to make portions of pesticide labeling for certain products available...users' comprehension and compliance with pesticide labeling, thereby improving...

  2. 75 FR 48672 - Pesticides; Revised Fee Schedule for Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0599; FRL-8840-7] Pesticides; Revised Fee Schedule for Registration...EPA is publishing a revised list of pesticide registration service fees applicable to specified pesticide applications and tolerance...

  3. 78 FR 59347 - Pesticides; Revised Fee Schedule for Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2013-0621; FRL-9399-5] Pesticides; Revised Fee Schedule for Registration...EPA is publishing a revised list of pesticide registration service fees applicable to specified pesticide applications and tolerance...

  4. 78 FR 26935 - Data Requirements for Antimicrobial Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ...Data Requirements for Antimicrobial Pesticides; Final Rule Federal Register / Vol...Data Requirements for Antimicrobial Pesticides AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...data requirements for antimicrobial pesticide products to reflect current...

  5. A mobile App for military operational entomology pesticide applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple field studies conducted for the Deployed War Fighter Protection (DWFP) research program have generated over 80 specific guidance points for innovative combinations of pesticide application equipment, pesticide formulations, and application techniques for aerosol and residual pesticide treat...

  6. Pesticides, Preference Heterogeneity and Environmental Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Alastair; Balcombe, Kelvin; Chalak, Ali; Iain M Fraser

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present results from two Choice experiments (CE) designed to take account of the different negative externalities associated with pesticide use in agricultural production. For cereals production the most likely impact of pesticide use is a reduction in environmental quality. For fruit and vegetable production, the negative externality is on consumer health. Using latent class models we find evidence of the presence of preference heterogeneity regarding pesticide reduction in ...

  7. Pesticides reduce regional biodiversity of stream invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    BEKETOV, MIKHAIL A; Kefford, Ben J.; Schäfer, Ralf B.; Liess, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The biodiversity crisis is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity, but our understanding of the drivers remains limited. Thus, after decades of studies and regulation efforts, it remains unknown whether to what degree and at what concentrations modern agricultural pesticides cause regional-scale species losses. We analyzed the effects of pesticides on the regional taxa richness of stream invertebrates in Europe (Germany and France) and Australia (southern Victoria). Pesticides caused ...

  8. Rosemaund Pesticide Transport Study 1987-1993

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, R.D.J.; Matthiessen, P.; Williams, R. J.; Brook, D.N.; Clare, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    This report comprised the results, conclusions and recommendations of a project in the early 1990s to study the pesticide concentrations in soil and water that resulted from normal use of agrochemicals on arable crops at a farm in the Rosemaund catchment. The main purpose of the project was to monitor the water-borne transfer of pesticides from fields into the stream draining the catchment. It concluded that at least some of the environmental degradation in the stream was due to pesticides

  9. Monitoring of pesticides in human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After establishing proper analytical methodology for multiple pesticide residues, cotton-growing areas of Multan Division of Pakistan were surveyed and 40 samples of human milk from cotton pickers were collected during two crop seasons. Screening of these samples showed 72.5% contamination with 19 different pesticides/metabolites. The most frequently occurring pesticides were DDT and its metabolites, dimethoate, cyhalothrin, monocrotophos, profenofos and quinalphos. (author)

  10. Pesticide regulation: the case of French wine

    OpenAIRE

    Deola, Christophe; Fleckinger, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Pesticide in vine growing is a strong environmental concern, given the intensive use and the complex pollution nature. We build a model to investigate the potential effects of the introduction of a pesticide tax on the French wine market. First, we examine the theoretical relationship between risk and market power. Then we study the effect of a pesticide tax in an otherwise unregulated oligopoly. Lastly, we study how the tax interferes with public intervention and professional self-regulation...

  11. Losses of pesticides from agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaching of the phenoxy acid herbicides dichlorprop, 2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)propionic acid, and MCPA, (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid, through natural field soils with drainage water was examined after spraying two soil types (sand and clay) in late autumn and early summer. Phenoxy acids were detected in drainage water after all four spray treatments. The highest concentrations (15 to 23 ?g/L) were found in drainage water from the sandy soil when sprayed under unfavourable conditions for microbial degradation. Despite more favourable conditions for degradation during the summer, small amounts of phenoxy acids were also detected in drainage water shortly after spraying (4 to 9 days); from the clay soil, dichlorprop was detectable for 2 weeks. Between June 1985 and September 1987 a total of 258 water samples were taken in streams from May to September and analysed for 90 pesticides. Seventeen compounds were identified, including ten herbicides, two fungicides and five insecticides. The most frequently found pesticides were the phenoxy acids dichlorprop and MCPA, with the highest concentrations at the time of spraying (May to June), but detectable amounts were still found in the off-spraying season. Throughout the 3 years, positive samples of one or several compounds of phenoxy acids occurred in 37% of the water samples taken in May, 78% in June, 57% in July, 24% in August and 18% in September. The maximum measured concentration of total content of phenoxy acids in one single stream was 25 ?g/L in June 1985. Along with the phenoxy acids, the herbicide atrazine was found in some streams over the whole sampling season. In watersheds where only smaller parts of the area are devoted to agricultural production, no pesticides were found, or only small amounts were detected on single occasions. These investigations indicate that under certain conditions pesticide residues arising from normal agricultural use may contribute to diffuse (non-point) pollution of the aquatic environment. (author). 27 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  12. 40 CFR 152.30 - Pesticides that may be transferred, sold, or distributed without registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION.... An unregistered pesticide, or a pesticide whose registration has been cancelled or suspended, may be... pesticide transferred between registered establishments operated by the same producer. An...

  13. 40 CFR 158.2081 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides product chemistry data requirements table. 158.2081 Section 158.2081 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2081 Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data...

  14. 40 CFR 158.2174 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data requirements table. 158.2174 Section 158.2174 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2174 Experimental use permit microbial pesticides...

  15. 40 CFR 158.2171 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides product analysis data requirements table. 158.2171 Section 158.2171 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2171 Experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements...

  16. 40 CFR 158.2173 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides toxicology data requirements table. 158.2173 Section 158.2173 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2173 Experimental use permit microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table....

  17. 40 CFR 158.2083 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides human health assessment data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides human health assessment data requirements table. 158.2083 Section 158.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2083 Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides human health assessment...

  18. 40 CFR 158.2080 - Experimental use permit data requirements-biochemical pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements-biochemical pesticides. 158.2080 Section 158.2080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2080 Experimental use permit data requirements—biochemical pesticides. (a) Sections...

  19. Analytical methods for detecting pesticide switches with evolution of pesticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Juhua; Tang, Sanyi; Nieto, Juan J; Cheke, Robert A

    2013-10-01

    After a pest develops resistance to a pesticide, switching between different unrelated pesticides is a common management option, but this raises the following questions: (1) What is the optimal frequency of pesticide use? (2) How do the frequencies of pesticide applications affect the evolution of pesticide resistance? (3) How can the time when the pest population reaches the economic injury level (EIL) be estimated and (4) how can the most efficient frequency of pesticide applications be determined? To address these questions, we have developed a novel pest population growth model incorporating the evolution of pesticide resistance and pulse spraying of pesticides. Moreover, three pesticide switching methods, threshold condition-guided, density-guided and EIL-guided, are modelled, to determine the best choice under different conditions with the overall aim of eradicating the pest or maintaining its population density below the EIL. Furthermore, the pest control outcomes based on those three pesticide switching methods are discussed. Our results suggest that either the density-guided or EIL-guided method is the optimal pesticide switching strategy, depending on the frequency (or period) of pesticide applications. PMID:23891583

  20. 76 FR 18995 - Pesticides; Regulation to Clarify Labeling of Pesticides for Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0607; FRL-8862-2] RIN 2070-AJ53 Pesticides; Regulation to Clarify Labeling of Pesticides for Export AGENCY: Environmental Protection...to revise the regulations on labeling of pesticides and devices intended for export....

  1. 40 CFR 168.22 - Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA section 24(c) registrations. 168.22 Section 168.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATEMENTS...

  2. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Roig

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air. For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health.

  3. Sorption of pesticides to aquifer minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes results from a work were the sorption of five pesticides on seven minerals were studied in order to quantify the adsorption to different mineral surfaces. Investigated mineral phases are: quartz, calcite, kaolinite, a-alumina, and three iron oxides (2-line ferrihydrite, goethite, lepidocrocite). Selected pesticides are: atrazine, isoproturon, mecoprop, 2,4-D, and bentazone. The results demonstrate that pesticides adsorb to pure mineral surfaces. However, the size of the adsorption depends on the type of pesticide and the type of mineral.

  4. Earthworm tolerance to residual agricultural pesticide contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givaudan, Nicolas; Binet, Françoise; Le Bot, Barbara; Wiegand, Claudia

    This study investigates if acclimatization to residual pesticide contamination in agricultural soils is reflected in detoxification, antioxidant enzyme activities and energy budget of earthworms. Five fields within a joint agricultural area exhibited different chemical and farming histories from...... soluble glutathione-S-transferases (sGST) and catalase increased with soil pesticide contamination in A. caliginosa. Pesticide stress was reflected in depletion of energy reserves in A. chlorotica. Acute exposure of pre-adapted and naïve A. caliginosa to pesticides (fungicide Opus ®, 0.1 μg active...

  5. Application of nuclear techniques in pesticide research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear techniques are commonly used in studying the environmental fate of pesticides in soil, water and other environmental matrices and the metabolism of pesticides in animals and plants, as well as in the identification of the degradation products of pesticides formulations. Stable isotopes such as /sup 13/C and /sup 18/O are used in determining the structure of degradation products of pesticides and in understanding the biochemical mechanisms involved in the transformation. Radioisotopes such as tritium, /sup 14/C and/sup 32/P as traces in pesticides research are well established. A pesticide molecule 'labelled' with radioactive atom can easily be traced among score of natural, non-labelled chemicals found in soil, water, animals or plant tissues and other environmental matrices by using radiation detectors. The labelled pesticide and its degradation products can be separated from other chemicals by chromatographic techniques and their amounts estimated by quantifying the radioactivity associated with them. This technique is very sensitive to minute quantities, is reliable and save time that would otherwise be required for tedious purification procedures. For examples, residues of pesticides, which are tightly bound to an environmental matrix and cannot be extracted with a solvent, can be estimated by using a radiotracer technique. In the present paper formation and study of bound residues of pesticides by using radiotracer techniques will be discussed. (author)

  6. Sorption of pesticides to aquifer minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    This paper summarizes results from a work were the sorption of five pesticides on seven minerals were studied in order to quantify the adsorption to different mineral surfaces. Investigated mineral phases are: quartz, calcite, kaolinite, a-alumina, and three iron oxides (2-line ferrihydrite......, goethite, lepidocrocite). Selected pesticides are: atrazine, isoproturon, mecoprop, 2,4-D, and bentazone. The results demonstrate that pesticides adsorb to pure mineral surfaces. However, the size of the adsorption depends on the type of pesticide and the type of mineral....

  7. 75 FR 60452 - Notice of Filing of Several Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ...at Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division...agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...of pesticides in or on food commodities. Further...commodities, Feed additives, Food additives, Pesticides...Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention...

  8. 78 FR 70007 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of a Pesticide Chemical in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ...Greenway, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division...agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...a pesticide in or on food commodities. Further...commodities, Feed additives, Food additives, Pesticides...Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention...

  9. 78 FR 1798 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ...Burnett, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division...agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...of pesticides in or on food commodities. Further...commodities, Feed additives, Food additives, Pesticides...Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention...

  10. Pesticide regulations and farm worker safety: the need to improve pesticide regulations in Viet Nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dung Tri Phung

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural pesticide use in Viet Nam has more than tripled since 1990. However, pesticide legislation and regulations have not been developed in response to this large increase in usage, as a result of which pesticides pose a serious threat to human health and the environment. This paper identifies the need to improve pesticide regulations in Viet Nam through a comparative analysis of pesticide regulations in Viet Nam and the United States of America, where the rate of acute poisoning among agricultural workers is much lower than in Viet Nam and where information pertaining to pesticide regulations is made accessible to the public. The analysis identified several measures that would help to improve Viet Nam's pesticide regulations. These include enhancing pesticide legislation, clarifying the specific roles and active involvement of both the environmental and health sectors; performing a comprehensive risk-benefit evaluation of pesticide registration and management practices; improving regulations on pesticide suspension and cancellation, transport, storage and disposal; developing import and export policies and enhancing pesticide-related occupational safety programmes.

  11. Pattern of pesticide storage before pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Fahim; Manuweera, Gamini; Gunnell, David; Azher, Shifa; Eddleston, Michael; Dawson, Andrew; Konradsen, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deliberate self-poisoning with agricultural pesticides is the commonest means of suicide in rural Asia. It is mostly impulsive and facilitated by easy access to pesticides. The aim of this large observational study was to investigate the immediate source of pesticides used for self......-harm to help inform suicide prevention strategies such as reducing domestic access to pesticides. METHODS: The study was conducted in a district hospital serving an agricultural region of Sri Lanka. Patients who had self-poisoned with pesticides and were admitted to the adult medical wards were...... interviewed by study doctors following initial resuscitation to identify the source of pesticides they have ingested. RESULTS: Of the 669 patients included in the analysis, 425 (63.5%) were male; the median age was 26 (IQR 20-36). In 511 (76%) cases, the pesticides had been stored either inside or immediately...

  12. Pesticide poisoning in the developing world--a minimum pesticides list

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eddleston, Michael; Karalliedde, Lakshman; Buckley, Nick; Fernando, Ravindra; Hutchinson, Gerard; Isbister, Geoff; Konradsen, Flemming; Murray, Douglas; Piola, Juan Carlos; Senanayake, Nimal; Sheriff, Rezvi; Singh, Surjit; Siwach, S B; Smit, Lidwien

    2002-01-01

    In parts of the developing world, pesticide poisoning causes more deaths than infectious diseases. Use of pesticides is poorly regulated and often dangerous; their easy availability also makes them a popular method of self-harm. In 1985, the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) produced a...... voluntary code of conduct for the pesticide industry in an attempt to limit the harmful effects of pesticides. Unfortunately, a lack of adequate government resources in the developing world makes this code ineffective, and thousands of deaths continue today. WHO has recommended that access to highly toxic...... pesticides be restricted--where this has been done, suicide rates have fallen. Since an Essential Drugs List was established in 1977, use of a few essential drugs has rationalised drug use in many regions. An analogous Minimum Pesticides List would identify a restricted number of less dangerous pesticides to...

  13. Global pesticide consumption and pollution: with China as a focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Varieties and consumption of pesticides worldwide have been increasing dramatically as increased human population and crop production. In this process pesticide misuses become more and more serious, which has resulted in heavy environmental pollution and health risk of humans. In order to safeguard human health, threatened species and ecosystems from pesticide pollution, the consumption and pollution of pesticides worldwide especially China were reviewed and documented in present study. Meanwhile, the development trend of pesticide varieties and consumption was also prospected and discussed. It was found that worldwide consumption structure of pesticides has undergone significant changes since 1960s. The proportion of herbicides in pesticide consumption increased rapidly and the consumption of insecticides and fungicides/bactericides declined. China has become the largest pesticide producer and exporter in the world. Pesticide pollution of air, water bodies and soils, and pesticide-induced deaths in China has been serious in past years. Bio-pesticides should be further developed in the future.

  14. Pattern of pesticide storage before pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddleston Michael

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deliberate self-poisoning with agricultural pesticides is the commonest means of suicide in rural Asia. It is mostly impulsive and facilitated by easy access to pesticides. The aim of this large observational study was to investigate the immediate source of pesticides used for self-harm to help inform suicide prevention strategies such as reducing domestic access to pesticides. Methods The study was conducted in a district hospital serving an agricultural region of Sri Lanka. Patients who had self-poisoned with pesticides and were admitted to the adult medical wards were interviewed by study doctors following initial resuscitation to identify the source of pesticides they have ingested. Results Of the 669 patients included in the analysis, 425 (63.5% were male; the median age was 26 (IQR 20-36. In 511 (76% cases, the pesticides had been stored either inside or immediately outside the house; among this group only eight patients obtained pesticides that were kept in a locked container. Ten percent (n = 67 of the patients used pesticides stored in the field while 14% (n = 91 purchased pesticides from shops within a few hours of the episode. The most common reasons for choosing the particular pesticide for self-harm were its easy accessibility (n = 311, 46% or its popularity as a suicide agent in their village (n = 290, 43%. Conclusion Three quarters of people who ingested pesticides in acts of self-harm used products that were available within the home or in close proximity; relatively few patients purchased the pesticide for the act. The study highlights the importance of reducing the accessibility of toxic pesticides in the domestic environment.

  15. Using Pesticides Safely. Special Circular 296.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, W. K.

    The use of pesticides is necessary to aid in the production of food, feed and fiber, and is equally important in the control of home garden and household pests, but correct use is critical in preventing injury to persons, animals, and plants. This circular contains information on State of Pennsylvania and federal pesticide laws; different types of…

  16. QA/QC in pesticide residue analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines problems related to pesticide residue analysis in a regulatory laboratory that are related to: availability of reference materials, as over 1000 pesticide active ingredients are currently in use and over 400 crops represent a large part of a healthy diet; analysis time; availability of samples in sufficient numbers; uncertainties of the procedures

  17. Residential exposures to pesticides and childhood leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Like many chemicals, carcinogenicity of pesticides is poorly characterised in humans, especially in children, so that the present knowledge about childhood leukaemia risk derives primarily from epidemiological studies. Overall, case-control studies published in the last decade have reported positive associations with home use of insecticides, mostly before the child's birth, while findings for herbicides are mixed. Previous studies relied solely on self-reports, therefore lacking information on active ingredients and effects of potential recall bias. Few series to date have examined the influence of children's genetic susceptibility related to transport and metabolism of pesticides. To overcome these limitations, investigators of the Northern California Childhood Leukaemia Study (NCCLS) have undertaken, in collaboration with a multidisciplinary team, a comprehensive assessment of residential pesticide exposure, including: (1) quality control of self-reports; (2) home pesticide inventory and linkage to the Environmental Protection Agency to obtain data on active ingredients; (3) collection and laboratory analyses of ?600 home dust samples for over 60 pesticides and (4) geographic information studies using California environmental databases to assess exposure to agricultural pesticides. The NCCLS is also conducting large-scale geno-typing to evaluate the role of genes in xenobiotic pathways relevant to the transport and metabolism of pesticides. A better quantification of children's exposures to pesticides at home is critical to the evaluation of childhood leukaemia risk, especially for future gene-environment interaction studies. (authors)

  18. Investigation of pesticide degradation in surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degradation of organophosphorus and thiocarbamate pesticides was investigated using isotope tracer methods. The hydrolysis (degradation) of ester-type pesticides was studied by radiometric enzyme inhibition method in aqueous medium with 14C as tracer. The hydrolysis of S-ethyl-N,N-dipropylthiocarbamate prerequired the oxidation of the parent compound. (Sz.J.)

  19. 33 CFR 274.4 - Pesticide management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticide management. 274.4... DEFENSE PEST CONTROL PROGRAM FOR CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Project Operation § 274.4 Pesticide management. (a... control management personnel prior to advertisement of the contract and procurement of services....

  20. Towards a landscape scale management of pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topping, Christopher John; Craig, Peter S.; de Jong, Frank; Klein, Michael; Laskowski, Ryszard; Manachini, Barbara; Pieper, Silvia; Smith, Rob; Sousa, Jose Paulo; Streissl, Franz; Swarowsky, Klaus; Tiktak, Aaldrik; van der Linden, Ton

    2015-01-01

    demonstrates that there is a potential to change from regulation of a pesticide in isolation, towards the consideration of pesticide management at landscape scales and provision of biodiversity benefits via inclusion and testing of mitigation measures in authorisation procedures. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All...

  1. Hormonforstyrrende effekter af kombinationer af pesticider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Hass, Ulla; Nellemann, Christine; Birkhøj, Mia; Jarfelt, Kirsten; Dalgaard, Majken; Lam, Henrik Rye; Jacobsen, Helene; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva; Andersen, Helle Raun

    2004-01-01

    Resumé: Hvad sker der, når vi mennesker udsættes for en cocktail af hormonforstyrrende pesticider gennem kosten? Miljøstyrelsen har undersøgt pesticidblandinger i cellekulturer og i dyreforsøg for at vurdere samspillet mellem stofferne. Undersøgelserne har fokuseret på østrogene og antiandrogene effekter, som har varieret fra komplekse funktionelle og morfologiske forandringer til ændringer på molekylært niveau. Undersøgelserne viser, at pesticider, der virker via samme virkningsmekanisme, virke...

  2. Toxicity of Pesticides. Agrichemical Fact Sheet 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Winand K.

    This fact sheet gives the acute oral and dermal toxicity (LD 50) of over 250 pesticides in lab animals. The chemicals are categorized as fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, or miscellaneous compounds. One or more trade names are given for each pesticide. In addition, a brief explanation of toxicity determination is given. (BB)

  3. Genetic Alterations in Pesticide Exposed Bolivian Farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; González, Ana Rosa; Ascarrunz, Maria Eugenia; Tirado, Noemi; Takahashi, Catharina; Lafuente, Erika; Santos, Raquel A Dos; Bailon, Natalia; Cervantes, Rafael; O, Huici; Bælum, Jesper; Lander, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    Background: Pesticides are of concern in Bolivia because of increasing use. Frequent intoxications have been demonstrated due to use of very toxic pesticides, insufficient control of distribution and sale and little knowledge among farmers of protective measures and hygienic procedures. Method: Q...

  4. Studies on Potential Pesticides Part-XII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K. Sen

    1980-04-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen N/sup 1/-(4-NitrophenoxyacetylN/sup 4/-aryl/cryclohexyl-3-thiosemicarbazide, eleven 3-(4-Nitrophenoxymethyl-4-aryl/cyclohexyl-5-mercapto1,2,4-triazoles and four 2-Arylamino-5-(4-Nitrophenoxymethyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives were prepared and tested for their pesticidal properties. All compounds exhibited significant pesticidal activity.

  5. 76 FR 27268 - Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ...World Health Organization food standards program, and it is recognized as an international food safety standards-setting...N-acetyl glyphosate is found in genetically modified (GMO) glyphosate-resistant...any pesticide residues in food. The Agency understands the...that the pesticide meets the safety standard imposed by...

  6. Neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    London, Leslie; Beseler, Cheryl; Bouchard, Maryse F; Bellinger, David C; Colosio, Claudio; Grandjean, Philippe; Harari, Raul; Kootbodien, Tahira; Kromhout, Hans; Little, Francesca; Meijster, Tim; Moretto, Angelo; Rohlman, Diane S; Stallones, Lorann

    2012-01-01

    The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective and neurodevelopmental outcomes among occupational (both adolescent and adult workers) and non-occupational populations (children). The symposium discussion highlighted many challenges for researchers co...

  7. Interaction of pesticides with natural organic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wershaw, R. L.; Burcar, P.J.; Goldberg, M.C.

    1969-01-01

    Two examples of the interaction of pesticides with natural organic materials have been investigated. Sodium humate solubilizes DDT in water and humic acid strongly sorbs 2,4,5-T. These two types of interactions are indicative of the types that one would expect when any organic pesticide is applied to a natural soil-water system.

  8. Applications of Metabonomics in Pesticide Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pan; Wu, Yi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Metabonomic studies quantitatively measure the small molecule metabolites and their intermediates in the biological samples (serum, urine or tissue extracts) and have gained wide applications in many fields, especially in toxicology. Pesticides are extensively used around the world and pesticide toxicity has become a serious threat to human health. Metabonomic approach has been applied in many aspects of pesticide toxicology research such as eco-environmental toxicity studies, biomarker identification, and mechanism of toxicity studies. Both whole organism animal models and cell culture models are used for metabonomic studies on pesticide toxicology. In the literature, metabonomic analyses on the toxicity of over thirty common pesticides, including insecticides, herbicides and fungicides, have been carried out using magnetic resonance spectroscopy or mass spectrometry. The combined toxicity of pesticides or pesticide with heavy metals was also investigated with metabonomic approach. In this article, recent progresses made in applying metabonomic approach in pesticide toxicology are thoroughly reviewed and the challenges with application of this approach are also discussed. PMID:26279326

  9. Toxicity of pesticides on photosynthesis of diatoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan being an agricultural country, a large amount of pesticides are used, including organophosphates and synthetic pyrethroids. These pesticides are released through rivers and other tributeries into the coastal environment, thus posing a contiguous threat to marine organisms. In the present study two species of diatoms Amphora and Navicula were selected for the assessment of impact of organ phosphate and pyrethroid toxicity on these primary producers. The study shows that rate of photosynthesis was inhibited in both Amphora and Navicula species exposed to pesticide. The acute toxicity of pesticide was determined by measuring IC50 of the test organisms. IC50 calculated for diatom species depicts that different pesticides had variable effects on the photosynthesis of microalgae. High sensitivity of marine organisms is alarming as it may have implications on the marine ecosystem and fisheries. The results are also useful in setting control limits for the release of these chemicals in nature. (author)

  10. PESTLCI – A PESTICIDE DISTRIBUTION MODEL FOR LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    and groundwater compartments for use in life cycle inventory analysis of agricultural product systems. The model is called PESTLCI and it builds on an already existing model by Hauschild, 2000 /2/ to which a number of amendments are introduced inspired by existing work on hazard and risk......The aim of the presented work is to develop a model for distribution of pesticides into the environment following application to the field. Based on input of required substance characteristics and applied quantities for the pesticides, the model will estimate the emissions to the air, water, soil...... characterisation and assessment of pesticide applications. The report therefore starts with a review of the work reported by the CAPER project as described in / / in order to locate new methods amenable for: 1. Handling of pesticide screening in LCA 2. Distribution modelling of pesticides in LCA 3. Evaluation of...

  11. Pesticide Toxicity Index: a tool for assessing potential toxicity of pesticide mixtures to freshwater aquatic organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Norman, Julia E.; Moran, Patrick W.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Stone, Wesley W.

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide mixtures are common in streams with agricultural or urban influence in the watershed. The Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) is a screening tool to assess potential aquatic toxicity of complex pesticide mixtures by combining measures of pesticide exposure and acute toxicity in an additive toxic-unit model. The PTI is determined separately for fish, cladocerans, and benthic invertebrates. This study expands the number of pesticides and degradates included in previous editions of the PTI from 124 to 492 pesticides and degradates, and includes two types of PTI for use in different applications, depending on study objectives. The Median-PTI was calculated from median toxicity values for individual pesticides, so is robust to outliers and is appropriate for comparing relative potential toxicity among samples, sites, or pesticides. The Sensitive-PTI uses the 5th percentile of available toxicity values, so is a more sensitive screening-level indicator of potential toxicity. PTI predictions of toxicity in environmental samples were tested using data aggregated from published field studies that measured pesticide concentrations and toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia in ambient stream water. C. dubia survival was reduced to ? 50% of controls in 44% of samples with Median-PTI values of 0.1–1, and to 0% in 96% of samples with Median-PTI values > 1. The PTI is a relative, but quantitative, indicator of potential toxicity that can be used to evaluate relationships between pesticide exposure and biological condition.

  12. An EPA Modeling Dashboard for Ecological Assessment of Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA registers pesticides for use in the US and approves imported pesticides under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Before a pesticide can be registered, the EPA must assess whether the pesticide can be used without eing harmful to humans or pos...

  13. 75 FR 14154 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or... establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities... part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA...

  14. 75 FR 46924 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or... establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities... establishment or modification of regulations in 40 CFR part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide...

  15. 75 FR 13277 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or... establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities... part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA...

  16. 75 FR 57942 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or... establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities... part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA...

  17. 75 FR 54629 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or... establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities... part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA...

  18. 75 FR 28009 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or... establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities... part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA...

  19. 76 FR 10584 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or... establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities... part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA...

  20. 75 FR 80489 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or... establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities... part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA...

  1. 75 FR 48667 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or... establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities... part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA...

  2. 75 FR 78240 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ...Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...regulations in 40 CFR part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on...

  3. 76 FR 10584 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ...Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...regulations in 40 CFR part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on...

  4. 75 FR 57942 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ...Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...regulations in 40 CFR part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on...

  5. 75 FR 28009 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ...Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...regulations in 40 CFR part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on...

  6. 77 FR 75082 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ...Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...of regulations in 40 CFR part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on...

  7. 75 FR 46924 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ...Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...regulations in 40 CFR part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on...

  8. 75 FR 66092 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ...Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...regulations in 40 CFR part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on...

  9. 75 FR 13277 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ...Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...regulations in 40 CFR part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on...

  10. 75 FR 14154 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ...Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...regulations in 40 CFR part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on...

  11. 75 FR 35801 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ...Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...regulations in 40 CFR part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on...

  12. 76 FR 61647 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 174 and 180 Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide... for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments must be received on... part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. The...

  13. 76 FR 49396 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 174 and 180 Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals... residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments must be received on or before... part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. The Agency is...

  14. 78 FR 70007 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of a Pesticide Chemical in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 174 Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of a Pesticide Chemical in or... filing of a pesticide petition requesting the establishment or modification of regulations for residues... residues of a pesticide chemical in or on various food commodities. The Agency is taking public comment...

  15. 76 FR 69692 - Withdrawal of a Pesticide Petition for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... 23, 2010 (75 FR 57942) (FRL-8845-4), which announced the submission of a pesticide petition (PP... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Withdrawal of a Pesticide Petition for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on... establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...

  16. 75 FR 11171 - Notice of Filing of Several Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... AGENCY Notice of Filing of Several Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on... of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments must... residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA has determined that the...

  17. 76 FR 82238 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals... for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments must be received on... part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. The...

  18. 76 FR 69690 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals... for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments must be received on... or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. The Agency...

  19. 75 FR 60452 - Notice of Filing of Several Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... AGENCY Notice of Filing of Several Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on... of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments must... part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA has determined...

  20. 76 FR 2110 - Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on... modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments... 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA has determined that...

  1. 76 FR 3885 - Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on... modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments... 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA...

  2. 75 FR 65321 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or... establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities... part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA...

  3. 77 FR 26477 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on... a pesticide petition requesting the establishment or modification of regulations for residues of... establishment or modification of regulations in 40 CFR part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide...

  4. 77 FR 59576 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on... a pesticide petition requesting the establishment or modification of regulations for residues of... establishment or modification of regulations in 40 CFR part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or...

  5. 77 FR 63782 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on a Commodity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on... pesticide petition requesting the establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide...), requesting the establishment or modification of regulations in 40 CFR part 180 for residues of...

  6. 76 FR 6465 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or... establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities... part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA has determined...

  7. 78 FR 1798 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on... a pesticide petition requesting the establishment or modification of regulations for residues of... establishment or modification of regulations in 40 CFR part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or...

  8. PESTLCI – A PESTICIDE DISTRIBUTION MODEL FOR LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the presented work is to develop a model for distribution of pesticides into the environment following application to the field. Based on input of required substance characteristics and applied quantities for the pesticides, the model will estimate the emissions to the air, water, soil and groundwater compartments for use in life cycle inventory analysis of agricultural product systems. The model is called PESTLCI and it builds on an already existing model by Hauschild, 2000 /2/ to which a number of amendments are introduced inspired by existing work on hazard and risk characterisation and assessment of pesticide applications. The report therefore starts with a review of the work reported by the CAPER project as described in / / in order to locate new methods amenable for: 1. Handling of pesticide screening in LCA 2. Distribution modelling of pesticides in LCA 3. Evaluation of human exposure in LCA Following the review of existing methods, a number of modifications and new modules are developed and integrated into the existing method for pesticide distribution modelling to arrive at PESTLCI. Finally, PESTLCI is tested on three pesticide applications and the results compared to the results obtained with the old model. PESTLCI is available as a Excel© spreadsheet (Danish Xp version) model.

  9. Urbanisation shapes behavioural responses to a pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüzün, Nedim; Debecker, Sara; Op de Beeck, Lin; Stoks, Robby

    2015-06-01

    The degree of urbanisation is rapidly increasing worldwide. Due to anthropogenic impact, urban populations are exposed to higher levels of contaminants and higher temperatures. Despite this, urbanisation is a largely overlooked spatial component in ecotoxicology. We tested in a common garden rearing experiment whether replicated urban and rural populations of the damselfly Coenagrion puella differ in their vulnerability to sublethal levels of a widespread pesticide, chlorpyrifos, in terms of ecologically relevant behaviours (exploration behaviour, activity, boldness and food intake), and to what extent these patterns are affected by temperature (20 and 24°C). Except boldness, all behaviours were affected by previous pesticide exposure. While the pesticide did not affect exploration behaviour at 20°C, it was associated with increased exploration at 24°C, which may reflect an increased toxicity of chlorpyrifos at higher temperatures. Importantly, rural and urban larvae showed consistently different, sometimes even opposite behavioural responses to pesticide exposure. When exposed to the pesticide, rural larvae decreased activity and food intake at both temperatures; urban larvae instead increased activity at both temperatures and only reduced food intake at the high temperature. This suggests that urban larvae were less affected by the pesticide, which would be consistent with a scenario of local adaptation to higher contaminant levels. Our results highlight that urbanisation may be an important factor to arrive at a spatially explicit ecological risk assessment, and may be an ignored reason why studies on the same species may generate widely different vulnerabilities to pesticides. PMID:25863029

  10. 40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides. 171.3 Section 171.3 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.3...

  11. 40 CFR 161.55 - Agricultural vs. non-agricultural pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Agricultural vs. non-agricultural pesticides. 161.55 Section 161.55...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES General Provisions §...

  12. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES... or classes of pesticide listed in this section are exempt from all requirements of FIFRA. The...

  13. DNA methylation alterations in response to pesticide exposure in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiao; Wallace, Andrew D.; DU, PAN; Kibbe, Warren A.; Jafari, Nadereh; Xie, Hehuang; Lin, Simon; Baccarelli, Andrea; Soares, Marcelo Bento; Hou, Lifang

    2012-01-01

    Although pesticides are subject to extensive carcinogenicity testing before regulatory approval, pesticide exposure has repeatedly been associated with various cancers. This suggests that pesticides may cause cancer via non-mutagenicity mechanisms. The present study provides evidence to support the hypothesis that pesticide-induced cancer may be mediated in part by epigenetic mechanisms. We examined whether exposure to 7 commonly used pesticides (i.e., fonofos, parathion, terbufos, chlorpyrif...

  14. Adsorption of pesticides onto quartz, calcite, kaolinite, and ?-alumina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Madsen, L.

    2001-01-01

    The fate of pesticides in aquifers is influenced by the small but not insignificant adsorption of pesticides to mineral surfaces. Batch experiments with five pesticides and four minerals were conducted to quantify the contributions to adsorption from different mineral surfaces and compare adsorption characteristics of selected pesticides. Investigated mineral phases included quartz, calcite, kaolinite, and alpha -alumina. Selected pesticides comprised atrazine (6-chloro-N-2-ethyl-N-4-isopropyl-1...

  15. From pesticides to genetically modified plants : history, economics and politics

    OpenAIRE

    Zadoks, J.C.; Waibel, H.

    2000-01-01

    Two technologies of crop protection are compared, crop protection by pesticides and by Genetically Modified Plants (GMPs). The history of pesticides provides lessons relevant to the future of GMPs; (1) high pesticide usage is counter-productive, (2) the technology requires intensive regulation and (3) has nonetheless many external effects which strongly reduce its social benefits, (4) early calculations on net benefits of pesticides were over-optimistic, and (5) intensive use of pesticides ma...

  16. Exposition to carcinogenic pesticides of farmers : Impact of risk perception

    OpenAIRE

    Boissonnot, J.; Grimbuhler, S.

    2010-01-01

    Farmer's pesticides exposure health risk assessment (HRA) needs a classification methodology of pesticides to be done. This methodology can be based on toxicological effects of pesticides, but also on practical criteria e.g. availability of dosages methods, the usage of the products by farmers, and regulatory laws. Among the toxicological data available, carcinogenicity of pesticides appeared as a decisive share of chronic exposure to pesticides for farmers. Indeed framers are lifetime expose...

  17. Studies on the kinetics of the system anti-pesticide antibody - pesticide by RIA technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pesticides 2,4 D (2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and DICAMBA (3,5-dichloro-2 methoxybenzoic acid) are substances used on large scale in agricultural field treatment against weeds. Having a great toxicity, pesticides constitute a real factor of pollution on the environmental factors (soil, water, plants) and the assays of these are important. RIA technique developed in laboratory as well as the reagents (anti-pesticide antibodies, pesticides labelled with 125 I) permits an assessment of these substances. In laboratory we carried out studies on the kinetics of the reaction system anti-pesticide antibody - pesticide, the optional conditions for RIA technique have been established, i.e. concentration of the reagents in the reaction system, incubation time as well as kinetic parameters like equilibrium constants, chemical rate constants. (authors)

  18. Embedded system for monitoring pesticide applications

    OpenAIRE

    De Rudnicki, V.; Fabrigoule, S.; Bonicelli, B.; Sinfort, C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with sprayer-equipement to monitir pesticide application in order to reduce the lost of pesticides that infests the soil, river and ground water. The work described here aimed at showing that it is possible to use a low cost equipement to improve the pesticide application methods. A 3 years experiment show how we could measure the product repartition on soil, foliage and air and so, monitor the tuning of the sprayer and the application. It also shows how this tool could help ...

  19. Neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    London, Leslie; Beseler, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective and neurodevelopmental outcomes among occupational (both adolescent and adult workers) and non-occupational populations (children). The symposium discussion highlighted many challenges for researchers concerned with the prevention of neurotoxic illness due to pesticides and generated a number of directions for further research and policy interventions for the protection of human health, highlighting the importance of examining potential long-term effects across the lifespan arising from early adolescent, childhood or prenatal exposure.

  20. Chiral pesticides: Identification, description, and environmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Elin M.; Morrison, Candice N.; Goldsmith, Michael R.; Foreman, William T.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic chemicals, including pesticides, are a major source of contamination and pollution in the environment. Pesticides have many positive uses: increased food production, decreased damage to crops and structures, reduced disease vector populations, and more. Nevertheless, pesticide exposure can pose risks to humans and the environment, so various mitigation strategies are exercised to make them safer, minimize their use, and reduce their unintended environment effects. One strategy that may help achieve these goals relies on the unique properties of chirality or molecular asymmetry. Some common terms related to chirality are defined in Table 1.

  1. Organophosphate Pesticide Exposure and Work in Pome Fruit: Evidence for the Take-Home Pesticide Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Coronado, Gloria D.; Vigoren, Eric M.; Thompson, Beti; Griffith, William C; Faustman, Elaine M.

    2006-01-01

    Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are commonly used in the United States, and farmworkers are at risk for chronic exposure. Using a sample of 218 farmworkers in 24 communities and labor camps in eastern Washington State, we examined the association between agricultural crop and OP pesticide metabolite concentrations in urine samples of adult farmworkers and their children and OP pesticide residues in house and vehicle dust samples. Commonly reported crops were apples (71.6%), ...

  2. Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Club ACMT Grand Rounds Medical Toxicology LLSA JMT Peer Reviewer Webinar 2015 Fellows-in-Training Research Webinar Other Enduring Education PEHSU National Classroom Chemical Agents of Opportunity Webinars Podcasts Public Health ...

  3. Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... variety of insects, fungicides used to prevent the growth of molds and mildew, disinfectants for preventing the spread of bacteria, and compounds used to control mice and rats. Because of the widespread use of agricultural chemicals in food production, people are exposed to low levels of ...

  4. The Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory: A Quantitative Instrument for the Assessment of Beliefs about Pesticide Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Gregory Cope

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent media attention has focused on the risks that agricultural pesticides pose to the environment and human health; thus, these topics provide focal areas for scientists and science educators to enhance public understanding of basic toxicology concepts. This study details the development of a quantitative inventory to gauge pesticide risk beliefs. The goal of the inventory was to characterize misconceptions and knowledge gaps, as well as expert-like beliefs, concerning pesticide risk. This study describes the development and field testing of the Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory with an important target audience: pesticide educators in a southeastern U.S. state. The 19-item, Likert-type inventory was found to be psychometrically sound with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.780 and to be a valuable tool in capturing pesticide educators’ beliefs about pesticide risk, assessing beliefs in four key categories. The Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory could be useful in exploring beliefs about pesticide risks and in guiding efforts to address misconceptions held by a variety of formal and informal science learners, educators, practitioners, the agricultural labor force, and the general public.

  5. Dealing with uncertainty in pesticide fate model scenarios for pesticide registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderborght, J.; Tiktak, A.

    2009-04-01

    One step in the registration procedure of pesticides in the European Union is the demonstration by model simulations that the use of the pesticide does not lead to an exceedance of critical environmental concentrations. These simulations must be carried out for a set of ‘worst-case' scenarios. A ‘worst-case' scenario is a combination of soil and climate properties within a certain region for which predicted concentrations are higher than a certain percentile of the distribution of concentrations for all climate and soil property combinations within that region. Most often, the 90th percentile is chosen. The application of this definition to derive scenarios is however complicated by a few factors. The first factor is the uncertainty about the soil and pesticide fate parameters that are used in the model. The second factor is the non-linearity of the relation between soil parameters, pesticide fate parameters and predicted environmental concentrations. This implies that the ranking of climate and soil property combinations is different for different pesticide properties. As a consequence, the percentile of the predicted environmental concentration of a certain pesticide using a soil and climate combination or scenario that was derived for other pesticide properties may differ from the intended percentile of the scenario. In this presentation, we present a procedure to quantify the effect of parameter and scenario uncertainty. This procedure is demonstrated for the selection of scenarios that predict pesticide concentrations in the top soil. These concentrations are the basis for the evaluation of ecotoxicological effects of pesticides in soils.

  6. Pesticide Environmental Accounting: A method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, A.W. [Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY (United Kingdom)], E-mail: a.w.leach@imperial.ac.uk; Mumford, J.D. [Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY (United Kingdom)], E-mail: j.mumford@imperial.ac.uk

    2008-01-15

    The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts. - A method to estimate the external costs of a pesticide application based on the ecotoxicology, environmental behaviour and application rate of an active ingredient.

  7. Pesticide Environmental Accounting: A method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts. - A method to estimate the external costs of a pesticide application based on the ecotoxicology, environmental behaviour and application rate of an active ingredient

  8. Pesticides in the agricultural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In most countries, regulations to control the use of pesticides require data from a hierarchical series of tests in order to assess their environmental acceptability. The test sequence begins with laboratory measurements, which are followed by field studies intended to confirm the predictions made from the laboratory results. Frequently, such predictions are not confirmed, largely because controlled laboratory conditions are too far removed from those that occur in the field. There is increasing interest in the potential of lysimeter systems to replace many of the laboratory tests. They enable test, including those using radiolabelled compounds, to be conducted outdoors under closely monitored conditions. The results to data are encouraging, but more work is required to validate such systems. (author). 33 refs

  9. Neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    London, Leslie; Beseler, Cheryl; Bouchard, Maryse F; Bellinger, David C; Colosio, Claudio; Grandjean, Philippe; Harari, Raul; Kootbodien, Tahira; Kromhout, Hans; Little, Francesca; Meijster, Tim; Moretto, Angelo; Rohlman, Diane S; Stallones, Lorann

    2012-01-01

    and neurodevelopmental outcomes among occupational (both adolescent and adult workers) and non-occupational populations (children). The symposium discussion highlighted many challenges for researchers concerned with the prevention of neurotoxic illness due to pesticides and generated a number of...

  10. 76 FR 69642 - Flutriafol; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ...tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311...part 180 through the Government Printing Office's e-CFR site...

  11. 78 FR 19130 - Clothianidin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ...respectively, under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311...part 180 through the Government Printing Office's e-CFR site...

  12. 77 FR 14291 - Penthiopyrad; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ...tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311...part 180 through the Government Printing Office's e-CFR site...

  13. 76 FR 18906 - Mancozeb; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ...tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311...part 180 through the Government Printing Office's e-CFR site...

  14. 75 FR 60321 - Spinosad; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ...tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311...part 180 through the Government Printing Office's e-CFR site...

  15. 75 FR 81878 - Imazosulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ...tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311...part 180 through the Government Printing Office's e-CFR site...

  16. 76 FR 69653 - Abamectin (avermectin); Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ...tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311...part 180 through the Government Printing Office's e-CFR site...

  17. 75 FR 35653 - Thiamethoxam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ...tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311...part 180 through the Government Printing Office's e-CFR site...

  18. 77 FR 73951 - Pyriproxyfen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ...tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311...part 180 through the Government Printing Office's e-CFR site...

  19. 78 FR 67048 - Prothioconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ...tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311...part 180 through the Government Printing Office's e-CFR site...

  20. 78 FR 25396 - Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ...to residue levels in food, EPA assumed tolerance...proposed and existing commodities. iii. Cancer. Based...were assumed for all food commodities. 2. Dietary exposure...pesticides/trac/science/trac6a05.pdf....

  1. 77 FR 60311 - Chlorantraniliprole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ...1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals...As to residue levels in food, EPA assumed tolerance...CT were assumed for all food commodities. 2. Dietary exposure...pesticides/trac/science/trac6a05.pdf....

  2. 76 FR 44815 - Chlorantraniliprole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ...assumed for all food commodities. 2. Dietary...pesticides/trac/science/trac6a05...the risk from food and water and...Environmental Science Center, 701...with U.S. food safety standards...crops and animal commodities. These...

  3. 77 FR 38199 - Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ...common mechanism of toxicity for the conazoles...common mechanism of toxicity, see EPA's Web site...pesticide. This class of compounds can form the common...available propiconazole toxicity data to determine whether...heavy metals, or halogenated aromatic...

  4. 77 FR 75039 - Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ...common mechanism of toxicity for the conazoles...common mechanism of toxicity, see EPA's Web site...pesticide. This class of compounds can form the common...available propiconazole toxicity data to determine whether...heavy metals, or halogenated aromatic...

  5. 76 FR 17644 - Pesticide Product; Registration Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ...Gina Casciano, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (7511P), Office...you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer...Matthews, Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division, Office of...

  6. 75 FR 10259 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ...is: Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division...agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...Proposed Uses: All food commodities. Contact...Proposed Uses: All food commodities. Contact...Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention...

  7. 75 FR 4383 - Pesticide Products: Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ...Casciano, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division...agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...classification/Use: Food Use, Outdoor Use (G...classification/Use: Food Use, Outdoor Use (G...Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention...

  8. 75 FR 6656 - Pesticide Product; Registration Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ...Shanaz Bacchus, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (7511P), Office...you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer...Acting Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division, Office of...

  9. 75 FR 3235 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ...Adams, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division...agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS...For use in or on all food commodities. List of...Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention...

  10. 75 FR 11175 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ...Leader, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (7511P...benmhend.driss@epa.gov. Pollution Prevention 5481-LAO Division...an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division,...

  11. 75 FR 71695 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ...John Fournier, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (7511P), Office...you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer...Acting Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division, Office of...

  12. 78 FR 76561 - Endothall; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ...pesticide chemical residue in or on a food) only if EPA determines that...studies clearly demonstrate that local irritation (portal of entry...rule directly regulates growers, food processors, food handlers, and food...

  13. 75 FR 50902 - Mancozeb; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ...mancozeb by a State for special local needs under FIFRA section 24...pesticide chemical residue in or on a food) only if EPA determines that...rule directly regulates growers, food processors, food handlers, and food...

  14. 76 FR 27261 - Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ...propiconazole by a State for special local needs under FIFRA section 24...pesticide chemical residue in or on a food) only if EPA determines that...rule directly regulates growers, food processors, food handlers, and food...

  15. 76 FR 10026 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ...., Washington, DC 20460-0001 and Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (7511P), Office of Pesticide... and recovery system, metalworking fluids. Contact: Abigail Downs, Antimicrobials Division, (703) 305.... Contact: Jacqueline Campbell-McFarlane, Antimicrobials Division, (703) 308-6416,...

  16. TREATMENT OF SEASONAL PESTICIDES IN SURFACE WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous pesticides were monitored in surface waters in agricultural areas. Atrazine, alachlor, metolachlor, cyanazine, metribuzin, carbofuran, linuron, and simazine were found in the influent to three water treatment plants in storm runoff following their application. Studies at...

  17. 78 FR 18504 - Emamectin Benzoate; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ...pistachios) and cottonseed oil. Pesticide Data Program (PDP...pistachios) and cottonseed oil. DEEM default processing factors...preparation-reduction factors for washing, cooking, etc. may have resulted...with a clear LOAEL) seen after repeated dosing but is used...

  18. High risk pesticides in sugar beet protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šovljanski Radmila A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available According to traits of pesticides permitted to use in sugar beet (oral percutaneus and inhalation toxicity, toxicity to wildlife, bees and aquatic organisms, re-entry interval, maximum number of treatments, effects on reproduction do not present health risk in sugar production/technology. However, the danger exists for workers by chronic exposure during the application, especially from pesticide being potential endocrine disruptors (EDS (fentin acetate, benomyl, endosulfan, methomyl, methidathion. EDS can cause sterility or decreased fertility, impaired development, birth defects of the reproductive tract and metabolic disorders. Authors recommend limited application of EDS pesticides (to limit the number of treatments to only one during the vegetation, replacement with pesticides with low risk to humans game and fishes, as well as mandatory submission of re-entry data for registration.

  19. Characterizing pesticide dissipation in food crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Juraske, R.; Jolliet, O.

    2013-01-01

    . Nevertheless, dissipation is a key mechanism in models assessing pesticide distribution in the cropenvironment and the magnitude of residues in harvest. We provide a consistent framework for characterizing pesticide dissipation in food crops for use in modeling approaches applied in health risk and impact......Ingestion of residues via consumption of food crops is the predominant exposure route of the general population toward pesticides. However, pesticide dissipation in crops constitutes a main source of uncertainty in estimating residues in harvested crop parts and subsequent human exposure...... assessment. We collected 4,482 unique dissipation half-lives for 341 substances applied to 182 different crop species and fully characterize these data by describing their variance, distribution and uncertainty as well as by identifying the influence of substance, crop and environmental characteristics. We...

  20. 76 FR 11344 - Difenoconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0823; FRL-8864-9] Difenoconazole; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...establishes tolerances for residues of difenoconazole in or on mango and wax jambu. Syngenta...tolerances for residues of the fungicide, difenoconazole,...

  1. 76 FR 82157 - Difenoconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0959; FRL-9328-6] Difenoconazole; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...establishes tolerances for residues of difenoconazole in or on oat and rye commodities...tolerances for residues of the fungicide, difenoconazole,...

  2. Earthworm tolerance to residual agricultural pesticide contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givaudan, Nicolas; Binet, Françoise; Le Bot, Barbara; Wiegand, Claudia

    This study investigates if acclimatization to residual pesticide contamination in agricultural soils is reflected in detoxification, antioxidant enzyme activities and energy budget of earthworms. Five fields within a joint agricultural area exhibited different chemical and farming histories from...

  3. PESTICIDE POISONINGS REPORTED BY FLORIDA CITRUS FIELDWORKERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a 1981 survey of 1811 Florida citrus fieldworkers, 25 pesticide related poisoning incidents involving 29 fieldworkers were reported. Suspected poisonings were categorized into possible and confirmed poisonings, and from these reports it was possible to project an estimated 438...

  4. 77 FR 27130 - Ametoctradin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ...consideration to exposure of infants and children to the pesticide...no harm will result to infants and children from aggregate...consumers, including infants and children. In toxicity...ametoctradin, no single dose or repeated dose study...

  5. 75 FR 69353 - Isoxaben; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ...consideration to exposure of infants and children to the pesticide...no harm will result to infants and children from aggregate...consumers, including infants and children. Isoxaben...identified for isoxaben in repeated-dose studies are the...

  6. Bacillus thuringiensis and Its Pesticidal Crystal Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Schnepf, E.; Crickmore, N.; Van Rie, J.; Lereclus, D.; Baum, J; Feitelson, J.; Zeigler, D. R.; Dean, D. H.

    1998-01-01

    During the past decade the pesticidal bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis has been the subject of intensive research. These efforts have yielded considerable data about the complex relationships between the structure, mechanism of action, and genetics of the organism’s pesticidal crystal proteins, and a coherent picture of these relationships is beginning to emerge. Other studies have focused on the ecological role of the B. thuringiensis crystal proteins, their performance in agricultural and o...

  7. High risk pesticides in sugar beet protection

    OpenAIRE

    Šovljanski Radmila A.; Kloko?ar-Šmit Zlata D.; In?i? Dušanka V.

    2006-01-01

    According to traits of pesticides permitted to use in sugar beet (oral percutaneus and inhalation toxicity, toxicity to wildlife, bees and aquatic organisms, re-entry interval, maximum number of treatments, effects on reproduction) do not present health risk in sugar production/technology. However, the danger exists for workers by chronic exposure during the application, especially from pesticide being potential endocrine disruptors (EDS) (fentin acetate, benomyl, endosulfan, methomyl, methid...

  8. Morbidity in newborns exposed to organophosphorus pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Momčilo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Insecticides are toxines by which we destroy harmful insects. The most frequent insecticides which are used today are organophosphorus pesticides. This group of compounds make substances whose activity mechanism is based on the inhibition of acetylcho­linesterase in nerve synapsis, thus producing holynergic syndrome, resulting from the accumulation of acetylcholine which developed due to the absence of decomposition under the influence of cholinesterase. In the clinical picture of acute toxication by cholinesterase inhibitors there is a clear difference between muscarinic and nicotine effects. The basic aim of the study was to establish the effects of organophosphorus pesticides present in blood and breast milk of mothers on newborns morbidity. Material and methods. The study group consisted of 18 newborns whose mothers had isolated organophosphorus pesticides in their blood and breast­milk on the third day after delivery, and the control group consisted of 84 newborns whose mothers did not have isolated organophosphorus pesticides in their blood and breastmilk. Results. Morbidity is three times greater, often in combination with some disorders of the central nervous system, and the relative risk for its appearance is eight time greater in newborns exposed to organophosphorus pesticides. Disscusion. Disorders that appear in newborns exposed to pesticides are mutagenic, cancerogenic and neurotoxic and some agenses could disturb the immune system which is reflected in morbidity increase, primarly of the central nervous system. Conclusion. The presence of organophosphorus pesticides in blood and breast milk has negative effects on newborns. In addition to acetylcho­linesterase inhibition, organophosphorus pesticides react by means of other mechanisms as well.

  9. Influence of Pesticide Legislation on Danish Groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Inthasen, Prapaporn

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater is one of the most important resources in Denmark. It is consumed by private households, agriculture, fisheries, institutions and industry. Agricultural pesticides have been used in Denmark to protect crop yields. Most of the drinking water wells are located close to fields on which pesticides have been intensively applied. To fulfill the aim of Groundwater Directive 2006, Danish groundwater should have “good groundwater chemical status” by 2015. This directive has set up detectio...

  10. Effects of pesticides on Azotobacter chroococcum

    OpenAIRE

    Mrkova?ki Nastasija B.; ?a?i? Nikola A.; Mili? Vera M.

    2002-01-01

    Studied in this paper were the effects of three concentrations of four different pesticides (two herbicides - Ro-Neet and pyramin, one insecticide - lindan and one fungicide - mankogal) on the growth of pure cultures of three Azotobacter chroococcum strains. The lowest and highest concentrations used in the study were ten times lower and ten times higher than the concentration used in actual agricultural practice (in the field) respectively. The pesticides had different effects on the growth ...

  11. Photostability and photodegradation pathways of distinctive pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Attila; Virág, Diána

    2009-01-01

    Transformation of pesticides in the environment is a highly complex process affected by different factors. Biological and physical-chemical factors may play a role in the degradation to variable extent. Photodecomposition might be regarded as one of the most crucial factors affecting the fate of pesticides. Therefore, our study focused on revealing specific details of the photolytic degradation of pesticides. The toxicity of the examined pesticides is well known; however, little information is available regarding their natural degradation processes. More detailed examinations are required to reveal the exact mechanism of the pesticide decomposition and the biological impacts of the degradates. Significance of this study is enhanced by the fact that decomposition of pesticides may result in the formation of toxic degradation products. The photolytic degradation of frequently applied pesticides (e.g., acetochlor, simazine, chlorpyrifos, and carbendazim) with different chemical structures was investigated. An immersible ultraviolet light source was applied to induce photodegradation. The degradation processes were followed by thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry techniques. Electron ionization mass spectrometry was used to identify the degradation species. Detailed mechanisms of photolytic transformation were established by identification of each degradate. The photolytic degradation of pesticides of distinctive chemical character exhibited markedly different photodecomposition mechanisms. At least four degradation species were detected and identified in each case. Loss of alkyl, chloro, and hydroxyl groups as well as cleavage of alkyloxy, amide, amino-alkyl, and ester bonds might be regarded as typical decomposition patterns. Deamination and ring opening might be observed at the last stages of decomposition. PMID:19141805

  12. Neonicotinoid pesticides severely affect honey bee queens

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Geoffrey R.; Aline Troxler; Gina Retschnig; Kaspar Roth; Orlando Yañez; Dave Shutler; Peter Neumann; Laurent Gauthier

    2015-01-01

    Queen health is crucial to colony survival of social bees. Recently, queen failure has been proposed to be a major driver of managed honey bee colony losses, yet few data exist concerning effects of environmental stressors on queens. Here we demonstrate for the first time that exposure to field-realistic concentrations of neonicotinoid pesticides during development can severely affect queens of western honey bees (Apis mellifera). In pesticide-exposed queens, reproductive anatomy (ovaries) an...

  13. Surveillance of pesticide poisoning in colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Idrovo, Alvaro Javier

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this article is to realize a critical review of the epidemiologic surveillance of pesticide-related health effects in Colombia. First, it describes the historic changes in the exposure to pesticides in the country, the expected and potential adverse health effects (chronic, acute, and subacute). Second, it reviews some epidemiologic surveillance systems actually used in Colombia with their strongholds and weakness. Finally, it proposes some basic issues to improve this import...

  14. Comportement des pesticides ionisables dans les sols

    OpenAIRE

    Kah, Mélanie; Brown, Colin D.

    2007-01-01

    Ionisable pesticides can be partially ionised within the range of natural soil pH and this strongly influences their reactivity in soils. This group includes important, worldwide contaminants of groundwater and surface waters. It is essential that their specific behaviour is recognised within risk assessment procedures. Experiments were carried out with ten pesticides (six acids and four bases) and nine arable soils (range in pH, texture and organic matter content) to advance the understandin...

  15. Dietary pesticides (99.99% all natural).

    OpenAIRE

    Ames, B N; Profet, M; Gold, L S

    1990-01-01

    The toxicological significance of exposures to synthetic chemicals is examined in the context of exposures to naturally occurring chemicals. We calculate that 99.99% (by weight) of the pesticides in the American diet are chemicals that plants produce to defend themselves. Only 52 natural pesticides have been tested in high-dose animal cancer tests, and about half (27) are rodent carcinogens; these 27 are shown to be present in many common foods. We conclude that natural and synthetic chemical...

  16. A greenhouse without pesticides : fact or fantasy ?

    OpenAIRE

    Lenteren, J.C., van

    2000-01-01

    Crop protection in European greenhouses became strongly chemically oriented shortly after the Second World War in the 1950s. But an excellent climate for fast reproduction of pests and diseases demanded high spray frequencies and, thus, resulted in quick development of resistance against pesticides. This initiated a search for alternatives of chemical pesticides. The first natural enemies for control of pests in European greenhouse vegetables became available in the 1960s. A change from chemi...

  17. Types of pesticides and determination of their residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pesticide is any material or component used to protect from pests. Its toxic effect is related to the chemical structure, which can be divided into 3 types : 1- Metal pesticides : Sulphur, cupper, zinc, mercury; 2- Vegetal pesticides : advanced and less toxic to the general health; 3- Synthetic organo pesticides : organo chlorine, organophosphorous, carbamate and pyrethroids. Pesticides in the soil undergo biological dissociation according to their concentration and chemical structure. High concentration of the pesticides in the soil may lead to fertility decrease due to destruction of micro-organisms by the pesticides. Many methods are used to analyze the residues of pesticides in plant or soil : 1- Chromatographic methods : Gas chromatography, gas liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography; 2- Spectroscopy methods : spectrophotometer and mass spectrometer; 3- Isotopic methods : based on tracers technique which is the most sensitive and accurate method and can estimate minor amounts of the pesticides. (author)

  18. Pesticides in Soil: Effects on Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Radivojevi?

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery to the present day, pesticides have been an inevitable segment of agricultural production and efforts have been made to synthesize compounds that would share a required efficacy along with selectivity, sufficient persistence on the object of protection and favourable toxicological and ecotoxicological characteristics so as to minimize their effect on the environment.When a pesticide gets into soil after application, it takes part in a number of physical, chemical and biological processes that depend not only on the compound itself, but a number of other factors as well, such as: physical, chemical and biological characteristics of soil; climatic factors, equipment used, method of application, method of storage, handling and disposal of waste, site characteristics (proximity of ground and underground waters, biodiversity and sensitivity of the environment. Microorganisms play an important role in pesticide degradation as they are able to utilize the biogenic elements from those compounds, as well as energy for their physiological processes. On the other hand, pesticides are more or less toxic substances that can have adverse effect on populations of microorganisms and prevent their development, reduce their abundance, deplete their taxonomic complexity and create communities with a lower level of diversity and reduced physiological activity.The article discusses complex interactions between pesticides and microorganisms in soil immediately after application and over the ensuing period. Data on changes in the abundance of some systematic and physiological groups of microorganisms, their microbial biomass and enzymatic activity caused under pesticide activity are discussed as indicators of these processes.

  19. Environmental exposure to pesticides and respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mamane

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory effects of environmental exposure to pesticides are debated. Here we aimed to review epidemiological studies published up until 2013, using the PubMed database. 20 studies dealing with respiratory health and non-occupational pesticide exposure were identified, 14 carried out on children and six on adults. In four out of nine studies in children with biological measurements, mothers' dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE blood levels during pregnancy were associated with asthma and wheezing in young children. An association was also found between permethrin in indoor air during pregnancy and wheezing in children. A significant association between asthma and DDE measured in children's blood (aged 7–10 years was observed in one study. However, in three studies, no association was found between asthma or respiratory infections in children and pesticide levels in breast milk and/or infant blood. Lastly, in three out of four studies where post-natal pesticide exposure of children was assessed by parental questionnaire an association with respiratory symptoms was found. Results of the fewer studies on pesticide environmental exposure and respiratory health of adults were much less conclusive: indeed, the associations observed were weak and often not significant. In conclusion, further studies are needed to confirm whether there is a respiratory risk associated with environmental exposure to pesticides.

  20. Environmental exposure to pesticides and respiratory health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamane, Ali; Raherison, Chantal; Tessier, Jean-François; Baldi, Isabelle; Bouvier, Ghislaine

    2015-09-01

    Respiratory effects of environmental exposure to pesticides are debated. Here we aimed to review epidemiological studies published up until 2013, using the PubMed database. 20 studies dealing with respiratory health and non-occupational pesticide exposure were identified, 14 carried out on children and six on adults. In four out of nine studies in children with biological measurements, mothers' dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) blood levels during pregnancy were associated with asthma and wheezing in young children. An association was also found between permethrin in indoor air during pregnancy and wheezing in children. A significant association between asthma and DDE measured in children's blood (aged 7-10 years) was observed in one study. However, in three studies, no association was found between asthma or respiratory infections in children and pesticide levels in breast milk and/or infant blood. Lastly, in three out of four studies where post-natal pesticide exposure of children was assessed by parental questionnaire an association with respiratory symptoms was found. Results of the fewer studies on pesticide environmental exposure and respiratory health of adults were much less conclusive: indeed, the associations observed were weak and often not significant. In conclusion, further studies are needed to confirm whether there is a respiratory risk associated with environmental exposure to pesticides. PMID:26324808

  1. Chlorination of organophosphorus pesticides in natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown second-order rate constants for the reactions of three organophosphorus pesticides (chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon) with chlorine were determined in the present study, and the influence of pH and temperature was established. It was found that an increase in the pH provides a negative effect on the pesticides degradation rates. Apparent second-order rate constants at 20 oC and pH 7 were determined to be 110.9, 0.004 and 191.6 M-1 s-1 for chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon, respectively. A higher reactivity of chlorine with the phosphorothioate group (chlorpyrifos and diazinon) than with the phosphate moiety (chlorfenvinfos) could explain these results. Intrinsic rate constant for the elementary reactions of chlorine species with chlorpyrifos and diazinon were also calculated, leading to the conclusion that the reaction between hypochlorous acid and the pesticide is predominant at neutral pH. The elimination of these pesticides in surface waters was also investigated. A chlorine dose of 2.5 mg L-1 was enough to oxidize chlorpyrifos and diazinon almost completely, with a formation of trihalomethanes below the EU standard for drinking water. However, the removal of chlorfenvinfos was not appreciable. Therefore, chlorination is a feasible option for the removal of organophosphorus pesticides with phosphorothioate group during oxidation and disinfection processes, but not for the elimination of pesticides with phosphate moiety

  2. Occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mamane

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to review the available literature regarding the link between occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory symptoms or diseases. Identification of epidemiological studies was performed using PubMed. 41 articles were included, 36 regarding agricultural workers and five regarding industry workers. Among the 15 cross-sectional studies focusing on respiratory symptoms and agricultural pesticide exposure, 12 found significant associations with chronic cough, wheeze, dyspnoea, breathlessness or chest tightness. All four studies on asthma found a relationship with occupational exposure, as did all three studies on chronic bronchitis. The four studies that performed spirometry reported impaired respiratory function linked to pesticide exposure, suggestive of either obstructive or restrictive syndrome according to the chemical class of pesticide. 12 papers reported results from cohort studies. Three out of nine found a significant relationship with increased risk of wheeze, five out of nine with asthma and three out of three with chronic bronchitis. In workers employed in pesticide production, elevated risks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (two studies out of three and impaired respiratory function suggestive of an obstructive syndrome (two studies out of two were reported. In conclusion, this article suggests that occupational exposure to pesticides is associated with an increased risk of respiratory symptoms, asthma and chronic bronchitis, but the causal relationship is still under debate.

  3. 40 CFR 158.2030 - Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides §...

  4. 40 CFR 158.2170 - Experimental use permit data requirements-microbial pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...use permit data requirements-microbial pesticides. 158.2170 Section 158.2170 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2170...

  5. 40 CFR 158.2140 - Microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table. 158...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2140...

  6. 40 CFR 158.2130 - Microbial pesticides residue data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides residue data requirements table. 158...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2130...

  7. 40 CFR 158.2150 - Microbial pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2150...

  8. 40 CFR 158.2120 - Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2120...

  9. 40 CFR 158.2060 - Biochemical pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides §...

  10. 40 CFR 158.2160 - Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2160...

  11. 40 CFR 158.2050 - Biochemical pesticides human health assessment data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides human health assessment data requirements...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides §...

  12. 40 CFR 158.2084 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data requirements table. 158.2084 Section 158.2084 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2084 Experimental use permit biochemical...

  13. Pesticide risk assessment in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recognition of potential risks, all pesticides distributed and sold in the United States must fulfil extensive registration requirements for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Registration is a licensing procedure where industry must submit data to demonstrate the safety of pesticidal substances and products before they can be used commercially. The regulatory control of pesticides is unique among chemicals in the U.S. in that testing beyond initial registration may be imposed by the Agency throughout the commercial life of the chemical, as long as there is adequate justification. Registration requirements are gauged to the nature of potential exposures. For instance, more data are generally needed for food use registrations than for non-food uses because of direct consumption of treated foods by the whole U.S. population. Unlike pesticide practices in many countries and authorities, as in the European Community where agricultural pesticides, non-agricultural pesticides and genetically engineered microbial agents are handled by separate directives, all pesticide activities are covered in the U.S. by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. This statute covers pesticide uses on foods and animal feed and a number of non-food applications like forest and horticultural uses, residential lawn care, in-home applications, and disinfectants/sterilants. Traditional inorganic and organic chemicals are covered, as well as biological agents like pheromones. Naturally occurring and genetically altered microorganisms also come under the definition of pesticides, but multicellular animals are exempt from regulation as pesticides. Pesticide registration in the U.S. as in many other countries may be a long-term, resource intensive undertaking. Not uncommonly the process from beginning to complete registration may take 4 to 10 years and cost about $10 million. To meet the responsibilities of reviewing studies, overseeing 400 active ingredients and 35,000 products, and implementing other aspects of the statute, EPA employs about 900 people. Unlike the approval process and actions to cancel pesticides in some countries, in the U.S. they are generally much more transparent. The need for specific test guidelines and the nature of the protocols are debated in the scientific community. Test data adequacy is evaluated according to objective criteria, and study findings are reviewed using standard evaluation procedures and risk assessment guidelines that have been through public comment. Agency risk concerns for a registered pesticide are vetted at a meeting of its Scientific Advisory Panel, a group of technical experts outside of government, where the potential risk case is reviewed and discussed. The meeting is open to the public with opportunity for input from industry, public interest groups, and other parties. Formal Agency regulatory proposals to cancel registered pesticides are published for public review and comment, and there may be several rounds of public involvement before a final decision is reached. Even after a regulatory decision has been made, and unless a settlement has been reached, the Agency is often sued by an environmental group or industry that questions the EPA position; in such situations, the case is then transferred to the court for deliberation. Risks are evaluated for a host of different effects by the pesticide program: acute and chronic, human health and ecological

  14. Use of labelled pesticides in pesticide research studies and problems in the interpretation of the data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of labelled pesticides has helped to solve number of problems connected with the formation and degradation of pesticides, factors influencing the above, location of the metabolites in the plants etc. However in most of the studies, the active ingredient has been labelled and diluted and applied at the recommended doses. But the efficacy of the pesticide is modified by the method of formulation, nature of fillers, emulsifiers, solvents, size of droplets etc. Hence the utility as well as the limitations in the use of labelled pesticides in the formulations are discussed. Also due to the variations in the half life of the radioisotopes used for labelling, the use of labelled pesticides for long as well as short duration crops has also been indicated. Autoradiography has become an useful tool in studying the movement of pesticide in the plant, and insects and also locating the regions of high concentration of pesticides and their residues. Though useful, the production of artefacts caused by exudation of cell sap, and other exudates, thickness of samples, increasing time of contact in the case of low energy radioisotope labelled compounds etc. have prevented the use of this technique on a wide scale. The problems in the preparation of autoradiographs of the plant specimens treated with labelled pesticides are also discussed. (author)

  15. Influence of different disease control pesticide strategies on multiple pesticide residue levels in apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Naef, A.; Gasser, S.; Christen, D.; Rasmussen, Peter Have

    Seven pesticide application strategies were investigated to control apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) and powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) and, at the same time.. fulfil the new quality standards implemented by some German retailers. These demand that pesticide residues should be below 80...

  16. 76 FR 21294 - Pesticides; Microbial Pesticide Definitions and Applicability; Clarification and Availability of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... (65 FR 22951, November 9, 2000). EPA is not aware of any Tribal governments that are pesticide...)(2) The preamble of the final rule (71 FR 60988, October 26, 2007), codifying the provision found at... similar strain. EPA believes the proposed microbial pesticide definition applicability provision...

  17. 76 FR 552 - Pesticides; Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Residential Exposure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... of the Residential Exposure Joint Venture, L.L.C. This PR Notice (PR Notice 2011-1) issued by the... AGENCY Pesticides; Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Residential Exposure Joint Venture AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Agency is...

  18. Pesticide toxicity index for freshwater aquatic organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Mark D.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program is designed to assess current water-quality conditions, changes in water quality over time, and the effects of natural and human factors on water quality for the Nation's streams and ground-water resources. For streams, one of the most difficult parts of the assessment is to link chemical conditions to effects on aquatic biota, particularly for pesticides, which tend to occur in streams as complex mixtures with strong seasonal patterns. A Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) was developed that combines pesticide exposure of aquatic biota (measured concentrations of pesticides in stream water) with toxicity estimates (standard endpoints from laboratory bioassays) to produce a single index value for a sample or site. The development of the PTI was limited to pesticide compounds routinely measured in NAWQA studies and to toxicity data readily available from existing databases. Qualifying toxicity data were found for one or more types of test organisms for 75 of the 83 pesticide compounds measured in NAWQA samples, but with a wide range of bioassays per compound (1 to 65). There were a total of 2,824 bioassays for the 75 compounds, including 287 48-hour EC50 values (concentration at which 50 percent of test organisms exhibit a nonlethal response) for freshwater cladocerans, 585 96-hour LC50 values (concentration lethal to 50 percent of test organisms) for freshwater benthic invertebrates, and 1,952 96-hour LC50 values for freshwater fish. The PTI for a particular sample is the sum of toxicity quotients (measured concentration divided by the median toxicity concentration from bioassays) for each detected pesticide. The PTI can be calculated for specific groups of pesticides and for specific taxonomic groups.While the PTI does not determine whether water in a sample is toxic, its values can be used to rank or compare the toxicity of samples or sites on a relative basis for use in further analysis or additional assessments. The PTI approach may be useful as a basis for comparing the potential significance of pesticides in different streams on a common basis, for evaluating relations between pesticide exposure and observed biological conditions, and for prioritizing where further studies are most needed.

  19. Intoxicación por plaguicidas / Pesticide poisoning

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Ferrer.

    Full Text Available Los plaguicidas son una de las familias de productos químicos más ampliamente empleadas por el hombre. Se han usado sobre todo para combatir plagas por su acción sobre las cosechas o como vectores de enfermedades transmisibles. Los plaguicidas pueden clasificarse en función de su empleo (insecticida [...] s, fungicidas, herbicidas, raticidas…) o de su familia química (organoclorados, organofosforados, carbamatos, piretoides, compuestos bipiridílicos, sales inorgánicas…). Todos ellos son biocidas lo que implica, habitualmente una alta toxicidad humana que ha sido motivo de preocupación desde mitad del siglo XX debido al amplio e indiscriminado empleo de estos productos. La exposición a los plaguicidas puede tener efectos agudos, crónicos y a largo plazo. Algunos compuestos organoclorados (como el DDT) fueron los primeros en ser empleado en fumigaciones masivas para combatir la malaria y han debido ser prohibidos debido a su capacidad de bioacumulación y persistencia medioambiental. El peligro representado por la generalizada presencia de estos agentes, se ha demostrado en los numerosos episodios de epidemias tóxicas humanas, productoras de alta morbi-mortalidad, descritas por casi todas las familias químicas: insecticidas y fungicidas organoclorados, insecticidas organofosforados y carbamatos, fungicidas organomercuriales y sales inorgánicas. Estos episodios se han producido sobre todo por vía alimentaria y en el terreno profesional. Otras causas de preocupación sanitaria son su capacidad carcinogénica y de ocasionar alteraciones reproductivas. Se presentan las principales características de algunas de las familias más relevantes. Abstract in english Pesticides are one of the families of chemical products most widely used by man. They have been used above all to combat pests because of their effect on harvests and as vectors of transmissible diseases. Pesticides can be classified according to their use (insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, rati [...] cides…) or by their chemical family (organochlorates, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, Bipyridilium compounds, inorganic salts…). All of them are biocides, which normally implies a high toxicity for humans, which has been a cause for concern since the mid-XX century due to the widespread and indiscriminate use of these products. Exposure to pesticides can have effects that are acute, chronic and long-term. Some organochlorate compounds (such as DDT) were the first to be used in massive fumigations to fight malaria and have had to be banned because of their capacity for bioaccumulation and environmental persistence. The danger represented by the widespread presence of these agents has been demonstrated in numerous episodes of human toxic epidemics, producers of a high morbidity/mortality, described for nearly all chemical families: organochlorate insecticides and fungicides, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, organomercurial fungicides and inorganic salts. These episodes have above all been caused through the ingestion of foodstuffs and in the occupational field. Other causes of health concern are their carcinogenic capacity and occasional reproductive alterations. The principal characteristics of some of the most relevant families are presented.

  20. Intoxicación por plaguicidas Pesticide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ferrer

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Los plaguicidas son una de las familias de productos químicos más ampliamente empleadas por el hombre. Se han usado sobre todo para combatir plagas por su acción sobre las cosechas o como vectores de enfermedades transmisibles. Los plaguicidas pueden clasificarse en función de su empleo (insecticidas, fungicidas, herbicidas, raticidas… o de su familia química (organoclorados, organofosforados, carbamatos, piretoides, compuestos bipiridílicos, sales inorgánicas…. Todos ellos son biocidas lo que implica, habitualmente una alta toxicidad humana que ha sido motivo de preocupación desde mitad del siglo XX debido al amplio e indiscriminado empleo de estos productos. La exposición a los plaguicidas puede tener efectos agudos, crónicos y a largo plazo. Algunos compuestos organoclorados (como el DDT fueron los primeros en ser empleado en fumigaciones masivas para combatir la malaria y han debido ser prohibidos debido a su capacidad de bioacumulación y persistencia medioambiental. El peligro representado por la generalizada presencia de estos agentes, se ha demostrado en los numerosos episodios de epidemias tóxicas humanas, productoras de alta morbi-mortalidad, descritas por casi todas las familias químicas: insecticidas y fungicidas organoclorados, insecticidas organofosforados y carbamatos, fungicidas organomercuriales y sales inorgánicas. Estos episodios se han producido sobre todo por vía alimentaria y en el terreno profesional. Otras causas de preocupación sanitaria son su capacidad carcinogénica y de ocasionar alteraciones reproductivas. Se presentan las principales características de algunas de las familias más relevantes.Pesticides are one of the families of chemical products most widely used by man. They have been used above all to combat pests because of their effect on harvests and as vectors of transmissible diseases. Pesticides can be classified according to their use (insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, raticides… or by their chemical family (organochlorates, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, Bipyridilium compounds, inorganic salts…. All of them are biocides, which normally implies a high toxicity for humans, which has been a cause for concern since the mid-XX century due to the widespread and indiscriminate use of these products. Exposure to pesticides can have effects that are acute, chronic and long-term. Some organochlorate compounds (such as DDT were the first to be used in massive fumigations to fight malaria and have had to be banned because of their capacity for bioaccumulation and environmental persistence. The danger represented by the widespread presence of these agents has been demonstrated in numerous episodes of human toxic epidemics, producers of a high morbidity/mortality, described for nearly all chemical families: organochlorate insecticides and fungicides, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, organomercurial fungicides and inorganic salts. These episodes have above all been caused through the ingestion of foodstuffs and in the occupational field. Other causes of health concern are their carcinogenic capacity and occasional reproductive alterations. The principal characteristics of some of the most relevant families are presented.

  1. 40 CFR 158.2170 - Experimental use permit data requirements-microbial pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements-microbial pesticides. 158.2170 Section 158.2170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2170 Experimental use permit data requirements—microbial pesticides. (a) For all microbial pesticides. (1)...

  2. Selection of Worst-Case Pesticide Leaching Scenarios for Pesticide Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, H.; Tiktak, A.; Boesten, J.; Vanderborght, J.

    2010-12-01

    The use of pesticides, fertilizers and manure in intensive agriculture may have a negative impact on the quality of ground- and surface water resources. Legislative action has been undertaken in many countries to protect surface and groundwater resources from contamination by surface applied agrochemicals. Of particular concern are pesticides. The registration procedure plays an important role in the regulation of pesticide use in the European Union. In order to register a certain pesticide use, the notifier needs to prove that the use does not entail a risk of groundwater contamination. Therefore, leaching concentrations of the pesticide need to be assessed using model simulations for so called worst-case scenarios. In the current procedure, a worst-case scenario represents a parameterized pesticide fate model for a certain soil and a certain time series of weather conditions that tries to represent all relevant processes such as transient water flow, root water uptake, pesticide transport, sorption, decay and volatilisation as accurate as possible. Since this model has been parameterized for only one soil and weather time series, it is uncertain whether it represents a worst-case condition for a certain pesticide use. We discuss an alternative approach that uses a simpler model that requires less detailed information about the soil and weather conditions but still represents the effect of soil and climate on pesticide leaching using information that is available for the entire European Union. A comparison between the two approaches demonstrates that the higher precision that the detailed model provides for the prediction of pesticide leaching at a certain site is counteracted by its smaller accuracy to represent a worst case condition. The simpler model predicts leaching concentrations less precise at a certain site but has a complete coverage of the area so that it selects a worst-case condition more accurately.

  3. Characterizing pesticide dissipation in food crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Juraske, R.

    2013-01-01

    Ingestion of residues via consumption of food crops is the predominant exposure route of the general population toward pesticides. However, pesticide dissipation in crops constitutes a main source of uncertainty in estimating residues in harvested crop parts and subsequent human exposure. Nevertheless, dissipation is a key mechanism in models assessing pesticide distribution in the cropenvironment and the magnitude of residues in harvest. We provide a consistent framework for characterizing pesticide dissipation in food crops for use in modeling approaches applied in health risk and impact assessment. We collected 4,482 unique dissipation half-lives for 341 substances applied to 182 different crop species and fully characterize these data by describing their variance, distribution and uncertainty as well as by identifying the influence of substance, crop and environmental characteristics. We obtain an overall geo-mean half-life over all data points of 3.9 days with 95% of all half-lives falling within the range between 0.6 and 29 days. Uncertainty in predicting a substance-specific geo-mean half-life varies with varying numbers of available data points with the highest uncertainty associated to pesticides with less than seven reported half-lives. Temperature in air was identified to have a significant influence on dissipation kinetics. We, hence, provide estimated half-lives for a default temperature of 20°C, while introducing a correction term for deviating temperature conditions. Diffusive exchange processes also have a significant influence on pesticide dissipation, wherever these processes dominate dissipation rates compared to degradation. In these cases, we recommend not to use measured dissipation half-lives as basis for estimating degradation, which is recommended in cases, where degradation is dominating. We are currently testing the regression to predict degradation half-lives in crops. By providing mean degradation half-lives at 20°C for more than 300 pesticides, we reduce uncertainty and improve assumptions in current practice of health risk and impact assessments.

  4. 75 FR 62387 - Pesticide Product Registrations; Conditional Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ...conditionally register the following pesticide products: 1. Paladin Technical...to grow fruiting vegetable (tomato, pepper, and eggplant...to grow fruiting vegetable (tomato, pepper, and eggplant...protection, Chemicals, Pests and pesticides. Dated: September 27,...

  5. 75 FR 48672 - Pesticides; Revised Fee Schedule for Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... tables), the Antimicrobials Division (AD) (3 tables), and the Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention...=Antimicrobials Division, B=Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division). The column entitled ``CR No.'' cross... limited to: Agricultural pesticide manufacturers (32532). Antimicrobial pesticide manufacturers...

  6. 76 FR 11456 - Pesticide Reregistration Performance Measures and Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ...Pesticide Reregistration Performance Measures and Goals AGENCY: Environmental...progress in meeting its performance measures and goals for pesticide reregistration...comment due to technical difficulties and cannot contact...

  7. Metabolism of pesticides after dermal exposure to amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding how pesticide exposure to non-target species influences toxicity is necessary to accurately assess the ecological risks these compounds pose. Aquatic, terrestrial, and arboreal amphibians are often exposed to pesticides during their agricultural application resultin...

  8. Children's exposure to pesticides used in homes and farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saller, Jeremy; Reyes, Priscilla; Maldonado, Pedro A; Gibbs, Shawn G; Byrd, Theresa L

    2007-03-01

    Commercial and residential use of pesticides is common in El Paso, Texas, especially in agricultural areas. Recently, concerns have arisen about the type of pesticides used by residents because of the ease with which methyl parathion can be obtained from the neighboring border city of Juarez in Chihuahua, Mexico. Survey data were collected regarding residents' perceptions about pesticide safety and use of pesticides, and their preferred source of health information. The authors assessed the number of respondents who were using the illegal pesticide methyl parathion, known locally as polvo de avion (airplane dust) as well as their beliefs concerning the safety and efficacy of pesticides. The study found that 88.7 percent (133 of 150) used some type of pesticide, and of these, 9.8 percent (13 of 133) reported using methyl parathion. Biological/environmental testing would be useful to assess use of methyl parathion and to determine the types of pesticides used by local farmers. PMID:17390899

  9. 75 FR 16109 - Antimicrobial Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... 19446. Active ingredient: Silver. Proposed Uses: Antimicrobial and preservative additive used to treat... AGENCY Antimicrobial Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection... antimicrobial pesticide products containing new active ingredients, pursuant to the provisions of section...

  10. Pesticide residues in sediments from the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; SenGupta, R.

    An average of 55,000 t of pesticides (including or organochlorine compounds) are used every year in India for agricultural purposes. The cumulative effects of these pesticides on the coastal environment can be expected to be considerable...

  11. Photochemical Attenuation of Pesticides in Prairie Potholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, T.; Arnold, W. A.

    2013-12-01

    Prairie potholes are small, shallow, glacially-derived wetlands scattered across a vast region extending from Midwestern United States into south central Canada known as the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR). They constitute one of the largest inland wetland systems on Earth and play a prominent role in sustaining the regional biodiversity and productivity. Throughout the PPR, historic and contemporary conversion of native prairie for agriculture resulted in a pronounced loss of potholes. Remaining potholes have become interspersed within a matrix of agricultural landscape and trap nonpoint source pollutants such as pesticides from adjacent farmland, which has raised concerns regarding negative impacts on the water quality of downstream water bodies. The fate and persistence of pesticides in potholes, however, remains largely unexplored. Prairie potholes are typically characterized by shallow depth (i.e., large photic zone) and high levels of dissolved organic matter (DOM), making them ideal for photochemical reactions. In this context, we collected pothole water samples from North Dakota to investigate the rates and mechanisms of sunlight-induced attenuation of pesticides. The photodegradation kinetics and pathways of sixteen pesticides in the pothole water were monitored under both simulated and natural sunlight. For most pesticides, photolysis accelerated in the pothole water relative to the buffer control, which pointed to the importance of photosensitized processes (i.e., indirect photolysis). Upon solar irradiation, a mixture of photochemically produced reactive intermediates (PPRIs), such as carbonate radical, hydroxyl radical, singlet oxygen, and triplet-excited state DOM, formed in the pothole water. The major pathways through which pesticides degraded were inferred from the relative contribution attributable to specific PPRIs via quencher experiments. Different classes of pesticides exhibited contrasting photochemical behavior, but singlet oxygen and triplet DOM appeared to exert the largest effects on the overall photodegradation. Furthermore, a suite of second-order rate constants for reactions of pesticides with PPRIs were derived based on the quenching effect on observed reaction rate constants and measured steady-state concentrations of PPRIs. These rate constants may find practical utility for estimating DOM photochemical reaction rates in addition to data traditionally estimated from model compounds. Overall, our work contributed to a systematic evaluation of the potential for photochemical attenuation of pesticides in near-surface pothole water. Given recent incentives to expand agriculture in the PPR for production of organic crops and corn-based biofuels, this research also calls for the need to properly conserve prairie potholes and to develop regionally-specific, sustainable water resource management and land use strategies.

  12. The aqueous radiation chemistry of pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The degradation of pesticides is an important issue affecting the users and the environment. Degradation rates influence the spatial and temporal application rates and the effects on crops sown in subsequent seasons. Free radical reactions have been widely suggested as important in the aqueous degradation chemistry of pesticides and we report direct measurements of free radical reactions of nine pesticides widely used in Australia. Steady-state gamma radiolysis and pulse radiolysis have been used to follow the chemistry of the reactions of OH, H, O2-,SO4-,CO2-,eaq- and other radical species with the nine pesticides. HPLC and mass spectrometry were used to determine the reaction products and the spectra and kinetics of the primary radical reactions and their products were followed by pulse radiolysis. Elucidation of the reaction mechanisms and the structures of the radical intermediates formed from the initial radical attacks has been aided by the use of molecular modelling programs to estimate the configuration and electron density of the intermediates. The results, particularly the rate constants for the Initial radical attack, do not suggest that photochemically generated free radicals play a large part in the degradation of these pesticides in the environment

  13. Family pesticide use and childhood brain cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J R; Brownson, R C; Garcia, R; Bentz, B J; Turner, A

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between family pesticide use and childhood brain cancer was examined in a case-control study. Telephone interviews were conducted from June 1989 through March 1990 with the natural mothers of 45 childhood brain cancer cases, 85 friend controls, and 108 cancer controls. In comparisons to friend controls, significant positive associations were observed for use of pesticides to control nuisance pests in the home, no-pest-strips in the home, pesticides to control termites, Kwell shampoo, flea collars on pets, diazinon in the garden or orchard, and herbicides to control weeds in the yard. In comparisons to cancer controls, significant positive associations were observed for use of pesticide bombs in the home, pesticides to control termites, flea collars on pets, insecticides in the garden or orchard, carbaryl in the garden or orchard, and herbicides to control weeds in the yard. In general, positive associations in comparisons to one control group were supported by elevated odds ratios in comparisons to the other control group. Several potentially important associations were identified in this study. However, small sample sizes, potential recall bias, multiple comparisons, and lack of detailed exposure verification require further research to confirm these findings. PMID:8466294

  14. Influence of Combinations of Pesticides and Fertilizers on Aquatic Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Ganapati Hegde; Mahesh Mandya; Sushma S. Gokarnakar; Vinodbabu N. Babu; Vijayakumar N. Shivaramaiah; Sannanegunda V. Krishnamurthy

    2014-01-01

    We have examined the effects of environmentally realistic concentrations of widely used pesticides and fertilizers for rice paddy in Western Ghats regions of India on chlorophyll and zooplankton production using a laboratory mesocosm. Malathion (100 ?g·L-1), Cypermethrin (25 ?g·L-1), Nitrate-nitrogen (8 mg·L-1) and Phosphate-phosphorus (8 mg·L-1) in different combinations such as pesticide-pesticide and pesticide-fertilizer were tested in fully factorial manner for a...

  15. Acute pesticide poisoning--a global public health problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    Acute pesticide poisoning has become a major public health problem worldwide, following the intensification of agriculture and the promotion of agro-chemicals in low and middle income countries, with more than 300,000 deaths each year. The easy availability of highly toxic pesticides in the homes of farming communities has made pesticides the preferred means of suicide with an extremely high case fatality. Similarly, the extensive use of pesticides exposes the community to both long-term and acu...

  16. Public Health Implications of Pesticide Residues in Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Jadhav V.J. and Waskar V.S.

    2011-01-01

    Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. Since then various synthetic pesticides are used for protection of crops and public health. The persistence nature of some of these pesticides led to their accumulation in animal tissues and subsequently causes human dietary exposure to these pesticides through consumption of animal products viz. meat, milk, eggs and seafoods. Scientific evidence suggest that even such low dose but l...

  17. Pesticide transfer models in crop and watershed systems : a review

    OpenAIRE

    Mottes, Charles; Lesueur-Jannoyer, Magalie; Le Bail, Marianne; MALEZIAUX, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Pesticides are now occurring worldwide in almost all water resources, thus threatening the health of humans and other life. As a consequence, there is a strong social demand for designing safe cropping systems with less or no hazardous pesticides. Safe cropping systems can be designed now using pesticide transfer models. These models are mathematical tools that allow to predict the flow and concentration of pesticides in a field or a watershed. Here, we review the effects of agricultural prac...

  18. Modeling the Factors Impacting Pesticide Concentrations in Groundwater Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Binning, Philip John; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effect of pumping, hydrogeology, and pesticide characteristics on pesticide concentrations in production wells using a reactive transport model in two conceptual hydrogeologic systems; a layered aquifer with and without a stream present. The pumping rate can significantly affect the pesticide breakthrough time and maximum concentration at the well. The effect of the pumping rate on the pesticide concentration depends on the hydrogeology of the aquifer; in a layered aquife...

  19. Overuse or underuse? An observation of pesticide use in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Hu, Ruifa; Shi, Guanming; Jin, Yanhong; Robson, Mark G; Huang, Xusheng

    2015-12-15

    Pesticide use has experienced a dramatic increase worldwide, especially in China, where a wide variety of pesticides are used in large amounts by farmers to control crop pests. While Chinese farmers are often criticized for pesticide overuse, this study shows the coexistence of overuse and underuse of pesticide based on the survey data of pesticide use in rice, cotton, maize, and wheat production in three provinces in China. A novel index amount approach is proposed to convert the amount of multiple pesticides used to control the same pest into an index amount of a referenced pesticide. We compare the summed index amount with the recommended dosage range of the referenced pesticide to classify whether pesticides are overused or underused. Using this new approach, the following main results were obtained. Pesticide overuse and underuse coexist after examining a total of 107 pesticides used to control up to 54 crop pests in rice, cotton, maize, and wheat production. In particular, pesticide overuse in more than half of the total cases for 9 crop pest species is detected. In contrast, pesticide underuse accounts for more than 20% of the total cases for 11 pests. We further indicate that the lack of knowledge and information on pesticide use and pest control among Chinese farmers may cause the coexistence of pesticide overuse and underuse. Our analysis provides indirect evidence that the commercialized agricultural extension system in China probably contributes to the coexistence of overuse and underuse. To improve pesticide use, it is urgent to reestablish the monitoring and forecasting system regarding pest control in China. PMID:26296070

  20. Global pesticide consumption and pollution: with China as a focus

    OpenAIRE

    WenJun Zhang; FuBin Jiang; JianFeng Ou

    2011-01-01

    Varieties and consumption of pesticides worldwide have been increasing dramatically as increased human population and crop production. In this process pesticide misuses become more and more serious, which has resulted in heavy environmental pollution and health risk of humans. In order to safeguard human health, threatened species and ecosystems from pesticide pollution, the consumption and pollution of pesticides worldwide especially China were reviewed and documented in present study. Meanw...

  1. Pesticides et toxicité chez l'abeille - USA

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Reed M.; Ellis, Marion D.; Mullin, Christopher A.; Frazier, Maryann

    2010-01-01

    Until 1985 discussions of pesticides and honey bee toxicity in the USA were focused on pesticides applied to crops and the unintentional exposure of foraging bees to them. The recent introduction of arthropod pests of honey bees, Acarapis woodi (1984), Varroa destructor (1987), and Aethina tumida (1997), to the USA have resulted in the intentional introduction of pesticides into beehives to suppress these pests. Both the unintentional and the intentional exposure of honey bees to pesticides h...

  2. Some laboratory blood indicators in tractor drivers exposed to pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Prokeš Bela L.

    2010-01-01

    Pesticides represent group of extremely different compounds or mixed compounds. They are produced in the form of powder for direct application, powder for suspension, concentrated suspension, concentration of emulsion, and in other forms as well. Influence of pesticides to exposed workers mainly depends on technology of pesticide application use. All poisons, just like pesticides that come in organism in some way and reach the location of their metabolism, accumulation in the body or ex...

  3. 75 FR 54629 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ...pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA has determined that the...residues of pesticides in or on food commodities. Further information on the...Chemistry Branch, Environmental Science Center, 701 Mapes Rd.,...

  4. 75 FR 11171 - Notice of Filing of Several Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ...at Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division...agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...T\\, in or on all food commodities. The petitioner...commodities, Feed additives, Food additives, Pesticides...Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention...

  5. 76 FR 33183 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ...Mendelsohn, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division...agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...in corn, in or on the food and feed commodities...commodities, Feed additives, Food additives, Pesticides...Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention...

  6. 76 FR 3885 - Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ...Mendelsohn, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division...agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...in corn, in or on the food and feed commodities...commodities, Feed additives, Food additives, Pesticides...Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention...

  7. The impact of pesticide regulations on suicide in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnell, D; Fernando, R; Hewagama, M; Priyangika, W D D; Konradsen, F; Eddleston, M

    2007-01-01

    with these declines. CONCLUSION: These data indicate that in countries where pesticides are commonly used in acts of self-poisoning, import controls on the most toxic pesticides may have a favourable impact on suicide. In Asia, there are an estimated 300,000 deaths from pesticide self...

  8. 77 FR 76979 - Pesticides; Revisions to Minimum Risk Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0305; FRL-9339-1] RIN 2070-AJ79 Pesticides; Revisions to Minimum Risk Exemption...exemption from regulation for minimum risk pesticides. EPA is proposing to reorganize these...ingredients are permitted in minimum risk pesticide products. EPA is also proposing...

  9. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... this section, a pesticide product must be packaged in compliance with 49 CFR 173.24. If the pesticide product meets the definition of a hazardous material in 49 CFR 171.8, the Department of Transportation requires it to be packaged according to 49 CFR parts 171-180. (f) What does “pesticide product”...

  10. Treatment of pesticide containing solutions by photo catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential health hazards of pesticides in surface water and underground water are well recognized. These pollutants enter the natural environment, generally, during crops disinfection, during pesticide industry cleaning, miss use of and miss understanding the ecological effects of such pesticides by the farmer. (Author)

  11. EXTRACTION OF PESTICIDES AND OTHER TOXIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS FROM SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The determination of pesticides, particularly newer classes of pesticides, and other toxic organic chemicals in environmental samples presents challenging analytical problems. For instance, some of the newer classes of pesticides must be analyzed at trace levels; they can affect plant growth at conc...

  12. Metabolism of pesticides in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemistry of organo phosphate compounds was developed extensively by Michaelis, (1903) in Germany. During the second world war, when german authorities were searching for substances suitable for chemical warfare as nerve gases, the interest in organophosphorus compounds as pesticides had been initiated. organophosphorus pesticides including insecticides fungicides and herbicides have great medical and economic importance through their control of diseases and increase of production by the control of agricultural pests. - The organo chlorine pesticides involve the chlorinated ethane derivatives of which ddt is the best Known example. Such compounds have the disadvantage of being very persistent in the environment and tend to accumulate in the biological as well as non biological media (Goodman et al., 1980). They have a greater potential for chronic toxicity

  13. PESTICIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN VEGETABLES FROM Fabaceae FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Soceanu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the concentration levels of nine pesticides in vegetables of the Fabaceae family. For this purpose we used chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD after the extraction and cleaning. The recoveries are between 96 and 99%. The repeatability of the method, expressed by coefficient of variation is less than 4.7%. The limits of quantification of the method are between 0.2 to 0.3 ppb. Residues of these pesticides are distributed differently in vegetables, depending on the organ of the plant and areas where vegetables were grown. For all the vegetables studied, DDD, DDE and DDT were below the limit of quantification. All concentrations of organochlorine pesticides from the samples studied are located within the limits imposed by the regulations of the European Commission.

  14. Effects of endosulfan pesticide on toad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isioma, Tongo; Lawrence, Ezemonye

    2013-02-01

    The lethal and sublethal toxicity of Endosulfan on the African toad, Bufo regularis were evaluated to assess changes in behaviour and energy reserves. 96 hours LC50 was 0.730 mg/l while the estimated safe concentration was 0.07 mg/L indicating the high toxicity of the insecticide. Toads exposed to lethal concentrations of endosulfan showed dose-dependent behavioural abnormalities with more pronounced poisoning symptoms occurring at higher concentrations. The pesticide caused differential increase in serum glucose levels with a concomitant reduction in liver glycogen indicating disorders in carbohydrate metabolism due to pesticide induced stress and hence can serve as suitable biomarkers in pesticide toxicity studies. PMID:23631157

  15. Residues of Organochlorine Pesticides in Lake Mariut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake Mariut, a brackish water lake adjoining the Mediterranean Coast of Egypt, has suffered much from intensive pollution in recent years due to the successive increase of human population and industry around it (Saad, 1980). The occurrence and distribution of organochlorine pesticides in the water of Lake Mariut during a period of one year were studied. This study represents an essential part of a pilot project on pollution of Lake Mariut supported by IAEA. The major organochlorine pesticides detected in the water of Lake Mariut were Lindane, p, p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT and p, p'-DDT. The mean concentrations of these pesticides were 2.091, 4.493, 0.009 and 0.134 ppb, respectively. The mean concentration of the calculated total DDT (Σ DDT) was 5.1 PPb

  16. International safety assessment of pesticides: dithiocarbamate pesticides, ETU, and PTU--a review and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettorazzi, G; Almeida, W F; Burin, G J; Jaeger, R B; Puga, F R; Rahde, A F; Reyes, F G; Schvartsman, S

    For the last 30 years the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) has carried out toxicological evaluations and safety assessments of dithiocarbamate pesticides, continuously adjusting previous appraisals in the light of new data and advances in the understanding of the principles and mechanisms of toxic action of these compounds. The historical narrative of the evaluative process is followed by an account of the present international safety assessment status of the dithiocarbamate pesticides so far examined by the JMPR. They are ferbam, mancozeb, maneb, metiram, nabam, propineb, thiram, zineb, ziram, and the associated substances, ethylenethiourea (ETU) and propylenethiourea (PTU). PMID:8732882

  17. Summary of Validation of Multi-Pesticide Methods for Various Pesticide Formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The validation of multi-pesticide methods applicable for various types of pesticide formulations is treated. In a worked-out practical example, i.e. lambda cyhalothrin, the theoretical considerations outlined in the General Guidance section are put into practice. GC conditions, selection of an internal standard and criteria for an acceptable repeatability of injections are outlined, followed by sample preparation, calibration, batch analysis and confirmation of results through comparison using different separation columns. Complete sets of data are displayed in tabular form for other pesticide active ingredients and real formulations. (author)

  18. Assessing Children’s Dietary Pesticide Exposure: Direct Measurement of Pesticide Residues in 24-Hr Duplicate Food Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Schenck, Frank J.; Pearson, Melanie A.; Wong, Jon W.; Lu, Chensheng Alex

    2010-01-01

    Background: The data presented here are a response to calls for more direct measurements of pesticide residues in foods consumed by children and provide an opportunity to compare direct measures of pesticide residues in foods representing actual consumption with those reported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Pesticide Data Program. Objective: We measured pesticide residues in 24-hr duplicate food samples collected from a group of 46 young children participating in the Children’s Pestici...

  19. Suspected poisoning of domestic animals by pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Rivolta, Marina; Davanzo, Franca

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out by reviewing all suspected cases of domestic animal poisoning attributed to pesticides, reported to the Milan Poison Control Centre (MPCC) between January 2011 and December 2013. During this period, pesticides were found to be responsible for 37.3% of all suspected poisoning enquiries received (815). The most commonly species involved was the dog (71.1% of calls) followed by the cat (15.8%), while a limited number of cases involved horses, goats and sheep. Most cases of exposure (47.1%) resulted in mild to moderate clinical signs. The outcome was reported in 59.9% of these cases, with death occurring in 10.4% of them. Insecticides (40.8%) proved to be the most common group of pesticides involved and exposure to pyrethrins-pyrethroids accounted for the majority of calls. According to the MPCC data, there has been a decrease in the number of suspected poisonings cases attributed to pesticides that have been banned by the EU, including aldicarb, carbofuran, endosulfan and paraquat. In contrast, there has been an increase of suspected poisoning cases attributed to the neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and acetamiprid, probably due to their widespread use in recent years. Cases of suspected poisoning that involved exposure to rodenticides accounted for 27.6% of calls received by the MPCC and anticoagulant rodenticides were the primary cause of calls, with many cases involving brodifacoum and bromadiolone. Herbicides were involved in 14.2% of calls related to pesticides and glyphosate was the main culprit in cases involving dogs, cats, horses, goats and sheep. As far as exposure to molluscicides (11.5%) and fungicides (5.9%), most of the cases involved dogs and the suspected poisoning agents were metaldehyde and copper compounds respectively. The data collected are useful in determining trends in poisoning episodes and identifying newly emerging toxicants, thus demonstrating the prevalence of pesticides as causative agents in animal poisonings. PMID:26367188

  20. Effects of pesticides on crab cheliped regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costlow, J.D. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The mud crab cheliped regeneration bioassay has proven to be a sensitive and reliable bioassay in studies of the potential sublethal effects of pesticides, including teratogenesis, spontaneous autotomy, and duration of the various stages of development. The assay has also been demonstated to be a useful indication of mortality associated with the impact of these chemicals of anthropogenic origin during the megalopal and early postlarval stages of development. Four pesticides were tested here using the cheliped regeneration bioassay technique. Although carbofuran is approximately 5--6 times more toxic than methomyl, both compounds yield very similar results in terms of sublethal effects.

  1. Use of fungi in bioremediation of pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Fragoeiro, Silvia

    2005-01-01

    Eight isolates (7 species) of white rot fungi were grown on soil extract agar amended with 0, 5 10 and 20 mg l- simazine, trifluralin and dieldrin, individually and as a mixture, under two different water regimes (-0.7 and -2.8 MPa water potential). The best isolates were T.versicolor (R26 and R101) and P.ostreatus, exhibiting good tolerance to the pesticides and water stress and the ability to degrade lignin and produce laccase in the presence of these pesticides. As a res...

  2. Haematologic Indices in Pesticide Factory Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Reza Joshaghani; Azad Reza Mansourian; Khodaberdi Kalavi; Saideh Salimi

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of pesticides on blood indices of subjects which are exposed to organophosphate toxins. This research was a cohort study which was carried out during 2005 on the employee of a pesticide factory in Golestan province (North of Iran). In this study the sampling from 63 subjects was carried out for two sessions in days 1 and 90. CBC and hematologic indices performed by cell counter instrument. The mean of MCV in phase 1 was 82.8±7.1 fl and in s...

  3. 76 FR 2110 - Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ...FRL-8860-9] Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues...regulations for residues of pesticides in or on food commodities...radish; fruit, stone; and tomato. The petitioner believes...additives, Food additives, Pesticides and pests, Reporting...

  4. 77 FR 75082 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... expression in the Federal Register of June 29, 2011 (76 FR 38035) (FRL- 8877-2). There are two enforcement... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide... for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments must be received...

  5. 75 FR 78240 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or... establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities..., proposing the establishment or modification of regulations in 40 CFR part 174 or part 180 for residues...

  6. 76 FR 36479 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... petition was previously announced in the Federal Register of August 11, 2010 (75 FR 48667) (FRL-8840-6... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 174 and 180 Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals... residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments must be received on or...

  7. 78 FR 70906 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on... residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments must be received on or before...), requesting the establishment or modification of regulations in 40 CFR part 180 for residues of...

  8. 76 FR 33183 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... CFR 174.532; March 16, 2011; 76 FR 14289 (FRL-8866- 5) when Bacillus thuringiensis eCry3.1Ab protein... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 174 Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on... a pesticide petition requesting the establishment or modification of regulations for residues...

  9. 77 FR 59578 - Notice of Filing of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Notice of Filing of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide... for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments must be received on...), requesting the establishment or modification of regulations in 40 CFR part 180 for residues of...

  10. Pesticide leaching through sandy and loamy fields – Long-term lessons learnt from the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Union authorization procedure for pesticides includes an assessment of the leaching risk posed by pesticides and their degradation products (DP) with the aim of avoiding any unacceptable influence on groundwater. Twelve-year's results of the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme reveal shortcomings to the procedure by having assessed leaching into groundwater of 43 pesticides applied in accordance with current regulations on agricultural fields, and 47 of their DP. Three types of leaching scenario were not fully captured by the procedure: long-term leaching of DP of pesticides applied on potato crops cultivated in sand, leaching of strongly sorbing pesticides after autumn application on loam, and leaching of various pesticides and their DP following early summer application on loam. Rapid preferential transport that bypasses the retardation of the plow layer primarily in autumn, but also during early summer, seems to dominate leaching in a number of those scenarios. - Highlights: • Field-results reveal shortcomings in the EU authorization procedure for pesticides. • The plough layer can be bypassed via preferential transport in e.g. wormholes. • Pesticides properties are decisive for leaching pattern on the sandy fields. • The hydrogeological settings control the leaching patterns on the loamy fields. • Pesticide detection frequency seems to be independent of the month of the year. - Long-term lessons learnt from the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme reveals shortcomings in the European Union authorization procedure for pesticides

  11. Applicability and modelling of nanofiltration and reverse osmosis for remediation of groundwater polluted with pesticides and pesticide transformation products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik Tækker; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2014-01-01

    The main body of research on pesticide removal with membranes has looked at pesticides used for pest control, but during transport from surface to groundwater aquifers, pesticides are transformed. Therefore the real polluting compounds are often transformation products, and this vastly increases ...

  12. Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Damalas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms, many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence, and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization of the already approved pesticides and the approval of the new compounds in the near future. Thus, new tools or techniques with greater reliability than those already existing are needed to predict the potential hazards of pesticides and thus contribute to reduction of the adverse effects on human health and the environment. On the other hand, the implementation of alternative cropping systems that are less dependent on pesticides, the development of new pesticides with novel modes of action and improved safety profiles, and the improvement of the already used pesticide formulations towards safer formulations (e.g., microcapsule suspensions could reduce the adverse effects of farming and particularly the toxic effects of pesticides. In addition, the use of appropriate and well-maintained spraying equipment along with taking all precautions that are required in all stages of pesticide handling could minimize human exposure to pesticides and their potential adverse effects on the environment.

  13. Stream habitat structure influences macroinvertebrate response to pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Friberg, Nikolai; Kronvang, Brian

    2012-01-01

    stream maintenance probably introduce additional stress that may act in concert with pesticide stress. We surveyed pesticide contamination and macroinvertebrate community structure in 14 streams along a gradient of expected pesticide exposure. A paired-reach approach was applied to differentiate the...... effects of pesticides between sites with degraded and more undisturbed physical properties. The effect of pesticides on macroinvertebrate communities (measured as the relative abundance of SPEcies At Risk) was increased at stream sites with degraded physical habitats primarily due to the absence of...

  14. How to minimise direct pesticide load on bees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Jens Erik; Navntoft, Søren

    Monitoring, warning and decision support systems (MWD systems) may be profitable solutions to crop protection problems, and at the same time they may reduce the use of pesticides and the pesticide load on human health, non-target organisms and ground water resources. This presentation describes a...... simple method to pinpoint pesticide problems that causes the highest regional pesticide load (regional hot spots) to various non-target organisms. Finally the potential of MWD systems to reduce the pesticide load in these regional hotspots are discussed with a special focus on bees and other insects. The...

  15. Disposal and degradation of pesticide waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsot, Allan S; Racke, Kenneth D; Hamilton, Denis J

    2003-01-01

    Generation of pesticide waste is inevitable during every agricultural operation from storage to use and equipment cleanup. Large-scale pesticide manufacturers can afford sophisticated recovery, treatment, and cleanup techniques. Small-scale pesticide users, for example, single farms or small application businesses, struggle with both past waste problems, including contaminated soils, and disposal of unused product and equipment rinsewater. Many of these problems have arisen as a result of inability to properly handle spills during, equipment loading and rinsewater generated after application. Small-scale facilities also face continued problems of wastewater handling. Old, obsolete pesticide stocks are a vexing problem in numerous developing countries. Pesticide waste is characterized by high concentrations of a diversity of chemicals and associated adjuvants. Dissipation of chemicals at elevated concentrations is much slower than at lower concentrations, in part because of microbial toxicity and mass transfer limitations. High concentrations of pesticides may also move faster to lower soil depths, especially when pore water becomes saturated wish a compound. Thus, if pesticide waste is not properly disposed of, groundwater and surface water contamination become probable. The Waste Management Hierarchy developed as an Australian Code of Practice can serve as a guide for development of a sound waste management plan. In order of desirability, the course of actions include waste avoidance, waste reduction, waste recycling, waste treatment, and waste disposal. Proper management of pesticide stocks, including adequate storage conditions, good inventory practices, and regular turnover of products,. will contribute to waste avoidance and reduction over the long-term. Farmers can also choose to use registered materials that have the lowest recommended application rates or are applied in the least volume of water. Wastewater that is generated during equipment rinsing can be recycled by spraying it onto cropland, thus avoiding a soil contamination problem. If it is not feasible to spray out rinsates, then water treatment becomes necessary. However, for small waste generators, practical technology is still too experimental and not easily implemented on an individual farm or at a small application business. Nevertheless, research has been quite active in application of advanced oxidation processes (UV/ozonation: photoassisted Fenton reaction: photocatalysis using TiO2). Obsolete pesticide stocks in developing countries are being packaged and shipped to developed countries for incineration. Contaminated soil can also be incinerated, but this is not practical nor affordable for small waste generators. Chemical degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides may be amenable to dechlorination by alkali polyethylene glycol treatment, but further study is needed to make the technique practical for small waste generators. Contaminated soils may be amenable to cleanup by one of several biological treatment methods, including composting, landfarming, and bioaugmentation/ biostimulation. Composting and landfarming (which may be used in combination with biostimulation) may be the most practical of the biological methods that is immediately ready for implementation by small-scale pesticide waste generators. PMID:12666819

  16. 75 FR 13284 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Request for Nominations to the Pesticide Program Dialogue...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ...FIFRA); the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic...pesticide laws by the Food Quality Protection Act...consultants; State, local, and Tribal governments...health organizations; food processors; and the public....

  17. Assessing pesticide exposure of the aquatic environment in tropical catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Frederik; Zurbrügg, Christian; Eggen, Rik; Castillo, Luisa; Ruepert, Clemens; Stamm, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Today, pesticides are intensively used in agriculture across the globe. Worldwide about 2.4×106 tons of pesticides are used annually on 1.6×109 ha of arable land. This yields a global average use of pesticides of 1.53 kg ha-1 year-1. Available data suggest that the use in the agricultural sector will continue to grow. Recently it was estimated that within the last decade, the world pesticide market increased by 93% and the Brazilian market alone by 190%. Though pesticides are intensively used in many low and middle income countries (LAMICs), scientifically sound data of amounts and types of pesticide use and the resulting impact on water quality are lacking in many of these countries. Therefore it is highly relevant to: i) identify risk areas where pesticides affect environmental health, ii) understand the environmental behavior of pesticides in vulnerable tropical ecosystems; and iii) develop possible mitigation options to reduce their exposure to ecosystems and humans. Here we present a project that will focus on assessing pesticide exposure of the aquatic environment and humans in tropical catchments of LAMICs. A catchment in the Zarcero province in Costa Rica will be the test case. Pesticide exposure will be assessed by passive sampling. In order to cover a broad range of compounds of possible use, two sampling devices will be used: SDB membranes for collecting polar compounds and silicon sheets for accumulating apolar pesticides. Extracts will be subsequently analysed by GC-MSMS and LC-HRMS.

  18. Landscape parameters driving aquatic pesticide exposure and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticide contamination is considered one of the reasons streams fail to achieve good ecological and chemical status, the main objectives of the Water Framework Directive. However, little is known on the interaction of different pesticide sources and landscape parameters and the resulting impairment of macroinvertebrate communities. We evaluated the potential effects of diffuse and point sources of pesticides using macroinvertebrate monitoring data from 663 sites in central Germany. Additionally, we investigated forested upstream reaches and structural quality as landscape parameters potentially mitigating or amplifying the effects of pesticides. Diffuse pesticide pollution and forested upstream reaches were the most important parameters affecting macroinvertebrate communities (pesticide-specific indicator SPEARpesticides). Our results indicate that forested upstream reaches and riparian buffer strips at least 5 m in width can mitigate the effects and exposure of pesticides. In addition, we developed a screening approach that allows an initial, cost-effective identification of sites of concern. Highlights: • Pesticide sources and landscape parameters important for holistic risk assessment. • Riparian buffer strips of at least 5 m in width can reduce diffuse pesticide input. • Forested upstream reaches enhance recovery of pesticide-affected communities. • Screening approach allows quick and cost-effective identification of problem sites. -- Our results show the interaction of different pesticide sources and landscape parameters and the resulting impairment of macroinvertebrate communities

  19. Pesticide transport simulation in a tropical catchment by SWAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of agrochemicals in Southeast Asia is increasing in rate, variety and toxicity with alarming speed. Understanding the behavior of these different contaminants within the environment require comprehensive monitoring programs as well as accurate simulations with hydrological models. We used the SWAT hydrological model to simulate the fate of three different pesticides, one of each usage type (herbicide, fungicide and insecticide) in a mountainous catchment in Northern Thailand. Three key parameters were identified: the sorption coefficient, the decay coefficient and the coefficient controlling pesticide percolation. We yielded satisfactory results simulating pesticide load dynamics during the calibration period (NSE: 0.92–0.67); the results during the validation period were also acceptable (NSE: 0.61–0.28). The results of this study are an important step in understanding the modeling behavior of these pesticides in SWAT and will help to identify thresholds of worst-case scenarios in order to assess the risk for the environment. - Highlights: • We performed a global LH-sensitivity analysis of all pesticide related parameters. • Key physical parameters are associated to percolation, degradation and sorption. • We simulated the measured loads of three different pesticides. • We performed an uncertainty analysis of all pesticide simulations. • All Pesticides differed considerably in their sensitivity and simulation behavior. - Pesticide load simulations of three pesticides were modeled by SWAT, providing clues on how to handle pesticides in future SWAT studies

  20. ESTIMATION OF THE BURDEN OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN SLOVAK POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Sokol

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides used in the agriculture have to be applied according to the requirements of good agricultural practice and appropriate law. Pesticides leave detectable residues in agricultural crops, raw materials and ecosystem components. Pesticides reach the human population through the food chain. Information on the type and concentration of pesticide residues in food is in Slovakia collected trough the monitoring programs. Health risks associated with pesticides contaminants in human nutrition are very important and are recently studied by several expert groups. Prerequisite programs are necessary to protect public health. Risk analysis and monitoring of the population burden by pesticide contaminants have to be performed in expert level. The general strategy for assessment of toxicity of pesticides is listed by the World health Organisation. Scientific risk assessment is the basis for taking action and making the legislation at national and European community level.doi:10.5219/69

  1. Landscape parameters driving aquatic pesticide exposure and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunzel, Katja; Liess, Matthias; Kattwinkel, Mira

    2014-03-01

    Pesticide contamination is considered one of the reasons streams fail to achieve good ecological and chemical status, the main objectives of the Water Framework Directive. However, little is known on the interaction of different pesticide sources and landscape parameters and the resulting impairment of macroinvertebrate communities. We evaluated the potential effects of diffuse and point sources of pesticides using macroinvertebrate monitoring data from 663 sites in central Germany. Additionally, we investigated forested upstream reaches and structural quality as landscape parameters potentially mitigating or amplifying the effects of pesticides. Diffuse pesticide pollution and forested upstream reaches were the most important parameters affecting macroinvertebrate communities (pesticide-specific indicator SPEARpesticides). Our results indicate that forested upstream reaches and riparian buffer strips at least 5 m in width can mitigate the effects and exposure of pesticides. In addition, we developed a screening approach that allows an initial, cost-effective identification of sites of concern. PMID:24365537

  2. Public Health Implications of Pesticide Residues in Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadhav V.J. and Waskar V.S.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. Since then various synthetic pesticides are used for protection of crops and public health. The persistence nature of some of these pesticides led to their accumulation in animal tissues and subsequently causes human dietary exposure to these pesticides through consumption of animal products viz. meat, milk, eggs and seafoods. Scientific evidence suggest that even such low dose but long term exposure can cause serious health hazards to human health and environment as well. The reports on occurrence of pesticides residues in animal products manufactured in India are fragmentary, but provide confirmation to the fact Indian consumers do get dietary exposure to these pesticides. The role of Insecticide Act and Prevention of Food Adulteration Act enforced in India for judicious pesticide use and safety of consumers of animal products is discussed. [Vet. World 2011; 4(4.000: 178-182

  3. Pesticide contamination of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbraken, Michael; Spranghers, Thomas; De Clercq, Patrick; Cooreman-Algoed, Margot; Couchement, Tasmien; De Clercq, Griet; Verbeke, Sarah; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2016-06-15

    The use of pesticides contributes to the productivity and the quality of the cultivated crop. A large portion of the agricultural produce is not consumed as it is not an edible part or the quality of the product is too low. This waste of agricultural produce can be valorised as a substrate for the production of certain insects for human consumption. However, pesticides applied on the plants might accumulate during the life cycle of the insects fed on the waste materials and may cause a health risk to humans consuming the insects. Pesticide residues in larvae of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, were investigated. We monitored the accumulation of pesticides in the larvae upon consumption of contaminated fresh produce. An increased uptake rate by the insects was found for pesticides with higher Kow-values. Excretion of pesticides by the insect was inversely related to the log(Kow) values of the pesticides. PMID:26868575

  4. Choosing Organic Pesticides over Synthetic Pesticides May Not Effectively Mitigate Environmental Risk in Soybeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlai, Christine A.; Xue, Yingen; McCreary, Cara M.; Schaafsma, Arthur W.; Hallett, Rebecca H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Selection of pesticides with small ecological footprints is a key factor in developing sustainable agricultural systems. Policy guiding the selection of pesticides often emphasizes natural products and organic-certified pesticides to increase sustainability, because of the prevailing public opinion that natural products are uniformly safer, and thus more environmentally friendly, than synthetic chemicals. Methodology/Principal Findings We report the results of a study examining the environmental impact of several new synthetic and certified organic insecticides under consideration as reduced-risk insecticides for soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) control, using established and novel methodologies to directly quantify pesticide impact in terms of biocontrol services. We found that in addition to reduced efficacy against aphids compared to novel synthetic insecticides, organic approved insecticides had a similar or even greater negative impact on several natural enemy species in lab studies, were more detrimental to biological control organisms in field experiments, and had higher Environmental Impact Quotients at field use rates. Conclusions/Significance These data bring into caution the widely held assumption that organic pesticides are more environmentally benign than synthetic ones. All pesticides must be evaluated using an empirically-based risk assessment, because generalizations based on chemical origin do not hold true in all cases. PMID:20582315

  5. Pesticide impact on aquatic invertebrates identified with Chemcatcher® passive samplers and the SPEAR(pesticides) index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münze, Ronald; Orlinskiy, Polina; Gunold, Roman; Paschke, Albrecht; Kaske, Oliver; Beketov, Mikhail A; Hundt, Matthias; Bauer, Coretta; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Möder, Monika; Liess, Matthias

    2015-12-15

    Pesticides negatively affect biodiversity and ecosystem function in aquatic environments. In the present study, we investigated the effects of pesticides on stream macroinvertebrates at 19 sites in a rural area dominated by forest cover and arable land in Central Germany. Pesticide exposure was quantified with Chemcatcher® passive samplers equipped with a diffusion-limiting membrane. Ecological effects on macroinvertebrate communities and on the ecosystem function detritus breakdown were identified using the indicator system SPEARpesticides and the leaf litter degradation rates, respectively. A decrease in the abundance of pesticide-vulnerable taxa and a reduction in leaf litter decomposition rates were observed at sites contaminated with the banned insecticide Carbofuran (Toxic Units?-2.8), confirming the effect thresholds from previous studies. The results show that Chemcatcher® passive samplers with a diffusion-limiting membrane reliably detect ecologically relevant pesticide pollution, and we suggest Chemcatcher® passive samplers and SPEARpesticides as a promising combination to assess pesticide exposure and effects in rivers and streams. PMID:26282741

  6. 76 FR 50904 - Thiamethoxam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ...are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311...part 180 through the Government Printing Office's e-CFR site http...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0602 (food/feed commodities in...

  7. 75 FR 71697 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ...305-5614; Biopesticides and Pollution 87301-R gross.anna...agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...20001(on behalf of DSM Food Specialities BV; P...20001(on behalf of DSM Food Specialities BV, P...Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention...

  8. 77 FR 16544 - Pesticide Product Registration Approvals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ...at Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division...agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...allow for new use on all food commodities. These submissions...67702-33) for use on all food commodities to control...Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention...

  9. 76 FR 5805 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ..., 70051-RNI. cerrelli.susanne@epa.gov Pollution Prevention Division (7511P), Office of Pesticide Programs....jeannine@epa.gov Abigail Downs (703) 305-5259 Antimicrobials Division 707-GEN, 707-GRO. downs.abigail@epa.... Product name: Bioban MB 25 Antimicrobial. Active ingredient: Microbiocide and 2-methyl-1,...

  10. 77 FR 16544 - Pesticide Product Registration Approvals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... of receipt published on April 14, 2010 (75 FR 19388; FRL- 8808-5). One comment was received during.... Description of New Active Ingredients: Pacific Biocontrol Corporation submitted an application to register a... of Biocontrol Technologies, S.L., submitted an application to register a pesticide product,...

  11. 76 FR 22045 - Fluopicolide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ...305-5805. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Janet Whitehurst, Office of Pesticide Programs...305-6129; e-mail address: whitehurst.janet@epa.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION...characterized and only occurred at a dose level near the limit dose. Protection of the...

  12. Screening of pesticides for environmental partitioning tendency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatica, Paola; Di Guardo, Antonio

    2002-06-01

    The partitioning tendency of chemicals, in this study pesticides in particular, into different environmental compartments depends mainly on the concurrent relevance of the physico-chemical properties of the chemical itself. To rank the pesticides according to their distribution tendencies in the different environmental compartments we propose a multivariate approach: the combination, by principal component analysis, of those physico-chemical properties like organic carbon partition coefficient (Koc), n-octanol/water partition coefficient (Kow), water solubility (Sw), vapour pressure and Henry's law constant (H) that are more relevant to the determination of environmental partitioning. The resultant macrovariables, the PC1 and PC2 scores here named leaching index (LIN) and volatality index (VIN), are proposed as preliminary environmental partitioning indexes in different media. These two indexes are modeled by theoretical molecular descriptors with satisfactory predictive power. Such an approach allows a rapid pre-determination and screening of the environmental distribution of pesticides starting only from the molecular structure of the pesticide, without any a priori knowledge of the physico-chemical properties. PMID:12108701

  13. 75 FR 22240 - Cyprodinil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... in dogs were limited to decreased body-weight gain, decreased food consumption and decreased food... food-use pesticide, if a toxicological study has indicated the possibility of an effect of concern... request a hearing on those objections. You must file your objection or request a hearing on...

  14. Utilization of poultry litter for pesticide bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural chemical products such as pesticides have been used to increase crop production, especially in undeveloped countries. Poultry litter, the combination of feces and bedding materials, has also been used as an alternative to improve soil quality for crop production. However, information re...

  15. Radioisotopes in pesticide residues and metabolic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing use of pesticides and their serious role as environmental contaminants necessitate detailed studies of their metabolism,toxicology and environmental fate.The complex problems which are beyond conventional analytical analysis could,and with great precision,be solved by the use of nuclear techniques.Pesticides labelled with radionuclides(H-3,C-14,P-32 and Cl-36) can be used.Compounds labelled with these radionuclides can be easily measured,in very low concentrations, by use of liquid scintillation counters.Metabolism and distribution of the labelled compounds in the plant can be followed by autoradiography.In this study,supported by the IAEA, the following pesticides were investigated, C-14 DDT, C-14 Endosulfan, C-14 Carbaryl, C-14 Carbofuran, C-14 Amitraz, C-14 Aldicarb and C-14 Butocarboxim. The investigations included :a) study of the binding of these compounds in soils. b) study of the : i) fate and dynamics of aldicarb in cotton plant. ii) fate of amitraz in tomatoes. 'this work is part of the programme of studies of pesticide residues in soil, plants and foods, aproject supported by the international Atomic Energy Commission '.(Author)

  16. 76 FR 34877 - Difenoconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0296; FRL-8876-4] Difenoconazole; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...establishes tolerances for residues of difenoconazole in or on aspirated grain fractions...tolerances for residues of the fungicide difenoconazole, in or on carrot at 0.45...

  17. Photodegradation of organic pesticides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactions induced by absorption of light contribute to the degradation of many chemical compounds in the environment. A critical overview on the current research activity concerning direct and indirect photodegradation processes of organic pesticides in the aquatic environment and on soil is reported.

  18. 77 FR 56782 - Bifenthrin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... stink bug, EPA is also establishing time-limited tolerances for the use of bifenthrin in or on apple..., Virginia, and West Virginia for the emergency use of bifenthrin to control the brown marmorated stink bug... marmorated stink bug under FIFRA section 18, which allows for the emergency use of a pesticide on a site...

  19. 78 FR 19130 - Clothianidin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ..., or pesticide manufacturer. The following list of North American Industrial Classification System... December 8, 2011 (76 FR 76674) (FRL- 9328-8) and September 28, 2012 (77 FR 59578) (FRL-9364-6), EPA issued... FR 52246) (FRL-9360-4). C. Exposure Assessment 1. Dietary exposure from food and feed uses....

  20. 77 FR 73937 - Spirodiclofen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. The following list of North American Industrial Classification System... Tolerance In the Federal Register of July 25, 2012 (77 FR 43562) (FRL-9353- 6), EPA issued a document... rulemaking published in the Federal Register of May 5, 2010 (75 FR 24428) (FRL-8820-4), EPA assessed...

  1. 78 FR 33744 - Sedaxane; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. The following list of North American Industrial Classification System... September 28, 2012 (77 FR 59578) (FRL- 9364-6), EPA issued a document pursuant to FFDCA section 408(d)(3... studies are discussed in the final rule published in the Federal Register of June 20, 2012 (77 FR...

  2. 78 FR 66649 - Spirotetramat; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. The following list of North American Industrial Classification System... Register of July 17, 2013 (78 FR 42736) (FRL-9391- 6), the EPA proposed, on its own initiative under FFDCA... the Federal Register of May 15, 2013 (78 FR 28507) (FRL- 9382-8); in the risk assessments...

  3. 78 FR 18511 - Thiamethoxam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. The following list of North American Industrial Classification System... Tolerance In the Federal Register of August 22, 2012 (77 FR 50661) (FRL-9358- 9), EPA issued a document..., 2012 (77 FR 75082) (FRL- 9372-6), EPA issued a document pursuant to FFDCA section 408(d)(3), 21...

  4. 78 FR 66651 - Imazapyr; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. The following list of North American Industrial Classification System... August 22, 2012 (77 FR 163) (FRL-9358- 9), EPA issued a document pursuant to FFDCA section 408(d)(3), 21... tolerances in connection with the final rule published in the Federal Register of September 26, 2003 (68...

  5. 78 FR 25396 - Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. The following list of North American Industrial Classification System... Tolerance In the Federal Register of May 2, 2012 (77 FR 25954) (FRL-9346-1), EPA issued a document pursuant... III.B. of the final rule published in the Federal Register of April 8, 2011 (76 FR 19701) (FRL-...

  6. 78 FR 18504 - Emamectin Benzoate; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... pesticide manufacturer. The following list of North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes... Tolerance In the Federal Register of September 7, 2011 (76 FR 55329) (FRL- 8886-7), EPA issued a document..., entitled ``Regulatory Planning and Review'' (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993). Because this final rule...

  7. 78 FR 44444 - Mancozeb; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... May 2, 2012 (77 FR 25954) (FRL-9346-1), EPA issued a document pursuant to FFDCA section 408(d)(3), 21... September 28, 2012 (77 FR 59578) (FRL- 9364-6), EPA issued a document pursuant to FFDCA section 408(d)(3... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Mancozeb; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  8. 77 FR 70908 - Dinotefuran; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ...consideration to exposure of infants and children to the pesticide...no harm will result to infants and children from aggregate...consumers, including infants and children. Dinotefuran...only observed at high doses. Nervous system toxicity...nervous system seen after repeated dosing....

  9. 75 FR 60327 - Fluoxastrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ...consideration to exposure of infants and children to the pesticide...no harm will result to infants and children from aggregate...consumers, including infants and children. Fluoxastrobin...low toxicity following repeated administration in all...the chronic reference dose (RfD). The...

  10. 78 FR 21267 - Dinotefuran; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ...consideration to exposure of infants and children to the pesticide...no harm will result to infants and children from aggregate...consumers, including infants and children. Dinotefuran...only observed at high doses. Nervous system toxicity...nervous system seen after repeated dosing....

  11. 78 FR 32146 - Triforine; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ...consideration to exposure of infants and children to the pesticide...no harm will result to infants and children from aggregate...consumers, including infants and children. The principal...hematopoietic system following repeated oral dosing, and the...dermal toxicity study at dose levels greater than...

  12. 78 FR 44440 - Imazosulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ...consideration to exposure of infants and children to the pesticide...no harm will result to infants and children from aggregate...consumers, including infants and children. The toxicology...effects of single or repeated dosing were observed...the respective limit doses. The primary...

  13. Occurrence of organochlorine pesticides in indoor dust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Mayer, Philipp; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Vorkamp, Katrin; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole Lundsgaard

    2011-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides are present in the environment and suspected of causing serious health effects. Diet has been the main exposure source, but indoor source release is gaining focus. Within a monitoring study of polychlorinated biphenyls of Danish buildings built during the 1960s and 1970s...

  14. Quality Control of Selected Pesticides with HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory data obtained on two different HPLC separation columns and detection by UV and DAD under repeatability conditions are presented and discussed. The behaviour of pesticides on different HPLC columns under gradient and isocratic conditions is evaluated concerning the applicability of respective methodologies. Representative chromatograms of real formulations and “empty” formlants are given for illustration. (author)

  15. Quality Control Of Selected Pesticides With GC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The practical quality control of selected pesticides with GC is treated. Detailed descriptions are given on materials and methods used, including sample preparation and GC operating conditions. The systematic validation of multi methods is described, comprising performance characteristics in routine analysis, like selectivity, specificity etc. This is illustrated by chromatograms, calibration curves and tables derived from real laboratory data. (author)

  16. 78 FR 46274 - Pyroxasulfone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... to mammals is low by all routes of exposure. Subchronic and chronic oral toxicity testing of... seen in animal studies included cardiac toxicity (increased cardiomyopathy in mice and rats), liver...). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing...

  17. Agricultural pesticide usage and prioritization in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Eun Shil; Jeong, Mihye; Lee, Won Jin

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to review agricultural pesticide usage and trends and to identify hazardous pesticides for regulation, in terms of public health, in South Korea. The authors collected data on usage and trends of agricultural pesticides through agriculture-related databases. Criteria from the US Environmental Protection Agency classification for carcinogenicity, World Health Organization classification for acute toxicity, and European Union prioritization list for endocrine-disrupting chemicals were used for the hazard categorization of identified individual active ingredients. Pesticides to be prioritized among all pesticides used in South Korea between 2007 and 2011 were selected by taking into account the volume of usage, toxicity, and epidemiological evidence. Annual agricultural use of pesticides has increased rapidly from the 1970s to 1990s in South Korea, but has declined since 2001. The quantity of pesticides used in 2011 was reported as 19,131 tons, and was comprised of 34.7% insecticides, 28.0% fungicides, and 27.1% herbicides. The 50 pesticides with the greatest volume of usage accounted for 82.6% of the total volume of pesticides used between 2007 and 2011, with the most-used active ingredient being machine oil, followed by mancozeb and then paraquat. Organophosphates were the most used among the top 50 pesticides. A total of 24 pesticides were selected for recommendation of intensive regulation in South Korea. In conclusion, the authors described the usage and trends of overall agricultural pesticides, which would serve as a fundamental step forward in managing pesticide in terms of public health. Intensive efforts are required for the prevention of potential health effects from the 24 identified pesticides. PMID:24959760

  18. P-Glycoprotein Transport of Neurotoxic Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacher, Sarah E; Skagen, Kasse; Veit, Joachim; Dalton, Rachel; Woodahl, Erica L

    2015-10-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) has been associated with a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease, although the mechanisms remain unclear. Altered transport of neurotoxic pesticides has been proposed in Parkinson's disease, but it is unknown whether these pesticides are P-gp substrates. We used three in vitro transport models, stimulation of ATPase activity, xenobiotic-induced cytotoxicity, and inhibition of rhodamine-123 efflux, to evaluate P-gp transport of diazinon, dieldrin, endosulfan, ivermectin, maneb, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+)), and rotenone. Diazinon and rotenone stimulated ATPase activity in P-gp-expressing membranes, with Vmax values of 22.4 ± 2.1 and 16.8 ± 1.0 nmol inorganic phosphate/min per mg protein, respectively, and Km values of 9.72 ± 3.91 and 1.62 ± 0.51 µM, respectively, compared with the P-gp substrate verapamil, with a Vmax of 20.8 ± 0.7 nmol inorganic phosphate/min per mg protein and Km of 0.871 ± 0.172 ?M. None of the other pesticides stimulated ATPase activity. We observed an increased resistance to MPP(+) and rotenone in LLC-MDR1-WT cells compared with LLC-vector cells, with 15.4- and 2.2-fold increases in EC50 values, respectively. The resistance was reversed in the presence of the P-gp inhibitor verapamil. None of the other pesticides displayed differential cytotoxicity. Ivermectin was the only pesticide to inhibit P-gp transport of rhodamine-123, with an IC50 of 0.249 ± 0.048 ?M. Our data demonstrate that dieldrin, endosulfan, and maneb are not P-gp substrates or inhibitors. We identified diazinon, MPP(+), and rotenone as P-gp substrates, although further investigation is needed to understand the role of P-gp transport in their disposition in vivo and associations with Parkinson's disease. PMID:26272936

  19. Occupational exposure through spraying remedial pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrod, A N; Rimmer, D A; Robertshaw, L; Jones, T

    1998-04-01

    A total of 20 surveys at 15 sites of remedial in-situ timber and masonry treatment took place in the latter half of 1996. Two of these surveys concerned wall washes (biocides), the remainder were non-agricultural pesticides. The purpose was to measure the surface deposition and inhalation exposure of the operatives to the pesticide spray fluids used. The diluted spray fluids were found to have significantly different concentrations from those intended by the sprayer. The pesticides were applied at pressures between 320 and 1050 kPa. Deposition rates for spray fluid on coveralls covered a wide range, with more than 30 fold difference between the median and the highest results (median 209 mg/minute; range 27.4 to 6550 mg/min). Contamination of coveralls occurred in all surveys, with the pesticide getting beneath the coveralls in 95% of surveys, with a median 5% contamination beneath the overall. The averaged and normalised deposition pattern was 75% legs, 11% arms, 12% torso and 2% head. Exposure of hands to pesticide (expressed as spray fluid) beneath protective gloves occurred in 89% of surveys (median 5.78 mg/minute; range 0.23 to 358 mg/min) and contamination of socks by spray fluid in 78% of surveys (median 2.08 mg/minute; range 0.12 to 260 mg/min). Exposure by inhalation to spray fluid was measurable in 72% of surveys (median 53.5 mg/m3 TWA; range 4.33 to 1320 mg/m3; 2 data excluded). Inhalation exposure and deposition on coveralls rose markedly at spray pressures above 700 kPa (100 psi). PMID:9684556

  20. 40 CFR 165.82 - Scope of pesticide dispensing areas included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... remain at a facility long enough to meet the definition of a stationary pesticide container; that is, 30... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of pesticide dispensing areas...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Pesticide Containment Structures §...

  1. 40 CFR 152.15 - Pesticide products required to be registered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.15 Pesticide products required to be registered. No person may distribute or sell any pesticide product that is... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticide products required to...

  2. 40 CFR 158.2150 - Microbial pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides nontarget... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2150 Microbial pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate...

  3. 40 CFR 158.2040 - Biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides residue data... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2040 Biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table. (a) General. Sections 158.100 through 158.130 describe how to...

  4. 40 CFR 158.2082 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides residue data requirements table. 158.2082 Section 158.2082 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2082 Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table. (a)...

  5. 40 CFR 158.2140 - Microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides toxicology data... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2140 Microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table. (a) General. Sections 158.100 through 158.130 describe how...

  6. 40 CFR 158.2172 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides residue data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides residue data requirements table. 158.2172 Section 158.2172 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2172 Experimental use permit microbial pesticides residue data requirements table. (a)...

  7. 40 CFR 158.2160 - Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides product... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2160 Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements. Product performance data must be developed...

  8. 40 CFR 158.2030 - Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides product... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2030 Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table. (a) General. (1)...

  9. 40 CFR 158.2050 - Biochemical pesticides human health assessment data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides human health... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2050 Biochemical pesticides human health assessment data requirements table. (a) General....

  10. 40 CFR 158.2070 - Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides product... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2070 Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements. Product performance data must be developed...

  11. 40 CFR 158.2120 - Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides product analysis... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2120 Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table. (a) General. Sections 158.100 through...

  12. 40 CFR 158.510 - Tiered testing options for nonfood pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides. 158.510 Section 158.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Toxicology § 158.510 Tiered testing options for nonfood pesticides. For nonfood use pesticides only, applicants have two options for generating and...

  13. 40 CFR 158.2130 - Microbial pesticides residue data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides residue data... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2130 Microbial pesticides residue data requirements table. (a) General. Sections 158.100 through 158.130 describe how to...

  14. Pesticide dissipation in soils as a model for xenobiotic behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the older 'hard' pesticides such as DDT dissipation meant primarily redistribution and bioaccumulation. For the majority of the pesticides currently being used, dissipation refers to all the degradation and transfer processes involved in the ultimate fate of chemicals in the environment. The degradation processes include non-biological, chemical and photochemical decomposition and biological decomposition by organisms and microorganisms. The transfer processes include pesticide sorption by soil colloids; diffusion of volatile pesticides into the atmosphere; movement downwards of pesticides into the soil in percolating waters, movement upwards with capillary water, and movement off the soil surface into surface waters; and absorption, exudation and bioaccumulation of pesticides by organisms. Knowledge of key pesticide and soil properties is necessary in understanding the fate and behaviour of pesticides. Key pesticide properties are symbolized by the acronym SILVER, which stands for solubility in water, ionizability, longevity (persistence), extractability in organic solvents, and the reactive groups present. The key soil properties are symbolized by the acronym SCOOP, which stands for structure (such as fragipans or macropores), clay type and amount, organic matter content, oxide (hydrous) content, and the pH of the system. These properties have been used in computer models to predict pesticide dissipation in soil and the environment. The greatest weakness of the models has been the inability to simulate real world conditions. (author). 41 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  15. Pesticide use knowledge and practices: A gender differences in Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to understand gender difference on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices for identifying pesticide risks by gender and to recommend more gender-sensitive programs. However, very few studies have been conducted so far in Nepal. This study, thus, interviewed a total of 325 males and 109 females during 2005 to assess gender differences on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices. More than 50% females had never been to school and only <8% individuals were found trained in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Almost all males and females did not smoke, drink and eat during pesticides application and also believed that pesticides are harmful to human health, livestock, plant diversity and their environment. However, there were gender differences on household decision on pesticides to be used (p<0.001), care of wind direction during spraying (p=0.032), prior knowledge on safety measures (p=0.016), reading and understanding of pesticides labels (p<0.001), awareness of the labels (p<0.001) and protective covers. Almost all respondents were aware of negative impacts of pesticide use on human health and environment irrespective of gender; however, females were at higher risk due to lower level of pesticide use safety and awareness. It is strongly recommended to initiate gender-sensitive educational and awareness activities, especially on pesticide use practices and safety precautions

  16. Influence of different disease control pesticide strategies on multiple pesticide residue levels in apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Naef, A.

    2009-01-01

    Seven pesticide application strategies were investigated to control apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) and powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) and, at the same time.. fulfil the new quality standards implemented by some German retailers. These demand that pesticide residues should be below 80% of European Maximum Residue Levels (EU MRL) and that the number of residues present at levels above 0.01 mg kg(-1) should be limited to a maximum of four. The strategies fulfilled the requirement to use combinations of different active substances in order to prevent the emergence of resistance to pesticides. The trials were conducted at two sites in Switzerland, in 2007, and all strategies and applications were in accordance with actual practice. Four replicates of apple samples from each strategy were then analysed for pesticide residues. The incidence of infection with apple scab and powdery mildew were monitored during the season in order to evaluate the efficacy of the different strategies. The efficacies of the different strategies against apple scab and powdery mildew were between 84% and 100% successful. In general, the level of pesticide residues found correlated with application rate and time, and no measured residue level exceeded the EU-MRL. The numbers of residues present at > 0.01 mg kg(-1) were between two and five.

  17. Taiwanese farm workers' pesticide knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and clothing practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chen-Yu; Black, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess Taiwanese fruit farm workers' knowledge, attitudes, behaviours, and clothing practices regarding pesticide activities. Seventy-seven fruit farm workers from four districts of Tainan City, Taiwan completed the questionnaire. Results indicated that farmer workers had a good overall level of knowledge of the adverse effects of pesticides on human health and most had experienced symptoms of pesticide poisoning. Farm workers' attitudes toward pesticide use and handling indicated that they saw pesticides useful in controlling pests. Farm workers indicated the limited availability of comfortable clothing designed for a hot and humid climate while still providing sufficient protection was the main reason for not wearing personal protective clothing (PPC) and personal protective equipment (PPE). Emphasis on safety precautions is needed when using pesticides, and the importance of PPC and PPE is essential for the health of farm workers. PMID:25761364

  18. Pesticides in Ground Water of Wyoming, 1995-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Bartos, Timothy T.; Hallberg, Laura L.

    2009-01-01

    In 1991, members of local, State, and Federal governments, as well as industry and interest groups, formed the Ground-water and Pesticides Strategy Committee (GPSC) to prepare the State of Wyoming Generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. Little existing information was available describing pesticide occurrence in ground water; therefore, statewide baseline ground-water sampling was considered a high priority by the GPSC. The GPSC identified 20 pesticides and degradates for baseline ground-water sampling (referred to herein as focal pesticides). Sampling focused on the State's most vulnerable ground water (Wyoming Ground-water and Pesticides Strategy Committee, 1999) as determined by Hamerlinck and Arneson (1998; fig. 1). Ground-water vulnerability is based on inherent sensitivity of the hydrogeology (such as a shallow water table or highly permeable aquifer materials) and overlying land use.

  19. Radiation pollution control - - destruction of chlorinated pesticides in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticides are being used on an increasing scale in agriculture and in insect control programmes, with the result that both the muncipal as well as industrial waste waters are showing the persistent presence of pesticides. These pesticides have extreme chemical resistance and therefore cannot be removed by conventional water treatment. Use of radiation for destruction of some organochloride pesticides, namely, BHC, DDT, aldrin, endrin, chlordane, heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide in water has been investigated at different doses of 60Co gamma radiation. Saturated solutions of pesticides in water were air-saturated and used in the studies. Their contents in the solutions were estimated by GLC. Studies show that all the chlorinated pesticides are destroyed by gamma radiation in aqueous medium. The observed chemical reactivity is ascribed to the generation of highly free reactive radicals in water due to gamma radiation. (M.G.B.)

  20. Use of lysimeters for determining pesticide fate in agroecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A lysimeter system is presented in which 14C labelled pesticides are applied in accordance with agricultural practice. The long term behaviour of pesticides in the soil-plant system can thus be determined under realistic climatic, cropping and soil conditions. In these experiments, pesticides and their metabolites are measured in soil, soil solutions, plants and drainage water over several growing seasons. In addition, a wind tunnel, combined with sensitive analytical methods, allows the determination of pesticide residues, their metabolites and 14CO2 as the mineralization product released into the air. Complementary standardized laboratory experiments yield information on the role of individual processes leading to binding, bioavailability and translocation. Important conclusions are thus obtained for the appropriate practical use of pesticides. As a final step in the validation of the lysimeter, a large scale experiment is in progress to compare lysimeter and field studies, with emphasis placed on the translocation of pesticides in deeper soil layers and groundwater. (author). Abstract only

  1. Characterization of pesticide-?-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes in aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrovi? Goran M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The solubility of four different pesticides, "dimethoate", "simazine" "linuron" and "thiram", poorly soluble or non-soluble in water, were measured in water and in aqueous solution of ?-cyclodextrin by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Standard water solutions of pesticides were prepared in the range of concentrations up to the maximum solubility of each pesticide in water. Concentrations of the pesticides were determined as absorbance on the absorption maximum. The obtained results show that the aqueous solution of ?-cyclodextrin was a powerful solubilizer of investigated pesticides due to the formation of inclusion complexes. Effective solubility of some of the pesticides in aqueous ?-cyclodextrin solution was up to three orders of magnitude higher than those in water. Thermodynamic parameters and complex stability constant of the obtained inclusion complexes were determined by the calorimetric measurements.

  2. Are Streams in Agricultural and Urban Areas Contaminated by Pesticides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrough, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    To answer this question, a study of pesticides in streams in a small agricultural area and a small urban area in Colorado was conducted in 1993 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. The results indicate that pesticides are present in streams, and both agricultural and urban areas are probable sources of the contamination. In the agricultural area, 30 pesticides were detected and in the urban area, 26 pesticides were detected at least once during the thirteen month study. In the agricultural area, the herbicides alachlor (two samples) and cyanazine (four samples) and the insecticide diazinon (one sample) were the only pesticides that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) or health advisory levels (HALs) for drinking water. No pesticides exceeded MCLs or HALs in the urban area.

  3. [Investigation of pesticide residues in foods distributed in Kitakyushu City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Seiichi; Naetoko, Eri; Kawamura, Seiji; Yamaguchi, Rika; Higuchi, Masayuki; Kojima, Tsutomu; Yamato, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Masaki

    2004-04-01

    We investigated 160 kinds of pesticide residues in 715 samples of 116 kinds of foods distributed in Kitakyushu city. Sixty kinds of pesticides were detected in 55 kinds of foods (204 samples) in the range of 0.002-22 mg/kg. Five kinds of pesticides in 7 samples violated the residue standards and the indication of "unused". The detection ratios of unregulated pesticide in domestic and imported foods were 27.8 and 33.0%, respectively. Iprodione, dicofol, diethofencarb, procymidone and chlorfenapyr (for domestic food) and total bromine, benomyl, chlorpyrifos, dicofol, fenvalerate, cypermethrin and dimethoate (for imported food) showed relatively high detection ratios. Chinese cabbage, garland chrysanthemum, tomatoes and green teas (domestic) and broccoli, bananas, grapefruit, lemons, oranges, frozen edamame and frozen kidney beans (imported) showed high relative pesticide detection ratios. Residual pesticides were detected with relatively high frequency in imported fruits, imported frozen foods and imported processed foods. PMID:15272606

  4. The Processes that Determine the Fate of Pesticides in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rada ?urovi?

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are an inevitable part of the environment, because due to the intensive use their remains are frequently detected in nature, particularly in the soil. Regardless the way pesticides get into the soil, their further fate will depend on many factors. Given the complexity of interactions of pesticides and soil, and the fact that the intensity of interaction of the same compound with different soil types is different, the studies of the influence of most important soil parameters on the mentioned interactions are becoming more numerous. In this paper are presented the processes that determine the fate of pesticides in the soil, as well as the factors that affect these processes. A special emphasis is placed on theadsorption processes, since they determine the concentration of free fraction of pesticide molecules, i.e. of pesticide quantity that may participate in detoxification processes including degradation and mobility.

  5. Determination of Pesticide Residues in Fresh and Greenhouse Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Azizi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the public concerns about serious health risks from pesticide, the occurrences of 105 pesticide residues including Organochlorine, Organophosphorus, Organonitrogen, Dicarboximides, Strobilurin, Triazine, Pyrethroids were assessed using a descriptive method in 25 fresh and greenhouse vegetable samples (fresh carrot, greenhouse tomato and cucumber. Ethyl acetate was used for extraction of pesticides from samples and the extract was cleaned up by Envicarb Solid Phase Extraction column chromatography. Pesticide residues were identified and quantified using gas chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry detector. The mean recoveries and limit of detection of the pesticides in samples were respectively 61.67-117% and the reproducibility of relative standard deviation values for the pesticides was 3.49-14.55%. Our data demonstrated that 80% of the total analyzed samples contained detectable residues including trifluralin, permethrin, chlorpyrifos, fenvalerate, fenpropathrin and iprodione, which were below the accepted maximum residue limits (MRLS adopted by FAO/WHO Codex Commision Alimentarius.

  6. Pesticide residues in locally available cereals and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegetable samples (pechay, cabbage, lettuce, green beans and tomatoes) bought from public markets in the Metro Manila area were analyzed for pesticide residues using gas chromatography. The samples analyzed in 1968-69 contained high levels of chlorinated pesticides such as DDT, Aldrin, Endrin, and Thiodan, while in the samples analyzed in January 1976, no chlorinated and organophosphate pesticides were detected. Cereal samples (rice, corn and sorghum) were obtained from the National Grains Authority and analyzed for pesticide residues and bromine residues. Total bromine residues was determined by neutron activation analysis. In most of the samples analyzed, the concentrations of pesticide residues were below the tolerance levels set by the FAO/WHO Committee on Pesticide Residues in Foods. An exception was one rice sample from Thailand, the bromine residue content (110ppm) of which exceeds the tolerance level of 50ppm

  7. Fungal degradation of pesticides - construction of microbial consortia for bioremediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard-Jensen, Lea

    Pesticides are used worldwide on agricultural land as well as in urban areas. This use has often led to contamination of the environment with serious effects on our natural resources. Frequent pesticide use and spills have led to deterioration of soil quality and pesticide leaching has resulted in...... pesticide contaminated soil and water. The objectives of this PhD were to investigate fungal degradation of pesticides and following to construct microbial consortia for bioremediation. In Manuscript I the fungal degradation of the phenylurea herbicide diuron was studied. Isolates of soil fungi of the genus...... constructing fungal-bacterial consortia and examining whether their degradation would be superior to that of the single strains in unsaturated systems. In Manuscript II a consortium was created for degradation of the pesticide metabolite 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM). A consortium with Mortierella sp. LEJ702 and...

  8. 75 FR 44181 - Mevinphos; Proposed Data Call-in Order for Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ...summer squash, tomatoes, and watermelon...of a family of pesticides known as the organophosphates...cucumbers, lettuce, tomatoes, and strawberries...review program for pesticides registered under...tolerances for pesticide residues in or...Processing Study (tomatoes) (Test...

  9. 78 FR 16243 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ...Commission: Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR) AGENCY: Office of the Under...Session of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR) of the Codex Alimentarius Commission...trade. The Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues is responsible for establishing...

  10. Analysis of Recent Situation of Pesticide Poisoning in Bangladesh: Is There a Proper Estimate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourab Dewan

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Pesticide poisoning is responsible for great number of admissions and deaths in Bangladesh. Creating a register of commercially available pesticides in each region for rapid identification of nature of the pesticide is recommended.

  11. 78 FR 68837 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ...; pesticide users and growers; animal rights groups; pest consultants; State, local, and tribal governments.... The following sectors are represented on the current PPDC: Environmental/public interest and animal rights groups; farm worker organizations; pesticide industry and trade associations; pesticide...

  12. 75 FR 71693 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Announcement of New Membership and Notice of Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... PPDC: Pesticide industry and trade associations; environmental/public interest, consumer, and animal rights groups; farm worker organizations; pesticide user, grower, and commodity groups; Federal and State... farmers; pesticide industry and trade associations; environmental, consumer, and farmworker groups;...

  13. 40 CFR 158.2083 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides human health assessment data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...biochemical pesticides human health assessment. The test notes...Biochemical Pesticides Human Health Assessment Data Requirements...biochemical pesticides human health assessment as referenced in...test material is corrosive to skin or has pH ...

  14. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES...

  15. 40 CFR 152.30 - Pesticides that may be transferred, sold, or distributed without registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticides that may be transferred, sold, or distributed...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES...

  16. 40 CFR 158.510 - Tiered testing options for nonfood pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...false Tiered testing options for nonfood pesticides. 158.510 Section 158.510 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Toxicology § 158.510 Tiered...

  17. 76 FR 5735 - Revisions to EPA's Rule on Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ...Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...who conduct or support research with pesticides involving intentional exposure of human...submit the results of human research with pesticides to EPA. The proposed amendments...

  18. 76 FR 49318 - Import Tolerances; Order Denying ABC's Petition to Revoke Import Tolerances for Various Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ...Revoke Import Tolerances for Various Pesticides AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...petition requesting that EPA revoke all pesticide ``import'' tolerances for cadusafos...INFORMATION CONTACT: Richard Dumas, Pesticide Re-evaluation Division...

  19. 19 CFR 12.112 - Notice of arrival of pesticides and devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Notice of arrival of pesticides and devices. 12.112 Section 12...TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Pesticides and Devices § 12.112 Notice of arrival of pesticides and devices. (a) General....

  20. 40 CFR 152.25 - Exemptions for pesticides of a character not requiring FIFRA regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides of a character not requiring FIFRA regulation...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES...

  1. 78 FR 10538 - Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ...Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...who conduct or support research with pesticides involving intentional exposure of human...submit the results of human research with pesticides to EPA. The amendments broaden...

  2. Safe Use of Pesticides, Guidelines. Occupational Safety and Health Series No. 38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This document provides guidance on the safe use of pesticides in agricultural work. General principles are given and followed by more detailed safety requirements for the various pesticide application techniques. Finally, the medical aspects of pesticides are considered. (BB)

  3. Neonicotinoid pesticides severely affect honey bee queens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Geoffrey R.; Troxler, Aline; Retschnig, Gina; Roth, Kaspar; Yañez, Orlando; Shutler, Dave; Neumann, Peter; Gauthier, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Queen health is crucial to colony survival of social bees. Recently, queen failure has been proposed to be a major driver of managed honey bee colony losses, yet few data exist concerning effects of environmental stressors on queens. Here we demonstrate for the first time that exposure to field-realistic concentrations of neonicotinoid pesticides during development can severely affect queens of western honey bees (Apis mellifera). In pesticide-exposed queens, reproductive anatomy (ovaries) and physiology (spermathecal-stored sperm quality and quantity), rather than flight behaviour, were compromised and likely corresponded to reduced queen success (alive and producing worker offspring). This study highlights the detriments of neonicotinoids to queens of environmentally and economically important social bees, and further strengthens the need for stringent risk assessments to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem services that are vulnerable to these substances. PMID:26459072

  4. Effect of pesticides on surface ozone concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative study through seasonal variation of surface ozone concentration was carried out recently (1991-1992) at a background area free from expected urban pollutants (Shebin ElKom) and industrial and urban areas (Cairo). Surface ozone concentrations in ppb were generally lower in such area compared with urban or industrial areas studied through the comparative seasonal variations. Notable smog values (>100 ppb) of hourly surface ozone concentrations appeared during summer season in this rural area; during this season, some pesticides were sprayed over cotton and other crops fields in near by agricultural areas. The unexpected jump in the values of diurnal concentrations of surface ozone in that area may be due to the photochemical reactions of these organic pesticides in the atmosphere. 1 fig, 3 tab

  5. Neonicotinoid pesticides severely affect honey bee queens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Geoffrey R; Troxler, Aline; Retschnig, Gina; Roth, Kaspar; Yañez, Orlando; Shutler, Dave; Neumann, Peter; Gauthier, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Queen health is crucial to colony survival of social bees. Recently, queen failure has been proposed to be a major driver of managed honey bee colony losses, yet few data exist concerning effects of environmental stressors on queens. Here we demonstrate for the first time that exposure to field-realistic concentrations of neonicotinoid pesticides during development can severely affect queens of western honey bees (Apis mellifera). In pesticide-exposed queens, reproductive anatomy (ovaries) and physiology (spermathecal-stored sperm quality and quantity), rather than flight behaviour, were compromised and likely corresponded to reduced queen success (alive and producing worker offspring). This study highlights the detriments of neonicotinoids to queens of environmentally and economically important social bees, and further strengthens the need for stringent risk assessments to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem services that are vulnerable to these substances. PMID:26459072

  6. Pesticides and public health: integrated methods of mosquito management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, R. I.

    2001-01-01

    Pesticides have a role in public health as part of sustainable integrated mosquito management. Other components of such management include surveillance, source reduction or prevention, biological control, repellents, traps, and pesticide-resistance management. We assess the future use of mosquito control pesticides in view of niche markets, incentives for new product development, Environmental Protection Agency registration, the Food Quality Protection Act, and improved pest management strategies for mosquito control. PMID:11266290

  7. Association of Pesticide Exposure with Neurologic Dysfunction and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kamel, Freya; Hoppin, Jane A

    2004-01-01

    Poisoning by acute high-level exposure to certain pesticides has well-known neurotoxic effects, but whether chronic exposure to moderate levels of pesticides is also neurotoxic is more controversial. Most studies of moderate pesticide exposure have found increased prevalence of neurologic symptoms and changes in neurobehavioral performance, reflecting cognitive and psychomotor dysfunction. There is less evidence that moderate exposure is related to deficits in sensory or motor function or per...

  8. Assessing Diet as a Modifiable Risk Factor for Pesticide Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Cohen; Liza Oates

    2011-01-01

    The effects of pesticides on the general population, largely as a result of dietary exposure, are unclear. Adopting an organic diet appears to be an obvious solution for reducing dietary pesticide exposure and this is supported by biomonitoring studies in children. However, results of research into the effects of organic diets on pesticide exposure are difficult to interpret in light of the many complexities. Therefore future studies must be carefully designed. While biomonitoring can account...

  9. Note on pesticide residues as a function of formulation used

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total quantities of pesticides needed for adequate pest control may be minimized by the correct choice of methods of formulation and application. This will diminish the total burden of residues in the environment but not necessarily in the crop. Radiolabelled pesticides are useful for small-scale and laboratory tests to elucidate the principles which determine the behaviour of pesticides in the environment and to check analytical methods used for field-scale tests. (author)

  10. Pesticides and public health: integrated methods of mosquito management.

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, R. I.

    2001-01-01

    Pesticides have a role in public health as part of sustainable integrated mosquito management. Other components of such management include surveillance, source reduction or prevention, biological control, repellents, traps, and pesticide-resistance management. We assess the future use of mosquito control pesticides in view of niche markets, incentives for new product development, Environmental Protection Agency registration, the Food Quality Protection Act, and improved pest management strate...

  11. Hydraulically active biopores stimulate pesticide mineralization in agricultural subsoil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badawi, Nora; Johnsen, Anders R.; Brandt, Kristian Koefoed; Sørensen, Jan; Aamand, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Soil biopores can serve as preferential flow paths for downward transport of inorganic nutrients and organic compounds. Pesticides may also be transported down through the subsoil in biopores, thereby posing a threat to the groundwater resource. However, biopores may also constitute hot spots for microbially-mediated pesticide mineralization, thereby reducing the risk of pesticide leaching. To investigate this we identified hydraulically active biopores in a test plot of an agricultural field by...

  12. Radiochemical synthesis of 14C-labelled pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopic derivatives of pesticides labelled with either 14C or tritium are indispensable experimental tools for toxicology or metabolism studies required for registration of new compounds. The radiochemical synthetic pathways leading to the preparation of 14C-labelled pesticides of high specific activity, good chemical/radiochemical yield, and high radiochemical purity are presented for three groups of pesticides; triazines, aryl-haloids, and organometallic compounds. (N.T.). 10 refs., 1 tab

  13. Computer program for distance learning of pesticide application technology

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Maia; Joao P.A.R. Cunha

    2011-01-01

    Distance learning presents great potential for mitigating field problems on pesticide application technology. Thus, due to the lack of teaching material about pesticide spraying technology in the Portuguese language and the increasing availability of distance learning, this study developed and evaluated a computer program for distance learning about the theory of pesticide spraying technology using the tools of information technology. The modules comprising the course, named Pulverizar, were:...

  14. Progress on multi-residue determination of pesticides in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Pan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Food safety is important for the national economy and the people’s livelihood. Development of new analytical techniques and risk assessment for pesticide residues in foods are beneficial for risk management, risk communication and the health of consumer. This paper reviewed the new sample pretreatment techniques, pesticide multi-residue detection technologies and its applications, to provide certain reference for the development and improvement of pesticide residues detection and risk assessment in food.

  15. Pesticide leaching in macroporous clay soils: field experiment and modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Scorza Júnior, R.P.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords : pesticide leaching, macropores, preferential flow, preferential transport, cracked clay soil, pesticide leaching models, groundwater contamination, inverse modeling, bentazone and imidacloprid. The presence of macropores (i.e. shrinkage cracks, earthworm and root channels) in the unsaturated zone can enhance pesticide leaching to groundwater and therefore increase the risk of groundwater contamination. In this thesis, experimental and modeling approaches were used to obtain a bette...

  16. Pesticide Substitution: Combining Food Safety with Environmental Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter

    Various pesticides are authorized for use on agricultural food crops. Despite regulatory risk assessments aiming at ensuring consumer and environmental safety, pesticides contribute to human and environmental impacts. Guidance is needed to optimize pesticide use practice and minimize human and...... defining adequate substitution scenarios. Comprehensive scenarios need to also consider worker and environmental burden, and information on crop rotation, pest pressure, environmental conditions, application costs and efficacy. Such scenarios help to increase food safety and more sustainable use of...

  17. The use of parasites as bioindicators of pesticide exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Sabo, Rastislav; Sabová, Lucia; Legáth, Jaroslav

    2009-01-01

    Organisms used in risk assessment of pesticides must be the most sensitive ones to pesticides exposure. The aim of this study was to observe the effect of two commercial pesticide products (containing glyphosate and tolylfluanid) to larval stages of parasites Cooperia curticei, Ostertagia circumcincta, Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus axei. There were two concentrations tested for each product vs. control group. Larvae (500 individuals/Petri dish) were incubated at 27 °C and observed...

  18. Farmers’ Exposure to Pesticides: Toxicity Types and Ways of Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Christos A. Damalas; Spyridon D. Koutroubas

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic pesticides are extensively used in agriculture to control harmful pests and prevent crop yield losses or product damage. Because of high biological activity and, in certain cases, long persistence in the environment, pesticides may cause undesirable effects to human health and to the environment. Farmers are routinely exposed to high levels of pesticides, usually much greater than those of consumers. Farmers’ exposure mainly occurs during the preparation and application of the pesti...

  19. Towards a Strategic Approaches in Alternative Tests for Pesticide Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Yoonjeong; KIM, Ji-Eun; JEONG Sang-Hee; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2014-01-01

    Pesticides have provided significant benefits including plant disease control and increased crop yields since people developed and utilized them. However, pesticide use is associated with many adverse effects, which necessitate precise toxicological tests and risk assessment. Most of these methods are based on animal studies, but considerations of animal welfare and ethics require the development of alternative methods for the evaluation of pesticide toxicity. Although the usage of laboratory...

  20. Effects of pesticides on aquatic macrofauna in the field

    OpenAIRE

    Ieromina, Oleksandra

    2015-01-01

    In the natural aquatic environment, different abiotic and biotic factors may affect the fate of pesticides, and the performance of organisms. The overall aim of this thesis was to study the effects of pesticides on aquatic macrofauna in the field. Different approaches were used in research, including field sampling of aquatic macrofauna, in situ exposure experiments, and laboratory toxicity tests. Fieldwork was based in the flower bulb growing area of the Netherlands were pesticide concentrat...