WorldWideScience

Sample records for fr11jn10r trifloxystrobin pesticide

  1. 77 FR 12727 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ...chemical residue in or on a food) only if EPA determines that...positive for mutagenicity in Chinese Hamster V79 cells, albeit...Assessment 1. Dietary exposure from food and feed uses. In evaluating...exposures from trifloxystrobin in food as follows: i. Acute...

  2. 76 FR 69648 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ...chemical residue in or on a food) only if EPA determines that...positive for mutagenicity in Chinese Hamster V79 cells, albeit...Assessment 1. Dietary exposure from food and feed uses. In evaluating...exposures from trifloxystrobin in food as follows: i. Acute...

  3. Simultaneous determination of tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin, and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid residues in gherkin under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramasivam, Mariappan; Selvi, Chellamuthu; Deepa, Manthirachalam; Jayaprakash, Samiyannan A; Chandrasekaran, Subramanian

    2015-03-01

    A rapid, simple, and selective analytical method for the simultaneous determination of tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin, and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid residues in gherkin and soil was developed and validated by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile and cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction with primary secondary amine sorbent. The limit of quantification of the method was 0.05 mg/kg for all three compounds. The method was validated using blank samples spiked at three levels and recoveries ranged from 83.5 to 103.8% with a relative standard deviation of 1.2 to 4.8%. The developed method was validated and applied for the analysis of a degradation study sample. The residues of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole were found to dissipate following first-order kinetics with half-life ranging between 3.31-3.38 and 3.0-3.04 days, respectively, for two different dosages. Pesticide residues were below the European Union maximum residue level after seven days for trifloxystrobin (0.2 mg/kg) and ten days for tebuconazole (0.05 mg/kg), which suggested the use of this fungicide mixture to be safe to humans. These results can be utilized in formulating the spray schedule and safety evaluation on trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole in gherkin crop. PMID:25619713

  4. Photoisomerization kinetics of trifloxystrobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Kaushik; Ligon, Axel Patrick; Spiteller, Michael

    2005-08-01

    The photoisomerization kinetics of trifloxystrobin (TFS) in acetone under artificial sunlight is reported. HPLC analysis showed the TFS, a strobilurine fungicide of EE conformation, was converted into an equilibrium mixture of four isomers after illumination for 7 h. The isomers were identified as EZ, EE, ZZ, and ZE and were separated in the crystalline form by preparative HPLC and characterized by use of a variety of spectroscopic techniques. The quantum yield and reaction constants for the isomerization reactions were determined. The detailed spectral features of the individual isomers measured by UV, IR, Raman, NMR and mass spectroscopy are presented and compared. The spectra of the isomers were found to be very characteristic, with good analytical significance. PMID:16021425

  5. 40 CFR 180.555 - Trifloxystrobin; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trifloxystrobin; tolerances for residues. 180...Specific Tolerances § 180.555 Trifloxystrobin; tolerances for residues. (a...Tolerances are established for residues of trifloxystrobin, including its metabolites...

  6. Residue evaluation of famoxadone and trifloxystrobin in cultivated mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysayi-Tokousbalides, Maria; Kastanias, Michael A; Coward, Susan; Philippoussis, Antonios; Diamantopoulou, Panagiota

    2006-01-01

    Dissipation of the fungicides famoxadone and trifloxystrobin in basidiocarps of Agaricus bisporus was studied in mushroom growing rooms. The mushroom samples taken at all three consecutive production flushes following single or split applications of the fungicides were extracted with solvents and the residues were determined by using a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Recoveries from the fortified control samples ranged from 87 to 105%. Following drench applications at 0.1-1 g/m2 of culture bed area, the highest famoxadone residue determined in basidiocarps was 0.1447 mg/kg. Analysis of trifloxystrobin revealed a quantitative relationship between the application rate (0.8-1.8 g/m2) and the residue levels of both the parent compound and its acid metabolite. The maximal combined residues of trifloxystrobin and its metabolite were 0.1313 mg/kg. Short- and long-term dietary risk assessment for both fungicides was carried out using consumption data from World Health Organization and the UK Pesticide Safety Directorate's Ten Consumer Model. The potential acute and chronic residue intakes via mushroom consumption were below toxicologically significant indicators. PMID:16785167

  7. 77 FR 42654 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ...phosphorus detection (GC/NPD), Method AG-659A and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection (LC/MS/MS), Method No. 200177) is available to enforce the tolerance expression. The method may be requested from:...

  8. 77 FR 65827 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ...phosphorus detection (GC/NPD), Method AG-659A and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection (LC/MS/MS), Method No. 200177) is available to enforce the tolerance expression. The method may be requested from:...

  9. 75 FR 33190 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ...chemical residue in or on a food) only if EPA determines that...positive for mutagenicity in Chinese Hamster V79 cells, albeit...body weight gains, reduced food consumption and histopathological...gains, reduced food consumption and...

  10. Reasoned Opinion on the review of the existing maximum residue levels (MRLs) for trifloxystrobin according to Article 12 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-01-01

    According to Article 12 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has reviewed the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) currently established at European level for the pesticide active substance trifloxystrobin. In order to assess the occurrence of trifloxystrobin residues in plants, processed commodities, rotational crops and livestock, EFSA considered the conclusions derived in the framework of Directive 91/414/EEC, the MRLs established by the Codex Alimentarius Com...

  11. Field dissipation of trifloxystrobin and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid in soil and apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Wu, Junxue; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Hongyan

    2015-01-01

    The dissipation of trifloxystrobin and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid in apples and soil was studied, and the half-life (DT??) was estimated in a field study carried out at three different locations for apples and four different locations for soil. Trifloxystrobin was sprayed on apples at 127 g a.i./ha for the dissipation study. Samples of apple and soil for the dissipation experiment were collected at time intervals of 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 30, and 45 days after treatment. The quantification of residues was done by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The DT?? of trifloxystrobin ranged from 0.54 to 8.8 and 4.8 to 9.5 days in soil and apples at different latitude sites. Photolysis may be the main dissipation pathway for trifloxystrobin, and the number of sunshine hours may be the main factor affecting the trifloxystrobin dissipation rate in the field. For trifloxystrobin acid residues in soil and apples, it first increased and then began decreasing. It was indicated that the risk of trifloxystrobin application in shorter sunshine hour area should be considered. PMID:25380713

  12. Comparative study on disappearance trends of captan and trifloxystrobin residues on fruit and apple tree leaves using internal normalisation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sad?o, Stanis?aw; Duda, Magdalena; Piechowicz, Bartosz; Ja?wa, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    Supervised field trials were carried out in a commercial orchard in 2011. The purpose of the study was to assess the usefulness of the comparative method to examine the mechanism of disappearance of pesticide residues. Captan and trifloxystrobin residues were determined with the use of gas chromatograph equipped with a micro-electron capture detector. Disappearance trends of captan and trifloxystrobin residues in fruit and leaves were estimated using the method of internal normalisation, and based on that, the courses of concentration changes of these substances on fruit and leaves and the amount of these substances in one apple were established. The initial deposits of trifloxystrobin on leaves and fruits dropped by 50% within 8 and 4 days after treatment, respectively, in both varieties, whereas captan residues dropped by 50% within 29 days in leaves and 7 days in apples of the Olive Yellow varieties. PMID:23710563

  13. Hapten synthesis and monoclonal antibody-based immunoassay development for detection of the fungicide trifloxystrobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercader, Josep V; Suárez-Pantaleón, Celia; Agulló, Consuelo; Abad-Somovilla, Antonio; Abad-Fuentes, Antonio

    2008-04-23

    High-affinity and selective monoclonal antibodies have been produced against the strobilurin fungicide trifloxystrobin. A battery of functionalized haptens has been synthesized, and conjugate-coated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays following different procedures have been developed. On the one hand, a two-step conjugate-coated immunoassay was optimized using extended or short incubation times, with limits of detection of 0.10 ng/mL for the extended assay and 0.17 ng/mL for the rapid assay. On the other hand, an immunoassay in the conjugate-coated format was optimized following a procedure consisting of just one incubation step. This one-step assay had a limit of detection of 0.21 ng/mL. All of these assays showed detection limits for trifloxystrobin in the low parts per billion range, well below the common maximum residue limits for this pesticide in foodstuffs (50 microg/kg). PMID:18373349

  14. Sensitivity of Venturia inaequalis to trifloxystrobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Färber, Ruth B Küng; Chin, Khoon Min; Leadbitter, Neil

    2002-03-01

    The sensitivity of Venturia inaequalis to trifloxystrobin was monitored by both in vitro (spore germination) and in vivo tests (on apple seedlings). There was good correlation between the in vitro and in vivo results. Baseline sensitivity was established with 95 bulk isolates from Europe between 1995 and 1998 which showed a narrow sensitivity range-factor of up to 17 between the least and most sensitive isolates. Monitoring of populations originating from trifloxystrobin-treated and untreated orchards between 1995 and 1999 showed only sensitive isolates and no performance deficiencies were reported. Data also show that trifloxystrobin is not cross-resistant to anilinopyrimidines and triazoles, but is cross-resistant to kresoxim-methyl, another strobilurin which also inhibits the cytochrome bc1 enzyme complex at the Qo-site in the respiration chain of fungal mitochondria (QoI inhibitors). Under experimental conditions from a specific trial site in Switzerland, where trifloxystrobin has been tested since 1994, isolates containing conidia resistant to Qo inhibitors were detected in 1997 and 1999. However no obvious performance deficiencies were reported. Nevertheless these results demonstrate a risk for the development of practical resistance in V inaequalis to Qo inhibitors and therefore a need to apply resistance management principles strictly. PMID:11975172

  15. Dissipation kinetics of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole on chili and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, S K; Jyot, Gagan; Battu, R S; Singh, Balwinder

    2012-03-01

    Dissipation of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole were studied following two applications of a combination formulation of Nativo 75 WG (trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50%) @ 250 and 500 g ha(-1) at 10 days interval. Samples of chili were collected at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 days after the last application. Red chili and soil samples were collected after 20 days of last application. Half-life period for trifloxystrobin were found to be 1.81 and 1.58 days and for tebuconazole these values were observed to be 1.37 and 1.41 days, respectively, at single and double the application rates. Trifloxystrobin residues dissipated below its limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.01 mg kg(-1) after 5 and 7 days, respectively, at single and double the application dosages whereas tebuconazole residues took 7 and 10 days, respectively. Red chili & soil samples collected after 20 days did not reveal the presence of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole at their determination limit of 0.01 mg kg(-1). PMID:22080327

  16. Residues and dissipation of trifloxystrobin and its metabolite in tomatoes and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Li, Wenming; Li, Puyu; Li, Minghui; Chen, Shuo; Han, Lijun

    2014-11-01

    A simple residue analytical method using the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) procedure for the determination of trifloxystrobin and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid (CGA321113) in tomato and soil was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The limits of detection were 0.0005 mg/kg for trifloxystrobin and 0.001 mg/kg for trifloxystrobin acid, respectively. The average recoveries in tomato and soil ranged from 73-99 % for trifloxystrobin and 75-109 % for trifloxystrobin acid, with relative standard deviations below 15 %. The method was then used to study the dissipation and residues in tomato and soil. The dissipation half-lives of trifloxystrobin in tomato were 2.9 days (Beijing) and 5.4 days (Shandong), while in soil were 1.9 days (Beijing) and 3.0 days (Shandong), respectively. The final results showed that the major residue compound was trifloxystrobin in tomato whereas it was its metabolite, trifloxystrobin acid, in soil. The final residues of total trifloxystrobin (including trifloxystrobin acid) were below the EU maximum residue limit of 0.5 mg kg(-1) in tomato 3 days after the treatment. PMID:25086714

  17. Reasoned Opinion on the review of the existing maximum residue levels (MRLs for trifloxystrobin according to Article 12 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available According to Article 12 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA has reviewed the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs currently established at European level for the pesticide active substance trifloxystrobin. In order to assess the occurrence of trifloxystrobin residues in plants, processed commodities, rotational crops and livestock, EFSA considered the conclusions derived in the framework of Directive 91/414/EEC, the MRLs established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission as well as the import tolerances and European authorisations reported by Member States (incl. the supporting residues data. Based on the assessment of the available data, MRL proposals were derived and a consumer risk assessment was carried out. Although no apparent risk to consumers was identified, some information required by the regulatory framework was found to be missing. Hence, the consumer risk assessment is considered indicative only and some MRL proposals derived by EFSA still require further consideration by risk managers.

  18. Three years of trials with trifloxystrobine fungicides in cereals in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Moreau, Jean-marc; Vancutsem, Franc?oise; Bodson, Bernard; Meeus, Patrick

    2000-01-01

    Trifloxystrobine-based fungicides were tested for two years in winter barley and three years in winter wheat in Belgium. One or two applications were compared with other strobilurine based fungicides. The efficacy of the combinations of trifloxystrobine (125 g/ha) + propiconazole (125 g/ha) and trifloxystrobine (125 g/ha) + cyproconazole (80 g/ha) for disease control in winter barley and winter wheat, respectivvely, was confirmed. They allowed yield increases comparable to those obtained w...

  19. Risk assessment of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole residues on Allium cepa l.

    OpenAIRE

    Gurmail Singh; Reenu Takker; Gurminder Singh Chahil; Gaganjyot; Sanjay Kumar Sahoo; Balwinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    A supervised field trial was conducted to study the persistence and therefore to evaluate the risk assessment of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole residues on onion. A combined formulation of trifloxystrobin 25 % + tebuconazole 50% (Nativo 75WG) was applied on onion crop @ 300 and 600 g ha-1, which resulted in active application @ 75.0 and 150.0 g.a.ha-1 with respect to trifloxystrobin and @ 150.0 and 300 g.a.ha-1 with respect to tebuconazole. The average initial deposits of trifloxystrobin ...

  20. Risk assessment of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole residues on Allium cepa l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurmail Singh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A supervised field trial was conducted to study the persistence and therefore to evaluate the risk assessment of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole residues on onion. A combined formulation of trifloxystrobin 25 % + tebuconazole 50% (Nativo 75WG was applied on onion crop @ 300 and 600 g ha-1, which resulted in active application @ 75.0 and 150.0 g.a.ha-1 with respect to trifloxystrobin and @ 150.0 and 300 g.a.ha-1 with respect to tebuconazole. The average initial deposits of trifloxystrobin on onion were 0.52 and 0.82 mg kg-1 following three applications of Nativo 75 WG at the recommended and the double of the recommended dose, respectively. Similarly, the average initial deposits of tebuconazole were 0.76 and 1.32 mg kg-1 at the two dosages, respectively. The residues dissipated more than 60% at both dosages after 3 days. The half-life (t1/2 of trifloxystrobin was 1.86 and 1.18 days, while for tebuconazole 2.13 and 1.98 days, for single and double dosages, respectively. Mature onion collected at harvest did not reveal the presence of trifloxystrobin or its metabolite, CGA 32113, at a detection limit of 0.05 mg kg-1. An assessment of the intake of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole, resulting from the consumption of onion, and its comparison with acceptable daily intake revealed that recommended application of Nativo 75WG (trifloxystrobin 25%+ tebuconazole 50% is quite safe from the consumer point of view.

  1. Track of fate and primary metabolism of trifloxystrobin in rice paddy ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Mengchao; Li, Shuying; Wang, Quansheng; Wei, Peng; Liu, Yanan; Zhu, Guonian; Wang, Mengcen

    2015-06-15

    Trifloxystrobin, a strobilurin fungicide, has been widely applied to control fungal diseases in various crops, especially in rice cultivation. However, its residual profile in rice paddy that was highly linked to its ecological risk still remains poorly understood. To elucidate the fate and primary metabolism of trifloxystrobin in rice paddy, a simple and efficient analytical method was developed using the DisQuE extraction kit combined with GC-?ECD and GC-EI-MS/MS analyses. As a result, methodological recoveries of trifloxystrobin fortified in paddy water, soil and rice straw ranging from 0.005 to 2mgkg(-1) (mgL(-1) for water) were acquired from 87.6% to 109.1% with relative standard deviation (RSD) from 1.9% to 9.5% (n=5), and the limit of detection (LOD, signal to noise (S/N)=3) and the limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N=10) were 6.3×10(-4)mgL(-1) and 2.09×10(-3)mgL(-1), respectively, which indicates the favorable accuracy, precision and sensitivity of the method for effective monitoring of the trace amounts of residual trifloxystrobin in the rice paddy. Furthermore, dissipation of residual trifloxystrobin was in accordance with the first-order rate equation, showing the half-lives from 0.7 to 7.5days, illustrating that trifloxystrobin generally degraded in a rapid rate in the rice paddy. Additionally, trifloxystrobin acid identified as the primary metabolite of trifloxystrobin in the rice paddy via GC-EI-MS/MS analysis was found to be dominantly accumulated in the paddy water and maintained up to 2.41mgL(-1) within 14days, suggesting that long-term and frequent application of this fungicide may pose a high risk towards aquatic organisms in surrounding aqueous ecosystems through paddy drainage. Taken together, our data serve as a useful tool for monitoring residual trifloxystrobin in rice paddy ecosystem and also provide a basis for in-depth understanding of environmental behavior and ecological risk posed by this fungicide. PMID:25770954

  2. Residue levels and dissipation behaviors for trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole in mango fruit and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Soudamini

    2015-03-01

    An evaluation of residue levels of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole was carried out on mango fruits after treatments with the combined formulation, trifloxystrobin (25 % w/w) and tebuconazole (50 % w/w), at standard and double doses of 250?+?500 and 500?+?1000 g a.i. ha(-1), respectively. Extraction and purification of the mango fruit samples were carried out by the QuEChERS method after validating the analytical parameters. Determination of the fungicides was carried out by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) for both fungicides were 0.015 ?g mL(-1) and 0.05 mg kg(-1), respectively. The residue levels of trifloxystrobin for standard and double-dose treatments were 0.492 and 0.901 mg kg(-1) and for tebuconazole were 0.535 and 1.124 mg kg(-1), respectively. A faster dissipation of tebuconazole in mango fruit was observed compared with that for tebuconazole. Dissipation of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole in mango followed first-order kinetics, and the half-lives were 9 and 6 days, respectively. The preharvest intervals (PHI), the time taken for the combined residues of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole to dissipate to their permissible levels (maximum residue limits), were 14 and 20 days for standard and double doses, respectively. At harvest, mature mango fruit and soil were free from fungicide residues. PMID:25663402

  3. Persistence of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole on grape leaves, grape berries and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyot, Gagan; Arora, Parshotam Kumar; Sahoo, Sanjay Kumar; Singh, Balwinder; Battu, Raminderjit Singh

    2010-03-01

    Following four foliar applications of Nativo 75 WG (trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50%) on grapes @ 175 and 350 g/ha, resulting in active applications of trifloxystrobin @ 43.75 and 87.5 g a.i./ha and that of tebuconazole @ 87.5 and 175 g a.i./ha, the average initial deposits of trifloxystrobin were observed to be 7.76 and 15.53 mg/kg, respectively, at single and double the application rates. These residue levels dissipated to >85% after 10 days of its application at both the dosages. Similarly, the average initial deposits of tebuconazole were observed to be 13.84 and 26.55 mg/kg at single and double the application rate, respectively. These residue levels dissipated to >90% after 10 days of application at both the dosages. The half-life (t(1/2)) periods of trifloxystrobin on grape leaves were observed to be 2.92 and 3.48 days at single and double application rates, respectively, whereas these values were 2.68 and 3.96 days for tebuconazole. Ripe grape berries and soil samples collected at harvest which happened to be 34 days after the last application, did not show the presence of residues of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole at their determination limit of 0.01 and 0.02 mg/kg, respectively. PMID:20039018

  4. Determination of trifloxystrobin and its metabolites in Hawaii soils by ASE-LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingyu; Loo, Binh; Ray, Chittaranjan

    2008-03-26

    Analytical methods for the determination of trifloxystrobin and four of its metabolites were developed in a leaching study conducted in Hawaii. To duplicate plots at each of five locations representing various agricultural areas in Hawaii, trifloxystrobin was applied at label rates and allowed to leach under normal rain and irrigation conditions. Soil samples were collected at weekly to monthly intervals and the residual concentrations of trifloxystrobin and metabolites measured. A quantitative analytical method for their determination in various soil samples was developed using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Extraction solvent with various ratios of methanol to water, addition of EDTANa2 to the extract solvent, and ASE cell temperature were adjusted to improve recovery. Deuterated (E, E)-trifloxystrobin was chosen as the internal standard of the analytical method. The limit of quantitation was 2.5 ppb in the soil for trifloxystrobin and its metabolites. Laboratory aerobic degradation studies with the soils from the five sites were also conducted to measure the same compounds. PMID:18284206

  5. Acute toxicity of pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin to Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shane A; McMurry, Scott T; Smith, Loren M; Belden, Jason B

    2013-07-01

    Fungicide application rates on row crop agriculture have increased across the United States, and subsequently, contamination of adjacent wetlands can occur through spray drift or field runoff. To investigate fungicide toxicity, Hyalella azteca amphipods were exposed to 2 fungicide formulations, Headline and Stratego, and their active strobilurin ingredients, pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin. Water-only exposures resulted in similar median lethal concentration (LC50; 20-25?µg/L) values for formulations and strobilurin ingredients, suggesting that toxicity is due to strobilurin ingredients. These values were below concentrations that could occur following spray drift over embedded cropland wetlands. When fungicides were added to overlying water of sediment-water microcosms, toxicity was reduced by 500% for Headline and 160% for Stratego, compared with water-only exposures, based on the total amount of fungicide added to the systems. In addition, when fungicides were added to sediment prior to the addition of water, the reduction in toxicity was even greater, with no toxicity occurring at environmentally relevant levels. Differences in toxicity among exposure groups were explained by dissipation from water as toxicity values based on measured water concentrations were within 20% between all systems. The present study reinforces previous studies that Headline and Stratego are toxic to nontarget aquatic organisms. However, the presence of sediment is likely to ameliorate some toxicity of fungicide formulations, especially if spraying occurs prior to wetland inundation. PMID:23554042

  6. Immunoassays for trifloxystrobin analysis. Part I. Rational design of regioisomeric haptens and production of monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Moreno, Rosario; Mercader, Josep V; Agulló, Consuelo; Abad-Somovilla, Antonio; Abad-Fuentes, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Trifloxystrobin is one of the main active principles belonging to the strobilurin family of crop protection compounds. In this article, the synthesis of a battery of regioisomeric functionalized derivatives of trifloxystrobin is described. The same aliphatic linear carboxylated chain was introduced as spacer arm in all of the synthesized haptens, but it was located at different positions of the parent molecule. N,N'-Disuccinimidyl carbonate was employed for hapten activation, so the resulting N-hydroxysuccinimyl ester could be readily purified and efficiently coupled to proteins. After immunization and hybridoma generation, a collection of 20 mouse monoclonal antibodies from different immunizing haptens was obtained. The analytical performance of these immunoreagents was evaluated in terms of affinity and selectivity with the aim to develop rapid and practical immunochemical procedures for trifloxystrobin determination. PMID:24444931

  7. Immunoassays for trifloxystrobin analysis. Part II. Assay development and application to residue determination in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercader, Josep V; López-Moreno, Rosario; Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A; Abad-Somovilla, Antonio; Abad-Fuentes, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    Immunochemical assays constitute complementary analytical methods for small organic molecule determination. We herein describe the characterisation and optimisation of two competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in different formats using monoclonal antibodies to the Quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicide trifloxystrobin. Antibody selectivity was evaluated using a variety of agrochemicals and the main trifloxystrobin metabolite. Acceptable tolerance of the immunoassay to methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile was observed in all cases, whereas a dissimilar influence of buffer pH and ionic strength was found. Moreover, the influence of Tween 20 over the analytical parameters was studied. The limits of detection of the optimised assays were below 0.1 ?g L(-1). Excellent recoveries, even at 10 ?g kg(-1), were obtained when strawberry, tomato, and cucumber samples spiked with trifloxystrobin were analysed. Finally, statistical agreement was found between immunoassay and reference chromatographic results using blind-spiked and in-field treated samples. PMID:24874355

  8. Dissipation and residues of trifloxystrobin and its metabolite in rice under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Puyu; Wang, Lin; Hao, Xianghong; Han, Lijun

    2014-12-01

    Residue analysis of trifloxystrobin and its metabolite (CGA 321113) in rice matrices, paddy water, and soil was developed using the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method was used to evaluate the dissipation rate of trifloxystrobin and CGA 321113 in rice seedling, soil, and paddy water as well as the residual level in harvest rice (grain, hull, straw) and soil. The results demonstrated that the dissipation half-lives of trifloxystrobin in rice seedling, soil, and water were 1.9 d to 4.7 d, 0.35 d to 0.54 d, and 0.28 d to 0.51 d, respectively. The final total residue of trifloxystrobin and CGA 321113 was highest in rice hull and lowest in paddy soil. The highest total residues in husked rice, rice hull, straw, and paddy soil at 28 d after spraying were 0.39 mg kg(-1), 3.82 mg kg(-1), 0.29 mg kg(-1), and 0.15 mg kg(-1), respectively. According to the final residue data and the maximum residue limits of trifloxystrobin in rice grain and straw (Codex Alimentarius) and in rice hull (US Environmental Protection Agency), 28 d could be recommended as the preharvest interval for trifloxystrobin application in the rice field. The data show that CGA 321113 constitutes a small amount of the final total residues in rice matrices, whereas it is much higher than its parent compound in soil samples. PMID:25158269

  9. Proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Christensen, Hanne Bjerre

    2009-01-01

    A proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in wheat was organised in 2008. The test material was grown in 2007 and treated in the field with 14 pesticides formulations containing the active substances, alpha-cypermethrin, bifentrin, carbendazim, chlormequat, chlorpyrifos-methyl, difenconazole, epoxiconazole, glyphosate, iprodione, malathion, pirimicarb, prochloraz, spiroxamin and trifloxystrobin. After harvest, the test material was additionally spiked in the laboratory with three pesticides, that where the residues were too low, and axozystrobin. In total, 72 laboratories submitted results and z-scores were calculated for all laboratories and pesticides, except for glyphosate where only five laboratories submitted results and summed weighted z-scores were calculated for the laboratories with a sufficient scope. For several pesticides, the submitted results were strongly depending on the extraction procedure and consequently the assigned values were calculated based on part of the results. Acceptable z-scores were obtained by 56-97% of the participants.

  10. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRL for trifloxystrobin in beans with pods

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, Germany, hereafter referred to as the Evaluating Member State (EMS), received an application from the Landwirtschaftskammer Nordrhein-Westfalen to modify the existing MRL for trifloxystrobin in beans with pods. In order to accommodate for the intended use of trifloxystrobin Germany proposed to raise the existing MRL on beans (with pods) from the value of 0.5 mg/kg to 1 mg/kg. Germany drafted an evaluation report in accordance with A...

  11. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRL for trifloxystrobin in cane fruit

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-01-01

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, Germany, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS), received an application from Bayer CropScience Deutschland GmbH to modify the existing MRL for the active substance trifloxystrobin in cane fruit. In order to accommodate for the intended use of trifloxystrobin Germany proposed to raise the existing MRLfrom the limit of quantification of 0.02* mg/kg to 3 mg/kg. Germany drafted an evaluation report in accordance wit...

  12. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for trifloxystrobin in spring onions and globe artichokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Italy, hereafter referred to as the Evaluating Member State Italy (EMS Italy, received an application from Bayer CropScience to modify the existing MRL for trifloxystrobin in globe artichokes. Belgium, hereafter referred to as the Evaluating Member State Belgium (EMS Belgium, compiled an application to modify the existing MRL for trifloxystrobin in spring onions. In order to accommodate the intended uses of trifloxystrobin on these crops, the Evaluating Member States proposed to raise the existing MRLs for trifloxystrobin from the limit of quantification (LOQ of 0.02 mg/kg to 0.2 mg/kg in globe artichokes and to 0.1 mg/kg in spring onions. The evaluation reports were drafted in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005 and were submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. The available residue trials data confirm the MRL proposals for trifloxystrobin in spring onions and globe artichokes as derived by the Evaluating Member States. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of trifloxystrobin in the commodities under consideration. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the intended use of trifloxystrobin on spring onions and globe artichokes will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  13. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRL for trifloxystrobin in beans with pods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Germany, hereafter referred to as the Evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from the Landwirtschaftskammer Nordrhein-Westfalen to modify the existing MRL for trifloxystrobin in beans with pods. In order to accommodate for the intended use of trifloxystrobin Germany proposed to raise the existing MRL on beans (with pods from the value of 0.5 mg/kg to 1 mg/kg. Germany drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005 which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive a MRL proposal of 1.0 mg/kg for the intended use on beans with pods. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of trifloxystrobin in the commodity under consideration. Based on the provisional risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the intended use of trifloxystrobin on beans with pods will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  14. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for trifloxystrobin in spring onions and globe artichokes

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, Italy, hereafter referred to as the Evaluating Member State Italy (EMS Italy), received an application from Bayer CropScience to modify the existing MRL for trifloxystrobin in globe artichokes. Belgium, hereafter referred to as the Evaluating Member State Belgium (EMS Belgium), compiled an application to modify the existing MRL for trifloxystrobin in spring onions. In order to accommodate the intended uses of trifloxystrobi...

  15. Dissipation kinetics of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole on wheat leaves and their harvest time residues in wheat grains and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sarabjit; Takkar, Reenu; Bhardwaj, Urvashi; Kumar, Rajinder; Battu, R S; Singh, Balwinder

    2012-09-01

    Following single application of Nativo 75 WG (trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50%) on wheat crop @ 300 and 600 g ha(-1), resulting in active application of trifloxystrobin @ 75.0 and 150.0 g a.i. ha(-1) and tebuconazole @ 150 and 300 g a.i. ha(-1), the average initial deposits of trifloxystrobin on wheat leaves were 5.54 and 8.30 mg kg(-1), and that of tebuconazole were 14.66 and 27.94 mg kg(-1), respectively. Half-life values for trifloxystrobin were observed to be 2.80 and 2.51 days whereas those for tebuconazole were found to be 2.46 and 1.85 days at recommended and double the recommended dosages, respectively. The residues of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole dissipated to the extent of >89% at both the dosages after 7 days. Wheat grain samples at harvest having pre harvest interval of 140 days did not show the presence of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole at their determination limit of 0.01 mg kg(-1). PMID:22885543

  16. Potential toxic effect of trifloxystrobin on cellular microstructure, mRNA expression and antioxidant enzymes in Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu-Feng; Liu, Lei; Gong, Yu-Xin; Zhu, Bin; Liu, Guang-Lu; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of trifloxystrobin that one strobilurin used widely in the world as an effective fungicidal agent to control Asian soybean rust on aquatic unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris. We determined the potential toxic effect of trifloxystrobin on C. vulgaris, and found median inhibition concentration (IC(50)) value 255.58 (95% confidence interval, 207.81-330.29)?gL(-1). In addition, the algal cells were obviously depressed or shrunk at different concentrations by electron microscopy. In the study, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay showed changes in transcript abundances of three photosynthetic genes, psaB, psbC, and rbcL, and one energy gene, ATPs. The results showed that trifloxystrobin reduced the transcript abundances of the three genes and enhanced expression of ATPs after 48 and 96 h. The lowest abundances of psaB, psbC and rbcL transcripts in response to trifloxystrobin exposure were 58%, 79% and 60% of those of the control, respectively. For the potential toxic influences, trifloxystrobin could decrease the soluble protein and total antioxidant contents (T-AOC), and increase superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activity with a gradual concentration-response relationship. Overall, the present study demonstrated that trifloxystrobin could affect the activities of antioxidant enzymes, disrupts photosynthesis in C. vulgaris, and damage cellular structure. PMID:24762415

  17. Determination of tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin and its metabolite in fruit and vegetables by a Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method using gas chromatography with a nitrogen-phosphorus detector and ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingang; Wang, Xu; Xu, Jun; Dong, Fengshou; Song, Wencheng; Zheng, Yongquan

    2011-10-01

    A new analytical method using QuEChERS procedure by gas chromatography with a nitrogen-phosphorus detector (GC-NPD) and ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-IT-MS) for the quantitative determination of tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid has been developed and validated. The analytes were extracted from five fruit and vegetable matrices using acetonitrile and subsequently cleaned up using primary secondary amine (PSA) or octadecylsilane (C18) as sorbent prior to GC analysis. The present methods provided sufficient sensitivity as reflected by the values of limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.4-7 and 1.2-20 µg/kg for GC-IT-MS/MS and GC-NPD. The recoveries were, on average, 68-117 and 68-121%, respectively, for three compounds by GC-NPD and GC-IT-MS/MS with intra-day precision achieved with an RSD of 2.7-19.1%. The inter-day precision was better than 15.1% as determined by GC-NPD. The QuEChERS procedure, by using two sorbents (PSA and C18) and the matrix-matched standards, gave satisfactory recoveries and RSD values in different matrices. IT-MS acquisition provided higher specificity and selectivity for pesticides and better limit of detection and quantification. However, the repeatability and precision of NPD method were better compared with IT-MS. PMID:21381063

  18. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRL for trifloxystrobin in cane fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Germany, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Bayer CropScience Deutschland GmbH to modify the existing MRL for the active substance trifloxystrobin in cane fruit. In order to accommodate for the intended use of trifloxystrobin Germany proposed to raise the existing MRLfrom the limit of quantification of 0.02* mg/kg to 3 mg/kg. Germany drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive an MRL proposal of 3 mg/kg for the proposed use on cane fruit. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of trifloxystrobin on cane fruit will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  19. Removal of famoxadone, fluquinconazole and trifloxystrobin residues in red wines: effects of clarification and filtration processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Jose; Payá, Paula; Cámara, Miguel Angel; Barba, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    The effects of six clarification agents [egg albumin, blood albumin, bentonite + gelatine, charcoal, polyvinylpolypyrrolidine (PVPP) and silica gel] on the removal of residues of three fungicides (famoxadone, fluquinconazole and trifloxystrobin) applied directly to a racked red wine, elaborated from Monastrell variety grapes from the D.O. Region of Jumilla (Murcia, Spain) were studied. The clarified wines were filtered with 0.45 microm nylon filters to determine the influence of this winemaking process in the disappearance of fungicide residues. Analytical determination of fluquinconazole and trifloxystrobin was performed by gas chromatography with electron captor detector (ECD), while that of famoxadone using an HPLC equipped with a diode array detector (DAD). Generally, trifloxystrobin is the fungicide that is the lowest persistent one in wines, except in the egg albumin study whereas, the most persistent one is fluquinconazole. The elimination depends on the nature of the active ingredient, though the water stability in the presence of light within it has more influence than the solubility and polarity of the product itself. The most effective clarifying agents were the charcoal and PVPP. The silica gel and bentonite plus gelatine were not enough to reduce considerably the residual contents in the wine clarified with them. In general terms, filtration is not an effective step in the elimination of wine residues. The greatest removal after filtration is obtained in wines clarified with egg albumine and bentonite plus gelatine, and the lowest in those clarified with PVPP. PMID:17763033

  20. Persistence and dissipation kinetics of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole in onion and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Soudamini

    2014-01-01

    The persistence and dissipation kinetics of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole on onion were studied after application of their combination formulation at a standard and double dose of 75 + 150 and 150 + 300 g a.i. ha(-1). The fungicides were extracted with acetone, cleaned-up using activated charcoal (trifloxystrobin) and neutral alumina (tebuconazole). Analysis was carried out by gas chromatograph (GC) and confirmed by gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The recovery was above 80% and limit of quantification (LOQ) 0.05 mg kg(-1) for both fungicides. Initial residue deposits of trifloxystrobin were 0.68 and 1.01 mg kg(-1) and tebuconazole 0.673 and 1.95 mg kg(-1) from standard and double dose treatments, respectively. Dissipation of the fungicides followed first-order kinetics and the half life of degradation was 6-6.6 days. Matured onion bulb (and field soil) harvested after 30 days was free from fungicide residues. These findings suggest recommended safe pre-harvest interval (PHI) of 14 and 25 days for spring onion consumption after treatment of Nativo 75 WG at the standard and double doses, respectively. Matured onion bulbs at harvest were free from fungicide residues. PMID:24813986

  1. Dissipation, residues, and safety evaluation of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole on ginseng and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Chunwei; Gao, Jie; Liu, Chang; Cui, Lili; Li, Aijun

    2015-06-01

    Supervised field trials at two locations in 2012 and 2013 were conducted to evaluate the dissipation, terminal residues, and safety evaluation of Nativo 75 water dispersible granule (WG) (25 % trifloxystrobin?+?50 % tebuconazole) on ginseng and soil following foliar application at a recommended dose 150 (50?+?100) and 1.5 times of the recommended dosage 225 (75?+?150) g a.i.?ha(-1). The average recoveries of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole at three spiking levels in ginseng root, stem, and leaf and in soil were in the ranges of 81.0-96.8 % and 80.2-97.5 % with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 4.92-13.13 % and 4.67-8.35 %, respectively. The half-lives of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole were 5.92-9.76 days and 4.59-7.53 days, respectively. The terminal residues were all below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of EU, USA, Canada, Japan, and South Korea. The food safety was evaluated by comparing the estimated daily intake (IEDI) with its acceptable daily intake (ADI). IEDI values calculated from residue data were found to be far less than the ADI on ginseng. Therefore, it would be unlikely to cause health problems induced by Nativo 75 WG use on ginseng at a dosage of 150-225 g a.i.?ha(-1). PMID:25963765

  2. Simultaneous determination of trifloxystrobin and trifloxystrobin acid residue in rice and soil by a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method using ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xixi; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xingang; Tao, Yan; Pan, Xinglu; Zheng, Yongquan; Dong, Fengshou

    2014-07-01

    A sensitive analytical method for the simultaneous determination of trifloxystrobin and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid in rice including straw, bran, brown rice and soil was developed by using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The fungicide trifloxystrobin and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid were extracted using acetonitrile with 1% formic acid v/v and subsequently cleaned up by primary secondary amine, octadecylsilane or graphitized carbon black prior to ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The determination of two target compounds was achieved in less than 3 min using an electrospray ionization source in positive mode. The limits of detection were below 0.22 ?g/kg and the limits of quantification did not exceed 0.74 ?g/kg in all matrices, which were much lower than the maximum residue levels established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. The overall average recoveries in four matrix at three levels (0.1, 1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg) ranged from 74.2 to 107.4% with a relative standard deviations of less than 7.8% (n = 5) for both analytes. The method was demonstrated to be convenient and reliable for the routine monitoring of trifloxystrobin and its metabolite. The developed method was validated and applied for the analysis of degradation study samples. PMID:24737683

  3. The Landau Stream Mesocosm Facility: pesticide mitigation in vegetated flow-through streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaesser, David; Stang, Christoph; Bakanov, Nikita; Schulz, Ralf

    2013-06-01

    Vegetated treatment systems have the ability to reduce the risk of adverse effects of nonpoint source pesticide pollution in agricultural surface waters, however, flow-through systems have rarely been evaluated. Peak concentrations of a mixture of two insecticides and two fungicides (Indoxacarb, Tebuconazole, Thiacloprid and Trifloxystrobin) were reduced by more than 90% in 45 m experimental stream mesocosms. Plant density and solubility had the highest explanatory power for the response variable reduction of peak concentration (R² = 0.70, p < 0.001). Optimized vegetated streams can be highly effective in reduction of runoff related pesticide peak concentrations. PMID:23397373

  4. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for trifloxystrobin in horseradish, parsley root and purslane

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, Belgium, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS Belgium), compiled an application to modify the existing MRLs for trifloxystrobin in horseradish, parsley root and purslane. In order to accommodate for the intended uses of trifloxystrobin, Belgium proposed to raise the existing MRLs from the limit of quantification of 0.02* mg/kg to 0.08 mg/kg for horseradish, from 0.04 mg/kg to 0.08 mg/kg for parsley root and from...

  5. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for trifloxystrobin in horseradish, parsley root and purslane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Belgium, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS Belgium, compiled an application to modify the existing MRLs for trifloxystrobin in horseradish, parsley root and purslane. In order to accommodate for the intended uses of trifloxystrobin, Belgium proposed to raise the existing MRLs from the limit of quantification of 0.02* mg/kg to 0.08 mg/kg for horseradish, from 0.04 mg/kg to 0.08 mg/kg for parsley root and from 0.02* mg/kg to 10 mg/kg for purslane. The EMS drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive MRL proposals for the NEU intended uses on horseradish and parsley root, while for purslane the data were found to be insufficient to derive a robust MRL proposal. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of trifloxystrobin in the commodities under consideration. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of trifloxystrobin on horseradish and parsley root will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  6. Monitoring pesticide residues in greenhouse tomato by combining acetonitrile-based extraction with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Armindo; Cunha, Sara C; Mansilha, Catarina; Aguiar, Ana; Pinho, Olívia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2012-12-01

    A multiclass and multiresidue method for pesticide analysis in tomato was validated. Extraction and pre-concentration of the pesticide residues from acetonitrile extracts was performed by using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) technique, followed by gas chromatography-mass detection. DLLME was performed using carbon tetrachloride as extractive solvent and acetonitrile extract as dispersive solvent, in order to increase enrichment factor of the extraction procedure. Validation parameters indicated the suitability of the method for routine analyses of thirty pesticides in a large number of samples. In general, pesticide recoveries ranged between 70% and 110% and repeatability ranged between 1% and 20%. The proposed method was applied to the monitoring of pesticides in tomatoes grown during winter in greenhouses. Among the compounds considered in this work, cyprodinil was found in tomato at concentrations of 0.33mg/kg, other pesticides like azoxystrobin, fenhexanid, tolyfluanid, ?-cyhalothrin and trifloxystrobin were also detected, but, not quantified. PMID:22953826

  7. Spectral elucidation of the acid metabolites of the four geometric isomers of trifloxystrobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Kaushik; Ligon, Axel Patrick; Spiteller, Michael

    2007-08-01

    Four geometric isomers of trifloxystrobin (TFS)--namely EE, EZ, ZE, and ZZ--were hydrolyzed by 0.05 M NaOH, resulting in four corresponding acid metabolites. These compounds--namely EE-, EZ-, ZE-, and ZZ-acids--were purified by preparative HPLC and authentically characterized by a combination of infrared, Raman, GC-MS, LC-MS/MS, and NMR spectroscopies. The spectra were found to be very characteristic of the individual isomers, and so they could be used to distinguish the isomers from each other. The detailed spectral features of the individual isomers are presented and compared. EE-acid was identified as being the major metabolite of TFS in soil, which indicates that hydrolysis is the principal route of degradation of TFS. This finding further justifies the importance of the present study in relation to assessing the risk associated with the release of TFS into the environment. PMID:17579846

  8. Introduction to Pesticide Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Introduction to Pesticide Drift Pesticide spray drift is the movement of ... Children form Pesticide Drift" Pesticide volatilization Effects of Pesticide Drift Pesticide drift of sprays and dusts can ...

  9. Simultaneous detection and degradation patterns of kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin residues in citrus fruits by HPLC combined with QuEChERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Dai, Xian J; Fang, Jian J; Zhu, Hua M

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the residues, kinetics and dissipation patterns of kresoxim-methyl, (E)-methoxyimino[?-(o-tolyloxy)-o-tolyl]acetate, and trifloxystrobin, methyl(E)-methoxyimino-{(E)-?[1-(?,?,?-trifluoro-m-tolyl)ethylideneaminooxy]-o-tolyl}acetate". A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (LC-UV) method combined with the 'Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe' (QuEChERS) protocol was developed to quantify the levels of kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin residues in citrus. More than 97% of the kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin deposists gradually dissipated from the citrus peels within 15 days. The half-lives of kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin in the peels were in the ranges of 2.63-2.66 d and 3.12-3.15 d, respectively, and the pattern of decline in the peels followed first-order kinetics. The kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin residues in the pulp dissipated below the detectable level of 0.01 mg kg(-1) after 9 days. Kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin were easily decomposed (T1/2 < 30 d), and the observed dissipation patterns could support the application of these two fungicides in the postharvest storage of citrus fruits. PMID:23452212

  10. Pesticides: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... atmosphere; open air; outside surrounding air. anti-microbial pesticide - Any chemical substance which can be used to ... thus important to Integrated Pest Management programs. biological pesticide - A chemical which is derived from plants, fungi, ...

  11. Emerging pesticide metabolites in groundwater and surface water as determined by the application of a multimethod for 150 pesticide metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reemtsma, Thorsten; Alder, Lutz; Banasiak, Ursula

    2013-10-01

    A recently developed multimethod for the determination of 150 pesticide metabolites was exemplarily applied to 58 samples of groundwater and surface water. 37 of these metabolites were detected in at least two samples with a concentration ?0.025 ?g/L. The detected metabolites were ranked according to their concentration and frequency of detection. Findings are clearly dominated by metabolites of chloroacetanilide herbicides, but metabolites of sulfonylurea and thiocarbamate herbicides and other herbicides (dichlobenil) together with metabolites of some fungicides (tolylfluanid, chlorothalonil, trifloxystrobin) were also prominent. A number of 17 of the ranked metabolites are denoted as emerging metabolites because no reports on their previous detection in groundwater or surface water were found. Most of them, however, were correctly predicted to occur in the summary reports of the European pesticide approval process. Median total concentrations of the analysed pesticide metabolites summed up to 0.62 ?g/L in groundwater and 0.33 ?g/L in surface waters. While the concentration of the individual metabolites is usually low (<0.1 ?g/L) the diversity of metabolites found in one sample can be large; between two and six metabolites were detected most frequently (maximum of 12 metabolites). Runoff from urban surfaces was investigated in this study and also here previously undetected pesticide (biocide) metabolites were detected. The emerging pesticide metabolites detected in environmental water samples in this study require more extended monitoring. PMID:23863396

  12. Organic Pesticide Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Page —> Pesticide Ingredients —> Organic Pesticide Ingredients Organic Pesticide Ingredients Organic foods are not necessarily pesticide-free. ... npic@ace.orst.edu . Additional Resources on Organic Pesticide Ingredients Understand Organic Labeling - USDA National Organic Program ...

  13. Toxicity of the fungicide trifloxystrobin on tadpoles and its effect on fish-tadpole interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junges, C M; Peltzer, P M; Lajmanovich, R C; Attademo, A M; Cabagna Zenklusen, M C; Basso, A

    2012-06-01

    Contamination of aquatic systems is a major environmental stress that can interfere with predator-prey interactions, altering prey or predator behavior differentially. We determined toxicity parameters of the fungicide trifloxystrobin (TFS) and examined its effects on predation rate, using a fish predator (Synbranchus marmoratus) and four anuran tadpole species as prey (Rhinella arenarum, Physalaemus santafecinus, Leptodactylus latrans, and Elachistocleis bicolor). TFS was not equally toxic to the four tadpole species, E. bicolor being the most sensitive species, followed by P. santafecinus, R. arenarum, and L. latrans. Predation rates were evaluated using different treatments that combined predator and prey exposed or not to this fungicide. TFS would alter the outcome of eel-tadpole interaction by reducing prey movements; thus, prey detection would decrease and therefore tadpole survival would increase. In addition, eels preyed selectively upon non-exposed tadpoles avoiding the exposed ones almost all throughout the period evaluated. Predation rate differed among prey species; such differences were not due to TFS exposure, but to interspecific differences in behavior. The mechanism that would explain TFS-induced reduction in predation rates remains unclear; however, what is clear is that sublethal TFS concentrations have the potential to alter prey behavior, thereby indirectly altering predator-prey interactions. In addition, we consider that predator-prey relationships are measurable responses of toxicant exposure and provide ecological insight into how contaminants modify predator-prey interactions. PMID:22386454

  14. Environmental fate of trifloxystrobin in soils of different geographical origins and photolytic degradation in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Kaushik; Ligon, Axel Patrick; Spiteller, Michael

    2006-12-13

    In vitro biodegradation of trifloxystrobin (TFS) under darkness could best be explained by two-compartment first + first-order rate kinetics with half-lives ranging between 1.8 and 2.3 days. Hydrolysis was found to be the major pathway of degradation resulting in the formation of the acid metabolite, TFS-acid, with an EE conformation. The adsorption rate kinetics of both TFS and TFS-acid followed linear and Freundlich isotherms. The extent of adsorption was directly correlated with organic matter and clay contents, whereas desorption had a negative correlation. The high partition coefficients (KD) indicate strong adsorption of TFS on all of the test soils without any appreciable risk of groundwater contamination. In case of the TFS-acid, however, the adsorption was weaker; hence, if its further degradation is slow, it may contaminate lower soil horizons under worst case conditions. TFS did not cause any adverse effect on the soil microbial population. TFS was susceptible to aquatic photolysis in summer with an environmental half-life of 0.7-1.3 days irrespective of the latitudes. PMID:17147436

  15. The evaluation of trifloxystrobin in protection of Calendula officinalis (Pot marigold) against Erysiphe cichoracearum DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzawi?ska, H; Duda-Surman, J

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the two-years field's examinations was the evaluation of the fungicide Zato 50 WG (biologically active substances BAS--trifloxystrobin 50%) in protection of Calendula officinalis (Pot marigold) against Erysiphe cichoracearum. Mentioned fungicide was applied at three concentrations: 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2%. As the standard fungicide Amistar 250 SC (biologically active substances BAS - azoxystrobin 250 g/dm3) was used. In every year of research work the four protective treatments were carried out. The estimation of infestation degree of Calendula officinalis leafs by the Erysiphe cichoracearum was made 5 times. Before each treatment four analysis were done, whereas the last analysis--the fifth one was executed after 10 days from the last protective spraying. According to the results, it was found that investigated preparations significant reduced the mean infestation degree of Calendula officinalis leafs by the Erysiphe cichoracearum compared to the control. The results pointed, that in protection of the mentioned plant by the powdery mildew the 0.2% dose of Zato 50WG showed the best suitability. PMID:17390856

  16. Assessment of trifloxystrobin uptake kinetics, developmental toxicity and mRNA expression in rare minnow embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bin; Liu, Guang-Lu; Liu, Lei; Ling, Fei; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2015-02-01

    Trifloxystrobin (TFS) is the widely used strobilurin fungicide. However, little information is so far available regarding the uptake kinetics and developmental toxicity of TFS to fish. The present study was conducted to investigate the uptake kinetics, potential environment risk and toxicity of TFS on Gobiocypris rarus embryos. Results revealed that increased malformation, decreased body length and heart rate, affected spontaneous movement and swimming speed provide a gradual concentration-dependent manner; values of 144 h LC50 (median lethal concentration) and EC50 (median effective concentration) were 1.11 and 0.86 ?g L(-1). Continuous exposure to TFS resulted in a steady accumulation with no evidence of elimination. Enzyme activities were significantly changed; reactive oxygen species and DNA damage were significantly induced after TFS treatment. Certain genes related to cell apoptosis (p53), metabolism (cyp1a), stress response (hsp70) and blood vessels (vezf1) development were all significantly up-regulated. This is the first study to define uptake kinetics and to focus on behavioral consequences, physiological changes and mRNA expression following TFS exposure in the early life stages of fish. Our results suggest that TFS is highly toxic to fish embryos. PMID:25240160

  17. Applying pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Bauer (USDA-ARS; Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory)

    2006-05-23

    Fertilizer is one way to provide crops with the nutrients they need. Pesticides can also be applied to crops to keep them healthy and free of insects. However, applying too much fertilizer or pesticide protection could harm the environment and organisms.

  18. Dissipation kinetics of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole on apple (Malus domestica) and soil--a multi location study from north western Himalayan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patyal, S K; Sharma, I D; Chandel, R S; Dubey, J K

    2013-08-01

    A new combinational fungicide formulation trifloxystrobin 25%+tebuconazole 50% (Nativo 75WG), introduced as a part of resistance management strategy, was studied for dissipation behaviour on apple fruits. Nativo 75WG was sprayed twice at the rate of 400 g and 800 g a.i. ha(-1) equal to trifloxystrobin application rate of 100 and 200 g a.i. ha(-1) and tebuconazole at application rate of 200 and 400 g a.i. ha(-1) at four different locations in the Northwest Himalayan region of India. The fruit samples collected at 10d interval and soil samples taken at harvest time were analyzed after second spray. The residual concentrations of trifloxystrobin, its acid metabolite CGA 321113 and tebuconazole were measured. Residues of both fungicides were determined by using gas chromatograph, Agilent 6890N having electron capture detector. The mean initial deposits of trifloxystrobin at four locations were found to be in the range of 0.333-0.387 mg kg(-1) and 0.512-0.714 mg kg(-1) at the application rate of 100 and 200 g a.i. ha(-1), and half-life were found between 19.38-24.93 d and 19.84-28.86 d at the respective doses. The ?-trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole residues were below determination limit in 40 d apple fruits and soil samples. Initial deposits of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole were below their Codex MRLs at the respective single doses. The half life value of the tebuconazole deposits ranged between 19.38-25.99 d and 19.84-28.86 d at the respective single and double dose. The study thus suggests 1d pre harvest interval for safe consumption of apple fruit after the application of Nativo 75 WG at single dose. PMID:23545189

  19. Desenvolvimento de métodos analíticos para determinação de agrotóxicos em sedimentos por cromatografia gasosa monodimensional e bidimensional abrangente com micro detector de captura de elétrons Development of analytical methods for pesticides in sediments by monodimensional and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro electron-capture detection

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Macedo da Silva; Cláudia Alcaraz Zini; Elina Bastos Caramão; Ewelin Monica Paturi Navarro Canizares; Karen Alam Leal

    2010-01-01

    The development of analytical methods for determination of eight pesticides of different chemical classes (trichlorfon, propanil, fipronil, propiconazole, trifloxystrobin, permethrin, difenoconazole and azoxystrobin) in sediments with gas chromatography-micro-electron capture detector (GC/µECD) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detector (GCxGC/µECD) is described. These methods were applied to real sediment samples, and the best results were obt...

  20. The Pesticide Action Network Pesticide Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pesticide Action Network Pesticide Database, maintained by the Pesticide Action Network of North America, provides up-to-date information for those working with or researching pesticides. The site lets users search by chemical name, chemical abstracts service (CAS) number, trade name, or US EPA product registration number to retrieve a selected pesticide's active ingredients, breakdown products, and other chemicals used in it. Also available is California specific pesticide information, toxicity and regulation information, nontoxic alternatives to pesticides, and more.

  1. Pesticides residues in the Prochilodus costatus (Valenciennes, 1850) fish caught in the São Francisco River, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Fabiano A; Reis, Lilian P G; Soto-Blanco, Benito; Melo, Marília M

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of pesticides in the fish Prochilodus costatus caught in São Francisco River, one of most important rivers in Brazil. Thirty-six fish were captured in three different areas, and samples of the dorsal muscle and pooled viscera were collected for toxicological analysis. We evaluated the presence of 150 different classes of insecticides, fungicides, herbicides and acaricides by multiresidue analysis technique using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), with the limit of detection of 5 ppb. In this study, organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides were detected at the highest levels in the caught fish. Among the 41 organophosphorus pesticides surveyed, nine types were detected (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dichlorvos, disulfoton, ethion, etrimfos, phosalone, phosmet and pyrazophos) in the muscle, viscera pool, or both in 22 (61.1%) fish. Sampled tissues of 20 (55.6%) fish exhibited at least one of the eight evaluated carbamate pesticides and their metabolites: aldicarb, aldicarb sulfoxide, carbaryl, carbofuran, carbosulfan, furathiocarb, methomyl and propoxur. Fungicides (carbendazim, benalaxyl, kresoxim-methyl, trifloxystrobin, pyraclostrobin and its metabolite BF 500 pyraclostrobin), herbicides (pyridate and fluasifop p-butyl), acaricide (propargite) and pyrethroid (flumethrin) were also detected. In conclusion, P. costatus fish caught in the São Francisco River contained residues of 17 different pesticides, in both muscles and the viscera pool, indicating heavy environmental contamination by pesticides in the study area. PMID:25844860

  2. Heteroplasmy of the cytochrome b gene in Venturia inaequalis and its involvement in quantitative and practical resistance to trifloxystrobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, Sara M; Cox, Kerik D

    2014-09-01

    Quantitative (partial) and qualitative (complete) resistance responses to quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicides have been documented for the apple scab pathogen Venturia inaequalis. Resistance monitoring efforts have traditionally focused on the detection of qualitative resistance based on a single point mutation, G143A, within the cytochrome b (cyt b) gene. In order to better understand the role of heteroplasmy of the cyt b gene in the QoI resistance response for isolates and populations of V. inaequalis, an allele-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction was developed to quantify the relative abundance of the A143 (resistant) allele in 45 isolates of V. inaequalis with differing in vitro resistance responses to the QoI fungicide trifloxystrobin. Although a high relative abundance of the A143 allele (>62%) was associated with isolates with high resistance responses (50 to 100% relative growth on trifloxystrobin-amended medium), heteroplasmy of the cyt b gene was not the primary factor involved in isolates with moderate resistance responses (29 to 49% relative growth). The relative abundance of the A143 allele in isolates with moderate resistance to trifloxystrobin rarely exceeded 8%, suggesting that other resistance mechanisms are involved in moderate resistance and, therefore, that the Qol resistance response is polygenic. In research orchards where QoI fungicides failed to control apple scab (practical resistance), field trials were conducted to demonstrate the link between practical resistance and the abundance of the A143 allele. Relative abundance of the A143 allele in these orchard populations exceeded 20% in 2011 and 2012. Similarly, of the eight additional commercial orchards screened in 2011, the relative abundance of the A143 allele always exceeded 20% in those with QoI practical resistance. Although heteroplasmy of the cyt b gene did not entirely explain the response of isolates with moderate resistance to QoIs, the relative abundance of A143 in orchard populations of V. inaequalis helps to explain the point of emergence for practical resistance to trifloxystrobin across several orchard populations with differing production histories. PMID:24624954

  3. Obsolete pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Several hundred tons of obsolete pesticide stocks worldwide will pose a threat to humans and the environment until the year 2030 in some regions, unless funding for waste disposal is significantly increased, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) said in a message directed to donor governments and industry on May 24.“Deadly chemicals are contaminating the soils, groundwater, irrigation, and drinking water,” said Amemayehu Wodageneh, senior expert on obsolete pesticides for FAO. “These ‘forgotten’ stocks are a serious risk, [and] they could cause an environmental tragedy in rural areas and big cities. There is hardly any developing country that is not affected by the hazards of obsolete pesticides.”

  4. Pesticides in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides in Groundwater Care to guess how many pounds of pesticides the Nation used in 1964? How ... other locations, where they may cause health problems. Pesticides can contaminate groundwater Pesticide contamination of groundwater is ...

  5. Pesticides: Protecting Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protecting workers from potential effects of pesticides is an important role of EPA's Pesticide Program. Workers in several occupations may be exposed to pesticides when they: Prepare pesticides for ...

  6. Pesticide Safety Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide Safety Tips Resources Questions On Pesticides? National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) 1-800-858-7378 Although pesticides can be useful, they also can be dangerous if used carelessly ...

  7. Pesticide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neva Sataloglu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed that examining the socio-demographic characteristics of the pesticide poisoning cases in Samsun region where the economy mainly relies on agriculture and comparing it to similar studies; thus contributing the country?s data and the possible measures. 60 pesticide poisoning cases consulted OMU Faculty of Medicine between 01.01.2004 and 31.12.2004 are examined and achieved data are analyzed and presented. Of the 60 cases, 35 (58.3% are females and 25 (41.7 are males and the average age is 21.93 ±17.56 (1-63 years. Pesticide poisoning is most common in summer (55.0% and spring (25.0%. It is stated either by the person himself/herself or by his/her relatives that the intake of the toxic substance is accidental in 36 cases (60.0% and suicidal in 24 cases (40.0%. 25 cases (41.7% are poisoned with organic phosphorus pesticides and 12 cases (20.0% with carbamat-pesticides. Consequently, in order to prevent accidental pesticide poisoning, it is necessary to be very careful with pesticide application especially in rural areas. Substances that are least toxic to human and environment, and are licenced and most effective to pests must be used, spraying period must be short, sensitive people, especially children, must be kept away, personal precautions must be taken for the spraying person and pesticides must be kept away from the reach of children and people at risk. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(3: 169-174

  8. Effect of trifloxystrobin on hatching, survival, and gene expression of endocrine biomarkers in early life stages of medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lifei; Wang, Huili; Liu, Huijun; Li, Wei

    2015-05-01

    Trifloxystrobin is a systemic broad-spectrum foliar strobilurin fungicides that enters the aquatic environment during agricultural application. It is highly toxic and poses a potential risk to aquatic organisms, whereas the effect on the development of early life stages of fish are unclear. In this study, hatchability, time to hatching, and larval mortality were measured. Additionally, the expression of biomarker genes, including those involved in sex hormone pathways (er, vtg, cyp17, and cyp19a), thyroid hormone pathways (tr? and dio2), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathways (ahr and cyp1a), was determined after embryos of medaka (Oryzias latipes) were exposed to different levels of trifloxystrobin (0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 ?g/L) for 28 days. The results showed that there were significant differences between controls and the 100 ?g/L treatment group in both hatchability and time to hatching of fertilized eggs (p?fish. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 30: 648-655, 2015. PMID:24376129

  9. Rapid gas chromatographic method for the determination of famoxadone, trifloxystrobin and fenhexamid residues in tomato, grape and wine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likas, D T; Tsiropoulos, N G; Miliadis, G E

    2007-05-25

    Trifloxystrobin, fenhexamid and famoxadone belong to the generation of fungicides acting against a broad spectrum of fungi and widely used in Integrated Pest Management strategies in different agricultural crops but mainly in viticulture. In the present work, a gas chromatographic (GC) method for their determination was developed and validated on tomato, grape and wine matrices. The method was based on a simple one step liquid-liquid microextraction with cyclohexane/dichloromethane (9+1, v/v) and determination of fungicides by gas chromatography with nitrogen phosphorous (NP-) and electron capture (EC-) detection, and ion trap mass spectrometry (ITMS) for confirmation. The method was validated by recovery experiments, assessment of matrix effect and calculation of the associated uncertainty. Recoveries for GC-NPD and GC-ECD were found in the range of 81-102% with RSD trifloxystrobin being the most sensitive. The expanded uncertainty, calculated for a sample concentration of 0.10 mg/kg, ranged from 4.8 to 13% for the GC-ECD and from 5.4 to 29% for the GC-NPD. The concentration levels for famoxadone residues found in tomato and grape samples from field experiments were clearly below the EU established MRL values, thus causing no problems in terms of food safety. PMID:16950327

  10. Influence of pesticides on yeasts colonizing leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadkertiová, Renata; Sláviková, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The effect of nine different pesticides on the growth of yeasts isolated from the leaves of fruit and forest trees was investigated. Four insecticides (with the active ingredients: thiacloprid, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, and thiamethoxam) and five fungicides (with the effective substances: bitertanol, kresoxim-methyl, mancozeb, trifloxystrobin, and cupric oxychloride) were tested. The concentrations of chemicals were those recommended by the manufacturers for the spraying of trees. The yeast strains isolated from the leaves of fruit trees were not sensitive to any of the insecticides. The majority of yeast strains isolated from the leaves of forest trees were either not sensitive or only to a small extent. While Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Pichia anomala were not affected by any insecticide, the strains of Cryptococcus laurentii and Rhodotorula glutinis showed the highest sensitivity. The effects of fungicides on the growth of isolated yeasts were more substantial. The fungicide Dithane DG (mancozeb) completely inhibited the growth of all yeasts. All strains isolated from fruit tree leaves were more resistant to the tested fungicides than those isolated from the leaves of forest trees. The most resistant strains from the leaves of fruit trees belonged to the species Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia anomala, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas Cryptococcus albidus and C. laurentii, originating from the leaves of forest trees, showed the highest sensitivity to fungicides. PMID:22351984

  11. Antimicrobial Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    This newly launched site from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) offers a variety of resources describing how the EPA regulates antimicrobial pesticides. Antimicrobial pesticides are used in a huge variety of household and commercial products to "disinfect, sanitize, reduce, or mitigate growth or development of microbiological organisms" and to "protect inanimate objects (for example floors and walls), industrial processes or systems, surfaces, water, or other chemical substances from contamination, fouling, or deterioration caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime." Intended mainly for a regulatory audience, the site includes Antimicrobials Science Policy Documents, Antimicrobials Registration Policy Documents, Label Review Manual, Chemical/ Registration Number Indexes, and Antimicrobial PR notices.

  12. Screening of grapes and wine for azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin fungicides by HPLC with diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Melo Abreu, Susana; Correia, Manuela; Herbert, Paulo; Santos, Lúcia; Alves, Arminda

    2005-06-01

    The Quinone outside Inhibitors (QoI) are one of the most important and recent fungicide groups used in viticulture and also allowed by Integrated Pest Management. Azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin are the main active ingredients for treating downy and powdery mildews that can be present in grapes and wines. In this paper, a method is reported for the analysis of these three QoI-fungicides in grapes and wine. After liquid-liquid extraction and a clean-up on commercial silica cartridges, analysis was by isocratic HPLC with diode array detection (DAD) with a run time of 13 min. Confirmation was by solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME), followed by GC/MS determination. The main validation parameters for the three compounds in grapes and wine were a limit of detection up to 0.073 mg kg(-1), a precision not exceeding 10.0% and an average recovery of 93% +/- 38. PMID:16019828

  13. Effectiveness of thiophanate-methyl, trifloxystrobin and vinclozolin on canker caused by Phoma exigua Desm. on ash tree seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuvelier M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years several cases of cankers caused by Phoma exigua on ash tree seedlings have been reported in Belgian nurseries, leading to a total loss of the affected crops. Similar symptoms have been observed on ash tree seedlings elsewhere in Europe, notably in France and in Great Britain, but the pathogenicity was never established. Inoculation and re-isolation tests were therefore undertaken and demonstrated the phytopathogenic character of P. exigua on ash. Moreover the effectiveness of three fungicides (thiophanate-methyl, trifloxystrobin, vinclozolin against stem canker of ash tree seedlings was studied. In vitro tests were conducted to evaluate the ability of these fungicides to inhibit mycelium growth and spore germination. The extent to which they reduced the symptoms was estimated in a field trial. The results of this study allowed to get by the Belgian proper authorities the use extension of thiophanate-methyl for the control of canker caused by P. exigua in forest nurseries.

  14. Pesticide pollution of multiple drinking water sources in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: evidence from two provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, N D G; Sebesvari, Z; Amelung, W; Renaud, F G

    2015-06-01

    Pollution of drinking water sources with agrochemicals is often a major threat to human and ecosystem health in some river deltas, where agricultural production must meet the requirements of national food security or export aspirations. This study was performed to survey the use of different drinking water sources and their pollution with pesticides in order to inform on potential exposure sources to pesticides in rural areas of the Mekong River delta, Vietnam. The field work comprised both household surveys and monitoring of 15 frequently used pesticide active ingredients in different water sources used for drinking (surface water, groundwater, water at public pumping stations, surface water chemically treated at household level, harvested rainwater, and bottled water). Our research also considered the surrounding land use systems as well as the cropping seasons. Improper pesticide storage and waste disposal as well as inadequate personal protection during pesticide handling and application were widespread amongst the interviewed households, with little overall risk awareness for human and environmental health. The results show that despite the local differences in the amount and frequency of pesticides applied, pesticide pollution was ubiquitous. Isoprothiolane (max. concentration 8.49 ?g L(-1)), fenobucarb (max. 2.32 ?g L(-1)), and fipronil (max. 0.41 ?g L(-1)) were detected in almost all analyzed water samples (98 % of all surface samples contained isoprothiolane, for instance). Other pesticides quantified comprised butachlor, pretilachlor, propiconazole, hexaconazole, difenoconazole, cypermethrin, fenoxapro-p-ethyl, tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin, azoxystrobin, quinalphos, and thiamethoxam. Among the studied water sources, concentrations were highest in canal waters. Pesticide concentrations varied with cropping season but did not diminish through the year. Even in harvested rainwater or purchased bottled water, up to 12 different pesticides were detected at concentrations exceeding the European Commission's parametric guideline values for individual or total pesticides in drinking water (0.1 and 0.5 ?g L(-1); respectively). The highest total pesticide concentration quantified in bottled water samples was 1.38 ?g L(-1). Overall, we failed to identify a clean water source in the Mekong Delta with respect to pesticide pollution. It is therefore urgent to understand further and address drinking water-related health risk issues in the region. PMID:25572267

  15. Safe Storage of Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safe Storage of Pesticides Esta página Web está disponible en español Improper pesticide storage and disposal can be hazardous to human health and ... storage needs by buying only the amount of pesticide that you will need in the near future ...

  16. Pesticides and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... advice from your health care provider. What are pesticides? A pesticide is a substance used to prevent ...

  17. Pesticides and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... advice from your health care professional. What are pesticides? A pesticide is a substance used to prevent ...

  18. Illegal Pesticide Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illegal Pesticide Products Esta página Web está disponible en español Quick Resources Protect your Business Counterfeit Flea and Tick ... Center (NPIC) 1-800-858-7378 Questions on Pesticides? National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) 1-800-858- ...

  19. National Pesticide Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Pesticide Information Center npic@ace.orst.edu 1.800.858.7378 Index A B C D E F ... Your Pest Control Your Pest Integrated Pest Management Pesticide Ingredients Active Ingredients Other/Inert Ingredients Pesticide Products ...

  20. Occurrence and distribution study of residues from pesticides applied under controlled conditions in the field during rice processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Lucía; Colazzo, Marcos; Pérez-Parada, Andrés; Besil, Natalia; Heinzen, Horacio; Böcking, Bernardo; Cesio, Verónica; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2012-05-01

    The results of an experiment to study the occurrence and distribution of pesticide residues during rice cropping and processing are reported. Four herbicides, nine fungicides, and two insecticides (azoxystrobin, byspiribac-sodium, carbendazim, clomazone, difenoconazole, epoxiconazole, isoprothiolane, kresoxim-methyl, propanil, quinclorac, tebuconazole, thiamethoxam, tricyclazole, trifloxystrobin, ?-cyhalotrin) were applied to an isolated rice-crop plot under controlled conditions, during the 2009-2010 cropping season in Uruguay. Paddy rice was harvested and industrially processed to brown rice, white rice, and rice bran, which were analyzed for pesticide residues using the original QuEChERS methodology and its citrate variation by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS. The distribution of pesticide residues was uneven among the different matrices. Ten different pesticide residues were found in paddy rice, seven in brown rice, and eight in rice bran. The highest concentrations were detected in paddy rice. These results provide information regarding the fate of pesticides in the rice food chain and its safety for consumers. PMID:22497619

  1. Aplicação da cromatografia gasosa bidimensional abrangente com microdetector de captura de elétrons para determinação de agrotóxicos em sedimentos Application of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detection for determination of pesticides in sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Macedo da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of seven pesticides in sediments was successfully achieved using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detection, as it provided higher sensitivity and less matrix interference. Repeatability and intermediate precision of peak areas and heights were less than 4% and the recovery percentage for the analytes ranged from 52 to 115%. Instrumental LOD and LOQ were in the range of 0.60 to 2.31 ?g L-1 and 1.83 to 5.62 ?g L-1, respectively. Concentrations of 3.34 ?g kg-1 (dry basis for trifloxystrobin and azoxystrobin (below the LOQ were found in a sediment sample.

  2. Pesticide Product Label System

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  3. Pesticides and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people like children , pregnant women and sick or aging populations may be more sensitive to the effects of pesticides than others. To reduce the risk of health problems from pesticides there are several things you can ...

  4. Groundbreaking Pesticide Ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2011-07-01

    Learn how one child's willingness to share her experience of life-threatening exposure to lawn pesticides helped inspire a citywide ban of pesticides for lawn or garden use, in this video segment adapted from Playing with Poison.

  5. Scientific support for preparing an EU position for the 45th Session of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 43 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, EFSA received a request from the European Commission to provide support for the preparation of the EU position for the 45th session of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR. In 2012, JMPR evaluated 12 active substances regarding the setting of toxicological reference values to be used in consumer risk assessment, 7 new compounds (ametoctradin, chlorfenapyr, dinotefuran, fluxapyroxad, MCPA, picoxystrobin, sedaxane and 4 part of periodic reevaluation (benzoate, fenpropathrin, fenvalerate, glufosinate-ammonium. Regarding the setting of Maximum Residue Limits (CXLs, JMPR assessed 26 substances (ametoctradin, azoxystrobin, buprofezin, carbofuran, chlorfenapyr, chlorothalonil, cycloxydim, cyfluthrin, cyromazine, dichlorvos, dicofol, dinotefuran, fenvalerate, fludioxonil, fluopyram, fluxapyroxad, glufosinate-ammonium, imidacloprid, MCPA, methoxyfenozide, penthiopyrad, phorate, picoxystrobin, sedaxane, spinetoram and trifloxystrobin. EFSA derived comments on the JMPR evaluations regarding the acceptability of the proposed draft Codex MRLs and the toxicological reference values.

  6. Pesticides poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticides are chemical toxicants which are used to kill by their toxic actions, the pest organisms, known to incur significant economic losses or threaten human life, his health and that of his domesticated animals. These toxicants are seldom species-specific. The presence of these or their metabolites may scientific be vouched not only in the environment they are used, but in the entire ecosystem, in the subsoil, in the underwater reservoirs and in the food chain of all non-target species including man, his friends i.e. predator and parasite organisms which be uses against the pests, and in his cherished domesticated animals. In the present paper a survey is made of different groups of toxic chemicals generally used to manage pests, in the ecosystem, food chain and tissues and body parts of non-target species including man and the ones dear to him. Toxicology and biochemistry of these toxic materials and their important metabolites are also briefly discussed with special reference to ways and means through which these poison the above non-target species. (author)

  7. Pesticide exposure - Indian scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. India started pesticide production with manufacturing plant for DDT and benzene hexachloride (BHC) (HCH) in the year 1952. In 1958, India was producing over 5000 metric tonnes of pesticides. Currently, there are approximately 145 pesticides registered for use, and production has increased to approximately 85,000 metric tonnes. Rampant use of these chemicals has given rise to several short-term and long-term adverse effects of these chemicals. The first report of poisoning due to pesticides in India came from Kerala in 1958 where, over 100 people died after consuming wheat flour contaminated with parathion. Subsequently several cases of pesticide-poisoning including the Bhopal disaster have been reported. Despite the fact that the consumption of pesticides in India is still very low, about 0.5 kg/ha of pesticides against 6.60 and 12.0 kg/ha in Korea and Japan, respectively, there has been a widespread contamination of food commodities with pesticide residues, basically due to non-judicious use of pesticides. In India, 51% of food commodities are contaminated with pesticide residues and out of these, 20% have pesticides residues above the maximum residue level values on a worldwide basis. It has been observed that their long-term, low-dose exposure are increasingly linked to human health effects such as immune-suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intellion, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities, and cancer. In this light, problems of pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, use of biotechnology, and biopesticides, and use of pesticides obtained from natural plant sources such as neem extracts are some of the future strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides

  8. Safe Disposal of Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safe Disposal of Pesticides Esta página Web está disponible en español The best way to dispose of small amounts of excess pesticides is ... 1-800-CLEANUP. State and local laws regarding pesticide disposal may be stricter than the Federal requirements ...

  9. Pesticide National Synthesis Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pesticide National Synthesis Project homepage offers a number of publications and reports on pesticides in the Hydrologic System. The site also features data sets, national maps of pesticide use, and some special topic reports, as well as information on the Project and its staff.

  10. Transporte de agrotóxicos em lavoura de arroz irrigado sob três manejos de irrigação Pesticide transport in rice field under three irrigation managements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F.D. Martini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo de arroz irrigado no Rio Grande do Sul caracteriza-se pela permanência de lâmina de irrigação sobre o solo, o que ocasiona perdas de agrotóxicos na ocorrência de chuvas; portanto, o adequado manejo de irrigação pode influenciar na redução do transporte destes para o ambiente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes manejos de irrigação no extravasamento da água e no transporte e persistência de clomazone, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, trifloxystrobin e propiconazol em lavoura de arroz irrigado. Os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial consistiram nos manejos de irrigação por inundação contínua, intermitente e por banhos (fator A e pelos agrotóxicos mencionados (fator B. Determinou-se o volume total de água extravasada e a taxa de dissipação e transporte desses agrotóxicos. Devido ao maior armazenamento de água da chuva, quando comparadas com a irrigação contínua, as irrigações intermitente e por banhos proporcionaram diminuição de 53 e 95% do volume de água perdida, resultando, respectivamente, em redução de 49 e 64% na massa total de agrotóxicos transportados para o ambiente, em relação ao total aplicado na lavoura. A massa de agrotóxico transportada não ultrapassou 3% do total aplicado, e as maiores concentrações de agrotóxicos em água ocorreram próximo à sua aplicação. Com base nesses resultados, salienta-se que os manejos de irrigação intermitente e por banhos minimizam o transporte de agrotóxicos para o ambiente.Rice crop in the state of Rio Grande do Sul is characterized by the presence of water layer on the soil, which can cause pesticide runoff during the occurrence of rainfall. Thus, proper irrigation management can reduce pesticide transport into the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different irrigation managements on water runoff, transport and dissipation of clomazone, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, trifloxystrobin, and propiconazol. The treatments were arranged in a factorial scheme and consisted of continuous flooding, intermittent flooding, and flushing irrigation (factor A and by the application of the pesticides listed above (factor B. Total water runoff, and pesticide transport and dissipation rate were evaluated. Due to the larger rainfall storage, compared with continuous flooding, intermittent flooding and flushing irrigation provided a reduction of 53 and 95% of water runoff, resulting, respectively, in a reduction of 49 and 64% of the total mass transported into the environment in relation to the total applied in the field. The pesticide mass transported was lower than 3% of the total amount applied. Based on these results, it could be concluded that intermittent flooding and flushing irrigation minimize pesticide transport into the environment.Since the highest pesticide concentrations occur close to application time, it is of fundamental importance to conduct proper irrigation management providing maximum permanence in the environment.

  11. Removal of pesticides from white wine by the use of fining agents and filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, J; Payá, P; Cámara, M A; Barba, A

    2007-01-01

    The effects of four clarification agents (bentonite, charcoal, PVPP and potassium caseinate) on the removal of residues of three fungicides (famoxadone, fluquinconazole and trifloxystrobin) applied directly to a racked white wine, elaborated from Airen variety grapes from the D.O. Region of Jumilla (Murcia, Spain) are studied. The clarified wines were filtered with 0.45 microm nylon filters to determine the influence of this winemaking process in the disappearance of fungicide residues. Hydro-alcoholic solutions with the three fungicides at concentrations of 1 and 2 ppm were then added through intense stirring to each of the containers. Two hours later, the corresponding clarifying agent was added with intense stirring for some minutes. The containers were then sealed and left to settle for five days. Once the clean wines had been racked, they were filtered through nylon 0.45 microm pore filters. All assays were performed three times. Analytical determination of fluquinconazole and trifloxystrobin was performed by gas chromatography with an electron captor detector (ECD), while that of famoxadone was made using an HPLC-DAD. For the three fungicides, the highest elimination is produced with the clarification by charcoal, reaching Levels of removal of 100% in all cases. For the four clarifying agents, the highest elimination is produced for the fluquinconazole residues. The fungicide which is retained most in the lees is famoxadone, since it has the lowest solubility of the three pesticides studied. The highest percentage of residues in the lees is obtained for the assay with charcoal. The filtration process of the clarified wines using the four agents studied is not effective, since the elimination percentage is generally lower than 10% of the initial residues in the non-clarified wines. PMID:18399438

  12. Towards the field-scale experiments and numerical modeling of pesticides in tropical soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, J.; Ray, C.; Sanda, M.; Vogel, T.; Green, R.; Loo, B.

    2004-12-01

    Intensive use of pesticides in agriculture inevitably poses an increased threat to groundwater. Recent findings of pesticide residues in selected drinking water wells in Hawaii brings further attention to this problem since the primary source for potable water in Hawaii is groundwater from basal or dike-confined aquifers. A challenging research project was carried out at the University of Hawaii to elucidate potential impacts of selected pesticides on groundwater and to understand pesticide behavior in tropical soils. The major outcome of the project will be a recommendation to the Hawaii Department of Agriculture whether to restrict or approve these pesticide products entering Hawaii's agricultural market. Three sites on Oahu, one on Maui, and one on Kauai were selected for field evaluation of leaching. The soil types on Oahu are Wahiawa Oxisol (Poamoho), Molokai Oxisol (Kunia), and Waialua Vertisol (Waimanalo). The soil at Kula, Maui is an andisol (loam of Kula series) and that at Mana, Kauai is a Vertisol of Malama series. Three herbicides (S-metolachlor, imazaquin, sulfometuron methyl), one fungicide (trifloxystrobin), and one insecticide (imidacloprid) were used in our study. In addition, a commonly used herbicide (atrazine) and potassium bromide tracer were applied as reference chemicals. After spraying, the plots were covered with straw to decrease evaporation from bare soil surface and irrigated with aerial sprinklers for a period of 16 weeks. Disturbed soil samples from various depths were taken at regular intervals for pesticide analysis. Water flow dynamics was monitored with TDR probes and tensiometers installed at three depths. Weather data were acquired simultaneously. In-situ measurements of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity were done using a tension disc infiltrometer. Laboratory experiments of soil-water retention, as well as degradation, sorption, and column displacement experiments for the selected pesticides were conducted. Hence, comprehensive a database for mathematical modeling of the pesticide transport was obtained. Results so far indicate that S-metolachlor showed its low leachability and short decay half-life. On the other hand, imidacloprid exhibited its low sorption ability with higher leaching potential and longer half-life. Likewise, transport of bromide seems to be controlled by soil hydrologic properties and water application rates.

  13. Residues of the quinone outside inhibitor fungicide trifloxystrobin after postharvest dip treatments to control Penicillium spp. on citrus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirra, Mario; D'Aquino, Salvatore; Palma, Amedeo; Angioni, Alberto; Cabras, Paolo; Migheli, Quirico

    2006-07-01

    The effectiveness of postharvest dip treatment with trifloxystrobin (TFX) or imazalil (IMZ) was compared for controlling green and blue mold (caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively) of citrus fruit. Residues retained by fruit were determined as a function of treatment time, dip temperature, and storage conditions. Trials on 'Avana apireno' mandarin oranges artificially inoculated with P. digitatum or P. italicum revealed that treatments with 200 to 600 mg/liter active ingredient TFX at 20 degrees C were less effective than 100 mg/liter TFX at 500C for controlling P. digitatum but equally effective for controlling P. italicum. IMZ treatments with 200 mg/liter IMZ at 20 degrees C or 25 mg/liter IMZ at 50 degrees C resulted in more than 98% reduction of P. digitatum and ca. 93% reduction of P. italicum compared with untreated fruit. Total suppression of pathogens was achieved when higher IMZ doses were applied. Studies on artificially wounded lemons, oranges, clementines, and mandarins revealed that treatment with 100 mg/liter TFX at 50 degrees C effectively controlled decay development (mainly due to P. digitatum) after 7 days of storage at 20 degrees C. These results were confirmed on nonwounded oranges of cv. Tarocco and on grapefruits of cvs. Marsh Seedless and Star Ruby during 3 weeks of simulated quarantine at 1 degrees C, storage (5 weeks at 8 degrees C for oranges and 8 weeks at 11degrees C for grapefruits), and an additional 1 week of simulated marketing conditions at 20 degrees C. IMZ at 50 degrees C was highly effective for controlling decay during storage and the simulated marketing period. TFX treatment at 50 degrees C was as effective as IMZ for controlling decay in most samples. After treatment with 100 mg/liter TFX at 20 degrees C, fungicide residues in 'Tarocco' oranges doubled from 0.15 mg/kg to 0.30 mg/kg when dip time increased from 0.5 to 3 min, whereas when treatments were performed at 50 degrees C TFX residues were not related to dipping time. Residues of TFX were significantly correlated with dip temperature. A 3-min dip treatment at 50 degrees C resulted in a deposition of TFX that was approximately twofold higher than that obtained when treatments were carried out at 20 degrees C. PMID:16865899

  14. Safe apples for baby-food production: survey of pesticide treatment regimes leaving minimum residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticha, Jana; Hajslova, Jana; Kovalczuk, Tomas; Jech, Martin; Honzicek, Jiri; Kocourek, Vladimir; Lansky, Miroslav; Kloutvorova, Jana; Falta, Vladan

    2007-06-01

    A total of 19 pesticide preparations were used according to agricultural practice in six trials in apple orchards. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), premature Golden Delicious apples collected 64, 50, 36 days before harvest and mature fruit were examined for residues of active ingredients. No residues of triflumuron, triazamate, chlorpyrifos, etofenprox, fenoxycarb, kresoxim-methyl, cyprodinyl, difenoconazole or thiram were detected in the first sampling. Also, the levels of chlorpyrifos-methyl, penconazole, tebuconazole and tolylfluanid dropped during the pre-harvest interval. Detectable residues of pyridaben, thiacloprid, trifloxystrobin and tetraconazole in harvested fruits were below 0.01 mg kg(-1), which is the maximum concentration of residues acceptable by baby-food producers in any raw material. The only residues exceeding this concentration were captan and teflubenzuron. Based on the data, farmers can choose pesticides for optimal treatment of plants, while enabling growth of a safe crop suitable for baby-food production. PMID:17487602

  15. POEM: PESTICIDE ORCHARD ECOSYSTEM MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pesticide Orchard Ecosystem Model (POEM) is a mathematical model of organophosphate pesticide movement in an apple orchard ecosystem. In addition submodels on invertebrate population dynamics are included. The fate model allows the user to select the pesticide, its applicatio...

  16. Consumer Products Treated with Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pesticides are widely used in the manufacture of textiles, plastics, paper, adhesives, and coatings. Any pesticide-treated ... Top of page Enforcement FIFRA does not allow companies to make public health pesticidal claims for any ...

  17. Ban of Neonicotinoid Pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Inthasen, Prapaporn

    2014-01-01

    European Union (EU) has banned the use of three pesticides: clothianidin, thiamethoxam and imidacloprid in bee attractive crops. These pesticides all belong to a pesticide group called neonicotinoids, and they are believed to be a contributing factor in the declining bee population. The ban was enforced in EU the 1st of December 2013. Neonicotinoids (clothianidin and thiamethoxam) are an important part of the control of pests in oilseed rape production in Danish agriculture. The neonicotinoid...

  18. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Information System contains information concerning all pesticide products registered in the United States. It includes registrant name and...

  19. 78 FR 72881 - Notice of Receipt of Requests to Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ...Titan FL............. Clothianidin, Thiram, Metalaxyl & Carboxin. 000264-01013...and Trifloxystrobin & Fungicide Seed Clothianidin. Treatment. 000264-01079...Three-Way VAP........ Clothianidin, Ipconazole & Metalaxyl....

  20. Pesticide exposure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James R; Karr, Catherine J

    2012-12-01

    Pesticides are a collective term for a wide array of chemicals intended to kill unwanted insects, plants, molds, and rodents. Food, water, and treatment in the home, yard, and school are all potential sources of children's exposure. Exposures to pesticides may be overt or subacute, and effects range from acute to chronic toxicity. In 2008, pesticides were the ninth most common substance reported to poison control centers, and approximately 45% of all reports of pesticide poisoning were for children. Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning are perhaps the most widely known acute poisoning syndromes, can be diagnosed by depressed red blood cell cholinesterase levels, and have available antidotal therapy. However, numerous other pesticides that may cause acute toxicity, such as pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and rodenticides, also have specific toxic effects; recognition of these effects may help identify acute exposures. Evidence is increasingly emerging about chronic health implications from both acute and chronic exposure. A growing body of epidemiological evidence demonstrates associations between parental use of pesticides, particularly insecticides, with acute lymphocytic leukemia and brain tumors. Prenatal, household, and occupational exposures (maternal and paternal) appear to be the largest risks. Prospective cohort studies link early-life exposure to organophosphates and organochlorine pesticides (primarily DDT) with adverse effects on neurodevelopment and behavior. Among the findings associated with increased pesticide levels are poorer mental development by using the Bayley index and increased scores on measures assessing pervasive developmental disorder, inattention, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Related animal toxicology studies provide supportive biological plausibility for these findings. Additional data suggest that there may also be an association between parental pesticide use and adverse birth outcomes including physical birth defects, low birth weight, and fetal death, although the data are less robust than for cancer and neurodevelopmental effects. Children's exposures to pesticides should be limited as much as possible. PMID:23184105

  1. Health effects of pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Seth, P. K.

    2003-01-01

    Tea industry is one of the most important agro-industry of the country. Wide scale use of pesticides in tea cultivation to protect the crops from insect and fungus has led to buildup of their residues in several parts of tea plant, and around the area. Some of the pesticides are toxic and injurious to health and affect the environment. In India, a large member of pesticides have been registered for use in tea cultivation. But only few are being used currently and for which maximum residue lev...

  2. Application of liquid chromatography with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry to the determination of a new generation of pesticides in processed fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannino, Anna; Bolzoni, Luciana; Bandini, Mirella

    2004-05-21

    This paper describes a method for the sensitive and selective determination of 24 new pesticide residues (azoxystrobin, trifloxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl, fenazaquin, indoxacarb, fenothiocarb, furathiocarb, benfuracarb, imidachloprid, dimethomorph, fenpyroximate, hexythiazox, tebufenpyrad, tebufenozide, difeconazole, fenbuconazole, flusilazole, paclobutrazol, tebuconazole, tetraconazole, bromuconazole, etofenprox, fenhexamid, pyridaben) in apple puree, concentrated lemon juice and tomato puree. A miniaturized extraction-partition procedure requiring small amounts of non-chlorinated solvents was used. The extracts are analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) without any further clean-up step. The pesticides are separated on a reversed-phase polar column using a gradient elution. Fifty-five simultaneous MS-MS transitions of precursor ions were monitored (two or three for each pesticide). Studies at fortification levels of 0.001-0.020 and 0.010-0.200 mg/kg gave mean recoveries ranging from 76 to 106% for all compounds, except for imidacloprid, with (R.S.D.s) < or = 15%. The excellent sensitivity and selectivity of LC-MS-MS method allowed quantitation and identification at low levels also in difficult matrices with a run time of 20 min. With the developed method almost 100 samples of commercial fruit products (nectars, juices, purees) were analyzed. None of samples contained residues higher than 0.010 mg/kg. PMID:15146917

  3. The Danish Pesticide Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Branth; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted

    2015-01-01

    This case study analyses the effects of the Danish pesticide tax (1996-2013) on agriculture which was introduced as an ad valorem tax in 1996, doubled in 1998, and redesigned in 2013 as a tax based on the toxicity of the pesticides. The Danish pesticide taxes probably represent the world’s highest pesticide taxes on agriculture, which makes it interesting to analyze how effective they have been. Here the effects of the ad valorem tax (1996-2013) are analyzed. The case study demonstrates the challenges of choosing an optimal tax design in a complex political setting where, additionally, not all individuals in the target group necessarily react to the economic incentives as predicted by economic modeling. It also demonstrates that a small first green-tax-step over time might develop into a better tax design.

  4. Pesticide-Exposure Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    The "Pesticide-exposure Matrix" was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years.

  5. Farmers and Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )

    2006-05-23

    Modern pesticides have helped make farming far more productive. But they've also caused countless accidental poisonings. Now, a new study suggests that even the routine use of pesticides can pose serious health risks in the long run.This Science Update also contains in text format details of the research, which leads to these findings presented in the Science Update podcast. It also offers links to the other podcasts topics and resources for further inquiry.

  6. [Neurotoxicology of pesticides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Hiroo

    2015-01-01

    Pesticides have been used for many years for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating pests such as insects, rodents, and weeds. However, most pesticides are not completely specific for pests and can also induce damage to the human nervous system. In particular, insecticides often directly targets the nervous system by affecting major targets such as the neuro-transmitter metabolism, neuronal receptors, and ion channels; acetylcholine (ACh) esterase for organo-phosphates and carbamates, nicotinic ACh receptor for neonicotinoids, ?-aminobutyric acid receptors/chloride channels for organochlorides and fipronil, and voltage-gated sodium channel for pyrethroids. Additional targets include sites in the sodium channels, glutamate-gated chloride channels, and octopamine and ryanodine receptors. Several pesticides also produce adverse neurological effects indirectly by disrupting the general cellular mechanisms that support the high metabolic activity of the nervous system. Nowadays, more potent pesticides are being developed as replacements for the older, harmful ones. Pesticide neurotoxicity in humans may involve the central or peripheral nervous system or both and may induce typical neuronal damage in case of acute poisoning even by new agents. However, whether effect of exposure to pesticides at below acute-poisoning threshold level remains unclear. Moreover, neurotoxicology for behavioral and higher-brain function remains an unresolved and a challenging problem. PMID:25585434

  7. Genotoxicity of chlororganic pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Kazakhstan there are the warehouses of the obsolete pesticides and their container which should be buried in special burial grounds or neutralized to minimize dangerous genetic and ecological risks. The results of two yr of research were identification of substances stored in 64 former warehouses of pesticides. 64 former warehouses (in the 10 areas of Almaty oblast) are on distance of 250 km from a large city of Almaty (the former capital of Kazakhstan). A total of 352,6 ton of obsolete pesticides and 250 ton of their container were disposed. We determined the residues of DDT metabolites (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and HCH isomers (hexachlorocyclohexane) in soil around pesticides warehouses where their concentrations exceed MAC (maximum concentration limit) in tens - hundreds times. To analyze a genotoxicity of chlororganic pesticides we used their concentrations that were found in soil from former warehouses. The analysis of structural mutations of chromosomes was carried out by metaphase method in I mitoses meristem cells of barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.). It was ascertained that HCH isomers and DDT metabolites have genotoxic effect exceeding spontaneous mutation in 5-7 times. High contaminations by pesticides on soil around of warehouses and their ability to induce chromosome aberrations in plant cells indicate that warehouses are a new centre of contamination by POP's (proof organic pollutants). (author)

  8. The Lasting Threat of Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Laura X.

    Over the past several weeks, a plethora of news articles have featured pesticides: the recent findings that amniotic fluids (which surround a fetus in the womb) contain detectable levels of pesticides in 30% of tested women; the fact that, in addition to the already-established link to cancers, pesticide exposure during pregnancy may also be linked to child learning disabilities, such as Hyperactivity or Attention Deficit Disorder; and the initiation of a multi-agency proposal to impose a sales tax on agricultural chemicals, such as pesticides and insecticides. Despite continued controversy over the real health effects of pesticides, few argue about the global increase in pesticide use. With the increase in pesticide use, there is a concomitant increase in the amount of unused, stored (or more accurately, abandoned) pesticides. This week's In The News addresses the fate of unused pesticides -- the several hundred thousand tons of obsolete, dangerous pesticides that currently plague several countries around the globe. Many of these obsolete pesticides were banned from use after import, were oversupplied or sent as duplicate supplies by aid agencies, or were inappropriate for local use. The nine resources listed provide background information and scientific resources on pesticides and the obsolete pesticide problem.

  9. Human Health Benchmarks for Pesticides

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Advanced testing methods now allow pesticides to be detected in water at very low levels. These small amounts of pesticides detected in drinking water or source...

  10. Pesticides (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Basics Pesticides are substances we use to control or kill pests. Pests can be weeds, insects, rodents, or bacteria — anything ... t want to have around. Show more Sometimes pesticides work too well. They may not only harm ...

  11. Bioefficacy, residue dynamics and safety assessment of the combination fungicide trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50%-75 WG in managing early blight of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sujoy; Purath, Ahammed Shabeer Thekkum; Jadhav, Manjusha R; Loganathan, M; Banerjee, Kaushik; Rai, A B

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the in vitro and in vivo bioefficacy of a combination fungicide trifloxystrobin (25%) + tebuconazole (50%) against early blight disease of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) caused by Alternaria solani and their corresponding pre-harvest intervals (PHI) with reference to the maximum residue limits (European Union). Bioefficacy of the test fungicide combination revealed that in vitro conditions manifested the best control (75.1%) at 350 mg kg(-1) against 76.2% control under field conditions. A sample preparation method based on ethyl acetate extraction and estimation by LC-MS multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was validated in tomato fruits at 0.01 mg/kg and dissipation studies were conducted in field at single and double doses. The residues of both the compounds on all the sampling days were below the European Union maximum residue limits (EU-MRLs) and the maximum permissible intakes (MPIs) were calculated on the basis of prescribed acceptable daily intake (ADI). The combined bioefficacy and residue dynamics information will support label-claim of this fungicide combination for the management of early blight in tomato. PMID:24328546

  12. Toxic effects of three strobilurins (trifloxystrobin, azoxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl) on mRNA expression and antioxidant enzymes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Jiang, Chao; Wu, Zhuo-Qi; Gong, Yu-Xin; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2013-12-01

    The strobilurins are used widely in the world as effective fungicidal agents to control Asian soybean rust. In this study, the early life stage of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), which is one of the most important aquaculture species in China, was chosen to measure the acute toxicity of three common strobilurin-derived fungicides (trifloxystrobin (TFS), azoxystrobin (AZ) and kresoxim-methyl (KM)). As endpoints, normal developmental parameters (lethal concentration (LC??) and average heart rate), expression of relative genes, and three antioxidant enzyme activities in the developing juveniles were recorded during a 48 h exposure. The results revealed that values of LC?? were TFS 0.051 (0.046-0.058) mg L?¹, AZ 0.549 (0.419-0.771) mg L?¹ and KM 0.338 (0.284-0.407) mg L?¹ for juveniles. For the potential toxicity mechanisms, these three fungicides increased catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activity and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, significantly inhibited expressions of three growth-related genes (IGF-1, IGF-2 and GHR) and two energy-related-genes (CCK and PYY), and caused pronounced up-regulation a stress-gene (HSP70). The present study demonstrated potential toxic effects of TFS, AZ and KM on the early development of C. idella. Overall, three strobilurins (TFS, AZ and KM) might cause serious damages to the aquatic species; therefore, their pollution supervision in water ecological environment should be strengthened. PMID:24210350

  13. Aplicação da cromatografia gasosa bidimensional abrangente com microdetector de captura de elétrons para determinação de agrotóxicos em sedimentos / Application of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detection for determination of pesticides in sediments

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana Macedo da, Silva; Cláudia Alcaraz, Zini; Elina Bastos, Caramão.

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Analysis of seven pesticides in sediments was successfully achieved using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detection, as it provided higher sensitivity and less matrix interference. Repeatability and intermediate precision of peak areas and heights were le [...] ss than 4% and the recovery percentage for the analytes ranged from 52 to 115%. Instrumental LOD and LOQ were in the range of 0.60 to 2.31 ?g L-1 and 1.83 to 5.62 ?g L-1, respectively. Concentrations of 3.34 ?g kg-1 (dry basis) for trifloxystrobin and azoxystrobin (below the LOQ) were found in a sediment sample.

  14. Decontaminating pesticide protective clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, J

    1993-01-01

    The review of recent work on the mechanisms of soil removal from textiles assists in understanding decontamination of pesticide protective clothing. The current work provides explanatory conclusions about residue retention as a basis of making recommendations for the most effective decontamination procedures. A caution about generalizations: Some pesticides produce very idiosyncratic responses to decontamination. An example is the paraquat/salt response. Other pesticides exhibit noticeable and unique responses to a highly alkaline medium (carbaryl), or to bleach (chlorpyrifos), or are quickly volatilized (methyl parathion). Responses such as these do not apply to other pesticides undergoing decontamination. Given this caution, there are soil, substrate, and solvent responses that do maximize residue removal. Residue removal is less complete as the concentration of pesticide increases. The concentration of pesticide in fabric builds with successive exposures, and the more concentrated the pesticide, the more difficult the removal. Use a prewash product and/or presoak. The surfactant and/or solvent in a prewash product is a booster in residue removal. Residues transfer from contaminated clothing to other clothing during the washing cycle. Use a full washer of water for a limited number of garments to increase residue removal. The hotter the washing temperature, the better. Generally, this means a water temperature of at least 49 degrees C, and preferably 60 degrees C. Select the detergent shown to be more effective for the formulation: heavy-duty liquid detergents for emulsifiable concentrate formulations and powdered phosphate detergents for wettable powder formulations. If the fabric has a soil-repellent finish, use 1.25 times the amount recommended on the detergent label. For water hardness above 300 ppm, an additional amount of powdered phosphate detergent is needed to obtain the same level of residue removal as obtained with the heavy-duty liquid detergent when laundering fabrics with the soil-repellent finish. The mechanical action of agitation increases dislodgement of particulate material. Too many items in the washing apparatus or too low water volume, or both, decrease agitation and soil removal. Bleach can be used if desired. Fabric softener does not affect pesticide absorption or residue removal in laundering. Dry cleaning is not recommended because the solvents used in dry cleaning may be recycled through dilution, filtration, activated charcoal adsorption, or distillation. Pesticides still may be present in recycled solvents and can be transferred from one item to another, or from one load to subsequent loads of dry cleaning. PMID:8419989

  15. On the paradox of pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Y. Charles; Yang, Yipeng

    2013-01-01

    The paradox of pesticides was observed experimentally, which says that pesticides may dramatically increase the population of a pest when the pest has a natural predator. Here we use a mathematical model to study the paradox. We find that the timing for the application of pesticides is crucial for the resurgence or non-resurgence of the pests. In particular, regularly applying pesticides is not a good idea as also observed in experiments. In fact, the best time to apply pest...

  16. Pesticide Action Network UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pesticide Action Network UK (PAN UK) is a nonprofit organization that "promotes healthy food, agriculture and an environment which will provide food and meet public health needs without dependence on toxic chemicals, and without harm to food producers and agricultural workers.� Through its website, PAN UK offers a number of downloadable publications including briefings; fact sheets for active ingredients like aldicarb, cypermethrin, methyl parathion, and paraquat; monthly gardening tips, and annual reviews. Site visitors can also search for pesticide-related images and numerous publication listings through the website's Photographic Database and Research Database. The site also contains pesticide-related news, press releases, and information about PAN UK activities in the United Kingdom, Europe, and around the world. Many related links are included as well in such categories as Conferences, Consumer Links, Databases & Resources, Integrated Pest Management, and more.

  17. Pesticides and Eggshell Thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Tucker

    2009-01-01

    This lab activity is about toxic substances like pesticides and their effects on biological systems. The activity starts with an introduction of how birds sequester calcium to make an egg. Learners are asked to bring eggshells from home from different kinds of birds, if possible. These shells are prepared for analysis. Learners discover how to prepare a primary acid, neutralize a base, and calculate the percentage of CaCO3 in shell material. These results lead to a discussion of how calcium moves through this biochemical system and how a pesticide can prevent calcium from building eggshell. This resource includes tips, some related to safety; adult supervision recommended.

  18. On the paradox of pesticides

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Y Charles

    2013-01-01

    The paradox of pesticides was observed experimentally, which says that pesticides may dramatically increase the population of a pest when the pest has a natural predator. Here we use a mathematical model to study the paradox. We find that the timing for the application of pesticides is crucial for the resurgence or non-resurgence of the pests. In particular, regularly applying pesticides is not a good idea as also observed in experiments. In fact, the best time to apply pesticides is when the pest population is reasonably high.

  19. A Test House Study of Pesticides and PesticideDegradation Products Following an Indoor Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preexisting pesticide degradates are a concern for pesticide biomonitoring studies as exposure to them may result in overestimation of pesticide exposure. The purpose of this research was to determine whether there was significant formation and movement, of pesticide degradates o...

  20. Pesticides and Mosquito Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    This factsheet from the Environmental Protection Agency includes several summary documents on the problem of mosquito-borne diseases and the pesticides used to control mosquitoes. The resources cover issues from mosquito biology through the EPA's recent findings on the negative health impacts of Malathion.

  1. PESTICIDE ROOT ZONE MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    PRZM3 is a modeling system that links two subordinate models - PRZM and VADOFT to predict pesticide transport and transformation down through the crop root and unsaturated zone. PRZM3 includes modeling capabilities for such phenomena as soil temperature simulation, vo...

  2. Genotoxic effects of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornuta, N; Bagley, E; Nedopitanskaya, N

    1996-01-01

    Epidemiologic data showed an increase in the number of cancer cases in persons involved in agricultural production using pesticides. According to IARC, more than 25% of pesticides are classified as oncogens. In recent years, the concept of malignant tumors developing after environmental contamination with chemicals has been accepted. Changes in genetic material are at the basis of this process because many environmental pollutants are chemical carcinogens and mutagens with the capacity of causing DNA damage. DNA damage was proposed as a useful parameter for assessing the genotoxic properties of environmental pollutants. The correlation between exposure to carcinogenic substance and the level of DNA damage is essential. Pesticides are highly biologically active chemicals. They may interact with DNA and damage its structure. Such interaction may be critical for the manifestation of carcinogenic properties of different chemicals. We report on the organotropic genotoxic effects of different chemical classes of pesticides (decis, cypermetrin, 2,4-D, polyram) studied by means of alkaline unwinding assay DNA. PMID:9216788

  3. 75 FR 69005 - Flumioxazin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ...Mail: Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP...the filing of a pesticide petition (PP...or on commodity fish, freshwater at...legal limit for a pesticide chemical residue in or on...Flumioxazin. Human Health Risk...

  4. Effects of Urbanization on Water Quality: Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page The effects of urbanization on water quality: Pesticides Pesticides are chemical and biological substances intended to control pests, such as insects, weeds, bacteria, and algae. Pesticides are heavily used on farmland, but in urban ...

  5. 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP) covers discharges of biological pesticides, and chemical pesticides that leave a residue, in areas where EPA is the...

  6. Radiation induced microbial pesticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author)

  7. Radiation induced microbial pesticide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Sang Jae

    2000-01-01

    To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author)

  8. Modelling pesticides residues

    OpenAIRE

    Charles, Raphael

    2004-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the development of a specific method to assess the presence of residues in agricultural commodities. The following objectives are formulated: to identify and describe main processes in environment — plant exchanges, to build of a model to assess the residue concentration at harvest in agricultural commodities, to understand the functioning of the modelled system, to characterise pesticides used in field crops and identify optimisation potentials in phytosanitary...

  9. Transporte de agrotóxicos em lavoura de arroz irrigado sob três manejos de irrigação / Pesticide transport in rice field under three irrigation managements

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.F.D., Martini; L.A., Avila; G.V., Cassol; R., Zanella; S.L.O., Machado; M.S., Marques; M., De Vicari.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo de arroz irrigado no Rio Grande do Sul caracteriza-se pela permanência de lâmina de irrigação sobre o solo, o que ocasiona perdas de agrotóxicos na ocorrência de chuvas; portanto, o adequado manejo de irrigação pode influenciar na redução do transporte destes para o ambiente. O objetivo de [...] ste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes manejos de irrigação no extravasamento da água e no transporte e persistência de clomazone, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, trifloxystrobin e propiconazol em lavoura de arroz irrigado. Os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial consistiram nos manejos de irrigação por inundação contínua, intermitente e por banhos (fator A) e pelos agrotóxicos mencionados (fator B). Determinou-se o volume total de água extravasada e a taxa de dissipação e transporte desses agrotóxicos. Devido ao maior armazenamento de água da chuva, quando comparadas com a irrigação contínua, as irrigações intermitente e por banhos proporcionaram diminuição de 53 e 95% do volume de água perdida, resultando, respectivamente, em redução de 49 e 64% na massa total de agrotóxicos transportados para o ambiente, em relação ao total aplicado na lavoura. A massa de agrotóxico transportada não ultrapassou 3% do total aplicado, e as maiores concentrações de agrotóxicos em água ocorreram próximo à sua aplicação. Com base nesses resultados, salienta-se que os manejos de irrigação intermitente e por banhos minimizam o transporte de agrotóxicos para o ambiente. Abstract in english Rice crop in the state of Rio Grande do Sul is characterized by the presence of water layer on the soil, which can cause pesticide runoff during the occurrence of rainfall. Thus, proper irrigation management can reduce pesticide transport into the environment. The objective of this study was to eval [...] uate the effect of different irrigation managements on water runoff, transport and dissipation of clomazone, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, trifloxystrobin, and propiconazol. The treatments were arranged in a factorial scheme and consisted of continuous flooding, intermittent flooding, and flushing irrigation (factor A) and by the application of the pesticides listed above (factor B). Total water runoff, and pesticide transport and dissipation rate were evaluated. Due to the larger rainfall storage, compared with continuous flooding, intermittent flooding and flushing irrigation provided a reduction of 53 and 95% of water runoff, resulting, respectively, in a reduction of 49 and 64% of the total mass transported into the environment in relation to the total applied in the field. The pesticide mass transported was lower than 3% of the total amount applied. Based on these results, it could be concluded that intermittent flooding and flushing irrigation minimize pesticide transport into the environment.Since the highest pesticide concentrations occur close to application time, it is of fundamental importance to conduct proper irrigation management providing maximum permanence in the environment.

  10. The Geochemistry of Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbash, J. E.

    2003-12-01

    The mid-1970s marked a major turning point in human history, for it was at that moment that the ability of the Earth's ecosystems to absorb most of the biological impacts of human activities appears to have been exceeded by the magnitude of those impacts. This conclusion is based partly upon estimates of the rate of carbon dioxide emission during the combustion of fossil fuels, relative to the rate of its uptake by terrestrial ecosystems (Loh, 2002). A very different threshold, however, had already been crossed several decades earlier with the birth of the modern chemical industry, which produced novel substances for which no such natural assimilative capacity existed. Among these new chemical compounds, none has posed a greater challenge to the planet's ecosystems than synthetic pesticides, compounds that have been intentionally released into the hydrologic system in vast quantities - several hundred million pounds of active ingredient per year in the United States alone ( Donaldson et al., 2002) - for many decades. To gauge the extent to which we are currently able to assess the environmental implications of this new development in the Earth's history, this chapter presents an overview of current understanding regarding the sources, transport, fate and biological effects of pesticides, their transformation products, and selected adjuvants in the hydrologic system. (Adjuvants are the so-called "inert ingredients" included in commercial pesticide formulations to enhance the effectiveness of the active ingredients.)

  11. Reducing the impact of pesticides on biological control in Australian vineyards: pesticide mortality and fecundity effects on an indicator species, the predatory mite Euseius victoriensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Martina B; Cole, Peter; Kobelt, Amanda; Horne, Paul A; Altmann, James; Wratten, Stephen D; Yen, Alan L

    2010-12-01

    Laboratory bioassays on detached soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., leaves were used to test 23 fungicides, five insecticides, two acaricides, one herbicide, and two adjuvants on a key Australian predatory mite species Euseius victoriensis (Womersley) in "worst-case scenario" direct overspray assays. Zero- to 48-h-old juveniles, their initial food, and water supply were sprayed to runoff with a Potter tower; spinosad and wettable sulfur residues also were tested. Tests were standardized to deliver a pesticide dose comparable with commercial application of highest label rates at 1,000 liter/ha. Cumulative mortality was assessed 48 h, 4 d, and 7 d after spraying. Fecundity was assessed for 7 d from start of oviposition. No significant mortality or fecundity effects were detected for the following compounds at single-use application at 1,000 liter/ha: azoxystrobin, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subsp. kurstaki, captan, chlorothalonil, copper hydroxide, fenarimol, glyphosate, hexaconazole, indoxacarb, metalaxyl/copper hydroxide, myclobutanil, nonyl phenol ethylene oxide, phosphorous acid, potassium bicarbonate, pyraclostrobin, quinoxyfen, spiroxamine, synthetic latex, tebufenozide, triadimenol, and trifloxystrobin. Iprodione and penconazole had some detrimental effect on fecundity. Canola oil as acaricide (2 liter/100 liter) and wettable sulfur (200 g/100 liter) had some detrimental effect on survival and fecundity and cyprodinil/fludioxonil on survivor. The following compounds were highly toxic (high 48-h mortality): benomyl, carbendazim, emamectin benzoate, mancozeb, spinosad (direct overspray and residue), wettable sulfur (> or = 400 g/100 liter), and pyrimethanil; pyrimethanil had no significant effect on fecundity of surviving females. Indoxacarb safety to E. victoriensis contrasts with its toxicity to key parasitoids and chrysopid predators. Potential impact of findings is discussed. PMID:21309226

  12. Desenvolvimento de métodos analíticos para determinação de agrotóxicos em sedimentos por cromatografia gasosa monodimensional e bidimensional abrangente com micro detector de captura de elétrons Development of analytical methods for pesticides in sediments by monodimensional and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro electron-capture detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Macedo da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of analytical methods for determination of eight pesticides of different chemical classes (trichlorfon, propanil, fipronil, propiconazole, trifloxystrobin, permethrin, difenoconazole and azoxystrobin in sediments with gas chromatography-micro-electron capture detector (GC/µECD and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detector (GCxGC/µECD is described. These methods were applied to real sediment samples, and the best results were obtained using a 5% diphenyl-methylpolysiloxane column for 1D-GC. For GCxGC the same column was employed in the first dimension and a 50%-phenyl-methylpolysiloxane stationary phase was placed in the second dimension. Due to the superior peak capacity and selectivity of GCxGC, interfering matrix peaks were separated from analytes, showing a better performance of GCxGC.

  13. Desenvolvimento de métodos analíticos para determinação de agrotóxicos em sedimentos por cromatografia gasosa monodimensional e bidimensional abrangente com micro detector de captura de elétrons / Development of analytical methods for pesticides in sediments by monodimensional and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro electron-capture detection

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana Macedo da, Silva; Cláudia Alcaraz, Zini; Elina Bastos, Caramão; Ewelin Monica Paturi Navarro, Canizares; Karen Alam, Leal.

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english The development of analytical methods for determination of eight pesticides of different chemical classes (trichlorfon, propanil, fipronil, propiconazole, trifloxystrobin, permethrin, difenoconazole and azoxystrobin) in sediments with gas chromatography-micro-electron capture detector (GC/µECD) and [...] comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detector (GCxGC/µECD) is described. These methods were applied to real sediment samples, and the best results were obtained using a 5% diphenyl-methylpolysiloxane column for 1D-GC. For GCxGC the same column was employed in the first dimension and a 50%-phenyl-methylpolysiloxane stationary phase was placed in the second dimension. Due to the superior peak capacity and selectivity of GCxGC, interfering matrix peaks were separated from analytes, showing a better performance of GCxGC.

  14. CHIRAL PESTICIDES: OCCURRENCE AND SIGNIFICANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Like amino acids, certain pesticides exist in "left-handed" and "right-handed" (chiral) forms. Commercially available chiral pesticides are produced as racemic mixtures in which the ratio of the two forms (or enantiomers) is 1:1. Enantiomers have the same ...

  15. Quality control of pesticide products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In light of an established need for more efficient analytical procedures, this publication, which documents the findings of an IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on “Quality Control of Pesticide Products”, simplifies the existing protocol for pesticide analysis while simultaneously upholding existing standards of quality. This publication includes both a report on the development work done in the CRP and a training manual for use by pesticide analysis laboratories. Based on peer reviewed and internationally recognized methods published by the Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC) and the Collaborative International Pesticides Analytical Council (CIPAC), this report provides laboratories with versatile tools to enhance the analysis of pesticide chemicals and to extend the scope of available analytical repertoires. Adoption of the proposed analytical methodologies promises to reduce laboratories’ use of solvents and the time spent on reconfiguration and set-up of analytical equipment

  16. The ARS Pesticide Properties Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maintained by the Agricultural Research Service's (ARS) Remote Sensing and Modeling Lab, the ARS Pesticide Properties Database "is a compendium of chemical and physical properties of 324 widely used pesticides." The database, organized alphabetically, focuses on "16 of the most important properties" affecting pesticide transport and degradation characteristics under different soil and weather conditions. For each pesticide, users will find information on CASRN, Molecular formula, Molecular weight, Physical state, Boiling point, Melting point, Decomposition point, Heat of vaporization, Rate Constants-Hydrolysis (Photolysis), Vapor pressure, Water solubility, Organic solubility, Henry's Law, Octanol/ water partitioning, Acid dissociation, Soil sorption, Field dissipation, and Soil halflife (aerobic, anaerobic). Also provided are several sections describing the properties and units of pesticide parameters, a Coden list, and links to a few related sites.

  17. Kombinationseffekter af pesticider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudsk, Per; Andersen, Helle Raun

    2006-01-01

    Resumé: Effekten af 101 tokomponentblandinger og 20 trekomponentblandinger bestående af 22 forskellige pesticider blev undersøgt i 7 forskellige testsystemer. Effekterne af blandingerne blev sammenholdt med pesticidernes virkningsmekanismer/virkemåder med henblik på at undersøge, om det med baggrund i denne viden var muligt prediktere, hvorvidt blandingerne ville udvise additivitet, antagonisme eller synergisme. Endvidere blev undersøgt i hvor vid udstrækning resultaterne fra et testsystem kunne overføres til andre testsystemer. Hovedparten af blandingerne virkede additivt, og der blev generelt fundet en god overensstemmelse imellem terrestriske og akvatiske planter samt Microtox testen og dafnier.

  18. Progress in studies on genotoxicity of pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticides are playing an important role in food production and food security. However, the ecoenvironment and human being could be impacted by improper use of some pesticides. An increasing attention has been paid to genotoxicity of pesticide and a progress has been made in recent years. The methodology, results, and probable mechanisms of genotoxicity of pesticide are reviewed in this article. (authors)

  19. Fact Sheets on Pesticides in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Coalition against the Misuse of Pesticides, Washington, DC.

    This document consists of a collection of fact sheets about the use of pesticides in schools and how to reduce it. The sheets are: (1) "Alternatives to Using Pesticides in Schools: What Is Integrated Pest Management?"; (2) "Health Effects of 48 Commonly Used Pesticides in Schools"; (3) "The Schooling of State Pesticide Laws--2002 Update: A Review…

  20. The Greening of Pesticide–Environment Interactions: Some Personal Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Casida, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pesticide–environment interactions are bidirectional. The environment alters pesticides by metabolism and photodegradation, and pesticides in turn change the environment through nontarget or secondary effects.

  1. PESTICIDE APPLICATION TECHNICS IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?uro Banaj

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The academic textbook Pesticide application tehnics improvement is the result of several-year recording theoretical models, numerous practical tests, and data collection relating to technical systems in plant protection and its environment in the narrowest sense. In this first edition, the authors cover the area they have dealt with for many years. The authors aimed to present complete and clear methods how to solve specific problems in the agricultural practice management, plant protection, and direct practice application – ‘‘Know- How'', with as many as possible useful data. References used, along with local ones, are mostly American and from Western Europe. This textbook is intended for those who already use the agricultural technique in plant protection and those who are just acquiring the basics of technical systems proper application in daily practice, regardless the size of the agricultural farm. The authors covered in details and explained some bases of physics logic, analysis, and synthesis of specific laws while using pesticides due to extremely importance in understanding the problem area.

  2. 77 FR 23713 - Pesticides; Final Guidance on Material Safety Data Sheets as Pesticide Labeling; Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2012-0176; FRL-9343-9] Pesticides; Final Guidance on Material Safety Data Sheets as Pesticide Labeling; Request for Comment on Paperwork...Agency is announcing the availability of a Pesticide Registration Notice (PR Notice)...

  3. 40 CFR 168.22 - Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA section 24(c) registrations...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATEMENTS OF ENFORCEMENT...

  4. 75 FR 33705 - Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Change to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2005-0327; FRL-8830-7] RIN 2070-AJ74 Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Change to Labeling...SUMMARY: EPA is amending the pesticide container and containment regulations...

  5. Pesticide use and application: An Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural development continues to remain the most important objective of Indian planning and policy. In the process of development of agriculture, pesticides have become an important tool as a plant protection agent for boosting food production. Further, pesticides play a significant role by keeping many dreadful diseases. However, exposure to pesticides both occupationally and environmentally causes a range of human health problems. It has been observed that the pesticides exposures are increasingly linked to immune suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities and cancer. Currently, India is the largest producer of pesticides in Asia and ranks twelfth in the world for the use of pesticides. A vast majority of the population in India is engaged in agriculture and is therefore exposed to the pesticides used in agriculture. Although Indian average consumption of pesticide is far lower than many other developed economies, the problem of pesticide residue is very high in India. Pesticide residue in several crops has also affected the export of agricultural commodities in the last few years. In this context, pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, proper application technologies, and integrated pest management are some of the key strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides. There is a dearth of studies related to these issues in India. Therefore, the thrust of this paper was to review the technology of applicati was to review the technology of application of pesticides in India and recommend future strategies for the rational use of pesticides and minimizing the problems related to health and environment.

  6. Validation and global uncertainty of a liquid chromatographic with diode array detection method for the screening of azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl, trifloxystrobin, famoxadone, pyraclostrobin and fenamidone in grapes and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo Abreu, Susana; Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo; Garau, Vincenzo Luigi; Alves, Arminda

    2006-07-28

    Azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl, trifloxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, famoxadone and fenamidone are permitted Q(o) Inhibitor (Q(o)I) fungicides applied to vine in some European countries for the treatment of downy and powdery mildews. In this work, a method is validated for the analysis of these fungicides in grapes and wine. This screening method consists in a simple one step liquid-liquid extraction followed by liquid chromatography (LC) fitted with a diode array detector (DAD). Limits of detection for grapes and wine were below 0.2 mg kg(-1) or mg l(-1), precision was not above 13%, and recoveries were, on average, 95+/-5% for grapes and 104+/-6% for wine. Global uncertainties evaluated in the concentration range from 0.25 to 2.50 mg l(-1) were below 20%. A confirmatory method by gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometry (MS) detection was used. PMID:17723536

  7. Acute pesticide poisoning and pesticide registration in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has been for 20 years the most acknowledged international initiative for reducing negative impact from pesticide use in developing countries. We analyzed pesticide use and poisoning in Central America, particularly in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, and evaluated whether registration decisions are based on such data, in accordance with the FAO Code. Extensive use of very hazardous pesticides continues in Central America and so do poisonings with organophosphates, carbamates, endosulfan and paraquat as the main causative agents. Central American governments do not carry out or commission scientific risk assessments. Instead, guidelines from international agencies are followed for risk management through the registration process. Documentation of pesticide poisonings during several decades never induced any decision to ban or restrict a pesticide. However, based on the official surveillance systems, in 2000, the ministers of health of the seven Central American countries agreed to ban or restrict twelve of these pesticides. Now, almost 4 years later, restrictions have been implemented in El Salvador and in Nicaragua public debate is ongoing. Chemical and agricultural industries do not withdraw problematic pesticides voluntarily. In conclusion, the registration processes in Central America do not comply satisfactorily with the FAO Codnot comply satisfactorily with the FAO Code. However, international regulatory guidelines are important in developing countries, and international agencies should strongly extend its scope and influence, limiting industry involvement. Profound changes in international and national agricultural policies, steering towards sustainable agriculture based on non-chemical pest management, are the only way to reduce poisonings

  8. Evidence for genotoxicity of pesticides in pesticide applicators: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Bull, S.; Fletcher, K.; Boobis, A. R.; Battershill, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature has been conducted and studies reporting investigations of genotoxicity biomarkers in pesticide workers have been assessed with view to establishing whether there was evidence for any risk to those using pesticides approved in the United Kingdom. Each of the studies was evaluated using a set of criteria drawn up by members of the UK Committee of Mutagenicity based upon the guidelines proposed by the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) workin...

  9. Radiation induced pesticidal microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, D. S

    2001-01-01

    To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants.

  10. Radiation induced pesticidal microbes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants

  11. Use of pesticides in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Republic of Kazakhstan has 210 regional stations, 19 provincial stations and one co-ordinating government research and production station, all known as Republic Stations for Plant Protection. These stations have the following functions: they control pesticide use and development, and monitor pest populations; they inform and teach farmers the methods for controlling insect pests, diseases and weeds, and the rules for safe pesticide use; and they continually monitor the presence or spread of any adverse effects in order to make short and long term prognoses, which are then used to determine the pesticide requirements. The major functions of these government stations is to control the timely distribution of pesticides and their safe and timely application, so that regulations for their use can be monitored and control over technology maintained. The co-ordinating station evaluates all projects, provides documentation on the use and storage of pesticides, controls field trials carried out by foreign companies on the Republic's territory and regulates pesticide usage during campaigns against insect pests, diseases and weeds. The regional and district subdivisions of these government stations promote integrated pest management for protecting harvests. (author)

  12. PESTIS: Pesticide Action Network North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the word Action in its title indicates, PESTIS is definitely an advocacy group and is not moderate on its feelings about pesticides. In fact, a part of PESTIS, is PANNA (Pesticide Action Network North America), which "works to replace pesticide use with ecologically sound and socially just alternatives." Regardless of your feeling towards pesticides, this Web site includes all sorts of data and information related to pesticide use, including ecotoxicological studies on fish, amphibians, fungi, and more, to ideas for alternatives to pesticides. And, for those visitors interested in furthering their own activism, there is a link to current PESTIS projects and campaigns and ways to help.

  13. 78 FR 3418 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Web-Distributed Labeling for Pesticide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ...labeling, a user would visit the Web site identified on the pesticide...intended state and use site. The Web site would return a streamlined version...recommends content, function, and security for the Web site associated with a...

  14. Challenges in Regulating Pesticide Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Denton

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the field of mixture toxicity and the challenges in regulating pesticide mixtures. Even though pesticides are unique chemical stressors designed to have biological activity that can affect a number of nontarget species, they are intentionally placed into the environment in large quantities. Currently, methods and terminology for evaluating mixture toxicity are poorly established. The most common approach used is the assumption of additive concentration, with the concentrations adjusted for potency to a reference toxicant. Using this approach, the joint action of pesticides that have similar chemical structures and modes of toxic action can be predicted. However, this approach and other modeling techniques often provide little insight into the observed toxicity produced by mixtures of pesticides from different classes. Particularly difficult to model are mixtures that involve a secondary toxicant that changes the toxicokinetics of a primary toxicant. This may result in increased activation or a change in the persistence of the primary toxicant within the organism and may be responsible for a several-fold increase or decrease in toxicity. At present, the ecological effects caused by mixtures of pesticides are given little consideration in the regulatory process. However, mixtures are being considered in relation to human health in the pesticide registration process, setting a precedent that could be followed for ecological protection. Additionally, pesticide mixtures may be regulated through toxicity testing of surface water under the Clean Water Act. The limits of our basic knowledge of how mixtures interact are compromising both these avenues for regulating mixtures. We face many challenges to adequately protecting the environment from mixture toxicity; these challenges include understanding the interactions of toxicants within an organism, identifying the mixtures that most commonly occur and cause adverse effects, and developing a regulatory structure capable of minimizing environmental impacts.

  15. Evaluation of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detection for the analysis of seven pesticides in sediment samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Juliana Macedo; Zini, Cláudia Alcaraz; Caramão, Elina Bastos

    2011-05-27

    A GC-?ECD and a GC×GC-?ECD method were developed for the analysis of pesticides in sediments. For 1D-GC, instrumental LOD and LOQ were found in the range from 0.60 to 2.31?gL(-1) and 1.83 to 5.62?gL(-1), respectively. For GC×GC method development two sets of columns were tested (DB-5/DB-17ms, and HP-50+/DB-1ms), and the best results were obtained with the set of columns DB-5/DB-17ms. Instrumental LOD and LOQ were found in the range from 0.08 to 1.07?gL(-1) and 0.25 to 3.23?gL(-1), respectively. The LOD for the GC×GC was about 36% lower than those obtained for the 1D-GC. Concentrations of 21.18?gkg(-1) through 1D-GC method and 3.34?gkg(-1) for GC×GC for trifloxystrobin were found in a sediment sample which was collected close to an area of rice plantation. PMID:21216402

  16. Chiral Pesticides: Identification, Description and Environmental Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthropogenic chemicals, including pesticides, are a major source of contamination and pollution in the environment. Pesticides have many positive uses: increased food production, decreased damage to crops and structures, reduced disease vector populations, and more. Nevertheless...

  17. 76 FR 59908 - Chlorantraniliprole; Pesticide Tolerances; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0888; FRL-8888-3] Chlorantraniliprole; Pesticide Tolerances; Correction...pesticide tolerances for residues of chlorantraniliprole in or on multiple commodities...follows: Sec. [emsp14]180.628 Chlorantraniliprole; tolerances for residues....

  18. 78 FR 66651 - Imazapyr; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ...and children to the pesticide chemical residue in establishing...aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue...forage; grass, hay; fish; shellfish; fats...Organization/World Health Organization food...

  19. Pesticides Linked to ADHD, Study Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_152892.html Pesticides Linked to ADHD, Study Says Research found greater ... of a link between a commonly used household pesticide and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children ...

  20. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality: Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EPA Home Air Introduction to IAQ Pesticides An Introduction to Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Pesticides Basic Information ... Member, Committee on Governmental Affairs, Resources, Community, and Economic Development Division, U.S. Senate, November 29, 1999, GAO/ ...

  1. Pesticide risks around the home (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides are substances which kill or deter unwanted pests, such as insects or rodents. These substances can ... avoid an accidental ingestion is to keep all pesticides out of the reach of children.

  2. Effects of fertilizer and pesticide use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

    2008-06-25

    When used properly, fertilizer and pesticide application can help protect crops and encourage their growth. However, fertilizers and pesticides can run off into bodies of water and contaminate water sources.

  3. Pesticide Alternatives Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pesticide Alternatives Laboratory of Michigan State University is on the cutting edge of pest control in the Upper Midwest, whether on agricultural or non-agricultural lands, public or private. Visitors interested in seeing the pesky adversaries of the lab, should click on "Bugs of The Lab", on the left hand side of the page, then click on the subcategory "Research Subjects". Along with photos of a dozen pests, including the "Plum Curculio", "Mites", and the "Oblique-Banded Leaf Roller", visitors can read a description of the pest, learn about and see images of the damage they do to specific crops, and discover where they are found on the plant. The Resistant Pest management Newsletter section on the left-hand side of the page has numerous subsections that should be of interest to visitors. Visitors can "Subscribe to the Newsletter" and peruse "Archives of Past Issues". Also interesting is the "Ask an Expert About Resistance Issues" section, which lists ten regions of the earth, and when one of the regions is clicked on, several experts' names pop up with their area of expertise, e-mail, and location. Additionally, anyone who is an expert and qualified, but is not on the list, may have their name added after filling out the "Expert Application", available on the "Ask an Expert..." homepage. All of the experts are volunteers.

  4. Organochlorine Pesticides in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1968-01-01

    Each year for nearly 20 years, thousands of pounds of persistent organochlorine pesticides have been applied to outdoor areas in many countries. These compounds may last for a very long time in the environment, and be carried by wind, water, and animals to places far distant from where they are used. As a result, most living organisms now contain organochlorine residues. This paper constitutes a selective review of the literature concerning the occurrence, distribution, and effects of organochlorines in the environment. Highest concentrations generally occur in carnivorous species. Thus predatory and fish-eating birds ordinarily have higher residues than do herbivores; quantities are similar in birds of similar habits in different countries. Any segment of the ecosystem - marshland, pond, forest, or field - receives various amounts and kinds of pesticides at irregular intervals. The different animals absorb, detoxify, store, and excrete pesticides at different rates. Different degrees of magnification of pesticide residues by living organisms in an environment are the practical result of many interactions that are far more complex than implied by the statement of magnification up the food chain. These magnifications may be millions of times from water to mud or only a few times from food to first consumer. Direct mortality of wild animals as an aftermath of recommended pesticide treatments has been recorded in the literature of numerous countries. However, accidents and carelessness also accompany pesticide use on a percentage basis and are a part of the problem. More subtle effects on the size and species composition of populations are more difficult to perceive in time to effect remedies. The possibility of ecological effects being mediated through changes in physiology and behavior has received some attention and has resulted in some disquieting findings. These include discovery of the activity of organochlorines in stimulating the breakdown of hormones or in acting directly as estrogens, their involvement in embryonic and early post-embryonic toxicity, interferences with antibody formation, effects on behavior, and interactions with stress such as nutritional deficiencies or food deprivation. Delayed mortality long after dosage ceased has shown the serious effects of storage of organochlorines in fat. DDT has been suggested as the indirect cause of a reduction of egg-shell thickness that occurred in the midforties in association with failing reproduction and population decline of certain predatory birds. The impact of these new components of the environment has appeared as death, reproductive impairment, disruption of species balance, and behavioral alteration, but the overall effects on the environment have not been determined. Research should be aimed at interpretation of the significance of pesticide residues to survival and reproduction, to assessment of levels of pesticides in critical environments, and to the kinetics of pesticides in individuals and the ecosystem.

  5. Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Ye; Jeremy Beach; Martin, Jonathan W.; Ambikaipakan Senthilselvan

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occup...

  6. 40 CFR 158.2080 - Experimental use permit data requirements-biochemical pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...use permit data requirements-biochemical pesticides. 158.2080 Section 158.2080 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides §...

  7. Pesticide regulations and farm worker safety: the need to improve pesticide regulations in Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Phung, Dung Tri; Connell, Des; Miller, Greg; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural pesticide use in Viet Nam has more than tripled since 1990. However, pesticide legislation and regulations have not been developed in response to this large increase in usage, as a result of which pesticides pose a serious threat to human health and the environment. This paper identifies the need to improve pesticide regulations in Viet Nam through a comparative analysis of pesticide regulations in Viet Nam and the United States of America, where the rate of acute poisoning am...

  8. Pesticide use practices in rural Armenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadevosyan, Artashes; Tadevosyan, Natalya; Kelly, Kevin; Gibbs, Shawn G; Rautiainen, Risto H

    2013-01-01

    Pesticide use can have adverse effects on both human health and the environment. Inappropriate use of pesticides increases the health risk to those who work with or live around pesticides. Educational programs for agricultural workers on the proper use of pesticides and personal protective equipment coupled with pesticide regulations are important tools to reduce the associated health risks. The authors conducted a survey (N?=?2336) on pesticide use practices in the Ararat Valley of Armenia in 2000-2006. This study was a cross-sectional design. A multistage sampling method was implemented in the selection of the study population. The authors developed a questionnaire containing 173 questions to evaluate demographic characteristics, health conditions, and details of pesticides use practices. The intensity of pesticide use was high; 82.8% of respondents used them. More than 150 brand names of pesticides were in use. Unregistered, obsolete, expired, and banned compounds were found in active use. Poor compliance with the basic rules of pesticide safety was found throughout the study population, with 21.3% using gloves and only 11% using respirators. The agricultural workers' knowledge of the toxic properties of these pesticides as well as basic hygienic norms was very low. In some instances, the number of agrichemical applications to crops, particularly cucumbers and melons, reached 40 applications during the growing season. Better protection and training of pesticide users in Armenia is needed. PMID:24125047

  9. 75 FR 29435 - Diquat Dibromide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ...exposure to the pesticide. For hazards that...www.epa.gov/pesticides/factsheets/riskassess...Dibromide: Human Health Risk Assessment...for a food-use pesticide, if a toxicological...irrigated. For fish, average residues...unnecessary for this chemical. iv....

  10. 76 FR 23882 - Metiram; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ...aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue, including...and children to the pesticide chemical residue in...aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue...combined risks from food, water, and non-occupational...the risks of ETU, a contaminant, metabolite, and...

  11. 76 FR 18906 - Mancozeb; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ...aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue, including...and children to the pesticide chemical residue in...aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue...combined risks from food, water and non-occupational...the risks of ETU, a contaminant, metabolite...

  12. Pesticides: Food and environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticides are an integral part of modern agriculture, also in most developing countries. Although the annual average consumption of active ingredients in agriculture may be below 0.1 kg a.i./ha, most countries now consume more than 2 kg a.i./ha; some of the intensively cropped regions in South-East Asia are exposed to even higher amounts. Inherent contamination of the environment follows if rules and regulations are not strictly adhered to. The search for safer, less persistent and more specific pesticides and examination of the fate of applied pesticides in various regions of the world were the main themes of the symposium. Special emphasis was placed on the use of nuclear techniques, especially on labelled compounds in research. The Proceedings include all the papers and posters that were presented. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. State governance of pesticide use and trade in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Pham Van Hoi; Mol, A. P. J.; Oosterveer, P. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam is facing serious challenges with respect to the amount and toxicity of the pesticides used. With hardly any domestic pesticides production, Vietnam experienced an exponential growth of both the quantity and the value of imported pesticides in recent years. And the increasing import of newly formulated (and safer) pesticides has not replaced or reduced the highly toxic pesticides with low efficacy. The improper use of pesticides by farmers (too high dosages, cocktailing of pesticides,...

  14. Reduction of substituted benzonitrile pesticides.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sokolová, Romana; Hromadová, Magdaléna; Fiedler, Jan; Pospíšil, Lubomír; Giannarelli, S.; Valášek, Michal

    2008-01-01

    Ro?. 622, ?. 2 (2008), s. 211-218. ISSN 1572-6657 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA400400505; GA MŠk OC 140; GA MŠk LC510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : benzonitrile pesticides * polarography * voltammetry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.484, year: 2008

  15. Pesticides, People, and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Roxanne Greitz

    2005-01-01

    If a teacher were to ask his/her students what they do when they find ants or other insects in their homes, their most common response would probably be, "Get the bug spray!" Because students are not only being exposed to pesticides but are also developing patterns of behavior likely to continue throughout their lives. Discussions about…

  16. Ames, pesticides, and cancer revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Elihu D; Chlamtac, Noga

    2002-01-01

    The case for continuing use of existing levels of pesticides in agriculture, espoused by Bruce Ames, is refuted. Ames' contentions that naturally occurring carcinogens are far more widespread than man-made ones, that pesticides prevent cancer by providing fruits and vegetables at lower costs to the poor, and that animal data on high risks with high doses cannot predict low risks from low doses in humans do not address key issues: 1) fruits and vegetables contain mixtures of carcinogens and anti-carcinogens, and selection effects from human exposures to these mixtures go back more than a million years; 2) exposures from bioconcentrations of biopersistent organochlorines in the food chain create particular risks for meat-eaters, who have higher cancer risks than vegetarians; 3) even low doses from ingestion of produce containing pesticide residues can cause tissue injury, which could itself promote cancer; 4) epidemiologic data show rises in cancer incidences in older people in many countries, major differences in cancer risks between countries, and converging trends in risks for populations migrating to certain countries; 5) studies of pesticide-exposed workers consistently show increased rates of cancers and birth defects and cancers in their offspring; 6) epidemiologic studies based on large databases tend to underestimate risks from environmental causes because of exposure misclassification; 7) exposures to many organochlorines may have pervasive effects on endocrine function; 8) crop yields can be increased with less use of pesticides. Studies demonstrating the latter need replication, and should be supported as part of a coherent government agenda to develop alternative farming methods. PMID:11843442

  17. 77 FR 74003 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ...inhibit or destroy mold or mildew growth on hard, nonporous and porous...antimicrobial pesticides that destroy fungi (including yeasts) and fungal...purposes and only inhibit fungal growth. This guidance, once final...when any specific species of fungus is listed on the label of...

  18. Pesticides and their effects on wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driver, C.J.

    1994-07-01

    About 560 active ingredients are currently used as pesticides. Applications of these pesticides are made to agricultural lands and other areas inhabited by wildlife. Unfortunately, many agricultural-use pesticides also entail some measure of risk to organisms other than the pest species. Because testing of pesticides prior to registration cannot evaluate all the potential environmental-pesticide-wildlife/fish interactions, current methods of risk assessment do not always provide sufficient safety to nontarget organisms. This is evidenced by die-offs of fish and wildlife from applications of pesticides at environmentally {open_quotes}safe{close_quotes} rates, the linking of population declines of some species with agrochemical use, and observations of survival-threatening behavioral changes in laboratory and field animals exposed to typical field levels of pesticides. It is important to note, however, that the majority of pesticides, when properly applied, have not caused significant injury to wildlife. A brief summary of pesticide effects on wildlife and fish are presented for the common classes of pesticides in use today.

  19. The use and disposal of household pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most pesticides are synthetic chemicals manufactured specifically for their toxic properties to the target species, and widely used globally. Several epidemiological studies in the United States have suggested health concerns arising from the chronic exposure of young children to pesticides in the domestic environment. In the UK very little is currently known about how nonoccupational pesticides are being used or disposed of. Any use of pesticides is a potential risk factor for children's exposure, and any potential exposure is likely to be reduced by the parents' adopting precautionary behaviour when using these pesticide products. This was investigated using a sample of 147 parents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort in and around Bristol, through an in-depth interview between August and November 2001. The results of this study add to the understanding of the underlying behaviour of parents applying pesticide products in the home environment in the UK. Pesticides are readily available, and are normally purchased in do-it-yourself shops and supermarkets and mostly disposed of in domestic waste. Safety was stated by 45% of parents to be the most important factor to consider when buying a pesticide. When buying pesticide products, labels were stated to be the most important source of information about pesticides. However, a third of parents stated they would not follow the product label exactly when using a product, just under half felt labeusing a product, just under half felt labels were both inadequate and hard to understand, and about 10% of parents would not take notice of warnings on the pesticide label. Less than half of parents would use gloves when applying a pesticide, although the use of protective equipment such as gloves during the application of pesticides could greatly reduce the exposure. It is a public health concern that the instructions on the labels of products may not always be understood or followed, and further understanding of user behaviour is needed

  20. Pesticide Environmental Accounting: a method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, A W; Mumford, J D

    2008-01-01

    The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts. PMID:17604888

  1. 29 CFR 1440.1 - Arbitration of pesticide data disputes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arbitration of pesticide data disputes. 1440...FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE ARBITRATION OF PESTICIDE DATA DISPUTES § 1440.1 Arbitration of pesticide data disputes....

  2. AFFINITY OF THE ALLIGATOR ESTROGEN RECEPTOR FOR SERUM PESTICIDE CONTAMINANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top predators, like the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) bioaccumulate and biomagnify persistent pollutants, such as organochlorine pesticides. In a recently published study, several pesticides and pesticide metabolites not previously reported in alligator eggs wer...

  3. 75 FR 62387 - Pesticide Product Registrations; Conditional Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ...adverse effect on the environment, and that use of the pesticide is in the public...interest. Use of the pesticides are of significance...that use of the pesticides will not result...to man and the environment. III....

  4. 77 FR 10515 - Pesticide Product Registrations; Conditional Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ...adverse effect on the environment, and that use of the pesticide is, in the public...interest. Use of the pesticides are of significance...that use of the pesticides will not result...to man and the environment. The...

  5. 75 FR 26227 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ...Maia Tatinclaux, Pesticide Re- evaluation...7508P), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental...environmental, human health, and agricultural advocates; the chemical industry; pesticide users; and members...Prentox Synpren-Fish Piperonyl...

  6. 76 FR 10587 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ...Maia Tatinclaux, Pesticide Re- evaluation...7508P), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental...environmental, human health, and agricultural advocates; the chemical industry; pesticide users; and members...Noxfish Fish Cube Resins...

  7. 76 FR 5711 - Bispyribac-sodium; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ...the pesticide chemical residue in...exposure to the pesticide chemical residue...to any other chemical that causes...Bispyribac-sodium; Human-Health Risk Assessment...Freshwater Fish'' at page...Concern Once a pesticide's...

  8. 75 FR 56107 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ...Maia Tatinclaux, Pesticide Re- evaluation...7508P), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental...environmental, human health, and agricultural advocates; the chemical industry; pesticide users; and members...Fish Brand E...

  9. 75 FR 8341 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ...Barbara Briscoe, Pesticide Re- evaluation...7508P), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental...environmental, human health, and agricultural advocates; the chemical industry; pesticide users; and members...005178-00009 Fish Mosquito...

  10. 76 FR 34979 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ...Maia Tatinclaux, Pesticide Re- evaluation...7508P), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental...environmental, human health, and agricultural advocates; the chemical industry; pesticide users; and members...and Ornamental Fish Growers...

  11. 78 FR 57850 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ...Pates, Jr., Pesticide Re- Evaluation...7508P), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental...environmental, human health, and agricultural advocates; the chemical industry; pesticide users; and members...Chem-Fish Synergized....

  12. 40 CFR 165.63 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...pesticide as defined in FIFRA section 2(mm); or (ii) The pesticide product: (A...protozoa, algae, or slime. (ii) The labeling of the pesticide product...or related group of products. (ii) The information, data or other...

  13. 40 CFR 158.2010 - Biochemical pesticides data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides data requirements. 158.2010 Section 158.2010 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES...

  14. 40 CFR 158.2110 - Microbial pesticides data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides data requirements. 158.2110 Section 158.2110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES...

  15. Pesticides: Benefaction or Pandora's Box? A synopsis of the environmental aspects of 243 pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Linders JBHJ; Jansma JW; Mensink BJWG; Otermann K

    2007-01-01

    The report provides an overview of physical, chemical and environmental data of 243 pesticides. The data mentioned are based on confidential information supplied by the manufacturers of the pesticides. For all pesticides mentioned a Final Environmental File, which is public, is derived. Tables with assorted data (sorted from high to low adverse environmental effect) for several environmental items are also included. Differences in environmental aspects per group of pesticid...

  16. Managing Pesticide Risks for Non-Target Ecosystems with Pesticide Risk Indicators: a Multicriteria Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Travisi, Chiara Maria; Nijkamp, Peter; Vighi, Marco; Giacomelli, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    In the search for effective pesticide risk management tools, the design of pesticide risk indicators is nowadays receiving increasing attention as a complement to more established regulatory strategies. In the present paper, we apply some recently developed pesticide risk indices and test their potential for management purposes. A pilot approach is proposed, which explores pesticide worst-case hazard scenarios at different space-time scales by means of a set of 5 ecotoxicological risk indices...

  17. Pattern of pesticide storage before pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Eddleston Michael; Azher Shifa; Gunnell David; Manuweera Gamini; Mohamed Fahim; Dawson Andrew; Konradsen Flemming

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Deliberate self-poisoning with agricultural pesticides is the commonest means of suicide in rural Asia. It is mostly impulsive and facilitated by easy access to pesticides. The aim of this large observational study was to investigate the immediate source of pesticides used for self-harm to help inform suicide prevention strategies such as reducing domestic access to pesticides. Methods The study was conducted in a district hospital serving an agricultural region of Sri Lan...

  18. Chiral pesticides: identification, description, and environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Elin M; Morrison, Candice N; Goldsmith, Michael R; Foreman, William T

    2012-01-01

    Of the 1,693 pesticides considered in this review, 1,594 are organic chemicals, 47 are inorganic chemicals, 53 are of biological origin (largely non chemical; insect,fungus, bacteria, virus, etc.), and 2 have an undetermined structure. Considering that the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs found 1,252 pesticide active ingredients(EPA Pesticides Customer Service 2011), we consider this dataset to be comprehensive; however, no direct comparison of the compound lists was undertaken. Of all pesticides reviewed, 482 (28%) are chiral; 30% are chiral when considering only the organic chemical pesticides. A graph of this distribution is shown in Fig. 7a. Each pesticide is classified with up to three pesticidal utilities (e.g., fungicide, plant growth regulator, rodenticide, etc.), taken first from the Pesticide Manual as a primary source, and the Compendium of Common Pesticide Names website as a secondary source. Of the chiral pesticides, 195 (34%) are insecticides (including attractants, pheromones, and repellents), 150 (27%) are herbicides (including plant growth regulators and herbicide safeners), 104 (18%) are fungicides, and 55 (10%)are acaricides. The distribution of chiral pesticides by utility is shown in Fig. 7b,including categories of pesticides that make up 3%t or less of the usage categories.Figure 7c shows a similar distribution of non chiral pesticide usage categories. Of the chiral pesticides, 270 (56%) have one chiral feature, 105 (22%) have two chiral features, 30 (6.2%) have three chiral features, and 29 (6.0%) have ten or more chiral features.Chiral chemicals pose many difficulties in stereospecific synthesis, characterization, and analysis. When these compounds are purposely put into the environment,even more interesting complications arise in tracking, monitoring, and predicting their fate and risks. More than 475 pesticides are chiral, as are other chiral contaminants such as pharmaceuticals, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, synthetic musks, and their degradates (Kallenborn and Hiihnerfuss 2001;Heeb et al. 2007; Hihnerfuss and Shah 2009). The stereoisomers of pesticides can have widely different efficacy, toxicity to nontarget organisms, and metabolic rates in biota. For these reasons, it is important to first be aware of likely fate and effect differences, to incorporate molecular asymmetry insights into research projects, and to study the individual stereoisomers of the applied pesticide material.With the advent of enantioselective chromatography techniques, the chirality of pesticides has been increasingly studied. While the ChirBase (Advanced ChemistryDevelopment 1997-2010) database does not include all published chiral analytical separations, it does contain more than 3,500 records for 146 of the 482 chiral pesticides (30%). The majority of the records are found in the liquid chromatography database (2,677 or 76%), followed by the gas chromatography database (652 or 18%),and the capillary electrophoresis database (203 or 6%). The finding that only 30% of the chiral pesticides covered in this review have entries in ChirBase highlights the need for expanded efforts to develop additional enantioselective chromatographic methods. Other techniques (e.g., nuclear magnetic resonance and other spectroscopy)are available for investigation of chiral compounds, but often are not utilized because of cost, complexity, or simply not recognizing that a pesticide is chiral.In this review, we have listed and have briefly described the general nature of chiral fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, and other miscellaneous classes. A data-set generated for this review contains 1,693 pesticides, the number of enantioselective separation records in ChirBase, pesticide usage class, SMILES structure string and counts of stereogenic centers. This dataset is publically available for download at the following website: http://www.epa.gov/heasd/products/products.html. With the information herein coupled to the publically accessible dataset, we can begin to develop the tools to handle molecular asymmetry as

  19. Fate of pesticides during beer brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tomonori; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Suga, Keiko; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2011-04-27

    The fates of more than 300 pesticide residues were investigated in the course of beer brewing. Ground malt artificially contaminated with pesticides was brewed via steps such as mashing, boiling, and fermentation. Analytical samples were taken from wort, spent grain, and beer produced at certain key points in the brewing process. The samples were extracted and purified with the QuEChERS (Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe) method and were then analyzed by LC-MS/MS using a multiresidue method. In the results, a majority of pesticides showed a reduction in the unhopped wort and were adsorbed onto the spent grain after mashing. In addition, some pesticides diminished during the boiling and fermentation. This suggests that the reduction was caused mainly by adsorption, pyrolysis, and hydrolysis. After the entire process of brewing, the risks of contaminating beer with pesticides were reduced remarkably, and only a few pesticides remained without being removed or resolved. PMID:21401094

  20. 76 FR 18995 - Pesticides; Regulation to Clarify Labeling of Pesticides for Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0607; FRL-8862-2] RIN 2070-AJ53 Pesticides; Regulation to Clarify Labeling of Pesticides for Export AGENCY: Environmental Protection...to revise the regulations on labeling of pesticides and devices intended for export....

  1. Proper pesticide use [videorecording] : monitoring the impact of pesticides with nuclear techniques.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food safety experts from the IAEA are conducting research using nuclear techniques to evaluate the impact of pesticide use on the environment, in food products and surface waters. The project aims to improve agricultural management practices, raise awareness on pesticide monitoring and ultimately develop a simple, "rapid-alert" test for measuring potential contamination from pesticides.

  2. Pesticides reduce regional biodiversity of stream invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Beketov, Mikhail A.; Kefford, Ben J; Schäfer, Ralf B.; Liess, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The biodiversity crisis is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity, but our understanding of the drivers remains limited. Thus, after decades of studies and regulation efforts, it remains unknown whether to what degree and at what concentrations modern agricultural pesticides cause regional-scale species losses. We analyzed the effects of pesticides on the regional taxa richness of stream invertebrates in Europe (Germany and France) and Australia (southern Victoria). Pesticides caused ...

  3. Determination of Pesticide Residues in Cannabis Smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Sullivan; Sytze Elzinga; Raber, Jeffrey C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted in order to quantify to what extent cannabis consumers may be exposed to pesticide and other chemical residues through inhaled mainstream cannabis smoke. Three different smoking devices were evaluated in order to provide a generalized data set representative of pesticide exposures possible for medical cannabis users. Three different pesticides, bifenthrin, diazinon, and permethrin, along with the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol, which are readily available...

  4. Biomarkers of human exposure to pesticides.

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar, W. A.

    1997-01-01

    For centuries, several hundred pesticides have been used to control insects. These pesticides differ greatly in their mode of action, uptake by the body, metabolism, elimination from the body, and toxicity to humans. Potential exposure from the environment can be estimated by environmental monitoring. Actual exposure (uptake) is measured by the biological monitoring of human tissues and body fluids. Biomarkers are used to detect the effects of pesticides before adverse clinical health effects...

  5. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Benoit Roig; Olivier Thomas; Aghleb Bartegi; Wissem Mnif; Aicha Bouaziz; Aziza Ibn Hadj Hassine

    2011-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air). For several yea...

  6. Monitoring of pesticides in human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After establishing proper analytical methodology for multiple pesticide residues, cotton-growing areas of Multan Division of Pakistan were surveyed and 40 samples of human milk from cotton pickers were collected during two crop seasons. Screening of these samples showed 72.5% contamination with 19 different pesticides/metabolites. The most frequently occurring pesticides were DDT and its metabolites, dimethoate, cyhalothrin, monocrotophos, profenofos and quinalphos. (author)

  7. Sorption of pesticides to aquifer minerals

    OpenAIRE

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes results from a work were the sorption of five pesticides on seven minerals were studied in order to quantify the adsorption to different mineral surfaces. Investigated mineral phases are: quartz, calcite, kaolinite, a-alumina, and three iron oxides (2-line ferrihydrite, goethite, lepidocrocite). Selected pesticides are: atrazine, isoproturon, mecoprop, 2,4-D, and bentazone. The results demonstrate that pesticides adsorb to pure mineral surfaces. However, t...

  8. Pesticides and the Patent Bargain

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermann, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    In order to enlarge the pool of knowledge available in the public domain, temporary exclusive rights (i.e. patents) are granted to innovators who are willing to fully disclose the information needed to reproduce their invention. After the 20-year patent protection period elapses, society should be able to make free use of the publicly available knowledge described in the patent document, which is deemed useful. Resistance to pesticides destroys however the usefulness of information listed in ...

  9. Sorption of pesticides to aquifer minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes results from a work were the sorption of five pesticides on seven minerals were studied in order to quantify the adsorption to different mineral surfaces. Investigated mineral phases are: quartz, calcite, kaolinite, a-alumina, and three iron oxides (2-line ferrihydrite, goethite, lepidocrocite). Selected pesticides are: atrazine, isoproturon, mecoprop, 2,4-D, and bentazone. The results demonstrate that pesticides adsorb to pure mineral surfaces. However, the size of the adsorption depends on the type of pesticide and the type of mineral.

  10. Residential exposures to pesticides and childhood leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Like many chemicals, carcinogenicity of pesticides is poorly characterised in humans, especially in children, so that the present knowledge about childhood leukaemia risk derives primarily from epidemiological studies. Overall, case-control studies published in the last decade have reported positive associations with home use of insecticides, mostly before the child's birth, while findings for herbicides are mixed. Previous studies relied solely on self-reports, therefore lacking information on active ingredients and effects of potential recall bias. Few series to date have examined the influence of children's genetic susceptibility related to transport and metabolism of pesticides. To overcome these limitations, investigators of the Northern California Childhood Leukaemia Study (NCCLS) have undertaken, in collaboration with a multidisciplinary team, a comprehensive assessment of residential pesticide exposure, including: (1) quality control of self-reports; (2) home pesticide inventory and linkage to the Environmental Protection Agency to obtain data on active ingredients; (3) collection and laboratory analyses of ?600 home dust samples for over 60 pesticides and (4) geographic information studies using California environmental databases to assess exposure to agricultural pesticides. The NCCLS is also conducting large-scale geno-typing to evaluate the role of genes in xenobiotic pathways relevant to the transport and metabolism of pesticides. A better quantificatiosm of pesticides. A better quantification of children's exposures to pesticides at home is critical to the evaluation of childhood leukaemia risk, especially for future gene-environment interaction studies. (authors)

  11. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Roig

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air. For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health.

  12. Global pesticide consumption and pollution: with China as a focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Varieties and consumption of pesticides worldwide have been increasing dramatically as increased human population and crop production. In this process pesticide misuses become more and more serious, which has resulted in heavy environmental pollution and health risk of humans. In order to safeguard human health, threatened species and ecosystems from pesticide pollution, the consumption and pollution of pesticides worldwide especially China were reviewed and documented in present study. Meanwhile, the development trend of pesticide varieties and consumption was also prospected and discussed. It was found that worldwide consumption structure of pesticides has undergone significant changes since 1960s. The proportion of herbicides in pesticide consumption increased rapidly and the consumption of insecticides and fungicides/bactericides declined. China has become the largest pesticide producer and exporter in the world. Pesticide pollution of air, water bodies and soils, and pesticide-induced deaths in China has been serious in past years. Bio-pesticides should be further developed in the future.

  13. NATIONAL PESTICIDE INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (NPIRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Pesticide Information Retrieval System (NPIRS) is a collection of pesticide-related databases available through subscription to the Center for Environmental and Regulatory Information Systems, CERIS. The following is a summary of data found in the databases, data sou...

  14. 75 FR 74634 - Spiroxamine; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ...manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. Potentially affected entities...NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532...180 through the Government Printing Office's e-CFR site...in liver enzymes. Mucous membranes of the esophagus and...

  15. ANIMAL MODELS OF CHRONIC PESTICIDE NEUROTOXICITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a wealth of literature on neurotoxicological outcomes of acute and short-term exposure to pesticides in laboratory animals, but there are relatively few reports of long-term exposure. Reports in the literature describing "chronic" exposures to pesticides are, in fact, a...

  16. Carbamate pesticide induced toxic epidermal necrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendran N

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A 36-year-old male alleged to have consumed carbamate pesticide liquid (Baygon@ developed toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN within twenty-four hours of intake. Though drugs have been commonly incriminated as offending agents for TEN, carbamate pesticide was found to be the causative agent in our case.

  17. Natural products as sources for new pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural products as pesticides have been reviewed from several perspectives in the past; however, no review has examined the impact of natural product and natural product-based pesticides, as a function of new active ingredient registrations with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), on the U.S...

  18. Interaction of pesticides with natural organic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wershaw, R.L.; Burcar, P.J.; Goldberg, M.C.

    1969-01-01

    Two examples of the interaction of pesticides with natural organic materials have been investigated. Sodium humate solubilizes DDT in water and humic acid strongly sorbs 2,4,5-T. These two types of interactions are indicative of the types that one would expect when any organic pesticide is applied to a natural soil-water system.

  19. Toxicity of Pesticides. Agrichemical Fact Sheet 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Winand K.

    This fact sheet gives the acute oral and dermal toxicity (LD 50) of over 250 pesticides in lab animals. The chemicals are categorized as fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, or miscellaneous compounds. One or more trade names are given for each pesticide. In addition, a brief explanation of toxicity determination is given. (BB)

  20. Investigation of pesticide degradation in surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degradation of organophosphorus and thiocarbamate pesticides was investigated using isotope tracer methods. The hydrolysis (degradation) of ester-type pesticides was studied by radiometric enzyme inhibition method in aqueous medium with 14C as tracer. The hydrolysis of S-ethyl-N,N-dipropylthiocarbamate prerequired the oxidation of the parent compound. (Sz.J.)

  1. QA/QC in pesticide residue analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines problems related to pesticide residue analysis in a regulatory laboratory that are related to: availability of reference materials, as over 1000 pesticide active ingredients are currently in use and over 400 crops represent a large part of a healthy diet; analysis time; availability of samples in sufficient numbers; uncertainties of the procedures

  2. Surfactant effects on environmental behavior of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    The potential effects of adjuvants, including surfactants used in pesticide formulation, have been extensively studied for many small organic chemicals, but similar investigation on pesticides is limited in most cases. Solubilizing effects leading to the apparently increased water solubility of a pesticide are commonly known through the preparation of formulations, but fundamental profiles, especially for a specific monodisperse surfactant, are not fully studied. Reduced volatilization of a pesticide from the formulation can be explained by analogy of a very simple organic chemical, but the actual mechanism for the pesticide is still obscure. In contrast, from the point of view of avoiding groundwater contamination with a pesticide, adsorption/desorption profiles in the presence of surfactants and adjuvants have been examined extensively as well as pesticide mobility in the soil column. The basic mechanism in micelle-catalyzed hydrolysis is well known, and theoretical approaches including the PPIE model have succeeded in explaining the observed effects of surfactants, but its application to pesticides is also limited. Photolysis, especially in an aqueous phase, is in the same situation. The dilution effect in the real environment would show these effects on hydrolysis and photolysis to be much less than expected from the laboratory basic studies, but more information is necessary to examine the practical extent of the effects in an early stage of applying a pesticide formulation to crops and soil. Many adjuvants, including surfactants, are biodegradable in the soil environment, and thus their effects on the biodegradation of a pesticide in soil and sediment may be limited, as demonstrated by field trials. Not only from the theoretical but also the practical aspect, the foliar uptake of pesticide in the presence of adjuvants has been investigated extensively and some prediction on the ease of foliar uptake can be realized in relation to the formulation technology. However, effect on root uptake of pesticides is to be further investigated. In an aqueous environment more or less contaminated by various chemicals such as detergents and their degradates, it is necessary to investigate the effect of adjuvants on uptake, bioconcentration, and trophic transfer of pesticides for better understanding of pesticide contamination of aquatic species in the aquatic environment. PMID:18069647

  3. Pesticides: Can We Do Without Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie Parendes

    These are the teaching notes for a case study in which students sift through and organize information on pesticide use presented to them from the perspective of different stakeholders. The case asks a fundamental question, "Can we do without pesticides?", and gives students an opportunity to explore the issues surrounding that question. Developed for an environmental issues course, the case would be appropriate for any introductory course that addresses human-environment interactions. As they pursue the case, students will be able to define the terms pest and pesticide and give specific examples; discuss benefits and harmful effects of pesticide use; discuss implications of banning pesticides; and articulate the ecological, ethical, economic, social, and political issues involved.

  4. Toxicity of pesticides on photosynthesis of diatoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan being an agricultural country, a large amount of pesticides are used, including organophosphates and synthetic pyrethroids. These pesticides are released through rivers and other tributeries into the coastal environment, thus posing a contiguous threat to marine organisms. In the present study two species of diatoms Amphora and Navicula were selected for the assessment of impact of organ phosphate and pyrethroid toxicity on these primary producers. The study shows that rate of photosynthesis was inhibited in both Amphora and Navicula species exposed to pesticide. The acute toxicity of pesticide was determined by measuring IC50 of the test organisms. IC50 calculated for diatom species depicts that different pesticides had variable effects on the photosynthesis of microalgae. High sensitivity of marine organisms is alarming as it may have implications on the marine ecosystem and fisheries. The results are also useful in setting control limits for the release of these chemicals in nature. (author)

  5. Losses of pesticides from agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaching of the phenoxy acid herbicides dichlorprop, 2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)propionic acid, and MCPA, (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid, through natural field soils with drainage water was examined after spraying two soil types (sand and clay) in late autumn and early summer. Phenoxy acids were detected in drainage water after all four spray treatments. The highest concentrations (15 to 23 ?g/L) were found in drainage water from the sandy soil when sprayed under unfavourable conditions for microbial degradation. Despite more favourable conditions for degradation during the summer, small amounts of phenoxy acids were also detected in drainage water shortly after spraying (4 to 9 days); from the clay soil, dichlorprop was detectable for 2 weeks. Between June 1985 and September 1987 a total of 258 water samples were taken in streams from May to September and analysed for 90 pesticides. Seventeen compounds were identified, including ten herbicides, two fungicides and five insecticides. The most frequently found pesticides were the phenoxy acids dichlorprop and MCPA, with the highest concentrations at the time of spraying (May to June), but detectable amounts were still found in the off-spraying season. Throughout the 3 years, positive samples of one or several compounds of phenoxy acids occurred in 37% of the water samples taken in May, 78% in June, 57% in July, 24% in August and 18% in September. The maximum measured concentration of total content of phenoxy acids iation of total content of phenoxy acids in one single stream was 25 ?g/L in June 1985. Along with the phenoxy acids, the herbicide atrazine was found in some streams over the whole sampling season. In watersheds where only smaller parts of the area are devoted to agricultural production, no pesticides were found, or only small amounts were detected on single occasions. These investigations indicate that under certain conditions pesticide residues arising from normal agricultural use may contribute to diffuse (non-point) pollution of the aquatic environment. (author). 27 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  6. Apply Pesticides Correctly: A Guide for Commercial Applicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This document provides practical information needed by commercial pesticide applicators to meet the minimum Federal regulation requirements for the use of various pesticides. The text and accompanying illustrations cover the seven major topics of pests, pest control, pesticides, labels and labeling, using pesticides safely, application equipment,…

  7. 33 CFR 274.7 - Authorization of pesticide use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Authorization of pesticide use. 274.7 Section 274.7 ...Operation § 274.7 Authorization of pesticide use. (a) Programs approved in...b) must be those as described on the pesticide label. Pesticide uses which...

  8. Pesticide Toxicity Index: a tool for assessing potential toxicity of pesticide mixtures to freshwater aquatic organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Norman, Julia E.; Moran, Patrick W.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Stone, Wesley W.

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide mixtures are common in streams with agricultural or urban influence in the watershed. The Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) is a screening tool to assess potential aquatic toxicity of complex pesticide mixtures by combining measures of pesticide exposure and acute toxicity in an additive toxic-unit model. The PTI is determined separately for fish, cladocerans, and benthic invertebrates. This study expands the number of pesticides and degradates included in previous editions of the PTI from 124 to 492 pesticides and degradates, and includes two types of PTI for use in different applications, depending on study objectives. The Median-PTI was calculated from median toxicity values for individual pesticides, so is robust to outliers and is appropriate for comparing relative potential toxicity among samples, sites, or pesticides. The Sensitive-PTI uses the 5th percentile of available toxicity values, so is a more sensitive screening-level indicator of potential toxicity. PTI predictions of toxicity in environmental samples were tested using data aggregated from published field studies that measured pesticide concentrations and toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia in ambient stream water. C. dubia survival was reduced to ? 50% of controls in 44% of samples with Median-PTI values of 0.1–1, and to 0% in 96% of samples with Median-PTI values > 1. The PTI is a relative, but quantitative, indicator of potential toxicity that can be used to evaluate relationships between pesticide exposure and biological condition.

  9. 40 CFR 161.55 - Agricultural vs. non-agricultural pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Agricultural vs. non-agricultural pesticides. 161.55 Section 161.55...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES General Provisions §...

  10. 40 CFR 158.2070 - Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements. 158.2070 Section 158.2070 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES...

  11. 40 CFR 158.2160 - Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements. 158.2160 Section 158.2160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES...

  12. 40 CFR 158.2140 - Microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...false Microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table. 158.2140 Section 158.2140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES...

  13. 40 CFR 158.2120 - Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table. 158.2120 Section 158.2120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES...

  14. 75 FR 80489 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ...Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...regulations in 40 CFR part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on...

  15. 76 FR 6465 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ...Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...of regulations in 40 CFR part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on...

  16. 75 FR 65321 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ...Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...regulations in 40 CFR part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on...

  17. 77 FR 30481 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ...code 311). Pesticide manufacturing...at the end of the pesticide petition summary...and adverse human health impacts or environmental...exposure to the pesticides discussed in this...residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...moiety, in or on fish at 0.05...

  18. 78 FR 70906 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ...manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. The...code 311). Pesticide manufacturing...and adverse human health impacts or environmental...exposure to the pesticides discussed in this...residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...proposing tolerances for fish- freshwater...

  19. Chlorination of organophosphorus pesticides in natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown second-order rate constants for the reactions of three organophosphorus pesticides (chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon) with chlorine were determined in the present study, and the influence of pH and temperature was established. It was found that an increase in the pH provides a negative effect on the pesticides degradation rates. Apparent second-order rate constants at 20 oC and pH 7 were determined to be 110.9, 0.004 and 191.6 M-1 s-1 for chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon, respectively. A higher reactivity of chlorine with the phosphorothioate group (chlorpyrifos and diazinon) than with the phosphate moiety (chlorfenvinfos) could explain these results. Intrinsic rate constant for the elementary reactions of chlorine species with chlorpyrifos and diazinon were also calculated, leading to the conclusion that the reaction between hypochlorous acid and the pesticide is predominant at neutral pH. The elimination of these pesticides in surface waters was also investigated. A chlorine dose of 2.5 mg L-1 was enough to oxidize chlorpyrifos and diazinon almost completely, with a formation of trihalomethanes below the EU standard for drinking water. However, the removal of chlorfenvinfos was not appreciable. Therefore, chlorination is a feasible option for the removal of organophosphorus pesticides with phosphorothioate group during oxidation and disinfection processes, but not for the elimination of pesticides but not for the elimination of pesticides with phosphate moiety

  20. Urbanisation shapes behavioural responses to a pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüzün, Nedim; Debecker, Sara; Op de Beeck, Lin; Stoks, Robby

    2015-06-01

    The degree of urbanisation is rapidly increasing worldwide. Due to anthropogenic impact, urban populations are exposed to higher levels of contaminants and higher temperatures. Despite this, urbanisation is a largely overlooked spatial component in ecotoxicology. We tested in a common garden rearing experiment whether replicated urban and rural populations of the damselfly Coenagrion puella differ in their vulnerability to sublethal levels of a widespread pesticide, chlorpyrifos, in terms of ecologically relevant behaviours (exploration behaviour, activity, boldness and food intake), and to what extent these patterns are affected by temperature (20 and 24°C). Except boldness, all behaviours were affected by previous pesticide exposure. While the pesticide did not affect exploration behaviour at 20°C, it was associated with increased exploration at 24°C, which may reflect an increased toxicity of chlorpyrifos at higher temperatures. Importantly, rural and urban larvae showed consistently different, sometimes even opposite behavioural responses to pesticide exposure. When exposed to the pesticide, rural larvae decreased activity and food intake at both temperatures; urban larvae instead increased activity at both temperatures and only reduced food intake at the high temperature. This suggests that urban larvae were less affected by the pesticide, which would be consistent with a scenario of local adaptation to higher contaminant levels. Our results highlight that urbanisation may be an important factor to arrive at a spatially explicit ecological risk assessment, and may be an ignored reason why studies on the same species may generate widely different vulnerabilities to pesticides. PMID:25863029

  1. PESTLCI – A PESTICIDE DISTRIBUTION MODEL FOR LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the presented work is to develop a model for distribution of pesticides into the environment following application to the field. Based on input of required substance characteristics and applied quantities for the pesticides, the model will estimate the emissions to the air, water, soil and groundwater compartments for use in life cycle inventory analysis of agricultural product systems. The model is called PESTLCI and it builds on an already existing model by Hauschild, 2000 /2/ to which a number of amendments are introduced inspired by existing work on hazard and risk characterisation and assessment of pesticide applications. The report therefore starts with a review of the work reported by the CAPER project as described in / / in order to locate new methods amenable for: 1. Handling of pesticide screening in LCA 2. Distribution modelling of pesticides in LCA 3. Evaluation of human exposure in LCA Following the review of existing methods, a number of modifications and new modules are developed and integrated into the existing method for pesticide distribution modelling to arrive at PESTLCI. Finally, PESTLCI is tested on three pesticide applications and the results compared to the results obtained with the old model. PESTLCI is available as a Excel© spreadsheet (Danish Xp version) model.

  2. Cytogenetic analysis of Pakistani individuals occupationally exposed to pesticides in a pesticide production industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Bhalli, Javed A.; Khan, Q. M.; Haq, M. A.; Khalid, A. M.; Nasim, A.

    2006-01-01

    Although several cytogenetic biomonitoring studies on workers exposed to pesticides have been reported, there is only limited information on this topic from developing countries where pesticides have been widely used over the years. People in developing countries are at higher risk from exposure, due to poor working conditions and a lack of awareness of the potential hazards during manufacturing and application of the pesticides. The present study has assessed the genotoxic effects of pestici...

  3. The Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory: A Quantitative Instrument for the Assessment of Beliefs about Pesticide Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory Cope, W.; Blanchard, Margaret R.; Leprevost, Catherine E.

    2011-01-01

    Recent media attention has focused on the risks that agricultural pesticides pose to the environment and human health; thus, these topics provide focal areas for scientists and science educators to enhance public understanding of basic toxicology concepts. This study details the development of a quantitative inventory to gauge pesticide risk beliefs. The goal of the inventory was to characterize misconceptions and knowledge gaps, as well as expert-like beliefs, concerning pesticide risk. This...

  4. Chiral pesticides: Identification, description, and environmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Elin M.; Morrison, Candice N.; Goldsmith, Michael R.; Foreman, William T.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic chemicals, including pesticides, are a major source of contamination and pollution in the environment. Pesticides have many positive uses: increased food production, decreased damage to crops and structures, reduced disease vector populations, and more. Nevertheless, pesticide exposure can pose risks to humans and the environment, so various mitigation strategies are exercised to make them safer, minimize their use, and reduce their unintended environment effects. One strategy that may help achieve these goals relies on the unique properties of chirality or molecular asymmetry. Some common terms related to chirality are defined in Table 1.

  5. Neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    London, Leslie; Beseler, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective and neurodevelopmental outcomes among occupational (both adolescent and adult workers) and non-occupational populations (children). The symposium discussion highlighted many challenges for researchers concerned with the prevention of neurotoxic illness due to pesticides and generated a number of directions for further research and policy interventions for the protection of human health, highlighting the importance of examining potential long-term effects across the lifespan arising from early adolescent, childhood or prenatal exposure.

  6. The Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory: A Quantitative Instrument for the Assessment of Beliefs about Pesticide Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Gregory Cope

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent media attention has focused on the risks that agricultural pesticides pose to the environment and human health; thus, these topics provide focal areas for scientists and science educators to enhance public understanding of basic toxicology concepts. This study details the development of a quantitative inventory to gauge pesticide risk beliefs. The goal of the inventory was to characterize misconceptions and knowledge gaps, as well as expert-like beliefs, concerning pesticide risk. This study describes the development and field testing of the Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory with an important target audience: pesticide educators in a southeastern U.S. state. The 19-item, Likert-type inventory was found to be psychometrically sound with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.780 and to be a valuable tool in capturing pesticide educators’ beliefs about pesticide risk, assessing beliefs in four key categories. The Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory could be useful in exploring beliefs about pesticide risks and in guiding efforts to address misconceptions held by a variety of formal and informal science learners, educators, practitioners, the agricultural labor force, and the general public.

  7. Long-term lessons on pesticide leaching obtained via the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbom, A. E.; Olsen, P.; Plauborg, F.; Grant, R.; Juhler, R. K.; Brüsch, W.; Kjær, J.

    2014-12-01

    To avoid any unacceptable influence on the environment posed by pesticides and their degradation products, all pesticides used in the European Union needs authorization. The authorization procedure includes assessing the leaching risk of both pesticides and their degradation products to the groundwater. There are shortcomings to the procedure, however, as revealed by the results of the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme from the period 1990/2000 to 2012 (app. twelve years). This monitoring program has for this period assessed leaching into groundwater via the variably-saturated zone of 43 pesticides applied in accordance with current regulations on sandy and loamy agricultural fields, and 47 of their degradation products. Three types of leaching scenario were not fully captured by the authorization procedure: i) long-term leaching of degradation products of pesticides applied on potato crops cultivated in sandy soils, ii) leaching of strongly sorbing pesticides after autumn application on loamy soils, and iii) leaching of various pesticides and their degradation products following early summer application on loamy soils. The monitoring data revealed that the authorization procedure was unable to predict leaching scenarios for a number of pesticides in hydrogeological settings dominated by rapid preferential transport via e.g. biopores that bypasses the retardation (sorption and degradation) of the plow layer. Such settings are primarily present in the autumn, but can also occur during the early summer in connection with the formation of a structural seal on the soil surface.

  8. Pesticide Environmental Accounting: A method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts. - A method to estimate the external costs of a pesticide application based on the ecotoxicology, environmental behaviour and application rate of an active ingredient

  9. Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACMT Staff Leadership Board of Directors Code of Ethics Research Funding MTF Innovative Research and Teaching Awards MTF ... ACMT Staff Leadership Board of Directors Code of Ethics Research Funding MTF Innovative Research and Teaching Awards MTF ...

  10. Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the air when you return. Remove or cover food, cooking utensils, and personal items from the area being treated, then clean kitchen surfaces well before preparing food. When using baits, clear away all other food ...

  11. Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Office of the Director Advisory Boards & Councils Organizational Structure 2012-2017 Strategic Plan Congress Research Highlights Environmental ... NIEHS Office of the Director Advisory Boards & Councils Organizational Structure 2012-2017 Strategic Plan Congress Research Highlights Environmental ...

  12. Pesticides in the agricultural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In most countries, regulations to control the use of pesticides require data from a hierarchical series of tests in order to assess their environmental acceptability. The test sequence begins with laboratory measurements, which are followed by field studies intended to confirm the predictions made from the laboratory results. Frequently, such predictions are not confirmed, largely because controlled laboratory conditions are too far removed from those that occur in the field. There is increasing interest in the potential of lysimeter systems to replace many of the laboratory tests. They enable test, including those using radiolabelled compounds, to be conducted outdoors under closely monitored conditions. The results to data are encouraging, but more work is required to validate such systems. (author). 33 refs

  13. Amperometric detection of pesticides using polymer electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Dipankar; Dutta, Kakoli; Bhattacharyay, Dipankar; Sarkar, Priyabrata

    2006-08-01

    The real time monitoring of some organophosphorus based pesticides is of great concern to environmentalists because the widespread use of pesticides is causing severe health hazards to all living beings and also hampering our ecological balance. The traditional methods of measurement of pesticide residues are time consuming, need sample pre-treatment, and lack desired specificity and accuracy. We have developed an amperometric biosensor for indirect measurement of the pesticide concentration precisely in ppb level. The method is based on the action of two enzymes namely acetylcholine esterase and choline oxidase which are uniquely immobilized in a polymeric porous network directly on the working electrode of a screen-printed sensor. Polyacrylamide matrix has been prepared by copolymerisation of acrylamide and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide using Potassium peroxodisulphate (K2S2O8) as initiator. A linear relationship was obtained between the range of 0 to 10 ppb. PMID:16758294

  14. 75 FR 35653 - Thiamethoxam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ...referred to in the remainder of this rule as clothianidin). Clothianidin is also registered as a pesticide. While some...observed following testing with the thiamethoxam and clothianidin are similar, the available information...

  15. 76 FR 25240 - Clothianidin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2008-0771; FRL-8873-3] Clothianidin; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...establishes tolerances for residues of clothianidin in or on mustard, seed. Bayer CropScience...tolerances for residues of the insecticide clothianidin,...

  16. 77 FR 18710 - Acetamiprid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ...neonicotinoid class of pesticides which also includes thiamethoxam, clothianidin, imidacloprid and several other active ingredients. Structural...itself is uncertain, as preliminary evidence suggests that clothianidin operates by direct competitive inhibition, while...

  17. 77 FR 12731 - Thiamethoxam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ...referred to in the remainder of this rule as clothianidin). Clothianidin is also registered as a pesticide. While some...observed following testing with thiamethoxam and clothianidin are similar, the available information...

  18. 76 FR 50904 - Thiamethoxam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ...referred to in the remainder of this rule as clothianidin). Clothianidin is also registered as a pesticide. While some...observed following testing with the thiamethoxam and clothianidin are similar, the available information...

  19. 78 FR 18511 - Thiamethoxam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ...referred to in the remainder of this rule as clothianidin). Clothianidin is also registered as a pesticide. While some...observed following testing with thiamethoxam and clothianidin are similar, the available information...

  20. Pesticidas e abelhas / Pesticides and honey bees

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro, Amaro; Joana, Godinho.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Após a análise dos critérios de classificação toxicológica (CT) dos pesticidas para as abelhas e da evolução da CT e da legislação específica deste tema, em Portugal, evidencia-se como a ausência de rigor da Autoridade Fitossanitária Nacional (AFN) e das empresas de pesticidas contribui para a muito [...] elevada probabilidade de mortalidade das abelhas pelos pesticidas e conclui-se com propostas de optimização das perspectivas de modificação da actual situação. Abstract in english After the analysis of the criterion of toxicological classification (TC) of pesticides to honeybees and of the evolution of TC and of legislation related to the theme, in Portugal, it is demonstrated how the absence of rigor of the Portuguese Pesticide Regulation Authority (AFN) and of the pesticide [...] s suppliers contribute to the very high probability of mortality of honeybees by pesticides and finally are presented proposals for the optimization of perspectives to modify the actual situation.

  1. Determination of pesticide residues in cannabis smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Nicholas; Elzinga, Sytze; Raber, Jeffrey C

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted in order to quantify to what extent cannabis consumers may be exposed to pesticide and other chemical residues through inhaled mainstream cannabis smoke. Three different smoking devices were evaluated in order to provide a generalized data set representative of pesticide exposures possible for medical cannabis users. Three different pesticides, bifenthrin, diazinon, and permethrin, along with the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol, which are readily available to cultivators in commercial products, were investigated in the experiment. Smoke generated from the smoking devices was condensed in tandem chilled gas traps and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Recoveries of residues were as high as 69.5% depending on the device used and the component investigated, suggesting that the potential of pesticide and chemical residue exposures to cannabis users is substantial and may pose a significant toxicological threat in the absence of adequate regulatory frameworks. PMID:23737769

  2. 75 FR 26673 - Clethodim; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ...in rats, mice, and dogs. Decreased body weight is also a consistent...Chronic Toxicity-Dog (1- (All populations...dietary risk only if: Condition a: The data used are...pesticide residue. Condition b: The exposure...

  3. 78 FR 20461 - Flumioxazin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ...are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311...million (ppm); cabbage and Chinese cabbage (tight-headed varieties...chemical residue in or on a food) only if EPA...

  4. Chiral Pesticide Pharmacokinetics: A Range of Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 30% of pesticides are chiral and used as mixtures of two or more stereoisomers. In biological systems, these stereoisomers can exhibit significantly different pharmacokinetics (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination). In spite of these differences, th...

  5. 76 FR 82146 - Tepraloxydim; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ...bean, dried shelled, except soybean, subgroup 6C'' and...commodities, Pesticides and pests, Reporting and recordkeeping...bean, dried shelled, except soybean, subgroup 6C'' and ``Sunflower...bean, dried shelled, except soybean, subgroup 6C \\1\\....

  6. 78 FR 78738 - Pendimethalin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2013-0071; FRL-9904-04] Pendimethalin; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...current tolerance for combined residues of pendimethalin and its metabolite, expressed as pendimethalin equivalents in or on almond,...

  7. 75 FR 81878 - Imazosulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ...turf areas that have been treated with imazosulfuron and for bystander exposure of adults and children in areas adjacent to pesticide...of short-term post-application inhalation exposure of bystanders nearby application sites. Finally, children may...

  8. 75 FR 42324 - Pyraclostrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532...risk assessment process, see http...were used for fruit juices, tomato, and wheat...were used for fruit juices, tomato, and...10% Orange...risk assessment process ensures that...

  9. 77 FR 40806 - Methoxyfenozide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ...NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532...of the risk assessment process, see http://www...processing factor for orange juice, and 100 percent...

  10. 78 FR 60709 - Methoxyfenozide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ...NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532...of the risk assessment process, see http://www...processing factor for orange juice, and 100 percent...

  11. 77 FR 41081 - Sulfentrazone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ...IV. Other Considerations A. Analytical Enforcement Methodology Adequate...for inclusion in the Pesticides Analytical Manual, Volume II. The method may be requested from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry Branch, Environmental...

  12. 76 FR 31485 - Bromoxynil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ...commodities. Method I in the Pesticide Analytical Manual (PAM), Vol. II, is...bromoxynil. Adequate residue analytical methodology is available for...may be requested from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry Branch, Environmental...

  13. 77 FR 59558 - Sulfentrazone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ...IV. Other Considerations A. Analytical Enforcement Methodology Adequate...for inclusion in the Pesticides Analytical Manual, Volume II. The method may be requested from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry Branch, Environmental...

  14. High risk pesticides in sugar beet protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šovljanski Radmila A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available According to traits of pesticides permitted to use in sugar beet (oral percutaneus and inhalation toxicity, toxicity to wildlife, bees and aquatic organisms, re-entry interval, maximum number of treatments, effects on reproduction do not present health risk in sugar production/technology. However, the danger exists for workers by chronic exposure during the application, especially from pesticide being potential endocrine disruptors (EDS (fentin acetate, benomyl, endosulfan, methomyl, methidathion. EDS can cause sterility or decreased fertility, impaired development, birth defects of the reproductive tract and metabolic disorders. Authors recommend limited application of EDS pesticides (to limit the number of treatments to only one during the vegetation, replacement with pesticides with low risk to humans game and fishes, as well as mandatory submission of re-entry data for registration.

  15. 40 CFR 158.2170 - Experimental use permit data requirements-microbial pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...use permit data requirements-microbial pesticides. 158.2170 Section 158.2170 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2170...

  16. Pesticides and Food: What You and Your Family Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Pesticides Health and Safety Pesticides and Food Pesticides and Food: What You and Your Family Need ... Know Learn More About... How the Government Regulates Pesticides What the Residue Limits are on Food Why ...

  17. Pesticide biotransformation and fate in heterogeneous environments.

    OpenAIRE

    Vink, J. P. M.

    1997-01-01

    The effects and relative impacts of environmental variables on the behaviour of pesticides, through the effect on pesticide-degrading microorganisms, was studied in a broad spectrum and covered the most relevant emission routes. It is shown that the effect of landscape geochemistry, which is a pre-set condition in an agricultural management, may be significant (chapter 2). Adjoining soil types, which occur within short distance in an agricultural unit, were characterized and tested on their p...

  18. Hormonforstyrrende effekter af kombinationer af pesticider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Hass, Ulla

    2004-01-01

    Resumé: Hvad sker der, når vi mennesker udsættes for en cocktail af hormonforstyrrende pesticider gennem kosten? Miljøstyrelsen har undersøgt pesticidblandinger i cellekulturer og i dyreforsøg for at vurdere samspillet mellem stofferne. Undersøgelserne har fokuseret på østrogene og antiandrogene effekter, som har varieret fra komplekse funktionelle og morfologiske forandringer til ændringer på molekylært niveau. Undersøgelserne viser, at pesticider, der virker via samme virkningsmekanisme, virker additivt. Derfor skal man i den sundhedsmæssige risikovurdering for mennesker tage højde for dette samspil mellem stofferne.

  19. Pesticides in Soil: Effects on Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Ljiljana Radivojevi?; Ljiljana Šantri?; Radmila Stankovi?-Kalezi?

    2007-01-01

    Since their discovery to the present day, pesticides have been an inevitable segment of agricultural production and efforts have been made to synthesize compounds that would share a required efficacy along with selectivity, sufficient persistence on the object of protection and favourable toxicological and ecotoxicological characteristics so as to minimize their effect on the environment.When a pesticide gets into soil after application, it takes part in a number of physical, chemical and bio...

  20. Comportement des pesticides ionisables dans les sols

    OpenAIRE

    Kah, Me?lanie; Brown, Colin D.

    2007-01-01

    Ionisable pesticides can be partially ionised within the range of natural soil pH and this strongly influences their reactivity in soils. This group includes important, worldwide contaminants of groundwater and surface waters. It is essential that their specific behaviour is recognised within risk assessment procedures. Experiments were carried out with ten pesticides (six acids and four bases) and nine arable soils (range in pH, texture and organic matter content) to advance the understandin...

  1. Influence of Pesticide Legislation on Danish Groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Inthasen, Prapaporn

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater is one of the most important resources in Denmark. It is consumed by private households, agriculture, fisheries, institutions and industry. Agricultural pesticides have been used in Denmark to protect crop yields. Most of the drinking water wells are located close to fields on which pesticides have been intensively applied. To fulfill the aim of Groundwater Directive 2006, Danish groundwater should have “good groundwater chemical status” by 2015. This directive has set up dete...

  2. Morbidity in newborns exposed to organophosphorus pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?or?evi? Mom?ilo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Insecticides are toxines by which we destroy harmful insects. The most frequent insecticides which are used today are organophosphorus pesticides. This group of compounds make substances whose activity mechanism is based on the inhibition of acetylcho­linesterase in nerve synapsis, thus producing holynergic syndrome, resulting from the accumulation of acetylcholine which developed due to the absence of decomposition under the influence of cholinesterase. In the clinical picture of acute toxication by cholinesterase inhibitors there is a clear difference between muscarinic and nicotine effects. The basic aim of the study was to establish the effects of organophosphorus pesticides present in blood and breast milk of mothers on newborns morbidity. Material and methods. The study group consisted of 18 newborns whose mothers had isolated organophosphorus pesticides in their blood and breast­milk on the third day after delivery, and the control group consisted of 84 newborns whose mothers did not have isolated organophosphorus pesticides in their blood and breastmilk. Results. Morbidity is three times greater, often in combination with some disorders of the central nervous system, and the relative risk for its appearance is eight time greater in newborns exposed to organophosphorus pesticides. Disscusion. Disorders that appear in newborns exposed to pesticides are mutagenic, cancerogenic and neurotoxic and some agenses could disturb the immune system which is reflected in morbidity increase, primarly of the central nervous system. Conclusion. The presence of organophosphorus pesticides in blood and breast milk has negative effects on newborns. In addition to acetylcho­linesterase inhibition, organophosphorus pesticides react by means of other mechanisms as well.

  3. High risk pesticides in sugar beet protection

    OpenAIRE

    Šovljanski Radmila A.; Kloko?ar-Šmit Zlata D.; In?i? Dušanka V.

    2006-01-01

    According to traits of pesticides permitted to use in sugar beet (oral percutaneus and inhalation toxicity, toxicity to wildlife, bees and aquatic organisms, re-entry interval, maximum number of treatments, effects on reproduction) do not present health risk in sugar production/technology. However, the danger exists for workers by chronic exposure during the application, especially from pesticide being potential endocrine disruptors (EDS) (fentin acetate, benomyl, endosulfan, methomyl, methid...

  4. Pesticides in Soil: Effects on Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Radivojevi?

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery to the present day, pesticides have been an inevitable segment of agricultural production and efforts have been made to synthesize compounds that would share a required efficacy along with selectivity, sufficient persistence on the object of protection and favourable toxicological and ecotoxicological characteristics so as to minimize their effect on the environment.When a pesticide gets into soil after application, it takes part in a number of physical, chemical and biological processes that depend not only on the compound itself, but a number of other factors as well, such as: physical, chemical and biological characteristics of soil; climatic factors, equipment used, method of application, method of storage, handling and disposal of waste, site characteristics (proximity of ground and underground waters, biodiversity and sensitivity of the environment. Microorganisms play an important role in pesticide degradation as they are able to utilize the biogenic elements from those compounds, as well as energy for their physiological processes. On the other hand, pesticides are more or less toxic substances that can have adverse effect on populations of microorganisms and prevent their development, reduce their abundance, deplete their taxonomic complexity and create communities with a lower level of diversity and reduced physiological activity.The article discusses complex interactions between pesticides and microorganisms in soil immediately after application and over the ensuing period. Data on changes in the abundance of some systematic and physiological groups of microorganisms, their microbial biomass and enzymatic activity caused under pesticide activity are discussed as indicators of these processes.

  5. Occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mamane

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to review the available literature regarding the link between occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory symptoms or diseases. Identification of epidemiological studies was performed using PubMed. 41 articles were included, 36 regarding agricultural workers and five regarding industry workers. Among the 15 cross-sectional studies focusing on respiratory symptoms and agricultural pesticide exposure, 12 found significant associations with chronic cough, wheeze, dyspnoea, breathlessness or chest tightness. All four studies on asthma found a relationship with occupational exposure, as did all three studies on chronic bronchitis. The four studies that performed spirometry reported impaired respiratory function linked to pesticide exposure, suggestive of either obstructive or restrictive syndrome according to the chemical class of pesticide. 12 papers reported results from cohort studies. Three out of nine found a significant relationship with increased risk of wheeze, five out of nine with asthma and three out of three with chronic bronchitis. In workers employed in pesticide production, elevated risks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (two studies out of three and impaired respiratory function suggestive of an obstructive syndrome (two studies out of two were reported. In conclusion, this article suggests that occupational exposure to pesticides is associated with an increased risk of respiratory symptoms, asthma and chronic bronchitis, but the causal relationship is still under debate.

  6. Pesticide risk assessment in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recognition of potential risks, all pesticides distributed and sold in the United States must fulfil extensive registration requirements for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Registration is a licensing procedure where industry must submit data to demonstrate the safety of pesticidal substances and products before they can be used commercially. The regulatory control of pesticides is unique among chemicals in the U.S. in that testing beyond initial registration may be imposed by the Agency throughout the commercial life of the chemical, as long as there is adequate justification. Registration requirements are gauged to the nature of potential exposures. For instance, more data are generally needed for food use registrations than for non-food uses because of direct consumption of treated foods by the whole U.S. population. Unlike pesticide practices in many countries and authorities, as in the European Community where agricultural pesticides, non-agricultural pesticides and genetically engineered microbial agents are handled by separate directives, all pesticide activities are covered in the U.S. by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. This statute covers pesticide uses on foods and animal feed and a number of non-food applications like forest and horticultural uses, residential lawn care, in-home applications, and disinfectants/sterilants. Traditional inorganic and organic chemicals are covered, as well as biological agents like pheromones. Naturally occurring and genetically altered microorganisms also come under the definition of pesticides, but multicellular animals are exempt from regulation as pesticides. Pesticide registration in the U.S. as in many other countries may be a long-term, resource intensive undertaking. Not uncommonly the process from beginning to complete registration may take 4 to 10 years and cost about $10 million. To meet the responsibilities of reviewing studies, overseeing 400 active ingredients and 35,000 products, and implementing other aspects of the statute, EPA employs about 900 people. Unlike the approval process and actions to cancel pesticides in some countries, in the U.S. they are generally much more transparent. The need for specific test guidelines and the nature of the protocols are debated in the scientific community. Test data adequacy is evaluated according to objective criteria, and study findings are reviewed using standard evaluation procedures and risk assessment guidelines that have been through public comment. Agency risk concerns for a registered pesticide are vetted at a meeting of its Scientific Advisory Panel, a group of technical experts outside of government, where the potential risk case is reviewed and discussed. The meeting is open to the public with opportunity for input from industry, public interest groups, and other parties. Formal Agency regulatory proposals to cancel registered pesticides are published for public review and comment, and there may be several rounds of public involvement before a final decision is reached. Even after a regulatory decision has been made, and unless a settlement has been reached, the Agency is often sued by an environmental group or industry that questions the EPA position; in such situations, the case is then transferred to the court for deliberation. Risks are evaluated for a host of different effects by the pesticide program: acute and chronic, human health and ecological

  7. Variability of atmospheric pesticide concentrations between urban and rural areas during intensive pesticide application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheyer, Anne; Morville, Stéphane; Mirabel, Philippe; Millet, Maurice

    Intensive pesticide use leads to the contamination of water, soil and atmosphere. Atmospheric transport is responsible for pesticide dispersal over long distances. In this study, we evaluate the local dispersal of pesticides from agricultural to urban areas. For this purpose, three high-volume samplers, each equipped with a glass fiber filter and XAD-2 resin for the sampling of particulate and gas phase have been placed in a south-west transect (predominant wind direction) characteristic of rural and urban areas. The urban site (Strasbourg centre) is situated in the middle of two rural sites. Samples were taken simultaneously at three sites during pesticide treatments in autumn and spring 2002-2003. Sampling took place for 24 h at a flow rate of 10-15 m 3 h -1. The pesticides studied were those commonly used in the Alsace region for all crops (maize, cereal, vines …). Many of the pesticides analysed in atmospheric samples were not detected or observed very episodically at very low concentrations. For metolachlor, alachlor, trifluralin, atrazine and diflufenican, higher concentrations were observed, essentially during the application of these compounds. Moreover, some "spraying peaks" were observed for alachlor in the south rural site (near crops) at a level of 31 ng m -3 on 16-17 May 2003. These results show site and time dependence of atmospheric contamination by pesticides. A limited dispersal was also observed especially in the urban area during the application periods of pesticides.

  8. 75 FR 62323 - Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Change to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ...2070-AJ74 Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards...Containers and Containment; Change to Labeling Compliance...important roles in the management of pesticide risks...review by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) as...Nor does it impose or change any information...

  9. Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) models for predicting stream concentrations of multiple pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Wesley W.; Crawford, Charles G.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Watershed Regressions for Pesticides for multiple pesticides (WARP-MP) are statistical models developed to predict concentration statistics for a wide range of pesticides in unmonitored streams. The WARP-MP models use the national atrazine WARP models in conjunction with an adjustment factor for each additional pesticide. The WARP-MP models perform best for pesticides with application timing and methods similar to those used with atrazine. For other pesticides, WARP-MP models tend to overpredict concentration statistics for the model development sites. For WARP and WARP-MP, the less-than-ideal sampling frequency for the model development sites leads to underestimation of the shorter-duration concentration; hence, the WARP models tend to underpredict 4- and 21-d maximum moving-average concentrations, with median errors ranging from 9 to 38% As a result of this sampling bias, pesticides that performed well with the model development sites are expected to have predictions that are biased low for these shorter-duration concentration statistics. The overprediction by WARP-MP apparent for some of the pesticides is variably offset by underestimation of the model development concentration statistics. Of the 112 pesticides used in the WARP-MP application to stream segments nationwide, 25 were predicted to have concentration statistics with a 50% or greater probability of exceeding one or more aquatic life benchmarks in one or more stream segments. Geographically, many of the modeled streams in the Corn Belt Region were predicted to have one or more pesticides that exceeded an aquatic life benchmark during 2009, indicating the potential vulnerability of streams in this region.

  10. Intoxicación por plaguicidas / Pesticide poisoning

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Ferrer.

    Full Text Available Los plaguicidas son una de las familias de productos químicos más ampliamente empleadas por el hombre. Se han usado sobre todo para combatir plagas por su acción sobre las cosechas o como vectores de enfermedades transmisibles. Los plaguicidas pueden clasificarse en función de su empleo (insecticida [...] s, fungicidas, herbicidas, raticidas…) o de su familia química (organoclorados, organofosforados, carbamatos, piretoides, compuestos bipiridílicos, sales inorgánicas…). Todos ellos son biocidas lo que implica, habitualmente una alta toxicidad humana que ha sido motivo de preocupación desde mitad del siglo XX debido al amplio e indiscriminado empleo de estos productos. La exposición a los plaguicidas puede tener efectos agudos, crónicos y a largo plazo. Algunos compuestos organoclorados (como el DDT) fueron los primeros en ser empleado en fumigaciones masivas para combatir la malaria y han debido ser prohibidos debido a su capacidad de bioacumulación y persistencia medioambiental. El peligro representado por la generalizada presencia de estos agentes, se ha demostrado en los numerosos episodios de epidemias tóxicas humanas, productoras de alta morbi-mortalidad, descritas por casi todas las familias químicas: insecticidas y fungicidas organoclorados, insecticidas organofosforados y carbamatos, fungicidas organomercuriales y sales inorgánicas. Estos episodios se han producido sobre todo por vía alimentaria y en el terreno profesional. Otras causas de preocupación sanitaria son su capacidad carcinogénica y de ocasionar alteraciones reproductivas. Se presentan las principales características de algunas de las familias más relevantes. Abstract in english Pesticides are one of the families of chemical products most widely used by man. They have been used above all to combat pests because of their effect on harvests and as vectors of transmissible diseases. Pesticides can be classified according to their use (insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, rati [...] cides…) or by their chemical family (organochlorates, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, Bipyridilium compounds, inorganic salts…). All of them are biocides, which normally implies a high toxicity for humans, which has been a cause for concern since the mid-XX century due to the widespread and indiscriminate use of these products. Exposure to pesticides can have effects that are acute, chronic and long-term. Some organochlorate compounds (such as DDT) were the first to be used in massive fumigations to fight malaria and have had to be banned because of their capacity for bioaccumulation and environmental persistence. The danger represented by the widespread presence of these agents has been demonstrated in numerous episodes of human toxic epidemics, producers of a high morbidity/mortality, described for nearly all chemical families: organochlorate insecticides and fungicides, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, organomercurial fungicides and inorganic salts. These episodes have above all been caused through the ingestion of foodstuffs and in the occupational field. Other causes of health concern are their carcinogenic capacity and occasional reproductive alterations. The principal characteristics of some of the most relevant families are presented.

  11. Intoxicación por plaguicidas Pesticide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ferrer

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Los plaguicidas son una de las familias de productos químicos más ampliamente empleadas por el hombre. Se han usado sobre todo para combatir plagas por su acción sobre las cosechas o como vectores de enfermedades transmisibles. Los plaguicidas pueden clasificarse en función de su empleo (insecticidas, fungicidas, herbicidas, raticidas… o de su familia química (organoclorados, organofosforados, carbamatos, piretoides, compuestos bipiridílicos, sales inorgánicas…. Todos ellos son biocidas lo que implica, habitualmente una alta toxicidad humana que ha sido motivo de preocupación desde mitad del siglo XX debido al amplio e indiscriminado empleo de estos productos. La exposición a los plaguicidas puede tener efectos agudos, crónicos y a largo plazo. Algunos compuestos organoclorados (como el DDT fueron los primeros en ser empleado en fumigaciones masivas para combatir la malaria y han debido ser prohibidos debido a su capacidad de bioacumulación y persistencia medioambiental. El peligro representado por la generalizada presencia de estos agentes, se ha demostrado en los numerosos episodios de epidemias tóxicas humanas, productoras de alta morbi-mortalidad, descritas por casi todas las familias químicas: insecticidas y fungicidas organoclorados, insecticidas organofosforados y carbamatos, fungicidas organomercuriales y sales inorgánicas. Estos episodios se han producido sobre todo por vía alimentaria y en el terreno profesional. Otras causas de preocupación sanitaria son su capacidad carcinogénica y de ocasionar alteraciones reproductivas. Se presentan las principales características de algunas de las familias más relevantes.Pesticides are one of the families of chemical products most widely used by man. They have been used above all to combat pests because of their effect on harvests and as vectors of transmissible diseases. Pesticides can be classified according to their use (insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, raticides… or by their chemical family (organochlorates, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, Bipyridilium compounds, inorganic salts…. All of them are biocides, which normally implies a high toxicity for humans, which has been a cause for concern since the mid-XX century due to the widespread and indiscriminate use of these products. Exposure to pesticides can have effects that are acute, chronic and long-term. Some organochlorate compounds (such as DDT were the first to be used in massive fumigations to fight malaria and have had to be banned because of their capacity for bioaccumulation and environmental persistence. The danger represented by the widespread presence of these agents has been demonstrated in numerous episodes of human toxic epidemics, producers of a high morbidity/mortality, described for nearly all chemical families: organochlorate insecticides and fungicides, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, organomercurial fungicides and inorganic salts. These episodes have above all been caused through the ingestion of foodstuffs and in the occupational field. Other causes of health concern are their carcinogenic capacity and occasional reproductive alterations. The principal characteristics of some of the most relevant families are presented.

  12. Characterizing pesticide dissipation in food crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Juraske, R.

    2013-01-01

    Ingestion of residues via consumption of food crops is the predominant exposure route of the general population toward pesticides. However, pesticide dissipation in crops constitutes a main source of uncertainty in estimating residues in harvested crop parts and subsequent human exposure. Nevertheless, dissipation is a key mechanism in models assessing pesticide distribution in the cropenvironment and the magnitude of residues in harvest. We provide a consistent framework for characterizing pesticide dissipation in food crops for use in modeling approaches applied in health risk and impact assessment. We collected 4,482 unique dissipation half-lives for 341 substances applied to 182 different crop species and fully characterize these data by describing their variance, distribution and uncertainty as well as by identifying the influence of substance, crop and environmental characteristics. We obtain an overall geo-mean half-life over all data points of 3.9 days with 95% of all half-lives falling within the range between 0.6 and 29 days. Uncertainty in predicting a substance-specific geo-mean half-life varies with varying numbers of available data points with the highest uncertainty associated to pesticides with less than seven reported half-lives. Temperature in air was identified to have a significant influence on dissipation kinetics. We, hence, provide estimated half-lives for a default temperature of 20°C, while introducing a correction term for deviating temperature conditions. Diffusive exchange processes also have a significant influence on pesticide dissipation, wherever these processes dominate dissipation rates compared to degradation. In these cases, we recommend not to use measured dissipation half-lives as basis for estimating degradation, which is recommended in cases, where degradation is dominating. We are currently testing the regression to predict degradation half-lives in crops. By providing mean degradation half-lives at 20°C for more than 300 pesticides, we reduce uncertainty and improve assumptions in current practice of health risk and impact assessments.

  13. Improving poisoning diagnosis and surveillance of street pesticides

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hanna-Andrea, Rother.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An effective surveillance system is required to reduce pesticide exposures and poisonings, especially from street pesticides (illegal, unlabelled, and decanted agricultural pesticides used predominately for urban household purposes). Poisoning from any pesticide class, not only organophosphates, con [...] stitutes a medically notifiable condition in South Africa. Current practice, however, is to report only organophosphate cases, resulting in severe under-reporting. The lack of data concerning the link between poisonings and street pesticides has led to the mistaken assumption that urban populations are not at risk from significant pesticide exposures and poisonings. Without accurate statistics, healthcare professionals and policy makers are unaware of the contribution of street pesticide poisonings to the overall health burden. Accurate diagnosis is a prerequisite for notification and subsequent surveillance. An algorithm has been developed to enable healthcare professionals to improve the diagnosis and notification of pesticide poisonings.

  14. 40 CFR 158.2100 - Microbial pesticides definition and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01...2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides definition and applicability...2100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA...

  15. Metabolism of pesticides after dermal exposure to amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding how pesticide exposure to non-target species influences toxicity is necessary to accurately assess the ecological risks these compounds pose. Aquatic, terrestrial, and arboreal amphibians are often exposed to pesticides during their agricultural application resultin...

  16. 78 FR 25438 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ...Select Source, LLC., Agent: Wagner Regulatory Associates, Inc., P.O. Box 640, Hockessin...protection, Pesticides and pests. Dated: April 23, 2013. Richard P. Keigwin, Jr., Director, Pesticide Re-Evaluation...

  17. TRANSFER EFFICIENCES OF PESTICIDES FROM HOUSEHOLD CERAMIC TILE TO FOODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional assessments of pesticide exposure through diet have focused on contamination during production (e.g., pesticides in agriculture). However, recent residential monitoring studies have demonstrated that a significant portion of total exposure to infants and children ...

  18. PERMEATION RESISTANCE OF GLOVE MATERIALS TO AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The toxicities of many agricultural pesticides require that hand protection be provided to persons who mix, load, and apply these products. he selection of appropriate handwear is particularly problematic for pesticides that contain organic solvents or active ingredients that beh...

  19. A new crop of concerns: Congress investigates pesticide safety.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, D. A.

    2000-01-01

    A March 2000 report by the General Accounting Office, Pesticides: Improvements Needed to Ensure the Safety of Farmworkers and Their Children, states that much remains unknown about the risks faced by children in agriculture, and that enforcement of pesticide protection standards for farmworkers is patchy and unsystematic. Many cases of farmworkers' pesticide-related illnesses go unreported, leaving health workers with an inadequate basis for tracking patterns and fine-tuning pesticide standar...

  20. Global pesticide consumption and pollution: with China as a focus

    OpenAIRE

    WenJun Zhang; FuBin Jiang; JianFeng Ou

    2011-01-01

    Varieties and consumption of pesticides worldwide have been increasing dramatically as increased human population and crop production. In this process pesticide misuses become more and more serious, which has resulted in heavy environmental pollution and health risk of humans. In order to safeguard human health, threatened species and ecosystems from pesticide pollution, the consumption and pollution of pesticides worldwide especially China were reviewed and documented in present study. Meanw...

  1. Some laboratory blood indicators in tractor drivers exposed to pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Prokeš Bela L.

    2010-01-01

    Pesticides represent group of extremely different compounds or mixed compounds. They are produced in the form of powder for direct application, powder for suspension, concentrated suspension, concentration of emulsion, and in other forms as well. Influence of pesticides to exposed workers mainly depends on technology of pesticide application use. All poisons, just like pesticides that come in organism in some way and reach the location of their metabolism, accumulation in the body or ex...

  2. Public Health Implications of Pesticide Residues in Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Jadhav V.J. and Waskar V.S.

    2011-01-01

    Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. Since then various synthetic pesticides are used for protection of crops and public health. The persistence nature of some of these pesticides led to their accumulation in animal tissues and subsequently causes human dietary exposure to these pesticides through consumption of animal products viz. meat, milk, eggs and seafoods. Scientific evidence suggest that even such low dose but l...

  3. Assessing pesticide pollution risk: from field to watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Houdart, M.; Tixier, P.; Lassoudière, A.; Saudubray, F.

    2009-01-01

    Pesticides used for intensive agricultural production threaten the water resources of the French West Indies. For example, the pesticide chlordecone was used until the nineties in banana fields. Operational and simple tools are needed to assess the potential risk of pollution by pesticides. Here, we propose a method to assess the spatial variability of pollution risk on a watershed scale. This method proceeds in four steps: (1) surveying practices; (2) determining the pesticide load for each ...

  4. ANALYSIS OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES: A COMPILATION OF METHODS SELECTED FOR USE IN PESTICIDE MONITORING PROGRAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manual provides the pesticide chemist with methodology useful in determining human exposure to pesticides and related industrial chemicals. Methods are also presented for measuring the extent of environmental contamination with these compounds. This manual has been compiled ...

  5. 75 FR 60113 - Pesticide Science Policy; Notice of Withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2008-0935; FRL-8804-7] Pesticide Science Policy; Notice of Withdrawal AGENCY...the withdrawal of the pesticide science policy document ``Use of the Pesticide...data and different models. This science policy document was developed to...

  6. Treatment of pesticide containing solutions by photo catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential health hazards of pesticides in surface water and underground water are well recognized. These pollutants enter the natural environment, generally, during crops disinfection, during pesticide industry cleaning, miss use of and miss understanding the ecological effects of such pesticides by the farmer. (Author)

  7. PESTICIDE SOURCES TO SOIL AND PRINCIPLES OF SPRAY PHYSICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past 50 years, organic pesticides have greatly enhanced the production and quality of food, feed, and fiber as well as the control of disease vectors and pests adversely affecting human health and welfare. n this review of the pesticides literature, the pesticide source te...

  8. Pesticides and honey bee toxicity - USA*
    ---
    Pesticides et toxicité chez l'abeille - USA

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Reed M.; Ellis, Marion D.; Mullin, Christopher A.; Frazier, Maryann

    2010-01-01

    Until 1985 discussions of pesticides and honey bee toxicity in the USA were focused on pesticides applied to crops and the unintentional exposure of foraging bees to them. The recent introduction of arthropod pests of honey bees, Acarapis woodi (1984), Varroa destructor (1987), and Aethina tumida (1997), to the USA have resulted in the intentional introduction of pesticides into beehives to suppress these pests. Both the unintentional and the intentional exposure of honey bees to pesticides h...

  9. Pesticide Use and Self-Reported Symptoms of Acute Pesticide Poisoning among Aquatic Farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Anders Dalsgaard; Amp Rgen Holm Petersen, J.; Amp Rs, Erik J.; Flemming Konradsen; Hanne Klith Jensen

    2010-01-01

    Organophosphates and carbamates (OPs/CMs) are known for their acetylcholinesterase inhibiting character. A cross-sectional study of pesticide handling practices and self-perceived symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning was conducted using questionnaire-based interviews with 89 pesticide sprayers in Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE) Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority...

  10. Summary of Validation of Multi-Pesticide Methods for Various Pesticide Formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The validation of multi-pesticide methods applicable for various types of pesticide formulations is treated. In a worked-out practical example, i.e. lambda cyhalothrin, the theoretical considerations outlined in the General Guidance section are put into practice. GC conditions, selection of an internal standard and criteria for an acceptable repeatability of injections are outlined, followed by sample preparation, calibration, batch analysis and confirmation of results through comparison using different separation columns. Complete sets of data are displayed in tabular form for other pesticide active ingredients and real formulations. (author)

  11. Enantioselective environmental toxicology of chiral pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jing; Zhao, Meirong; Niu, Lili; Liu, Weiping

    2015-03-16

    The enantioselective environmental toxic effect of chiral pesticides is becoming more important. As the industry develops, increasing numbers of chiral insecticides and herbicides will be introduced into use, potentially posing toxic effects on nontarget living beings. Chiral pesticides, including herbicides such as acylanilides, phenoxypropanoic acids, and imidazolinones, and insecticides such as synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphates, and DDT often behave enantioselectively during agricultural use. These compounds also pose unpredictable enantioselective ecological threats to nontarget living beings and/or humans, affecting the food chain and entire ecosystems. Thus, to investigate the enantioselective toxic effects of chiral insecticides and herbicides is necessary during environmental protection. The environmental toxicology of chiral pesticides, especially the findings obtained from studies conducted in our laboratory during the past 10 years, is reviewed. PMID:25643169

  12. 78 FR 11126 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ...at the end of the pesticide petition summary...and adverse human health impacts or environmental...exposure to the pesticides discussed in this...residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...and evaluate the chemical forchlorfenuron...parent, in or on fish--...

  13. Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Damalas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms, many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence, and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization of the already approved pesticides and the approval of the new compounds in the near future. Thus, new tools or techniques with greater reliability than those already existing are needed to predict the potential hazards of pesticides and thus contribute to reduction of the adverse effects on human health and the environment. On the other hand, the implementation of alternative cropping systems that are less dependent on pesticides, the development of new pesticides with novel modes of action and improved safety profiles, and the improvement of the already used pesticide formulations towards safer formulations (e.g., microcapsule suspensions could reduce the adverse effects of farming and particularly the toxic effects of pesticides. In addition, the use of appropriate and well-maintained spraying equipment along with taking all precautions that are required in all stages of pesticide handling could minimize human exposure to pesticides and their potential adverse effects on the environment.

  14. A mobile app for military operational entomology pesticide applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britch, Seth C; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Aldridge, Robert L; Yans, Matthew W; Hill, David W; Obenauer, Peter J; Hoffman, Eric R

    2014-09-01

    Multiple field studies conducted for the Deployed War-Fighter Protection (DWFP) research program have generated more than 80 specific guidance points for innovative combinations of pesticide application equipment, pesticide formulations, and application techniques for aerosol and residual pesticide treatments in 6 ecological regions against a range of mosquito, sand fly, and filth fly nuisance and disease-vector threats. To synthesize and operationalize these DWFP field and laboratory efficacy data we developed an interactive iOS and Android mobile software application, the Pesticide App, consisting of specific pesticide application guidance organized by environment and target insect vector species. PMID:25843102

  15. Pesticide pollution remains severe after cleanup of a stockpile of obsolete pesticides at Vikuge, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfvendahl, Sara; Mihale, Matobola; Kishimba, Michael A; Kylin, Henrik

    2004-12-01

    High levels of DDT residues and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were found in soil, well water, and surface water around a collapsed pesticide storage shed at Vikuge Farm, Tanzania. Residues of DDT and HCHs were found at three soil depths down to 50 cm. Surface soil samples contained up to 28% total DDT and 6% total HCH residues. Water samples had concentrations of up to 30 microg L(-1) of organochlorine pesticides. Other compounds detected were aldrin, azinphos-methyl, carbosulfan, gamma-chlordane, chlorprofam, heptachlor, hexazinone, metamitron, metazachlor, pendimethalin, and thiabendazole. Although the visible remains of pesticides have been removed, the remaining soil is itself hazardous waste and poses a risk to the environment and the inhabitants of the surrounding villages. These findings show the necessity to follow up the environmental situation at former storage sites of obsolete stocks of pesticides, and that the environmental problems are not necessarily solved by removing the visible remains. PMID:15666681

  16. Exploration analytique des intoxications par les pesticides Analytical investigation in pesticide intoxication cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacassie Éric

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Du fait du nombre croissant d'intoxications par les pesticides, il est important de développer des méthodes performantes permettant l'identification et le dosage des molécules appartenant à l'ensemble des classes de pesticides. Dans ce but, nous avons développé une méthode de dosage originale et sensible de 61 pesticides dans les matrices biologiques. Cette méthode utilise une procédure d'extraction solide/liquide sur support polymérique (HLB and MCX OASIS®. Le couplage chromatographie en phase gazeuse/spectrométrie de masse (GC/MS est utilisé pour les pesticides volatils (organophosphorés, organochlorés, phtalimides, uraciles et un couplage chromatographie en phase liquide/spectrométrie de masse (LC/MS pour les pesticides polaires et thermolabiles (carbamates, benzimidazoles. L'acquisition est réalisée en mode fragmentométrique (SIM. Les rendements d'extraction varient selon la nature des pesticides dosés, mais restent satisfaisants pour l'ensemble des pesticides. Les limites de détection (LOD et les limites de quantification (LOQ sont réparties entre 2,5 et 20 ng/ml et de 5 à 50 ng/ml. La linéarité a été étudiée entre les différentes LOQ et 1000 ng/ml pour tous les pesticides étudiés. Les résultats sont reproductibles et répétables, avec une bonne précision et une bonne justesse. Des exemples d'intoxication permettent de montrer l'intérêt diagnostique de ces méthodes : deux cas d'intoxication mortelle à l'endosulfan et au carbofuran ; trois autres d'intoxication aiguë au parathion-éthyle, à la bifenthrine et à l'aldicarbe. Considering the huge use of pesticides on a worldwide basis, pesticides account for a small but increasing number of human acute and severe intoxication. However, intoxication cases attributed to pesticides are not always well diagnosed nor documented. In clinical and forensic toxicology, identification and quantification of the toxicants involved are essential for a good diagnosis. Hence, we developed an original and sensitive multiresidue methods for the detection and quantitation, in human biological matrices, of sixty one pesticides of toxicological significance in human. These methods involved rapid solid-phase extraction using new polymeric support (HLB and MCX OASIS® cartridges. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS was used for volatile (organophosphate, organochlorine, phtalimide, uracil pesticides and liquid chromatography-ionspray®-mass spectrometry (LC/MS for thermolabile and polar pesticides (carbamates, benzimidazoles. Acquisition was performed in the selected ion monitoring (SIM mode. Extraction recovery varied owing to the nature of pesticides but was satisfactory for all. Limits of detection (LODs and limits of quantitation (LOQs ranged respectively from 2.5 to 20 ng/ml and from 5 to 50 ng/ml. An excellent linearity was observed from LOQs up to 1000 ng/ml for all the pesticides studied. The proposed procedures yielded reproducible results with good inter-assay accuracy and precision. A few cases of intoxication are presented to demonstrate the diagnostic interest of these methods : in two cases were determined lethal concentrations of endosulfan and carbofuran ; in three other cases, the procedures helped diagnose intoxication with respectively parathion-ethyl, bifenthrin and aldicarb.

  17. Assessing pesticide exposure of the aquatic environment in tropical catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Frederik; Zurbrügg, Christian; Eggen, Rik; Castillo, Luisa; Ruepert, Clemens; Stamm, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Today, pesticides are intensively used in agriculture across the globe. Worldwide about 2.4×106 tons of pesticides are used annually on 1.6×109 ha of arable land. This yields a global average use of pesticides of 1.53 kg ha-1 year-1. Available data suggest that the use in the agricultural sector will continue to grow. Recently it was estimated that within the last decade, the world pesticide market increased by 93% and the Brazilian market alone by 190%. Though pesticides are intensively used in many low and middle income countries (LAMICs), scientifically sound data of amounts and types of pesticide use and the resulting impact on water quality are lacking in many of these countries. Therefore it is highly relevant to: i) identify risk areas where pesticides affect environmental health, ii) understand the environmental behavior of pesticides in vulnerable tropical ecosystems; and iii) develop possible mitigation options to reduce their exposure to ecosystems and humans. Here we present a project that will focus on assessing pesticide exposure of the aquatic environment and humans in tropical catchments of LAMICs. A catchment in the Zarcero province in Costa Rica will be the test case. Pesticide exposure will be assessed by passive sampling. In order to cover a broad range of compounds of possible use, two sampling devices will be used: SDB membranes for collecting polar compounds and silicon sheets for accumulating apolar pesticides. Extracts will be subsequently analysed by GC-MSMS and LC-HRMS.

  18. Pesticide transport simulation in a tropical catchment by SWAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of agrochemicals in Southeast Asia is increasing in rate, variety and toxicity with alarming speed. Understanding the behavior of these different contaminants within the environment require comprehensive monitoring programs as well as accurate simulations with hydrological models. We used the SWAT hydrological model to simulate the fate of three different pesticides, one of each usage type (herbicide, fungicide and insecticide) in a mountainous catchment in Northern Thailand. Three key parameters were identified: the sorption coefficient, the decay coefficient and the coefficient controlling pesticide percolation. We yielded satisfactory results simulating pesticide load dynamics during the calibration period (NSE: 0.92–0.67); the results during the validation period were also acceptable (NSE: 0.61–0.28). The results of this study are an important step in understanding the modeling behavior of these pesticides in SWAT and will help to identify thresholds of worst-case scenarios in order to assess the risk for the environment. - Highlights: • We performed a global LH-sensitivity analysis of all pesticide related parameters. • Key physical parameters are associated to percolation, degradation and sorption. • We simulated the measured loads of three different pesticides. • We performed an uncertainty analysis of all pesticide simulations. • All Pesticides differed considerably in their sensitivity and simulation behavior. - Pesticide load simulations of three pesticides were modeled by SWAT, providing clues on how to handle pesticides in future SWAT studies

  19. Landscape parameters driving aquatic pesticide exposure and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticide contamination is considered one of the reasons streams fail to achieve good ecological and chemical status, the main objectives of the Water Framework Directive. However, little is known on the interaction of different pesticide sources and landscape parameters and the resulting impairment of macroinvertebrate communities. We evaluated the potential effects of diffuse and point sources of pesticides using macroinvertebrate monitoring data from 663 sites in central Germany. Additionally, we investigated forested upstream reaches and structural quality as landscape parameters potentially mitigating or amplifying the effects of pesticides. Diffuse pesticide pollution and forested upstream reaches were the most important parameters affecting macroinvertebrate communities (pesticide-specific indicator SPEARpesticides). Our results indicate that forested upstream reaches and riparian buffer strips at least 5 m in width can mitigate the effects and exposure of pesticides. In addition, we developed a screening approach that allows an initial, cost-effective identification of sites of concern. Highlights: • Pesticide sources and landscape parameters important for holistic risk assessment. • Riparian buffer strips of at least 5 m in width can reduce diffuse pesticide input. • Forested upstream reaches enhance recovery of pesticide-affected communities. • Screening approach allows quick and cost-effective identification of problem sites. -- Our results show the interaction of different pesticide sources and landscape parameters and the resulting impairment of macroinvertebrate communities

  20. Public Health Implications of Pesticide Residues in Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadhav V.J. and Waskar V.S.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. Since then various synthetic pesticides are used for protection of crops and public health. The persistence nature of some of these pesticides led to their accumulation in animal tissues and subsequently causes human dietary exposure to these pesticides through consumption of animal products viz. meat, milk, eggs and seafoods. Scientific evidence suggest that even such low dose but long term exposure can cause serious health hazards to human health and environment as well. The reports on occurrence of pesticides residues in animal products manufactured in India are fragmentary, but provide confirmation to the fact Indian consumers do get dietary exposure to these pesticides. The role of Insecticide Act and Prevention of Food Adulteration Act enforced in India for judicious pesticide use and safety of consumers of animal products is discussed. [Vet. World 2011; 4(4.000: 178-182

  1. ESTIMATION OF THE BURDEN OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN SLOVAK POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Sokol

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides used in the agriculture have to be applied according to the requirements of good agricultural practice and appropriate law. Pesticides leave detectable residues in agricultural crops, raw materials and ecosystem components. Pesticides reach the human population through the food chain. Information on the type and concentration of pesticide residues in food is in Slovakia collected trough the monitoring programs. Health risks associated with pesticides contaminants in human nutrition are very important and are recently studied by several expert groups. Prerequisite programs are necessary to protect public health. Risk analysis and monitoring of the population burden by pesticide contaminants have to be performed in expert level. The general strategy for assessment of toxicity of pesticides is listed by the World health Organisation. Scientific risk assessment is the basis for taking action and making the legislation at national and European community level.doi:10.5219/69

  2. 77 FR 13502 - Pyriofenone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ...Toxicological Profile EPA has evaluated...carcinogenicity testing was negative and...Immunotoxicity testing in rats and mice...pesticide's toxicological profile is determined...observed early in the pregnancy in a developmental...effects to account for prenatal and postnatal...

  3. Utilization of poultry litter for pesticide bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural chemical products such as pesticides have been used to increase crop production, especially in undeveloped countries. Poultry litter, the combination of feces and bedding materials, has also been used as an alternative to improve soil quality for crop production. However, information re...

  4. 77 FR 52246 - Clothianidin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0217; FRL-9360-4] Clothianidin; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...establishes tolerances for residues of clothianidin in or on rice, grain at 0.01 ppm...tolerances for residues of the insecticide clothianidin, (E)-1-(2-...

  5. 77 FR 38199 - Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0397; FRL-9350-9] Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...establishes tolerances for residues of propiconazole in or on multiple commodities which...tolerances for residues of the fungicide propiconazole, 1-[[2-(2,4-...

  6. Radioisotopes in pesticide residues and metabolic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing use of pesticides and their serious role as environmental contaminants necessitate detailed studies of their metabolism,toxicology and environmental fate.The complex problems which are beyond conventional analytical analysis could,and with great precision,be solved by the use of nuclear techniques.Pesticides labelled with radionuclides(H-3,C-14,P-32 and Cl-36) can be used.Compounds labelled with these radionuclides can be easily measured,in very low concentrations, by use of liquid scintillation counters.Metabolism and distribution of the labelled compounds in the plant can be followed by autoradiography.In this study,supported by the IAEA, the following pesticides were investigated, C-14 DDT, C-14 Endosulfan, C-14 Carbaryl, C-14 Carbofuran, C-14 Amitraz, C-14 Aldicarb and C-14 Butocarboxim. The investigations included :a) study of the binding of these compounds in soils. b) study of the : i) fate and dynamics of aldicarb in cotton plant. ii) fate of amitraz in tomatoes. 'this work is part of the programme of studies of pesticide residues in soil, plants and foods, aproject supported by the international Atomic Energy Commission '.(Author)

  7. DERMAL ABSORPTION OF PESTICIDES CALCULATED BY DECONVOLUTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using published human data on skin-to-urine and blood-to-urine transfer of 12 pesticides and herbicides, the skin-to-blood transfer rates for each compound were estimated by two numerical deconvolution techniques. Regular constrained deconvolution produced an estimated upper limi...

  8. 76 FR 27256 - Saflufenacil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ...cottonseed; sunflower subgroup 20B; soybean, seed; vegetable, legume...subgroup 6C, pea and bean (except soybean); and rapeseed subgroup 20A...g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control...commodities, Pesticides and pests, Reporting and...

  9. Quality Control of Selected Pesticides with HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory data obtained on two different HPLC separation columns and detection by UV and DAD under repeatability conditions are presented and discussed. The behaviour of pesticides on different HPLC columns under gradient and isocratic conditions is evaluated concerning the applicability of respective methodologies. Representative chromatograms of real formulations and “empty” formlants are given for illustration. (author)

  10. 78 FR 18519 - Abamectin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ...information on the general principles EPA uses in risk...gov/pesticides/trac/science/trac6a05.pdf. 4. Cumulative...excitability of mammalian neurons and neural networks (i.e., changes...Chemistry Branch, Environmental Science Center, 701 Mapes...

  11. Quality Control Of Selected Pesticides With GC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The practical quality control of selected pesticides with GC is treated. Detailed descriptions are given on materials and methods used, including sample preparation and GC operating conditions. The systematic validation of multi methods is described, comprising performance characteristics in routine analysis, like selectivity, specificity etc. This is illustrated by chromatograms, calibration curves and tables derived from real laboratory data. (author)

  12. 77 FR 28270 - Fluxapyroxad; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ...decreased body weight) observed only...Potatoes and Sugar Beets...pesticide based on the weight of the evidence...and garden pest control, indoor pest...flea and tick control on pets). Fluxapyroxad...decreased body weight and body weight...tolerance for beet, sugar. The...

  13. 75 FR 5518 - Dithianon; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ...pesticide residues in food and the actual levels...have been measured in food. If EPA relies on such...demonstrating that the levels in food are not above the levels...Therefore, there is no expectation that dithianon residues...available to EPA support the choice of a different...

  14. Pesticide leaching through sandy and loamy fields - long-term lessons learnt from the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbom, Annette E; Olsen, Preben; Plauborg, Finn; Grant, Ruth; Juhler, René K; Brüsch, Walter; Kjær, Jeanne

    2015-06-01

    The European Union authorization procedure for pesticides includes an assessment of the leaching risk posed by pesticides and their degradation products (DP) with the aim of avoiding any unacceptable influence on groundwater. Twelve-year's results of the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme reveal shortcomings to the procedure by having assessed leaching into groundwater of 43 pesticides applied in accordance with current regulations on agricultural fields, and 47 of their DP. Three types of leaching scenario were not fully captured by the procedure: long-term leaching of DP of pesticides applied on potato crops cultivated in sand, leaching of strongly sorbing pesticides after autumn application on loam, and leaching of various pesticides and their DP following early summer application on loam. Rapid preferential transport that bypasses the retardation of the plow layer primarily in autumn, but also during early summer, seems to dominate leaching in a number of those scenarios. PMID:25771345

  15. Pesticides: Improvements Needed To Ensure the Safety of Farmworkers and Their Children. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Peter F.

    In response to a Congressional request, the General Accounting Office examined issues related to pesticide safety for children in agricultural settings. Pesticides can cause acute, chronic, or delayed-onset illnesses. Children may be exposed to pesticides through farm work; eating pesticide-treated foods; or contact with drift from pesticide

  16. European Union policy on pesticides: implications for agriculture in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jess, Stephen; Kildea, Steven; Moody, Aidan; Rennick, Gordon; Murchie, Archie K; Cooke, Louise R

    2014-11-01

    European Community (EC) legislation has limited the availability of pesticide active substances used in effective plant protection products. The Pesticide Authorisation Directive 91/414/EEC introduced the principle of risk assessment for approval of pesticide active substances. This principle was modified by the introduction of Regulation (EC) 1107/2009, which applies hazard, the intrinsic toxicity of the active substance, rather than risk, the potential for hazard to occur, as the approval criterion. Potential impacts of EC pesticide legislation on agriculture in Ireland are summarised. While these will significantly impact on pesticide availability in the medium to long term, regulations associated with water quality (Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC and Drinking Water Directive 1998/83/EC) have the potential to restrict pesticide use more immediately, as concerns regarding public health and economic costs associated with removing pesticides from water increase. This rationale will further reduce the availability of effective pesticide active substances, directly affecting crop protection and increasing pesticide resistance within pest and disease populations. In addition, water quality requirements may also impact on important active substances used in plant protection in Ireland. The future challenge for agriculture in Ireland is to sustain production and profitability using reduced pesticide inputs within a framework of integrated pest management. PMID:24753219

  17. Pesticide use knowledge and practices: A gender differences in Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to understand gender difference on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices for identifying pesticide risks by gender and to recommend more gender-sensitive programs. However, very few studies have been conducted so far in Nepal. This study, thus, interviewed a total of 325 males and 109 females during 2005 to assess gender differences on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices. More than 50% females had never been to school and only <8% individuals were found trained in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Almost all males and females did not smoke, drink and eat during pesticides application and also believed that pesticides are harmful to human health, livestock, plant diversity and their environment. However, there were gender differences on household decision on pesticides to be used (p<0.001), care of wind direction during spraying (p=0.032), prior knowledge on safety measures (p=0.016), reading and understanding of pesticides labels (p<0.001), awareness of the labels (p<0.001) and protective covers. Almost all respondents were aware of negative impacts of pesticide use on human health and environment irrespective of gender; however, females were at higher risk due to lower level of pesticide use safety and awareness. It is strongly recommended to initiate gender-sensitive educational and awareness activities, especially on pesticide use practices and safety precautions

  18. 40 CFR 158.2081 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...biochemical pesticides product chemistry. The test notes are shown...Biochemical Pesticides Product Chemistry Data Requirements Guideline...biochemical pesticides product chemistry and are referenced in the...µm. 16. Required for organic chemicals unless they...

  19. 40 CFR 158.2030 - Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...biochemical pesticides product chemistry. The test notes are shown...Biochemical Pesticides Product Chemistry Data Requirements Guideline...biochemical pesticides product chemistry and are referenced in the...µm. 16. Required for organic chemicals unless they...

  20. Safe Use of Pesticides, Guidelines. Occupational Safety and Health Series No. 38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This document provides guidance on the safe use of pesticides in agricultural work. General principles are given and followed by more detailed safety requirements for the various pesticide application techniques. Finally, the medical aspects of pesticides are considered. (BB)

  1. 75 FR 74713 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ...cancellation of multiple pesticide products. This document is being issued...cancellation of Sergeant's Pet Care Products' pesticide product, EPA Reg...cancellation of Sergeant's Pet Care Products' pesticide product, EPA...

  2. 40 CFR 158.2060 - Biochemical pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA...concentration of the pesticide in the aquatic environment is > 0.01...concentration of the pesticide in the terrestrial environment is >...

  3. 40 CFR 158.2150 - Microbial pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01...false Microbial pesticides nontarget organisms... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA...of the microbial pesticide's ability to...multiply in the environment and...

  4. 40 CFR 158.2172 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides residue data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...permit microbial pesticides residue. The test...EUP Microbial Pesticides Residue Data Requirements...Notes 885.2100 Chemical Identity CR ...potable water, fish, and irrigated...permit microbial pesticides residue as referenced...cause adverse human health effects or...

  5. 75 FR 46926 - Notice of Receipt of Requests to Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ...Maia Tatinclaux, Pesticide Re- evaluation...7508P), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental...environmental, human health, and agricultural advocates; the chemical industry; pesticide users; and members...005178-00004 Fish Brand E...

  6. 75 FR 28019 - Resmethrin; Notice of Receipt of Requests to Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ...CONTACT: Tom Myers, Pesticide Re-evaluation...7508P), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental...environmental, human health, and agricultural advocates; the chemical industry; pesticide users; and members...2.1.6 Fish short-term...

  7. 78 FR 38591 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Regulation Revision: Removal of the Pesticide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ...Formulation and pesticide manufacturers...preparation of other pesticide users/ Chemical agricultural...Manufacturing. control chemicals. Public health parties 923120...establishments of fish and wildlife...departments of pesticide Resource...

  8. 75 FR 44256 - Rotenone; Notice of Receipt of Requests to Voluntarily Cancel Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ...Veronica Dutch, Pesticide Re- evaluation...7508P), Office of Pesticide [[Page 44257...environmental, human health, and agricultural advocates; the chemical industry; pesticide users; and members...insects and invasive fish. In letters...

  9. 75 FR 31775 - Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Pesticide General Permit for Point...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ...biological pesticides, and (2) chemical pesticides that leave...control public health/nuisance...Public health/nuisance...limited to fish, lampreys...application of a pesticide over a forest...and (2) chemical...

  10. 76 FR 68750 - Final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Pesticide General Permit for Point...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ...Formulation and pesticide manufacturers...preparation of other pesticide users/ Agricultural...consultants). Chemical control chemicals. Manufacturing. Public health parties 923120...establishments of fish and wildlife...departments of pesticide Resource...

  11. 78 FR 35268 - Notice of Receipt of Requests To Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ...Pates, Jr., Pesticide Re- Evaluation...7508P), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental...environmental, human health, and agricultural advocates; the chemical industry; pesticide users; and members...Chem-Fish...

  12. 75 FR 69073 - Notice of Receipt of Requests To Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ...Maia Tatinclaux, Pesticide Re- evaluation...7508P), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental...environmental, human health, and agricultural advocates; the chemical industry; pesticide users; and members...Noxfish Fish Rotenone...

  13. 78 FR 10538 - Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ...parties who conduct or support research with pesticides involving...submit the results of human research with pesticides to EPA...addressed in EPA science and ethics reviews of proposed and completed human research with pesticides, drawn...

  14. 75 FR 62738 - Revisions to EPA's Rule on Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ...parties who conduct or support research for pesticides involving...submit the results of human research for pesticides to EPA. EPA...addressed in EPA science and ethics reviews of proposed and completed human research for pesticides, based...

  15. 40 CFR 158.510 - Tiered testing options for nonfood pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...false Tiered testing options for nonfood pesticides. 158.510 Section 158.510 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Toxicology § 158.510 Tiered...

  16. 77 FR 3229 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ...pesticide residues in food and feed; considering...to the safety of food and feed containing pesticide residues; and establishing...environmental and industrial contaminants showing chemical or other similarity to pesticides, in specific food items or...

  17. 76 FR 3601 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ...pesticide residues in food and feed; considering...to the safety of food and feed containing pesticide residues; and establishing...environmental and industrial contaminants showing chemical or other similarity to pesticides, in specific food items or...

  18. 78 FR 16243 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ...pesticide residues in food and feed; considering...to the safety of food and feed containing pesticide residues; and establishing...environmental and industrial contaminants showing chemical or other similarity to pesticides, in specific food items or...

  19. Analysis of Recent Situation of Pesticide Poisoning in Bangladesh: Is There a Proper Estimate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourab Dewan

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Pesticide poisoning is responsible for great number of admissions and deaths in Bangladesh. Creating a register of commercially available pesticides in each region for rapid identification of nature of the pesticide is recommended.

  20. Radiation pollution control - - destruction of chlorinated pesticides in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticides are being used on an increasing scale in agriculture and in insect control programmes, with the result that both the muncipal as well as industrial waste waters are showing the persistent presence of pesticides. These pesticides have extreme chemical resistance and therefore cannot be removed by conventional water treatment. Use of radiation for destruction of some organochloride pesticides, namely, BHC, DDT, aldrin, endrin, chlordane, heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide in water has been investigated at different doses of 60Co gamma radiation. Saturated solutions of pesticides in water were air-saturated and used in the studies. Their contents in the solutions were estimated by GLC. Studies show that all the chlorinated pesticides are destroyed by gamma radiation in aqueous medium. The observed chemical reactivity is ascribed to the generation of highly free reactive radicals in water due to gamma radiation. (M.G.B.)

  1. The Processes that Determine the Fate of Pesticides in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rada ?urovi?

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are an inevitable part of the environment, because due to the intensive use their remains are frequently detected in nature, particularly in the soil. Regardless the way pesticides get into the soil, their further fate will depend on many factors. Given the complexity of interactions of pesticides and soil, and the fact that the intensity of interaction of the same compound with different soil types is different, the studies of the influence of most important soil parameters on the mentioned interactions are becoming more numerous. In this paper are presented the processes that determine the fate of pesticides in the soil, as well as the factors that affect these processes. A special emphasis is placed on theadsorption processes, since they determine the concentration of free fraction of pesticide molecules, i.e. of pesticide quantity that may participate in detoxification processes including degradation and mobility.

  2. [Investigation of pesticide residues in foods distributed in Kitakyushu City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Seiichi; Naetoko, Eri; Kawamura, Seiji; Yamaguchi, Rika; Higuchi, Masayuki; Kojima, Tsutomu; Yamato, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Masaki

    2004-04-01

    We investigated 160 kinds of pesticide residues in 715 samples of 116 kinds of foods distributed in Kitakyushu city. Sixty kinds of pesticides were detected in 55 kinds of foods (204 samples) in the range of 0.002-22 mg/kg. Five kinds of pesticides in 7 samples violated the residue standards and the indication of "unused". The detection ratios of unregulated pesticide in domestic and imported foods were 27.8 and 33.0%, respectively. Iprodione, dicofol, diethofencarb, procymidone and chlorfenapyr (for domestic food) and total bromine, benomyl, chlorpyrifos, dicofol, fenvalerate, cypermethrin and dimethoate (for imported food) showed relatively high detection ratios. Chinese cabbage, garland chrysanthemum, tomatoes and green teas (domestic) and broccoli, bananas, grapefruit, lemons, oranges, frozen edamame and frozen kidney beans (imported) showed high relative pesticide detection ratios. Residual pesticides were detected with relatively high frequency in imported fruits, imported frozen foods and imported processed foods. PMID:15272606

  3. Determination of Pesticide Residues in Fresh and Greenhouse Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Azizi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the public concerns about serious health risks from pesticide, the occurrences of 105 pesticide residues including Organochlorine, Organophosphorus, Organonitrogen, Dicarboximides, Strobilurin, Triazine, Pyrethroids were assessed using a descriptive method in 25 fresh and greenhouse vegetable samples (fresh carrot, greenhouse tomato and cucumber. Ethyl acetate was used for extraction of pesticides from samples and the extract was cleaned up by Envicarb Solid Phase Extraction column chromatography. Pesticide residues were identified and quantified using gas chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry detector. The mean recoveries and limit of detection of the pesticides in samples were respectively 61.67-117% and the reproducibility of relative standard deviation values for the pesticides was 3.49-14.55%. Our data demonstrated that 80% of the total analyzed samples contained detectable residues including trifluralin, permethrin, chlorpyrifos, fenvalerate, fenpropathrin and iprodione, which were below the accepted maximum residue limits (MRLS adopted by FAO/WHO Codex Commision Alimentarius.

  4. Influence of different disease control pesticide strategies on multiple pesticide residue levels in apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Naef, A.

    2009-01-01

    Seven pesticide application strategies were investigated to control apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) and powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) and, at the same time.. fulfil the new quality standards implemented by some German retailers. These demand that pesticide residues should be below 80% of European Maximum Residue Levels (EU MRL) and that the number of residues present at levels above 0.01 mg kg(-1) should be limited to a maximum of four. The strategies fulfilled the requirement to use combinations of different active substances in order to prevent the emergence of resistance to pesticides. The trials were conducted at two sites in Switzerland, in 2007, and all strategies and applications were in accordance with actual practice. Four replicates of apple samples from each strategy were then analysed for pesticide residues. The incidence of infection with apple scab and powdery mildew were monitored during the season in order to evaluate the efficacy of the different strategies. The efficacies of the different strategies against apple scab and powdery mildew were between 84% and 100% successful. In general, the level of pesticide residues found correlated with application rate and time, and no measured residue level exceeded the EU-MRL. The numbers of residues present at > 0.01 mg kg(-1) were between two and five.

  5. Economic analysis of pesticide use and environmental spillovers under a dynamic production environment

    OpenAIRE

    Skevas, T.

    2012-01-01

    Pesticides are used in agriculture to protect crops from pests and diseases, with indiscriminate pesticide use having several adverse effects on the environment. In an era of an increasing public awareness on pesticides’ environmental spillovers, the EU is trying to update its pesticide policy by using economic incentives, aiming at reducing pesticide use and environmental spillovers. This dissertation focuses on assessing how pesticide use and its related environmental spillovers are affec...

  6. Poverty-Environment Nexus: Use of Pesticide in Cotton Zone of Punjab, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad khan; Naeem Akram; Muhammad Iftikhar ul Husnain; Ihtsham ul Haq Padda; Saima Akhtar Qureshi

    2011-01-01

    The use of pesticides in Pakistan has reached 117513 metric tonnes in 2005 which was only 12530 metric tonnes in 1985.  This colossal increase in pesticide use raises serious health and environmental concerns. The purpose of this Poverty-Environment Nexus study is to answer three questions relating to pesticide use; 1) Are the poor farmers using more amounts of pesticides?, 2) Are the poor farmers using more toxic pesticides?, 3) Is pesticide use and its associated health effects, impacting ...

  7. Impact of Pesticide Applications in Cotton Agroecosystem and Soil Bioactivity Studies II: Nitrification Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Zafar Iqbal; Altaf Hussain; Asi, Muhammad R.; Chaudhry, Jamil A.

    2001-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to study the effect of pesticide applications on soil nitrification dynamics in cotton agroecosystem. The pesticides either alone or in combination (mixture) were applied according to the normal agricultural application rates in test, farmer (with pesticide applications) and control (without pesticide applications) fields. Soil samples were collected before and after two days, following pesticide applications and at sowing, before pesticide application, after ...

  8. Gender Difference in Safe and Unsafe Practice of Pesticide Handling in Tobacco Farmers of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Nordin, Rusli; Araki, Shunichi; Sato, Hajime; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Bin Wan Muda, Wan Abdul Manan; Win Kyi, Daw

    2001-01-01

    To identify gender difference in safe and unsafe practice of pesticide handling in tobacco farmers of Malaysia, we conducted a 20-item questionnaire interview on storage of pesticide (4 questions), mixing of pesticide (3 questions), use of personal protective equipment and clothing while spraying pesticide (7 questions), activities during and after spraying of pesticide (5 questions), and maintenance of pesticide sprayer (1 question) in 496 tobacco farmers (395 males and 101 females) in Bacho...

  9. Adverse health effects, risk perception and pesticide use behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    The use of pesticides on the farm is largely governed by voluntary behavior. It is important to understand what drives farmer’s behavior of pesticide use. Health belief models in public health and social psychology argue that persons who have had adverse health experiences are likely to undertake greater preventive behavior which was tested here. We drew a survey of 163 farmers in, Vehari and Lodhran District of southern Punjab. Almost all the farmers were found, using pesticides extensively...

  10. Towards a Strategic Approaches in Alternative Tests for Pesticide Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Yoonjeong; Kim, Ji-Eun; Jeong, Sang-Hee; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2014-01-01

    Pesticides have provided significant benefits including plant disease control and increased crop yields since people developed and utilized them. However, pesticide use is associated with many adverse effects, which necessitate precise toxicological tests and risk assessment. Most of these methods are based on animal studies, but considerations of animal welfare and ethics require the development of alternative methods for the evaluation of pesticide toxicity. Although the usage of laboratory...

  11. Progress on multi-residue determination of pesticides in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Pan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Food safety is important for the national economy and the people’s livelihood. Development of new analytical techniques and risk assessment for pesticide residues in foods are beneficial for risk management, risk communication and the health of consumer. This paper reviewed the new sample pretreatment techniques, pesticide multi-residue detection technologies and its applications, to provide certain reference for the development and improvement of pesticide residues detection and risk assessment in food.

  12. Pesticide testing in humans: ethics and public policy.

    OpenAIRE

    Oleskey, Christopher; Fleischman, Alan; Goldman, Lynn; Hirschhorn, Kurt; Landrigan, Philip J.; Lappe?, Marc; Marshall, Mary Faith; Needleman, Herbert; Rhodes, Rosamond; Mccally, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Pesticide manufacturers have tested pesticides increasingly in human volunteers over the past decade. The apparent goal of these human studies is to establish threshold levels for symptoms, termed "no observed effect levels." Data from these studies have been submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for consideration in standard setting. There are no required ethical guidelines for studies of pesticides toxicity conducted in humans, no governmental oversight is exercised, a...

  13. Spectroscopic Methods for the Detection of Organophosphate Pesticides – A Preview

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Kumar; Niraj Upadhay; Wasit, A. B.; Simranjeet Singh; Parvinder Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Organophosphate pesticides are the ester forms of phosphoric acid usually considered as secure for agriculture uses due to their relatively fast degradation rates. Organophosphorus pesticides have been extensively used in the area of agriculture to manage insect or pests of a number of economically important crops. Organophosphate pesticides are well-known as the inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase activity, not in insects only, but can also affect the nervous system of other organisms as well ...

  14. Studying Health Outcomes in Farmworker Populations Exposed to Pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Mccauley, Linda A.; Anger, W. Kent; Keifer, Matthew; Langley, Rick; Robson, Mark G.; Rohlman, Diane

    2006-01-01

    A major goal of studying farmworkers is to better understand how their work environment, including exposure to pesticides, affects their health. Although a number of health conditions have been associated with pesticide exposure, clear linkages have yet to be made between exposure and health effects except in cases of acute pesticide exposure. In this article, we review the most common health end points that have been studied and describe the epidemiologic challenges encountered in studying t...

  15. Environmental Exposure Assessment of Pesticides in Farmworker Homes

    OpenAIRE

    Hoppin, Jane A.; Adgate, John L.; Eberhart, Monty; Nishioka, Marcia; Ryan, P. Barry

    2006-01-01

    Farmworkers and their families are exposed to pesticides both at work and in their homes. Environmental exposure assessment provides a means to evaluate pesticides in the environment and human contact with these chemicals through identification of sources and routes of exposure. To date, a variety of methods have been used to assess pesticide exposure among farmworker families, mostly focusing on dust and handwipe samples. While many of the methods are similar, differences in the collection, ...

  16. Radiochemical synthesis of 14C-labelled pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopic derivatives of pesticides labelled with either 14C or tritium are indispensable experimental tools for toxicology or metabolism studies required for registration of new compounds. The radiochemical synthetic pathways leading to the preparation of 14C-labelled pesticides of high specific activity, good chemical/radiochemical yield, and high radiochemical purity are presented for three groups of pesticides; triazines, aryl-haloids, and organometallic compounds. (N.T.). 10 refs., 1 tab

  17. Chitosan based Butyrylcholinesterase Biosensor for the Pesticide Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Timur, Suna; Telefoncu, Azmi; Ege University, Faculty of Science, Biochemistry Department, 35100-Bornova-Izmir/TURKEY

    2001-01-01

    The increasing concern for ground water pollution, due to the use of pesticides in agriculture, requires a strong effort in order to detect pollutants with reliable, economical and rapid methods; some pollutants like pesticides and heavy metals, infact, are very dangerous for human health. Pesticides are highly toxic compounds and some of them are powerfull inhibitors of enzymes involved in nerve functions. It is true that they show low environmental persistence but they have acut toxicity an...

  18. Pesticides and public health: integrated methods of mosquito management.

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, R. I.

    2001-01-01

    Pesticides have a role in public health as part of sustainable integrated mosquito management. Other components of such management include surveillance, source reduction or prevention, biological control, repellents, traps, and pesticide-resistance management. We assess the future use of mosquito control pesticides in view of niche markets, incentives for new product development, Environmental Protection Agency registration, the Food Quality Protection Act, and improved pest management strate...

  19. Agricultural Pesticide Management in Thailand: Situation and Population Health Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Panuwet, Parinya; Siriwong, Wattasit; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Ryan, P. Barry; Fiedler, Nancy; Robson, Mark G.; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2012-01-01

    As an agricultural country and one of the world’s major food exporters, Thailand relies heavily on the use of pesticides to protect crops and increase yields. During the past decade, the Kingdom of Thailand has experienced an approximate four-fold increase in pesticide use. This increase presents a challenge for the Royal Thai Government in effectively managing and controlling pesticide use based upon the current policies and legal infrastructure. We have reviewed several key components for...

  20. Pendimethalin Exposure and Cancer Incidence Among Pesticide Applicators

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Lifang; Lee, Won Jin; Rusiecki, Jennifer; Hoppin, Jane A.; Blair, Aaron; Bonner, Matthew R.; Lubin, Jay H.; Samanic, Claudine; Sandler, Dale P.; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Alavanja, Michael C. R.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pendimethalin, a widely used herbicide, has been classified as a group C possible human carcinogen by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. We evaluated the incidence of cancer in relation to reported pendimethelin use among pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort of licensed pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. METHODS: Information on pesticide use came from two questionnaires (enrollment and take-home). The present analysis i...

  1. Pesticides and inner-city children: exposures, risks, and prevention.

    OpenAIRE

    Landrigan, P. J.; Claudio, L.; Markowitz, S. B.; Berkowitz, G. S.; Brenner, B. L.; Romero, H.; Wetmur, J. G.; Matte, T. D.; Gore, A. C.; Godbold, J. H.; Wolff, M. S.

    1999-01-01

    Six million children live in poverty in America's inner cities. These children are at high risk of exposure to pesticides that are used extensively in urban schools, homes, and day-care centers for control of roaches, rats, and other vermin. The organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos and certain pyrethroids are the registered pesticides most heavily applied in cities. Illegal street pesticides are also in use, including tres pasitos (a carbamate), tiza china, and methyl parathion. In New Yo...

  2. Pesticide leaching in macroporous clay soils: field experiment and modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Scorza Ju?nior, R. P.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords : pesticide leaching, macropores, preferential flow, preferential transport, cracked clay soil, pesticide leaching models, groundwater contamination, inverse modeling, bentazone and imidacloprid. The presence of macropores (i.e. shrinkage cracks, earthworm and root channels) in the unsaturated zone can enhance pesticide leaching to groundwater and therefore increase the risk of groundwater contamination. In this thesis, experimental and modeling approaches were used to obtain a bett...

  3. Considerations on the Content of Pesticides Residues in Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Florica Morar; Catalina-Cristina Bloj

    2011-01-01

    Pesticide contamination of vegetables, today, is more and more questionable. Biodegradability and molecular recalcitrance are two properties expressing the capacity of used substances in plant treatments. Therefore, it is preferred the use of those pesticides that decompose from a treatment to another without accumulating thepollutant residues. It is recommended that, when choosing a pesticide which is used in treatments, to keep in mind: no effect dose, tolerable daily intake, tolerable amou...

  4. Computer program for distance learning of pesticide application technology

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Maia; Cunha, Joao P. A. R.

    2011-01-01

    Distance learning presents great potential for mitigating field problems on pesticide application technology. Thus, due to the lack of teaching material about pesticide spraying technology in the Portuguese language and the increasing availability of distance learning, this study developed and evaluated a computer program for distance learning about the theory of pesticide spraying technology using the tools of information technology. The modules comprising the course, named Pulverizar, were:...

  5. Influence of different carbon monolith preparation parameters on pesticide adsorption

    OpenAIRE

    Vuk?evi? Marija; Kalijadis Ana; Babi? Biljana; Lauševi? Zoran; Lauševi? Mila

    2013-01-01

    The capacity of carbon monolith for pesticide removal from water, and the mechanism of pesticide interaction with carbon surface were examined. Different carbon monolith samples were obtained by varying the carbonization and activation parameters. In order to examine the role of surface oxygen groups in pesticide adsorption, carbon monolith surface was functionalized by chemical treatment in HNO3, H2O2 and KOH. The surface properties of the obtained samples...

  6. Residential exposures to pesticides and childhood leukaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Metayer, Catherine; Buffler, Patricia A.

    2008-01-01

    Like many chemicals, carcinogenicity of pesticides is poorly characterised in humans, especially in children, so that the present knowledge about childhood leukaemia risk derives primarily from epidemiological studies. Overall, case–control studies published in the last decade have reported positive associations with home use of insecticides, mostly before the child's birth, while findings for herbicides are mixed. Previous studies relied solely on self-reports, therefore lacking informatio...

  7. Occurrence of organochlorine pesticides in indoor dust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Mayer, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides are present in the environment and suspected of causing serious health effects. Diet has been the main exposure source, but indoor source release is gaining focus. Within a monitoring study of polychlorinated biphenyls of Danish buildings built during the 1960s and 1970s, we coincidently determined extreme levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) levels in two of ten random samples. This raises concern and further large scale investigations are warranted to confirm this.

  8. Dietary exposures to selected metals and pesticides.

    OpenAIRE

    MacIntosh, D L; Spengler, J.D.; Ozkaynak, H.; Tsai, L.; Ryan, P B

    1996-01-01

    Average daily dietary exposures to 11 contaminants were estimated for approximately 120,000 U.S. adults by combining data on annual diet, as measured by a food frequency questionnaire, with contaminant residue data for table-ready foods that were collected as part of the annual U.S. Food and Drug Administration Total Diet Study. The contaminants included in the analysis were four heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury), three organophosphate pesticides (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathio...

  9. Ultrasonic Induced Decomposition of Methidathion Pesticide

    OpenAIRE

    Robina Farooq; Shaukat, S. F.; Khan, Abida K.; Umar Farooq

    2008-01-01

    A cost effective method of decomposition was developed for industrial effluents by using ultrasound in combination of H2O2. The process was optimized by studying the decomposition of methidathion pesticide at different frequencies, different ultrasonic wave amplitudes, pH and concentrations of the solutions. It was shown that the rate of sonochemical decomposition was directly linked to the OH° availability in the solution. The degradation was more efficient for the higher frequency because ...

  10. Biodegradation of Organophosphate Pesticide by Soil Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Harish. R; Supreeth.M; Jyoti Bala Chauhan

    2013-01-01

    In this study using enrichment technique biodegradation of organophosphorous pesticide, (Chloropyrifos and Ethion) was performed. Two fungal isolates Trichoderma harznaium and Rhizopus nodosus isolated from the contaminated soil by enrichment technique, was capable of metabolizing the organophosphorous insecticide (Chloropyriofos and Ethion) as a sole carbon source when grown in burkes mineral medium at concentration of 100 PPM respectively. Fungi were able to degrade 70-80% of the parental m...

  11. Research of pesticide residues on fruit by terahertz spectroscopy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yehao; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Xiaowei; Wang, Huali

    2011-11-01

    Pesticide residues on the fruit skin are measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) in 0.2-1.3THz. Pesticide is mainly residues for fruit, which threatens health of human, so the research about the fruit residues is absolutely important. In the experiment, a kind of pesticide carbendazim, orange, and the mixture of them are measured by THz-TDS, and then calculate absorption spectrums through Fourier transform and Fresnel formula. Experiment results indicate that THz-TDS is an effective tool for the measurement of pesticide residues on the fruit skin.

  12. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. PMID:24716788

  13. 40 CFR 158.2173 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01...Experimental use permit microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements...2173 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA...

  14. 40 CFR 455.60 - Applicability; description of repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01...repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling...60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS...

  15. 40 CFR 158.2171 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01...Experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data...2171 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA...

  16. 40 CFR 158.2084 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01...use permit biochemical pesticides nontarget organisms...2084 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA...

  17. 40 CFR 158.2174 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01...use permit microbial pesticides nontarget organisms...2174 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1127 - Biochemical pesticide plant floral volatile attractant compounds: cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...1127 Biochemical pesticide plant floral volatile attractant...of the biochemical pesticide plant floral volatile attractant...cucumbers, squash, pumpkin), egg plant, endive (escarole), horseradish (radish, rutabagas, turnip...

  19. [A new programme on safety evaluation of pesticides--the IPCS Joint Meeting on Pesticides (JMP)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekizawa, J

    1995-01-01

    International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), an international collaboration in safety evaluation of chemicals, initiated a programme called Joint Meeting on Pesticides or JMP, last autumn. The JMP is an activity contributing to harmonizing evaluation procedures and saving expertise and financial resources, having several unique features. First, the outputs of the scientific evaluations and data covering all major areas related to pesticide safety in one JMP meeting can be applied to the areas of food safety, occupational health, and environmental protection. Second, succinct presentation of the outputs of reliable evaluations in a tabular form, supported by detailed information in the Environmental Health Criteria documents help people in countries, especially those in developing ones, understand the evaluations and rely on them in establishing their guidelines on pesticide safety. This format of the JMP report is a good example for short assessment reviews on chemicals (Concise International Assessment Document) which will be prepared by an international cooperation project based on Agenda 21 decisions. PMID:8717235

  20. Haematologic Indices in Pesticide Factory Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Joshaghani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of pesticides on blood indices of subjects which are exposed to organophosphate toxins. This research was a cohort study which was carried out during 2005 on the employee of a pesticide factory in Golestan province (North of Iran. In this study the sampling from 63 subjects was carried out for two sessions in days 1 and 90. CBC and hematologic indices performed by cell counter instrument. The mean of MCV in phase 1 was 82.8±7.1 fl and in second phase the MCV was 80.3±6.7 fl. This drop in MCV statistically was meaningful (paired t-test, mean = 2.5, 95% CI=2.0-2.9, p<0.001. Erythrocyte number, hemoglobin, HCT and MCHC increase in second phase compared to first phase statistically was meaningful. There was not any significant relation between the place of work and variation of red blood cell indices. In regard to the changes in hematologic indices in workers of pesticide factory in a three months period, it seems logical to set up a program to have a routine check on the hematologic indices in working personal engaging in such occupations.

  1. [Laser Raman spectrum analysis of carbendazim pesticide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-bin; Wu, Rui-mei; Liu, Mu-hua; Zhang, Lu-ling; Lin, Lei; Yan, Lin-yuan

    2014-06-01

    Raman signal of solid and liquid carbendazim pesticide was collected by laser Raman spectrometer. The acquired Raman spectrum signal of solid carbendazim was preprocessed by wavelet analysis method, and the optimal combination of wavelet denoising parameter was selected through mixed orthogonal test. The results showed that the best effect was got with signal to noise ratio (SNR) being 62.483 when db2 wavelet function was used, decomposition level was 2, the threshold option scheme was 'rigisure' and reset mode was 'sln'. According to the vibration mode of different functional groups, the de-noised Raman bands could be divided into 3 areas: 1 400-2 000, 700-1 400 and 200-700 cm(-1). And the de-noised Raman bands were assigned with and analyzed. The characteristic vibrational modes were gained in different ranges of wavenumbers. Strong Raman signals were observed in the Raman spectrum at 619, 725, 964, 1 022, 1 265, 1 274 and 1 478 cm(-1), respectively. These characteristic vibrational modes are characteristic Raman peaks of solid carbendazim pesticide. Find characteristic Raman peaks at 629, 727, 1 001, 1 219, 1 258 and 1 365 cm(-1) in Raman spectrum signal of liquid carbendazim. These characteristic peaks were basically tallies with the solid carbendazim. The results can provide basis for the rapid screening of pesticide residue in food and agricultural products based on Raman spectrum. PMID:25358165

  2. A Guide to Pesticide Regulation in the UK, and the Role of the Advisory Committee On Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    This "Pesticides Forum Paper" (PF101i), from the UK Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, covers pesticide use, legislation, and regulation within the UK and the greater European Union region. Targeting politicians, journalists, consumer organizations, and the general public, the paper specifically seeks "to explain how pesticides are currently regulated in the UK, what information is used to assess the risks that they might pose, and the roles of the various organizations that participate in the regulatory process."

  3. Adsorption of pesticides onto quartz, calcite, kaolinite, and ?-alumina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2001-01-01

    The fate of pesticides in aquifers is influenced by the small but not insignificant adsorption of pesticides to mineral surfaces. Batch experiments with five pesticides and four minerals were conducted to quantify the contributions to adsorption from different mineral surfaces and compare adsorption characteristics of selected pesticides. Investigated mineral phases included quartz, calcite, kaolinite, and alpha -alumina. Selected pesticides comprised atrazine (6-chloro-N-2-ethyl-N-4-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine isoproturon [3-(4-isopropyl-phenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea)], mecoprop [(RS)-2-(4-chloro-2-methyl phenoxy)propionic acid], 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), and bentazone [3-isopropyl-1H-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-4-(3H)-one 2,2-dioxide]. Specific surface area and mineral surface charge proved to be important for the adsorption of these pesticides. Detectable adsorption of the anionic pesticides (mecoprop, 2,4-D, and bentazone) was only measured when positive sites were present on the mineral surface. However, when CaCl2 was added as an electrolyte, a detect able adsorption of mecoprop and 2,4-D was also measured on kaolinite (which exhibits a negative surface charge), probably due to formation of Ca-pesticide-surface complexes. Adsorption of the uncharged pesticides (atrazine and isoproturon) was detected only on kaolinite. The lack of adsorption on alpha -alumina indicates that the uncharged pesticides have a greater affinity for the silanol surface sites (= SiOH) than for the aluminol surface sites (= AIOH) in kaolinite. No measurable effect of ionic strength was found for the uncharged pesticides. The results indicate that quartz and calcite play a smaller role than clay minerals.

  4. Cholinergic pesticides cause mushroom body neuronal inactivation in honeybees

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Mary J.; Moffat, Christopher; Saranzewa, Nastja; Harvey, Jenni; Wright, Geraldine A.; Connolly, Christopher N.

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides that target cholinergic neurotransmission are highly effective, but their use has been implicated in insect pollinator population decline. Honeybees are exposed to two widely used classes of cholinergic pesticide: neonicotinoids (nicotinic receptor agonists) and organophosphate miticides (acetylcholinesterase inhibitors). Although sublethal levels of neonicotinoids are known to disrupt honeybee learning and behaviour, the neurophysiological basis of these effects has not been shown...

  5. Analysis of organophosphorus pesticides using FT-NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid and highly selective method of the identification of 23 kinds of organophosphorus pesticides was develop by using 31P FT-NMR with 1H complete decoupling method. Chemical shifts referenced by 85 % H3PO4 were within -4 to 100 ppm, and there was no overlapping among the organophosphorus pesticides used in this experiment. (author)

  6. Radiotracer studies of pesticide residues in food plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Researches using radiotracers as means for the rapid generation of background data critical for the efficient and safe use of pesticides at the Pesticide Toxicology and Chemistry Laboratory of the National Crop Protection Center, University of the Philippines, Los Banos, Laguna are described. Methodologies as well as results and discussions of the researches done are given. (ELC) 4 tabs.; 11 figs.; 16 refs

  7. Education and the Environment: Pesticide Contamination and Children's Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Alfredo H.

    1981-01-01

    Based on recent medical research, the article poses questions regarding how pesticides and fertilizers may affect children in the classroom. Particular emphasis is placed on the learning disabilities of minority students (particularly, migrant children and children on Indian reservations) as a result of pesticides. (DB)

  8. Neurological Effects of Pesticide Use among Farmers in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The intensive use of pesticides has attracted great attention from the Chinese government. However, current regulations have had limited influence on their safe use. Although the acute neurologic effects of pesticides have been well documented, little is known about their cumulative effects. Knowledge of the impact of pesticides on health may convince farmers to minimize their use. We conducted a cross-sectional study in three provinces of China to evaluate the relationship between pesticide exposure and neurological dysfunction. Crop farmers were divided into two groups depending on their level of pesticide exposure. A total of 236 participants were assessed by questionnaire and neurological examination for symptoms and signs of neuropathy. Characteristics of neurologic dysfunction following cumulative low-level exposure were assessed with logistic regression analysis. Farmers exposed to high-level pesticide use had greater risk of developing sensations of numbness or prickling (odds ratio (OR 2.62, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.08–6.36. After adjusting for recent exposure, the risk of numbness or prickling symptoms (OR 2.55, 95% CI: 1.04–6.25 remained statistically significant. Loss of muscle strength and decreased deep tendon reflexes had OR > 2, however, this did not reach statistical significance. These findings suggest that overuse of pesticides increased risk of neurologic dysfunction among farmers, with somatosensory small fibers most likely affected. Measures that are more efficient should be taken to curb excessive use of pesticides.

  9. Rationale in the design of pesticide metabolism studies using radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous physical, chemical and biochemical forces act on pesticides in the environment to regulate their persistence and, to a large extent, determine their environmental and toxicological significance. Radioisotope-aided metabolism studies with pesticides in both target and non-target organisms are important to define the qualitative and quantitative aspects of pesticide degradation involved. Such studies provide valuable information that can be used in a number of ways, including prediction of the nature of potential pesticide interactions with man, estimation of potential residue occurrence in human foods, determination of pesticidal mode of action, and evaluation of potential toxicological effects on non-target species. In designing pesticide metabolism studies that utilize radioisotopes as tracers, the metabolism scientist must exercise careful judgement to ensure that his studies generate data that are scientifically sound and relevant to environmental and human health concerns. Such factors as isotope selection, label position, specific activity, treatment routes, dosage levels, replication, and the utilization of appropriate radiometric and analytical techniques are important considerations to assure the generation of useful data. Because of the very large number of potential pesticide/organism interactions that may be of interest to the metabolism scientist, specific research approaches vary greatly depending on the nature of the study organism and the specinature of the study organism and the specific pesticide involved. The rationale often used by metabolism studies in laboratory animals, livestock and poultry, plants, soil and aquatic organisms, arthropods and other pest species, non-target organisms, and for in vitro studies, is considered. (author)

  10. Determination of pesticide residue in selected fruits and vegetable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food contamination due to indiscriminate use of pesticides has become a serious problem. Fruits samples of tomato, grapes, musk melon, parsimen and vegetable samples of potato, pea, spinach, cabbage and pumpkin ere collected from local market of Peshawar, coming from different regions. All samples were extracted, purified and analyzed for the commonly used pesticides. Dichlorovas, BHC, Atrazine, Daizinon, Methadiathion and Cypermethrin were detected by Gas Chromatography. These pesticides were detected in vegetable samples Id Atrazine were found in potato sample and not detected in other samples. Large concentration of Cypermethrin (44.6) was detected in the pea sample. All the vegetables samples have maximum concentration of pesticides, which is higher than their MRLs, but in pumpkin no one of the above pesticides were detected. In fruits samples, dichlorovas, atrazine, diazinon, methadiathion. Cypermethrin were detected. BHC was not present in fruits samples. All these pesticides were above the MRLs. The study concluded that agriculture crops are highly contaminated due to the uncontrolled use of pesticides in project area and suggested that pesticides should be applied in calculated dose to avoid resistance and persistence due to over and under dose application. (author)

  11. PESTICIDES IN SOIL: BENEFITS AND LIMITATIONS TO SOIL HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides are important components of many agricultural management systems and their effects on soil and its ability to process them should be included when evaluating soil quality. Pesticides help maintain agricultural productivity by controlling pests, however, management thresholds must be esta...

  12. Pesticide transport via sub-surface drains in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport of pesticides from point of application via sub-surface drains can contribute significantly to contamination of surface waters. Results of 23 field drainage experiments undertaken at sites across Europe were collated and analysed by residual maximum likelihood. Both maximum concentration of pesticide in drainflow (n = 167) and seasonal loss of pesticide to drains (n = 97) were significantly related to strength of pesticide sorption to soil, half-life of the pesticide in soil, the interval between application and first drainflow and the clay content of the soil. The statistical models accounted for 71% of the variability in both maximum concentration and seasonal load. Next, the dataset was used to evaluate the current methodology for assessment of aquatic exposure used in pesticide registration in Europe. Simulations for seven compounds with contrasting properties showed a good correspondence with field measurements. Finally, the review examines management approaches to reduce pesticide transport via sub-surface drains. Despite a large amount of work in this area, there are few dependable mitigation options other than to change application rate or timing or to restrict use of a compound in the most vulnerable situations. - Chemical and environmental factors influence pesticide transfer to water via drains.

  13. Pesticide use in Latin America: Trends and environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current demand for pesticides in Latin America exceeds US $2000 million in value. Up to 1990, the consumption is expected to rise annually by 7 to 12%. Use of pesticides has been fully accepted in Latin America as a readily available means of pest control. Nevertheless, even today pests are responsible for the loss of 25 to 40% of potential harvests. In banana cultivation, the cost of pesticides accounts for 30 to 35% of production costs. Latin America is in the process of changing over from persistent organochlorines to pesticides which are more sophisticated, more expensive and less persistent. The countries in the region are looking for ecologically acceptable permanent methods of pest control. Integrated pest management will reduce the risks of pesticide use by changing the systems of application. All Latin American countries have legislation on pesticide handling and use. These laws have been or are being harmonized with the International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides published by FAO. The Latin American pesticide industry is dependent on the supply of intermediate compounds and raw materials from developed countries. In addition, it has to deal with high production costs and a lack of research and development. It is far from utilizing the full installed capacity, and only an increase in commercial exchange in the region would make its position less unfavourable. (author). 28 refs, 3 figs, 8 tabs8 tabs

  14. PESTICIDES AND AMPHIBIAN DECLINES IN THE SIERRA NEVADA MOUNTAINS, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown that pesticides from the Central Valley of CA enter the Sierra Nevada ecosystem through aerial deposition in snow and rain, and that surface concentrations of certain pesticides are within an order of magnitude of the 96hr LC50 of amphibians. Pseudacris regilla hatchlings...

  15. PESTICIDES AND FROG DECLINES IN THE SIERRA NEVADA MOUNTAINS, CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown that pesticides from the Central Valley of CA enter the Sierra Nevada ecosystem through aerial deposition in snow and rain, and that surface concentrations of certain pesticides are within an order of magnitude of the 96hr LC50 of amphibians. In order to evaluate the biol...

  16. Development of pesticide use maps for South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    James M., Dabrowski.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Over 3000 pesticides are registered for use in South Africa. Many studies have highlighted the movement of pesticides to agricultural crops from the point of application into non-target environments, particularly surface and groundwater resources. Exposure to pesticides can lead to serious human hea [...] lth and environmental effects. It is therefore important to identify critical areas where specific pesticides may result in a high risk of exposure to humans or the environment. Crop specific pesticide use data were obtained from a market research company and integrated into a geographical information system detailing the distribution of agricultural crops in South Africa as determined by an agricultural census performed in 2002. By estimating the total application of a specific pesticide to all crops produced in a magisterial district, it was possible to generate maps which provide an estimate of the application rate of over 200 pesticides per magisterial district. These maps were intersected with an agricultural land-cover map to provide a refined map giving details of the spatial distribution of pesticide use across the country. These maps are the first of their kind in South Africa and provide a spatial overview of the likely distribution of specific active ingredients based on the distribution of crops throughout the country. While there are a number of limitations and uncertainties associated with the data used to produce these maps, these are not unique to South Africa, and similar methodologies have been applied in more developed countries.

  17. Pesticide Application and Safety Training. Sale Publication 4070.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimmann, M. W.

    This guide is intended for use by those preparing to take the California certification examination for commercial pesticide applicators. The first chapter gives brief descriptions and illustrations of types of insect, vertebrate, plant, and microorganism pests. The other chapters cover pesticide classifications and formulations, labels and…

  18. Non-target and environmental hazards of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyaniwura, T T

    1991-01-01

    When compared with pesticide pollution from other sources and pollution by other agents, the hazards of atmospheric pollution by pesticides appear relatively insignificant. The high persistency in the environment observed especially with the organochlorines suggests that there could be a gradual accumulation of residual pesticides in the atmosphere. Thus, in addition to the function of redistributing pesticides by air currents and aerial drifts, the atmosphere may become a major reservoir for drift prone finely divided particulate pesticides and highly volatile compounds. Indiscriminate aerial spraying should be avoided. A more selective approach should be adopted whereby forest areas are sprayed without contaminating streams, lakes and inland waters. Improvement in spraying devices are needed such that pesticides are more precisely delivered to target. Direct spraying of water bodies should be avoided as much as possible. Treatment of waste water for pesticide removal or neutralization prior to effluence from factories and disposal of effluence to legally designated sites in addition to chemical treatment of contaminated water are more ways of reducing water pollution. Pesticide residues in soil, in addition to eliminating or reducing parasitic microbes, are also toxic to the non-parasitic and ecologically useful soil microbial and vertebrate population. Pesticides may reduce certain microorganism populations while they stimulate the growth of others, especially the saphrophytic and spore forming types. Soil chemical properties may also be altered by accumulation of residual pesticides and their metabolites. These processes may disrupt the ecological balance in the soil microenvironment, first by simplifying the microbial population, and possibly by reducing soil fertility and its ability to support life. Non-target or residual pesticide toxicity would also disrupt the population of some of the valuable soil invertebrates like earthworms, predatory mites, centipedes and carabid beetles. Accumulation of pesticides in resistant or tolerant species may provoke episodes of toxicity to organisms higher in the food chain. The chlorinated hydrocarbons are likely to be most ecotoxic. Use of such pesticides ought to be restricted. Efforts to find alternatives to pesticides, especially research into biological control, should be intensified. PMID:1792388

  19. Monitoring of pesticide residues in human blood from Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anupama; Gill, Jatinder Paul Singh; Bedi, Jasbir Singh

    2015-05-01

    In the present study, the current levels of pesticide residues were studied in the human populace of Punjab state. A total of 111 human blood samples were analyzed by gas chromatography and pesticide residues were detected in 35 % of the blood sample(s). Residues of alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p' DDD), p,p' dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p' DDE), p,p' dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p' DDT), ?-endosulfan, monocrotophos, profenophos and phosalone were found in human blood samples with mean levels of 1.11, 5.89, 0.51, 3.88, 0.39, 34.90, 0.79, 0.39 and 6.76 ng ml(-1), respectively, with ?-endosulfan as a leading pesticide residue. A paradigm shift in the pattern of the pesticide usage was observed with a shift from organochlorine pesticides to organophosphates. PMID:25773703

  20. SERS-based pesticide detection by using nanofinger sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ansoon; Barcelo, Steven J.; Li, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Simple, sensitive, and rapid detection of trace levels of extensively used and highly toxic pesticides are in urgent demand for public health. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based sensor was designed to achieve ultrasensitive and simple pesticide sensing. We developed a portable sensor system composed of high performance and reliable gold nanofinger sensor strips and a custom-built portable Raman spectrometer. Compared to the general procedure and previously reported studies that are limited to laboratory settings, our analytical method is simple, sensitive, rapid, and cost-effective. Based on the SERS results, the chemical interaction of two pesticides, chlorpyrifos (CPF) and thiabendazole (TBZ), with gold nanofingers was studied to determine a fingerprint for each pesticide. The portable SERS-sensor system was successfully demonstrated to detect CPF and TBZ pesticides within 15 min with a detection limit of 35 ppt in drinking water and 7 ppb on apple skin, respectively.

  1. Monitoring of occupational exposure to pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Number of pesticides applied is constantly increasing, and although in general they are beneficial they may create a genotoxic hazard to environment and human health too. The aim of study performed in four countries (Greece, Hungary, Poland and Spain) was to assess potential genotoxic risk of occupational exposure to pesticides. Interviews were performed and biological samples were taken from 426 donors, 50% unexposed and 50% donors occupationally exposed to genotoxic agrochemical. In this paper is presented comparison of results from studies on the influence of occupational exposure on individual susceptibility to the induction of the DNA damage by UV and DNA damage repair efficiency. Levels of the DNA damage induced in vivo and by various treatments in vitro were assessed by the use of single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) also known as a Comet assay. Susceptibility to UVC and repair capacities of lymphocytes of all unexposed and exposed to pesticides people from four countries was compared. A Hungarian subgroup of donors consisted of unexposed exposed and highly exposed persons. All groups of donors were at the similar age, sex and occupation. In general, all donors were free of major health problems. Lymphocytes, from collected in various countries whole blood samples were isolated and frozen, and then were transported to Poland in a dry ice for farther DNA damage analysis. In defrosted lymphocytes viability and presence of DNA damage were tested. Lymphocytes froof DNA damage were tested. Lymphocytes from Hungarian group expressed significantly lower viability of lymphocytes and very high damage (? 30 times higher than in other groups) detected either in untreated or treated lymphocytes. Results from all other groups of samples except Hungarian group did not show statistically significant differences between levels of DNA damages detected in defrosted lymphocytes from reference and exposed to pesticides subgroups. Statistically significant difference between the whole investigated groups from various countries (including or excluding Hungarian group) was observed in the mean levels of the DNA damage detected in untreated lymphocytes. In order to investigate differences in the individual susceptibilities to UV and repair capacities, other part of defrosted lymphocytes was irradiated with 6 J/m2 of UV-C and the DNA damage was measured right after exposure or after two hours of incubation with or without the presence of phytohemoglutinin (PHA). High dispersion in the responses in all groups under the study was observed. Results show multimode distributions of individual susceptibilities and repair capabilities in all groups under the study and subgroups (exposed and unexposed). Although, susceptibility to UV, estimated on the base of the efficiency of the UV induced dimmers excision process, was higher in subgroups exposed to pesticides (from Greece, Spain and Poland), though this difference was statistically significant only in the group from Poland. Results of obtained repair efficiency estimated for groups from Greece and Hungary did not indicate any significant differences due to exposure. In Polish and Spanish groups, lymphocytes from exposed to pesticides donors have shown a statistically different repair rate than lymphocytes from unexposed group, however the relation was inversed. Probably due to differences in life styles and diets, our results show statistically significant differences between national groups in all investigated biomarkers; the levels of the DNA damage detected in vivo, susceptibility to UV and repair capacity. (author)

  2. Influence of Some Pesticides on Humoral and Cellular Immunity of Exposed Workers in Pesticides Industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticide poisoning is a major public health problem in developing countries. In most of these countries organophosphate pesticides constitute the most widely used pesticides. The main toxicity of OPs is neurotoxicity, which is caused by the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. OPs also affect the immune response, including effects on cellular and humoral immunity. Our study examined the effect of organophosphorus compounds on humoral and cellular immunity of exposed workers in pesticides industries. The study was conducted into 40 subjects. They were 2 groups; 20 exposed workers from Gharbeia and Kafr Elsheikh at 2008 and 2009 and 20 unexposed individuals as a control group at the same period of time. We examined some immune parameters; pseudocholinesterase, WBCs count, CD4%, CD8%, CD4/CD8, CD56%, Interleukin 2, IgG and IgM. Also we take history and clinical examination for them. We reported a highly significant decrease in pseudo cholinesterase level among the exposed group in comparison to the control group, highly significant increase in percentage of CD8 in the exposed group in comparison to control group, highly significant decrease in CD4 / CD8 ratio in the exposed group in comparison to control group, highly significant decrease in percentage of CD56 in the exposed group in comparison to control group and a highly significant increase in IgG level in the exposed group in comparison to control group. On the other hand, we reported no significant change in white blood cells count between the exposed and control groups, no significant change in percentage of CD4 among the exposed and control group, no significant change in Interleukin 2 level among the exposed and control group and no significant change in IgM level among the exposed and control group. We concluded that pesticides extensively affect the humoral and cellular immune system of occupationally exposed workers.

  3. Regulation of pesticide degradation in the detritusphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, Holger; Poll, Christian; Ingwersen, Joachim; Ditterich, Franziska; Gebala, Aurelia; Kandeler, Ellen; Streck, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    The detritusphere is a microbial hot spot of C turnover and degradation of pesticides in soils. We aimed at an improved understanding of the regulation mechanisms, which are responsible for stimulated degradation of the herbicide MCPA (2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid) in response to increased C availability in the detritusphere. We combined a microcosm experiment with biogeochemical modeling and linked genetic information on abundances of total bacteria, fungi and specific pesticide degraders in soil to the coupled biogeochemical dynamics of C and MCPA. As a result of diffusive and convective C transport from litter into the adjacent soil we found increased dissolved organic C (DOC) in soil up to a 6 mm distance to litter (detritusphere). In the detritusphere, we observed increased microbial C and accelerated MCPA degradation. These dynamics were accurately reproduced by the model. Whereas the observed increase of bacteria and pesticide degrader populations in the detritusphere was simulated satisfactorily, the model could not reproduce the steep increase of fungi indicated by the fungal marker gene. Our simulations suggest that bacterial MCPA degraders mostly benefited from high-quality DOC, whereas fungal activity and growth were specifically stimulated by low-quality DOC. According to the simulations, MCPA was predominantly degraded via fungal co-metabolism. Our study demonstrates that biogeochemical processes in soil hotspots are regulated by the interaction of transport processes and microbial dynamics. It further reveals that mathematical modelling is as powerful tool to gain comprehensive insight into the microbial regulation of matter cycling in soil. Genetic information has a high potential to parameterize and evaluate complex mechanistic models, but model approaches must be improved based on extended information on gene dynamics at the cellular level.

  4. Persistent organochlorine pesticide residues in animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Subir Kumar; Raikwar, Mukesh K

    2011-03-01

    Animal products like milk and meat are often found to be contaminated with residues of persistent pesticides and other toxic substances. The major source of entry of these compounds to animal body is the contaminated feed and fodder. So, unless the residues are managed at this stage, it is very difficult to prevent contamination in milk and meat. Therefore, the status of residue level of most persistent organochlorinated pesticides (OCP) in feed and fodder should be monitored regularly. The frequency of occurrence and contamination levels of OCP residues in different kinds of animal concentrate feed and straw samples collected from Bundelkhand region of India were determined. Out of 533 total samples, 301 i.e. 56.47% samples were positive containing residues of different OCPs like hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) complex, endosulfan and dicofol. Among different HCH isomers, the mean concentration of ?-HCH was highest, and total HCH varied from 0.01 to 0.306 mg kg(-1). In case of DDT complex, i.e. DDD, DDE and DDT, the concentration ranged between 0.016 and 0.118 mg kg(-1) and the pp(|) isomers were more frequently encountered than their op(|) counterparts. Endosulfan was also found in some samples in concentration ranging from 0.009 to 0.237 mg/kg, but dicofol could be recorded in very few samples. Although feed samples were found to contain OC residues, after comparing their levels in positive samples with the limiting values of respective pesticides, only very few were found to exceed the threshold level. Otherwise, they were mostly within safe limits. PMID:20443138

  5. Disposal of unwanted pesticides in Stellenbosch, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Unwanted pesticides in developing countries are major environmental health threats. This study followed-up a previous audit of unwanted and obsolete pesticides on farms in a rural district of South Africa six years after a National Retrieval Project (NPR) was undertaken. Methods: A descriptive survey of 37 farms that had been in possession of unwanted pesticides in a 1995 survey and a purposive sample of 34 neighbouring farms, was carried out. The survey data included farm details; details of unwanted pesticide stocks, volumes of empty containers and safety and hygiene of pesticide stores. In addition, management was asked if they had been informed about and participated in the 1997 NPR and similarly whether they were aware of the retrieval planned by the African Stockpiles Programme (ASP). Results: Forty (56%) farms were in possession of obsolete pesticides of which 24 (59%) were farms that had unwanted stocks in the previous survey. There were more than 9 tonnes of these pesticides, 50% more than in the previous survey, including 20 chemicals banned, withdrawn or restricted in South Africa or classified as WHO Class I toxicity. Over 2800 kg of pesticides (30%) were not identifiable. None of the farms participated in the NPR, although 47 knew of the initiative. Only six farmers (9%) knew of the ASP initiative. Fifty-nine farms (83%) had empty containers on the premises. Most pesticide stores (67%) had floors contaminated with chemicals. Conclusion: The suminated with chemicals. Conclusion: The survey found that despite the NPR, the problem of unwanted pesticides in the study area and probably throughout South Africa has deteriorated. National and international policies should control the problem at source and encourage more sustainable agriculture

  6. Water Pollution with Special Reference to Pesticide Contamination in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Agrawal

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The pesticides belong to a category of chemicals used worldwide as herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, ro-denticides, molluscicides, nematicides, and plant growth regulators in order to control weeds, pests and dis-eases in crops as well as for health care of humans and animals. The positive aspect of application of pesti-cides renders enhanced crop/food productivity and drastic reduction of vector-borne diseases. However, their unregulated and indiscriminate applications have raised serious concerns about the entire environment in general and the health of humans, birds and animals in particular. Despite ban on application of some of the environmentally persistent and least biodegradable pesticides (like organochlorines in many countries, their use is ever on rise. Pesticides cause serious health hazards to living systems because of their rapid fat solu-bility and bioaccumulation in non-target organisms. Even at low concentration, pesticides may exert several adverse effects, which could be monitored at biochemical, molecular or behavioral levels. The factors af-fecting water pollution with pesticides and their residues include drainage, rainfall, microbial activity, soil temperature, treatment surface, application rate as well as the solubility, mobility and half life of pesticides. In India organochlorine insecticides such as DDT and HCH constitute more than 70% of the pesticides used at present. Reports from Delhi, Bhopal and other cities and some rural areas have indicated presence of sig-nificant level of pesticides in fresh water systems as well as bottled drinking mineral water samples. The ef-fects of pesticides pollution in riverine systems and drinking water in India has been discussed in this review.

  7. Association between environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary studies have shown associations between chronic pesticide exposure in occupational settings and neurological disorders. However, data on the effects of long-term non-occupational exposures are too sparse to allow any conclusions. This study examines the influence of environmental pesticide exposure on a number of neuropsychiatric conditions and discusses their underlying pathologic mechanisms. An ecological study was conducted using averaged prevalence rates of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, cerebral degeneration, polyneuropathies, affective psychosis and suicide attempts in selected Andalusian health districts categorized into areas of high and low environmental pesticide exposure based on the number of hectares devoted to intensive agriculture and pesticide sales per capita. A total of 17,429 cases were collected from computerized hospital records (minimum dataset) between 1998 and 2005. Prevalence rates and the risk of having Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and suicide were significantly higher in districts with greater pesticide use as compared to those with lower pesticide use. The multivariate analyses showed that the population living in areas with high pesticide use had an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts and that males living in these areas had increased risks for polyneuropathies, affective disorders and suicide attempts. In conclusion, this study supports and extends previous findings and provides an indication that environmental exposure to pesticides may affect the human health by increasing the incidence of certain neurological disorders at the level of the general population. -- Highlights: ? Environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative–psychiatric disorders. ? Increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts in high exposure areas. ? Males from areas with high pesticide exposure had a higher risk of polyneuropathy. ? Males from high exposure areas had a higher risk of affective psychosis and suicide. ? Nerve tissue degeneration due to oxidative damage may underlie the pathomechanism.

  8. Pesticide poisoning: a major health problem in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Hoek, W; Konradsen, F; Athukorala, K; Wanigadewa, T

    1998-01-01

    Acute pesticide poisoning is a major public health problem in Sri Lanka. In several agricultural districts, it precedes all other causes of death in government hospitals. Most of the acute poisoning cases are intentional (suicide) and occur among young adults, mainly males. Poisoning due to occupational exposure is also common, but less well documented. In an irrigation area in Sri Lanka a very high incidence of serious pesticide poisoning was observed, with 68% due to intentional ingestion of liquid pesticides. It is argued that the easy availability and widespread use of highly hazardous pesticides is the most important reason for this high number of poisoning cases. The frequent application of highly hazardous pesticides in high concentrations was often irrational and posed serious health and financial risks to the farmers. Sales promotion activities and credit facilities promoted this excessive pesticide use, which was not counteracted by an agricultural extension service. Hazardous practices when spraying pesticides were due to the impossibility of applying recommended protective measures under the local conditions, rather than to lack of knowledge. Current emphasis on programs that promote the safe use of pesticides through education and training of farmers will be ineffective in Sri Lanka because knowledge is already high and most poisoning cases are intentional. Instead, enforcement of legislation to restrict availability of the most hazardous pesticides would result in an immediate health benefit. Improved agricultural extension services to promote alternative non-chemical methods of pest control is the most important strategy, in the long term, to prevent acute pesticide poisoning. PMID:9460829

  9. Decontamination of spills and residues of some pesticides and of protective clothing worn during the handling of the pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armour, M.A.; Nelson, C.; Sather, P. Briker, Y. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Users of pesticides may have waste or surplus quantities or spills for disposal. One alternative is to deactivate the pesticide at the handling site by using a straightforward chemical reaction. This option can be practical for those who use relatively small quantities of a large variety of pesticides, for example, greenhouse workers, small farmers, and agricultural researchers. This paper describes practical on-site methods for the disposal of spills or small waste quantities of five commonly used pesticides, Diazinon, Chlorpyrifos, Iprodione, 2,4-D, and Captan. These have been tested in the laboratory for the rate of disappearance of the pesticide, the degree of conversion to nontoxic products, the nature and identity of the products, the practicality of the method, and the ease of reproducibility. Methods selected were shown to be safe for the operator, reliable, and reproducible. Greater than 99% of the starting material had to be reacted under reasonable conditions and length of time. Detailed descriptions of the reactions are presented, so that they can be performed with reproducible results. Protective clothing worn during the handling and application of pesticides may become contaminated. Simple laundering does not always remove all of the pesticide residues. Thus, chronic dermal exposure may result from the pesticide-contaminated clothing. Appropriate methods of laundering using specific pretreatments have been determined. 7 refs.

  10. 78 FR 79359 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ...Spinetoram; Human-Health Assessment Scoping...Spinetoram; Human-Health Assessment Scoping...to their initial pesticide petition 2F8139...proposing tolerances for fish-freshwater finfish...more than 15% of a pesticide formulation, as...on the physical chemical...

  11. Nontarget effects of chemical pesticides and biological pesticide on rhizospheric microbial community structure and function in Vigna radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sunil; Gupta, Rashi; Kumari, Madhu; Sharma, Shilpi

    2015-08-01

    Intensive agriculture has resulted in an indiscriminate use of pesticides, which demands in-depth analysis of their impact on indigenous rhizospheric microbial community structure and function. Hence, the objective of the present work was to study the impact of two chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and one biological pesticide (azadirachtin) at two dosages on the microbial community structure using cultivation-dependent approach and on rhizospheric bacterial communities involved in nitrogen cycle in Vigna radiata rhizosphere through cultivation-independent technique of real-time PCR. Cultivation-dependent study highlighted the adverse effects of both chemical pesticide and biopesticide on rhizospheric bacterial and fungal communities at different plant growth stages. Also, an adverse effect on number of genes and transcripts of nifH (nitrogen fixation); amoA (nitrification); and narG, nirK, and nirS (denitrification) was observed. The results from the present study highlighted two points, firstly that nontarget effects of pesticides are significantly detrimental to soil microflora, and despite being of biological origin, azadirachtin exerted negative impact on rhizospheric microbial community of V. radiata behaving similar to chemical pesticides. Hence, such nontarget effects of chemical pesticide and biopesticide in plants' rhizosphere, which bring out the larger picture in terms of their ecotoxicological effect, demand a proper risk assessment before application of pesticides as agricultural amendments. PMID:25801369

  12. Pesticide use and self-reported symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning among aquatic farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Klith; Konradsen, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Organophosphates and carbamates (OPs/CMs) are known for their acetylcholinesterase inhibiting character. A cross-sectional study of pesticide handling practices and self-perceived symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning was conducted using questionnaire-based interviews with 89 pesticide sprayers in Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE) Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority of the farmers (88%) had experienced symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning, and this was significantly associated with the number of hours spent spraying with OPs/CMs (OR = 1.14, CI 95%: 1.02-1.28). The higher educated farmers reduced their risk of poisoning by 55% for each extra personal protective measure they adapted (OR = 0.45, CI 95%: 0.22-0.91). These findings suggest that improving safe pesticide management practices among the farmers and enforcing the effective banning of the most toxic pesticides will considerably reduce the number of acute pesticide poisoning episodes.

  13. Pesticide Use and Self-Reported Symptoms of Acute Pesticide Poisoning among Aquatic Farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Klith; Konradsen, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Organophosphates and carbamates (OPs/CMs) are known for their acetylcholinesterase inhibiting character. A cross-sectional study of pesticide handling practices and self-perceived symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning was conducted using questionnaire-based interviews with 89 pesticide sprayers in Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE) Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority of the farmers (88%) had experienced symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning, and this was significantly associated with the number of hours spent spraying with OPs/CMs (OR = 1.14, CI 95%: 1.02-1.28). The higher educated farmers reduced their risk of poisoning by 55% for each extra personal protective measure they adapted (OR = 0.45, CI 95%: 0.22-0.91). These findings suggest that improving safe pesticide management practices among the farmers and enforcing the effective banning of the most toxic pesticides will considerably reduce the number of acute pesticide poisoning episodes.

  14. 75 FR 60452 - Notice of Filing of Several Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ...chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA has...of pesticides in or on food commodities. Further...for residues of the antifungal agent Aspergillus flavus...this pesticide occurs naturally and would be present...commodities, Feed additives, Food additives,...

  15. 78 FR 6274 - Withdrawal of Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ...a pesticide petition (PP 0E7754) by Quimica Agronomica de Mexico, S. de R.L...Gowan Company (U.S. agent on behalf of Quimica Agronomica de Mexico) notified EPA that...of pesticide petition (PP 0E7755) by Quimica Agronomica de Mexico, S. de...

  16. Pesticide leaching through sandy and loamy fields e Long-term lessons learnt from the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbom, Annette Elisabeth; Olsen, Preben

    2015-01-01

    The European Union authorization procedure for pesticides includes assessment of the leaching risk posed by pesticides and their degradation products aimed at avoiding any unacceptable influence on the environment, in particular contamination of water, including drinking water and groundwater. The procedure has shortcomings, however, as revealed by the past 11years of monitoring results from the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme. This monitoring programme have assessed leaching to the groundwater via the variably saturated zone of 43 pesticides applied in accordance with current regulations on sandy and loamy agricultural fields, as well as 47 of their degradation products. Three types of leaching scenario were not fully captured by the authorization procedure: i) long-term leaching of degradation products of pesticides applied to potatoes crops cultivated on sandy soils; ii) leaching of strongly sorbing pesticides after autumn application on loamy soils; and iii) leaching of various pesticides and their degradation products following early summer application on loamy soils. The monitoring data revealed that the authorization procedure was unable to predict leaching scenarios of a number of pesticides in hydrogeological settings dominated by rapid preferential transport bypassing the retarding plough layer. Such settings are primarily present during the autumn but can also occur during the early summer in connection with the formation of a structural seal on the soil surface.

  17. 78 FR 1798 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ...chemicals in or on various food commodities. The Agency is...residues of pesticides in or on food commodities. Further information...this unit. PP 2F8056. Fine Agrochemicals Ltd. c/o SciReg, Inc...commodities, Feed additives, Food additives, Pesticides...

  18. Improved alginate based slow release pesticide formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of poly(ethylene imine) treated Ca-alginates was investigated for the preparation of slow release formulations of dichlobenil, propanil and carbofuran. It was demonstrated that release of pesticides from the alginate granules was markedly retarded by post-treatment of the Ca-alginate beads with polyamine. The release profile depended on the post-treatment procedure: type and concentration of the polyamine, pH and duration. Retardation of herbicide release up to 1 year was attained. (author). 11 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  19. Exposure assessment of the cumulative intake of pesticides with dissimilar mode of action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette

    Risk assessment of pesticides is currently based on the no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for effects of single compounds. However, humans might be exposed to a mixture of pesticides at the same time and the exposure could occur from more pesticides with endocrine disrupting effects. In this study the effects of combined exposure from four endocrine disrupting pesticides have been investigated (procymidone, mancozeb, tebuconazole, and prochloraz). The four pesticides have dissimilar mode of actions. On the background of the potency for each pesticide to a given effect, a relative potency factor and the cumulative acute exposure of the pesticides have been estimated.

  20. Agriculture, pesticides, food security and food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decades ago, agrochemicals were introduced aiming at enhancing crop yields and at protecting crops from pests. Due to adaptation and resistance developed by pests to chemicals, every year higher amounts and new chemical compounds are used to protect crops, causing undesired side effects and raising the costs of food production. Eventually, new techniques, including genetically modified organisms (GMOs) resistant to pests, could halt the massive spread of agrochemicals in agriculture fields. Biological chemical-free agriculture is gaining also more and more support but it is still not able to respond to the need for producing massive amounts of food. The use of agrochemicals, including pesticides, remains a common practice especially in tropical regions and South countries. Cheap compounds, such as DDT, HCH and lindane, that are environmentally persistent, are today banned from agriculture use in developed countries, but remain popular in developing countries. As a consequence, persistent residues of these chemicals contaminate food and disperse in the environment. Coordinated efforts are needed to increase the production of food but with a view to enhanced food quality and safety as well as to controlling residues of persistent pesticides in the environment

  1. Bees prefer foods containing neonicotinoid pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Sébastien C.; Tiedeken, Erin Jo; Simcock, Kerry L.; Derveau, Sophie; Mitchell, Jessica; Softley, Samantha; Stout, Jane C.; Wright, Geraldine A.

    2015-05-01

    The impact of neonicotinoid insecticides on insect pollinators is highly controversial. Sublethal concentrations alter the behaviour of social bees and reduce survival of entire colonies. However, critics argue that the reported negative effects only arise from neonicotinoid concentrations that are greater than those found in the nectar and pollen of pesticide-treated plants. Furthermore, it has been suggested that bees could choose to forage on other available flowers and hence avoid or dilute exposure. Here, using a two-choice feeding assay, we show that the honeybee, Apis mellifera, and the buff-tailed bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, do not avoid nectar-relevant concentrations of three of the most commonly used neonicotinoids, imidacloprid (IMD), thiamethoxam (TMX), and clothianidin (CLO), in food. Moreover, bees of both species prefer to eat more of sucrose solutions laced with IMD or TMX than sucrose alone. Stimulation with IMD, TMX and CLO neither elicited spiking responses from gustatory neurons in the bees' mouthparts, nor inhibited the responses of sucrose-sensitive neurons. Our data indicate that bees cannot taste neonicotinoids and are not repelled by them. Instead, bees preferred solutions containing IMD or TMX, even though the consumption of these pesticides caused them to eat less food overall. This work shows that bees cannot control their exposure to neonicotinoids in food and implies that treating flowering crops with IMD and TMX presents a sizeable hazard to foraging bees.

  2. Bees prefer foods containing neonicotinoid pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Sébastien C; Tiedeken, Erin Jo; Simcock, Kerry L; Derveau, Sophie; Mitchell, Jessica; Softley, Samantha; Stout, Jane C; Wright, Geraldine A

    2015-05-01

    The impact of neonicotinoid insecticides on insect pollinators is highly controversial. Sublethal concentrations alter the behaviour of social bees and reduce survival of entire colonies. However, critics argue that the reported negative effects only arise from neonicotinoid concentrations that are greater than those found in the nectar and pollen of pesticide-treated plants. Furthermore, it has been suggested that bees could choose to forage on other available flowers and hence avoid or dilute exposure. Here, using a two-choice feeding assay, we show that the honeybee, Apis mellifera, and the buff-tailed bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, do not avoid nectar-relevant concentrations of three of the most commonly used neonicotinoids, imidacloprid (IMD), thiamethoxam (TMX), and clothianidin (CLO), in food. Moreover, bees of both species prefer to eat more of sucrose solutions laced with IMD or TMX than sucrose alone. Stimulation with IMD, TMX and CLO neither elicited spiking responses from gustatory neurons in the bees' mouthparts, nor inhibited the responses of sucrose-sensitive neurons. Our data indicate that bees cannot taste neonicotinoids and are not repelled by them. Instead, bees preferred solutions containing IMD or TMX, even though the consumption of these pesticides caused them to eat less food overall. This work shows that bees cannot control their exposure to neonicotinoids in food and implies that treating flowering crops with IMD and TMX presents a sizeable hazard to foraging bees. PMID:25901684

  3. Agriculture, pesticides, food security and food safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando P. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, P-2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)]. E-mail: carvalho@itn.pt

    2006-11-15

    Decades ago, agrochemicals were introduced aiming at enhancing crop yields and at protecting crops from pests. Due to adaptation and resistance developed by pests to chemicals, every year higher amounts and new chemical compounds are used to protect crops, causing undesired side effects and raising the costs of food production. Eventually, new techniques, including genetically modified organisms (GMOs) resistant to pests, could halt the massive spread of agrochemicals in agriculture fields. Biological chemical-free agriculture is gaining also more and more support but it is still not able to respond to the need for producing massive amounts of food. The use of agrochemicals, including pesticides, remains a common practice especially in tropical regions and South countries. Cheap compounds, such as DDT, HCH and lindane, that are environmentally persistent, are today banned from agriculture use in developed countries, but remain popular in developing countries. As a consequence, persistent residues of these chemicals contaminate food and disperse in the environment. Coordinated efforts are needed to increase the production of food but with a view to enhanced food quality and safety as well as to controlling residues of persistent pesticides in the environment.

  4. Effects of pesticides on fauna and flora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complexities of environmental interactions in the transport, transformation and biological effects of widespread, low level chemical contaminants confound the ability of current methods to predict the possible health and environmental impacts of both new and old chemicals. We cannot transfer with certainty the knowledge gained in the laboratory of the behaviour and effects of a single chemical study in isolated living species to that gained in a natural ecosystem. However, over the past years the environmental monitoring programmes have undergone rapid conceptual and technological advancement. Environmental monitoring plays an essential role in the evaluation and management of pesticides and other anthropogenic chemicals. In the absence of effective environmental monitoring, detection of serious environmental contamination and threats to human health caused by chemical pollutants may occur only after critical and irreversible damage has been done. Between 1976 and 1987 the ecosystematic effects caused by various herbicides and insecticides were analysed. The regenerative power of the tropical ecosystems, after having been treated with insecticides, does not only depend on the type of pesticide or its formulation and concentration, but also in a decisive way on the proportions of sprayed and unsprayed areas and the ecophysiological capacity of different organisms in the tropical food chains. (author). 19 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabss

  5. Biological implications of pesticides : studies with lindane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects of metabolism of lindane, a pesticide, are investigated. These aspects have a bearing on the toxicity assessment of the pesticide. Young adult male Wistar rats were administered a single dose of Aroclor 1254(50 mg/kg body wt.) by stomach tube, 48 h prior to sacrifice for induction of microsomal enzymes. For metabolic transformation studies, liver slices of decapitated rats were suspended in Krebs-Ringer phosphate buffer containing 1 ?Ci of U-14C-lindane and 10 mg of cephalosporin antibiotic 'keflin'. After incubation for 60 min, radioactivity was measured and metabolites were isolated and identified by gas chromatography. The mutagenicity of lindane and hexachlorobenzene was also examined using the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome mutagenicity test of Ames and others (1975). Data on the incorporation of radioactivity from labelled lindane into hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorophenol and notably carbon dioxide in the presence of a wide-spectrum antibiotic indicate that liver enzymes are involved in the breakdown of aromatic ring of lindane yielding CO2, excluding the possibility of any role of intestinal flora in metabolism of lindane. As to mutagenicity, the findings in different experiments were not consistent, and no firm conclusion could be drawn. (M.G.B.)

  6. Requiring Pollutant Discharge Permits for Pesticide Applications that Deposit Residues in Surface Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Terence Centner; Nicholas Eberhart

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural producers and public health authorities apply pesticides to control pests that damage crops and carry diseases. Due to the toxic nature of most pesticides, they are regulated by governments. Regulatory provisions require pesticides to be registered and restrictions operate to safeguard human health and the environment. Yet pesticides used near surface waters pose dangers to non-target species and drinking water supplies leading some governments to regulate discharges of pesticid...

  7. The effects of pesticide mixtures on degradation of pendimethalin in soils

    OpenAIRE

    Swarcewicz, Maria K.; Gregorczyk, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Most agronomic situations involve a sequence of herbicide, fungicide, and insecticide application. On the other hand, use of pesticidal combinations has become a standard practice in the production of many agricultural crops. One of the most important processes influencing the behavior of a pesticide in the environment is its degradation in soil. It is known that due to several pesticide applications in one vegetation season, the pesticide may be present in mixtures with other pesticides or x...

  8. Pesticides and human chronic diseases: Evidences, mechanisms, and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Along with the wide use of pesticides in the world, the concerns over their health impacts are rapidly growing. There is a huge body of evidence on the relation between exposure to pesticides and elevated rate of chronic diseases such as different types of cancers, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson, Alzheimer, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), birth defects, and reproductive disorders. There is also circumstantial evidence on the association of exposure to pesticides with some other chronic diseases like respiratory problems, particularly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular disease such as atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease, chronic nephropathies, autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematous and rheumatoid arthritis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and aging. The common feature of chronic disorders is a disturbance in cellular homeostasis, which can be induced via pesticides' primary action like perturbation of ion channels, enzymes, receptors, etc., or can as well be mediated via pathways other than the main mechanism. In this review, we present the highlighted evidence on the association of pesticide's exposure with the incidence of chronic diseases and introduce genetic damages, epigenetic modifications, endocrine disruption, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response (UPR), impairment of ubiquitin proteasome system, and defective autophagy as the effective mechanisms of action. - Highlights: ? There is a link between exposure to pesticides and incidence of chronic diseases. ? Genotoxicity and proteotoxicity are two main involved mechanisms. ? Epigenetic knowledge may help diagnose the relationships. ? Efficient policies on safe use of pesticides should be set up

  9. Pesticide poisoning surveillance through regional poison control centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D K; Sax, L; Gunderson, P; Sioris, L

    1991-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe pesticide exposure in the population of callers to Minnesota Regional Poison Centers. Case files from 1988 reporting pesticide exposure to humans were identified in cooperation with the Minnesota Center for Health Statistics. Data analysis was conducted by computer using SAS statistical package. Of the 1,428 case files indicating pesticide as the primary substance of exposure to Minnesota residents, a mean age of 5 years (range, one month to 85 years) was identified; 50 percent of all cases were below age 3 years. Males accounted for 1.3 times as many cases as females. Insecticide was identified in the largest percentage of case files (74 percent) followed by herbicide (12 percent), rodenticide (11 percent) and fungicide-nonmedicinal (3 percent). Ingestion was the most common route of exposure; 85 percent of all calls originated from a residence. While insecticides are still the most common types of pesticide call, herbicide has surpassed insecticide in production and sales in the US. In this study, herbicide type exposure calls present a much different picture than other pesticide types. The usefulness of poison control centers for examination of pesticide poisoning is explored. Since reporting occurs coincidental with the exposure and its associated symptoms, each pesticide poisoning report could potentially serve as a true sentinel health event. PMID:2029045

  10. Occurrence of pesticides from coffee crops in surface water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Ribeiro Vianna Neto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The excessive amount of pesticides applied in agricultural areas may reach surface water, thereby contaminating it. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of pesticides used in a sub-basin headwater with coffee crops, situated in the Dom Corrêa district, Manhuaçu, Minas Gerais. The region of study is a great producer of coffee. Crops occupy steep areas and are situated close to surface water bodies. In this study, four sample collection points were selected in streams as well as a point in the distribution network and two points in the water treatment station (raw and treated water a total of seven points. The samples were collected in rainy and dry seasons. Organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids, carbamates and triazoles pesticides were identified by liquid and gas chromatography analysis with tandem mass spectrometry. The occurrence of pesticides was more evident in the rainy season. A total of 24 distinct pesticides were detected. At least one pesticide was identified in 67% of the samples collected during the rainy season and in 21% of the samples collected during drought. Many pesticides detected in water are not regulated in Brazilian legislation regarding potability.

  11. Halogenated pesticide transformation by a laccase-mediator system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Duarte, Cristina; Roman, Rosa; Tinoco, Raunel; Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael

    2009-10-01

    The transformation of organic halogenated pesticides by laccase-mediator system has been investigated. Twelve pesticides were assayed in the presence of nine different mediators. Acetosyringone and syringaldehyde showed to be the best mediators. The halogenated pesticides bromoxynil, niclosamide, bromofenoxim and dichlorophen were transformed by the laccase-syringaldehyde system showing catalytic activities of 48.8, 142.0, 166.2 and 1257.6nmolmin(-1)U(-1), respectively. The highest pesticide transformation rates were obtained with a mediator-substrate proportion of 5:1, one of the lowest reported so far for the laccase-mediator systems. The analysis of the main product from the dichlorophen transformation showed that an oxidative dehalogenation is involved in the catalytic mechanism. Adduct formation between the mediator syringaldehyde and the pesticides dichlorophen or bromoxynil was also found after enzymatic oxidation. The main goal of this work is to evaluate environmental-friendly mediators for the pesticide transformation, and the potential of laccase-mediator system to efficiently reduce the environmental impact of organic halogenated pesticides is discussed. PMID:19695672

  12. Stream habitat structure influences macroinvertebrate response to pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural pesticides continue to impair surface water ecosystems, although there are few assessments of interactions with other modifications such as fine sediment and physical alteration for flood drainage. We, therefore, surveyed pesticide contamination and macroinvertebrates in 14 streams along a gradient of expected pesticide exposure using a paired-reach approach to differentiate effects between physically modified and less modified sites. Apparent pesticides effects on the relative abundance of SPEcies At Risk (SPEAR) were increased at sites with degraded habitats primarily due to the absence of species with specific preferences for hard substrates. Our findings highlight the importance of physical habitat degradation in the assessment and mitigation of pesticide risk in agricultural streams. - Highlights: ? %SPEAR abundance significantly decreased with increasing TU (D. magna). ? %SPEAR abundance was significantly lower when soft sediment was dominant. ? Species specific habitat preferences influenced the total effect of pesticides. ? This study has strong implications for future stream management and risk assessment. - Ecological impacts of pesticides on stream macroinvertebrates are influenced by the heterogeneity and physical structure of micro-habitats.

  13. Pesticides and human chronic diseases: Evidences, mechanisms, and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostafalou, Sara; Abdollahi, Mohammad, E-mail: Mohammad.Abdollahi@UToronto.Ca

    2013-04-15

    Along with the wide use of pesticides in the world, the concerns over their health impacts are rapidly growing. There is a huge body of evidence on the relation between exposure to pesticides and elevated rate of chronic diseases such as different types of cancers, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson, Alzheimer, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), birth defects, and reproductive disorders. There is also circumstantial evidence on the association of exposure to pesticides with some other chronic diseases like respiratory problems, particularly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular disease such as atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease, chronic nephropathies, autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematous and rheumatoid arthritis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and aging. The common feature of chronic disorders is a disturbance in cellular homeostasis, which can be induced via pesticides' primary action like perturbation of ion channels, enzymes, receptors, etc., or can as well be mediated via pathways other than the main mechanism. In this review, we present the highlighted evidence on the association of pesticide's exposure with the incidence of chronic diseases and introduce genetic damages, epigenetic modifications, endocrine disruption, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response (UPR), impairment of ubiquitin proteasome system, and defective autophagy as the effective mechanisms of action. - Highlights: ? There is a link between exposure to pesticides and incidence of chronic diseases. ? Genotoxicity and proteotoxicity are two main involved mechanisms. ? Epigenetic knowledge may help diagnose the relationships. ? Efficient policies on safe use of pesticides should be set up.

  14. Influence of different carbon monolith preparation parameters on pesticide adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuk?evi? Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of carbon monolith for pesticide removal from water, and the mechanism of pesticide interaction with carbon surface were examined. Different carbon monolith samples were obtained by varying the carbonization and activation parameters. In order to examine the role of surface oxygen groups in pesticide adsorption, carbon monolith surface was functionalized by chemical treatment in HNO3, H2O2 and KOH. The surface properties of the obtained samples were investigated by BET surface area, pore size distribution and temperature-programmed desorption. Adsorption of pesticides from aqueous solution onto activated carbon monolith samples was studied by using five pesticides belonging to different chemical groups (acetamiprid, dimethoate, nicosulfuron, carbofuran and atrazine. Presented results show that higher temperature of carbonization and the amount of activating agent allow obtaining microporous carbon monolith with higher amount of surface functional groups. Adsorption properties of the activated carbon monolith were more readily affected by the amount of the surface functional groups than by specific surface area. Results obtained by carbon monolith functionalisation showed that ?-? interactions were the main force for adsorption of pesticides with aromatic structure, while acidic groups play an important role in adsorption of pesticides with no aromatic ring in the chemical structure.

  15. Potential health effects of pesticide use on farmworkers in Lesotho

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tholang A., Mokhele.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the experiences of farmworkers during crop spraying in Lesotho. The main goal of this study was to determine the perceptions and awareness of farmworkers regarding the use of pesticides and the potential effects on their health. The data were obtained from farmworkers using a com [...] bination of an open-ended and a close-ended structured questionnaire in July 2006. Of the nine farms serviced by the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security of Lesotho, Agricultural Research Division, six farms were randomly chosen and 27 farmworkers from these farms were interviewed. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics such as frequency tables. The results showed that farmworkers are relatively poorly educated and that a greater health risk is present when a lack of training and education on the use of pesticides also exists. That is, the majority (85%) of farmworkers did not have secondary education and most (93%) had no training on the use of pesticides, which poses a great health threat to the farmworkers. A lack of education makes it difficult for farmworkers to read and understand the information labels on pesticides and hence it is difficult for them to understand the health hazards of pesticides and the need for personal safety measures. When using and handling pesticides, 52% of farmworkers did not use rubber gloves and 93% did not use goggles or other forms of face cover. This lack of protection puts them at serious risk of skin exposure to pesticides. The farmworkers were quite aware of the harmful effects of pesticides, but were sometimes unable to translate this awareness into their own safety practices because of a lack of knowledge about the adverse effects. Therefore, training, extension services and various awareness programmes should be promoted in Lesotho in order to increase farmworkers' knowledge and awareness of the adverse effects of pesticides on human health and the environment.

  16. Potential health effects of pesticide use on farmworkers in Lesotho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tholang A. Mokhele

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the experiences of farmworkers during crop spraying in Lesotho. The main goal of this study was to determine the perceptions and awareness of farmworkers regarding the use of pesticides and the potential effects on their health. The data were obtained from farmworkers using a combination of an open-ended and a close-ended structured questionnaire in July 2006. Of the nine farms serviced by the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security of Lesotho, Agricultural Research Division, six farms were randomly chosen and 27 farmworkers from these farms were interviewed. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics such as frequency tables. The results showed that farmworkers are relatively poorly educated and that a greater health risk is present when a lack of training and education on the use of pesticides also exists. That is, the majority (85% of farmworkers did not have secondary education and most (93% had no training on the use of pesticides, which poses a great health threat to the farmworkers. A lack of education makes it difficult for farmworkers to read and understand the information labels on pesticides and hence it is difficult for them to understand the health hazards of pesticides and the need for personal safety measures. When using and handling pesticides, 52% of farmworkers did not use rubber gloves and 93% did not use goggles or other forms of face cover. This lack of protection puts them at serious risk of skin exposure to pesticides. The farmworkers were quite aware of the harmful effects of pesticides, but were sometimes unable to translate this awareness into their own safety practices because of a lack of knowledge about the adverse effects. Therefore, training, extension services and various awareness programmes should be promoted in Lesotho in order to increase farmworkers’ knowledge and awareness of the adverse effects of pesticides on human health and the environment.

  17. Total Pesticide Exposure Calculation among Vegetable Farmers in Benguet, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Jinky Leilanie

    2009-01-01

    This was a cross-sectional study that investigated pesticide exposure and its risk factors targeting vegetable farmers selected through cluster sampling. The sampling size calculated with P = .05 was 211 vegetable farmers and 37 farms. The mean usage of pesticide was 21.35 liters. Risk factors included damaged backpack sprayer (34.7%), spills on hands (31.8%), and spraying against the wind (58%). The top 3 pesticides used were pyrethroid (46.4%), organophosphates (24.2%), and carbamates (21.3...

  18. Pesticides and Arthropods: Sublethal Effects and Demographic Toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Mar?i?

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Insecticides and acaricides designed to control primary harmful insects and mites may also variously affect some other arthopods present in an (agroecosystem (e.g. secondary pests, predators, parasitoids, saprophytes, bioindicators, pollinators. Apart from insecticides and acaricides, arthropods may also be affected by the activity of other pesticides (fungicides, herbicides, etc.. Regardless of whether they are deemed desirable or not, the effects that pesticides have on arthopods need to be quantified as closely as possible through appropriate experimental procedures. Data acquired in tests designed to determined LD50/LC50 values are inadequate for evaluation of pesticide effectiveness in the field as pesticidesalso cause various sublethal effects, generally disregarded in such investigations. The sublethal effects of pesticides refer to any altered behaviour and/or physiology of individuals that have survived exposure to pesticides at doses/concentrations that can be lethal(within range causing mortality in an experimental population that exceeds mortality in an untreated population or sublethal (below that range. Pesticides affect locomotion and mobility, stimulate dispersion of arthropods from treated areas, complicate or prevent their navigation, orientation and ability to locate hosts, and cause changes in their feeding, mating and egg-laying patterns. Sublethal pesticide effects on arthropod physiology reflect on the life span, rate of development, fecundity and/or fertility, sex ratio and immunity of surviving individuals. Different parameters are being used in arthropod bioassays to determine sublethal effects (ED50/EC50, LOEC, NOEC, total effect index. Compared to acute toxicity tests, these parameters improve the quality of evaluation and create a more accurate view of the effects of a pesticide. However, such approach covers mainly fecundity/fertility alone, while all other sublethal effects remain unaccounted for. Besides, it refers to an evaluation of individuals, rather than populations, and it is the latter that are required for a more reliable evaluation of effectiveness of pesticides in real life. A demographic-toxicologicalapproach has been proposed therefore as a way of integrating the effects that a toxicant may cause at population level, which includes the construction of life tables and computation of population growth parameters, including intrinsic rate of increase (rm as a crucialparameter. Compared to other laboratory toxicity tests, the demographic-toxicological bioassay has been found superior in terms of a capacity to evaluate overall effects of pesticides, and such approach in evaluating pesticide effects is crucial for environmentally-based programmes of integrated plant protection and a competent evaluation of ecotoxicological risks of pesticide applications.

  19. [Anti-corrosive effect of pesticides in soil corrosion conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smykun, N V; Tretiak, A P; Kurmakova, I N

    2001-01-01

    Effect of some sub-standard pesticides (Ramrod, Linuron, Simazin) with respect to corrosion-active groups of microorganisms: sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), denitrifying bacteria (DNB), saprophytic bacteria (SB) and their inhibiting properties under the conditions of active corrosion have been studied to estimate a possibility to use them as biocide additions when producing protective materials. It has been shown that the sub-standard pesticides Ramrod and Simazin are promising for to be used as the biocides additions under the protection of bioresistant materials. It is supposed that inhibitors-biocides may be found in a series of compounds obtained under chemical modification of substandard pesticides Ramrod and Simazin. PMID:11692682

  20. The Determination of Pesticidal and Non-Pesticidal Organotin Compounds in Water Matrices by in situ Ethylation and Gas Chromatography with Pulsed Flame Photometric Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concurrent determination of pesticidal and non-pesticidal organotin compounds in several water matrices, using a simultaneous in situ ethylation and liquid-liquid extraction followed by splitless injection mode capillary gas chromatography with pulsed flame photometric detect...

  1. The Determination of Pesticidal and Non-Pesticidal Organotin Compounds by in situ Ethylation and Capillary Gas Chromatography with Pulsed Flame Photometric Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concurrent determination of pesticidal and non-pesticidal organotin compounds in several water matrices, using a simultaneous in situ ethylation and liquid-liquid extraction followed by splitless injection mode capillary gas chromatography with pulsed flame photometric detect...

  2. Pesticide Use in South Africa : One of the Largest Importers of Pesticides in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Laura; Vos, Jayne; Fernandes-whaley, Maria; Roos, Claudine; Bouwman, Henk; Kylin, Henrik; Pieters, Rialet; Den Berg, Johnnie

    2011-01-01

    South Africa is a diverse country, with a diverse environment that is home to more than 49 000 000 people. Pesticide usage is very often necessary to maintain both agricultural productivity as well as human health. The climatic conditions range from semi-tropic to semi-arid regions. Although the majority of the country has summer rainfall, the south western coastal region is predominantly a winter rainfall area. These variations in climate allows for a wide variety of crops, from tropical fru...

  3. Organochlorine pesticide residues in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Subir K; Raikwar, Mukesh K

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring of bovine milk of different places in Bundelkhand region of India was carried out to evaluate the status of organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues. Out of a total of 325 samples 206 (63.38%) were contaminated with residues of different OCPs. The average concentration of total HCH was 0.162 mg/kg. Among the different HCH isomers the frequency of occurrence of alpha-isomer was maximum followed by delta-, gamma- and beta. Endosulfan (alpha, beta, sulfate) was detected in 89 samples with mean concentration of 0.0492 mg/kg while total DDT comprising of DDT, DDE and DDD was present in 114 samples having mean concentration of 0.1724 mg/kg. Dicofol was positive in 17 samples. PMID:17940716

  4. Photodegradation of pesticides in float system effluent from tobacco plantation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R. de C. de S., Schneider; B. V., Trolli; M. da S., Mazuim; G., Hauch; N. de M., Baccar; E. L., Machado.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Several crops can generate liquid effluent containing pesticide residues. In the region of the Vale do Rio Pardo, RS, Brazil, one type of effluent results from the float system used in the tobacco seedling plantation. This system is an alternative that substitutes for the conventional seedbeds of to [...] bacco production. The tobacco is germinated on polystyrene tray beds on a water blade that may contain pesticides residues following the transplant of seedlings to the farm. In this paper, we have simulated in the laboratory, the photo-degradation of the pesticides present in the effluent of the float system, including the pesticides metalaxyl, iprodione and imidacloprid. Photolysis and photoperoxidation were the methods used. The experiments were performed with a mercury vapor light bulb of 80, 125 and 250 W. The obtained results show that the photodegradation of the metalaxyl, iprodione and imidacloprid in an optimized system presents considerable reproducibility and high degradation, requiring less time.

  5. DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS AND PESTICIDES IN GINSENG PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medicinal plants may carry residuals of environmentally persistent pesticides or assimilate heavy metals in varying degrees. Several factors may influence contaminant accumulation, including species, level and duration of contaminant exposure, and topography. As part of a progra...

  6. 1992 County Pesticide Use Estimates for 200 Compounds

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset includes information for 200 pesticides on the average amount (pounds) applied to 87 agricultural crops and the acres of crops treated for counties...

  7. 42 CFR 84.1156 - Pesticide respirators; performance requirements; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray...respirators and the individual components of each such device shall, as appropriate, meet the following...

  8. Clean up of pesticide residues by Gel- Permeation chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of the semi-automatic gel chromatographic system, Type : KL-SX-3 ( GPC) was evaluated for pesticide residue analysis. The clean up procedure was found efficient for large column use (28 mm id. x 20 cm). Recoveries of linuron and pirimiphos-methyl were found 84.3 and 79.8 percent respectively. Fat and pesticide contents are clearly separable. About eighty percent of DDT (88.8%), 91.4% of carbaryl and 98% of carbofuran were recovered in 80-190 ml of cyclohexane-dichloromethane 1 : 1 eluent. In the small column more than 70% of pesticides come out in the initial fractions ( 0-30 ml) of eluent. From this study it is thus concluded that GPC (KL-SX-C) with large column is suitable to separate pesticides from fat and other co-extracts from grain samples, but small column technique is of limited use. (author)

  9. ENANTIOMER-SPECIFIC FATE AND EFFECTS OF CHIRAL PESTICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research provides examples of the techniques used for enantiomer separation, a necessity for measurement of enantioselectivity. Examples are also given of selectivity in soil and water microbial transformations with a variety of pesticides, including metalaxyl, dichlorprop,...

  10. ENANTIOMER-SPECIFIC FATE AND EFFECTS OF MODERN CHIRAL PESTICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This slide presentation presents enantiomer-specific fate and effects of modern chiral pesticides. The research areas presented were analytical separation of enantiomers; environmental occurrence of enantiomers; transformation rates and enantioselectivity; bioaccumulation; and e...

  11. 1997 County Pesticide Use Estimates for 220 Compounds

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset includes information for 220 pesticides on the average amount (pounds) applied to 87 agricultural crops and the acres of crops treated for counties...

  12. Electrochemical detoxification of four phosphorothioate obsolete pesticides stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlyssides, Apostolos; Arapoglou, Dimitris; Mai, Sofia; Barampouti, Elli Maria

    2005-01-01

    The phosphorothioate pesticides are widely used for crop production and fruit tree treatment, but their disposal causes serious environmental problems. Four commercial phosphorothioate pesticides (Demeton-S-methyl, Metamidophos, Fenthion and Diazinon) were treated by an electrolysis system using Ti/Pt as anode and stainless steel 304 as cathode. A number of experiments were run in a laboratory scale pilot plant and the results are presented. For Fenthion the achieved reduction was over 60%, while for Demeton-S-methyl, Metamidophos and Diazinon was more than 50%. Diazinon had the lowest energy demand. The COD/BOD5 ratio was improved considerably after electrolysis for all four pesticides examined. As a conclusion, electrochemical oxidation could be used as a pretreatment method of the pesticides detoxification. PMID:15620735

  13. Gas chromatography-vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy for multiclass pesticide identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hui; Smuts, Jonathan; Walsh, Phillip; Harrison, Dale; Schug, Kevin A

    2015-04-10

    A new vacuum ultraviolet detector for gas chromatography was recently developed and applied to multiclass pesticide identification. VUV detection features full spectral acquisition in a wavelength range of 115-240nm, where virtually all chemical species absorb. VUV absorption spectra of 37 pesticides across different classes were recorded. These pesticides display rich gas phase absorption features across various classes. Even for isomeric compounds, such as hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, the VUV absorption spectra are unique and can be easily differentiated. Also demonstrated is the ability to use VUV data analysis software for deconvolution of co-eluting signals. As a universal detector, VUV provides both qualitative and quantitative information. It offers high specificity, sensitivity (pg on-column detection limits), and a fast data acquisition rate, making it a powerful tool for multiclass pesticide screening when combined with gas chromatography. PMID:25757817

  14. Human reproductive system disturbances and pesticide exposure in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koifman Sergio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The observation of reproductive disturbances in humans and in the wildlife has been reported in the last decade in different countries. Exposure to different chemicals possibly acting in the endocrine system or endocrine disruptors, including pesticides, has been a hypothesis raised to explain the observed changes. This paper aimed to present results of an epidemiological ecologic study carried out to explore population data on pesticides exposure in selected Brazilian states in the eighties and human reproductive outcomes in the nineties. Pearson correlation coefficients were ascertained between available data pesticides sales in eleven states in Brazil in 1985 and selected further reproductive outcomes or their surrogates. Moderate to high correlations were observed to infertility, testis, breast, prostate and ovarian cancer mortality. Despite the restrains of ecologic studies to establish cause-effect relationships, the observed results are in agreement with evidence supporting a possible association between pesticides exposure and the analyzed reproductive outcomes.

  15. 77 FR 75560 - Chlorantraniliprole; Pesticide Tolerances, Technical Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2012-0029; FRL-9367-6] Chlorantraniliprole; Pesticide Tolerances, Technical...of tolerances for the insecticide chlorantraniliprole on multiple commodities. This document...for residues of the insecticide chlorantraniliprole in or on multiple...

  16. 77 FR 66715 - Fluridone; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ...exemption under section 18 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act...that fluridone results in increased susceptibility in in utero rats or rabbits in the...the pesticide pursuant to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide...

  17. Role of higher aquatic plants in the disposal of pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?.?. ???????

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available  The considered role of higher water plants in utilization of pesticides (DDT, GHTSG, geptahlor. The practical use of this role VVR can be carried out in the special engineering building of bioplato.

  18. Analysis of pesticide residues and metabolites by radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method using radioactive tracers is described for determining residues and metabolites of pesticides. The sensitivity of this technique is very high and it can be better as 10-3?gr per gr. of dry matter. (J.C.)

  19. The Quality of Our Nation's Waters: Nutrients and Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Quality of Our Nation's Waters: Nutrients and Pesticides is the first report in a series of non-technical publications from the US Geological Survey. Based on findings of the NAWQA (National Water Quality Assessment Program), this first report "presents insights on nutrients and pesticides in water and on pesticides in bed sediment and fish tissue." Subsequent reports will cover other water-quality topics including arsenic, radon, other trace elements, and industrial chemicals, as well as chemical and physical effects on aquatic communities. Targeting resource managers, regulators, and policy makers, the report (.pdf format) provides a general overview of findings on nutrients and pesticides, in addition to technical discussions of "the sources, distributions, and potential effects of these chemicals."

  20. Metabolism of pesticides in plants: some applications of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metabolism of pesticides in plants is reviewed, using selected references to illustrate the development and application of nuclear techniques. The significance of metabolic processes is discussed and some possible developments in the application of nuclear technology. (author)

  1. Trends in the Exposures to Pesticides in Central Europe.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelclová, D.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Mrázová, K.; Rakovcová, H.; Fenclová, Z.

    1. Rijeka : InTech, 2011 - (Stoytcheva, M.), s. 3-18 ISBN 978-953-307-459-7 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : pesticides * exposures Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  2. Total decomposition of organophosphate pesticides by microwave-assisted hydrolysis.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    ?echová, Lucie; Jansa, Petr; Dra?ínský, Martin; Janeba, Zlatko

    Lanzarote : -, 2012. s. 69-69. [Zing Conferences: Microwave and Flow Conference. 28.02.2012-02.03.2012, Lanzarote] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : microwave * hydrolysis * organophosphates * pesticides Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  3. 40 CFR 165.23 - Scope of pesticide products included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...section 408 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act or a food additive regulation under...antimicrobial product use categories: food handling/storage establishments...pesticide product meets the definition of a hazardous material...

  4. Discrete modeling of water and pesticide movement in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmayr, Hans; Kleint, Friedemann; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    Simulations of water and pesticide movement are presented for the unsaturated zone. Water movement is studied with a two-dimensional Monte Carlo technique, where particles hop between the sites of a square lattice according to probabilistic rules. We developed this lattice gas method for two-dimensional simulations of water flow in inhomogeneous media. Generalization to three dimensions is straightforward. The dynamics of the pesticide is simulated by particle tracking. After presenting the underlying discrete algorithms we emphasize calibration of the system. A soil is divided into homogeneous horizons, and our model is compared with the conventional one-dimensional model PESTLA. We observe good agreement for both water content profile and pesticide distribution. The random elements in our algorithms cause moderate fluctuations in the results. As an example of two-dimensional simulation, spatiotemporal pesticide patterns under a ridge are compared with the distribution under a flat soil surface.

  5. 62 FR 52544 - Notice of Filing of Pesticide Petitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-08

    ...commodities, Food additives, Feed additives, Pesticides and pests, Reporting...toxicity, based on the findings of hyperactivity and vaginal bleeding in dams at...respectively, based on findings of hyperactivity and vaginal bleeding in dams at...

  6. Pesticide transport simulation in a tropical catchment by SWAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannwarth, M A; Sangchan, W; Hugenschmidt, C; Lamers, M; Ingwersen, J; Ziegler, A D; Streck, T

    2014-08-01

    The application of agrochemicals in Southeast Asia is increasing in rate, variety and toxicity with alarming speed. Understanding the behavior of these different contaminants within the environment require comprehensive monitoring programs as well as accurate simulations with hydrological models. We used the SWAT hydrological model to simulate the fate of three different pesticides, one of each usage type (herbicide, fungicide and insecticide) in a mountainous catchment in Northern Thailand. Three key parameters were identified: the sorption coefficient, the decay coefficient and the coefficient controlling pesticide percolation. We yielded satisfactory results simulating pesticide load dynamics during the calibration period (NSE: 0.92-0.67); the results during the validation period were also acceptable (NSE: 0.61-0.28). The results of this study are an important step in understanding the modeling behavior of these pesticides in SWAT and will help to identify thresholds of worst-case scenarios in order to assess the risk for the environment. PMID:24811948

  7. 76 FR 4686 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ...advocates; the chemical industry; pesticide users; and...264 Piperonyl Powder for Pets. Butoxide Pyrethrins...Sergeant's Pet Care Products, Inc., 2625...Chemsico, Div of United Industries Corp., P.O. Box...

  8. 76 FR 16415 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ...effective March 23, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Veronica Dutch, Pesticide Re- evaluation Division (7508P), Office...fax number: (703) 308-8090; e-mail address: dutch.veronica@epa.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. General...

  9. 64 FR 56918 - Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-21

    ...for pesticides that would be subject to the container standards...classification may change the universe of products subject to the container rule. If the...clarification of the products subject to the container standards...

  10. 64 FR 63036 - Pesticide Reregistration Performance Measures and Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-18

    ...184 REDs out of a universe of 612 cases...active ingredients subject to reregistration...The status of the universe of 6,796 pesticide products subject to product reregistration...Status of Universe of Products Subject to Product...

  11. Residues of organochlorinated pesticides in soils from the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National POPs inventories carried out currently in many countries as a part of the implementation of Stockholm Convention revealed the need for detailed information about a distribution of pollutants in various regions. Screening for the residues of selected organochlorinated pesticides (chlordane, heptachlor, dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, isodrin, endosulfan I, endosulfan II, methoxychlor, mirex) in soil and biotic samples from the Czech Republic was performed. Although these pesticides have never been used in large quantities in this region, results indicate that their residues still persist in the top layer soils more than 20 years after they have been banned. The fact that their soil concentrations in the mountains are generally higher than those in agricultural areas, and detection of the traces of pesticides that have never been used in this region suggest on their occurrence in soils due to the atmospheric redistribution rather than as a result of direct application. - Organochlorinated pesticides persist in soils

  12. 75 FR 68214 - Flubendiamide; Pesticide Tolerances; Technical Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ...tolerances for corn, field, grain; corn, field, stover; corn, sweet...Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection...tolerances for corn, field, grain (0.02 ppm...supported by submitted field trial and processing...

  13. 77 FR 75855 - Spirotetramat; Pesticide Tolerance for Emergency Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... [emsp14]Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311...emsp14]Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532...the risk assessment process, see http...used for apple, orange, grape and tomato juice, applesauce,...

  14. Pesticide assessment of the banana sector in an Ecuadorian watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamoros, D; Vanrolleghem, P A

    2001-01-01

    A survey was conducted in several Ecuadorian banana plantations to determine the actual pesticide management and their environmental impacts. It was detected that glyphosate, propiconazole, imazalil, tridemorph and imazalil are the pesticides most used in the Ecuadorian banana sector. As a first step, two screening models (EQC and EXAMS) were used to determine the overall distribution of these pesticides in a unitary environment. Whereas EQC evaluates soil, water, sediment and air compartments, EXAMS only takes into account water and sediment compartments. Although both models show different results due to their different approaches, a comparison can still be done considering only the aquatic portion of the unitary environment. For the case study presented here, all 5 pesticides tend to affect more the soil and water compartment. PMID:12425113

  15. Sources, occurrence and predicted aquatic impact of legacy and contemporary pesticides in streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Rasmussen, Jes J.

    2015-01-01

    We couple current findings of pesticides in surface and groundwater to the history of pesticide usage, focusing on the potential contribution of legacy pesticides to the predicted ecotoxicological impact on benthic macroinvertebrates in headwater streams. Results suggest that groundwater, in addition to precipitation and surface runoff, is an important source of pesticides (particularly legacy herbicides) entering surface water. In addition to current-use active ingredients, legacy pesticides, metabolites and impurities are important for explaining the estimated total toxicity attributable to pesticides. Sediment-bound insecticides were identified as the primary source for predicted ecotoxicity. Our results support recent studies indicating that highly sorbing chemicals contribute and even drive impacts on aquatic ecosystems. They further indicate that groundwater contaminated by legacy and contemporary pesticides may impact adjoining streams. Stream observations of soluble and sediment-bound pesticides are valuable for understanding the long-term fate of pesticides in aquifers, and should be included in stream monitoring programs.

  16. Sources, occurrence and predicted aquatic impact of legacy and contemporary pesticides in streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Ursula S; Rasmussen, Jes J; Kronvang, Brian; Binning, Philip J; Bjerg, Poul L

    2015-05-01

    We couple current findings of pesticides in surface and groundwater to the history of pesticide usage, focusing on the potential contribution of legacy pesticides to the predicted ecotoxicological impact on benthic macroinvertebrates in headwater streams. Results suggest that groundwater, in addition to precipitation and surface runoff, is an important source of pesticides (particularly legacy herbicides) entering surface water. In addition to current-use active ingredients, legacy pesticides, metabolites and impurities are important for explaining the estimated total toxicity attributable to pesticides. Sediment-bound insecticides were identified as the primary source for predicted ecotoxicity. Our results support recent studies indicating that highly sorbing chemicals contribute and even drive impacts on aquatic ecosystems. They further indicate that groundwater contaminated by legacy and contemporary pesticides may impact adjoining streams. Stream observations of soluble and sediment-bound pesticides are valuable for understanding the long-term fate of pesticides in aquifers, and should be included in stream monitoring programs. PMID:25697475

  17. Rinsing and management of pesticides' containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyghebaert, B; Mostade, O; Pigeon, O; Galoux, M; Oger, R

    2002-01-01

    In order to reduce the effects on the environment, it is necessary to improve the management of pesticides' containers. Usually, users burn or bury empty containers. These methods, even though decreasing must be avoided or even forbidden. Since 1996, empty containers are systematically collected in Belgium and are specifically removed by the firm Phytofar Recover created by the Belgian Federation of pesticides' manufacturers. Since the beginning, the recovery rate (percentage of containers recovered compared with the containers sold) goes on increasing to exceed 85% in 2001. These action and results are a world first (more than 500 tons of empty containers are collected yearly). Once collected, empty containers are subjected to the European Policy about toxic wastes since they contained dangerous products. Their removal must follow a specific removal process by incineration at very high temperature (> 1200 degrees C) with a specific filtration of the smoke. The treatment cost is high and reaches 2 Euros per kg of container. If the container is rinsed and the residue does not exceed 1000, 10,000 or 30,000 mg per kg of container (depending on the dangerousness of product: very toxic, corrosive or toxic), it will be considered as domestic waste and will therefore follow a much more economical energy production process. The study aims at determining the quantities of residue contained in empty containers and the parameters reducing the rinsing efficiency: the formulation (EC, WP, WG), the container's size, packaging's type (plastic container or paper bag), the rinsing technique. Almost 150 tests and analyses of residue have been carried out. A manual rinsing procedure has been set up in order to meet the standards about residue. Rinsing three times with an average volume of water (20 to 30%) allows to reach the lowest residue level. As bags containing powder (WG or WP) container not be rinsed, it is necessary to empty them completely. It is however difficult to reach the 1000 ppm residue limit. PMID:12701405

  18. Chlorinated pesticides in stream sediments from organic, integrated and conventional farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine if current sheep/beef farming practices affect pesticide residues in streams, current-use and legacy chlorinated pesticides were quantified in 100 sediment samples from 15 streams on the South Island of New Zealand. The study involved five blocks of three neighboring farms, with each block containing farms managed by organic, integrated and conventional farming practices. Significantly higher concentrations of dieldrin, ? endosulfans, ? current-use pesticides, and ? chlorinated pesticides were measured in sediments from conventional farms compared to organic and integrated farms. However, streams in the latter two farming categories were not pesticide-free and sometimes contained relatively high concentrations of legacy pesticides. Comparison of measured pesticide concentrations with sediment quality guidelines showed that, regardless of farming practice, mean pesticide concentrations were below the recommended toxicity thresholds. However, up to 23% of individual samples contained chlorpyrifos, endosulfan sulfate, ? DDT, dieldrin, or ? chlordane concentrations above these thresholds. -- Highlights: •Pesticides were measured in streams in organic, integrated, and conventional farms. •Higher concentrations of some pesticides were found in conventional sites. •Streams in organic and integrated sites were not pesticide free. •Mean pesticide concentrations were below the recommended toxicity thresholds. -- Higher concentrations of several chlorinated pesticides were found in conventional farms; however, organic and integrated practices were not pesticide-free

  19. Biases in the spatial estimation of pesticide loss to groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Coquet, Yves; Hadjar, Dalila; Gilliot, Jean-marc; Charnay, Marie-paule; Moeys, Julien; Dufour, Alexandre; Beaudoin, Nicolas

    2005-01-01

    Prediction of pesticide fate in soils is highly sensitive to parameters describing sorption and degradation processes, namely the Koc partioning coefficient between the soil solution and organic carbon fraction and the half-life DT50 for degradation. This paper explores the impact of getting Koc and DT50 values either from databases or from site-specific measurements on the predicted fate of atrazine, isoproturon and metamitron on the catchment scale. Pesticide fate on the scale of the Bruyè...

  20. Decline of Pesticide Residues from Barley to Malt

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, Simon; Vela, Nuria; Pe?rez, Gabriel; Navarro, Gine?s

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The fate of dinitroaniline herbicides (pendimethalin and trifluralin), organophosphous insecticides (fenitrothion and malathion), and pyrimidine (nuarimol) and triazole (myclobutanil and propiconazole) fungicides from barley to malt has been assessed. Several samples for residue analysis were taken after each stage of malting (steeping, germination, and kilning). Analyses of pesticide residues were carried out by GC/ITMS in SIM mode. Pesticides decline along the process al...