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77 FR 65827 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...sugarbeet, subgroup 1B, except radish. Bayer CropScience requested amendments to these...of a pesticide petition (PP 1F7930) by Bayer CropScience, 2 TW Alexander Dr., RTP...referenced a summary of the petition prepared by Bayer CropScience, the registrant, which...

2012-10-31

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Trifloxystrobin microemulsion and manufacturing method thereof  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a trifloxystrobin microemulsion and a manufacturing method thereof. The trifloxystrobin microemulsion is prepared from 5-20 percent of trifloxystrobin, 0.5-15 percent of solvent, 0.5-10 percent of cosolvent, 1-5 percent of penetrant, 8-20 percent of surface active agent and the balance of water. The trifloxystrobin microemulsion has simple and easy production process, highproduction efficiency and better drug effect, improves the medicament use ratio, overcomes some defects of the prior dosage form, and avoids the problems of dust pollution, high energy consumption, low production efficiency and environmental pollution caused by using a great amount of the organic solvent.

MUJIN ZHU; MINGZHANG CAO; CHENGLAI ZHANG; PUCHAO LI; JIANMING ZHANG; SHUO LIU

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Comparative study on disappearance trends of captan and trifloxystrobin residues on fruit and apple tree leaves using internal normalisation method.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Supervised field trials were carried out in a commercial orchard in 2011. The purpose of the study was to assess the usefulness of the comparative method to examine the mechanism of disappearance of pesticide residues. Captan and trifloxystrobin residues were determined with the use of gas chromatograph equipped with a micro-electron capture detector. Disappearance trends of captan and trifloxystrobin residues in fruit and leaves were estimated using the method of internal normalisation, and based on that, the courses of concentration changes of these substances on fruit and leaves and the amount of these substances in one apple were established. The initial deposits of trifloxystrobin on leaves and fruits dropped by 50% within 8 and 4 days after treatment, respectively, in both varieties, whereas captan residues dropped by 50% within 29 days in leaves and 7 days in apples of the Olive Yellow varieties.

Sad?o S; Duda M; Piechowicz B; Ja?wa A

2013-01-01

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Fungicidal active substance combination comprising trifloxystrobin and pyrimethanil  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed is an active compound combination comprising trifloxystrobin (formula (I)) and pyrimethanil (formula (II)). Also disclosed is a method for controlling phytopathogenic fungi, characterized in that an active compound combination as defined above is allowed to act on the fungi and/or their habitat or the plants, plant parts, seeds, soils, areas, materials or spaces to be kept free from them.

HAUSER-HAHN ISOLDE; DAHMEN PETER; WACHENDORFF-NEUMANN ULRIKE; WITZENBERGER ALBERT

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Pesticides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This review covers the literature on pesticide analysis published or abstracted in the period between December 15, 1984, and December 15, 1986. The major sources of information were the primary abstracting journals Chemical Abstracts and Analytical Abstracts. Journals that were searched directly include the Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Analytical Chemistry, and the Journal of Chromatography (including its bibliography issues). The review is devoted mainly to methods for the determination of residues of pesticides and related compounds in a wide variety of samples and the analysis of pesticide standards. Analyses of pesticide formulations are not covered. The attempt was made to choose the most important publications describing methodology, instrumentation, and applications that would be readily available to readers to this Journal. Abstract citations are given for references from the more obscure journals and those not published in English.

Sherma, J.

1987-06-15

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Acute toxicity of pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin to Hyalella azteca.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fungicide application rates on row crop agriculture have increased across the United States, and subsequently, contamination of adjacent wetlands can occur through spray drift or field runoff. To investigate fungicide toxicity, Hyalella azteca amphipods were exposed to 2 fungicide formulations, Headline and Stratego, and their active strobilurin ingredients, pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin. Water-only exposures resulted in similar median lethal concentration (LC50; 20-25?µg/L) values for formulations and strobilurin ingredients, suggesting that toxicity is due to strobilurin ingredients. These values were below concentrations that could occur following spray drift over embedded cropland wetlands. When fungicides were added to overlying water of sediment-water microcosms, toxicity was reduced by 500% for Headline and 160% for Stratego, compared with water-only exposures, based on the total amount of fungicide added to the systems. In addition, when fungicides were added to sediment prior to the addition of water, the reduction in toxicity was even greater, with no toxicity occurring at environmentally relevant levels. Differences in toxicity among exposure groups were explained by dissipation from water as toxicity values based on measured water concentrations were within 20% between all systems. The present study reinforces previous studies that Headline and Stratego are toxic to nontarget aquatic organisms. However, the presence of sediment is likely to ameliorate some toxicity of fungicide formulations, especially if spraying occurs prior to wetland inundation.

Morrison SA; McMurry ST; Smith LM; Belden JB

2013-07-01

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Acute toxicity of pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin to Hyalella azteca.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungicide application rates on row crop agriculture have increased across the United States, and subsequently, contamination of adjacent wetlands can occur through spray drift or field runoff. To investigate fungicide toxicity, Hyalella azteca amphipods were exposed to 2 fungicide formulations, Headline and Stratego, and their active strobilurin ingredients, pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin. Water-only exposures resulted in similar median lethal concentration (LC50; 20-25?µg/L) values for formulations and strobilurin ingredients, suggesting that toxicity is due to strobilurin ingredients. These values were below concentrations that could occur following spray drift over embedded cropland wetlands. When fungicides were added to overlying water of sediment-water microcosms, toxicity was reduced by 500% for Headline and 160% for Stratego, compared with water-only exposures, based on the total amount of fungicide added to the systems. In addition, when fungicides were added to sediment prior to the addition of water, the reduction in toxicity was even greater, with no toxicity occurring at environmentally relevant levels. Differences in toxicity among exposure groups were explained by dissipation from water as toxicity values based on measured water concentrations were within 20% between all systems. The present study reinforces previous studies that Headline and Stratego are toxic to nontarget aquatic organisms. However, the presence of sediment is likely to ameliorate some toxicity of fungicide formulations, especially if spraying occurs prior to wetland inundation. PMID:23554042

Morrison, Shane A; McMurry, Scott T; Smith, Loren M; Belden, Jason B

2013-05-23

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Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRL for trifloxystrobin in beans with pods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, Germany, hereafter referred to as the Evaluating Member State (EMS), received an application from the Landwirtschaftskammer Nordrhein-Westfalen to modify the existing MRL for trifloxystrobin in beans with pods. In order to accommodate for the intended use of trifloxystrobin Germany proposed to raise the existing MRL on beans (with pods) from the value of 0.5 mg/kg to 1 mg/kg. Germany drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive a MRL proposal of 1.0 mg/kg for the intended use on beans with pods. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of trifloxystrobin in the commodity under consideration. Based on the provisional risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the intended use of trifloxystrobin on beans with pods will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

European Food Safety Authority

2013-01-01

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Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for trifloxystrobin in spring onions and globe artichokes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, Italy, hereafter referred to as the Evaluating Member State Italy (EMS Italy), received an application from Bayer CropScience to modify the existing MRL for trifloxystrobin in globe artichokes. Belgium, hereafter referred to as the Evaluating Member State Belgium (EMS Belgium), compiled an application to modify the existing MRL for trifloxystrobin in spring onions. In order to accommodate the intended uses of trifloxystrobin on these crops, the Evaluating Member States proposed to raise the existing MRLs for trifloxystrobin from the limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.02 mg/kg to 0.2 mg/kg in globe artichokes and to 0.1 mg/kg in spring onions. The evaluation reports were drafted in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 and were submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. The available residue trials data confirm the MRL proposals for trifloxystrobin in spring onions and globe artichokes as derived by the Evaluating Member States. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of trifloxystrobin in the commodities under consideration. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the intended use of trifloxystrobin on spring onions and globe artichokes will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

European Food Safety Authority

2012-01-01

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Proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in cereals  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in wheat was organised in 2008. The test material was grown in 2007 and treated in the field with 14 pesticides formulations containing the active substances, alpha-cypermethrin, bifentrin, carbendazim, chlormequat, chlorpyrifos-methyl, difenconazole, epoxiconazole, glyphosate, iprodione, malathion, pirimicarb, prochloraz, spiroxamin and trifloxystrobin. After harvest, the test material was additionally spiked in the laboratory with three pesticides, that where the residues were too low, and axozystrobin. In total, 72 laboratories submitted results and z-scores were calculated for all laboratories and pesticides, except for glyphosate where only five laboratories submitted results and summed weighted z-scores were calculated for the laboratories with a sufficient scope. For several pesticides, the submitted results were strongly depending on the extraction procedure and consequently the assigned values were calculated based on part of the results. Acceptable z-scores were obtained by 56-97% of the participants.

Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Christensen, Hanne Bjerre

2009-01-01

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Spectral elucidation of the acid metabolites of the four geometric isomers of trifloxystrobin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Four geometric isomers of trifloxystrobin (TFS)--namely EE, EZ, ZE, and ZZ--were hydrolyzed by 0.05 M NaOH, resulting in four corresponding acid metabolites. These compounds--namely EE-, EZ-, ZE-, and ZZ-acids--were purified by preparative HPLC and authentically characterized by a combination of infrared, Raman, GC-MS, LC-MS/MS, and NMR spectroscopies. The spectra were found to be very characteristic of the individual isomers, and so they could be used to distinguish the isomers from each other. The detailed spectral features of the individual isomers are presented and compared. EE-acid was identified as being the major metabolite of TFS in soil, which indicates that hydrolysis is the principal route of degradation of TFS. This finding further justifies the importance of the present study in relation to assessing the risk associated with the release of TFS into the environment.

Banerjee K; Ligon AP; Spiteller M

2007-08-01

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Simultaneous detection and degradation patterns of kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin residues in citrus fruits by HPLC combined with QuEChERS.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aimed to investigate the residues, kinetics and dissipation patterns of kresoxim-methyl, (E)-methoxyimino[?-(o-tolyloxy)-o-tolyl]acetate, and trifloxystrobin, methyl(E)-methoxyimino-{(E)-?[1-(?,?,?-trifluoro-m-tolyl)ethylideneaminooxy]-o-tolyl}acetate". A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (LC-UV) method combined with the 'Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe' (QuEChERS) protocol was developed to quantify the levels of kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin residues in citrus. More than 97% of the kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin deposists gradually dissipated from the citrus peels within 15 days. The half-lives of kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin in the peels were in the ranges of 2.63-2.66 d and 3.12-3.15 d, respectively, and the pattern of decline in the peels followed first-order kinetics. The kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin residues in the pulp dissipated below the detectable level of 0.01 mg kg(-1) after 9 days. Kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin were easily decomposed (T1/2 < 30 d), and the observed dissipation patterns could support the application of these two fungicides in the postharvest storage of citrus fruits.

Zhu J; Dai XJ; Fang JJ; Zhu HM

2013-01-01

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Effect of trifloxystrobin and azoxystrobin on the control of black Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet) on banana and plantain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Trials to determine the efficacy of trifloxystrobin (75 and 100 g ai/ha) and azoxystrobin (100 g ai/ha), on the control of black Sigatoka disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet (M. fijiensis), in small randomized plots of banana and plantain treated from the ground and in commercial banana fields treated from the air, were carried out between 1997 and 1999. Trifloxystrobin at 75 g ai/ha showed a similar efficacy to propiconazole at 100 g ai/ha and benomyl at 150 g ai/ha and was superior to azoxystrobin (100 g ai/ha). Azoxystrobin show a similar efficacy to propiconazole against M. fijiensis populations sensitive to DMIs. The ED50 (ascospore germinative test) of five wild type M. fijiensis populations of different localities to azoxystrobin were between 0.03 and 0.8 microgram/ml. Results suggest that monitoring for strobilurin resistance may be conducted using 5 microgram/ml as the threshold concentration.

Perez L; Hernandez A; Hernandez L; Perez M

2002-02-01

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DETERMINATION OF KRESOXIM-METHYL AND TRIFLOXYSTROBIN IN WATER SAMPLES BY SINGLE DROP MICROEXTRACTION AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A method for determination of trace amounts of the fungicides kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin in water samples, previous single-drop microextraction, was developed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The effects of organic solvent, stirring speed , drop volume, ionic strength, sample volume, extraction time as well as the extraction temperature were studied. Both fungicides were extracted using 2 µL of n-heptane. The linear concentration range of application was 0.2–10.0 µg/L (r = 0,998-0,999) for both compounds, with detection limits of 4.0 ng/L for kresoxim-methyl and 7.0 ng/L for trifloxystrobin. The method was validated by analysis of spiked matrix samples. Recovery levels were between 83.0 and 109.6%. In view of its simplicity, low cost and sensitivity, the proposed method is applicable for the quantification of residues of kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin in water samples.

Lilia Araujo; Gizelle Sánchez; Dalia Cubillán; Jair Mercado; María Troconis; Avismelsi Prieto

2012-01-01

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The Landau Stream Mesocosm Facility: pesticide mitigation in vegetated flow-through streams.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vegetated treatment systems have the ability to reduce the risk of adverse effects of nonpoint source pesticide pollution in agricultural surface waters, however, flow-through systems have rarely been evaluated. Peak concentrations of a mixture of two insecticides and two fungicides (Indoxacarb, Tebuconazole, Thiacloprid and Trifloxystrobin) were reduced by more than 90% in 45 m experimental stream mesocosms. Plant density and solubility had the highest explanatory power for the response variable reduction of peak concentration (R² = 0.70, p < 0.001). Optimized vegetated streams can be highly effective in reduction of runoff related pesticide peak concentrations.

Elsaesser D; Stang C; Bakanov N; Schulz R

2013-06-01

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The Landau Stream Mesocosm Facility: pesticide mitigation in vegetated flow-through streams.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vegetated treatment systems have the ability to reduce the risk of adverse effects of nonpoint source pesticide pollution in agricultural surface waters, however, flow-through systems have rarely been evaluated. Peak concentrations of a mixture of two insecticides and two fungicides (Indoxacarb, Tebuconazole, Thiacloprid and Trifloxystrobin) were reduced by more than 90% in 45 m experimental stream mesocosms. Plant density and solubility had the highest explanatory power for the response variable reduction of peak concentration (R² = 0.70, p < 0.001). Optimized vegetated streams can be highly effective in reduction of runoff related pesticide peak concentrations. PMID:23397373

Elsaesser, David; Stang, Christoph; Bakanov, Nikita; Schulz, Ralf

2013-02-10

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The evaluation of trifloxystrobin in protection of Calendula officinalis (Pot marigold) against Erysiphe cichoracearum DC.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the two-years field's examinations was the evaluation of the fungicide Zato 50 WG (biologically active substances BAS--trifloxystrobin 50%) in protection of Calendula officinalis (Pot marigold) against Erysiphe cichoracearum. Mentioned fungicide was applied at three concentrations: 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2%. As the standard fungicide Amistar 250 SC (biologically active substances BAS - azoxystrobin 250 g/dm3) was used. In every year of research work the four protective treatments were carried out. The estimation of infestation degree of Calendula officinalis leafs by the Erysiphe cichoracearum was made 5 times. Before each treatment four analysis were done, whereas the last analysis--the fifth one was executed after 10 days from the last protective spraying. According to the results, it was found that investigated preparations significant reduced the mean infestation degree of Calendula officinalis leafs by the Erysiphe cichoracearum compared to the control. The results pointed, that in protection of the mentioned plant by the powdery mildew the 0.2% dose of Zato 50WG showed the best suitability. PMID:17390856

Kurzawi?ska, H; Duda-Surman, J

2006-01-01

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Environmental fate of trifloxystrobin in soils of different geographical origins and photolytic degradation in water.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In vitro biodegradation of trifloxystrobin (TFS) under darkness could best be explained by two-compartment first + first-order rate kinetics with half-lives ranging between 1.8 and 2.3 days. Hydrolysis was found to be the major pathway of degradation resulting in the formation of the acid metabolite, TFS-acid, with an EE conformation. The adsorption rate kinetics of both TFS and TFS-acid followed linear and Freundlich isotherms. The extent of adsorption was directly correlated with organic matter and clay contents, whereas desorption had a negative correlation. The high partition coefficients (KD) indicate strong adsorption of TFS on all of the test soils without any appreciable risk of groundwater contamination. In case of the TFS-acid, however, the adsorption was weaker; hence, if its further degradation is slow, it may contaminate lower soil horizons under worst case conditions. TFS did not cause any adverse effect on the soil microbial population. TFS was susceptible to aquatic photolysis in summer with an environmental half-life of 0.7-1.3 days irrespective of the latitudes.

Banerjee K; Ligon AP; Spiteller M

2006-12-01

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Demographic effects of pesticides on biological control of Pacific spider mite (Tetranychus pacificus) by the western predatory mite (Galendromus occidentalis)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), is a predator of Pacific spider mite, Tetranychus pacificus McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae), in California vineyards. We evaluated the effects of six pesticides on biological control of T. pacificus on grape plant microcosms in a two-way design: presence and absence of G. occidentalis crossed with presence and absence of pesticide. The insecticide imidacloprid did not affect T. pacificus population growth rate, but it led G. occidentalis populations close to extinction. As a result, T. pacificus populations grew significantly higher in microcosms with release of G. occidentalis and treated with imidacloprid than with G. occidentalis alone. The fungicide wettable sulfur significantly decreased T. pacificus population growth rate but it did not affect G. occidentalis. Consequently, T. pacificus populations were significantly lower in microcosms with release of G. occidentalis and treated with wettable sulfur than with G. occidentalis alone. The insecticide buprofezin had no effect on T. pacificus population growth rate. Although buprofezin did not impact the ability of G. occidentalis to suppress T. pacificus, it negatively affected G. occidentalis population growth rate. The fungicides trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole and the insecticide methoxyfenozide had no influence on T. pacificus or G. occidentalis population growth rates. Furthermore, none of the pesticides affected the sex ratio of G. occidentalis, but buprofezin, methoxyfenozide and trifloxystrobin affected its stage structure. Our study demonstrates that simultaneous testing of the demographic effects of pesticides on pests and natural enemies is essential for a full assessment of pesticide impacts on biological control.

Stavrinides MenelaosC; Mills NicholasJ

2009-03-01

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Effectiveness of thiophanate-methyl, trifloxystrobin and vinclozolin on canker caused by Phoma exigua Desm. on ash tree seedlings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years several cases of cankers caused by Phoma exigua on ash tree seedlings have been reported in Belgian nurseries, leading to a total loss of the affected crops. Similar symptoms have been observed on ash tree seedlings elsewhere in Europe, notably in France and in Great Britain, but the pathogenicity was never established. Inoculation and re-isolation tests were therefore undertaken and demonstrated the phytopathogenic character of P. exigua on ash. Moreover the effectiveness of three fungicides (thiophanate-methyl, trifloxystrobin, vinclozolin) against stem canker of ash tree seedlings was studied. In vitro tests were conducted to evaluate the ability of these fungicides to inhibit mycelium growth and spore germination. The extent to which they reduced the symptoms was estimated in a field trial. The results of this study allowed to get by the Belgian proper authorities the use extension of thiophanate-methyl for the control of canker caused by P. exigua in forest nurseries.

Schmitz S.; Zini J.; Etienne M.; Moreau JM.; Chandelier A.; Cuvelier M.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Effects of azoxystrobin, difenoconazole, polyoxin B (polar) and trifloxystrobin on germination and growth of Alternaria alternata and decay in red delicious apple fruit.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Alternaria alternata is the predominant fungal pathogen responsible for moldy-core in red delicious strains of apple. In this study, we report on the effects of the polyoxin B compound Polar, the strobilurin fungicides, azoxystrobin and trifloxystrobin, and the sterol inhibitor difenoconazole on spore germination, mycelial growth and fruit decay on detached fruits caused by A. alternata. Germination was most sensitive to polyoxin B and trifloxystrobin among the tested compounds. The 50% and 95% effective concentration (EC50, and EC95), values for in vitro inhibition of conidial germination of the fungus were lowest for polyoxin B and trifloxystrobin, ranging from <0.01 to 0.15 microgram/ml and 180 microgram/ml, respectively. Germination was least sensitive to difenoconazole and azoxystrobin (EC50 and EC95 values ranging from 25 to 72 microgram/ml and 720 microgram/ml, respectively). Mycelial growth in vitro of A. alternata was most sensitive to difenoconazole (EC50 and EC95 values of 0.8 and 12 microgram/ml, respectively) and least sensitive to both strobilurin fungicides (EC95>1000 microgram/ml). Decay formation by A. alternata on mature detached fruits was most affected by trifloxystrobin and azoxystrobin (EC50 and EC95 values of 0.015-0.087 microgram/ml and 8 microgram/ml, respectively), intermidiate in sensitivity to Polyoxin B (EC50 and EC95 from 1 to 33 microgram/ml, respectively), and difenoconazole was the least effective (EC50 and EC95 from 20 to 490 microgram/ml, respectively). Polyoxin B applied at 24 or 48 h post-inoculation inhibited fruit decay development. Difenoconazole and trifloxystrobin were less effective and azoxystrobin was ineffective when applied at 48 h post inoculation. The activity of azoxystrobin, difenoconazole, Polyoxin B and trifloxystrobin on one or more stages of the life cycle of A. alternata and on decay development in fruits suggests that these compounds potentially could provide control of moldy-core disease in apple.

Reuveni M; Sheglov D

2002-12-01

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Compounded pesticide  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides a compounded pesticide, and relates to the field of compounded pesticide. The compounded pesticide is formed by compounding imidacloprid, buprofezin and fillings, and the pesticide comprises the following compositions in percentage by weight: 4 to 6 percent of a mixture of imidacloprid and buprofezin and the balance of filling. The compounded pesticide is characterized in that the pesticide is a novel efficient broad-spectrum powder pesticide capable of resisting rainwash and has convenient storage and transportation and longer shelf life the pesticide has the advantages of functions of stomachtoxicity, contact killing and intake transportation, quick knock down force, long lasting period and the like, thereby effectively controlling pests such as rice hoppers thepesticide not only retains the advantages of a single pesticide, but also reduces the dosage of the single pesticide, substantially increases pesticide effect and saves cost after being compounded inthe proportion.

ZHANGLIANG DONG

23

Emerging pesticide metabolites in groundwater and surface water as determined by the application of a multimethod for 150 pesticide metabolites.  

Science.gov (United States)

A recently developed multimethod for the determination of 150 pesticide metabolites was exemplarily applied to 58 samples of groundwater and surface water. 37 of these metabolites were detected in at least two samples with a concentration ?0.025 ?g/L. The detected metabolites were ranked according to their concentration and frequency of detection. Findings are clearly dominated by metabolites of chloroacetanilide herbicides, but metabolites of sulfonylurea and thiocarbamate herbicides and other herbicides (dichlobenil) together with metabolites of some fungicides (tolylfluanid, chlorothalonil, trifloxystrobin) were also prominent. A number of 17 of the ranked metabolites are denoted as emerging metabolites because no reports on their previous detection in groundwater or surface water were found. Most of them, however, were correctly predicted to occur in the summary reports of the European pesticide approval process. Median total concentrations of the analysed pesticide metabolites summed up to 0.62 ?g/L in groundwater and 0.33 ?g/L in surface waters. While the concentration of the individual metabolites is usually low (<0.1 ?g/L) the diversity of metabolites found in one sample can be large; between two and six metabolites were detected most frequently (maximum of 12 metabolites). Runoff from urban surfaces was investigated in this study and also here previously undetected pesticide (biocide) metabolites were detected. The emerging pesticide metabolites detected in environmental water samples in this study require more extended monitoring. PMID:23863396

Reemtsma, Thorsten; Alder, Lutz; Banasiak, Ursula

2013-06-27

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Compounded pesticide  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides a compounded pesticide, and relates to the field of compounded pesticide. The compounded pesticide is formed by compounding monosultap, buprofezin and fillings, and the pesticide comprises the following compositions in percentage by weight: 62 to 63 percent of monosultap, 12 to 13 percent of buprofezin, and the balance of fillings. The compounded pesticide has the advantagesthat the pesticide is a novel efficient broad-spectrum powder pesticide capable of resisting rainwash and has convenient storage and transportation and longer shelf life the pesticide has the functions of stomachtoxicity, contact killing and intake transportation as well as quick knock down force and long lasting period, thereby effectively controlling pests such as rice stem borers and rice hoppers the pesticide not only retains the advantages of a single pesticide, but also reduces the dosage of the single pesticide, substantially increases pesticide effect and saves cost after being compounded in the proportion the pesticide causes less pollution to ecological environment and less stimulation in human skin and eyes and is propitious to the protection of livestock safety and the pesticide also delays pesticide resistance to pests and is suitable for long-term use.

ZHANGLIANG DONG

25

Pesticide Consumer Alerts  

Science.gov (United States)

... are here: EPA Home Pesticides Pesticide Alerts Pesticide Alerts Questions on Pesticides? National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) ... gov - Information consolidated from 6 federal agencies to alert the public to government product recalls. Mouse and ...

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Influence of pesticides on yeasts colonizing leaves.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of nine different pesticides on the growth of yeasts isolated from the leaves of fruit and forest trees was investigated. Four insecticides (with the active ingredients: thiacloprid, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, and thiamethoxam) and five fungicides (with the effective substances: bitertanol, kresoxim-methyl, mancozeb, trifloxystrobin, and cupric oxychloride) were tested. The concentrations of chemicals were those recommended by the manufacturers for the spraying of trees. The yeast strains isolated from the leaves of fruit trees were not sensitive to any of the insecticides. The majority of yeast strains isolated from the leaves of forest trees were either not sensitive or only to a small extent. While Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Pichia anomala were not affected by any insecticide, the strains of Cryptococcus laurentii and Rhodotorula glutinis showed the highest sensitivity. The effects of fungicides on the growth of isolated yeasts were more substantial. The fungicide Dithane DG (mancozeb) completely inhibited the growth of all yeasts. All strains isolated from fruit tree leaves were more resistant to the tested fungicides than those isolated from the leaves of forest trees. The most resistant strains from the leaves of fruit trees belonged to the species Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia anomala, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas Cryptococcus albidus and C. laurentii, originating from the leaves of forest trees, showed the highest sensitivity to fungicides.

Vadkertiová R; Sláviková E

2011-11-01

27

Influence of pesticides on yeasts colonizing leaves.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of nine different pesticides on the growth of yeasts isolated from the leaves of fruit and forest trees was investigated. Four insecticides (with the active ingredients: thiacloprid, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, and thiamethoxam) and five fungicides (with the effective substances: bitertanol, kresoxim-methyl, mancozeb, trifloxystrobin, and cupric oxychloride) were tested. The concentrations of chemicals were those recommended by the manufacturers for the spraying of trees. The yeast strains isolated from the leaves of fruit trees were not sensitive to any of the insecticides. The majority of yeast strains isolated from the leaves of forest trees were either not sensitive or only to a small extent. While Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Pichia anomala were not affected by any insecticide, the strains of Cryptococcus laurentii and Rhodotorula glutinis showed the highest sensitivity. The effects of fungicides on the growth of isolated yeasts were more substantial. The fungicide Dithane DG (mancozeb) completely inhibited the growth of all yeasts. All strains isolated from fruit tree leaves were more resistant to the tested fungicides than those isolated from the leaves of forest trees. The most resistant strains from the leaves of fruit trees belonged to the species Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia anomala, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas Cryptococcus albidus and C. laurentii, originating from the leaves of forest trees, showed the highest sensitivity to fungicides. PMID:22351984

Vadkertiová, Renata; Sláviková, Elena

28

PESTICIDAL PROTEINS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The subject invention concerns new classes of pesticidally active proteins and the polynucleotide sequences that encode these proteins. In preferred embodiments, these pesticidal proteins have molecular weights of approximately 40-50 kDa and of approximately 10-15 kDa.

NARVA KENNETH E; SCHNEPF H. ERNEST; KNUTH MARK; POLLARD MICHAEL R; CARDINEAU GUY A; SCHWAB GEORGE E; MICHAELS TRACY ELLIS; FINSTAD LEE STACY; DIEHL PAULA; DOJILLO JOANNA; STAMP LISA; HERMAN ROD A

29

Pesticidal proteins  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The subject invention concerns new classes of pesticidally active proteins and the polynucleotide sequences that encode these proteins. In preferred embodiments, these pesticidal protein have molecular weights of approximately 40-50 kDa and of approximately 10-15 kDa.

NARVA KENNETH E; SCHNEPF H. ERNEST; KNUTH MARK; POLLARD MICHAEL R; CARDINEAU GUY A; SCHWAB GEORGE E; MICHAELS TRACY ELLIS; LEE STACEY FINSTAD; DIEHL PAULA; DOJILLO JOANNA; STAMP LISA; HERMAN ROD

30

Pesticidal proteins  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The subject invention concerns new classes of pesticidally active proteins and the polynucleotide sequences that encode these proteins. In preferred embodiments, these pesticidal proteins have molecular weights of approximately 40-50 kDa and of approximately 10-15 kDa.

NARVA KENNETH E; SCHNEPF H. ERNEST; KNUTH MARK; POLLARD MICHAEL R; CARDINEAU GUY A; SCHWAB GEORGE E; MICHAELS TRACY ELLIS; LEE STACEY FINSTAD; DIEHL PAULA; DOJILLO JOANNA; STAMP LISA; HERMAN ROD

31

Pesticidal compositions  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pesticidal compositions containing as active ingredients 3,5-dichloro-1-(3,3-dichloro-2-propenyloxy)-4-[3-(5-trifluoromethylpyridin-2-yloxy)pro poxy]benzene of the formula:and at least one carbamate compound selected from thiodicarb, methomyl and alanycarb have excellent pesticidal activity by their synergistic cooperative action.

SAITO SHIGERU

32

Fungicidal combinations comprising trifloxystrobin  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

New active agent combinations comprises: (A) 2-(alpha -(((alpha -methyl-3-trifluoromethyl-benzyl)-imino)-oxy) -tolyl)-glyoxylic acid methyl ester-O-methyl-oxime (trifluoxystrobin) (I) and (B) one or more of imidacloprid (II), thiacloprid (III), acetamiprid (IV), nitenpyram (V), thiamethoxam (VI), clothianidin (VII) and/or dinotefuran (VIII). - ACTIVITY : Fungicide Insecticide Bactericide Virucide Algicide Acaricide Nematocide Antifouling. In tests against Aphis gossypii on cotton leaves, the degree of mortality after 6 days was 0% using 4 ppm trifluoxystrobin (I) alone, 25% using 0.16% imidacloprid (II) alone and 95% (compared with a predicted value of 25%) using a combination of 4 ppm (I) and 0.16 ppm (II). - MECHANISM OF ACTION : None given in the source material.

WACHENDORFF-NEUMANN ULRIKE DR; MAULER-MACHNIK ASTRID DR; ERDELEN CHRISTOPH DR; OHTAKE HIROHISA

33

Pesticide Warning  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... studies suggests pesticides, like the common bug and weed killers used by millions, are associated with a ... According to the data, exposure to bug or weed killers, and solvents, increased the risk of developing ...

34

Pesticide Poisoning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed that examining the socio-demographic characteristics of the pesticide poisoning cases in Samsun region where the economy mainly relies on agriculture and comparing it to similar studies; thus contributing the country?s data and the possible measures. 60 pesticide poisoning cases consulted OMU Faculty of Medicine between 01.01.2004 and 31.12.2004 are examined and achieved data are analyzed and presented. Of the 60 cases, 35 (58.3%) are females and 25 (41.7) are males and the average age is 21.93 ±17.56 (1-63) years. Pesticide poisoning is most common in summer (55.0%) and spring (25.0%). It is stated either by the person himself/herself or by his/her relatives that the intake of the toxic substance is accidental in 36 cases (60.0%) and suicidal in 24 cases (40.0%). 25 cases (41.7%) are poisoned with organic phosphorus pesticides and 12 cases (20.0%) with carbamat-pesticides. Consequently, in order to prevent accidental pesticide poisoning, it is necessary to be very careful with pesticide application especially in rural areas. Substances that are least toxic to human and environment, and are licenced and most effective to pests must be used, spraying period must be short, sensitive people, especially children, must be kept away, personal precautions must be taken for the spraying person and pesticides must be kept away from the reach of children and people at risk. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(3): 169-174

Neva Sataloglu; Berna Aydin; Ahmet Turla

2007-01-01

35

Pesticide Poisoning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed that examining the socio-demographic characteristics of the pesticide poisoning cases in Samsun region where the economy mainly relies on agriculture and comparing it to similar studies; thus contributing the country?s data and the possible measures. 60 pesticide poisoning cases consulted OMU Faculty of Medicine between 01.01.2004 and 31.12.2004 are examined and achieved data are analyzed and presented. Of the 60 cases, 35 (58.3%) are females and 25 (41.7) are males and the average age is 21.93 ±17.56 (1-63) years. Pesticide poisoning is most common in summer (55.0%) and spring (25.0%). It is stated either by the person himself/herself or by his/her relatives that the intake of the toxic substance is accidental in 36 cases (60.0%) and suicidal in 24 cases (40.0%). 25 cases (41.7%) are poisoned with organic phosphorus pesticides and 12 cases (20.0%) with carbamat-pesticides. Consequently, in order to prevent accidental pesticide poisoning, it is necessary to be very careful with pesticide application especially in rural areas. Substances that are least toxic to human and environment, and are licenced and most effective to pests must be used, spraying period must be short, sensitive people, especially children, must be kept away, personal precautions must be taken for the spraying person and pesticides must be kept away from the reach of children and people at risk. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000): 169-174

Neva Sataloglu; Berna Aydin; Ahmet Turla

2007-01-01

36

Aplicação da cromatografia gasosa bidimensional abrangente com microdetector de captura de elétrons para determinação de agrotóxicos em sedimentos Application of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detection for determination of pesticides in sediments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Analysis of seven pesticides in sediments was successfully achieved using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detection, as it provided higher sensitivity and less matrix interference. Repeatability and intermediate precision of peak areas and heights were less than 4% and the recovery percentage for the analytes ranged from 52 to 115%. Instrumental LOD and LOQ were in the range of 0.60 to 2.31 ?g L-1 and 1.83 to 5.62 ?g L-1, respectively. Concentrations of 3.34 ?g kg-1 (dry basis) for trifloxystrobin and azoxystrobin (below the LOQ) were found in a sediment sample.

Juliana Macedo da Silva; Cláudia Alcaraz Zini; Elina Bastos Caramão

2011-01-01

37

Occurrence and distribution study of residues from pesticides applied under controlled conditions in the field during rice processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of an experiment to study the occurrence and distribution of pesticide residues during rice cropping and processing are reported. Four herbicides, nine fungicides, and two insecticides (azoxystrobin, byspiribac-sodium, carbendazim, clomazone, difenoconazole, epoxiconazole, isoprothiolane, kresoxim-methyl, propanil, quinclorac, tebuconazole, thiamethoxam, tricyclazole, trifloxystrobin, ?-cyhalotrin) were applied to an isolated rice-crop plot under controlled conditions, during the 2009-2010 cropping season in Uruguay. Paddy rice was harvested and industrially processed to brown rice, white rice, and rice bran, which were analyzed for pesticide residues using the original QuEChERS methodology and its citrate variation by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS. The distribution of pesticide residues was uneven among the different matrices. Ten different pesticide residues were found in paddy rice, seven in brown rice, and eight in rice bran. The highest concentrations were detected in paddy rice. These results provide information regarding the fate of pesticides in the rice food chain and its safety for consumers. PMID:22497619

Pareja, Lucía; Colazzo, Marcos; Pérez-Parada, Andrés; Besil, Natalia; Heinzen, Horacio; Böcking, Bernardo; Cesio, Verónica; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

2012-04-19

38

Occurrence and distribution study of residues from pesticides applied under controlled conditions in the field during rice processing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The results of an experiment to study the occurrence and distribution of pesticide residues during rice cropping and processing are reported. Four herbicides, nine fungicides, and two insecticides (azoxystrobin, byspiribac-sodium, carbendazim, clomazone, difenoconazole, epoxiconazole, isoprothiolane, kresoxim-methyl, propanil, quinclorac, tebuconazole, thiamethoxam, tricyclazole, trifloxystrobin, ?-cyhalotrin) were applied to an isolated rice-crop plot under controlled conditions, during the 2009-2010 cropping season in Uruguay. Paddy rice was harvested and industrially processed to brown rice, white rice, and rice bran, which were analyzed for pesticide residues using the original QuEChERS methodology and its citrate variation by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS. The distribution of pesticide residues was uneven among the different matrices. Ten different pesticide residues were found in paddy rice, seven in brown rice, and eight in rice bran. The highest concentrations were detected in paddy rice. These results provide information regarding the fate of pesticides in the rice food chain and its safety for consumers.

Pareja L; Colazzo M; Pérez-Parada A; Besil N; Heinzen H; Böcking B; Cesio V; Fernández-Alba AR

2012-05-01

39

PESTICIDAL MIXTURES COMPRISING ISOXAZOLINE DERIVATIVES  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention provides pesticidal mixtures comprising a component A, a component B and a component C, wherein component A is a compound of formula (I) wherein one of Y1 and Y2 is S, SO or SO2 and the other is CH2 L is a direct bond or methylene A1 and A2 are C-H, or one of A1 and A2 is C-H and the other is N R1 is hydrogen or methyl R2 is chlorodifluoromethyl or trifluoromethyl R3 is 3,5-dibromo-phenyl, 3,5-dichloro-phenyl, 3,4-dichloro-phenyl, or 3,4,5-trichloro-phenyl R4 is methyl R5 is hydrogen or R4 and R5 together form a bridging 1,3-butadiene group component B is a compound selected from Sedaxane, Fludioxonil, Metalaxyl, Mefenoxam, Cyprodinil, Azoxystrobin, Tebuconazole, Difenoconazole, Thiabendazole, Fluopyram, Penflufen, N-[9-(dichloromethylene)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1,4-methanonaphthalen-5-yl]-3-(difluoromethyl)-1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxamide and Fuxapyroxad or component B is a compound selected from Tefluthrin, Lambda-cyhalothrin, Abamectin, Spinosad, Spinetoram, Chlorpyrifos, Thiodicarb, Chlorantraniliprole, Cyantraniliprole, Bacillus firmus, Bacillus subtilis, Pasteuria spp. such as P. penetrans and P. nishizawae, Imidacloprid, Thiacloprid, Acetamiprid, Nitenpyram, Dinotefuran, Thiamethoxam, Clothianidin, Nithiazine, Flonicamid, Fipronil, Pyrifluquinazone, Pymetrozine, Sulfoxaflor and Spirotetramat and component C is a compound selected from an insecticide, a fungicide and a nematicide, which insecticide is selected from neonicotinoids, carbamates, diamides, spinosyns, phenylpyrazoles, pyrethroids, Pyrifluquinazone, Pymetrozine, Sulfoxaflor and Spirotetramat which fungicide is selected from Azoxystrobin, Trifloxystrobin, Fluoxastrobin, Cyproconazole, Difenoconazole, Prothioconazole, Tebuconazole, Triticonazole, Fludioxonil, Thiabendazole, Ipconazole, Cyprodinil, Myclobutanil, Metalaxyl, Mefenoxam, Sedaxane, N-[9-(dichloromethylene)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1,4-methanonaphthalen-5-yl]-3-(difluoromethyl)-1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxamide, Fluopyram, Penflufen, Fuxapyroxad, Fluopyram, and Penthiopyrad which nematicide is selected from Abamectin, carbamate nematicides organophosphorous nematicides, Captan, Thiophanate-methyl, Thiabendazole, a compound of formula (X), wherein n is 0, 1 or 2 and the thiazole ring may be optionally substituted, Bacillus spp., Streptomyces spp. and Pasteuria spp. Pochonia spp., Metarhizium spp. wherein components B and C are different. The invention also provides methods of using the mixtures in the field of agriculture.

DUTTON ANA CRISTINA; CASSAYRE JEROME YVES; HAAS ULRICH JOHANNES

40

PAN Pesticide Database  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pesticide Action Network (PAN) Pesticide Database is your one-stop location for toxicity and regulatory information for pesticides. This is a comprehensive search enabled database of pesticide chemicals and also trade names. An easy to navigate sidebar takes you through toxicity, uses, registration, company, and distributor. Other links take you to less toxic alternatives, and pesticide tutorial and references.

0002-11-30

 
 
 
 
41

Pesticide Warning  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Warning HealthDay May 28, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Parkinson's Disease Pesticides Transcript As Americans focus on beautiful ... higher risk of developing the nervous system disorder, Parkinson's disease. Researchers drilled down, looking at the proximity ...

42

Pesticide composition  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a pesticide composition comprising the active components including (A) which is fosthiazate, and (B) which is at least one of abamectin and azadirachtin. The mass ratio of A to B is 100:1-1:50. By combining A and B, the composition has obvious synergistic effect and is used for controlling the pests on such crops as fruit trees, cotton, wheat, rice, rape, vegetables, flowers and the like, especially for controlling nematodes.

HONG ZHANG; MINGZHANG CAO; RULONG YIN; SHENGZHAO LIU; XINJUN WANG; JIAN KONG

43

PESTICIDAL MIXTURES  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a pesticidal composition comprising as active ingredient a mixture consisting of one compound (A) as defined in the patent claims and at least one compound (B) as defined in the patent claims, to a process for the preparation of and to the use of such a composition, to a method of controlling pests using such a composition and to plant propagation material treated with such a composition.

ANGST MAX; DUTTON ANA CRISTINA

44

Scientific support for preparing an EU position for the 45th Session of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In accordance with Article 43 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, EFSA received a request from the European Commission to provide support for the preparation of the EU position for the 45th session of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR). In 2012, JMPR evaluated 12 active substances regarding the setting of toxicological reference values to be used in consumer risk assessment, 7 new compounds (ametoctradin, chlorfenapyr, dinotefuran, fluxapyroxad, MCPA, picoxystrobin, sedaxane) and 4 part of periodic reevaluation (benzoate, fenpropathrin, fenvalerate, glufosinate-ammonium). Regarding the setting of Maximum Residue Limits (CXLs), JMPR assessed 26 substances (ametoctradin, azoxystrobin, buprofezin, carbofuran, chlorfenapyr, chlorothalonil, cycloxydim, cyfluthrin, cyromazine, dichlorvos, dicofol, dinotefuran, fenvalerate, fludioxonil, fluopyram, fluxapyroxad, glufosinate-ammonium, imidacloprid, MCPA, methoxyfenozide, penthiopyrad, phorate, picoxystrobin, sedaxane, spinetoram and trifloxystrobin). EFSA derived comments on the JMPR evaluations regarding the acceptability of the proposed draft Codex MRLs and the toxicological reference values.

European Food Safety Authority

2013-01-01

45

Transporte de agrotóxicos em lavoura de arroz irrigado sob três manejos de irrigação Pesticide transport in rice field under three irrigation managements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O cultivo de arroz irrigado no Rio Grande do Sul caracteriza-se pela permanência de lâmina de irrigação sobre o solo, o que ocasiona perdas de agrotóxicos na ocorrência de chuvas; portanto, o adequado manejo de irrigação pode influenciar na redução do transporte destes para o ambiente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes manejos de irrigação no extravasamento da água e no transporte e persistência de clomazone, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, trifloxystrobin e propiconazol em lavoura de arroz irrigado. Os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial consistiram nos manejos de irrigação por inundação contínua, intermitente e por banhos (fator A) e pelos agrotóxicos mencionados (fator B). Determinou-se o volume total de água extravasada e a taxa de dissipação e transporte desses agrotóxicos. Devido ao maior armazenamento de água da chuva, quando comparadas com a irrigação contínua, as irrigações intermitente e por banhos proporcionaram diminuição de 53 e 95% do volume de água perdida, resultando, respectivamente, em redução de 49 e 64% na massa total de agrotóxicos transportados para o ambiente, em relação ao total aplicado na lavoura. A massa de agrotóxico transportada não ultrapassou 3% do total aplicado, e as maiores concentrações de agrotóxicos em água ocorreram próximo à sua aplicação. Com base nesses resultados, salienta-se que os manejos de irrigação intermitente e por banhos minimizam o transporte de agrotóxicos para o ambiente.Rice crop in the state of Rio Grande do Sul is characterized by the presence of water layer on the soil, which can cause pesticide runoff during the occurrence of rainfall. Thus, proper irrigation management can reduce pesticide transport into the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different irrigation managements on water runoff, transport and dissipation of clomazone, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, trifloxystrobin, and propiconazol. The treatments were arranged in a factorial scheme and consisted of continuous flooding, intermittent flooding, and flushing irrigation (factor A) and by the application of the pesticides listed above (factor B). Total water runoff, and pesticide transport and dissipation rate were evaluated. Due to the larger rainfall storage, compared with continuous flooding, intermittent flooding and flushing irrigation provided a reduction of 53 and 95% of water runoff, resulting, respectively, in a reduction of 49 and 64% of the total mass transported into the environment in relation to the total applied in the field. The pesticide mass transported was lower than 3% of the total amount applied. Based on these results, it could be concluded that intermittent flooding and flushing irrigation minimize pesticide transport into the environment.Since the highest pesticide concentrations occur close to application time, it is of fundamental importance to conduct proper irrigation management providing maximum permanence in the environment.

L.F.D. Martini; L.A. Avila; G.V. Cassol; R. Zanella; S.L.O. Machado; M.S. Marques; M. De Vicari

2012-01-01

46

ORGANIC PESTICIDE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This invention pertains to a composition, which is a natural and organic pesticide, specifically with fungicidal and bactericidal action against pathogenic microorganisms in agricultural products such as rootcrops, fruits and vegetables. Examples of such disease-causing microorganisms are Mycosphaerella fijensis causing black Sigatoka disease in Cavendish (banana), Ralstonia solanacearum causing Moko disease in Cavendish (banana), Colletotrichum gloespoiroides and Botryodiplodia theobromae causing anthracnose in crops and fruits, tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) in tomatoes, Lasiodiplodia theobromae causing soft rot or fruit rot in crops and fruits, Fusarium oxysporum causing Panama wilt in fruits and crops, and many others. The composition, which is an extract of a fermented concoction of tropical plants, carbon source, protein (nitrogen) source, and a carrier agent, is mainly composed of alpha-hydroxy acids (AHAs) as the active ingredients, with lactic acid as the most dominant AHA, and other natural nutrients, all of which may help strengthen the plant's immune system to fight pathogenic diseases. Since all the major constituents of the composition are generally regarded as safe, this natural pesticide is found to be non-toxic and safe to humans and animals, and environmentally benign.

ZABALLERO GRECILDA SANCHEZ

47

Pesticidal compositions  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A pesticidal composition comprising (i) one or more essential oils selected from tagetes oil or a thymol containining oil such as thyme oil, or a mixture thereof, or components thereof which have insect repellent or deterrent properties, which have insect repellent or deterrent properties, wherein the total amount of such oil present does not exceed 10%w/w (ii) an agriculturally acceptable carrier oil and (iii) an emulsifier. In particular, the composition further comprises a compound, which remediates symptoms of viral infection, such as wintergreen oil. Use Of Compositions of this type in agriculture controls pests whilst reducing the amount of essential oil required. Furthermore, a combined effect of controlling insects, preventing reinfestation and viral symptom remediation is obtainable.

MARKS DAVID

48

PESTICIDAL COMPOSITIONS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A pesticidal composition comprising (i) one or more essential oils selected from tagetes oil or a thymol containining oil such as thyme oil, or a mixture thereof, or components thereof which have insect repellent or deterrent properties, which have insect repellent or deterrent properties, wherein the total amount of such oil present does not exceed 10%w/w (ii) an agriculturally acceptable carrier oil and (iii) an emulsifier. In particular, the composition further comprises a compound, which remediates symptoms of viral infection, such as wintergreen oil. Use Of Compositions of this type in agriculture controls pests whilst reducing the amount of essential oil required. Furthermore, a combined effect of controlling insects, preventing reinfestation and viral symptom remediation is obtainable. TM KIPO & WIPO 2007

MARKS DAVID

49

Pesticidal compositions  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A pesticidal composition comprising (i) one or more essential oils selected from tagetes oil or a thymol containining oil such as thyme oil, or a mixture thereof, or components thereof which have insect repellent or deterrent properties, which have insect repellent or deterrent properties, wherein the total amount of such oil present does not exceed 10 % w/w; (ii) an agriculturally acceptable carrier oil and (iii) an emulsifier. In particular, the composition further comprises a compound, which remediates symptoms of viral infection, such as wintergreen oil. Use Of Compositions of this type in agriculture controls pests whilst reducing the amount of essential oil required. Furthermore, a combined effect of controlling insects, preventing reinfestation and viral symptom remediation is obtainable.

MARKS DAVID

50

PESTICIDAL COMPOSITIONS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A pesticidal composition comprising (i) one or more essential oils selected from tagetes oil or a thymol containining oil such as thyme oil, or a mixture thereof, or components thereof which have insect repellent or deterrent properties, which have insect repellent or deterrent properties, wherein the total amount of such oil present does not exceed 10%w/w; (ii) an agriculturally acceptable carrier oil and (iii) an emulsifier. In particular, the composition further comprises a compound, which remediates symptoms of viral infection, such as wintergreen oil. Use Of Compositions of this type in agriculture controls pests whilst reducing the amount of essential oil required. Furthermore, a combined effect of controlling insects, preventing reinfestation and viral symptom remediation is obtainable.

MARKS David

51

Safe apples for baby-food production: survey of pesticide treatment regimes leaving minimum residues.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 19 pesticide preparations were used according to agricultural practice in six trials in apple orchards. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), premature Golden Delicious apples collected 64, 50, 36 days before harvest and mature fruit were examined for residues of active ingredients. No residues of triflumuron, triazamate, chlorpyrifos, etofenprox, fenoxycarb, kresoxim-methyl, cyprodinyl, difenoconazole or thiram were detected in the first sampling. Also, the levels of chlorpyrifos-methyl, penconazole, tebuconazole and tolylfluanid dropped during the pre-harvest interval. Detectable residues of pyridaben, thiacloprid, trifloxystrobin and tetraconazole in harvested fruits were below 0.01 mg kg(-1), which is the maximum concentration of residues acceptable by baby-food producers in any raw material. The only residues exceeding this concentration were captan and teflubenzuron. Based on the data, farmers can choose pesticides for optimal treatment of plants, while enabling growth of a safe crop suitable for baby-food production. PMID:17487602

Ticha, Jana; Hajslova, Jana; Kovalczuk, Tomas; Jech, Martin; Honzicek, Jiri; Kocourek, Vladimir; Lansky, Miroslav; Kloutvorova, Jana; Falta, Vladan

2007-06-01

52

Safe apples for baby-food production: survey of pesticide treatment regimes leaving minimum residues.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A total of 19 pesticide preparations were used according to agricultural practice in six trials in apple orchards. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), premature Golden Delicious apples collected 64, 50, 36 days before harvest and mature fruit were examined for residues of active ingredients. No residues of triflumuron, triazamate, chlorpyrifos, etofenprox, fenoxycarb, kresoxim-methyl, cyprodinyl, difenoconazole or thiram were detected in the first sampling. Also, the levels of chlorpyrifos-methyl, penconazole, tebuconazole and tolylfluanid dropped during the pre-harvest interval. Detectable residues of pyridaben, thiacloprid, trifloxystrobin and tetraconazole in harvested fruits were below 0.01 mg kg(-1), which is the maximum concentration of residues acceptable by baby-food producers in any raw material. The only residues exceeding this concentration were captan and teflubenzuron. Based on the data, farmers can choose pesticides for optimal treatment of plants, while enabling growth of a safe crop suitable for baby-food production.

Ticha J; Hajslova J; Kovalczuk T; Jech M; Honzicek J; Kocourek V; Lansky M; Kloutvorova J; Falta V

2007-06-01

53

Safe Disposal of Pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

Safe Disposal of Pesticides Esta página Web está disponible en español The best way to dispose of small amounts ... 800-CLEANUP. State and local laws regarding pesticide disposal may be stricter than the Federal requirements on ...

54

Pesticide Fact Sheet: Flufenacet.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after registration of a new chemical.

1998-01-01

55

Pesticide Monitoring Program 2008  

Science.gov (United States)

... FLUQUINCONAZOLE *. FLUROXYPYR +. FLUSILAZOLE *. FLUTOLANIL *. FLUVALINATE *. FOE 5043 (FLUFENACET). FOLPET *. FONOFOS. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/pesticides

56

Pesticidal Mixtures  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pesticidal mixtures comprising, as active components, 1) an anthranilamid compound of the formula I, 2 (I) Y wherein B1 is halogen, alkyl, haloalkyl, or haloalkoxy B2 is halogen, haloalkyl, alkoxy, haloalkoxy, alkenyloxy, alkynyloxy, alkylthio, haloalkylthio, alkylsulfinyl, haloalkylsulfinyl, alkylsulfonyl, haloalkylsulfonyl, alkyl-S(-O)[chi]-O- or haloalkyl S(O)x-O-, wherein x is 1 or 2 and the alkoxy radical may be substituted R is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, wherein these groups arc optionally substituted X is halogen Y is H or halogen or the enantiomers or salts or N-oxides thereof, and 2) one or more compounds II selected from group A consisting of organo(thio)-phosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, growth regulators, nicotinic receptor agonists/antagonists compounds, GABA antagonist compounds, macrocyclic lactone insecticides, METI I acaricides, METI II and III compounds, uncoupler compounds, oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor compounds, mixed function oxidase inhibitor compounds, sodium channel blocker compounds and others, all as defined in the description, in synergistically effective amounts, use of these mixture for combating insects, arachnids or nematodes in and on plants and for the protection of seeds, and for treating, controlling, preventing or protecting a warm-blooded animal or a fish against infestation or infection by parasites.

GEWEHR MARKUS; PUHL MICHAEL; DICKHAUT JOACHIM; BASTIAANS HENRICUS MARIA MARTINUS; ZELLER ALISSA; ANSPAUGH DOUGLAS D; KUHN DAVID; OLOUMI-SADEGHI HASSAN; ARMES NIGEL

57

Pesticidal Mixtures  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pesticidal mixtures comprising, as active components, 1) an anthranilamid compound of the formula I wherein Q is H, Cl, Cr, I, CN or methyl B1 is halogen, alkyl, haloalkyl, or haloalkoxy B2 is halogen, haloalkyl, alkoxy, haloalkoxy, alkenyloxy, alkynyloxy, alkylthio, haloalkylthio, alkylsulfinyl, haloalkylsulfinyl, alkylsulfonyl, haloalkylsulfonyl, alkyl-S(-O)x-O- or haloalkyl S(O)x-O-, wherein x is 1 or 2 and the alkoxy radical may be substituted, or C(Ri)-N-ORj, C(Ri)-N(RjRk), wherein Ri, Rj and Rk are alkyl R is hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, alkylene-cycloalkyl, wherein these groups are optionally substituted R1 is F, Cl, Br, methyl or trifluoromethyl or the enantiomers or salts or N-oxides thereof, n is 1, 2 or 3 and 2) one or more compounds II selected from group A consisting of organo(thio)-phosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, growth regulators, nicotinic receptor agonists/antagonists compounds, GABA antagonist compounds, macrocyclic lactone insecticides, METI I acaricides, METI II and III compounds, uncoupler compounds, oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor compounds, mixed function oxidase inhibitor compounds, sodium channel blocker compounds and others, all as defined in the description, in synergistically effective amounts, use of these mixture for combating insects, arachnids or nematodes in and on plants and for the protection of seeds, and for treating, controlling, preventing or protecting a warm-blooded animal or a fish against infestation or infection by parasites.

GEWEHR MARKUS; PUHL MICHAEL; DICKHAUT JOACHIM; BASTIAANS HENRICUS MARIA MARTINUS; ANSPAUGH DOUGLAS D; KUHN DAVID G; OLOUMI-SADEGHI HASSAN; ARMES NIGEL

58

Pesticides and children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Prevention and control of damage to health, crops, and property by insects, fungi, and noxious weeds are the major goals of pesticide applications. As with use of any biologically active agent, pesticides have unwanted side-effects. In this review, we will examine the thesis that adverse pesticide effects are more likely to occur in children who are at special developmental and behavioral risk. Children's exposures to pesticides in the rural and urban settings and differences in their exposure patterns are discussed. The relative frequency of pesticide poisoning in children is examined. In this connection, most reported acute pesticide poisonings occur in children younger than age 5. The possible epidemiological relationships between parental pesticide use or exposure and the risk of adverse reproductive outcomes and childhood cancer are discussed. The level of consensus among these studies is examined. Current concerns regarding neurobehavioral toxicity and endocrine disruption in juxtaposition to the relative paucity of toxicant mechanism-based studies of children are explored

2004-07-15

59

Pesticide Residue Monitoring Program 1998  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticide Program Residue Monitoring 1998: annual report summarizing the results of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) pesticide residue ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/pesticides

60

Consumer Products Treated with Pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

Consumer Products Treated with Pesticides Resources Questions On Pesticides? National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) 1-800-858- ... various items has become of increased concern to consumers. In response to these concerns, many products (e. ...

 
 
 
 
61

Validation and global uncertainty of a liquid chromatographic with diode array detection method for the screening of azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl, trifloxystrobin, famoxadone, pyraclostrobin and fenamidone in grapes and wine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl, trifloxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, famoxadone and fenamidone are permitted Q(o) Inhibitor (Q(o)I) fungicides applied to vine in some European countries for the treatment of downy and powdery mildews. In this work, a method is validated for the analysis of these fungicides in grapes and wine. This screening method consists in a simple one step liquid-liquid extraction followed by liquid chromatography (LC) fitted with a diode array detector (DAD). Limits of detection for grapes and wine were below 0.2 mg kg(-1) or mg l(-1), precision was not above 13%, and recoveries were, on average, 95+/-5% for grapes and 104+/-6% for wine. Global uncertainties evaluated in the concentration range from 0.25 to 2.50 mg l(-1) were below 20%. A confirmatory method by gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometry (MS) detection was used. PMID:17723536

de Melo Abreu, Susana; Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo; Garau, Vincenzo Luigi; Alves, Arminda

2006-03-09

62

Application of liquid chromatography with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry to the determination of a new generation of pesticides in processed fruits and vegetables.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper describes a method for the sensitive and selective determination of 24 new pesticide residues (azoxystrobin, trifloxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl, fenazaquin, indoxacarb, fenothiocarb, furathiocarb, benfuracarb, imidachloprid, dimethomorph, fenpyroximate, hexythiazox, tebufenpyrad, tebufenozide, difeconazole, fenbuconazole, flusilazole, paclobutrazol, tebuconazole, tetraconazole, bromuconazole, etofenprox, fenhexamid, pyridaben) in apple puree, concentrated lemon juice and tomato puree. A miniaturized extraction-partition procedure requiring small amounts of non-chlorinated solvents was used. The extracts are analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) without any further clean-up step. The pesticides are separated on a reversed-phase polar column using a gradient elution. Fifty-five simultaneous MS-MS transitions of precursor ions were monitored (two or three for each pesticide). Studies at fortification levels of 0.001-0.020 and 0.010-0.200 mg/kg gave mean recoveries ranging from 76 to 106% for all compounds, except for imidacloprid, with (R.S.D.s) < or = 15%. The excellent sensitivity and selectivity of LC-MS-MS method allowed quantitation and identification at low levels also in difficult matrices with a run time of 20 min. With the developed method almost 100 samples of commercial fruit products (nectars, juices, purees) were analyzed. None of samples contained residues higher than 0.010 mg/kg.

Sannino A; Bolzoni L; Bandini M

2004-05-01

63

Application of liquid chromatography with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry to the determination of a new generation of pesticides in processed fruits and vegetables.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a method for the sensitive and selective determination of 24 new pesticide residues (azoxystrobin, trifloxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl, fenazaquin, indoxacarb, fenothiocarb, furathiocarb, benfuracarb, imidachloprid, dimethomorph, fenpyroximate, hexythiazox, tebufenpyrad, tebufenozide, difeconazole, fenbuconazole, flusilazole, paclobutrazol, tebuconazole, tetraconazole, bromuconazole, etofenprox, fenhexamid, pyridaben) in apple puree, concentrated lemon juice and tomato puree. A miniaturized extraction-partition procedure requiring small amounts of non-chlorinated solvents was used. The extracts are analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) without any further clean-up step. The pesticides are separated on a reversed-phase polar column using a gradient elution. Fifty-five simultaneous MS-MS transitions of precursor ions were monitored (two or three for each pesticide). Studies at fortification levels of 0.001-0.020 and 0.010-0.200 mg/kg gave mean recoveries ranging from 76 to 106% for all compounds, except for imidacloprid, with (R.S.D.s) < or = 15%. The excellent sensitivity and selectivity of LC-MS-MS method allowed quantitation and identification at low levels also in difficult matrices with a run time of 20 min. With the developed method almost 100 samples of commercial fruit products (nectars, juices, purees) were analyzed. None of samples contained residues higher than 0.010 mg/kg. PMID:15146917

Sannino, Anna; Bolzoni, Luciana; Bandini, Mirella

2004-05-21

64

Pesticidal Mixtures  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pesticidal mixtures comprising, as active components, 1) a malonodinitrile compound selected from compounds I-1 to I-8 CF2HCF2CF2CF2CH2C(CN)2CH2CH2CF3 (compound I-1 name: 2-(2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-octofluoro-pentyl)-2-(3,3,3-trifluoro-propyl)-malononitrile) CF3(CH2)2C(CN)2CH2(CF2)5CF2H (compound I-2 name: 2-(2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7-dodecafluoro-heptyl)-2-(3,3,3-trifluoro-propyl)-malononitrile) CF3(CH2)2C(CN)2(CH2)2C(CF3)2F (compound I-3 name: 2-(3,4,4,4-tetrafluoro-3-trifluoromethyl-butyl)-2-(3,3,3-trifluoro-propyl)-malononitrile) CF3(CH2)2C(CN)2(CH2)2(CF2)3CF3 (compound I-4 name: 2-(3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-nonafluoro-hexyl)-2-(3,3,3-trifluoro-propyl)-malononitrile) CF2H(CF2)3CH2C(CN)2CH2(CF2)3CF2H (compound I-5 name: 2,2-bis-(2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-octafluoro-pentyl)-malononitrile) CF3(CH2)2C(CN)2CH2(CF2)3CF3 (compound I-6 name: 2-(2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,5-nonafluoro-pentyl)-2-(3,3,3-trifluoro-propyl)-malononitrile) CF3(CF2)2CH2C(CN)2CH2(CF2)3CF2H (compound I-7 name: 2-(2,2,3,3,4,4,4-heptafluoro-butyl)-2-(2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-octafluoro-pentyl)-malononitrile) or CF3CF2CH2C(CN)2CH2(CF2)3CF2H (compound I-8 name: 2-(2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-octafluoro-pentyl)-2-(2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoro-propyl)-malononitrile) and 2) one or more compounds II selected from group A consisting of organo(thio)-phosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, growth regulators, nicotinic receptor agonists/antagonists compounds, GABA antagonist compounds, macrocyclic lactone insecticides, METI I acaricides, METI II and III compounds, uncoupler compounds, oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor compounds, mixed function oxidase inhibitor compounds, sodium channel blocker compounds and others, all as defined in the description, in synergistically effective amounts, use of these mixture for combating insects, arachnids or nematodes in and on plants and for the protection of seeds, and for treating, controlling, preventing or protecting a warm-blooded animal or a fish against infestation or infection by parasites.

LANGEWALD JUERGEN; COTTER HENRY VAN TUYL; CULBERTSON DEBORAH L; OLOUMI-SADEGHI HASSAN

65

Pesticides and oncogenic modulation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pesticides constitute a diverse class of chemicals used for the protection of agricultural products. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides can cause malignant transformation of cells in in vitro and in vivo models. In the current minireview a comprehensive summary of recent in vitro findings is presented along with data reported from human population studies, regarding the impact of pesticide exposure on activation or dysregulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Substantial mechanistic work suggests that pesticides are capable of inducing mutations in oncogenes and increase their transcriptional expression in vitro, whereas human population studies indicate associations between pesticide exposure levels and mutation occurrence in cancer-related genes. Further work is required to fully explore the exact mechanisms by which pesticide exposure affects the integrity and normal function of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in human populations.

Vakonaki E; Androutsopoulos VP; Liesivuori J; Tsatsakis AM; Spandidos DA

2013-05-01

66

Pesticide exposure in children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This statement presents the position of the American Academy of Pediatrics on pesticides. Pesticides are a collective term for chemicals intended to kill unwanted insects, plants, molds, and rodents. Children encounter pesticides daily and have unique susceptibilities to their potential toxicity. Acute poisoning risks are clear, and understanding of chronic health implications from both acute and chronic exposure are emerging. Epidemiologic evidence demonstrates associations between early life exposure to pesticides and pediatric cancers, decreased cognitive function, and behavioral problems. Related animal toxicology studies provide supportive biological plausibility for these findings. Recognizing and reducing problematic exposures will require attention to current inadequacies in medical training, public health tracking, and regulatory action on pesticides. Ongoing research describing toxicologic vulnerabilities and exposure factors across the life span are needed to inform regulatory needs and appropriate interventions. Policies that promote integrated pest management, comprehensive pesticide labeling, and marketing practices that incorporate child health considerations will enhance safe use.

2012-12-01

67

Liquid pesticide composition  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention concerns a liquid emulsifiable pesticide concentrate comprising a pesticidally active ingredient and 10-50 wt.-%, based on the concentrate, of a polyoxyethylene alkyl ether having an HLB value of 6-13.5. Preferably, the pesticidally active ingredient is a herbicide, e.g. a a phenoxypropionic acid herbicide or a sulfonylurea herbicide, and especially Quizalofop-ethyl or Halosulfuron-methyl.

The designation of the inventor has not yet been filed

68

78 FR 9688 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With...  

Science.gov (United States)

...on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With Mold-Related Label Claims; Notice of Availability...for Antimicrobial Pesticide Products with Mold-Related Label Claims. This document...for antimicrobial pesticide products with mold-related claims. In response to...

2013-02-11

69

77 FR 74003 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With...  

Science.gov (United States)

...on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With Mold-Related Label Claims; Notice of Availability...on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products with Mold-Related Label Claims.'' PR Notices...efficacy) data and labeling for ``mold-related'' pesticide products....

2012-12-12

70

Aplicação da cromatografia gasosa bidimensional abrangente com microdetector de captura de elétrons para determinação de agrotóxicos em sedimentos/ Application of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detection for determination of pesticides in sediments  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Analysis of seven pesticides in sediments was successfully achieved using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detection, as it provided higher sensitivity and less matrix interference. Repeatability and intermediate precision of peak areas and heights were less than 4% and the recovery percentage for the analytes ranged from 52 to 115%. Instrumental LOD and LOQ were in the range of 0.60 to 2.31 ?g L-1 and 1.83 to 5.62 ?g (more) L-1, respectively. Concentrations of 3.34 ?g kg-1 (dry basis) for trifloxystrobin and azoxystrobin (below the LOQ) were found in a sediment sample.

Silva, Juliana Macedo da; Zini, Cláudia Alcaraz; Caramão, Elina Bastos

2011-01-01

71

Agricultural pesticide residues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The utilization of tracer techniques in the study of agricultural pesticide residues is reviewed under the following headings: lysimeter experiments, micro-ecosystems, translocation in soil, degradation of pesticides in soil, biological availability of soil-applied substances, bound residues in the soil, use of macro- and microautography, double and triple labelling, use of tracer labelling in animal experiments. (U.K.).

1984-01-01

72

Health effects of pesticides  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tea industry is one of the most important agro-industry of the country. Wide scale use of pesticides in tea cultivation to protect the crops from insect and fungus has led to buildup of their residues in several parts of tea plant, and around the area. Some of the pesticides are toxic and injurious ...

Seth, P.K.

73

75 FR 62323 - Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Change to...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2070-AJ74 Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers...rule titled ``Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers...regulations for the safe storage and disposal of pesticides to reduce the...

2010-10-08

74

Buprofezin contained pesticide composition  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides a buprofezin contained pesticide composition, which is prepared by the buprofezin hexaflumuron, indoxacarb, imidacloprid acetamiprid or pesticides, such as the remaining ingredients, complemented by conventional solvents, emulsifiers and synergist. The composition of the invention compounds different mechanisms of insecticide mixed together to expand the spectrum of prevention, one application, we can effectively combat a wide range of pests, can replace highly toxic pesticides, the role of various mechanisms, efficient broad-spectrum, low-characteristics of drugs to achieve a multi-drug administration and an effective solution to the resistance of rice pest problems.

ANHUI HUANG; QINFEI JIANG

75

Illegal Pesticide Products  

Science.gov (United States)

Illegal Pesticide Products Esta página Web está disponible en español Quick Resources Protect your Business Counterfeit Flea ... reviewed for clear directions and safety warnings. Common Illegal Pest Products mothballs | pet products | insecticidal chalk | " Tres ...

76

Genotoxic effects of pesticides.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Epidemiologic data showed an increase in the number of cancer cases in persons involved in agricultural production using pesticides. According to IARC, more than 25% of pesticides are classified as oncogens. In recent years, the concept of malignant tumors developing after environmental contamination with chemicals has been accepted. Changes in genetic material are at the basis of this process because many environmental pollutants are chemical carcinogens and mutagens with the capacity of causing DNA damage. DNA damage was proposed as a useful parameter for assessing the genotoxic properties of environmental pollutants. The correlation between exposure to carcinogenic substance and the level of DNA damage is essential. Pesticides are highly biologically active chemicals. They may interact with DNA and damage its structure. Such interaction may be critical for the manifestation of carcinogenic properties of different chemicals. We report on the organotropic genotoxic effects of different chemical classes of pesticides (decis, cypermetrin, 2,4-D, polyram) studied by means of alkaline unwinding assay DNA.

Kornuta N; Bagley E; Nedopitanskaya N

1996-01-01

77

Desenvolvimento de métodos analíticos para determinação de agrotóxicos em sedimentos por cromatografia gasosa monodimensional e bidimensional abrangente com micro detector de captura de elétrons Development of analytical methods for pesticides in sediments by monodimensional and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro electron-capture detection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of analytical methods for determination of eight pesticides of different chemical classes (trichlorfon, propanil, fipronil, propiconazole, trifloxystrobin, permethrin, difenoconazole and azoxystrobin) in sediments with gas chromatography-micro-electron capture detector (GC/µECD) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detector (GCxGC/µECD) is described. These methods were applied to real sediment samples, and the best results were obtained using a 5% diphenyl-methylpolysiloxane column for 1D-GC. For GCxGC the same column was employed in the first dimension and a 50%-phenyl-methylpolysiloxane stationary phase was placed in the second dimension. Due to the superior peak capacity and selectivity of GCxGC, interfering matrix peaks were separated from analytes, showing a better performance of GCxGC.

Juliana Macedo da Silva; Cláudia Alcaraz Zini; Elina Bastos Caramão; Ewelin Monica Paturi Navarro Canizares; Karen Alam Leal

2010-01-01

78

New Pesticide Face Sheet: Fipronil.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after Registration of a new chemical.

1996-01-01

79

Transporte de agrotóxicos em lavoura de arroz irrigado sob três manejos de irrigação/ Pesticide transport in rice field under three irrigation managements  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O cultivo de arroz irrigado no Rio Grande do Sul caracteriza-se pela permanência de lâmina de irrigação sobre o solo, o que ocasiona perdas de agrotóxicos na ocorrência de chuvas; portanto, o adequado manejo de irrigação pode influenciar na redução do transporte destes para o ambiente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes manejos de irrigação no extravasamento da água e no transporte e persistência de clomazone, thiamethoxam, imidaclo (more) prid, trifloxystrobin e propiconazol em lavoura de arroz irrigado. Os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial consistiram nos manejos de irrigação por inundação contínua, intermitente e por banhos (fator A) e pelos agrotóxicos mencionados (fator B). Determinou-se o volume total de água extravasada e a taxa de dissipação e transporte desses agrotóxicos. Devido ao maior armazenamento de água da chuva, quando comparadas com a irrigação contínua, as irrigações intermitente e por banhos proporcionaram diminuição de 53 e 95% do volume de água perdida, resultando, respectivamente, em redução de 49 e 64% na massa total de agrotóxicos transportados para o ambiente, em relação ao total aplicado na lavoura. A massa de agrotóxico transportada não ultrapassou 3% do total aplicado, e as maiores concentrações de agrotóxicos em água ocorreram próximo à sua aplicação. Com base nesses resultados, salienta-se que os manejos de irrigação intermitente e por banhos minimizam o transporte de agrotóxicos para o ambiente. Abstract in english Rice crop in the state of Rio Grande do Sul is characterized by the presence of water layer on the soil, which can cause pesticide runoff during the occurrence of rainfall. Thus, proper irrigation management can reduce pesticide transport into the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different irrigation managements on water runoff, transport and dissipation of clomazone, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, trifloxystrobin, and propiconazol. The (more) treatments were arranged in a factorial scheme and consisted of continuous flooding, intermittent flooding, and flushing irrigation (factor A) and by the application of the pesticides listed above (factor B). Total water runoff, and pesticide transport and dissipation rate were evaluated. Due to the larger rainfall storage, compared with continuous flooding, intermittent flooding and flushing irrigation provided a reduction of 53 and 95% of water runoff, resulting, respectively, in a reduction of 49 and 64% of the total mass transported into the environment in relation to the total applied in the field. The pesticide mass transported was lower than 3% of the total amount applied. Based on these results, it could be concluded that intermittent flooding and flushing irrigation minimize pesticide transport into the environment.Since the highest pesticide concentrations occur close to application time, it is of fundamental importance to conduct proper irrigation management providing maximum permanence in the environment.

Martini, L.F.D.; Avila, L.A.; Cassol, G.V.; Zanella, R.; Machado, S.L.O.; Marques, M.S.; De Vicari, M.

2012-12-01

80

Bactericidal pesticide composition  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a sterilization pesticide composition, which comprises effective drug ingredients of isoprothiolane and triazole fungicide as well as pesticide-acceptable auxiliary components, wherein the weight ratio of the isoprothiolane to the triazole fungicide is 40:1-1: 60. By the synergy generated by the combination of two effective drug ingredients with different sterilization mechanisms, the sterilization pesticide composition can improve the sterilizing effect and the using safety remarkably, and can reduce the using cost. The composition can be prepared into different dosage forms of missible oil, wettable powders, suspensions, emulsions, granules, and the like for preventing and treating plant diseases caused by the majority of pathogenic fungi such as ascomycetes, basidiomycetes and imperfect fungi, in particular cereal crop diseases such as rice blast and sheath blight, wheat sheath blight, and the like.

LIXIANG XING; XIANG LI; LIJUN DONG

 
 
 
 
81

Tutin derivative pesticide  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a botanical pesticide, namely a tutin derivative pesticide, which comprises various restructuring substances of tutin, such as an alpha-methyl-propylene acylated derivative pesticide. An alpha-methyl-propylene acylated derivative of the tutin is obtained by performing 2 position hydroxyl acylation reconstructing by taking the tutin as a template, and the derivative has colorless crystals and a molecular formula of C19H22O7. Bioactive determination results show that under low concentration of 2.00 mg/mL, the derivative increases the antifeedant activity to armyworm by 55.49 percent compared with the tutin, the antifeedant activity reaches 85 percent, and the derivative can lead trial insects to death.

MENGLOU LI; CUI JUN

82

Pesticide composition containing nitenpyram  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a pesticide composition containing nitenpyram, which comprises two active ingredients: A is the nitenpyram, and B is one selected from chlorpyrifos-methyl, chlorantraniliproleand metaflumizone and based on the parts by weight of the two active ingredients, the proportion between the components A and B is 1:20-20:1. The pesticide composition can be prepared into missible oil, wetting powder, emulsion in water, microemulsion, suspending agent and water dispersible granules, wherein the weight percentage content of the active ingredients is 5-85%. The pesticide composition has the function(s) of synergy and/or expansion of prevention and treatment spectrum, and can be used for controlling pests such as rice planthopper of rice, cnaphalocrocis medinalis guenee, chilosuppressalis, tryporyza incertulas, rice skipper butterfly and the like as well as aphid, white fly, thrips palmi karny, flea beetle, prodenia litura, spodoptera exigua and the like of commercial crops such as cotton, vegetables and the like.

FAN CHEN; CHAOAI ZHOU; QIYIN JIANG; XIAODI CAO

83

On the paradox of pesticides  

CERN Multimedia

The paradox of pesticides was observed experimentally, which says that pesticides may dramatically increase the population of a pest when the pest has a natural predator. Here we use a mathematical model to study the paradox. We find that the timing for the application of pesticides is crucial for the resurgence or non-resurgence of the pests. In particular, regularly applying pesticides is not a good idea as also observed in experiments. In fact, the best time to apply pesticides is when the pest population is reasonably high.

Li, Y Charles

2013-01-01

84

Pesticides and Eggshell Thinning  

Science.gov (United States)

This lab activity is about toxic substances like pesticides and their effects on biological systems. The activity starts with an introduction of how birds sequester calcium to make an egg. Learners are asked to bring eggshells from home from different kinds of birds, if possible. These shells are prepared for analysis. Learners discover how to prepare a primary acid, neutralize a base, and calculate the percentage of CaCO3 in shell material. These results lead to a discussion of how calcium moves through this biochemical system and how a pesticide can prevent calcium from building eggshell. This resource includes tips, some related to safety; adult supervision recommended.

Tucker, David

2009-01-01

85

Hayes' handbook of pesticide toxicology.  

Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (Canada)

The Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology is a comprehensive, two-volume reference guide to the properties, effects, and regulation of pesticides that provides the latest and most complete information to researchers investigating the environmental, agricultural, veterinary, and human-health impacts of pesticide use. Written by international experts from academia, government, and the private sector, the Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology is an in-depth examination of critical issues related to the need for, use of, and nature of chemicals used in modern pest management. This updated third edition carries on the book's tradition of serving as the definitive reference on pesticide toxicology and recognizies the seminal contribution of Wayland J. Hayes, Jr., co-Editor of the first edition. Feature: Presents a comprehensive look at all aspects of pesticide toxicology in one reference work. Benefit: Saves researchers time in quickly accessing the very latest definitive details on toxicity of specific pesticides as opposed to searching through thousands of journal articles. Feature: Clear exposition of hazard identification and dose response relationships in each chapter featuring pesticide agents and actions Benefit: Connects the experimental laboratory results to real-life applications in human health, animal health and the environment. Feature: All major classes of pesticide considered. Benefit: Provides relevance to a wider variety of researchers who are conducting comparative work in pesticides or their health impacts. Feature: Different routes of exposure critically evaluated. Benefit: Connects the loop between exposure and harmful affects to those who are researching the affects of pesticides on humans or wildlife.

86

PROTEINS WITH PESTICIDAL ACTIVITY  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to new classes of pesticidally active proteins and polynucleotide sequences that encode these proteins. According to the invention, the proteins have molecular weights of approximately 40...50 kDa and approximately 10...15 kDa.

NARVA E KENNETH; SCHNEPF H ERNEST; KNUTH MARK; POLLARD R MICHAEL; CARDINEAU A GUY; SCHWAB E GEORGE; MICHAELS TRACY ELLIS; FINSTAD LEE STACY; DIEHL PAULA; DOJILLO JOANNA; STAMP LISA; HERMAN A ROD

87

Pesticides and childhood cancer.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Children are exposed to potentially carcinogenic pesticides from use in homes, schools, other buildings, lawns and gardens, through food and contaminated drinking water, from agricultural application drift, overspray, or off-gassing, and from carry-home exposure of parents occupationally exposed to ...

Zahm, S H; Ward, M H

88

Genotoxic effects of pesticides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidemiologic data showed an increase in the number of cancer cases in persons involved in agricultural production using pesticides. According to IARC, more than 25% of pesticides are classified as oncogens. In recent years, the concept of malignant tumors developing after environmental contamination with chemicals has been accepted. Changes in genetic material are at the basis of this process because many environmental pollutants are chemical carcinogens and mutagens with the capacity of causing DNA damage. DNA damage was proposed as a useful parameter for assessing the genotoxic properties of environmental pollutants. The correlation between exposure to carcinogenic substance and the level of DNA damage is essential. Pesticides are highly biologically active chemicals. They may interact with DNA and damage its structure. Such interaction may be critical for the manifestation of carcinogenic properties of different chemicals. We report on the organotropic genotoxic effects of different chemical classes of pesticides (decis, cypermetrin, 2,4-D, polyram) studied by means of alkaline unwinding assay DNA. PMID:9216788

Kornuta, N; Bagley, E; Nedopitanskaya, N

1996-01-01

89

Soil column leaching of pesticides.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this review, I address the practical and theoretical aspects of pesticide soil mobility.I also address the methods used to measure mobility, and the factors that influence it, and I summarize the data that have been published on the column leaching of pesticides.Pesticides that enter the unsaturated soil profile are transported downwards by the water flux, and are adsorbed, desorbed, and/or degraded as they pass through the soil. The rate of passage of a pesticide through the soil depends on the properties of the pesticide, the properties of the soil and the prevailing environmental conditions.Because large amounts of many different pesticides are used around the world, they and their degradates may sometimes contaminate groundwater at unacceptable levels.It is for this reason that assessing the transport behavior and soil mobility of pesticides before they are sold into commerce is important and is one indispensable element that regulators use to assess probable pesticide safety. Both elementary soil column leaching and sophisticated outdoor lysimeter studies are performed to measure the leaching potential for pesticides; the latter approach more reliably reflects probable field behavior, but the former is useful to initially profile a pesticide for soil mobility potential.Soil is physically heterogeneous. The structure of soil varies both vertically and laterally, and this variability affects the complex flow of water through the soil profile, making it difficult to predict with accuracy. In addition, macropores exist in soils and further add to the complexity of how water flow occurs. The degree to which soil is tilled, the density of vegetation on the surface, and the type and amounts of organic soil amendments that are added to soil further affect the movement rate of water through soil, the character of soil adsorption sites and the microbial populations that exist in the soil. Parameters that most influence the rate of pesticide mobility in soil are persistence (DT50) of the pesticide, and its sorption/desorption(Koc) characteristics. These parameters may vary for the same pesticide from geographic site-to-site and with soil depth. The interactions that normally occur between pesticides and dissolved organic matter (DOM) or WDC are yet other factors that may complicate pesticide leaching behavior.The soil mobility of pesticides is normally tested both in the laboratory and in the field. Lab studies are initially performed to give researchers a preliminary appraisal of the relative mobility of a pesticide. Later, field lysimeter studies can be performed to provide more natural leaching conditions that emulate the actual field use pattern. Lysimeter studies give the most reliable information on the leaching behavior of a pesticide under field conditions, but these studies are time-consuming and expensive and cannot be performed everywhere. It is for this reason that the laboratory soil column leaching approach is commonly utilized to profile the mobility of a pesticide,and appraise how it behaves in different soils, and relative to other pesticides.Because the soil structure is chemically and physically heterogenous, different pesticide tests may produce variable DT50 and Koc values; therefore, initial pesticide mobility testing is undertaken in homogeneously packed columns that contain two or more soils and are eluted at constant flow rates. Such studies are done in duplicate and utilize a conservative tracer element. By fitting an appropriate mathematical model to the breakthrough curve of the conservative tracer selected,researchers determine key mobility parameters, such as pore water velocity, the column-specific dispersion coefficient, and the contribution of non equilibrium transport processes. Such parameters form the basis for estimating the probable transport and degradation rates that will be characteristic of the tested pesticide. Researchers also examine how a pesticide interacts with soil DOM and WDC, and what contribution from facilitated transport to mobility is made as a result of the effects of

Katagi T

2013-01-01

90

Soil column leaching of pesticides.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this review, I address the practical and theoretical aspects of pesticide soil mobility.I also address the methods used to measure mobility, and the factors that influence it, and I summarize the data that have been published on the column leaching of pesticides.Pesticides that enter the unsaturated soil profile are transported downwards by the water flux, and are adsorbed, desorbed, and/or degraded as they pass through the soil. The rate of passage of a pesticide through the soil depends on the properties of the pesticide, the properties of the soil and the prevailing environmental conditions.Because large amounts of many different pesticides are used around the world, they and their degradates may sometimes contaminate groundwater at unacceptable levels.It is for this reason that assessing the transport behavior and soil mobility of pesticides before they are sold into commerce is important and is one indispensable element that regulators use to assess probable pesticide safety. Both elementary soil column leaching and sophisticated outdoor lysimeter studies are performed to measure the leaching potential for pesticides; the latter approach more reliably reflects probable field behavior, but the former is useful to initially profile a pesticide for soil mobility potential.Soil is physically heterogeneous. The structure of soil varies both vertically and laterally, and this variability affects the complex flow of water through the soil profile, making it difficult to predict with accuracy. In addition, macropores exist in soils and further add to the complexity of how water flow occurs. The degree to which soil is tilled, the density of vegetation on the surface, and the type and amounts of organic soil amendments that are added to soil further affect the movement rate of water through soil, the character of soil adsorption sites and the microbial populations that exist in the soil. Parameters that most influence the rate of pesticide mobility in soil are persistence (DT50) of the pesticide, and its sorption/desorption(Koc) characteristics. These parameters may vary for the same pesticide from geographic site-to-site and with soil depth. The interactions that normally occur between pesticides and dissolved organic matter (DOM) or WDC are yet other factors that may complicate pesticide leaching behavior.The soil mobility of pesticides is normally tested both in the laboratory and in the field. Lab studies are initially performed to give researchers a preliminary appraisal of the relative mobility of a pesticide. Later, field lysimeter studies can be performed to provide more natural leaching conditions that emulate the actual field use pattern. Lysimeter studies give the most reliable information on the leaching behavior of a pesticide under field conditions, but these studies are time-consuming and expensive and cannot be performed everywhere. It is for this reason that the laboratory soil column leaching approach is commonly utilized to profile the mobility of a pesticide,and appraise how it behaves in different soils, and relative to other pesticides.Because the soil structure is chemically and physically heterogenous, different pesticide tests may produce variable DT50 and Koc values; therefore, initial pesticide mobility testing is undertaken in homogeneously packed columns that contain two or more soils and are eluted at constant flow rates. Such studies are done in duplicate and utilize a conservative tracer element. By fitting an appropriate mathematical model to the breakthrough curve of the conservative tracer selected,researchers determine key mobility parameters, such as pore water velocity, the column-specific dispersion coefficient, and the contribution of non equilibrium transport processes. Such parameters form the basis for estimating the probable transport and degradation rates that will be characteristic of the tested pesticide. Researchers also examine how a pesticide interacts with soil DOM and WDC, and what contribution from facilitated transport to mobility is made as a result of the effects of

Katagi, Toshiyuki

2013-01-01

91

PESTICIDE COMPOSITIONS INCLUDING POLYMERIC ADJUVANTS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pesticidal compositions of improved effectiveness are provided, including a pesticide (e.g., an insecticide or herbicide) together with a copolymer adjuvant or additive selected from the group consisting of acid or salt copolymers containing individual quantities of maleic and itaconic moieties. The compositions of the invention provide multiple-fold increases in effectiveness, as compared with an equal amount of the pesticide in the absence of the copolymer.

SANDERS JOHN LARRY

92

Pesticide exposure--Egyptian scene.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pesticides have contributed to dramatic increases in crop yields and in the quantity and variety of the diet. Also, they have helped to limit the spread of certain diseases. But pesticides have harmful effects; they can cause injury to human health as well as to the environment. The range of these adverse health effects includes acute and persistent injury to the nervous system, lung damage, injury to the reproductive organs, dysfunction of the immune and endocrine systems, birth defects, and cancer. Problems associated with pesticide hazards to man and the environment are not confined to the developing countries. Developed nations have already suffered these problems, and still facing some problems in certain locations. For many reasons, the severity of pesticide hazards is much pronounced in Third World Countries. A number of long persistent organochlorines and highly toxic organophosphates, which have been banned or severely restricted, are still marketed and used in many developing countries. The misuse of pesticides by concerned individuals, in addition to lack of or weak national controlling plans are behind the outbreak of adverse effects in developing countries. Since about 25 years, the use of DDT and many other organochlorine pesticides in Egyptian agriculture has been banned. However, these long persistent compounds are still detectable in many different types of environmental samples (e.g., water, fish, sediment, vegetables, fruits, milk, foodstuffs, etc.). Large number of compounds known as "extremely hazardous", "highly hazardous", "probable human carcinogenic", and "possible human carcinogenic", are listed among the pesticides registered and recommended for use in Egypt during the season of 2001/2002. The present article deals with: trends and patterns of pesticide use, impact of pesticides on human health, factors contributing to pesticide risks, environmental impacts of pesticides, and bioaccumulation of pesticide residues in food; giving special concern to the situation in Egypt.

Mansour SA

2004-05-01

93

Application of borneol in pesticides  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to an application of borneol in pesticides, which uses natural borneol or synthetic borneol in the aspects of repelling insects and killing bacteria by using the pesticides. An inventor independently uses the borneol or compounds with other pesticides for processing into formulations like wettable powder, missible oil, suspension, water dispersible granules, emulsion in water, smoke agent and the like, thereby having good effects in the aspects of killing bacteria, repelling inspects and the like.

JIANGUO ZENG; LI YAO; XUAN PENG; LI YUAN

94

Pesticide Residue Monitoring Program 1996  

Science.gov (United States)

... Ofurace Omethoate* Ovex Oxadiazon Oxadixyl Oxamyl* Oxydemeton-methyl Oxyfluorfen Oxythioquinox Paclobutrazol Paraquat* Parathion ... More results from www.fda.gov/Food/FoodborneIllnessContaminants/Pesticides

95

Pesticide Monitoring Program FY 2007  

Science.gov (United States)

... salithion; schradan; simazine; simetryne; sodium benzoate *; spirodiclofen *; strobane; sulfallate; sulfotepp; sulphenone; sulprofos ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/pesticides

96

Pesticidal compound mixtures  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to novel pesticidal combinations comprising ethiprole as component A and pyrethroids as component B comprised of acrinathrin, allethrin (d-cis-trans, d-trans), beta-cyfluthrin, tefluthrin, cyhalothrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, bifenthrin, bioallethrin, bioallethrin-s-cyclopentyl-isomer, bioethanomethrin, biopermethrin, bioresmethrin, chlovaporthrin, cis-cypermethrin, cis-resmethrin, cis-permethrin, clocythrin, cycloprothrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin (alpha-, beta-, theta-, zeta-), cyphenothrin, empenthrin (IR-isomer), esfenvalerate, etofenprox, fenfluthrin, fenpropathrin, fenpyrithrin, fenvalerate, flubrocythrinate, flucythrinate, flufenprox, flumethrin, fluvalinate, fubfenprox, gamma-cyhalothrin, imiprothrin, kadethrin, metofluthrin, permethrin (cis-, trans-), phenothrin (1R-trans isomer), prallethrin, profluthrin, protrifenbute, pyresmethrin,; resmethrin, RU 15525, silafluofen, tau-fluvalinate, terallethrin, tetramethrin (IR-isomer), tralocythrin, tralomethrin, transfluthrin, ZXI 8901, pyrethrins (pyrethrum), that show surprisingly good pesticidal and activities.

97

Pesticidal Compound Mixtures  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to novel pesticidal combinations comprising ethiprole as component A and pyrethroids as component B comprised of acrinathrin, allethrin, allethrin (d-cis-trans, d-trans), beta-cyfluthrin, tefluthrin, cyhalothrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, bifenthrin, bioallethrin, bioallethrin-s-cyclopentyl-isomer, bioethanomethrin, biopermethrin, bioresmethrin, chlovaporthrin, cis-cypermethrin, cis-resmethrin, cis-permethrin, clocythrin, cycloprothrin, cyhalothrin, cypermetkrin (alpha-, beta-, theta-, zeta-), cyphenothrin, empenthrin (1 R-isomer), esfenvalerate, etofenprox, fenfluthrin, fenpropathrin, fenpyrithrin, fenvalerate, flubrocythrinate, flucythriate, flufenprox, flumethrin, fluvalinate, fubfenprox, gamma-cyhalothrin, imiprothrin, kadethrin, metofluthrin, permethrin (cis-, trans-), phenothrin (1 R-trans isomer), prallethrin, profluthrin, protrifenbute, pyresmethrin, resmethrin, RU 15525, silafluofen, tau-fluvahnate, terallethrin, tetramethrin (1 R-isomer), tralocythrin, tralomethrin, transfluthrin, ZXI 8901, pyrethrins (pyrethrum), that show surprisingly good pesticidal and activities

HUNGENBERG HEIKE; VELDEN TORSTEN; THIELERT WOLFGANG; TESSON ERIC

98

PESTICIDAL COMPOUND MIXTURES  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to novel pesticidal combinations comprising ethiprole as component A and pyrethroids as component B comprised of acrinathrin, allethrin, allethrin (d-cis-trans, d-trans), beta-cyfluthrin, tefluthrin, cyhalothrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, bifenthrin, bioallethrin, bioallethrin-s-cyclopentyl-isomer, bioethanomethrin, biopermethrin, bioresmethrin, chlovaporthrin, cis-cypermethrin, cis-resmethrin, cis-permethrin, clocythrin, cycloprothrin, cyhalothrin, cypermetkrin (alpha-, beta-, theta-, zeta-), cyphenothrin, empenthrin (1 R-isomer), esfenvalerate, etofenprox, fenfluthrin, fenpropathrin, fenpyrithrin, fenvalerate, flubrocythrinate, flucythriate, flufenprox, flumethrin, fluvalinate, fubfenprox, gamma-cyhalothrin, imiprothrin, kadethrin, metofluthrin, permethrin (cis-, trans-), phenothrin (1 R-trans isomer), prallethrin, profluthrin, protrifenbute,; pyresmethrin, resmethrin, RU 15525, silafluofen, tau-fluvahnate, terallethrin, tetramethrin (1 R-isomer), tralocythrin, tralomethrin, transfluthrin, ZXI 8901, pyrethrins (pyrethrum), that show surprisingly good pesticidal and activities

HUNGENBERG HEIKE; VELDEN TORSTEN; THIELERT WOLFGANG; TESSON ERIC

99

Radiation induced microbial pesticide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author).

2000-01-01

100

Pesticidal emulsifiable concentrate composition  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is provided a novel pesticidal emulsifiable concentrate composition that contains a phenoxypropionate herbicide (e.g., quizalofop-p-ethyl), a polar solvent (e.g., N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone), non-polar solvent (e.g., aromatic or aliphatic hydrocarbon) and a surfactant (e.g., polyoxyethylene castor oil ether, polyoxyethylene styryl phenyl ether), and that is improved in low-temperature stability and emulsion stability.

KOBAYASHI MAMORU

 
 
 
 
101

Synergistic pesticide compound containing mepiquat chloride and organophosphorus pesticide  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a synergistic pesticide compound containing mepiquat chloride and organophosphorus pesticide the active components of the compound comprise mepiquat chloride and organophosphorus pesticide and the organophosphorus pesticide is chlorpyrifos, phoxim, triazophos or profenofos, wherein the weight ratio of the mepiquat chloride to the organophosphorus pesticide is 1:60 to 10:1. The compound can be applied in preventing lepidoptera or homopteran pests, particularly applied in preventing rice stem borer or plant hopper, and the effect thereof is significantly higher than that of the single dose. Compared with the prior art, the compound can produce higher synergistic effect, overcomes and delays pest medicine resistance, expands the prevention spectrum, has high insecticidal speed, reduces the medication cost and reduces the toxicity.

AIGUO WU; WEI WU; ZHONGYAN WU; ZHONGHUAI XU

102

Evaluation of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detection for the analysis of seven pesticides in sediment samples.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A GC-?ECD and a GC×GC-?ECD method were developed for the analysis of pesticides in sediments. For 1D-GC, instrumental LOD and LOQ were found in the range from 0.60 to 2.31?gL(-1) and 1.83 to 5.62?gL(-1), respectively. For GC×GC method development two sets of columns were tested (DB-5/DB-17ms, and HP-50+/DB-1ms), and the best results were obtained with the set of columns DB-5/DB-17ms. Instrumental LOD and LOQ were found in the range from 0.08 to 1.07?gL(-1) and 0.25 to 3.23?gL(-1), respectively. The LOD for the GC×GC was about 36% lower than those obtained for the 1D-GC. Concentrations of 21.18?gkg(-1) through 1D-GC method and 3.34?gkg(-1) for GC×GC for trifloxystrobin were found in a sediment sample which was collected close to an area of rice plantation.

da Silva JM; Zini CA; Caramão EB

2011-05-01

103

Interactions between algae (Selenastrum capricornutum) and pesticides: implications for managing constructed wetlands for pesticide removal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This laboratory study examined the interactions between an algal species found in wetlands (Selenastrum capricornutum) and two agricultural pesticides (atrazine and lindane). Pesticide additions had a positive effect on the chlorophyll a concentrations of the treatments. The presence of algae decreased the aqueous persistence of both pesticides. It is speculated that the algae either provided sites for pesticide sorption or facilitated pesticide degradation.

Friesen-Pankratz B; Doebel C; Farenhorst A; Goldsborough LG

2003-03-01

104

Choice of pesticide fate models  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The choice of a pesticide fate model at field scale is linked to the available input data. The article describes the available pesticide fate models at a field scale and the guidelines for the choice of the suitable model as function of the data input requested.

2006-01-01

105

Prepn of etofenprox as pesticide  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention belongs to the field of pesticide technology. The preparation of etofenprox as pesticide uses p-tert-butyl phenol as initial material and includes four reaction steps of acetylating, chlorination, oxyethylation, etc. in the presence of catalyst. The present invention has mild reaction condition, low material cost and simple operation and is suitable for industrial production.

TANG YANSEN; TU HAILAN; SHEN XINGHUAN

106

Pesticide Residue Monitoring Program 2000  

Science.gov (United States)

... (2)Pesticide Analytical Manual Volume I (3rd Ed ... Vegetable oil, refined, 1, 100.0, 0.0, Spices & condiments & flavors, 8, 37.5, 0.0, ... Olives, 10, 100.0, 0.0 ... More results from www.fda.gov/Food/FoodborneIllnessContaminants/Pesticides

107

Photocatalytic oxidation of pesticide rinsate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pesticide rinsate has been considered as one of the major threats for the environment. In this study, photocatalysts such as TiO2 and O3 were used to promote the efficiency of direct UV photolysis to prevent such wastewater pollution. Carbofuran (a carbamate pesticide) and mevinphos (an organophosphate pesticide) with a concentration of 100 mg/L were selected as the test pesticide rinsates. Parent pesticide compound, COD, and microtoxicity analysis were employed to investigate the effect of photocatalyst on the degradation efficiency of pesticide in rinsate. It was found that the photocatalytic oxidation process (UV/O3, UV/TiO2) showed much higher COD removal and microtoxicity reduction efficiency for pesticide rinsate than did direct UV photolysis under the imposed conditions, suggesting that photocatalytic oxidation processes such as UV/O3 and UV/TiO2 could be a better alternative to treat pesticide rinsate. In addition, it was noted that increasing the initial pH of mevinphos rinsate to a basic level was required to reach higher COD removal efficiency and positive microtoxicity reduction efficiency while it was not necessary for the treatment of carbofuran rinsate.

Kuo WS

2002-01-01

108

Pesticide adjuvant and applications thereof  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a pesticide adjuvant and applications thereof. The pesticide adjuvant is characterized by comprising the following ingredients by mass percentage: 90 to 100 percent of pine-stump light oil and 0 to 10 percent of cosolvent, wherein the cosolvent is at least one of n-butyl alcohol, isobutyl alcohol, N-methylpyrrolidone, N-hydroxyethylpyrrolidone and methyl salicylate. The pesticide adjuvant is applicable to various pesticides, and particularly applicable to missible oil, oiling agent, oil suspension solvent, suspension emulsion, micro-emulsion, aqueous emulsion and ultra-low volume concentrate, and also can be used as barrel pesticide mixing assistant agent and the pesticide adjuvant is applicable to preparation of ingredients of pesticides such as insecticide, acaricide, bactericide, herbicide, plant growth regulator and the like. The pesticide adjuvant and the barrel-mixing agent have strong dissolving power, is environment-friendly, have synergy effect on agents, wide source and moderate use cost, and is the ideal choice substituting for triphenyl organic solvents.

MUJIN ZHU; MINGZHANG CAO; PUCHAO LI; WENZHONG WANG; JIAN KONG; OUYAN LI

109

NANOTECHNOLOGY AND NANOENCAPSULATION OF PESTICIDES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is about nano-technology perspectives and their applications in the pesticides development. Information on companies that are participating in microencapsulate pesticide production is present, as well as nanotechnology concepts, and companies that make micro and nano-encapsulate pest formulations.

Eder Lugo-Medina; Cipriano García-Gutiérrez; Rey David Ruelas-Ayala

2010-01-01

110

Progress in studies on genotoxicity of pesticides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pesticides are playing an important role in food production and food security. However, the ecoenvironment and human being could be impacted by improper use of some pesticides. An increasing attention has been paid to genotoxicity of pesticide and a progress has been made in recent years. The methodology, results, and probable mechanisms of genotoxicity of pesticide are reviewed in this article. (authors)

2005-01-01

111

Dispersible pesticidal compositions  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed is a soluble granule composition comprising a) flonicamid b) a dispersant selected from the group consisting of sodium alkyl naphthalene sulfonated formaldehyde condensate, modified acrylate copolymer (sodium salt), alkyl naphthalene sulfonate salts and dodecyl benzene sulfonate (Na) salt and c) a wetting agent selected from the group consisting of a mixture of sodium dioctylsufosuccinate and sodium benzoate wherein the sodium dioctylsufosuccinate is present in a concentration up to 85 weight percent, polyalkyleneoxide modified heptamethyl trisiloxane, alkyloxypolyethylene glycol methyl ether and alcohol (C8-C16) ethoxylates with 3-20 moles of ethylene oxide. The composition is useful as a water-soluble pesticide.

LIU HONG; DEXTER ROBIN; MARTIN TIMOTHY; MARTIN CRAIG

112

Pesticide containing lufenuron and use thereof  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention belongs to the technical field of pesticides, in particular relates to a pesticide containing lufenuron. The content of effective ingredients in the pesticide is 1 percent to 85 percent. The lufenuron belongs to a benzoyl urea systematic pesticide with high selectivity, is used for preventing Lepidoptera larvae on cotton, corn, vegetables, fruit trees, and the like, can be also used as a household pesticide and is mainly used for preventing cotton bollworms, leaf miners, asparagus caterpillars and olethreutids.

SHAOWU ZHANG; HUAFENG MI; QIAOLI CAO

113

78 FR 38319 - Pesticide Maintenance Fee: Notice of Receipt of Requests to Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Information Technology and Resources Management Division (7502P), Office of Pesticide...Information Technology and Resources Management Division (7502P), Office of Pesticide...Information Technology and Resources Management Division, Office of Pesticide...

2013-06-26

114

Pesticide use and application: An Indian scenario  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Agricultural development continues to remain the most important objective of Indian planning and policy. In the process of development of agriculture, pesticides have become an important tool as a plant protection agent for boosting food production. Further, pesticides play a significant role by keeping many dreadful diseases. However, exposure to pesticides both occupationally and environmentally causes a range of human health problems. It has been observed that the pesticides exposures are increasingly linked to immune suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities and cancer. Currently, India is the largest producer of pesticides in Asia and ranks twelfth in the world for the use of pesticides. A vast majority of the population in India is engaged in agriculture and is therefore exposed to the pesticides used in agriculture. Although Indian average consumption of pesticide is far lower than many other developed economies, the problem of pesticide residue is very high in India. Pesticide residue in several crops has also affected the export of agricultural commodities in the last few years. In this context, pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, proper application technologies, and integrated pest management are some of the key strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides. There is a dearth of studies related to these issues in India. Therefore, the thrust of this paper was to review the technology of application of pesticides in India and recommend future strategies for the rational use of pesticides and minimizing the problems related to health and environment.

Abhilash, P.C., E-mail: pcabhilash@gmail.com [Eco-Auditing Group, National Botanical Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh (India); Singh, Nandita, E-mail: nanditasingh8@yahoo.co.in [Eco-Auditing Group, National Botanical Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh (India)

2009-06-15

115

Better ways of using pesticides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The primary role of agriculture is to produce a reliable supply of wholesome food to feed the world's population, safely and without adverse effects on the environment. Pesticides have a crucial part to play in reducing the loss of food during production and after harvesting, and this article discusses how the use of pesticides can be made more efficient. Two particular examples of safer and more effective pesticide delivery systems are described, relating to tsetse fly control in Africa and to the control of weeds in a rice paddy or rice-fish mixed ecosystem. 45 refs, 6 figs.

1992-01-01

116

Fungicidal active substance combinations containing trifloxystrobin  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

New active agent combinations comprises: (A) 2-(alpha -(((alpha -methyl-3-trifluoromethyl-benzyl)-imino)-oxy) -tolyl)-glyoxylic acid methyl ester-O-methyl-oxime (trifluoxystrobin) (I) and (B) one or more of imidacloprid (II), thiacloprid (III), acetamiprid (IV), nitenpyram (V), thiamethoxam (VI), clothianidin (VII) and/or dinotefuran (VIII). - ACTIVITY : Fungicide Insecticide Bactericide Virucide Algicide Acaricide Nematocide Antifouling. In tests against Aphis gossypii on cotton leaves, the degree of mortality after 6 days was 0% using 4 ppm trifluoxystrobin (I) alone, 25% using 0.16% imidacloprid (II) alone and 95% (compared with a predicted value of 25%) using a combination of 4 ppm (I) and 0.16 ppm (II). - MECHANISM OF ACTION : None given in the source material.

WACHENDORFF-NEUMANN ULRIKE DR; MAULER-MACHNIK ASTRID DR; ERDELEN CHRISTOPH DR; OHTAKE HIROHISA

117

Pesticide formulations and application systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book discusses pesticide formulations; spraying techniques and/or low and ultra low volume applications employing oil carriers, including subsurface drip irrigation and plant growth regulators; and granule technology.

Kaneko; Spicer

1985-01-01

118

Pesticide Residue Monitoring Program 1995  

Science.gov (United States)

... Dimethoate, the next most frequently found residue, also has tolerances on a number of fruits. ... Dimethoate*, Nitrothal-isopropyl, XMC. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/pesticides

119

Combined fipronil and buprofezin pesticide  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a combined fipronil and buprofezin pesticide. In the real process of agricultural industry, one of the most economic and effective methods is as follows: effective components with different varieties are compounded. Fipronil and buprofezin are dissolved by acetone according to the weight percent of 3:24-36 and are emulsified and prepared into the combined fipronil and buprofezin pesticide. The invention has the advantages of good comprehensive prevention, little chemical consumption, low cost, and the like.

ZHIHUI ZHANG; ZHENGFU QIAO; XIAOFEN PAN; XIANGSHENG XU; LIHUA XIA

120

Pesticidal composition and its use  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A pesticidal composition comprising a carboxamide compound represented by following formula (I), wherein R1 represents a hydrogen atom or a methyl group, and R2 represents a methyl group, a difluoromethyl group or a trifluoromethyl group, and one or more carbamate compounds selected from group (A) consisting of oxamyl, thiodicarb, carbosulfan, methiocarb and carbofuran is provided by the present invention, and this composition has an excellent pesticidal effect.

MATSUZAKI YUICHI

 
 
 
 
121

PESTICIDAL COMPOSITION AND ITS USE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A pesticidal composition comprising a carboxamide compound represented by following formula (A), wherein R1 represents a hydrogen atom or a methyl group, and R2 represents a methyl group, a difluoromethyl group or a trifluoromethyl group, and a diamide compound represented by following formula (B), wherein X1, X2, X3, X4 and X5 have the same meanings as defined in the specification, is provided by the present invention, and this composition has an excellent pesticidal effect.

MATSUZAKI YUICHI

122

PESTICIDAL TREATMENT COMPOSITIONS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The pesticidal compositions comprising synergistic mixtures of O, O-dimethyl S- phthalimidomethyl phosphorodithioate or suitable salt forms thereof, and at least one benzoylurea based chitin inhibiting compound or suitable salt forms thereof, and especially preferably one or more of (RS)-l -[3-chloro-4-(l,l,2-trifluoro-2- trifluoromethoxyethoxy)phenyl]-3-(2,6-difluorobenzoyl)urea (also interchangeably referred to as "novaluron") or suitable salt forms thereof, and l-(2-chlorobenzoyl)-3-(4- trifluoromethoxyphenyl)urea (also interchangeably referred to as "triflumuron") or suitable salt forms thereof, for the control of undesired pests, preferably for the control of Codling moths in fruit. Methods of controlling the incidence of undesired pests, via treatment regimens providing synergistic amounts of each of the foregoing compounds, are also disclosed.

CHEUNG TAK WAI; MELCHIOR GARY LOUIS; MCEWEN ERIC JAMES; SELMECZI JOSZEF; ANSIAUX JACQUES-LAURENT

123

Hair as a marker for pesticides exposure.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rats were orally treated with mixtures of chlorinated pesticides. Hair was collected and analyzed for pesticide residues over a period of up to four weeks. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the recovered pesticides in hair were determined using gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Results suggest that hair can be used as a biomarker for the monitoring of organochlorinated pesticide residues at low parts per billion levels. Chlorinated pesticides were also detected in human hair of environmentally exposed and occupationally exposed individuals, which indicates that hair can be used for monitoring pesticides exposure.

Smith-Baker C; Saleh MA

2011-01-01

124

Pesticides' influence on wine fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wine quality strongly depends on the grape quality. To obtain high-quality wines, it is necessary to process healthy grapes at the correct ripeness stage and for this reason the farmer has to be especially careful in the prevention of parasite attacks on the grapevine. The most common fungal diseases affecting grape quality are downy and powdery mildew (Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator), and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea). On the other hand, the most dangerous insects are the grape moth (Lobesia botrana), vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus), and the citrus mealybug (Planococcus citri). Farmers fight grape diseases and insects applying pesticides that can be found at harvest time on grapes. The persistence of pesticides depends on the chemical characteristic of the active ingredients as well as on photodegradation, thermodegradation, codistillation, and enzymatic degradation. The pesticide residues on grapes can be transferred to the must and this can influence the selection and development of yeast strains. Moreover, yeasts can also influence the levels of the pesticides in the wine by reducing or adsorbing them on lees. During the fermentative process, yeasts can cause the disappearance of pesticide residues by degradation or absorption at the end of the fermentation when yeasts are deposited as lees. In this chapter, we reviewed the effect of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides on yeasts. We also studied the effect of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation on pesticide residues. PMID:20610173

Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo

2010-06-24

125

Pesticides' influence on wine fermentation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Wine quality strongly depends on the grape quality. To obtain high-quality wines, it is necessary to process healthy grapes at the correct ripeness stage and for this reason the farmer has to be especially careful in the prevention of parasite attacks on the grapevine. The most common fungal diseases affecting grape quality are downy and powdery mildew (Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator), and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea). On the other hand, the most dangerous insects are the grape moth (Lobesia botrana), vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus), and the citrus mealybug (Planococcus citri). Farmers fight grape diseases and insects applying pesticides that can be found at harvest time on grapes. The persistence of pesticides depends on the chemical characteristic of the active ingredients as well as on photodegradation, thermodegradation, codistillation, and enzymatic degradation. The pesticide residues on grapes can be transferred to the must and this can influence the selection and development of yeast strains. Moreover, yeasts can also influence the levels of the pesticides in the wine by reducing or adsorbing them on lees. During the fermentative process, yeasts can cause the disappearance of pesticide residues by degradation or absorption at the end of the fermentation when yeasts are deposited as lees. In this chapter, we reviewed the effect of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides on yeasts. We also studied the effect of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation on pesticide residues.

Caboni P; Cabras P

2010-01-01

126

Effects of Urbanization on Water Quality: Pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

... Contact Back to previous page The effects of urbanization on water quality: Pesticides Pesticides are chemical and ... United States home page. Related topics: Effects of urbanization Ground-water quality Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and ...

127

Controlled release pesticide and fertilizer briquettes  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An attrition and shatter resistant plant nutrient/pesticide briquette composition which slowly releases the nutrients and biologically active materials over long periods of time, comprising slow release plant nutrient particles, pesticide sorption particles, liquid systemic pesticide sorbed on the pesticide sorption particles to reduce pesticide leachability, an adhesive, coating the slow release plant nutrient and pesticide sorption particles, the composition formed into briquettes by pressing into dies at elevated pressures and temperatures to make briquettes resistant to attrition and shattering. A six step method is provided for the preparation of the slow releasing briquettes from slow release fertilizers, such as magnesium ammonium phosphate; pesticide sorption particles, such as activated carbon; liquid systemic pesticides emulsions, such as imidachloprid; and adhesives, such as a vinylidine chloride, 2-ethylhexyl acrylate, acrylic acid resin emulsion.

Moore William Percy Jr.

128

Pesticide Fact Sheet: Carfentrazone-ethyl.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after registration of a new chemical.

1998-01-01

129

Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 125: Mancozeb.  

Science.gov (United States)

The document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. Description of Chemical: Generic name Manganese ethylene bisdithiocarbamate; Comm...

1987-01-01

130

Organochlorine Pesticides in the Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

Each year for nearly 20 years, thousands of pounds of persistent organochlorine pesticides have been applied to outdoor areas in many countries. These compounds may last for a very long time in the environment, and be carried by wind, water, and animals to places far distant from where they are used. As a result, most living organisms now contain organochlorine residues. This paper constitutes a selective review of the literature concerning the occurrence, distribution, and effects of organochlorines in the environment. Highest concentrations generally occur in carnivorous species. Thus predatory and fish-eating birds ordinarily have higher residues than do herbivores; quantities are similar in birds of similar habits in different countries. Any segment of the ecosystem - marshland, pond, forest, or field - receives various amounts and kinds of pesticides at irregular intervals. The different animals absorb, detoxify, store, and excrete pesticides at different rates. Different degrees of magnification of pesticide residues by living organisms in an environment are the practical result of many interactions that are far more complex than implied by the statement of magnification up the food chain. These magnifications may be millions of times from water to mud or only a few times from food to first consumer. Direct mortality of wild animals as an aftermath of recommended pesticide treatments has been recorded in the literature of numerous countries. However, accidents and carelessness also accompany pesticide use on a percentage basis and are a part of the problem. More subtle effects on the size and species composition of populations are more difficult to perceive in time to effect remedies. The possibility of ecological effects being mediated through changes in physiology and behavior has received some attention and has resulted in some disquieting findings. These include discovery of the activity of organochlorines in stimulating the breakdown of hormones or in acting directly as estrogens, their involvement in embryonic and early post-embryonic toxicity, interferences with antibody formation, effects on behavior, and interactions with stress such as nutritional deficiencies or food deprivation. Delayed mortality long after dosage ceased has shown the serious effects of storage of organochlorines in fat. DDT has been suggested as the indirect cause of a reduction of egg-shell thickness that occurred in the midforties in association with failing reproduction and population decline of certain predatory birds. The impact of these new components of the environment has appeared as death, reproductive impairment, disruption of species balance, and behavioral alteration, but the overall effects on the environment have not been determined. Research should be aimed at interpretation of the significance of pesticide residues to survival and reproduction, to assessment of levels of pesticides in critical environments, and to the kinetics of pesticides in individuals and the ecosystem.

Stickel, L.F.

1968-01-01

131

Pesticide use practices in rural armenia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ABSTRACT Pesticide use can have adverse effects on both human health and the environment. Inappropriate use of pesticides increases the health risk to those who work with or live around pesticides. Educational programs for agricultural workers on the proper use of pesticides and personal protective equipment coupled with pesticide regulations are important tools to reduce the associated health risks. The authors conducted a survey (N?=?2336) on pesticide use practices in the Ararat Valley of Armenia in 2000-2006. This study was a cross-sectional design. A multistage sampling method was implemented in the selection of the study population. The authors developed a questionnaire containing 173 questions to evaluate demographic characteristics, health conditions, and details of pesticides use practices. The intensity of pesticide use was high; 82.8% of respondents used them. More than 150 brand names of pesticides were in use. Unregistered, obsolete, expired, and banned compounds were found in active use. Poor compliance with the basic rules of pesticide safety was found throughout the study population, with 21.3% using gloves and only 11% using respirators. The agricultural workers' knowledge of the toxic properties of these pesticides as well as basic hygienic norms was very low. In some instances, the number of agrichemical applications to crops, particularly cucumbers and melons, reached 40 applications during the growing season. Better protection and training of pesticide users in Armenia is needed.

Tadevosyan A; Tadevosyan N; Kelly K; Gibbs SG; Rautiainen RH

2013-01-01

132

The enzymatic basis for pesticide bioremediation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Enzymes are central to the biology of many pesticides, influencing their modes of action, environmental fates and mechanisms of target species resistance. Since the introduction of synthetic xenobiotic pesticides, enzymes responsible for pesticide turnover have evolved rapidly, in both the target or...

Scott, Colin; Pandey, Gunjan; Hartley, Carol J.; Jackson, Colin J.; Cheesman, Matthew J.; Taylor, Matthew C.; Pandey, Rinku

133

Pesticide composition containing dyson fungicides  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a pesticide composition which contains the active ingredient being compound composition of benzoyl bacteria amine and any of dyson fungicides which have the mass proportion of50:1-1:50 with better proportion of 10:1-1:20, and the rest components are auxiliary elements that are allowed to be used in pesticide and can be accepted. The dyson fungicides are selected from zineb, maneb, amobam, mancozeb, propineb, polyram, etc. As the benzoyl bacteria amine is compounded with any of the dyson fungicides according to a certain proportion, the pesticide composition has remarkable synergistic effect and can be used for controlling diseases of multiple plants such as vegetables, fruit trees, grain, ornamental plants, etc.

SHENGZHAO LIU; HONG ZHANG; MINGZHANG CAO; CHENGLAI ZHANG; RULONG YIN; YANWU WANG; JIAN KONG

134

Pesticide use in developing countries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chemical pesticides have been a boon to equatorial, developing nations in their efforts to eradicate insect-borne, endemic diseases, to produce adequate food and to protect forests, plantations and fibre (wood, cotton, clothing, etc.). Controversy exists over the global dependence on such agents, given their excessive use/misuse, their volatility, long-distance transport and eventual environmental contamination in colder climates. Many developing countries are in transitional phases with migration of the agricultural workforce to urban centres in search of better-paying jobs, leaving fewer people responsible for raising traditional foods for themselves and for the new, industrialized workforce. Capable of growing two or three crops per year, these same countries are becoming "breadbaskets" for the world, exporting nontraditional agricultural produce to regions having colder climates and shorter growing seasons, thereby earning much needed international trade credits. To attain these goals, there has been increased reliance on chemical pesticides. Many older, nonpatented, more toxic, environmentally persistent and inexpensive chemicals are used extensively in developing nations, creating serious acute health problems and local and global environmental contamination. There is growing public concern in these countries that no one is aware of the extent of pesticide residue contamination on local, fresh produce purchased daily or of potential, long-term, adverse health effects on consumers. Few developing nations have a clearly expressed "philosophy" concerning pesticides. There is a lack of rigorous legislation and regulations to control pesticides as well as training programs for personnel to inspect and monitor use and to initiate training programs for pesticide consumers.

Ecobichon DJ

2001-03-01

135

Pesticide compound containing mepiquat chloride  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a pesticide compound containing mepiquat chloride and the active components of the compound comprise mepiquat chloride and the other active component by the weight ratio of 1:50 to 20:1, wherein the other active component is pymetrozine or buprofezin. Compared with single dose, the invention has significant synergic effect so as to reduce the medication cost, can improve the medicine resistance delay, and provides high-efficiency and broad-spectrum of pesticide for the production of rice, fruit, vegetables and the like.

XUEJUAN DONG; WEI WU; ZHONGYAN WU; ZHONGHUAI XU

136

Screening for pesticide exposure: a case study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pesticide use is ubiquitous in the United States in both agricultural and urban environments. Although pesticide exposure can occur anywhere, migrant and seasonal farmworkers in medically underserved communities are at particular risk. Health care providers often feel ill-equipped to recognize or manage pesticide exposure or pesticide-related illness. In 2002, the National Environmental Education Foundation published a series of reports that describe national goals for improving the recognition, management, and prevention of pesticide-related health conditions. This article illustrates how to diagnose and manage pesticide exposures by analyzing a pesticide exposure case using a framework suggested by the National Environmental Education Foundation. Basic screening techniques and available resources for use in the primary care setting are presented.

Quackenbush R; Hackley B; Dixon J

2006-01-01

137

COMMUNICATING THE RISKS OF PESTICIDE EXPOSURE TO AGRICULTURAL WORKERS  

Science.gov (United States)

The goals of the USEPA pesticide worker safety program are to protect human health and the environment by ensuring the competency of pesticide applicators to minimize pesticide exposure to occupational pesticide users and agricultural field workers, to assure use of pesticides, a...

138

Pesticidal composition and its use  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A composition comprising a carboxamide compound represented by following formula (I), wherein R1 represents a hydrogen atom or a methyl group, and R2 represents a methyl group, a difluoromethyl group or a trifluoromethyl group, and one or more neonicotinoid compound selected from group (A) consisting of acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, nitenpyram thiacloprid and thiamethoxam possesses an excellent pesticidal effect.

MATSUZAKI YUICHI

139

Pesticidal composition and its use  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A composition comprising a carboxamide compound represented by following formula (I), wherein R1 represents a hydrogen atom or a methyl group, and R2 represents a methyl group, a difluoromethyl group or a trifluoromethyl group, and sulfoxaflor is provided by the present invention, and this composition has an excellent pesticidal effect.

MATSUZAKI YUICHI

140

Pesticidal composition and its use  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A composition comprising a carboxamide compound represented by following formula (I), wherein R1 represents a hydrogen atom or a methyl group, and R2 represents a methyl group, a difluoromethyl group or a trifluoromethyl group, and abamectin is provided by the present invention, and this composition has an excellent pesticidal effect.

MATSUZAKI YUICHI

 
 
 
 
141

Ames, pesticides, and cancer revisited.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The case for continuing use of existing levels of pesticides in agriculture, espoused by Bruce Ames, is refuted. Ames' contentions that naturally occurring carcinogens are far more widespread than man-made ones, that pesticides prevent cancer by providing fruits and vegetables at lower costs to the poor, and that animal data on high risks with high doses cannot predict low risks from low doses in humans do not address key issues: 1) fruits and vegetables contain mixtures of carcinogens and anti-carcinogens, and selection effects from human exposures to these mixtures go back more than a million years; 2) exposures from bioconcentrations of biopersistent organochlorines in the food chain create particular risks for meat-eaters, who have higher cancer risks than vegetarians; 3) even low doses from ingestion of produce containing pesticide residues can cause tissue injury, which could itself promote cancer; 4) epidemiologic data show rises in cancer incidences in older people in many countries, major differences in cancer risks between countries, and converging trends in risks for populations migrating to certain countries; 5) studies of pesticide-exposed workers consistently show increased rates of cancers and birth defects and cancers in their offspring; 6) epidemiologic studies based on large databases tend to underestimate risks from environmental causes because of exposure misclassification; 7) exposures to many organochlorines may have pervasive effects on endocrine function; 8) crop yields can be increased with less use of pesticides. Studies demonstrating the latter need replication, and should be supported as part of a coherent government agenda to develop alternative farming methods.

Richter ED; Chlamtac N

2002-01-01

142

Pesticides and their effects on wildlife  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

About 560 active ingredients are currently used as pesticides. Applications of these pesticides are made to agricultural lands and other areas inhabited by wildlife. Unfortunately, many agricultural-use pesticides also entail some measure of risk to organisms other than the pest species. Because testing of pesticides prior to registration cannot evaluate all the potential environmental-pesticide-wildlife/fish interactions, current methods of risk assessment do not always provide sufficient safety to nontarget organisms. This is evidenced by die-offs of fish and wildlife from applications of pesticides at environmentally {open_quotes}safe{close_quotes} rates, the linking of population declines of some species with agrochemical use, and observations of survival-threatening behavioral changes in laboratory and field animals exposed to typical field levels of pesticides. It is important to note, however, that the majority of pesticides, when properly applied, have not caused significant injury to wildlife. A brief summary of pesticide effects on wildlife and fish are presented for the common classes of pesticides in use today.

Driver, C.J.

1994-07-01

143

77 FR 64990 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Request for Nominations to the Pesticide Program Dialogue...  

Science.gov (United States)

...and farm worker groups; pesticide users and growers; animal rights groups; pest consultants; State, local, and tribal...the current PPDC: Environmental/public interest and animal rights groups; farm worker organizations; pesticide...

2012-10-24

144

75 FR 13284 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Request for Nominations to the Pesticide Program Dialogue...  

Science.gov (United States)

...the Agency by law. The following sectors are represented on the current PPDC: Environmental/public interest and animal rights groups; farm worker organizations; pesticide industry and trade associations; pesticide user, grower, and...

2010-03-19

145

AFFINITY OF THE ALLIGATOR ESTROGEN RECEPTOR FOR SERUM PESTICIDE CONTAMINANTS  

Science.gov (United States)

Top predators, like the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) bioaccumulate and biomagnify persistent pollutants, such as organochlorine pesticides. In a recently published study, several pesticides and pesticide metabolites not previously reported in alligator eggs wer...

146

Analytical methods for detecting pesticide switches with evolution of pesticide resistance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

After a pest develops resistance to a pesticide, switching between different unrelated pesticides is a common management option, but this raises the following questions: (1) What is the optimal frequency of pesticide use? (2) How do the frequencies of pesticide applications affect the evolution of pesticide resistance? (3) How can the time when the pest population reaches the economic injury level (EIL) be estimated and (4) how can the most efficient frequency of pesticide applications be determined? To address these questions, we have developed a novel pest population growth model incorporating the evolution of pesticide resistance and pulse spraying of pesticides. Moreover, three pesticide switching methods, threshold condition-guided, density-guided and EIL-guided, are modelled, to determine the best choice under different conditions with the overall aim of eradicating the pest or maintaining its population density below the EIL. Furthermore, the pest control outcomes based on those three pesticide switching methods are discussed. Our results suggest that either the density-guided or EIL-guided method is the optimal pesticide switching strategy, depending on the frequency (or period) of pesticide applications.

Liang J; Tang S; Nieto JJ; Cheke RA

2013-10-01

147

PESTICIDAL PLANT EXTRACT CONTAINING LOLINE DERIVATIVES  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This invention relates to a pesticidal compositions containing at least one pyrrolizidine alkaloid compound derived from a plant and endophyte combination, and applying the pesticidal compositions to another plant without pesticidal protection, where upon application of the composition, the plant confers pest protection. The pyrrolizidine alkaloid compound is of Formula wherein: R-H or CH3 and R'-H, CH3, CHO, COCH3.

PENNELL CHRISTOPHER GERALD LEE

148

Method for removing pesticide residue from tea  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a method for removing pesticide residue from tea. The method adopts ozone water or ozone water-photocatalytic combined treatment to remove pesticide residue on picked tea. The treatment method can greatly lower or fully remove the pesticide residue on the tea, has easy, practical and easily controlled processing steps and low cost, is beneficial to environmental protection and hardly influences active substances in the tea.

MINNAN XIE; LI LIN; TIANGANG LUAN; WEI LIU; YINGQIAN HE

149

Monitoring of pesticides in human milk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] After establishing proper analytical methodology for multiple pesticide residues, cotton-growing areas of Multan Division of Pakistan were surveyed and 40 samples of human milk from cotton pickers were collected during two crop seasons. Screening of these samples showed 72.5% contamination with 19 different pesticides/metabolites. The most frequently occurring pesticides were DDT and its metabolites, dimethoate, cyhalothrin, monocrotophos, profenofos and quinalphos. (author)

2003-01-01

150

Toxicity of pesticides to fish. Volume 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book is the first major attempt to review comprehensively all available information on the environmental fate of pesticides and their acute and chronic effects to fish. Topics considered include toxicity of individual compounds, safe concentrations, and toxicity to different age groups; influence of environmental conditions on the toxicity of pesticides to fish; toxicity of formulations, isomers, and degradation products; joint action of pesticide mixture. Insecticide resistance in fish; poly-chlorinated biphenyls and related compounds; and environmental hazard evaluation and prediction.

Murty, A.S.

1986-01-01

151

Pesticide Residue Monitoring Program Results and ...  

Science.gov (United States)

... HEXYTHIAZOX. IBP +. IMAZALIL *. IMAZAMETHABENZ METHYL ESTER (AC 222,2. IMIDACLOPRID. IN-B2838 +. IOXYNIL +. IPRODIONE *. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/pesticides

152

Pesticide Residue Monitoring Database User's Manual - List ...  

Science.gov (United States)

... pyrethrins, pyridaben, pyridaphenthion, pyrimethanil, pyripoxyfen, quinalphos, quinclorac, quinoxyfen, quintozene, part of quintozene (total), ... More results from www.fda.gov/Food/FoodborneIllnessContaminants/Pesticides

153

Pesticide Residue Monitoring Database User's Manual - List ...  

Science.gov (United States)

... tri-allate, triazamate, triazophos, tribufos, tributyl phosphate, trichlorfon, trichloroethylene, trichloronat, trichloronat oxygen analog, trichloronat ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/pesticides

154

Sorption of pesticides to aquifer minerals  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper summarizes results from a work were the sorption of five pesticides on seven minerals were studied in order to quantify the adsorption to different mineral surfaces. Investigated mineral phases are: quartz, calcite, kaolinite, a-alumina, and three iron oxides (2-line ferrihydrite, goethite, lepidocrocite). Selected pesticides are: atrazine, isoproturon, mecoprop, 2,4-D, and bentazone. The results demonstrate that pesticides adsorb to pure mineral surfaces. However, the size of the adsorption depends on the type of pesticide and the type of mineral.

Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

2000-01-01

155

Compound pesticide composition containing pymetrozine  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a compound pesticide composition which is characterized by being prepared from a first active component of pymetrozine and a second active component of etofenprox through compounding, wherein the weight ratio of the pymetrozine and the etofenprox is 50:1-1:50. The compound pesticide composition has the activity to insects, such as rice planthoppers and the like, exceedingthe simple superposition of the activities of the components, can solve the problem of poor quick-acting property of the pymetrozine and can be used for preventing and treating the sucking insect pests on crops, such as paddy, fruit trees, cotton, vegetables and the like, lowers the application quantity of each mu and also can delay the generation of resistibility.

GUANGWEI SHENG; HUI JING; MINGZHANG CAO; FAN CHEN; QIYIN JIANG; SHENGXIONG CAI

156

Pesticide composition with synergetic effect  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a pesticide composition and application thereof in agriculture. The effective component of the composition comprises flonicamid and neonicotinoid insecticides with a mass ratioof 80:1-1:80. The composition has the advantage of synergetic effect, obviously for resistant pests, reduces the dosage and delays resistance development, and is used for preventing and treating pests with obvious resistance, and is especially suitable for preventing and treating rice planthopper, thrips and aphid with resistance.

WEIFENG ZHU; MINGZHANG CAO; BOJIAN WEN; CAIHONG LUO; LIPING ZHU; LIPING YANG

157

Pesticidal composition and its use  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A composition comprising a carboxamide compound represented by following formula (I), wherein R1 represents a hydrogen atom or a methyl group, and R2 represents a methyl group, a difluoromethyl group or a trifluoromethyl group, and one or more phenylpyrazole compounds selected from group (A) consisting of fipronil and ethiprole is provided by the present invention, and this composition has an excellent pesticidal effect.

MATSUZAKI YUICHI

158

Pesticidal composition and its use  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A composition comprising a carboxamide compound represented by following formula (I), wherein R1 represents a hydrogen atom or a methyl group, and R2 represents a methyl group, a difluoromethyl group or a trifluoromethyl group, and one or more pyrethroid compounds selected from group (A) consisting of tefluthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, beta-cyfluthrin, permethrin, deltamethrin and bifenthrin is provided by the present invention, and this composition has an excellent pesticidal effect.

MATSUZAKI YUICHI

159

Global pesticide consumption and pollution: with China as a focus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Varieties and consumption of pesticides worldwide have been increasing dramatically as increased human population and crop production. In this process pesticide misuses become more and more serious, which has resulted in heavy environmental pollution and health risk of humans. In order to safeguard human health, threatened species and ecosystems from pesticide pollution, the consumption and pollution of pesticides worldwide especially China were reviewed and documented in present study. Meanwhile, the development trend of pesticide varieties and consumption was also prospected and discussed. It was found that worldwide consumption structure of pesticides has undergone significant changes since 1960s. The proportion of herbicides in pesticide consumption increased rapidly and the consumption of insecticides and fungicides/bactericides declined. China has become the largest pesticide producer and exporter in the world. Pesticide pollution of air, water bodies and soils, and pesticide-induced deaths in China has been serious in past years. Bio-pesticides should be further developed in the future.

WenJun Zhang; FuBin Jiang; JianFeng Ou

2011-01-01

160

Determinants of agricultural pesticide concentrations in carpet dust.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Residential proximity to agricultural pesticide applications has been used as a surrogate for exposure in epidemiologic studies, although little is known about the relationship with levels of pesticides in homes. OBJECTIVE: We identified determinants of concentrations of agricultural pesticides in dust. METHODS: We collected samples of carpet dust and mapped crops within 1,250 m of 89 residences in California. We measured concentrations of seven pesticides used extensively in agriculture (carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, chlorthal-dimethyl, diazinon, iprodione, phosmet, and simazine). We estimated use of agricultural pesticides near residences from a statewide database alone and by linking the database with crop maps. We calculated the density of pesticide use within 500 and 1,250 m of residences for 180, 365, and 730 days before collection of dust and evaluated relationships between agricultural pesticide use estimates and pesticide concentrations in carpet dust. RESULTS: For five of the seven pesticides evaluated, residences with use of agricultural pesticides within 1,250 m during the previous 365 days had significantly higher concentrations of pesticides than did residences with no nearby use. The highest correlation with concentrations of pesticides was generally for use reported within 1,250 m of the residence and 730 days before sample collection. Regression models that also accounted for occupational and home use of pesticides explained only a modest amount of the variability in pesticide concentrations (4-28%). CONCLUSIONS: Agricultural pesticide use near residences was a significant determinant of concentrations of pesticides in carpet dust for five of seven pesticides evaluated.

Gunier RB; Ward MH; Airola M; Bell EM; Colt J; Nishioka M; Buffler PA; Reynolds P; Rull RP; Hertz A; Metayer C; Nuckols JR

2011-07-01

 
 
 
 
161

Pesticide Fact Sheet No. 222: Fenamiphos.  

Science.gov (United States)

The document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after one of the following actions has occurred which are:...

1987-01-01

162

Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 8: Dicamba.  

Science.gov (United States)

The document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after one of the following actions has occured. (1) Issuan...

1983-01-01

163

PESTICIDES: THEIR IMPACT ON THE ESTUARINE ENVIRONMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

Published research factors influencing the use of pesticides are discussed. One section reviews recent research on the effects of new pesticides that include insect growth regulators, including Permethrin(R), Altosid(R), and Dimilin(R). In life-cycle toxicity tests with the mysid...

164

Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 62: Clipper (Paclobutrazol).  

Science.gov (United States)

The document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after one of the following actions has occurred. (1) Issua...

1985-01-01

165

Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 168: Quizalofop Ethyl.  

Science.gov (United States)

The document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after one of the following actions has occurred. (1) Issua...

1988-01-01

166

Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 53: Metribuzin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after one of the following actions has occurred. (1) Issua...

1985-01-01

167

THE EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES IN WATER RESOURCES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Environmental pollution is concerned problem all around world due to rapid increase of industrialization and urbanization. Especially, the intensive pesticide use has caused some environmental problems in many countries. The major problem occurred in water resources. Therefore, these resources need to be protected from the contamination of pesticides for future sustainable use.

CUMHUR AYDINALP; M PORCA

2004-01-01

168

Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 138: Isazophos.  

Science.gov (United States)

The document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after one of the following actions has occurred. (1) Issua...

1987-01-01

169

NATIONAL PESTICIDE INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (NPIRS)  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Pesticide Information Retrieval System (NPIRS) is a collection of pesticide-related databases available through subscription to the Center for Environmental and Regulatory Information Systems, CERIS. The following is a summary of data found in the databases, data sou...

170

Pesticide Fact Sheets Number 171: Karate.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after one of the following actions has occurred: Issuance/re...

1988-01-01

171

QA/QC in pesticide residue analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper outlines problems related to pesticide residue analysis in a regulatory laboratory that are related to: availability of reference materials, as over 1000 pesticide active ingredients are currently in use and over 400 crops represent a large part of a healthy diet; analysis time; availability of samples in sufficient numbers; uncertainties of the procedures

2002-01-01

172

Residential exposures to pesticides and childhood leukaemia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Like many chemicals, carcinogenicity of pesticides is poorly characterised in humans, especially in children, so that the present knowledge about childhood leukaemia risk derives primarily from epidemiological studies. Overall, case-control studies published in the last decade have reported positive associations with home use of insecticides, mostly before the child's birth, while findings for herbicides are mixed. Previous studies relied solely on self-reports, therefore lacking information on active ingredients and effects of potential recall bias. Few series to date have examined the influence of children's genetic susceptibility related to transport and metabolism of pesticides. To overcome these limitations, investigators of the Northern California Childhood Leukaemia Study (NCCLS) have undertaken, in collaboration with a multidisciplinary team, a comprehensive assessment of residential pesticide exposure, including: (1) quality control of self-reports; (2) home pesticide inventory and linkage to the Environmental Protection Agency to obtain data on active ingredients; (3) collection and laboratory analyses of ?600 home dust samples for over 60 pesticides and (4) geographic information studies using California environmental databases to assess exposure to agricultural pesticides. The NCCLS is also conducting large-scale geno-typing to evaluate the role of genes in xenobiotic pathways relevant to the transport and metabolism of pesticides. A better quantification of children's exposures to pesticides at home is critical to the evaluation of childhood leukaemia risk, especially for future gene-environment interaction studies. (authors)

2008-01-01

173

Carbamate pesticide induced toxic epidermal necrolysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 36-year-old male alleged to have consumed carbamate pesticide liquid (Baygon@) developed toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) within twenty-four hours of intake. Though drugs have been commonly incriminated as offending agents for TEN, carbamate pesticide was found to be the causative agent in our case.

Rajendran N; Chitfambalam P; Jayaraman A

2001-01-01

174

Plant pesticide and preparation method thereof  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a plant pesticide and preparation method thereof, wherein the raw material of the plant pesticide comprises tea waste matter, prickly ash seed and bark, dry tobacco leaf and branch, sulfur powder, medicinal evodia fruit or the like. The temperature and operation time are rigidly controlled using different method according to different medical properties and constituents of various plant herbal medicines and the effective ingredients are extracted to produce the pesticide and then the pesticide is diluted using a special diluent formed by Siberian Cocklebur tree, cuckoo-bud grass, joint vetch, polygonum hydropiper, dogbane and bead tree to be used for plant and cropper disinsection and insect prevention to replace the chemical pesticide with disinsection rate of above 96%.

YUNCHUN DENG

175

Pesticides of water dispersion granule containing buprofezin  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a pesticide of water dispersible granules containing Buprofezin, and belongs to the pesticide of the field of plant protection. The pesticide has the active ingredient of Buprofezin with the mass percent of 10-80%, and the optimal ratio is 20-50% according to the experimental formulation screening. Except for the active ingredient, the pesticide also comprises 25-80% of filler, 25-80% of carrier, 1-10% of humectant, 5-15% of dispersant, 0-10% of disintegrant, 0.1-3% of adhesive and 0-5% of stabilizing agent. Compared with missible oil and wettable powder, the pesticide is safer, more effective and environment-friendly, and has lower cost.

SHAOWU ZHANG

176

Neurotoxicity of pesticides: a brief review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pesticides are substances widely used to control unwanted pests such as insects, weeds, fungi and rodents. Most pesticides are not highly selective, and are also toxic to nontarget species, including humans. A number of pesticides can cause neurotoxicity. Insecticides, which kill insects by targeting their nervous system, have neurotoxic effect in mammals as well. This family of chemicals comprises the organophosphates, the carbamates, the pyrethroids, the organochlorines, and other compounds. Insecticides interfere with chemical neurotransmission or ion channels, and usually cause reversible neurotoxic effects, that could nevertheless be lethal. Some herbicides and fungicides have also been shown to possess neurotoxic properties. The effects of pesticides on the nervous system may be involved in their acute toxicity, as in case of most insecticides, or may contribute to chronic neurodegenerative disorders, most notably Parkinson's disease. This brief review highlights some of the main neurotoxic pesticides, their effects, and mechanisms of action.

Costa LG; Giordano G; Guizzetti M; Vitalone A

2008-01-01

177

Biosensors for Pesticide Detection: New Trends  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the large amounts of pesticides commonly used and their impact on health, prompt and accurate pesticide analysis is important. This review gives an overview of recent advances and new trends in biosensors for pesticide detection. Optical, electrochemical and piezoelectric biosensors have been reported based on the detection method. In this review biosensors have been classified according to the immobilized biorecognition element: enzymes, cells, antibodies and, more rarely, DNA. The use of tailor-designed biomolecules, such as aptamers and molecularly imprinted polymers, is reviewed. Artificial Neural Networks, that allow the analysis of pesticide mixtures are also presented. Recent advances in the field of nanomaterials merit special mention. The incorporation of nanomaterials provides highly sensitive sensing devices allowing the efficient detection of pesticides.

Audrey Sassolas; Beatriz Prieto-Simón; Jean-Louis Marty

2012-01-01

178

Environmental impact of pesticides in Egypt.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The first use of petroleum-derived pesticides in Egyptian agriculture was initiated in 1950. Early applications consisted of distributing insecticidal dusts containing DDT/BHC/S onto cotton fields. This practice was followed by use of toxaphene until 1961. Carbamates, organophosphates, and synthetic pyrethroids were subsequently used, mainly for applications to cotton. In addition to the use of about 1 million metric tons (t) of pesticides in the agricultural sector over a 50-yr period, specific health and environmental problems are documented in this review. Major problems represented and discussed in this review are human poisoning, incidental toxicity to farm animals, insect pest resistance, destruction of beneficial parasites and predators, contamination of food by pesticide residues, and pollution of environmental ecosystems. Several reports reveal that chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide residues are still detectable in several environmental compartments; however, these residues are in decline. Since 1990, there is a growing movement toward reduced consumption of traditional pesticides and a tendency to expand use of biopesticides, including "Bt," and plant incorporated protectants (PIPs). On the other hand, DDT and lindane were used for indoor and hygienic purposes as early as 1952. Presently, indoor use of pesticides for pest control is widespread in Egypt. Accurate information concerning the types and amounts of Egyptian household pesticide use, or numbers of poisoning or contamination incidents, is unavailable. Generally, use of indoor pesticides is inadequately managed. The results of a survey of Egyptian farmers' attitudes toward pesticides and their behavior in using them garnered new insights as to how pesticides should be better controlled and regulated in Egypt.

Mansour SA

2008-01-01

179

[Research on health cost of pesticide application and influence factors].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To measure quantitatively the health costs of 380 farmer families using the pesticides and influence factors, and to provide the base for establishing the protective measures. METHODS: Based on the surveyed data of rice producers in Anhui province, a quantitative analysis of health cost of pesticide application was conducted with COI, the influence factors on farmers' pesticide application have been examined. RESULTS: The results shown that the health cost of pesticide application was as RMB 54.44 yuans per farmer a year. The influence factors of health cost were the amount and time of pesticide application, protective facilities, pesticide label illiteracy, age, gender and education level of farmers. CONCLUSION: The measures of reducing the health cost for pesticide application were to train the farmers for knowledge of pesticide application and occupational safety, to provide convenient and cheap protective equipment and instructions of pesticide application and to standardize pesticide labels.

Han HY; Cai SK

2012-01-01

180

Pesticide composition with synergistic activity  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A pesticidal composition contains 3,5-dichloro-1-(3,3-dichloro-2-propenyloxy)-4-(3-(5-trifluoromethylpyr idin-2-yloxy)propoxy benzene (I) and a selected pyrethrinoid (II), together with a support. 3,5-Dichloro-1-(3,3-dichloro-2-propenyloxy)-4-(3-(5-trifluoromethylpyr idin-2-yloxy)propoxy benzene is of formula (I). The pyrethrinoid (II) is selected from fenvalerate, esfenvalerate, fenpropathrin, cypermethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, beta-cypermethrin, zeta-cypermethrin, cyhalothrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, tau-fluvalinate, flucythrinate, deltamethrin, cyfluthrin, beta-cyfluthrin, and etofenprox.

SAITO SHIGERU

 
 
 
 
181

Pesticidal composition with synergistic effect  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a pesticidal composition comprising the active components including spirotetramat and (B) which is any one of abamectin or emamectin benzoate. The mass ratio of the spirotetramat to B is 100:1-1:40. By combining the spirotetramat and the abamectin or the emamectin benzoate, the composition has obvious synergistic effect and is conductive to retarding or overcoming the drugresistance of pests. The composition of the invention can be used for controlling diverse pests on agricultural crops and is especially suitable for controlling the pests such as aphids, whiteflies, thrips, plant lice and the like.

ZHONGYI LIU; WEIFENG ZHU; MINGZHANG CAO; YANNAN GUI; KAI CHENG; JIAN KONG

182

Pesticidal composition with synergistic effect  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a pesticidal composition comprising the active components including spirotetramat and pymetrozine, with mass ratio of 40:1-1:80. By combining the spirotetramat and the pymetrozine, the composition has obvious synergistic effect, can reduce the consumption of the active components and is conductive to retarding the drug resistance of pests. The composition of the invention can be used for controlling diverse pests on agricultural and horticultural crops and is especially suitable for controlling the sucking mouthparts pests such as plant hoppers, aphids, thrips, whiteflies and the like.

ZHONGYI LIU; WEIFENG ZHU; MINGZHANG CAO; YANNAN GUI; KAI CHENG; JIAN KONG

183

Microbial biosensors for organophosphate pesticides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organophosphates, amongst the most toxic substance known, are used widely in agriculture around the world. Their extensive use, however, has resulted in their occurrence in the water and food supply threatening humans and animals. Therefore, there is a need for determination of these neurotoxic compounds sensitively, selectively, and rapidly in the field. The present work is a brief review on the recent advancements in amperometric, potentiometric, and optical biosensors using genetically engineered microorganisms expressing organophosphate hydrolyzing enzyme intracellularly or anchored on the cell surface for the detection of organophosphate pesticides. The benefits and limitations associated with such microbial biosensors are delineated. PMID:21655944

Mulchandani, Ashok; Rajesh

2011-06-08

184

Microbial biosensors for organophosphate pesticides.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Organophosphates, amongst the most toxic substance known, are used widely in agriculture around the world. Their extensive use, however, has resulted in their occurrence in the water and food supply threatening humans and animals. Therefore, there is a need for determination of these neurotoxic compounds sensitively, selectively, and rapidly in the field. The present work is a brief review on the recent advancements in amperometric, potentiometric, and optical biosensors using genetically engineered microorganisms expressing organophosphate hydrolyzing enzyme intracellularly or anchored on the cell surface for the detection of organophosphate pesticides. The benefits and limitations associated with such microbial biosensors are delineated.

Mulchandani A; Rajesh

2011-09-01

185

Pesticidal Mixtures Comprising Cyanosulfoximine Compounds  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to pesticidal mixtures comprising as active components 1) at least one cyanosulfoximine compound I of the formula I wherein R1, R2 and G are defined as in the description and 2) at least one fungicidal compounds II selected from azoles, strobilurins, carboxamides, carbamates, heterocyclic and various other compounds as defined in the description, in synergistically effective amounts. The invention relates further to methods and use of these mixtures for combating insects, arachnids or nematodes and harmful fungis in and on plants, and for protecting such plants being infested with pests, especially also for protecting seeds.

BREUNINGER DELPHINE; BASTIAANS HENRICUS MARIA MARTINUS; VON DEYN WOLFGANG; POHLMAN MATTHIAS; LANGEWALD JUERGEN; HADEN EGON

186

Processing factor for a selected group of pesticides in a wine-making process: distribution of pesticides during grape processing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The processing factors (the pesticide concentration found in the wine/pesticide concentration found in grapes) of acetamiprid, azoxistrobin, carbaril, carbendazime, cyprodinil, dimethoate, dimethormorf, imazalil, imidacloprid, kresoxim methyl, penconazole, procymidone and thiabendazole were determined in a wine-making process. Pesticide analysis was performed using a multi-residue method for the determination of different pesticides both in wine and in grapes by extraction with acetonitrile followed by LC/MS. The pesticide distribution was studied for each step of the process, and the pesticide processing factors were calculated and found to vary among the different pesticides studied. pKow was found to affect a pesticide's processing factor; a linear correlation was obtained for all pesticide processing factors, except for dimethoate, which was the most water soluble. However, no correlation was found between the processing factor and the water solubility of pesticides.

Pazzirota T; Martin L; Mezcua M; Ferrer C; Fernandez-Alba AR

2013-10-01

187

Processing factor for a selected group of pesticides in a wine-making process: distribution of pesticides during grape processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The processing factors (the pesticide concentration found in the wine/pesticide concentration found in grapes) of acetamiprid, azoxistrobin, carbaril, carbendazime, cyprodinil, dimethoate, dimethormorf, imazalil, imidacloprid, kresoxim methyl, penconazole, procymidone and thiabendazole were determined in a wine-making process. Pesticide analysis was performed using a multi-residue method for the determination of different pesticides both in wine and in grapes by extraction with acetonitrile followed by LC/MS. The pesticide distribution was studied for each step of the process, and the pesticide processing factors were calculated and found to vary among the different pesticides studied. pKow was found to affect a pesticide's processing factor; a linear correlation was obtained for all pesticide processing factors, except for dimethoate, which was the most water soluble. However, no correlation was found between the processing factor and the water solubility of pesticides. PMID:23875669

Pazzirota, T; Martin, L; Mezcua, M; Ferrer, C; Fernandez-Alba, A R

2013-07-22

188

Studies on the kinetics of the system anti-pesticide antibody - pesticide by RIA technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pesticides 2,4 D (2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and DICAMBA (3,5-dichloro-2 methoxybenzoic acid) are substances used on large scale in agricultural field treatment against weeds. Having a great toxicity, pesticides constitute a real factor of pollution on the environmental factors (soil, water, plants) and the assays of these are important. RIA technique developed in laboratory as well as the reagents (anti-pesticide antibodies, pesticides labelled with 125 I) permits an assessment of these substances. In laboratory we carried out studies on the kinetics of the reaction system anti-pesticide antibody - pesticide, the optional conditions for RIA technique have been established, i.e. concentration of the reagents in the reaction system, incubation time as well as kinetic parameters like equilibrium constants, chemical rate constants. (authors)

1997-01-01

189

Neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective and neurodevelopmental outcomes among occupational (both adolescent and adult workers) and non-occupational populations (children). The symposium discussion highlighted many challenges for researchers concerned with the prevention of neurotoxic illness due to pesticides and generated a number of directions for further research and policy interventions for the protection of human health, highlighting the importance of examining potential long-term effects across the lifespan arising from early adolescent, childhood or prenatal exposure.

London, Leslie; Beseler, Cheryl

2012-01-01

190

Effects of Pesticides on Biological Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of pesticid both in Turkey and other contries is widespread in order to combat against many pests which cause economical damages. However, pesticides in human pass through skin, respiratory or digestive systems and is metabolized by monooxygenase system dependent upon cytocrome P450 in liver. They also give rise to severe decreases cytochrome P450 and amount of "hem" enzyme activites of glucose-6-phosphatase, pyrophosphatase by stimulating lipid peroxidation on hepatic microsomes. In this study effects of pesticides on biological systems will be presented in genaral terms. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(3.000): 215-228

Ergul Belge Kurutas; Metin Kilinc

2003-01-01

191

Pesticide Environmental Accounting: A method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts. - A method to estimate the external costs of a pesticide application based on the ecotoxicology, environmental behaviour and application rate of an active ingredient

2008-01-01

192

The Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory: A Quantitative Instrument for the Assessment of Beliefs about Pesticide Risks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent media attention has focused on the risks that agricultural pesticides pose to the environment and human health; thus, these topics provide focal areas for scientists and science educators to enhance public understanding of basic toxicology concepts. This study details the development of a quantitative inventory to gauge pesticide risk beliefs. The goal of the inventory was to characterize misconceptions and knowledge gaps, as well as expert-like beliefs, concerning pesticide risk. This study describes the development and field testing of the Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory with an important target audience: pesticide educators in a southeastern U.S. state. The 19-item, Likert-type inventory was found to be psychometrically sound with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.780 and to be a valuable tool in capturing pesticide educators’ beliefs about pesticide risk, assessing beliefs in four key categories. The Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory could be useful in exploring beliefs about pesticide risks and in guiding efforts to address misconceptions held by a variety of formal and informal science learners, educators, practitioners, the agricultural labor force, and the general public.

Catherine E. LePrevost; Margaret R. Blanchard; W. Gregory Cope

2011-01-01

193

Phototransformation of pesticides in aqueous solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The role of the light on the transformation of pesticides in water depends on many parameters. Transformations are categorized as being direct or indirect photodegradation. We investigated the influence of the spectroscopic properties of pesticides and their effects on the nature of the photochemical reactions with the oxygen species, adjuvants of formulation, humic acids, and water. Chemical reactions, especially elimination, substitution and hydrolysis, are generally accelerated by light, while other specific reactions such as photo-Fries rearrangement are initiated by it. With organo-halogenated pesticides singlet or triplet states are involved in the scission of the carbon-chlorine bond, while the triplet state is often the first step for the reaction of the other pesticides. In this paper some reactions are presented to illustrate these two types of mechanisms. (orig.)

Meallier, P. [Universite Claude Bernard Lyon, Villeurbanne (France). Lab. de Photochimie Industrielle

1999-06-01

194

LES PESTICIDES : TOXICITE, RESIDUS ET ANALYSE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Les pesticides chimiques de synthèse se sont révélés très efficaces et fiables dans la protection des plantes et ont largement contribué à l’augmentation des rendements. Mais ces derniers temps, la question d’une limitation de l’utilisation des pesticides est de plus en plus posée car la société accepte de moins en moins l’éventualité de risques pour la santé humaine et pour l’environnement. Par conséquent, il est dans l’intérêt de tous les partenaires de la filière alimentaire que les Limites Maximales Résiduelles (LMR) soient respectées. Les LMR sont fixées légalement pour chaque pesticide. La DJA et l’ArfD sont utilisées comme des seuils de référence de prudence toxicologique pour s’assurer que toutes les LMR sont sûres d’un point de vue de la santé humaine. Les techniques chromatographiques ont largement contribué pour le dosage des résidus des pesticides.

Mohamed BENZINE

2006-01-01

195

High risk pesticides in sugar beet protection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to traits of pesticides permitted to use in sugar beet (oral percutaneus and inhalation toxicity, toxicity to wildlife, bees and aquatic organisms, re-entry interval, maximum number of treatments, effects on reproduction) do not present health risk in sugar production/technology. However, the danger exists for workers by chronic exposure during the application, especially from pesticide being potential endocrine disruptors (EDS) (fentin acetate, benomyl, endosulfan, methomyl, methidathion). EDS can cause sterility or decreased fertility, impaired development, birth defects of the reproductive tract and metabolic disorders. Authors recommend limited application of EDS pesticides (to limit the number of treatments to only one during the vegetation), replacement with pesticides with low risk to humans game and fishes, as well as mandatory submission of re-entry data for registration.

Šovljanski Radmila A.; Kloko?ar-Šmit Zlata D.; In?i? Dušanka V.

2006-01-01

196

75 FR 22245 - Imidacloprid; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2008-0772; FRL-8818-5] Imidacloprid; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...tolerances for combined residues of imidacloprid in or on vegetables, bulb, group...combined residues of the insecticide imidacloprid,...

2010-04-28

197

76 FR 82146 - Tepraloxydim; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0865; FRL-9330-2] Tepraloxydim; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...establishes tolerances for residues of tepraloxydim in or on the imported commodities...established tolerances for residues of tepraloxydim on ``Lentil, seed'' and...

2011-12-30

198

76 FR 71459 - Prohexadione Calcium; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0780; FRL-9326-4] Prohexadione Calcium; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY...tolerance for residues of prohexadione calcium in or on sweet cherry. BASF...the plant growth regulator prohexadione calcium, calcium,...

2011-11-18

199

Pesticides reduce regional biodiversity of stream invertebrates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The biodiversity crisis is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity, but our understanding of the drivers remains limited. Thus, after decades of studies and regulation efforts, it remains unknown whether to what degree and at what concentrations modern agricultural pesticides cause regional-scale species losses. We analyzed the effects of pesticides on the regional taxa richness of stream invertebrates in Europe (Germany and France) and Australia (southern Victoria). Pesticides caused statistically significant effects on both the species and family richness in both regions, with losses in taxa up to 42% of the recorded taxonomic pools. Furthermore, the effects in Europe were detected at concentrations that current legislation considers environmentally protective. Thus, the current ecological risk assessment of pesticides falls short of protecting biodiversity, and new approaches linking ecology and ecotoxicology are needed.

Beketov MA; Kefford BJ; Schäfer RB; Liess M

2013-07-01

200

Determination of pesticide residues in cannabis smoke.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was conducted in order to quantify to what extent cannabis consumers may be exposed to pesticide and other chemical residues through inhaled mainstream cannabis smoke. Three different smoking devices were evaluated in order to provide a generalized data set representative of pesticide exposures possible for medical cannabis users. Three different pesticides, bifenthrin, diazinon, and permethrin, along with the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol, which are readily available to cultivators in commercial products, were investigated in the experiment. Smoke generated from the smoking devices was condensed in tandem chilled gas traps and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Recoveries of residues were as high as 69.5% depending on the device used and the component investigated, suggesting that the potential of pesticide and chemical residue exposures to cannabis users is substantial and may pose a significant toxicological threat in the absence of adequate regulatory frameworks. PMID:23737769

Sullivan, Nicholas; Elzinga, Sytze; Raber, Jeffrey C

2013-05-12

 
 
 
 
201

75 FR 6576 - Acetamiprid; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...class of pesticides which also includes thiamethoxam, clothianidin, imidacloprid and several...direct competitive inhibition, while thiamethoxam is a non- competitive inhibitor...testicular tubular atrophy with thiamethoxam; mineralized particles in...

2010-02-10

202

77 FR 12731 - Thiamethoxam; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-1079; FRL-9331-8] Thiamethoxam; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...establishes tolerances for residues of thiamethoxam in or on multiple commodities which...tolerances for residues of the insecticide thiamethoxam,...

2012-03-02

203

77 FR 23625 - Quizalofop Ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-1018; FRL-9340-5] Quizalofop Ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY...establishes tolerances for residues of quizalofop ethyl in or on multiple commodities...tolerances for residues of the herbicide quizalofop ethyl,...

2012-04-20

204

Neonatal outcome following exposure to organophosphorous pesticides  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine the neonatal outcome in mothers and children exposed to organophosphorous pesticides (OP). We found that 22.4% pregnant women were exposed to organophosphorous pesticides. OP pesticide concentration was higher in breast milk, newborn sera than maternal sera. Newborn parameters such as birth weight, birth length, head circumference, Apgar score and presence of meconium, as well as gestational age of delivery, showed no significant difference between the two groups. However, postpartum weight loss, hospitalization duration, levels of newborn bilirubin and glycaemia differed significantly between the two groups. Morbidity and presence of CNS disorders were six times and more than twelve times higher, respectively, in the OP-exposed than in the OP pesticide non-exposed group.

?or?evi? M.; Vuji? Ana; Jovanovi? B.; ?or?evi? Gordana; Sazdanovi? Maja; Sazdanovi? P.

2010-01-01

205

A survey of warning colours of pesticides.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pesticides are used to protect plants all over the world. Their increasing specificity has been due to utilization of differences in biochemical processes, and has been accompanied by lower human toxicity. Nevertheless cases of poisoning are still observed. While certain toxic substances are provided with characteristic dyes or pigments to facilitate easy identification, no overview of pesticide colors exists. The lack of available product information prompted us to explore the colors and dyes of pesticides registered in Germany, most of which are commercially available worldwide. A compilation of the colors and odors of 207 pesticide products is presented. While some of the substances can be identified by their physical characteristics, in other cases, the range of possibilities can be narrowed by their nature and color.

Thierauf A; Weinmann W; Auwärter V; Vennemann B; Bohnert M

2010-12-01

206

Pesticides reduce regional biodiversity of stream invertebrates.  

Science.gov (United States)

The biodiversity crisis is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity, but our understanding of the drivers remains limited. Thus, after decades of studies and regulation efforts, it remains unknown whether to what degree and at what concentrations modern agricultural pesticides cause regional-scale species losses. We analyzed the effects of pesticides on the regional taxa richness of stream invertebrates in Europe (Germany and France) and Australia (southern Victoria). Pesticides caused statistically significant effects on both the species and family richness in both regions, with losses in taxa up to 42% of the recorded taxonomic pools. Furthermore, the effects in Europe were detected at concentrations that current legislation considers environmentally protective. Thus, the current ecological risk assessment of pesticides falls short of protecting biodiversity, and new approaches linking ecology and ecotoxicology are needed. PMID:23776226

Beketov, Mikhail A; Kefford, Ben J; Schäfer, Ralf B; Liess, Matthias

2013-06-17

207

How Stereochemistry Considerations can Improve Pesticide Safety  

Science.gov (United States)

About 30% of pesticides are chiral molecules and therefore exist as two or more stereoisomers, which can differ significantly in their toxicity, biodegradation, and persistence. Such differences can impact their relative safety to humans and environmental species. Enantiomers, mi...

208

Pesticide Assessment Guidelines, Subdivision G: Product Performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a guideline for the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), Subdivision G provides guidance to the registrant on developing product performance data that the Agency may require to demonstrate the effectiveness of their pesticide pr...

C. Grable S. Duffy T. Ellwanger W. Audia W. Campbell

1982-01-01

209

76 FR 28675 - Spirotetramat; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0263; FRL-8865-8] Spirotetramat; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...establishes tolerances for residues of spirotetramat, including its metabolites and degradates...tolerances for residues of the insecticide spirotetramat,...

2011-05-18

210

77 FR 70908 - Dinotefuran; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...epa.gov/dockets. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Rita Kumar, Registration Division (7505P), Office of Pesticide Programs...20460-0001; telephone number: (703) 308-8291; email address: kumar.rita@epa.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I....

2012-11-28

211

78 FR 21267 - Dinotefuran; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...epa.gov/dockets. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Rita Kumar, Registration Division, Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental...20460-0001; telephone number: (703) 308-8291; email address: kumar.rita@epa.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I....

2013-04-10

212

77 FR 73937 - Spirodiclofen; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...epa.gov/dockets. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Rita Kumar, Registration Division, Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental...20460-0001; telephone number: (703) 308-8291; email address: kumar.rita@epa.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I....

2012-12-12

213

Fosetyl-Al (Aliette) Pesticide Registration Standard.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document contains information regarding reregistration of pesticide products containing the subject active ingredient. The document includes how to register under a registration standard, regulatory position and rationale, and summaries of data requi...

1983-01-01

214

Pesticidas e abelhas/ Pesticides and honey bees  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Após a análise dos critérios de classificação toxicológica (CT) dos pesticidas para as abelhas e da evolução da CT e da legislação específica deste tema, em Portugal, evidencia-se como a ausência de rigor da Autoridade Fitossanitária Nacional (AFN) e das empresas de pesticidas contribui para a muito elevada probabilidade de mortalidade das abelhas pelos pesticidas e conclui-se com propostas de optimização das perspectivas de modificação da actual situação. Abstract in english After the analysis of the criterion of toxicological classification (TC) of pesticides to honeybees and of the evolution of TC and of legislation related to the theme, in Portugal, it is demonstrated how the absence of rigor of the Portuguese Pesticide Regulation Authority (AFN) and of the pesticides suppliers contribute to the very high probability of mortality of honeybees by pesticides and finally are presented proposals for the optimization of perspectives to modify the actual situation.

Amaro, Pedro; Godinho, Joana

2012-07-01

215

76 FR 18906 - Mancozeb; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2005-0307; FRL-8864-1] Mancozeb; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...establishes tolerances for residues of mancozeb in or on almonds, cabbage, lettuce...tolerances for residues of the fungicide mancozeb, zinc manganese ethylenebis...

2011-04-06

216

75 FR 26668 - Flutriafol; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0184; FRL-8812-6] Flutriafol; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...establishes tolerances for residues of flutriafol, [( )-[alpha]-(2-fluorophenyl...tolerances for residues of the fungicide flutriafol in or on the following raw...

2010-05-12

217

76 FR 69642 - Flutriafol; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0876; FRL-9325-6] Flutriafol; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...establishes tolerances for residues of flutriafol, (( )-[alpha]-(2-fluorophenyl...tolerances for residues of the fungicide flutriafol, including its metabolites and...

2011-11-09

218

77 FR 47296 - Flutriafol; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0875; FRL-9348-8] Flutriafol; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...and amends tolerances for residues of Flutriafol [(( )-[alpha]-(2-fluorophenyl...tolerances for residues of the fungicide flutriafol, including its metabolites...

2012-08-08

219

75 FR 26673 - Clethodim; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0307; FRL-8822-7] Clethodim; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...establishes tolerances for residues of clethodim in or on the raw agricultural commodity...for combined residues of the herbicide clethodim, ((E)-()-2-...

2010-05-12

220

Groundwater Contamination from Agriculturally Applied Pesticides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was combined with a cylindrical internal reflectance (CIR) sample cell to determine the infrared spectra of soil extracts. The developed techniques are used to qualitatively and quantitatively study pesticide intera...

M. J. Morra

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Enzyme stabilization for pesticide degradation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Enzymes offer inherent advantages and limitations as active components of formulations used to decontaminate soil and equipment contaminated with toxic materials such as pesticides. Because of the catalytic nature of enzymes, each molecule of enzyme has the potential to destroy countless molecules of a contaminating toxic compound. This degradation takes place under mild environmental conditions of pH, temperature, pressure, and solvent. The basic limitation of enzymes is their degree of stability during storage and application conditions. Stabilizing methods such as the use of additives, covalent crosslinking, covalent attachment, gel entrapment, and microencapsulation have been directed developing an enzyme preparation that is stable under extremes of pH, temperature, and exposure to organic solvents. Initial studies were conducted using the model enzymes subtilisin and horseradish peroxidase.

Rivers, D.B.; Frazer, F.R. III; Mason, D.W.; Tice, T.R.

1988-01-01

222

Pesticidal Mixtures Comprising Cyanosulfoximine Compounds  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to pesticidal mixtures comprising as active compounds 1) at least one cyanosulfoximine compound I of the formula (I) wherein R1, R2 and G are defined in the description and 2) at least one active compound II selected from a group A comprising acteylcholine esterase inhibitors, GABA-gated chloride channel antagonists, sodium channel modulators, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists/antagonists, chloride channel activators, juvenile hormone mimics, compounds affecting the oxidative phosphorylation, inhibitors of the chitin biosynthesis, moulting disruptors, inhibitors of the MET, voltage-dependent sodium channel blockers, inhibitors of the lipid synthesis and other compounds as defined in the description, in synergistically gistically effective amounts. The invention relates further to methods and use of these mixtures for combating insects, arachnids or nematodes in and on plants, and for protecting such plants being infested with pests and also for protecting seeds.

BREUNINGER DELPHINE; BASTIAANS HENRICUS MARIA MARTINUS; VON DEYN WOLFGANG; LANGEWALD JUERGEN

223

Pesticidal mixtures comprising cyanosulfoximine compounds  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to pesticidal mixtures comprising as active compounds 1) at least one cyanosulfoximine compound I of the formula (I) wherein R<1>, R<2> and G are defined in the description and2) at least one active compound II selected from a group A comprising acteylcholine esterase inhibitors, GABA-gated chloride channel antagonists, sodium channel modulators, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists/antagonists, chloride channel activators, juvenile hormone mimics, compounds affecting the oxidative phosphorylation, inhibitors of the chitin biosynthesis, moulting disruptors, inhibitors of the MET, voltage-dependent sodium channel blockers, inhibitors of the lipid synthesis and other compounds as defined in the description, in synergistically effective amounts. The invention relates further to methods and use of these mixtures for combating insects, arachnids or nematodes in and on plants, and for protecting such plants being infested with pests and also for protecting seeds.

DELPHINE BREUNINGER; MARTINUS BASTIAANS HENRICUS MA; WOLFGANG VON DEYN; JUERGEN LANGEWALD

224

Pesticides in Soil: Effects on Microorganisms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since their discovery to the present day, pesticides have been an inevitable segment of agricultural production and efforts have been made to synthesize compounds that would share a required efficacy along with selectivity, sufficient persistence on the object of protection and favourable toxicological and ecotoxicological characteristics so as to minimize their effect on the environment.When a pesticide gets into soil after application, it takes part in a number of physical, chemical and biological processes that depend not only on the compound itself, but a number of other factors as well, such as: physical, chemical and biological characteristics of soil; climatic factors, equipment used, method of application, method of storage, handling and disposal of waste, site characteristics (proximity of ground and underground waters, biodiversity and sensitivity of the environment). Microorganisms play an important role in pesticide degradation as they are able to utilize the biogenic elements from those compounds, as well as energy for their physiological processes. On the other hand, pesticides are more or less toxic substances that can have adverse effect on populations of microorganisms and prevent their development, reduce their abundance, deplete their taxonomic complexity and create communities with a lower level of diversity and reduced physiological activity.The article discusses complex interactions between pesticides and microorganisms in soil immediately after application and over the ensuing period. Data on changes in the abundance of some systematic and physiological groups of microorganisms, their microbial biomass and enzymatic activity caused under pesticide activity are discussed as indicators of these processes.

Ljiljana Radivojevi?; Ljiljana Šantri?; Radmila Stankovi?-Kalezi?

2007-01-01

225

Effect of pesticides on soil microbial community.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

According to guidelines for the approval of pesticides, information about effects of pesticides on soil microorganisms and soil fertility are required, but the relationships of different structures of pesticides on the growth of various groups of soil microorganisms are not easily predicted. Some pesticides stimulate the growth of microorganisms, but other pesticides have depressive effects or no effects on microorganisms. For examples, carbofuran stimulated the population of Azospirillum and other anaerobic nitrogen fixers in flooded and non-flooded soil, but butachlor reduced the population of Azospirillum and aerobic nitrogen fixers in non-flooded soil. Diuron and chlorotoluron showed no difference between treated and nontreated soil, and linuron showed a strong difference. Phosphorus(P)-contains herbicides glyphosate and insecticide methamidophos stimulated soil microbial growth, but other P-containing insecticide fenamiphos was detrimental to nitrification bacteria. Therefore, the following review presents some data of research carried out during the last 20 years. The effects of twenty-one pesticides on the soil microorganisms associated with nutrient and cycling processes are presented in section 1, and the applications of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) for studying microbial diversity are discussed in section 2.

Lo CC

2010-07-01

226

Chlorination of organophosphorus pesticides in natural waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Unknown second-order rate constants for the reactions of three organophosphorus pesticides (chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon) with chlorine were determined in the present study, and the influence of pH and temperature was established. It was found that an increase in the pH provides a negative effect on the pesticides degradation rates. Apparent second-order rate constants at 20 oC and pH 7 were determined to be 110.9, 0.004 and 191.6 M-1 s-1 for chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon, respectively. A higher reactivity of chlorine with the phosphorothioate group (chlorpyrifos and diazinon) than with the phosphate moiety (chlorfenvinfos) could explain these results. Intrinsic rate constant for the elementary reactions of chlorine species with chlorpyrifos and diazinon were also calculated, leading to the conclusion that the reaction between hypochlorous acid and the pesticide is predominant at neutral pH. The elimination of these pesticides in surface waters was also investigated. A chlorine dose of 2.5 mg L-1 was enough to oxidize chlorpyrifos and diazinon almost completely, with a formation of trihalomethanes below the EU standard for drinking water. However, the removal of chlorfenvinfos was not appreciable. Therefore, chlorination is a feasible option for the removal of organophosphorus pesticides with phosphorothioate group during oxidation and disinfection processes, but not for the elimination of pesticides with phosphate moiety.

2008-05-01

227

Pesticides: the good and the bad.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pesticides have been used for many years. In earlier times they were a protection against fungi and insect pests. The great increase in the use of pesticides occurred with the development of new organic chemicals following World Wars I and II. In addition to chemicals for the control of fungi and insects, new developments were nematocides, herbicides, rodenticides, avicides, defoliants, wood preservatives, etc. The use of chemicals helped increase productivity, but caused great concern about their effect on human health and safety. On the other hand, chemicals did help tremendously from the standpoint of protecting against diseases that were carried by insects, especially mosquitoes. Adverse publicity has caused great concern about pesticides and this is especially so since our society has undergone great changes from an agricultural society to an industrial society and finally to a communications society. Unfortunately, publicity relating to the use of pesticides has seldom been balanced from the standpoint of the good and the bad. In fact, the communications media has and does usually stress the potential adverse effects of pesticides without reference to the good. This has caused concern on the part of advocates and the average person to the extent that it has placed heavy constraints on agriculture. There is a need for the dissemination of balanced information on the good as well as the bad of pesticides.

Mrak EM

1984-03-01

228

Mapping ecological risk of agricultural pesticide runoff.  

Science.gov (United States)

A screening approach for the EU-scale is introduced and validated that predicts pesticide runoff and related ecological risk for aquatic communities in small agricultural streams. The approach is based on the runoff potential (RP) of stream sites, by a spatially explicit calculation based on pesticide use, precipitation, topography, land use and soil characteristics in the near-stream environment. The underlying simplified model complies with the limited availability and resolution of data at larger scales. RP is transformed to ecological risk by means of a runoff-response relationship between RP and invertebrate community composition that results from a large-scale investigation and considers the influence of landscape-mediated recovery pools. Community composition is expressed as abundance of SPEcies At Risk (SPEAR) i.e. species that are potentially affected by pesticides because of physiological sensitivity to organic pollutants and ecological traits. The SPEAR concept was applied because it provides powerful community descriptors that are independent of habitat parameters and support comparison of pesticide effects between different geographical regions. Raster maps for the EU before the 2004 enlargement indicate that ecological risk from pesticide runoff is potentially low for streams in 34% of the grid cells with non-irrigated arable land (mostly northern countries, predicted effects at 90% of the streams per cell). Field investigations showed that the screening approach produced appropriate estimates of ecological risk from pesticide runoff for selected regions in Finland, France and Germany. PMID:17689592

Schriever, Carola Alexandra; Liess, Matthias

2007-08-08

229

Estimating pesticide runoff in small streams.  

Science.gov (United States)

Surface runoff is one of the most important pathways for pesticides to enter surface waters. Mathematical models are employed to characterize its spatio-temporal variability within landscapes, but they must be simple owing to the limited availability and low resolution of data at this scale. This study aimed to validate a simplified spatially-explicit model that is developed for the regional scale to calculate the runoff potential (RP). The RP is a generic indicator of the magnitude of pesticide inputs into streams via runoff. The underlying runoff model considers key environmental factors affecting runoff (precipitation, topography, land use, and soil characteristics), but predicts losses of a generic substance instead of any one pesticide. We predicted and evaluated RP for 20 small streams. RP input data were extracted from governmental databases. Pesticide measurements from a triennial study were used for validation. Measured pesticide concentrations were standardized by the applied mass per catchment and the water solubility of the relevant compounds. The maximum standardized concentration per site and year (runoff loss, R(Loss)) provided a generalized measure of observed pesticide inputs into the streams. Average RP explained 75% (p<0.001) of the variance in R(Loss). Our results imply that the generic indicator can give an adequate estimate of runoff inputs into small streams, wherever data of similar resolution are available. Therefore, we suggest RP for a first quick and cost-effective location of potential runoff hot spots at the landscape level. PMID:17395242

Schriever, Carola A; von der Ohe, Peter C; Liess, Matthias

2007-03-28

230

Pesticide risk assessment in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recognition of potential risks, all pesticides distributed and sold in the United States must fulfil extensive registration requirements for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Registration is a licensing procedure where industry must submit data to demonstrate the safety of pesticidal substances and products before they can be used commercially. The regulatory control of pesticides is unique among chemicals in the U.S. in that testing beyond initial registration may be imposed by the Agency throughout the commercial life of the chemical, as long as there is adequate justification. Registration requirements are gauged to the nature of potential exposures. For instance, more data are generally needed for food use registrations than for non-food uses because of direct consumption of treated foods by the whole U.S. population. Unlike pesticide practices in many countries and authorities, as in the European Community where agricultural pesticides, non-agricultural pesticides and genetically engineered microbial agents are handled by separate directives, all pesticide activities are covered in the U.S. by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. This statute covers pesticide uses on foods and animal feed and a number of non-food applications like forest and horticultural uses, residential lawn care, in-home applications, and disinfectants/sterilants. Traditional inorganic and organic chemicals are covered, as well as biological agents like pheromones. Naturally occurring and genetically altered microorganisms also come under the definition of pesticides, but multicellular animals are exempt from regulation as pesticides. Pesticide registration in the U.S. as in many other countries may be a long-term, resource intensive undertaking. Not uncommonly the process from beginning to complete registration may take 4 to 10 years and cost about $10 million. To meet the responsibilities of reviewing studies, overseeing 400 active ingredients and 35,000 products, and implementing other aspects of the statute, EPA employs about 900 people. Unlike the approval process and actions to cancel pesticides in some countries, in the U.S. they are generally much more transparent. The need for specific test guidelines and the nature of the protocols are debated in the scientific community. Test data adequacy is evaluated according to objective criteria, and study findings are reviewed using standard evaluation procedures and risk assessment guidelines that have been through public comment. Agency risk concerns for a registered pesticide are vetted at a meeting of its Scientific Advisory Panel, a group of technical experts outside of government, where the potential risk case is reviewed and discussed. The meeting is open to the public with opportunity for input from industry, public interest groups, and other parties. Formal Agency regulatory proposals to cancel registered pesticides are published for public review and comment, and there may be several rounds of public involvement before a final decision is reached. Even after a regulatory decision has been made, and unless a settlement has been reached, the Agency is often sued by an environmental group or industry that questions the EPA position; in such situations, the case is then transferred to the court for deliberation. Risks are evaluated for a host of different effects by the pesticide program: acute and chronic, human health and ecological

1992-01-01

231

Increasing pesticide-resistant ectoparasitic infections may increase pesticide poisoning risks in children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Head louse and scabies mite infestations are common among pre-school and school-age children, and topical pesticides are frequently prescribed to treat such conditions. Ectoparasite resistance to the safest and most commonly prescribed pyrethrin/pyrethroid pesticides for ectoparasitic infections has, however, been increasing since the 1980s. The increasing resistance of these arthropods to the safest pesticides may lead to greater use of more toxic, alternative pesticides to control infestations and to prevent institutional outbreaks. MEDLINE and Cochrane searches, 1966-2008, were conducted to assess the impact of increasing pesticide resistance on prescribing practices for ectoparasitic infections and to describe the evolving global epidemiology of pediatric poisonings by more toxic pediculicides and miticides, including carbamates, organochlorines, and organophosphates. Pharmacists, physicians, and poison control personnel should be fully informed about increasing pesticide resistance among the most commonly encountered ectoparasites of children and the institutionalized and be prepared to prevent and to treat accidental home and institutional pesticide poisonings with more toxic pesticides. PMID:18828463

Diaz, James H

232

Increasing pesticide-resistant ectoparasitic infections may increase pesticide poisoning risks in children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Head louse and scabies mite infestations are common among pre-school and school-age children, and topical pesticides are frequently prescribed to treat such conditions. Ectoparasite resistance to the safest and most commonly prescribed pyrethrin/pyrethroid pesticides for ectoparasitic infections has, however, been increasing since the 1980s. The increasing resistance of these arthropods to the safest pesticides may lead to greater use of more toxic, alternative pesticides to control infestations and to prevent institutional outbreaks. MEDLINE and Cochrane searches, 1966-2008, were conducted to assess the impact of increasing pesticide resistance on prescribing practices for ectoparasitic infections and to describe the evolving global epidemiology of pediatric poisonings by more toxic pediculicides and miticides, including carbamates, organochlorines, and organophosphates. Pharmacists, physicians, and poison control personnel should be fully informed about increasing pesticide resistance among the most commonly encountered ectoparasites of children and the institutionalized and be prepared to prevent and to treat accidental home and institutional pesticide poisonings with more toxic pesticides.

Diaz JH

2008-07-01

233

Children's exposure to pesticides used in homes and farms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Commercial and residential use of pesticides is common in El Paso, Texas, especially in agricultural areas. Recently, concerns have arisen about the type of pesticides used by residents because of the ease with which methyl parathion can be obtained from the neighboring border city of Juarez in Chihuahua, Mexico. Survey data were collected regarding residents' perceptions about pesticide safety and use of pesticides, and their preferred source of health information. The authors assessed the number of respondents who were using the illegal pesticide methyl parathion, known locally as polvo de avion (airplane dust) as well as their beliefs concerning the safety and efficacy of pesticides. The study found that 88.7 percent (133 of 150) used some type of pesticide, and of these, 9.8 percent (13 of 133) reported using methyl parathion. Biological/environmental testing would be useful to assess use of methyl parathion and to determine the types of pesticides used by local farmers.

Saller J; Reyes P; Maldonado PA; Gibbs SG; Byrd TL

2007-03-01

234

PERMEATION RESISTANCE OF GLOVE MATERIALS TO AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDES  

Science.gov (United States)

The toxicities of many agricultural pesticides require that hand protection be provided to persons who mix, load, and apply these products. he selection of appropriate handwear is particularly problematic for pesticides that contain organic solvents or active ingredients that beh...

235

TRANSFER EFFICIENCES OF PESTICIDES FROM HOUSEHOLD CERAMIC TILE TO FOODS  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditional assessments of pesticide exposure through diet have focused on contamination during production (e.g., pesticides in agriculture). However, recent residential monitoring studies have demonstrated that a significant portion of total exposure to infants and children ...

236

Improving poisoning diagnosis and surveillance of street pesticides  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english An effective surveillance system is required to reduce pesticide exposures and poisonings, especially from street pesticides (illegal, unlabelled, and decanted agricultural pesticides used predominately for urban household purposes). Poisoning from any pesticide class, not only organophosphates, constitutes a medically notifiable condition in South Africa. Current practice, however, is to report only organophosphate cases, resulting in severe under-reporting. The lack of (more) data concerning the link between poisonings and street pesticides has led to the mistaken assumption that urban populations are not at risk from significant pesticide exposures and poisonings. Without accurate statistics, healthcare professionals and policy makers are unaware of the contribution of street pesticide poisonings to the overall health burden. Accurate diagnosis is a prerequisite for notification and subsequent surveillance. An algorithm has been developed to enable healthcare professionals to improve the diagnosis and notification of pesticide poisonings.

Rother, Hanna-Andrea

2012-06-01

237

Avoid Counterfeit Pesticide Products for Dogs and Cats  

Science.gov (United States)

... Pets Avoid Counterfeit Pesticide Products for Dogs and Cats EPA is aware of counterfeit pet pesticides designed ... contained in a package intended for use on cats. Will my cat be harmed if I apply ...

238

77 FR 72984 - Buprofezin Pesticide Tolerances; Technical Correction  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0759; FRL-9371-3] Buprofezin Pesticide Tolerances; Technical Correction...Wednesday, October 17, 2012, concerning buprofezin pesticide tolerances. This document...to read as follows: Sec. 180.511 Buprofezin; tolerances for residues....

2012-12-07

239

Intoxicación por plaguicidas Pesticide poisoning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los plaguicidas son una de las familias de productos químicos más ampliamente empleadas por el hombre. Se han usado sobre todo para combatir plagas por su acción sobre las cosechas o como vectores de enfermedades transmisibles. Los plaguicidas pueden clasificarse en función de su empleo (insecticidas, fungicidas, herbicidas, raticidas…) o de su familia química (organoclorados, organofosforados, carbamatos, piretoides, compuestos bipiridílicos, sales inorgánicas…). Todos ellos son biocidas lo que implica, habitualmente una alta toxicidad humana que ha sido motivo de preocupación desde mitad del siglo XX debido al amplio e indiscriminado empleo de estos productos. La exposición a los plaguicidas puede tener efectos agudos, crónicos y a largo plazo. Algunos compuestos organoclorados (como el DDT) fueron los primeros en ser empleado en fumigaciones masivas para combatir la malaria y han debido ser prohibidos debido a su capacidad de bioacumulación y persistencia medioambiental. El peligro representado por la generalizada presencia de estos agentes, se ha demostrado en los numerosos episodios de epidemias tóxicas humanas, productoras de alta morbi-mortalidad, descritas por casi todas las familias químicas: insecticidas y fungicidas organoclorados, insecticidas organofosforados y carbamatos, fungicidas organomercuriales y sales inorgánicas. Estos episodios se han producido sobre todo por vía alimentaria y en el terreno profesional. Otras causas de preocupación sanitaria son su capacidad carcinogénica y de ocasionar alteraciones reproductivas. Se presentan las principales características de algunas de las familias más relevantes.Pesticides are one of the families of chemical products most widely used by man. They have been used above all to combat pests because of their effect on harvests and as vectors of transmissible diseases. Pesticides can be classified according to their use (insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, raticides…) or by their chemical family (organochlorates, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, Bipyridilium compounds, inorganic salts…). All of them are biocides, which normally implies a high toxicity for humans, which has been a cause for concern since the mid-XX century due to the widespread and indiscriminate use of these products. Exposure to pesticides can have effects that are acute, chronic and long-term. Some organochlorate compounds (such as DDT) were the first to be used in massive fumigations to fight malaria and have had to be banned because of their capacity for bioaccumulation and environmental persistence. The danger represented by the widespread presence of these agents has been demonstrated in numerous episodes of human toxic epidemics, producers of a high morbidity/mortality, described for nearly all chemical families: organochlorate insecticides and fungicides, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, organomercurial fungicides and inorganic salts. These episodes have above all been caused through the ingestion of foodstuffs and in the occupational field. Other causes of health concern are their carcinogenic capacity and occasional reproductive alterations. The principal characteristics of some of the most relevant families are presented.

A. Ferrer

2003-01-01

240

Intoxicación por plaguicidas/ Pesticide poisoning  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Los plaguicidas son una de las familias de productos químicos más ampliamente empleadas por el hombre. Se han usado sobre todo para combatir plagas por su acción sobre las cosechas o como vectores de enfermedades transmisibles. Los plaguicidas pueden clasificarse en función de su empleo (insecticidas, fungicidas, herbicidas, raticidas?) o de su familia química (organoclorados, organofosforados, carbamatos, piretoides, compuestos bipiridílicos, sales inorgánicas?) (more) . Todos ellos son biocidas lo que implica, habitualmente una alta toxicidad humana que ha sido motivo de preocupación desde mitad del siglo XX debido al amplio e indiscriminado empleo de estos productos. La exposición a los plaguicidas puede tener efectos agudos, crónicos y a largo plazo. Algunos compuestos organoclorados (como el DDT) fueron los primeros en ser empleado en fumigaciones masivas para combatir la malaria y han debido ser prohibidos debido a su capacidad de bioacumulación y persistencia medioambiental. El peligro representado por la generalizada presencia de estos agentes, se ha demostrado en los numerosos episodios de epidemias tóxicas humanas, productoras de alta morbi-mortalidad, descritas por casi todas las familias químicas: insecticidas y fungicidas organoclorados, insecticidas organofosforados y carbamatos, fungicidas organomercuriales y sales inorgánicas. Estos episodios se han producido sobre todo por vía alimentaria y en el terreno profesional. Otras causas de preocupación sanitaria son su capacidad carcinogénica y de ocasionar alteraciones reproductivas. Se presentan las principales características de algunas de las familias más relevantes. Abstract in english Pesticides are one of the families of chemical products most widely used by man. They have been used above all to combat pests because of their effect on harvests and as vectors of transmissible diseases. Pesticides can be classified according to their use (insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, raticides?) or by their chemical family (organochlorates, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, Bipyridilium compounds, inorganic salts?). All of them are biocides, which no (more) rmally implies a high toxicity for humans, which has been a cause for concern since the mid-XX century due to the widespread and indiscriminate use of these products. Exposure to pesticides can have effects that are acute, chronic and long-term. Some organochlorate compounds (such as DDT) were the first to be used in massive fumigations to fight malaria and have had to be banned because of their capacity for bioaccumulation and environmental persistence. The danger represented by the widespread presence of these agents has been demonstrated in numerous episodes of human toxic epidemics, producers of a high morbidity/mortality, described for nearly all chemical families: organochlorate insecticides and fungicides, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, organomercurial fungicides and inorganic salts. These episodes have above all been caused through the ingestion of foodstuffs and in the occupational field. Other causes of health concern are their carcinogenic capacity and occasional reproductive alterations. The principal characteristics of some of the most relevant families are presented.

Ferrer, A.

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

[Quantitative analysis of organochlorine pesticide residues in Chinese drugs  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper reports the GC determination of 20 organochlorine pesticides in Chinese drugs Flos Ionicerae and Moluodan etc by the present method of Japan for determinaing pesticide residues. The results suggest that except Folium Isatidis, Radix Codonopsis and Sanqi Pian all accord with the for provisions pesticide residues in Japanese foodstuffs.

Han G; Chen T; Yang J; Dai J; Xu R; Zhang Y; Okano J; Yui R; Nakajima H; Hamasaki T

1996-10-01

242

[Quantitative analysis of organochlorine pesticide residues in Chinese drugs].  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports the GC determination of 20 organochlorine pesticides in Chinese drugs Flos Ionicerae and Moluodan etc by the present method of Japan for determinaing pesticide residues. The results suggest that except Folium Isatidis, Radix Codonopsis and Sanqi Pian all accord with the for provisions pesticide residues in Japanese foodstuffs. PMID:9772626

Han, G; Chen, T; Yang, J; Dai, J; Xu, R; Zhang, Y; Okano, J; Yui, R; Nakajima, H; Hamasaki, T

1996-10-01

243

Assessing pesticide pollution risk: from field to watershed  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pesticides used for intensive agricultural production threaten the water resources of the French West Indies. For example, the pesticide chlordecone was used until the nineties in banana fields. Operational and simple tools are needed to assess the potential risk of pollution by pesticides. Here, we...

Houdart, M.; Tixier, P.; Lassoudière, A.; Saudubray, F.

244

Chitosan based Butyrylcholinesterase Biosensor for the Pesticide Detection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The increasing concern for ground water pollution, due to the use of pesticides in agriculture, requires a strong effort in order to detect pollutants with reliable, economical and rapid methods; some pollutants like pesticides and heavy metals, infact, are very dangerous for human health. Pesticide...

Timur, Suna; Telefoncu, Azmi; Ege University, Faculty of Science, Biochemistry Department, 35100-Bornova/Izmir-TURKEY

245

Association of Pesticide Exposure with Neurologic Dysfunction and Disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Poisoning by acute high-level exposure to certain pesticides has well-known neurotoxic effects, but whether chronic exposure to moderate levels of pesticides is also neurotoxic is more controversial. Most studies of moderate pesticide exposure have found increased prevalence of neurologic symptoms a...

Kamel, Freya; Hoppin, Jane A.

246

PESTICIDE SOURCES TO SOIL AND PRINCIPLES OF SPRAY PHYSICS  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past 50 years, organic pesticides have greatly enhanced the production and quality of food, feed, and fiber as well as the control of disease vectors and pests adversely affecting human health and welfare. n this review of the pesticides literature, the pesticide source te...

247

The aqueous radiation chemistry of pesticides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text: The degradation of pesticides is an important issue affecting the users and the environment. Degradation rates influence the spatial and temporal application rates and the effects on crops sown in subsequent seasons. Free radical reactions have been widely suggested as important in the aqueous degradation chemistry of pesticides and we report direct measurements of free radical reactions of nine pesticides widely used in Australia. Steady-state gamma radiolysis and pulse radiolysis have been used to follow the chemistry of the reactions of OH, H, O{sub 2}{sup -},SO{sub 4}{sup -},CO{sub 2}{sup -},e{sub aq}{sup -} and other radical species with the nine pesticides. HPLC and mass spectrometry were used to determine the reaction products and the spectra and kinetics of the primary radical reactions and their products were followed by pulse radiolysis. Elucidation of the reaction mechanisms and the structures of the radical intermediates formed from the initial radical attacks has been aided by the use of molecular modelling programs to estimate the configuration and electron density of the intermediates. The results, particularly the rate constants for the Initial radical attack, do not suggest that photochemically generated free radicals play a large part in the degradation of these pesticides in the environment

Cornelius, K.; Laurence, G. [The University of Adelaide, SA (Australia). Department of Chemisty

1998-12-31

248

Pesticide residues survey in citrus fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of pesticides is widespread in citrus fruits production for pre- and post-harvest protection and many chemical substances may be applied in order to control undesirable moulds or insects. A survey was carried out to evaluate levels of pesticide residues in citrus fruits. Two multiresidue analytical methods were used to screen samples for more than 200 different fungicides, insecticides and acaricides. A total of 240 samples of citrus fruits including lemon, orange, mandarin, grapefruit, lime, pomelo and kumquat were taken in various markets in the Geneva area during the year 2003. Ninety-five percent of the 164 samples issued from classical agriculture contained pesticides and 38 different compounds have been identified. This high percentage of positive samples was mainly due to the presence of two post-harvest fungicides, imazalil and thiabendazole, detected in 70% and 36% of samples respectively. Only three samples exceeded the Swiss maximum residue limits (MRLs). Fifty-three samples sold with the written indication "without post-harvest treatment" were also controlled. Among theses samples, three exceeded the Swiss MRLs for penconazole or chlorpyrifos and 18 (34%) did not respect the written indication since we found large amounts of post-harvest fungicides. Finally, 23 samples coming from certified organic production were analysed. Among theses samples, three contained small amounts of pesticides and the others were pesticides free. PMID:16019813

Ortelli, Didier; Edder, Patrick; Corvi, Claude

2005-05-01

249

Pesticide residues survey in citrus fruits.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of pesticides is widespread in citrus fruits production for pre- and post-harvest protection and many chemical substances may be applied in order to control undesirable moulds or insects. A survey was carried out to evaluate levels of pesticide residues in citrus fruits. Two multiresidue analytical methods were used to screen samples for more than 200 different fungicides, insecticides and acaricides. A total of 240 samples of citrus fruits including lemon, orange, mandarin, grapefruit, lime, pomelo and kumquat were taken in various markets in the Geneva area during the year 2003. Ninety-five percent of the 164 samples issued from classical agriculture contained pesticides and 38 different compounds have been identified. This high percentage of positive samples was mainly due to the presence of two post-harvest fungicides, imazalil and thiabendazole, detected in 70% and 36% of samples respectively. Only three samples exceeded the Swiss maximum residue limits (MRLs). Fifty-three samples sold with the written indication "without post-harvest treatment" were also controlled. Among theses samples, three exceeded the Swiss MRLs for penconazole or chlorpyrifos and 18 (34%) did not respect the written indication since we found large amounts of post-harvest fungicides. Finally, 23 samples coming from certified organic production were analysed. Among theses samples, three contained small amounts of pesticides and the others were pesticides free.

Ortelli D; Edder P; Corvi C

2005-05-01

250

Remediating pesticide contaminated soils using solvent extraction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bench-scale solvent extraction studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site contaminated with high levels of p,p{prime}-DDT, p,p{prime}-DDE and toxaphene. The effectiveness of the solvent extraction process was assessed using methanol and 2-propanol as solvents over a wide range of operating conditions. It was demonstrated that a six-stage methanol extraction using a solvent-to-soil ratio of 1.6 can decrease pesticide levels in the soil by more than 99% and reduce the volume of material requiring further treatment by 25 times or more. The high solubility of the pesticides in methanol resulted in rapid extraction rates, with the system reaching quasi-equilibrium state in 30 minutes. The extraction efficiency was influenced by the number of extraction stages, the solvent-to-soil ratio, and the soil moisture content. Various methods were investigated to regenerate and recycle the solvent. Evaporation and solvent stripping are low cost and reliable methods for removing high pesticide concentrations from the solvent. For low concentrations, GAC adsorption may be used. Precipitating and filtering pesticides by adding water to the methanol/pesticide solution was not successful when tested with soil extracts. 26 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

Sahle-Demessie, E.; Meckes, M.C.; Richardson, T.L. [National Management Research Lab., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1996-12-31

251

The aqueous radiation chemistry of pesticides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The degradation of pesticides is an important issue affecting the users and the environment. Degradation rates influence the spatial and temporal application rates and the effects on crops sown in subsequent seasons. Free radical reactions have been widely suggested as important in the aqueous degradation chemistry of pesticides and we report direct measurements of free radical reactions of nine pesticides widely used in Australia. Steady-state gamma radiolysis and pulse radiolysis have been used to follow the chemistry of the reactions of OH, H, O2-,SO4-,CO2-,eaq- and other radical species with the nine pesticides. HPLC and mass spectrometry were used to determine the reaction products and the spectra and kinetics of the primary radical reactions and their products were followed by pulse radiolysis. Elucidation of the reaction mechanisms and the structures of the radical intermediates formed from the initial radical attacks has been aided by the use of molecular modelling programs to estimate the configuration and electron density of the intermediates. The results, particularly the rate constants for the Initial radical attack, do not suggest that photochemically generated free radicals play a large part in the degradation of these pesticides in the environment

1998-01-01

252

Dietary pesticides (99. 99% all natural)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The toxicological significance of exposures to synthetic chemicals is examined in the context of exposures to naturally occurring chemicals. The authors calculate that 99.99{percent} (by weight) of the pesticides in the American diet are chemicals that plants produce to defend themselves. Only 52 natural pesticides have been tested in high-dose animal cancer tests, and about half (27) are rodent carcinogens; these 27 are shown to be present in many common foods. They conclude that natural and synthetic chemicals are equally likely to be positive in animal cancer tests. They also conclude that at the low doses of most human exposures the comparative hazards of synthetic pesticide residues are insignificant.

Ames, B.N.; Profet, M.; Gold, L.S. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

1990-10-01

253

PESTICIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN VEGETABLES FROM Fabaceae FAMILY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the concentration levels of nine pesticides in vegetables of the Fabaceae family. For this purpose we used chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) after the extraction and cleaning. The recoveries are between 96 and 99%. The repeatability of the method, expressed by coefficient of variation is less than 4.7%. The limits of quantification of the method are between 0.2 to 0.3 ppb. Residues of these pesticides are distributed differently in vegetables, depending on the organ of the plant and areas where vegetables were grown. For all the vegetables studied, DDD, DDE and DDT were below the limit of quantification. All concentrations of organochlorine pesticides from the samples studied are located within the limits imposed by the regulations of the European Commission.

Alina Soceanu; Simona Dobrinas; Valentina Coatu; Viorica Popescu; Gabriela Stanciu; Danut Tiberiu Epure

2011-01-01

254

Pesticide residues in some commodities: dietary risk for children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to identify pesticides found in infants' and children's diets. Fruits and vegetables were collected from 2004 to 2007 and analyzed using a multiresidue method. The most frequently detected residues were procymidone, captan, chlorpyrifos and chlorothalonil. Twenty-eight percent of the samples contained pesticide residues. Strawberry, pear, apple, peach and tomato contained pesticide levels of concern. Twenty-one pesticides were found with the estimated total mean daily intake greater than the acceptable daily intake for four of the pesticides. Residues of carbaryl, diazinon and methidathion exceeded regulatory levels in (apple, strawberry, and orange).

Gebara AB; Ciscato CH; Monteiro SH; Souza GS

2011-05-01

255

Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms), many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence), and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization of the already approved pesticides and the approval of the new compounds in the near future. Thus, new tools or techniques with greater reliability than those already existing are needed to predict the potential hazards of pesticides and thus contribute to reduction of the adverse effects on human health and the environment. On the other hand, the implementation of alternative cropping systems that are less dependent on pesticides, the development of new pesticides with novel modes of action and improved safety profiles, and the improvement of the already used pesticide formulations towards safer formulations (e.g., microcapsule suspensions) could reduce the adverse effects of farming and particularly the toxic effects of pesticides. In addition, the use of appropriate and well-maintained spraying equipment along with taking all precautions that are required in all stages of pesticide handling could minimize human exposure to pesticides and their potential adverse effects on the environment.

Christos A. Damalas; Ilias G. Eleftherohorinos

2011-01-01

256

Effects of pesticides on freshwater diatoms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of pesticide effects on algae, and diatoms in particular, was focused on photosynthesis and biomass growth disturbances. Few studies have been performed to investigate the effects of these toxic agents on intracellular structures of diatom cells. Nuclear alterations and cell wall abnormalities were reported for diatoms exposed to toxic compounds. Nevertheless, the cellular mechanisms implicated in the development of such alterations and abnormalities remain unclear. Sensitivity to pesticides is known to be quite different among different diatom species. Eutrophic and small species are recognized for their tolerance to pesticides exposure. More pronounced cell defenses against oxidative stress may explain this absence of sensitivity in species of smaller physical size. Notwithstanding, on the whole, explaining the rationale behind tolerance variations among species has been quite difficult, thus far. In this context, the understanding of intracellular toxicity in diatoms and the relation between these intracellular effects and the disturbance of species composition in communities represent a key target for further research. The original community species structure determines the response of a diatom community to toxic agent exposure. Diatom communities that have species capable of switching from autotrophic to heterotrophic modes, when photosynthesis is inhibited (e.g., after pesticide exposure), can continue to grow, even in the presence of high pesticide pollution. How diatoms respond to toxic stress, and the degree to which they respond, also depends on cell and community health, on ecological interactions with other organisms, and on general environmental conditions. The general structural parameters of diatom communities (biomass, global cell density) are less sensitive to pesticide effects than are the specific structural parameters of the unicellular organisms themselves (cell density by species, species composition). For benthic species, biofilm development and grazing on this matrix as a source of food for invertebrates and fishes may also modify the response of diatom communities. Environmental parameters (light exposure, nutrient concentrations, and hydraulic conditions) affect, and often interfere with, the response of diatoms to pesticides. Therefore, the complexity of aquatic ecosystems and the complexity of pesticide to easily detect the effects of such pollutants on diatoms. Clearly more research will be required to address this problem. PMID:19957117

Debenest, Timothée; Silvestre, Jérôme; Coste, Michel; Pinelli, Eric

2010-01-01

257

Effects of pesticides on freshwater diatoms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The study of pesticide effects on algae, and diatoms in particular, was focused on photosynthesis and biomass growth disturbances. Few studies have been performed to investigate the effects of these toxic agents on intracellular structures of diatom cells. Nuclear alterations and cell wall abnormalities were reported for diatoms exposed to toxic compounds. Nevertheless, the cellular mechanisms implicated in the development of such alterations and abnormalities remain unclear. Sensitivity to pesticides is known to be quite different among different diatom species. Eutrophic and small species are recognized for their tolerance to pesticides exposure. More pronounced cell defenses against oxidative stress may explain this absence of sensitivity in species of smaller physical size. Notwithstanding, on the whole, explaining the rationale behind tolerance variations among species has been quite difficult, thus far. In this context, the understanding of intracellular toxicity in diatoms and the relation between these intracellular effects and the disturbance of species composition in communities represent a key target for further research. The original community species structure determines the response of a diatom community to toxic agent exposure. Diatom communities that have species capable of switching from autotrophic to heterotrophic modes, when photosynthesis is inhibited (e.g., after pesticide exposure), can continue to grow, even in the presence of high pesticide pollution. How diatoms respond to toxic stress, and the degree to which they respond, also depends on cell and community health, on ecological interactions with other organisms, and on general environmental conditions. The general structural parameters of diatom communities (biomass, global cell density) are less sensitive to pesticide effects than are the specific structural parameters of the unicellular organisms themselves (cell density by species, species composition). For benthic species, biofilm development and grazing on this matrix as a source of food for invertebrates and fishes may also modify the response of diatom communities. Environmental parameters (light exposure, nutrient concentrations, and hydraulic conditions) affect, and often interfere with, the response of diatoms to pesticides. Therefore, the complexity of aquatic ecosystems and the complexity of pesticide to easily detect the effects of such pollutants on diatoms. Clearly more research will be required to address this problem.

Debenest T; Silvestre J; Coste M; Pinelli E

2010-01-01

258

BLENDS OF MICRO-ENCAPSULATED PESTICIDE FORMULATIONS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention is directed to micro-encapsulated formulations of soil-active pest control and agricultural chemicals such as herbicides, insecticides, nematicides and fungicides (pesticides) that combine a strong initial activity and a longer residual activity in the soil than provided by current micro-encapsulated formulations. These formulations are prepared by combining two separate suspensions of microcapsules, containing one or more pesticides, which were separately prepared under differing conditions and therefore have significantly different chemical properties and field release rates. The present invention, in particular, is useful for the herbicide clomazone, alone or in combination with other herbicides.

BAHR JAMES T

259

Public Health Implications of Pesticide Residues in Meat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. Since then various synthetic pesticides are used for protection of crops and public health. The persistence nature of some of these pesticides led to their accumulation in animal tissues and subsequently causes human dietary exposure to these pesticides through consumption of animal products viz. meat, milk, eggs and seafoods. Scientific evidence suggest that even such low dose but long term exposure can cause serious health hazards to human health and environment as well. The reports on occurrence of pesticides residues in animal products manufactured in India are fragmentary, but provide confirmation to the fact Indian consumers do get dietary exposure to these pesticides. The role of Insecticide Act and Prevention of Food Adulteration Act enforced in India for judicious pesticide use and safety of consumers of animal products is discussed. [Vet. World 2011; 4(4.000): 178-182

Jadhav V.J. and Waskar V.S.

2011-01-01

260

Exploration analytique des intoxications par les pesticides Analytical investigation in pesticide intoxication cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Du fait du nombre croissant d'intoxications par les pesticides, il est important de développer des méthodes performantes permettant l'identification et le dosage des molécules appartenant à l'ensemble des classes de pesticides. Dans ce but, nous avons développé une méthode de dosage originale et sensible de 61 pesticides dans les matrices biologiques. Cette méthode utilise une procédure d'extraction solide/liquide sur support polymérique (HLB and MCX) OASIS®. Le couplage chromatographie en phase gazeuse/spectrométrie de masse (GC/MS) est utilisé pour les pesticides volatils (organophosphorés, organochlorés, phtalimides, uraciles) et un couplage chromatographie en phase liquide/spectrométrie de masse (LC/MS) pour les pesticides polaires et thermolabiles (carbamates, benzimidazoles). L'acquisition est réalisée en mode fragmentométrique (SIM). Les rendements d'extraction varient selon la nature des pesticides dosés, mais restent satisfaisants pour l'ensemble des pesticides. Les limites de détection (LOD) et les limites de quantification (LOQ) sont réparties entre 2,5 et 20 ng/ml et de 5 à 50 ng/ml. La linéarité a été étudiée entre les différentes LOQ et 1000 ng/ml pour tous les pesticides étudiés. Les résultats sont reproductibles et répétables, avec une bonne précision et une bonne justesse. Des exemples d'intoxication permettent de montrer l'intérêt diagnostique de ces méthodes : deux cas d'intoxication mortelle à l'endosulfan et au carbofuran ; trois autres d'intoxication aiguë au parathion-éthyle, à la bifenthrine et à l'aldicarbe. Considering the huge use of pesticides on a worldwide basis, pesticides account for a small but increasing number of human acute and severe intoxication. However, intoxication cases attributed to pesticides are not always well diagnosed nor documented. In clinical and forensic toxicology, identification and quantification of the toxicants involved are essential for a good diagnosis. Hence, we developed an original and sensitive multiresidue methods for the detection and quantitation, in human biological matrices, of sixty one pesticides of toxicological significance in human. These methods involved rapid solid-phase extraction using new polymeric support (HLB and MCX) OASIS® cartridges. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used for volatile (organophosphate, organochlorine, phtalimide, uracil) pesticides and liquid chromatography-ionspray®-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) for thermolabile and polar pesticides (carbamates, benzimidazoles). Acquisition was performed in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Extraction recovery varied owing to the nature of pesticides but was satisfactory for all. Limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantitation (LOQs) ranged respectively from 2.5 to 20 ng/ml and from 5 to 50 ng/ml. An excellent linearity was observed from LOQs up to 1000 ng/ml for all the pesticides studied. The proposed procedures yielded reproducible results with good inter-assay accuracy and precision. A few cases of intoxication are presented to demonstrate the diagnostic interest of these methods : in two cases were determined lethal concentrations of endosulfan and carbofuran ; in three other cases, the procedures helped diagnose intoxication with respectively parathion-ethyl, bifenthrin and aldicarb.

Lacassie Éric; Marquet Pierre; Gaulier Jean-Michel; Dreyfuss Marie-Françoise; Lachâtre Gérard

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Use of pesticide simulation models for assessing pesticide contamination of surface and groundwater  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two field scale hydrologic and pesticide routing models, CREAMS (Chemicals, Runoff, and Erosion in Agricultural Management Systems) and PRZM (Pesticide Root Zone Model) were used to predict average pesticide concentrations in storm flow and unsaturated subsurface flow after application of forestry herbicides and insecticides. Forest regions in the mountain, Piedmont, and coastal plain physiographic provinces of the South provide important stream sources and groundwater recharge zones for municipal water supplies. Increasing use of herbicides and insecticides in forest management has raised concerns about maintaining future water quality. Thus tools for assessing potential contamination from pesticide use are needed. CREAMS accurately predicted herbicide concentrations in storm flow in mountain watersheds for 2 months. But it is underestimated concentrations for the next 4 months when transport processes not accounted for in the model dominated actual residue movement. PRZM was likewise tested with actual field data on subsurface movement of herbicides in mountain regions and insecticides in deep sands of the coastal plain.

Nutter, W.L.; Bush, P.B.; Neary, D.G.; Dowd, J.F.

1985-01-01

262

Pesticide use and cutaneous melanoma in pesticide applicators in the agricultural heath study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Melanoma rates continue to increase; however, few risk factors other than sun sensitivity and ultraviolet radiation (including sun exposure) have been identified. Although studies of farmers have shown an excess risk of melanoma and other skin cancers, it is unclear how much of this is related to sun exposure compared with other agricultural exposures. METHODS: We examined dose-response relationships for 50 agricultural pesticides and cutaneous melanoma incidence in the Agricultural Health Study cohort of licensed pesticide applicators, along with ever use of older pesticides that contain arsenic. Logistic regression was used to examine odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with pesticide exposure adjusted for age, sex, and other potential confounders. RESULTS: We found significant associations between cutaneous melanoma and maneb/mancozeb (>or= 63 exposure days: OR = 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2-4.9; trend p = 0.006), parathion (>or= 56 exposure days: OR = 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3-4.4; trend p = 0.003), and carbaryl (>or= 56 exposure days: OR = 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.5; trend p = 0.013). Other associations with benomyl and ever use of arsenical pesticides were also suggested. CONCLUSIONS: Most previous melanoma literature has focused on host factors and sun exposure. Our research shows an association between several pesticides and melanoma, providing support for the hypotheses that agricultural chemicals may be another important source of melanoma risk.

Dennis LK; Lynch CF; Sandler DP; Alavanja MC

2010-06-01

263

Comportement des pesticides ionisables dans les sols  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ionisable pesticides can be partially ionised within the range of natural soil pH and this strongly influences their reactivity in soils. This group includes important, worldwide contaminants of groundwater and surface waters. It is essential that their specific behaviour is recognised within risk a...

Kah, Mélanie; Brown, Colin D.

264

76 FR 55804 - Dicamba; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0496; FRL-8881-6] Dicamba; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...establishes tolerances for residues of dicamba in or on teff, forage; teff, grain...tolerance for residues of the herbicide dicamba, 3,6-dichloro-o-anisic...

2011-09-09

265

Decontamination of pesticide packing using ionizing radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Brazilian agriculture activities have consumed about 288,000 tons of pesticides per year conditioned in about 107,000,000 packing with weight of approximately 23,000 tons. The discharge of empty plastic packing of pesticides can be an environmental concern causing problems to human health, animals, and plants if done without inspection and monitoring. The objective of this work is to study the ionizing radiation effect in the main pesticides used in Brazil for plastic packing decontamination. Among the commercial pesticides, chlorpyrifos has significant importance because of its wide distribution and extensive use and persistence. The radiation-induced degradation of chlorpyrifos in liquid samples and in polyethylene pack was studied by gamma radiolysis. Packing of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) three layer coextruded, named COEX, contaminated with chlorpyrifos, were irradiated using both a multipurpose Co-60 gamma irradiator and a gamma source with 5000 Ci total activity Gamma cell type. The chemical analysis of the chlorpyrifos was made using a gas chromatography associated to the Mass Spectrometry-GCMS from Shimadzu Model QP 5000. Gamma radiation was efficient for removing chlorpyrifos from the plastic packing, in all studied cases

2007-01-01

266

STUDIES OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN'S EXPOSURES TO PESTICIDES  

Science.gov (United States)

Young children, especially those of the preschool ages, are hypothesized to have greater exposures than do older children or adults to persistent organic pesticides and other persistent organic pollutants, including some compounds that may have endocrine-disrupting effects or d...

267

Pesticide toxicity and the developing brain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organochlorine pesticides are used in some countries for malaria control and organophosphate pesticides are widely used in agriculture and in homes. Previous literature documents children's exposure to these chemicals both in utero and during development. Animal studies suggest that many of these chemicals are neurodevelopmental toxicants even in moderate doses, but there are few studies in human beings. Associations of children's pesticide exposure with neurodevelopment from studies being conducted worldwide are summarized. In addition, we present the work of the CHAMACOS study, a longitudinal birth cohort study of Mexican-American children living in the Salinas Valley of California. In this study, we investigated the relationship of children's neurodevelopment with maternal dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene serum levels, as well as prenatal and child organophosphate urinary metabolite levels. We have examined the association with children's performance on the Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scales and at 6, 12 and 24 months on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (mental development and psychomotor development) and mothers report on the Child Behaviour Checklist. We observed a negative association of prenatal dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane exposure and child mental development. We also observed adverse associations of prenatal but not postnatal organophosphate pesticide exposure with mental development and pervasive developmental disorder at 24 months. PMID:18226078

Eskenazi, Brenda; Rosas, Lisa G; Marks, Amy R; Bradman, Asa; Harley, Kim; Holland, Nina; Johnson, Caroline; Fenster, Laura; Barr, Dana B

2008-02-01

268

Pesticide toxicity and the developing brain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Organochlorine pesticides are used in some countries for malaria control and organophosphate pesticides are widely used in agriculture and in homes. Previous literature documents children's exposure to these chemicals both in utero and during development. Animal studies suggest that many of these chemicals are neurodevelopmental toxicants even in moderate doses, but there are few studies in human beings. Associations of children's pesticide exposure with neurodevelopment from studies being conducted worldwide are summarized. In addition, we present the work of the CHAMACOS study, a longitudinal birth cohort study of Mexican-American children living in the Salinas Valley of California. In this study, we investigated the relationship of children's neurodevelopment with maternal dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene serum levels, as well as prenatal and child organophosphate urinary metabolite levels. We have examined the association with children's performance on the Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scales and at 6, 12 and 24 months on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (mental development and psychomotor development) and mothers report on the Child Behaviour Checklist. We observed a negative association of prenatal dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane exposure and child mental development. We also observed adverse associations of prenatal but not postnatal organophosphate pesticide exposure with mental development and pervasive developmental disorder at 24 months.

Eskenazi B; Rosas LG; Marks AR; Bradman A; Harley K; Holland N; Johnson C; Fenster L; Barr DB

2008-02-01

269

76 FR 27261 - Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-1009; FRL-8873-2] Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...establishes tolerances for residues of propiconazole in or on multiple commodities which...time-limited tolerance for residues of propiconazole in or on avocado, in response to...

2011-05-11

270

DETERMINATION OF DITHIOCARBAMATE PESTICIDES IN WASTEWATERS  

Science.gov (United States)

A method was modified and validated for the determination of dithiocarbamate pesticides in wastewaters. The developed method consists of sample pH adjustment to pH 12.2; removal of indigenous CS2 by purging in a vortex evaporator; acidification of the sample to hydrolyze dithioca...

271

77 FR 45498 - Pyrimethanil; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0477; FRL-9354-7] Pyrimethanil; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...establishes tolerances for residues of pyrimethanil in or on multiple commodities which...tolerances for residues of the fungicide pyrimethanil (4,6-dimethyl-N-...

2012-08-01

272

Food and Drug Administration Pesticide Program Residue ...  

Science.gov (United States)

Text Version... (2) Pesticide Analytical Manual Volume I ... 7 28.6 0.0 Olives 45 75.6 4.4 2 Peaches ... 30 96.7 3.3 Vegetable oil, crude 1 100.0 0.0 Vegetable oil, refined ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/FoodSafety

273

Pesticide residue removal from vegetables by ozonation  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A novel machine was developed to remove pesticide residues from vegetables using ozone. This domestic-scale vegetable cleaner consists of a closed cleaning chamber, an ozone generator, a water recirculation pump, and an oxidation–reduction potential (ORP) electrode. Two vegetables, Chinese white cabbage and green-stem bok choy, and three pesticides, permethrin (trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate), chlorfluazuron (1-[3,5-dichloro-4-(3-chloro-5-trifluoromethyl-2-pyridyloxy)phenyl]-3-(2,6-difluorobenzoyl) urea), and chlorothalonil (tetrachloroisophthalonitrile) were used in tests. Cleaning for 15min with pump recirculation removed 51% of chlorfluazuron and 53% of chlorothalonil. When the ozone production rate was 250mg/h, removal efficiencies were 60% for chlorfluazuron and 55% for chlorothalonil, increases of 2–9% over pump recirculation only. When the ozone production rate was 500mg/h, removal efficiencies were 75% for chlorfluazuron and 77% for chlorothalonil; increases of 24% over pump recirculation only. After the ozone treatment, all the pesticide residuals met the Standards for Pesticide Residue Limits in Foods.

Chen JY; Lin YJ; Kuo WC

2013-02-01

274

77 FR 27130 - Ametoctradin; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0261; FRL-9339-6] Ametoctradin; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...establishes tolerances for residues of ametoctradin in or on multiple commodities which...tolerances for residues of the fungicide ametoctradin, including its metabolites and...

2012-05-09

275

75 FR 81878 - Imazosulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...non-dietary exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control...products containing imazosulfuron on home lawns. There is also a potential for post-application...loading and applying the pesticide on home lawns. Since a dermal endpoint of...

2010-12-29

276

78 FR 49932 - Emamectin; Pesticide Tolerance  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2012-0405; FRL-9395-6] Emamectin; Pesticide Tolerance AGENCY: Environmental...establishes a tolerance for residues of emamectin benzoate in or on wine grapes. Syngenta...tolerances for residues of the insecticide emamectin benzoate (a benzoate salt mixture...

2013-08-16

277

76 FR 76304 - Saflufenacil; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-1026; FRL-9325-2] Saflufenacil; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...establishes tolerances for residues of saflufenacil in or on Banana; Coffee, green bean...tolerances for residues of the herbicide saflufenacil, including its metabolites and...

2011-12-07

278

77 FR 67771 - Flonicamid; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0985; FRL-9368-7] Flonicamid; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...establishes tolerances for residues of flonicamid in or on Berry, low growing, subgroup...combined residues of the insecticide, flonicamid, N-(cyanomethyl)-4-...

2012-11-14

279

Utilization of poultry litter for pesticide bioremediation  

Science.gov (United States)

Agricultural chemical products such as pesticides have been used to increase crop production, especially in undeveloped countries. Poultry litter, the combination of feces and bedding materials, has also been used as an alternative to improve soil quality for crop production. However, information re...

280

78 FR 60707 - Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0307; FRL-9396-6] Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental...tolerance for residues of the herbicide glyphosate in or on canola, seed at 20 parts per...expression from the combined residues of glyphosate only, to the combined residues of...

2013-10-02

 
 
 
 
281

Occupational exposure through spraying remedial pesticides.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A total of 20 surveys at 15 sites of remedial in-situ timber and masonry treatment took place in the latter half of 1996. Two of these surveys concerned wall washes (biocides), the remainder were non-agricultural pesticides. The purpose was to measure the surface deposition and inhalation exposure of the operatives to the pesticide spray fluids used. The diluted spray fluids were found to have significantly different concentrations from those intended by the sprayer. The pesticides were applied at pressures between 320 and 1050 kPa. Deposition rates for spray fluid on coveralls covered a wide range, with more than 30 fold difference between the median and the highest results (median 209 mg/minute; range 27.4 to 6550 mg/min). Contamination of coveralls occurred in all surveys, with the pesticide getting beneath the coveralls in 95% of surveys, with a median 5% contamination beneath the overall. The averaged and normalised deposition pattern was 75% legs, 11% arms, 12% torso and 2% head. Exposure of hands to pesticide (expressed as spray fluid) beneath protective gloves occurred in 89% of surveys (median 5.78 mg/minute; range 0.23 to 358 mg/min) and contamination of socks by spray fluid in 78% of surveys (median 2.08 mg/minute; range 0.12 to 260 mg/min). Exposure by inhalation to spray fluid was measurable in 72% of surveys (median 53.5 mg/m3 TWA; range 4.33 to 1320 mg/m3; 2 data excluded). Inhalation exposure and deposition on coveralls rose markedly at spray pressures above 700 kPa (100 psi).

Garrod AN; Rimmer DA; Robertshaw L; Jones T

1998-04-01

282

[Pesticide residual status in litchi orchard soils in Guangdong, China].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Litchi is a famous tropical and subtropical fruit originated in South China. Guangdong is one of the most important litchi production areas in China. Two hundred and eight soil samples were collected in litchi orchards after harvesting the fruit, in which nine often-used pesticides including metalaxyl, mancozeb, carbendazim, deltamethrin, cypermethrin, cyhalothrin, dipterex, dimethoate and dichlorvos were detected. The results showed that the detectable rates of various pesticides were ranked cypermethrin (59.1%) > carbendazim (51.0%) > mancozeb (11.1%) > metalaxyl (6.7%) > cyhalothrin (3.4%). Dimethoate and dichlorvos were detectable in few soil samples, and deltamethrin and dipterex were undetectable in all samples. The percentages of soil samples where different pesticides could be detected in one sample followed the order: one pesticide detectable (40.4%) > two pesticides simultaneously detectable (31.3%) > pesticide undetectable (18.8%) > three pesticides simultaneously detectable (8.2%) > four pesticides simultaneously detectable (1.4%). The concentrations of mancozeb in detectable samples averaged 39.05 microg x kg(-1), and that of cypermethrin was 7.83 microg x kg(-1). The mean concentrations of the other five pesticides ranged from 0.19 microg x kg(-1) to 1.65 microg x kg(-1). Totally, the pesticide residue status in litchi orchards in Guangdong was venial.

Yao LX; Huang LX; Li GL; He ZH; Zhou CM; Yang BM; Guo B

2010-11-01

283

[Pesticide residual status in litchi orchard soils in Guangdong, China].  

Science.gov (United States)

Litchi is a famous tropical and subtropical fruit originated in South China. Guangdong is one of the most important litchi production areas in China. Two hundred and eight soil samples were collected in litchi orchards after harvesting the fruit, in which nine often-used pesticides including metalaxyl, mancozeb, carbendazim, deltamethrin, cypermethrin, cyhalothrin, dipterex, dimethoate and dichlorvos were detected. The results showed that the detectable rates of various pesticides were ranked cypermethrin (59.1%) > carbendazim (51.0%) > mancozeb (11.1%) > metalaxyl (6.7%) > cyhalothrin (3.4%). Dimethoate and dichlorvos were detectable in few soil samples, and deltamethrin and dipterex were undetectable in all samples. The percentages of soil samples where different pesticides could be detected in one sample followed the order: one pesticide detectable (40.4%) > two pesticides simultaneously detectable (31.3%) > pesticide undetectable (18.8%) > three pesticides simultaneously detectable (8.2%) > four pesticides simultaneously detectable (1.4%). The concentrations of mancozeb in detectable samples averaged 39.05 microg x kg(-1), and that of cypermethrin was 7.83 microg x kg(-1). The mean concentrations of the other five pesticides ranged from 0.19 microg x kg(-1) to 1.65 microg x kg(-1). Totally, the pesticide residue status in litchi orchards in Guangdong was venial. PMID:21250457

Yao, Li-Xian; Huang, Lian-Xi; Li, Guo-Liang; He, Zhao-Huan; Zhou, Chang-Min; Yang, Bao-Mei; Guo, Bin

2010-11-01

284

The greening of pesticide-environment interactions: some personal observations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Pesticide-environment interactions are bidirectional. The environment alters pesticides by metabolism and photodegradation, and pesticides in turn change the environment through nontarget or secondary effects. OBJECTIVES: Approximately 900 currently used commercial pesticides of widely diverse structures act by nearly a hundred mechanisms to control insects, weeds, and fungi, usually with minimal disruption of nature's equilibrium. Here I consider some aspects of the discovery, development, and use of ecofriendly or green pesticides (i.e., pesticides that are safe, effective, and biodegradable with minimal adverse secondary effects on the environment). Emphasis is given to research in my laboratory. DISCUSSION: The need for understanding and improving pesticide-environment interactions began with production of the first major insecticide approximately 150 years ago: The arsenical poison Paris Green was green in color but definitely not ecofriendly. Development and use of other pesticides has led to a variety of problems. Topics considered here include the need for high purity [e.g., hexachlorocyclohexane and polychloroborane isomers and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T)], environmental degradation and the bioactivity of resulting photoproducts and metabolites, pesticide photochemistry (including the use of structural optimization, photostabilizers, and photosensitizers to achieve suitable persistence), the presence of multiple active ingredients in botanical insecticides, the need to consider compounds with common mechanisms of action, issues related to primary and secondary targets, and chemically induced or genetically modified changes in plant biochemistry. Many insecticides are bird, fish, and honeybee toxicants, whereas herbicides and fungicides pose fewer environmental problems. CONCLUSION: Six factors have contributed to the greening of pesticide-environment interactions: advances in pesticide chemistry and toxicology, banning of many chlorinated hydrocarbons, the development of new biochemical targets, increased reliance on genetically modified crops that reduce the amount and variety of pesticides applied, emphasis on biodegradability and environmental protection, and integrated pest- and pesticide-management systems.

Casida JE

2012-04-01

285

40 CFR 158.2030 - Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.  

Science.gov (United States)

...product chemistry data requirements table. 158.2030 Section 158.2030 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2030 Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data...

2009-07-01

286

Stream habitat structure influences macroinvertebrate response to pesticides  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Agricultural pesticide contamination in surface waters is increasingly threatening to impair the surface water ecosystems. Agricultural streams are furthermore often heavily maintained to optimise the transport of water away from fields. The physical habitat degradation that result from heavy stream maintenance probably introduce additional stress that may act in concert with pesticide stress. We surveyed pesticide contamination and macroinvertebrate community structure in 14 streams along a gradient of expected pesticide exposure. A paired-reach approach was applied to differentiate the effects of pesticides between sites with degraded and more undisturbed physical properties. The effect of pesticides on macroinvertebrate communities (measured as the relative abundance of SPEcies At Risk) was increased at stream sites with degraded physical habitats primarily due to the absence of species with specific preferences for habitats with hard substrate. Our findings highlight the importance of considering physicalhabitat degradation in the assessment and mitigation of risk in agricultural streams.

Rasmussen, Jes; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter

2012-01-01

287

Current Status of Botanical Pesticides for Crop Protection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The problems caused by synthetic pesticides have led the need for effective biodegradable pesticides withgreater selectivity. Botanical pesticides are generally recognized as safe in agriculture systems. Thus, theyhave been regarded as attractive alternatives to synthetic chemical pesticides for the pest management. Bothlower efficacy and higher costs of production make botanicals more expensive to use than conventionalpesticides. Moreover, only a small portion of plant-derived metabolites among a number of bioactivemetabolites are in use because commercialization of botanicals is inhibited by several problems such astoxicity, or high production cost. However, with the growing acceptance of botanical pesticides as an efficientcrop protection alternative resulting in increasing demand, plant-based pesticides will play a significant rolein achieving sustainable agriculture in future.

Quang Le Dang; Chi Hwan Lim; Jin-Cheol Kim

2012-01-01

288

Pesticide residues in locally available cereals and vegetables  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vegetable samples (pechay, cabbage, lettuce, green beans and tomatoes) bought from public markets in the Metro Manila area were analyzed for pesticide residues using gas chromatography. The samples analyzed in 1968-69 contained high levels of chlorinated pesticides such as DDT, Aldrin, Endrin, and Thiodan, while in the samples analyzed in January 1976, no chlorinated and organophosphate pesticides were detected. Cereal samples (rice, corn and sorghum) were obtained from the National Grains Authority and analyzed for pesticide residues and bromine residues. Total bromine residues was determined by neutron activation analysis. In most of the samples analyzed, the concentrations of pesticide residues were below the tolerance levels set by the FAO/WHO Committee on Pesticide Residues in Foods. An exception was one rice sample from Thailand, the bromine residue content (110ppm) of which exceeds the tolerance level of 50ppm

1976-01-01

289

Characterization of pesticide-?-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes in aqueous solution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The solubility of four different pesticides, "dimethoate", "simazine" "linuron" and "thiram", poorly soluble or non-soluble in water, were measured in water and in aqueous solution of ?-cyclodextrin by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Standard water solutions of pesticides were prepared in the range of concentrations up to the maximum solubility of each pesticide in water. Concentrations of the pesticides were determined as absorbance on the absorption maximum. The obtained results show that the aqueous solution of ?-cyclodextrin was a powerful solubilizer of investigated pesticides due to the formation of inclusion complexes. Effective solubility of some of the pesticides in aqueous ?-cyclodextrin solution was up to three orders of magnitude higher than those in water. Thermodynamic parameters and complex stability constant of the obtained inclusion complexes were determined by the calorimetric measurements.

Petrovi? Goran M.; Stoj?eva-Radovanovi? Blaga; Jovanovi? O.

2005-01-01

290

The Processes that Determine the Fate of Pesticides in Soil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pesticides are an inevitable part of the environment, because due to the intensive use their remains are frequently detected in nature, particularly in the soil. Regardless the way pesticides get into the soil, their further fate will depend on many factors. Given the complexity of interactions of pesticides and soil, and the fact that the intensity of interaction of the same compound with different soil types is different, the studies of the influence of most important soil parameters on the mentioned interactions are becoming more numerous. In this paper are presented the processes that determine the fate of pesticides in the soil, as well as the factors that affect these processes. A special emphasis is placed on theadsorption processes, since they determine the concentration of free fraction of pesticide molecules, i.e. of pesticide quantity that may participate in detoxification processes including degradation and mobility.

Rada ?urovi?

2011-01-01

291

Influence of different disease control pesticide strategies on multiple pesticide residue levels in apple  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Seven pesticide application strategies were investigated to control apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) and powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) and, at the same time.. fulfil the new quality standards implemented by some German retailers. These demand that pesticide residues should be below 80% of European Maximum Residue Levels (EU MRL) and that the number of residues present at levels above 0.01 mg kg(-1) should be limited to a maximum of four. The strategies fulfilled the requirement to use combinations of different active substances in order to prevent the emergence of resistance to pesticides. The trials were conducted at two sites in Switzerland, in 2007, and all strategies and applications were in accordance with actual practice. Four replicates of apple samples from each strategy were then analysed for pesticide residues. The incidence of infection with apple scab and powdery mildew were monitored during the season in order to evaluate the efficacy of the different strategies. The efficacies of the different strategies against apple scab and powdery mildew were between 84% and 100% successful. In general, the level of pesticide residues found correlated with application rate and time, and no measured residue level exceeded the EU-MRL. The numbers of residues present at > 0.01 mg kg(-1) were between two and five.

Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Naef, A.

2009-01-01

292

Estimating the biodegradation of pesticide in soils by monitoring pesticide-degrading gene expression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Assessing in situ microbial abilities of soils to degrade pesticides is of great interest giving insight in soil filtering capability, which is a key ecosystem function limiting pollution of groundwater. Quantification of pesticide-degrading gene expression by reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was tested as a suitable indicator to monitor pesticide biodegradation performances in soil. RNA extraction protocol was optimized to enhance the yield and quality of RNA recovered from soil samples to perform RT-qPCR assays. As a model, the activity of atrazine-degrading communities was monitored using RT-qPCRs to estimate the level of expression of atzD in five agricultural soils showing different atrazine mineralization abilities. Interestingly, the relative abundance of atzD mRNA copy numbers was positively correlated to the maximum rate and to the maximal amount of atrazine mineralized. Our findings indicate that the quantification of pesticide-degrading gene expression may be suitable to assess biodegradation performance in soil and monitor natural attenuation of pesticide.

Monard C; Martin-Laurent F; Lima O; Devers-Lamrani M; Binet F

2013-04-01

293

Analytical methods for pesticide residue determination in bee products.  

Science.gov (United States)

Monitoring pesticide residues in honey, wax, and bees helps to assess the potential risk of these products to consumer health and gives information on the pesticide treatments that have been used on the field crops surrounding the hives. The present review seeks to discuss the basic principles and recent developments in pesticide analysis in bee products and their application in monitoring programs. Consideration is given to extraction, cleanup, chromatographic separation, and detection techniques. PMID:12233867

Fernández, M; Picó, Y; Mañes, J

2002-09-01

294

Analytical methods for pesticide residue determination in bee products.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Monitoring pesticide residues in honey, wax, and bees helps to assess the potential risk of these products to consumer health and gives information on the pesticide treatments that have been used on the field crops surrounding the hives. The present review seeks to discuss the basic principles and recent developments in pesticide analysis in bee products and their application in monitoring programs. Consideration is given to extraction, cleanup, chromatographic separation, and detection techniques.

Fernández M; Picó Y; Mañes J

2002-09-01

295

Pesticide use knowledge and practices: A gender differences in Nepal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is important to understand gender difference on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices for identifying pesticide risks by gender and to recommend more gender-sensitive programs. However, very few studies have been conducted so far in Nepal. This study, thus, interviewed a total of 325 males and 109 females during 2005 to assess gender differences on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices. More than 50% females had never been to school and only

2007-01-01

296

What's being used at home: a household pesticide survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective. Since very little is known about the health effects that household pesticides have on children, we conducted this survey to identify what pesticides are being used in the home, where they are being used and stored, and what methods are used for their disposal. Methods. In the spring of 1999 we conducted a survey in a community in the state of Arizona, in the United States of America, on the border with Mexico. To be eligible to participate in the survey, households had to have used a pesticide in the 6 mo prior to the survey and to have at least one child under the age of 10 years. We gathered general information on pesticide usage, storage, and disposal, in addition to specific information about each of the pesticides currently being used and/or stored in the home. Results. In the 107 households surveyed, we found 148 pesticide products, for a mean of 1.4 per household. Half of the pesticides were stored less than 4 feet (1.22 m) from the ground, at a level a child could reach. Seventy percent of all the pesticides were stored inside the home, with the kitchen being the storage room most often mentioned. The kitchen was also the room where most of the pesticides were used, with 69% of the respondents saying they had used at least one pesticide there. Conclusions. From our research we conclude that it will be important to continue to investigate all avenues of pesticide exposure in order to fully evaluate childhood exposures. Understanding household pesticide use and developing a model of exposure will help in this process. Profiles of the use, storage, and disposal of products will also guide the development of effective education and poison prevention programs in the community.

Bass Judith K.; Ortega Luis; Rosales Cecilia; Petersen Norman J.; Philen Rossanne M.

2001-01-01

297

[Organochlorine pesticide residues in human adipose tissue in Costa Rica  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Organochlorine pesticide residues were found in 82 samples of human adipose material from 82 surgical cases in 16 Costa Rica hospitals. Identification was made by gas-liquid chromatography. The highest pesticide concentration was that of DDT and its metabolites (33.16 micrograms/g). Residues of almost all commercial pesticides were also found. Concentrations of alpha-chlordane. Aldrin and Polychlorinated biphenyls were not significant.

Barquero M; Constenla MA

1986-06-01

298

Compound pesticide containing buprofezin and acetamiprid and use thereof  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a combined pesticide made from buprofezin and acetamiprid and the application thereof the combined pesticide has a comparatively excellent preventing and controlling effect on plant hopper, aphid, leafhopper, coccid and the like, and has little influence on environment at the same time. The combined pesticide of the invention is combined by buprofezin and acetamiprid according to the weight proportion of 30:1 to 1:30.

GUIMEI ZHU; YILOU PAN; JINGHUI YANG; HONGZHOU CHEN

299

Note on pesticide residues as a function of formulation used  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The total quantities of pesticides needed for adequate pest control may be minimized by the correct choice of methods of formulation and application. This will diminish the total burden of residues in the environment but not necessarily in the crop. Radiolabelled pesticides are useful for small-scale and laboratory tests to elucidate the principles which determine the behaviour of pesticides in the environment and to check analytical methods used for field-scale tests. (author).

1976-01-01

300

77 FR 23245 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Notice of Public Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

...represented on the PPDC: Pesticide industry and trade associations; environmental/ public interest, consumer, and animal rights groups; farm worker organizations; pesticide user, grower, and commodity groups; Federal and...

2012-04-18

 
 
 
 
301

Water pollution: Pesticides in Aquatic environments. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the physicochemical and biochemical dynamics of pesticides in aquatic environments. The effects of organophosphorus, organochlorine, and arsenical pesticides on marine, surface, and groundwater ecosystems are discussed. Topics include biological fate and transformation of pesticides in waters, sources of release and transport of pesticides, bioaccumulation and metabolism of pesticides by aquatic organisms, ecological concentration and degradability of pesticides in model ecosystems, and marine ecology. Guidelines for pesticide registration and pesticide effluents are also referenced. (Contains a minimum of 205 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

1993-01-01

302

Monitoring pesticide use and associated health hazards in Central America.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We established methods for monitoring pesticide use and associated health hazards in Central America. With import data from Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama for 2000-2004, we constructed quantitative indicators (kg active ingredient) for general pesticide use, associated health hazards, and compliance with international regulations. Central America imported 33 million kg active ingredient per year. Imports increased 33% during 2000-2004. Of 403 pesticides, 13 comprised 77% of the total pesticides imported. High volumes of hazardous pesticides are used; 22% highly/extremely acutely toxic, 33% moderately/severely irritant or sensitizing, and 30% had multiple chronic toxicities. Of the 41 pesticides included in the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), the Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed Consent (PIC), the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, the Pesticide Action Network (PAN) Dirty Dozen, and the Central American Dirty Dozen, 16 (17% total volume) were imported, four being among the 13 most imported pesticides. Costa Rica is by far the biggest consumer. Pesticide import data are good indicators of use trends and an informative source to monitor hazards and, potentially, the effectiveness of interventions.

Bravo V; Rodríguez T; van Wendel de Joode B; Canto N; Calderón GR; Turcios M; Menéndez LA; Mejía W; Tatis A; Abrego FZ; de la Cruz E; Wesseling C

2011-07-01

303

National survey of pesticides in groundwater in New Zealand : 2002  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A total of 133 wells throughout New Zealand were sampled for the 2002 National Survey of Pesticides in Groundwater. The survey objectives were to provide a national overview of pesticides in New Zealand's groundwater systems, to examine changes with time from earlier surveys, and to examine factors linked with pesticide contamination. The samples were screened for atrazine in the laboratory using an ELISA test kit and, as a result of this screening, samples positive for atrazine were analysed for 58 different pesticides using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). Blind duplicate samples (6%) and quality control samples (17% of the negative ELISA screen samples) were also analysed by GCMS. Three regional councils carried out their own pesticide surveys around the same time but submitted the samples for analysis to a different laboratory. Their results are included to give a national perspective. Pesticides were detected in 28 wells (21%), with 13 wells (10%) having two or more pesticides detected. There were one or more wells with pesticides detected in nine of the 15 regions. No pesticides were detected in wells from the Northland, Hawke's Bay, Manawatu-Wanganui, Taranaki, Wellington, and West Coast regions. None of the wells in the 2002 survey had pesticides at levels above the maximum acceptable value (MAV) for drinking water (Ministry of Health 2000). Twenty-one different pesticides were detected, including two triazine metabolites, usually at very low concentrations. Only three detections were at levels exceeding 1 mg m3. Thirty-nine out of the 58 pesticide detections (67%) belonged to the triazine group. As would be expected there were significant differences between wells with and without detected pesticides in factors associated with well or screen depth, and depth of water above the screen. In addition, lower groundwater temperatures and higher nitrate levels were associated with the increased detection of pesticides. A comparison with earlier surveys indicates that pesticide detections have been relatively stable over the past 12 years. After an adjustment to common reporting limits (reporting limits were substantially lower during later surveys), the overall frequency of pesticide detections were as follows: 1990 (7%), 1994 (13.6%), 1998 (11%), and 2002 (9%). (author). 22 refs., 4 tabs

2000-01-00

304

78 FR 59347 - Pesticides; Revised Fee Schedule for Registration Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

...Microbial and biochemical pesticides, straight chain lepidopteran pheromones (SCLPs), and PIPs. Within each table, the types...Pollution Prevention Division--Straight Chain Lepidopteran Pheromones...

2013-09-26

305

Physicochemical study of the sorption of pesticides by wood components.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The sorption-desorption and interaction mechanisms of three non-ionic (linuron, alachlor, and metalaxyl) and two ionic (paraquat and dicamba) pesticides by three commercial lignins (hydrophobic macromolecule) and cellulose (hydrophilic macromolecule) as wood components were studied. Wood is a low-cost and environmentally friendly material proposed in recent years to immobilize pesticides in soils. The influence of sorbent and pesticide properties and the identification of the functional groups of the organic molecules involved in sorption were evaluated by a statistical approach and by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The sorption isotherms of non-ionic pesticides by the lignins and cellulose fit the Freundlich model, and those of the ionic pesticides also fit the Langmuir model. The sorption constants of pesticides by cellulose were 62-, 9-, 24-, 119-, and 3-fold lower than those for the sorption by lignins. A predictive model of pesticide sorption indicated that 88.5% of the variability in the sorption coefficient normalized to the organic carbon content could be explained in terms of the variability of the polarity index and the octanol-water partition coefficient of sorbent and sorbate. The greater irreversibility observed for ionic pesticides was attributed to the involvement of simultaneous interaction mechanisms. The results obtained contribute the knowledge of sorption capacity of pesticides by lignin/cellulose, the main components of woods and ubiquitous materials in the environment.

Rodríguez-Cruz MS; Valderrábano M; Del Hoyo C; Sánchez-Martín MJ

2009-03-01

306

Bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides in aquatic system--an overview.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In recent years, various environmental issues have aroused a concern on the pollution of pesticides in rivers and in their various intercompartments. Multiple residues of pesticides discharged from industries or as a result of extensive use of agrochemicals in agriculture have been monitored. These pesticide residues contaminate the river ecosystem and its intercompartments such as sediments, and aquatic biota, and make it harmful to humans when they contaminate food and drinking water. The pesticide contamination in water, sediments, and aquatic biota has been reported to be beyond the acceptable range. The most commonly found pesticides are organochlorine, namely, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, hexachlorocyclohexane, endosulfan, heptachlor, lindane, dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, and others. The paper discusses the general description, classification, and toxicity of pesticides; it also aims to create public awareness among people and appraise them with various alternate methods to combat the problem of pesticide contamination. An attempt has also been made to elucidate the findings of various works on pesticides in aquatic system and to highlight the challenging aspects of pesticide contamination, which have not attracted the attention of investigators yet.

Chopra AK; Sharma MK; Chamoli S

2011-02-01

307

Pesticide exposures and multiple myeloma in Iowa men.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A population-based case-control study of 173 White men with multiple myeloma (MM) and 650 controls was conducted in Iowa (United States), an area with a large farming population, to evaluate the association between MM, agricultural risk factors, and exposure to individual pesticides. A slight nonsignificantly elevated risk for MM was seen among farmers (odds ratio [OR] = 1.2, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 0.8-1.7). Although slight excesses were observed, there were no significant associations between MM and handling either classes of pesticides or specific pesticides. Thus, this study found little evidence to suggest an association between risk of MM and farming or pesticides.

Brown LM; Burmeister LF; Everett GD; Blair A

1993-03-01

308

Pesticide composition containing spinosad and application thereof  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a pesticide composition containing spinosad, which comprises two active ingredients A and B, wherein A is the spinosad, and B is one selected from new nicotine compounds such as nitenpyram, acetaniprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran and imidaclothiz and based on the weight of the active ingredients, the proportion between the components A and B in parts by weight is 1:100-100:1. The pesticide composition has the function(s) of synergy and/or expansion of prevention and treatment spectrum, can be prepared into missible oil, wetting powder, microemulsion, emulsion in water,suspending agent and water dispersible granules, and is used for controlling pests such as thysanoptera, homoptera, diptera, lepidoptera and the like.

FAN CHEN; GUANGWEI SHENG; MINGZHANG CAO; QIYIN JIANG; CHAOAI ZHOU

309

Biodegradation of Organophosphate Pesticide by Soil Fungi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study using enrichment technique biodegradation of organophosphorous pesticide, (Chloropyrifos and Ethion) was performed. Two fungal isolates Trichoderma harznaium and Rhizopus nodosus isolated from the contaminated soil by enrichment technique, was capable of metabolizing the organophosphorous insecticide (Chloropyriofos and Ethion) as a sole carbon source when grown in burkes mineral medium at concentration of 100 PPM respectively. Fungi were able to degrade 70-80% of the parental molecule (technical grade) in 21 days period of incubation. Further, efficiency of degradation was increased by 10-20% with the supplementation of 0.1% dextrose to the mineral media. Desertion of Chloropyrifos, Ethion and its metabolites were analyzed by thin layer chromatography and gas Chromatography. It was evident from the result that the isolated fungi could be used to bioremediate the area contaminated with organophosphorous pesticide.

Harish.R; Supreeth.M; Jyoti Bala Chauhan

2013-01-01

310

PESTICIDAL COMPOSITION AND METHOD FOR CONTROLLING PEST  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To provide a pesticidal composition which controls a pest undesirable for cultivation of a useful crop plant or a useful plant. A pesticidal composition comprising the following (component A) and the following (component B) as active ingredients: (component A): one or more compounds selected from 3-arylphenyl sulfide derivatives represented by the formula [I]: (component A): wherein R is a C2-C6 alkyl group which may be substituted, or the like, each of B0, B1, B2 and B3 which are independent of one another, is a hydrogen atom, a halogen atom or a haloalkyl group, n is an integer of from 0 to 2, and Ar is a phenyl group, a pyrazolyl group or a triazolyl group, (component B): one or more compounds selected from the group consisting of triazamate, butocarboxim, butoxycarboxim, chromafenozide, halofenozide, cyflumetofen, prallethrin, acetoprole, ethiprole, methamidophos, flonicamid, pyridalyl, flufenerim, flubendiamide, tebufenozide, fenazaquin and cyenopyrafen.

ITO YOSHIHIRO; NAKANO YUKI

311

Pesticidal Active Mixtures Comprising Aminothiazoline Compounds  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pesticidal mixtures comprising aminothiazoline compounds The present invention relates to pesticidal mixtures comprising as active compounds 1) at least one aminothiazoline compound I of the Formula (I) wherein R1, R2, R3, R4, R5 and R6 are defined in the description and 2) at least one active compound II selected from a group A comprising acetylcholine esterase inhibitors, GABA-gated chloride channel antagonists, sodium channel modulators, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists/antagonists, chloride channel activators, juvenile hormone mimics, compounds affecting the oxidative phosphorylation, inhibitors of the chitin biosynthesis, moulting disruptors, inhibitors of the MET, voltage-dependent sodium channelblockers, inhibitors of the lipidsynthesis and other compounds as defined in the description, in synergistically effective amounts. The invention relates further to methods and use of these mixtures for combating insects, arachnids or nematodes in and on plants, and for protecting such plants being infested with pests, especially also for protecting seeds.

LANGEWALD JUERGEN; KORDES MARKUS; CULBERTSON DEBORAH L; ANSPAUGH DOUGLAS D

312

Pesticidal active mixtures comprising aminothiazoline compounds  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a pesticidal mixtures comprising aminothiazoline compounds. The present invention relates to pesticidal mixtures comprising as active compounds 1) at least one aminothiazoline compound I of the Formula (I) wherein R<1>, R<2 >, R<3>, R<4>, R<5> and R<6> are defined in the description and 2) at least one active compound II selected from a group A comprising acteylcholine esterase inhibitors, GABA-gated chloride channel antagonists, sodium channel modulators, nicotinic acteylcholine receptor agonists/antagonists, chloride channel activators, juvenile hormone mimics, compounds affecting the oxidative phosphorylation, inhibitors of the chitin biosynthesis, moulting disruptors, inhibitors of the MET, voltage-dependent sodium channelblockers, inhibitors of the lipidsynthesis and other compounds as defined in the description, in synergistically effective amounts. The invention relates further to methods and use of these mixtures for combating insects, arachnids or nematodes in and on plants, and for protecting such plants being infested with pests, especially also for protecting seeds.

JUERGEN LANGEWALD; MARKUS KORDES; CULBERTSON DEBORAH L; ANSPAUGH DOUGLAS D

313

Indoor pesticide experiments on controlling Pristiphora erichsonii  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The results of indoor pesticide experiments on controlling the second to third-instar larva of Pristiphora erichsonii by 4 kinds of insecticides showed that the effects of the 4 insecticides were all significant; the best insecticide was mechamidopno latex (50%), which resulted in a mortality of 55% or more in 24 h and up to 100% in 48 h, while the lethal action of dimilin-3, dichloves latex (50%) and omethoate (40%) had the weaker effects on the insect.

Xie Shouan; Lu Shujie; Hou Qiushi; Li Caimian

2001-01-01

314

AQUEOUS SUSPENSION-TYPE PESTICIDE COMPOSITION  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An aqueous suspension-type pesticide compositon which contains (a) ethyl (R)-2-[4-(6-chloroquinoxalin-2-yloxy)phenoxy]propionate containing beta-crystals at a proportion of more than 80 % by weight; (b) surfactants; and (c) water. The composition sustains a high fluidity even under severe storage conditions, is reduced in the growth of the contained quizalofop-ethyl grains, and has an excellent storage stability.

SHIO Katsushi;; SUZUKI Shoji;; MATSUMOTO Naoki;

315

Effects of fertilizer and pesticides on concrete  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Concrete is the most common material of construction for secondary containment of fertilizers and pesticides because of its relative low cost and structural properties. Concrete, however, is porous to some products it is designed to contain and is subject to corrosion. In this paper, concrete deterioration mechanisms and corrosion resistant concrete formulation are discussed, as well as exposure tests of various concrete mixes to some common liquid fertilizers and herbicides.

Broder, M.F.; Nguyen, D.T.; Harner, A.L. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, AL (United States)

1994-12-31

316

Occurrence of organochlorine pesticides in indoor dust  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Organochlorine pesticides are present in the environment and suspected of causing serious health effects. Diet has been the main exposure source, but indoor source release is gaining focus. Within a monitoring study of polychlorinated biphenyls of Danish buildings built during the 1960s and 1970s, we coincidently determined extreme levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) levels in two of ten random samples. This raises concern and further large scale investigations are warranted to confirm this.

Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Mayer, Philipp

2011-01-01

317

Haematologic Indices in Pesticide Factory Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of pesticides on blood indices of subjects which are exposed to organophosphate toxins. This research was a cohort study which was carried out during 2005 on the employee of a pesticide factory in Golestan province (North of Iran). In this study the sampling from 63 subjects was carried out for two sessions in days 1 and 90. CBC and hematologic indices performed by cell counter instrument. The mean of MCV in phase 1 was 82.8±7.1 fl and in second phase the MCV was 80.3±6.7 fl. This drop in MCV statistically was meaningful (paired t-test, mean = 2.5, 95% CI=2.0-2.9, p<0.001). Erythrocyte number, hemoglobin, HCT and MCHC increase in second phase compared to first phase statistically was meaningful. There was not any significant relation between the place of work and variation of red blood cell indices. In regard to the changes in hematologic indices in workers of pesticide factory in a three months period, it seems logical to set up a program to have a routine check on the hematologic indices in working personal engaging in such occupations.

Hamid Reza Joshaghani; Azad Reza Mansourian; Khodaberdi Kalavi; Saideh Salimi

2007-01-01

318

[Prenatal exposure to organochlorine pesticides and cryptorchidism].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fetuses and children are more susceptible to the effects of environmental toxins. The objective of this article is to determine the levels of organochlorine pesticides (HCB, ss-HCH, pp'DDT, op'DDT and pp'DDE) in the serum lipids of mothers of newborns with cryptorchidism and compare the levels to a control group of mothers of newborns with descended testicles. The cases were composed of newborns with cryptorchidism (n=41), and the controls (n=41) newborns with descended testicles. Blood samples from both groups of mothers were used to determine the organochlorine pesticide levels. Cryptorchidism was diagnosed at birth by a neonatologist. The results showed that the organochlorine pesticide residues were found in the serum lipids of both groups of mothers. The median serum lipid levels (mgkg-1 lipid-based) were statistically higher for the metabolites pp'DDT (0.464 vs. 0.269) and ss-HCH (0.263 vs. 0.192) in the cryptorchidism group compared to the control group (p<0.01). It could be concluded that the levels of the metabolites pp'DDT and ss-HCH are higher among mothers of newborns with cryptorchidism. It is possible that substances with anti-androgenic effects could produce endocrine disruption, such as cryptorchidism, during fetal development.

Bustamante Montes LP; Waliszewski S; Hernández-Valero M; Sanín-Aguirre L; Infanzón-Ruiz RM; Jañas AG

2010-06-01

319

[Organochlorine pesticide residues in cow's milk, Nicaragua  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This work reports on a preliminary study carried out in Nicaragua to build a profile of the contamination of cow's milk with 10 organochlorine pesticides and make recommendations based on the findings. Between December 1993 and March 1994, milk samples were collected from 48 different sites in the country. The samples were analyzed for residues of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-BHC, lindane, aldrin, dieldrin, oxychlordane, heptachlor epoxide, and the principal metabolites of DDT (p,p'-TDE, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT) by means of solid-phase extraction from milk fat, and the quantity of the residues was determined by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Heptachlor epoxide was found in 1 milk sample, dieldrin in 1, lindane in 3, oxychlordane in 3, alpha-BHC in 3, aldrin in 6, HCB in 9, and metabolites of DDT in 39 (81% of the samples). The six samples most heavily contaminated with by-products of DDT came from the departments of León and Chinandega, in the Pacific region, where there used to be intensive cotton production. The highest concentration was found in the sample from Malpaisillo, with 1105 micrograms of pesticide per kg of milk fat. The authors recommend that studies should be done so that the risk of contamination of other food products can be estimated, and that the public's health should be protected through strict control of the production or importation, storage, sale, and use of organochlorine pesticides.

Zapata Morán AL; Santamaría Ríos MM; Alvarez Irías M; Salazar Vanegas S; Müller U

1996-06-01

320

Assessing the ecotoxicity of pesticide transformation products.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Once released to the environment, pesticides may be degraded by abiotic and biotic processes. While parent compounds are assessed in detail in many regulatory schemes, the requirements for the assessment of transformation products are less well developed. This study was therefore performed to explore the relationships between the toxicity of transformation products and their parent compounds and to develop a pragmatic approach for use in the risk assessment of transformation products. Data were obtained on the properties and ecotoxicity of transformation products arising from a wide range of pesticides. Generally, transformation products were less toxic to fish, daphnids, and algae than their parent compound. In instances where a product was more toxic, the increase in toxicity could be explained by either (1) the presence of a pesticide toxicophore; (2) the fact that the product is the active part of a propesticide; (3) the product is accumulated to a greater extent than the parent compound; or (4) the product has a more potent mode of action than the parent. On the basis of the findings, an approach has been proposed to estimate the ecotoxicity of transformation products based on chemical structure and data on the toxicity of the parent compound. The assessments can be performed at an early stage in the risk assessment process to identify those substances that require further testing.

Sinclair CJ; Boxall AB

2003-10-01

 
 
 
 
321

Pesticide use and economic impacts on health.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the externalities associated with acute poisoning from pesticides. METHODS: The probabilities of acute poisoning were estimated according to characteristics of rural properties and cities in the state of Paraná, Southern Brazil. Information about acute poisoning obtained from the 1998-1999 Harvest Forecast Survey was used. The expected costs with poisoning in these properties were calculated from the sum of medical-hospital expenses and days spent on sick leaves, required for the recovery of intoxicated individuals. A multilevel model was constructed for the analysis. RESULTS: The costs associated with acute poisoning can total up to US$ 149 million for the state of Paraná, i.e. for each dollar spent to purchase pesticides in this state, approximately US$ 1.28 may be spent with the external costs of poisoning. This situation could be changed with the implementation of public policies, such as the adoption of an organic agriculture promotion program in the cities where the social cost with acute poisoning could be reduced by approximately US$ 25 million. CONCLUSIONS: Society, especially the populations mainly affected by pesticides, could be benefited by the identification and elimination of the risks of acute intoxication associated with the current model. It is necessary to implement public policies and integrated actions that involve the fields of economics, public health, agronomy, environmental issues, education, and science and technology, among others.

Soares WL; Porto MF

2012-04-01

322

Pesticidal Mixtures Comprising Cyanosulfoximine Compounds and Spinetoram  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pesticidal mixtures comprising Spinetoram and cyanosulfoximine compounds The invention relates to pesticidal mixtures comprising as active compounds 1) at least one cyanosulfoximine compound I of the formula I wherein X is Cl or CF3 and spinetoram in synergistically effective amounts and optionally 3) one active compound II selected from a group A comprising acteylcholine esterase inhibitors, GABA-gated chloride channel antagonists, sodium channel modulators, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists/antagonists, chloride channel activators, juvenile hormone mimics, compounds affecting the oxidative phosphorylation, inhibitors of the chitin biosynthesis, moulting disruptors, inhibitors of the MET, voltage-dependent sodium channel blockers, inhibitors of the lipid synthesis and other compounds as defined in the description 4) one active fungicidal compounds III selected from azoles, strobilurins, carboxamides, carbamates, heterocyclic and various other compounds as defined in the description. The invention relates further to methods and use of these pesticidal mixtures for combating insects, arachnids or nematodes and harmful fungis in and on plants, and for protecting such plants being infested with pests and also for protecting seeds.

BREUNINGGER DELPHINE; BASETIAANS HENRICUS MARIA MARTINUS; DEYN WOLFGANG VON; PAULINI RALPH; LANGEWALD JUEGEN; HADEN EGON

323

Storm-driven pesticide dynamics in a catchment system  

Science.gov (United States)

Loss of pesticides from agricultural land in runoff and subsurface flow during rainfall events poses a significant concern for water quality, with adverse effects on drinking water and aquatic life. Pesticide mobilisation and transport is affected by runoff and erosion processes which leads to different flow pathways and pesticide residence times in a catchment. In the soil and sediment environment pesticides can be a significant component of surface water contamination because of their persistence in soil and sediment and that they have a tendency to desorb back into water over time. A lowland agricultural catchment upstream of a drinking-water supply reservoir in the South West of England is being used to investigate pesticide dynamics at the catchment scale during individual storm events. Pesticide concentration in water and suspended sediments were determined from samples taken at incremental changes in stream flow incorporating both rising and falling river levels. The study aims to determine the relative partitioning of pesticides transported in the dissolved phase or adsorbed to sediment. Analyses of soil, sediment and water from across the catchment aids understanding of the interaction between different media and can be used to determine the importance of dissolved and sediment-bound pesticide dynamics during individual storm events. Initial results imply that processes of transport and desorption are occurring in both soils and river and reservoir sediments which are likely to be an important factor for timing of pesticide movement. This suggests soil and sediment are acting as a sustained source of contamination to surface water. However; interactions between these different media are complex. Investigation of the molluscicide metaldehyde, showed this to be present in stream water at concentrations greater than 0.1 µg µl-1 nine months after application. Storm event analysis shows peak pesticide concentration in the stream to coincide with storm hydrograph peaks indicating pesticides are moved directly from hillslopes to the fluvial environment by surface runoff. During storm events, individual pesticide concentrations in streams were found to be greater than 2 µg µl-1 in the dissolved phase. Depending on the compound chemical properties, some pesticides can also be transported adsorbed to sediments. Together, these processes generate elevated concentrations of pesticide in surface water systems and cause contamination by transport and deposition of pesticides in the lower reaches of the catchment.

Harrison, Rebecca; Freer, Jim; Michaelides, Katerina; Hurley, Steven; Howden, Nicholas; Bull, Ian

2013-04-01

324

Adsorption of pesticides onto quartz, calcite, kaolinite, and ?-alumina  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The fate of pesticides in aquifers is influenced by the small but not insignificant adsorption of pesticides to mineral surfaces. Batch experiments with five pesticides and four minerals were conducted to quantify the contributions to adsorption from different mineral surfaces and compare adsorption characteristics of selected pesticides. Investigated mineral phases included quartz, calcite, kaolinite, and alpha -alumina. Selected pesticides comprised atrazine (6-chloro-N-2-ethyl-N-4-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine isoproturon [3-(4-isopropyl-phenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea)], mecoprop [(RS)-2-(4-chloro-2-methyl phenoxy)propionic acid], 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), and bentazone [3-isopropyl-1H-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-4-(3H)-one 2,2-dioxide]. Specific surface area and mineral surface charge proved to be important for the adsorption of these pesticides. Detectable adsorption of the anionic pesticides (mecoprop, 2,4-D, and bentazone) was only measured when positive sites were present on the mineral surface. However, when CaCl2 was added as an electrolyte, a detect able adsorption of mecoprop and 2,4-D was also measured on kaolinite (which exhibits a negative surface charge), probably due to formation of Ca-pesticide-surface complexes. Adsorption of the uncharged pesticides (atrazine and isoproturon) was detected only on kaolinite. The lack of adsorption on alpha -alumina indicates that the uncharged pesticides have a greater affinity for the silanol surface sites (= SiOH) than for the aluminol surface sites (= AIOH) in kaolinite. No measurable effect of ionic strength was found for the uncharged pesticides. The results indicate that quartz and calcite play a smaller role than clay minerals.

Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

2001-01-01

325

Antibiotic, Pesticide, and Microbial Contaminants of Honey: Human Health Hazards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Agricultural contamination with pesticides and antibiotics is a challenging problem that needs to be fully addressed. Bee products, such as honey, are widely consumed as food and medicine and their contamination may carry serious health hazards. Honey and other bee products are polluted by pesticide...

Al-Waili, Noori; Salom, Khelod; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed; Ansari, Mohammad Javed

326

A FUGACITY-BASED INDOOR RESIDENTIAL PESTICIDE FATE MODEL  

Science.gov (United States)

Dermal and non-dietary pathways are potentially significant exposure pathways to pesticides used in the home. Exposure pathways include dermal contact of pesticide residues with the hands and skin, ingestion from hand-to-mouth activities, ingestion through contact with toys an...

327

FUGACITY-BASED INDOOR RESIDENTIAL PESTICIDE FATE MODEL  

Science.gov (United States)

Dermal and non-dietary pathways are possibly important for exposure to pesticides used in residences. Limited data have been collected on pesticide concentrations in residential air and surfaces following application. Models may be useful for interpreting these data and to make...

328

Determination of pesticide residue in selected fruits and vegetable  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food contamination due to indiscriminate use of pesticides has become a serious problem. Fruits samples of tomato, grapes, musk melon, parsimen and vegetable samples of potato, pea, spinach, cabbage and pumpkin ere collected from local market of Peshawar, coming from different regions. All samples were extracted, purified and analyzed for the commonly used pesticides. Dichlorovas, BHC, Atrazine, Daizinon, Methadiathion and Cypermethrin were detected by Gas Chromatography. These pesticides were detected in vegetable samples Id Atrazine were found in potato sample and not detected in other samples. Large concentration of Cypermethrin (44.6) was detected in the pea sample. All the vegetables samples have maximum concentration of pesticides, which is higher than their MRLs, but in pumpkin no one of the above pesticides were detected. In fruits samples, dichlorovas, atrazine, diazinon, methadiathion. Cypermethrin were detected. BHC was not present in fruits samples. All these pesticides were above the MRLs. The study concluded that agriculture crops are highly contaminated due to the uncontrolled use of pesticides in project area and suggested that pesticides should be applied in calculated dose to avoid resistance and persistence due to over and under dose application. (author)

2005-01-01

329

Effects of Pesticides on Nitrite Oxidation by Nitrobacter agilis1  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The influence of pesticides on the growth of Nitrobacter agilis in aerated cultures and on the respiration of N. agilis cell suspensions and cell-free extracts was studied. Two pesticides, aldrin and simazine, were not inhibitory to growth of Nitrobacter, but five compounds [isopropyl N-(3-chlorophe...

Winely, C. L.; Clemente, C. L. San

330

The 49th Annual Florida Pesticide Residue Workshop.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The papers in this special issue of Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry were originally presented at the 49th annual Florida Pesticide Residue Workshop (FPRW). The FPRW is an annual meeting for scientists specializing in trace level analysis of pesticides, veterinary drug residues, and other chemical contaminants in food, animal feed, and environmental samples.

Turnipseed SB; Romano J

2013-01-01

331

INDUCTION OF PROPHAGE LAMBDA BY CHLORINATED PESTICIDES (JOURNAL VERSION)  

Science.gov (United States)

In an effort to identify a short-term assay sensitive to chlorinated carcinogens, a group of chlorinated pesticides were tested, most of which are carcinogenic in rodents, in a prophage-induction assay. The pesticides tested were malathion, monuron, p,p'-DDT, mirex, lindane, nitr...

332

Linking pesticide exposure and dementia: what is the evidence?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There has been a steep increase in the prevalence of dementia in recent decades, which has roughly followed an increase in pesticide use some decades earlier, a time when it is probable that current dementia patients could have been exposed to pesticides. This raises the question whether pesticides contribute to dementia pathogenesis. Indeed, many studies have found increased prevalence of cognitive, behavioral and psychomotor dysfunction in individuals chronically exposed to pesticides. Furthermore, evidence from recent studies shows a possible association between chronic pesticide exposure and an increased prevalence of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. At the cellular and molecular level, the mechanism of action of many classes of pesticides suggests that these compounds could be, at least partly, accountable for the neurodegeneration accompanying AD and other dementias. For example, organophosphates, which inhibit acetylcholinesterase as do the drugs used in treating AD symptoms, have also been shown to lead to microtubule derangements and tau hyperphosphorylation, a hallmark of AD. This emerging association is of considerable public health importance, given the increasing dementia prevalence and pesticide use. Here we review the epidemiological links between dementia and pesticide exposure and discuss the possible pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical implications of this association.

Zaganas I; Kapetanaki S; Mastorodemos V; Kanavouras K; Colosio C; Wilks MF; Tsatsakis AM

2013-05-01

333

Residential Pesticide Usage in Older Adults Residing in Central California  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information on residential pesticide usage and behaviors that may influence pesticide exposure was collected in three population-based studies of older adults residing in the three Central California counties of Fresno, Kern, and Tulare. We present data from participants in the Study of Use of Products and Exposure Related Behaviors (SUPERB) study (N = 153) and from community controls ascertained in two Parkinson’s disease studies, the Parkinson’s Environment and Gene (PEG) study (N = 359) and The Center for Gene-Environment Studies in Parkinson’s Disease (CGEP; N = 297). All participants were interviewed by telephone to obtain information on recent and lifetime indoor and outdoor residential pesticide use. Interviews ascertained type of product used, frequency of use, and behaviors that may influence exposure to pesticides during and after application. Well over half of all participants reported ever using indoor and outdoor pesticides; yet frequency of pesticide use was relatively low, and appeared to increase slightly with age. Few participants engaged in behaviors to protect themselves or family members and limit exposure to pesticides during and after treatment, such as ventilating and cleaning treated areas, or using protective equipment during application. Our findings on frequency of use over lifetime and exposure related behaviors will inform future efforts to develop population pesticide exposure models and risk assessment.

Mary N. Armes; Zeyan Liew; Anthony Wang; Xiangmei Wu; Deborah H. Bennett; Irva Hertz-Picciotto; Beate Ritz

2011-01-01

334

Characterization of pesticide-?-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes in aqueous solution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The solubility of four different pesticides, "dimethoate", "simazine" "linuron" and "thiram", poorly soluble or non-soluble in water, were measured in water and in aqueous solution of ?-cyclodextrin by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Standard water solutions of pesticides were prepared in the range o...

Petrovi? Goran M.; Stoj?eva-Radovanovi? Blaga; Jovanovi? O.

335

USE OF BENEFICIAL INSECTS IN PLANT PROTECTION WITH PESTICIDES  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to the distribution of pesticides and beneficial organisms in agriculture and horticulture, and is based on the risk assessment of side-effects of chemical plant protection agents, like pesticides herbicides, insecticides and fungicides, on the pollinator Bombus Terrestris. It accordingly provides the use of the pollinator Bombus Terrestris, in disseminating chemical plant protection agents in agriculture and horticulture.

MOMMAERTS VEERLE; BESARD LINDE MIEKE ERNA; SMAGGHE GUY; STERK GUIDO MARIO KAREL MICHEL; VAN OSSELAER CHRISTIAN ERNEST SERGE GUNTHER; VAN MELLAERT HERMAN FELICIEN MARIE; PUT KURT HANS

336

Pesticide transport with runoff from creeping bentgrass turf: Relationship of pesticide properties to mass transport.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The off-site transport of pesticides with runoff is both an agronomic and environmental concern, resulting from reduced control of target pests in the area of application and contamination of surrounding ecosystems. Experiments were designed to measure the quantity of pesticides in runoff from creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris) turf managed as golf course fairway to gain a better understanding of factors that influence chemical availability and mass transport. Less than 1 to 23% of applied chloropyrifos, flutolanil, mecoprop-p (MCPP), dimethylamine salt of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), or dicamba was measured in edge-of-plot runoff when commercially available pesticide formulations were applied at label rates 23 +/- 9 h prior to simulated precipitation (62 +/- 13 mm). Time differential between hollow tine core cultivation and runoff did not significantly influence runoff volumes or the percentage of applied chemicals transported in the runoff. With the exception of chlorpyrifos, all chemicals of interest were detected in the initial runoff samples and throughout the runoff events. Chemographs of the five pesticides followed trends in agreement with mobility classifications associated with their soil organic carbon partition coefficient (K(OC).) Data collected from the present study provides information on the transport of chemicals with runoff from turf, which can be used in model simulations to predict nonpoint source pollution potentials and estimate ecological risks.

Rice PJ; Horgan BP; Rittenhouse JL

2010-06-01

337

Pesticide Use in South Africa: One of the Largest Importers of Pesticides in Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

South Africa is a diverse country, with a diverse environment that is home to more than 49 000 000 people. Pesticide usage is very often necessary to maintain both agricultural productivity as well as human health. The climatic conditions range from semi-tropic to semi-arid regions. Although the maj...

Quinn, Laura; de Vos, B J.; Fernandes-Whaley, M.; Roos, C.; Bouwman, Henk; Kylin, Henrik; Pieters, Rialet; van den Berg, J.

338

Rhinitis associated with pesticide use among private pesticide applicators in the agricultural health study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Farmers commonly experience rhinitis but the risk factors are not well characterized. The aim of this study was to analyze cross-sectional data on rhinitis in the past year and pesticide use from 21,958 Iowa and North Carolina farmers in the Agricultural Health Study, enrolled 1993-1997, to evaluate pesticide predictors of rhinitis. Polytomous and logistic regression models were used to assess association between pesticide use and rhinitis while controlling for demographics and farm-related exposures. Sixty-seven percent of farmers reported current rhinitis and 39% reported 3 or more rhinitis episodes. The herbicides glyphosate [odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.05-1.13] and petroleum oil (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.05-1.19) were associated with current rhinitis and increased rhinitis episodes. Of the insecticides, four organophosphates (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dichlorvos, and malathion), carbaryl, and use of permethrin on animals were predictors of current rhinitis. Diazinon was significant in the overall polytomous model and was associated with an elevated OR of 13+ rhinitis episodes (13+ episodes OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.09-1.38). The fungicide captan was also a significant predictor of rhinitis. Use of petroleum oil, use of malathion, use of permethrin, and use of the herbicide metolachlor were significant in exposure-response polytomous models. Specific pesticides may contribute to rhinitis in farmers; agricultural activities did not explain these findings.

Slager RE; Simpson SL; Levan TD; Poole JA; Sandler DP; Hoppin JA

2010-01-01

339

Environmental-friendly water-base pesticide aerosols  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to environmental-friendly water-base pesticide aerosols which contain pesticide, solvent, emulsifier and propellant, wherein the pesticide is tetramethrin, detrorotation cyphenothrin and rich-d-t-prallethrin, the solvent is normal paraffin and de-ionized water, the emulsifier is sorbitan monooleate and polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate, and the properllant is dimethyl ether. The pesticide aerosols take water as the main solvent and use a small amount of normal paraffin to dissolve the organic matters such as tetramethrin, detrorotation cyphenothrin and rich-d-t-prallethrin, and the solvent has no kerosene, smelly kerosene smell does not remain in the room after spraying, and the sprayed aerosol drop cannot leave oily mark on the surface of objects. Compared with the prior art, the environmental-friendly water-base pesticide aerosols are more environmental-friendly.

CHUNHUI XU

340

Pesticide compound containing penoxsulam and quinclorac and application thereof  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a pesticide compound containing penoxsulam and quinclorac, and the application thereof the compound comprises the commonly used additive, penoxsulam and quinclorac and the weight part ratio of the penoxsulam to the quinclorac is 1:5 to 1:60, and the weight percentage of the total weight of the penoxsulam and the quinclorac in the pesticide compound is 5 to 80 percent. The invention is used for preventing and removing annual grassy weeds in a paddy field. The prevention effect of the invention has significant synergic or adding effect than the single dose, and the invention reduces the used dose of the pesticide, reduces the pesticide cost, prolongs the service life of the medicament and reduces the adverse impact of the pesticide on the ecological environment.

FOXIANG CHEN; ZHONGGUO LENG; PENG LIU; SHUMING PENG

 
 
 
 
341

Job Demands & Pesticide Exposure among Immigrant Latino Farmworkers  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this study was to understand the potential threat of job stressors to farmworker health. To accomplish this goal we studied pesticide exposure, an issue with immediate and long-term health consequences, and predictions from the demands-control model of occupational stress. Longitudinal, self-report data and urine samples were collected at monthly intervals from a cohort of Latino farmworkers (N=287) during the 2007 agricultural season. The primary hypothesis was that greater exposure to psychological demands, physical exertion, and hazardous work conditions are associated with greater odds of detecting DAP urinary pesticide metabolites, biomarkers indicating exposure to pesticides. Contrary to this hypothesis, results indicated that none of the elements of the Demands-Control model were independently associated with detection of DAP urinary pesticide metabolites. However, analyses produced several interaction effects, including evidence that high levels of control may buffer the effects of physical job demands on detection of DAP urinary pesticide metabolites.

Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Quandt, Sara A.; Vallejos, Quirina M.; Whalley, Lara E.; Chen, Haiying; Isom, Scott; Barr, Dana B.; Arcury, Thomas A.

2010-01-01

342

"Causes" of pesticide safety behavior change in latino farmworker families.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To identify the source of behavior change resulting from a health education intervention focused on pesticide safety. METHODS: Data were from the La Familia Sana demonstration project, a promotora-delivered pesticide safety education intervention conducted with immigrant Latinos (N = 610). RESULTS: The La Familia Sana program produced changes in 3 sets of pesticide safety behaviors. Changes in the conceptual targets of the intervention and promotora attributes explained 0.45-6% and 0.5-3% of the changes in pesticide-related behavior, respectively. DISCUSSION: The conceptual targets of the La Familia Sana program explained the greatest amount of change in pesticide-related behavior. Promotora attributes also contributed to intervention success.

Grzywacz JG; Arcury TA; Talton JW; D'Agostino RB; Trejo G; Mirabelli MC; Quandt SA

2013-07-01

343

Enantioselectivity in environmental risk assessment of modern chiral pesticides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chiral pesticides comprise a new and important class of environmental pollutants nowadays. With the development of industry, more and more chiral pesticides will be introduced into the market. But their enantioselective ecotoxicology is not clear. Currently used synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphates, acylanilides, phenoxypropanoic acids and imidazolinones often behave enantioselectively in agriculture use and they always pose unpredictable enantioselective ecological risks on non-target organisms or human. It is necessary to explore the enantioselective toxicology and ecological fate of these chiral pesticides in environmental risk assessment. The enantioselective toxicology and the fate of these currently widely used pesticides have been discussed in this review article. - Chiral pesticides could pose unpredictable enantioselective toxicity on non-target organisms.

2010-01-01

344

A fugacity-based indoor residential pesticide fate model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dermal and non-dietary pathways are potentially significant exposure pathways to pesticides used in residences. Exposure pathways include dermal contact with residues on surfaces, ingestion from hand- and object-to-mouth activities, and absorption of pesticides into food. A limited amount of data has been collected on pesticide concentrations in various residential compartments following an application. But models are needed to interpret this data and make predictions about other pesticides based on chemical properties. In this paper, we propose a mass-balance compartment model based on fugacity principles. We include air (both gas phase and aerosols), carpet, smooth flooring, and walls as model compartments. Pesticide concentrations on furniture and toys, and in food, are being added to the model as data becomes available. We determine the compartmental fugacity capacity and mass transfer-rate coefficient for wallboard as an example. We also present the framework and equations needed for a dynamic mass-balance model.

Bennett, Deborah H.; Furtaw, Edward J.; McKone, Thomas E.

2002-06-01

345

Pesticide use and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma mortality in Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Brazil is one of the major pesticide consumers in the world. The continuous exposure to these substances may be etiologically associated with the development of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL). OBJECTIVE: Estimate the correlation between the per capita sales of pesticides in 1985 (exposure) and NHL mortality rates between 1996 and 2005 (outcome), by Brazilian micro-regions. METHOD: In this ecological descriptive study, the per capita consumption of pesticides in 1985 was used as a proxy of the population exposure to these chemicals in Brazil. All deaths by NHL occurred in the 446 non-urban micro-regions, between 1996 and 2005, among individuals with ages between 20 and 69, of both sexes, were retrieved from the Brazilian Mortality Information System. Micro-regions were then categorized into low, medium, high and very high pesticide consumption, according to the quartiles of per capita consumption of pesticides. NHL mortality rates and rate ratios for each quartile were obtained using the lowest quartile as reference. In addition, the Spearman's correlation coefficient between pesticide consumption and NHL mortality rates was estimated. RESULTS: A moderate correlation between per capita pesticides consumption and standardized mortality rate for NHL was observed (r=0.597). In addition, using the lowest quartile of pesticide consumption as a reference, the higher the quartile of pesticide consumption, the higher was NHL mortality risk: men - (second quartile - MRR=1.69, CI 95% 1.68-1.84; third quartile - MRR=2.41, CI 95% 2.27-2.57; fourth quartile - MRR=2.92, CI 95% 2.74-3.11) and females (second quartile - MRR=1.87, CI 95% 1.69-2.06; third quartile - MRR=2.28, IC 95% 2.10-2.47; fourth quartile - MRR=3.20; CI 95% 2.98-3.43). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that pesticide exposure may play a role in the etiology of NHL.

Boccolini Pde M; Boccolini CS; Chrisman Jde R; Markowitz SB; Koifman S; Koifman RJ; Meyer A

2013-07-01

346

The combined antiandrogenic effects of five commonly used pesticides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, mixture effects of five dissimilarly acting pesticides were analyzed for antiandrogenic effects in vitro and in vivo. Deltamethrin, methiocarb, prochloraz, simazine, and tribenuron-methyl are all commonly used for agricultural and horticultural purposes. Concentration-response curves for the inhibition of R1881-induced transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor (AR) in vitro of each pesticide alone and in an equimolar mixture were obtained. The IC25 values for deltamethrin, methiocarb, prochloraz, and the mixture were 5.8, 5.8, 3.5, and 7.5 ?M, respectively. Simazine and tribenuron-methyl were ineffective. Applying the isobole method resulted in an isobole coefficient of 0.94 at IC25 for the effect of the mixture, indicating additive effects of the compounds. Comparison of observed effects and effects calculated by assuming additivity also strongly indicated additive effects of the pesticides in vitro. In vivo, each of the five pesticides and a mixture of the pesticides were tested for antiandrogenic effects in castrated testosterone-treated Wistar rats. The mixture induced a significant change of weights of the levator ani/bulbocavernosus muscle and adrenal glands. Changes in gene expression in ventral prostates were observed as distinct effects on levels of ornithin decarboxylase (ODC) mRNA and effects on levels of prostate binding protein subunit C3 (PBP C3) mRNA. No pesticide-induced effect on the level of testosterone-repressed prostatic message 2 (TRPM-2) mRNA was observed, whereas flutamide increased TRPM-2 levels. In conclusion, the pesticides were found to act additively in vitro. In vivo, the organ weight changes indicated that the pesticides had an accumulating effect that was not observed for the individual pesticides. Several pesticide-induced gene expression changes were observed, indicating that these are either very sensitive antiandrogenic end-points or that these changes are induced by a pathway not related to AR.

2004-11-15

347

Disposal of unwanted pesticides in Stellenbosch, South Africa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background: Unwanted pesticides in developing countries are major environmental health threats. This study followed-up a previous audit of unwanted and obsolete pesticides on farms in a rural district of South Africa six years after a National Retrieval Project (NPR) was undertaken. Methods: A descriptive survey of 37 farms that had been in possession of unwanted pesticides in a 1995 survey and a purposive sample of 34 neighbouring farms, was carried out. The survey data included farm details; details of unwanted pesticide stocks, volumes of empty containers and safety and hygiene of pesticide stores. In addition, management was asked if they had been informed about and participated in the 1997 NPR and similarly whether they were aware of the retrieval planned by the African Stockpiles Programme (ASP). Results: Forty (56%) farms were in possession of obsolete pesticides of which 24 (59%) were farms that had unwanted stocks in the previous survey. There were more than 9 tonnes of these pesticides, 50% more than in the previous survey, including 20 chemicals banned, withdrawn or restricted in South Africa or classified as WHO Class I toxicity. Over 2800 kg of pesticides (30%) were not identifiable. None of the farms participated in the NPR, although 47 knew of the initiative. Only six farmers (9%) knew of the ASP initiative. Fifty-nine farms (83%) had empty containers on the premises. Most pesticide stores (67%) had floors contaminated with chemicals. Conclusion: The survey found that despite the NPR, the problem of unwanted pesticides in the study area and probably throughout South Africa has deteriorated. National and international policies should control the problem at source and encourage more sustainable agriculture.

Aqiel Dalvie, Mohamed [Occupational and Environmental Health Research Unit, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory, 7925, Cape Town (South Africa)]. E-mail: aqiel@cormack.uct.ac.za; Africa, Algernon [Occupational and Environmental Health Research Unit, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory, 7925, Cape Town (South Africa); London, Leslie [Occupational and Environmental Health Research Unit, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory, 7925, Cape Town (South Africa)

2006-05-15

348

The combined antiandrogenic effects of five commonly used pesticides  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this study, mixture effects of five dissimilarly acting pesticides were analyzed for antiandrogenic effects in vitro and in vivo. Deltamethrin, methiocarb, prochloraz, simazine, and tribenuron-methyl are all commonly used for agricultural and horticultural purposes. Concentration-response curves for the inhibition of R1881-induced transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor (AR) in vitro of each pesticide alone and in an equimolar mixture were obtained. The IC25 values for deltamethrin, methiocarb, prochloraz, and the mixture were 5.8, 5.8, 3.5, and 7.5 muM, respectively. Simazine and tribenuron-methyl were ineffective. Applying the isobole method resulted in an isobole coefficient of 0.94 at IC25 for the effect of the mixture, indicating additive effects of the compounds. Comparison of observed effects and effects calculated by assuming additivity also strongly indicated additive effects of the pesticides in vitro. In vivo, each of the five pesticides and a mixture of the pesticides were tested for antiandrogenic effects in castrated testosterone-treated Wistar rats. The mixture induced a significant change of weights of the levator ani/bulbocavernosus muscle and adrenal glands. Changes in gene expression in ventral prostates were observed as distinct effects on levels of ornithin decarboxylase (ODC) mRNA and effects on levels of prostate binding protein subunit C3 (PBP C3) mRNA. No pesticide-induced effect on the level of testosterone-repressed prostatic message 2 (TRPM-2) mRNA was observed, whereas flutamide increased TRPM-2 levels. In conclusion, the pesticides were found to act additively in vitro. In vivo, the organ weight changes indicated that the pesticides had an accumulating effect that was not observed for the individual pesticides. Several pesticide-induced gene expression changes were observed, indicating that these are either very sensitive antiandrogenic end-points or that these changes are induced by a pathway not related to AR.

Kjærstad, Mia BirkhØj; Nellemann, Christine Lydia

2004-01-01

349

Pesticides present in migrant farmworker housing in North Carolina.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Migrant farmworkers are exposed to pesticides at work. Housing provided to migrant farmworkers may also expose them to pesticides, increasing their health risks. This analysis (1) describes the presence of organophosphorous (OP) and pyrethroid pesticides in North Carolina migrant farmworker houses, and (2) delineates associations of farmworker camp characteristics with pesticide detection and concentration. METHODS: In 2010, 186 migrant farmworkers camps in NC were recruited (participation rate of 82.3%); pesticide wipe samples for 176 houses were analyzed. Tobacco is the predominant hand-harvested crop in this region. Two farmworkers per camp completed interviews; a third assisted with a housing inspection. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to detect OP and pyrethroid pesticides. Covariates of pesticide detection and concentration were determined with ANOVA and Tobit regression. RESULTS: OPs were found in 166 of 176 houses (average of 2.4/house); pyrethroids were found in 171 houses (average of 4.3/house). The number of different OPs detected in each camp and concentrations of these OPs were not associated with camp and housing characteristics. The number of different pyrethroids detected in each camp and concentrations of these pyrethroids were associated with camps having residents with H2-A visas, a posted North Carolina Department of Labor Certificate of Inspection, no barracks, fewer residents, no bedroom weather protection or floor violations, and no roaches. CONCLUSIONS: Farmworkers are exposed to pesticides where they live. Policy on removing pesticides from farmworker houses is needed. Reducing pesticides in farmworker houses will reduce one health risk confronted by this vulnerable population. Am. J. Ind. Med. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Arcury TA; Lu C; Chen H; Quandt SA

2013-08-01

350

Pesticides in the atmosphere across Canadian agricultural regions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Canadian Atmospheric Network for Currently Used Pesticides (CANCUP) was the first comprehensive, nationwide air surveillance study of pesticides in Canada. This paper presentsthe atmospheric occurrence and distribution of pesticides including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), organophosphate pesticides (OPPs), acid herbicides (AHs), and neutral herbicides (NHs) during the spring to summer of 2004 and 2005 across agricultural regions in Canada. Atmospheric concentrations of pesticides varied within years and time periods, and regional characteristics were observed including the following: (i) highest air concentrations of several herbicides (e.g., mecoprop, triallate, and ethalfluralin) were found at Bratt's Lake, SK, a site in the Canadian Prairies; (ii) the west-coast site at Abbotsford, BC, had the maximum concentrations of diazinon; (iii) the fruit and vegetable growing region in Vineland, ON, showed highest levels for several insecticides including chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, and azinphos-methyl; (iv) high concentrations of atrazine and metolachlor were measured at St. Anicet, QC, a corn-growing region; (v) the Kensington site in PEI, Canada's largest potato-producing province, exhibited highest level of dimethoate. Analysis of particle- and gas-phase fractions of air samples revealed that most pesticides including OCPs, OPPs, and NHs exist mainly in the gas phase, while AHs exhibit more diversity in particle-gas partitioning behavior. This study also demonstrated that stirred up soil dust does not account for pesticides that are detected in the particle phase. The estimated dry and wet deposition fluxes indicate considerable atmospheric inputs for some current-use pesticides (CUPs). This data set represents the first measurements for many pesticides in the atmosphere, precipitation, and soil for given agricultural regions across Canada.

Yao Y; Harner T; Blanchard P; Tuduri L; Waite D; Poissant L; Murphy C; Belzer W; Aulagnier F; Sverko E

2008-08-01

351

Modeling complexity in simulating pesticide fate in a rice paddy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Modeling approaches for pesticide regulation are required to provide generic and conservative evaluations on pesticide fate and exposure based on limited data. This study investigates the modeling approach for pesticide simulation in a rice paddy, by developing a component-based modeling system and characterizing the dependence of pesticide concentrations on individual fate processes. The developed system covers the modeling complexity from a "base model" which considers only the essential processes of water management, water-sediment exchange, and aquatic dissipation, to a "full model" for all commonly simulated processes. Model capability and performance were demonstrated by case studies with 5 pesticides in 13 rice fields of the California's Sacramento Valley. With registrant-submitted dissipation half-lives, the base model conservatively estimated dissolved pesticide concentrations within one order of magnitude of measured data. The full model simulations were calibrated to characterize the key model parameters and processes varying with chemical properties and field conditions. Metabolism in water was identified as an important process in predicting pesticide fate in all tested rice fields. Relative contributions of metabolism, hydrolysis, direct aquatic photolysis, and volatilization to the overall pesticide dissipation were significantly correlated to the model sensitivities to the corresponding physicochemical properties and half-lives. While modeling results were sensitive to metabolism half-lives in water for all fields, significances of metabolism in sediment and water-sediment exchange were only observed for pesticides with pre-flooding applications or with rapid dissipation in sediment. Results suggest that, in addition to the development of regional modeling scenarios for rice production, the registrant-submitted maximum values for the aquatic dissipation half-lives could be used for evaluating pesticide for regulatory purposes.

Luo Y; Spurlock F; Gill S; Goh KS

2012-12-01

352

Water Pollution with Special Reference to Pesticide Contamination in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pesticides belong to a category of chemicals used worldwide as herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, ro-denticides, molluscicides, nematicides, and plant growth regulators in order to control weeds, pests and dis-eases in crops as well as for health care of humans and animals. The positive aspect of application of pesti-cides renders enhanced crop/food productivity and drastic reduction of vector-borne diseases. However, their unregulated and indiscriminate applications have raised serious concerns about the entire environment in general and the health of humans, birds and animals in particular. Despite ban on application of some of the environmentally persistent and least biodegradable pesticides (like organochlorines) in many countries, their use is ever on rise. Pesticides cause serious health hazards to living systems because of their rapid fat solu-bility and bioaccumulation in non-target organisms. Even at low concentration, pesticides may exert several adverse effects, which could be monitored at biochemical, molecular or behavioral levels. The factors af-fecting water pollution with pesticides and their residues include drainage, rainfall, microbial activity, soil temperature, treatment surface, application rate as well as the solubility, mobility and half life of pesticides. In India organochlorine insecticides such as DDT and HCH constitute more than 70% of the pesticides used at present. Reports from Delhi, Bhopal and other cities and some rural areas have indicated presence of sig-nificant level of pesticides in fresh water systems as well as bottled drinking mineral water samples. The ef-fects of pesticides pollution in riverine systems and drinking water in India has been discussed in this review.

Anju Agrawal; Ravi S. Pandey; Bechan Sharma

2010-01-01

353

Pesticide Use and Self-Reported Symptoms of Acute Pesticide Poisoning among Aquatic Farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Organophosphates and carbamates (OPs/CMs) are known for their acetylcholinesterase inhibiting character. A cross-sectional study of pesticide handling practices and self-perceived symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning was conducted using questionnaire-based interviews with 89 pesticide sprayers in Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE) Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority of the farmers (88%) had experienced symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning, and this was significantly associated with the number of hours spent spraying with OPs/CMs (OR = 1.14, CI 95%: 1.02-1.28). The higher educated farmers reduced their risk of poisoning by 55% for each extra personal protective measure they adapted (OR = 0.45, CI 95%: 0.22-0.91). These findings suggest that improving safe pesticide management practices among the farmers and enforcing the effective banning of the most toxic pesticides will considerably reduce the number of acute pesticide poisoning episodes.

Jensen, Hanne Klith; Konradsen, Flemming

2011-01-01

354

Pesticide use and self-reported symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning among aquatic farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Organophosphates and carbamates (OPs/CMs) are known for their acetylcholinesterase inhibiting character. A cross-sectional study of pesticide handling practices and self-perceived symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning was conducted using questionnaire-based interviews with 89 pesticide sprayers in Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE) Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority of the farmers (88%) had experienced symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning, and this was significantly associated with the number of hours spent spraying with OPs/CMs (OR = 1.14, CI 95%: 1.02-1.28). The higher educated farmers reduced their risk of poisoning by 55% for each extra personal protective measure they adapted (OR = 0.45, CI 95%: 0.22-0.91). These findings suggest that improving safe pesticide management practices among the farmers and enforcing the effective banning of the most toxic pesticides will considerably reduce the number of acute pesticide poisoning episodes.

Jensen, Hanne Klith; Konradsen, Flemming

2011-01-01

355

Decontamination of spills and residues of some pesticides and of protective clothing worn during the handling of the pesticides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Users of pesticides may have waste or surplus quantities or spills for disposal. One alternative is to deactivate the pesticide at the handling site by using a straightforward chemical reaction. This option can be practical for those who use relatively small quantities of a large variety of pesticides, for example, greenhouse workers, small farmers, and agricultural researchers. This paper describes practical on-site methods for the disposal of spills or small waste quantities of five commonly used pesticides, Diazinon, Chlorpyrifos, Iprodione, 2,4-D, and Captan. These have been tested in the laboratory for the rate of disappearance of the pesticide, the degree of conversion to nontoxic products, the nature and identity of the products, the practicality of the method, and the ease of reproducibility. Methods selected were shown to be safe for the operator, reliable, and reproducible. Greater than 99% of the starting material had to be reacted under reasonable conditions and length of time. Detailed descriptions of the reactions are presented, so that they can be performed with reproducible results. Protective clothing worn during the handling and application of pesticides may become contaminated. Simple laundering does not always remove all of the pesticide residues. Thus, chronic dermal exposure may result from the pesticide-contaminated clothing. Appropriate methods of laundering using specific pretreatments have been determined. 7 refs.

Armour, M.A.; Nelson, C.; Sather, P. Briker, Y. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)] [and others

1996-12-31

356

Exposure assessment of the cumulative intake of pesticides with dissimilar mode of action  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Risk assessment of pesticides is currently based on the no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for effects of single compounds. However, humans might be exposed to a mixture of pesticides at the same time and the exposure could occur from more pesticides with endocrine disrupting effects. In this study the effects of combined exposure from four endocrine disrupting pesticides have been investigated (procymidone, mancozeb, tebuconazole, and prochloraz). The four pesticides have dissimilar mode of actions. On the background of the potency for each pesticide to a given effect, a relative potency factor and the cumulative acute exposure of the pesticides have been estimated.

Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette

357

Pesticidal compositions comprising thiabendazole and abamectin  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method of controlling or preventing pathogenic damage or pest damage in a plant propagation material, a plant, parts of a plant and/or plant organs that grow at a later point in time, which can comprise applying on the plant, part of the plant, or surroundings thereof, a pesticidal combination comprising, for example, at least three active ingredient components optionally together with one or more customary formulation auxiliaries, wherein component (I) is one or more of an -azole fungicide, component (II) is one or more of a phenylamide fungicide, component (III) is one or more of a strobilurin fungicide, in any desired sequence or simultaneously.

ZEUN RONALD; WATRIN CLIFFORD GEORGE; OOSTENDORP MICHAEL; BRANDL FRANZ

358

5-substituted-alkylaminopyrazole derivatives as pesticides  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed are 5-substiuted-alkylaminopyrazole derivatives of formula (I) that are useful as pesticides for controlling pests, wherein: R1 is CSNH2 W is C-halogen, or Cl R2 is H or Cl R3 is CF3, OCF3 or SF4 X is F or Cl and wherein the remaining substituents are as defined in the specification. Also disclosed are processes for their preparation, compositions thereof, and their use for the control of pests (including arthropods and helminths).

CHOU DAVID TEH-WEI; KNAUF WERNER; DOLLER UWE; SEEGER KARL

359

PESTICIDAL MIXTURES COMPRISING ISOXAZOLINE COMPOUNDS II  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to pesticidal mixtures comprising as active components 1) at least one isoxazoline compound I of the formula (I) wherein R1, R2, R3, R4, R5 and A are defined as in the description and 2) at least one fungicidal compounds Il selected from azoles, strobilurins, carboxamides, carbamates, heterocyclic and various other compounds as defined in the description, in synergistically effective amounts. The invention relates further to methods and use of these mixtures for combating insects, arachnids or nematodes and harmful fungis in and on plants, and for protecting such plants being infested with pests, especially also for protecting seeds.

KOERBER KARSTEN; KAISER FLORIAN; HADEN EGON

360

Pesticidal Mixtures Comprising Isoxazoline Compounds II  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to pesticidal mixtures comprising as active components 1) at least one isoxazoline compound I of the formula I wherein R1, R2, R3, R4, R5 and A are defined as in the description and 2) at least one fungicidal compounds II selected from azoles, strobilurins, carboxamides, carbamates, heterocyclic and various other compounds as defined in the description, in synergistically effective amounts. The invention relates further to methods and use of these mixtures for combating insects, arachnids or nematodes and harmful fungis in and on plants, and for protecting such plants being infested with pests, especially also for protecting seeds.

KOERBER KARSTEN; KAISER FLORIAN; HADEN EGON

 
 
 
 
361

Assessing Diet as a Modifiable Risk Factor for Pesticide Exposure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of pesticides on the general population, largely as a result of dietary exposure, are unclear. Adopting an organic diet appears to be an obvious solution for reducing dietary pesticide exposure and this is supported by biomonitoring studies in children. However, results of research into the effects of organic diets on pesticide exposure are difficult to interpret in light of the many complexities. Therefore future studies must be carefully designed. While biomonitoring can account for differences in overall exposure it cannot necessarily attribute the source. Due diligence must be given to appropriate selection of participants, target pesticides and analytical methods to ensure that the data generated will be both scientifically rigorous and clinically useful, while minimising the costs and difficulties associated with biomonitoring studies. Study design must also consider confounders such as the unpredictable nature of chemicals and inter- and intra-individual differences in exposure and other factors that might influence susceptibility to disease. Currently the most useful measures are non-specific urinary metabolites that measure a range of organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides. These pesticides are in common use, frequently detected in population studies and may provide a broader overview of the impact of an organic diet on pesticide exposure than pesticide-specific metabolites. More population based studies are needed for comparative purposes and improvements in analytical methods are required before many other compounds can be considered for assessment.

Liza Oates; Marc Cohen

2011-01-01

362

Chesapeake Bay watershed pesticide use declines but toxicity increases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Large areas of the Chesapeake Bay, USA, watershed are in agricultural land use, but there is no baywide program to track application rates of current-use pesticides in any of the watershed jurisdictions. Watershed studies demonstrate that several pesticides are present in surface and groundwater throughout the region. Between 1985 and 2004, the Maryland Department of Agriculture conducted surveys to estimate pesticide application within the state. Application rates of the dominant insecticides and herbicides were compiled over the survey period. Toxicity of the pesticides was tabulated, and the toxic units (TU) of applied active ingredients were calculated for several animal and plant species. The total mass of pesticides being applied to the watershed declined during the survey period. Due to increasing potency of the chemicals, however, total TUs applied have remained static or have significantly increased depending on the species of bioassay test organism used to assess toxicity. Applying estimates of pesticide transport into rivers in the Mississippi River basin show that significant quantities of pesticides may be entering Chesapeake Bay.

Hartwell SI

2011-05-01

363

Linking land use with pesticides in Dutch surface waters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Compared with other European countries The Netherlands has a relatively high level of pesticide consumption, particularly in agriculture. Many of the compounds concerned end up in surface waters. Surface water quality is routinely monitored and numerous pesticides are found to be present in high concentrations, with various standards being regularly exceeded. Many standards-breaching pesticides exhibit regional patterns that can be traced back to land use. These patterns have been statistically analysed by correlating surface area per land use category with standards exceedance per pesticide, thereby identifying numerous significant correlations with respect to breaches of both the ecotoxicological standard (Maximum Tolerable Risk, MTR) and the drinking water standard. In the case of the MTR, greenhouse horticulture, floriculture and bulb-growing have the highest number as well as percentage of standard-breaching pesticides, despite these market segments being relatively small in terms of area cropped. Cereals, onions, vegetables, perennial border plants and pulses are also associated with many pesticides that exceed the drinking water standard. When a correction is made for cropped acreage, cereals and potatoes also prove to be a major contributor to monitoring sites where the MTR standard is exceeded. Over the period 1998-2006 the land-use categories with the most and highest percentage of standards-exceeding pesticides (greenhouse horticulture, bulb-growing and flower cultivation) showed an increase in the percentage of standards-exceeding compounds.

Van't ZM; Tamis WL; Vijver MG; De Snoo GR

2012-01-01

364

Halogenated pesticide transformation by a laccase-mediator system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The transformation of organic halogenated pesticides by laccase-mediator system has been investigated. Twelve pesticides were assayed in the presence of nine different mediators. Acetosyringone and syringaldehyde showed to be the best mediators. The halogenated pesticides bromoxynil, niclosamide, bromofenoxim and dichlorophen were transformed by the laccase-syringaldehyde system showing catalytic activities of 48.8, 142.0, 166.2 and 1257.6nmolmin(-1)U(-1), respectively. The highest pesticide transformation rates were obtained with a mediator-substrate proportion of 5:1, one of the lowest reported so far for the laccase-mediator systems. The analysis of the main product from the dichlorophen transformation showed that an oxidative dehalogenation is involved in the catalytic mechanism. Adduct formation between the mediator syringaldehyde and the pesticides dichlorophen or bromoxynil was also found after enzymatic oxidation. The main goal of this work is to evaluate environmental-friendly mediators for the pesticide transformation, and the potential of laccase-mediator system to efficiently reduce the environmental impact of organic halogenated pesticides is discussed.

Torres-Duarte C; Roman R; Tinoco R; Vazquez-Duhalt R

2009-10-01

365

Halogenated pesticide transformation by a laccase-mediator system.  

Science.gov (United States)

The transformation of organic halogenated pesticides by laccase-mediator system has been investigated. Twelve pesticides were assayed in the presence of nine different mediators. Acetosyringone and syringaldehyde showed to be the best mediators. The halogenated pesticides bromoxynil, niclosamide, bromofenoxim and dichlorophen were transformed by the laccase-syringaldehyde system showing catalytic activities of 48.8, 142.0, 166.2 and 1257.6nmolmin(-1)U(-1), respectively. The highest pesticide transformation rates were obtained with a mediator-substrate proportion of 5:1, one of the lowest reported so far for the laccase-mediator systems. The analysis of the main product from the dichlorophen transformation showed that an oxidative dehalogenation is involved in the catalytic mechanism. Adduct formation between the mediator syringaldehyde and the pesticides dichlorophen or bromoxynil was also found after enzymatic oxidation. The main goal of this work is to evaluate environmental-friendly mediators for the pesticide transformation, and the potential of laccase-mediator system to efficiently reduce the environmental impact of organic halogenated pesticides is discussed. PMID:19695672

Torres-Duarte, Cristina; Roman, Rosa; Tinoco, Raunel; Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael

2009-08-19

366

Pesticide emulsion and preparation method thereof  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides a preparation method of a pesticide emulsion, which comprises the steps of preparing an avermectin molecular capsule system preparing a water phase preparing an oil phase adding the oil phase into the water phase, adding the avermectin molecular capsule system after shear emulsion and carrying out the shear emulsion again, wherein, the avermectin molecular capsule systemis prepared by evenly mixing a capsule wall material, a cosolvent and the first part of water under the heating condition, adding avermectin and a first emulsifier for evenly mixing and cooling to theroom temperature, the capsule wall material is beta-cyclodextrin and/or gamma-cyclodextrin, the first emulsifier is one or a plurality of fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether, sorbitan monooleate andpolyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate. Avermectin molecules in the pesticide emulsion containing avermectin molecular capsules prepared by the method greatly enhance the resistance of the avermectin molecules to oxygen, light, heat, acid, alkali and the like and simultaneously have the effects of sustained-release and solubilization, thereby solving the problem that the avermectin is instable to the light and further prolonging the effective period for prevention and treatment of the avermectin.

WENZHONG WANG; MINGZHANG CAO; HONG ZHANG; JIAN KONG; XINJUN WANG

367

Agriculture, pesticides, food security and food safety  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Decades ago, agrochemicals were introduced aiming at enhancing crop yields and at protecting crops from pests. Due to adaptation and resistance developed by pests to chemicals, every year higher amounts and new chemical compounds are used to protect crops, causing undesired side effects and raising the costs of food production. Eventually, new techniques, including genetically modified organisms (GMOs) resistant to pests, could halt the massive spread of agrochemicals in agriculture fields. Biological chemical-free agriculture is gaining also more and more support but it is still not able to respond to the need for producing massive amounts of food. The use of agrochemicals, including pesticides, remains a common practice especially in tropical regions and South countries. Cheap compounds, such as DDT, HCH and lindane, that are environmentally persistent, are today banned from agriculture use in developed countries, but remain popular in developing countries. As a consequence, persistent residues of these chemicals contaminate food and disperse in the environment. Coordinated efforts are needed to increase the production of food but with a view to enhanced food quality and safety as well as to controlling residues of persistent pesticides in the environment.

Carvalho, Fernando P. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, P-2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)]. E-mail: carvalho@itn.pt

2006-11-15

368

Determination of pesticide residues in cereal grains  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The applicability of the TLC for determination of pesticide residues in cereal grains was studied using corn, rice and wheat as representative commodities and atrazine, captan, chlorpyrifos, chlortoluron, diazinon, diuron, fenitrothion, metoxuron, prochloraz, triforine as representative compounds. Following the extraction with ethyl acetate the efficiency of extraction was tested with Bio-Rad SX-3 gel, GPC, silica gel, florisil and RP-18 reverse phase silica cartridge. The GPC alone or in combination with silica or florisil cleanup were the most suitable for cleanup of the extracts. The TLC elution characteristics of 131 pesticide active ingredients were tested with eight elution systems. The detectability of the selected compounds was determined with six detection methods including two chemical and four bioassay procedures. In addition to the basic methods, the non-toxic Penicillium cyclopium fungi spore inhibition was introduced and it was found very sensitive for some fungicide compounds. The minimum detectable quantities of the tested compounds ranged from 1 ng to 100 ng. The average recoveries from rice and wheat ranged from 78% to 89%, and the limits of quantitation, LOQ, were between 0.01 and 0.2 mg/kg for the selected ten compounds. (author)

2005-01-01

369

Agriculture, pesticides, food security and food safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decades ago, agrochemicals were introduced aiming at enhancing crop yields and at protecting crops from pests. Due to adaptation and resistance developed by pests to chemicals, every year higher amounts and new chemical compounds are used to protect crops, causing undesired side effects and raising the costs of food production. Eventually, new techniques, including genetically modified organisms (GMOs) resistant to pests, could halt the massive spread of agrochemicals in agriculture fields. Biological chemical-free agriculture is gaining also more and more support but it is still not able to respond to the need for producing massive amounts of food. The use of agrochemicals, including pesticides, remains a common practice especially in tropical regions and South countries. Cheap compounds, such as DDT, HCH and lindane, that are environmentally persistent, are today banned from agriculture use in developed countries, but remain popular in developing countries. As a consequence, persistent residues of these chemicals contaminate food and disperse in the environment. Coordinated efforts are needed to increase the production of food but with a view to enhanced food quality and safety as well as to controlling residues of persistent pesticides in the environment

2006-01-01

370

Potential health effects of pesticide use on farmworkers in Lesotho  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the experiences of farmworkers during crop spraying in Lesotho. The main goal of this study was to determine the perceptions and awareness of farmworkers regarding the use of pesticides and the potential effects on their health. The data were obtained from farmworkers using a combination of an open-ended and a close-ended structured questionnaire in July 2006. Of the nine farms serviced by the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security of Lesotho, Agricultural Research Division, six farms were randomly chosen and 27 farmworkers from these farms were interviewed. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics such as frequency tables. The results showed that farmworkers are relatively poorly educated and that a greater health risk is present when a lack of training and education on the use of pesticides also exists. That is, the majority (85%) of farmworkers did not have secondary education and most (93%) had no training on the use of pesticides, which poses a great health threat to the farmworkers. A lack of education makes it difficult for farmworkers to read and understand the information labels on pesticides and hence it is difficult for them to understand the health hazards of pesticides and the need for personal safety measures. When using and handling pesticides, 52% of farmworkers did not use rubber gloves and 93% did not use goggles or other forms of face cover. This lack of protection puts them at serious risk of skin exposure to pesticides. The farmworkers were quite aware of the harmful effects of pesticides, but were sometimes unable to translate this awareness into their own safety practices because of a lack of knowledge about the adverse effects. Therefore, training, extension services and various awareness programmes should be promoted in Lesotho in order to increase farmworkers’ knowledge and awareness of the adverse effects of pesticides on human health and the environment.

Tholang A. Mokhele

2011-01-01

371

The Determination of Pesticidal and Non-Pesticidal Organotin Compounds by in situ Ethylation and Capillary Gas Chromatography with Pulsed Flame Photometric Detection  

Science.gov (United States)

The concurrent determination of pesticidal and non-pesticidal organotin compounds in several water matrices, using a simultaneous in situ ethylation and liquid-liquid extraction followed by splitless injection mode capillary gas chromatography with pulsed flame photometric detect...

372

The Determination of Pesticidal and Non-Pesticidal Organotin Compounds in Water Matrices by in situ Ethylation and Gas Chromatography with Pulsed Flame Photometric Detection  

Science.gov (United States)

The concurrent determination of pesticidal and non-pesticidal organotin compounds in several water matrices, using a simultaneous in situ ethylation and liquid-liquid extraction followed by splitless injection mode capillary gas chromatography with pulsed flame photometric detect...

373

Pesticides and Arthropods: Sublethal Effects and Demographic Toxicology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Insecticides and acaricides designed to control primary harmful insects and mites may also variously affect some other arthopods present in an (agro)ecosystem (e.g. secondary pests, predators, parasitoids, saprophytes, bioindicators, pollinators). Apart from insecticides and acaricides, arthropods may also be affected by the activity of other pesticides (fungicides, herbicides, etc.). Regardless of whether they are deemed desirable or not, the effects that pesticides have on arthopods need to be quantified as closely as possible through appropriate experimental procedures. Data acquired in tests designed to determined LD50/LC50 values are inadequate for evaluation of pesticide effectiveness in the field as pesticidesalso cause various sublethal effects, generally disregarded in such investigations. The sublethal effects of pesticides refer to any altered behaviour and/or physiology of individuals that have survived exposure to pesticides at doses/concentrations that can be lethal(within range causing mortality in an experimental population that exceeds mortality in an untreated population) or sublethal (below that range). Pesticides affect locomotion and mobility, stimulate dispersion of arthropods from treated areas, complicate or prevent their navigation, orientation and ability to locate hosts, and cause changes in their feeding, mating and egg-laying patterns. Sublethal pesticide effects on arthropod physiology reflect on the life span, rate of development, fecundity and/or fertility, sex ratio and immunity of surviving individuals. Different parameters are being used in arthropod bioassays to determine sublethal effects (ED50/EC50, LOEC, NOEC, total effect index). Compared to acute toxicity tests, these parameters improve the quality of evaluation and create a more accurate view of the effects of a pesticide. However, such approach covers mainly fecundity/fertility alone, while all other sublethal effects remain unaccounted for. Besides, it refers to an evaluation of individuals, rather than populations, and it is the latter that are required for a more reliable evaluation of effectiveness of pesticides in real life. A demographic-toxicologicalapproach has been proposed therefore as a way of integrating the effects that a toxicant may cause at population level, which includes the construction of life tables and computation of population growth parameters, including intrinsic rate of increase (rm) as a crucialparameter. Compared to other laboratory toxicity tests, the demographic-toxicological bioassay has been found superior in terms of a capacity to evaluate overall effects of pesticides, and such approach in evaluating pesticide effects is crucial for environmentally-based programmes of integrated plant protection and a competent evaluation of ecotoxicological risks of pesticide applications.

Dejan Mar?i?

2007-01-01

374

Estimating pesticide emissions for LCA of agricultural products  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Emission data for pesticides from agricultural product systems may be based on national and international pesticide usage statistics, but these only provide information on the applied dose. When the field is considered as part of the technosphere, the emissions from the system are those quantities, which reach the environment surrounding the field. The routes of emission may be direct through wind drift or indirect through evaporation, leaching, or surface run-off. Models are presented that will allow estimation of emission factors based on substance characteristics normally available for pesticide ingredients.

Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

2000-01-01

375

Assessment of pesticide residues on selected vegetables of Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was conducted to determine the pesticide residues on selected summer vegetables. Five vegetables were grown with three replicates in a split plot randomized complete block design. Pesticides were sprayed on vegetables thrice at regular intervals each after 15 days. At maturity the pesticides residues were extracted from edible and leaf portions using anhydrous sodium sulfate and ethyl acetate while adsorption chromatography technique was used for cleanup. The extracts were subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for separation and analysis of the compounds. Significant differences (p

2011-01-01

376

Pesticides associated with wheeze among commercial pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pesticides are potential risk factors for respiratory disease among farmers, but farmers are also exposed to other respiratory toxicants. To explore the association of pesticides with wheeze in a population without other farming exposures, the authors analyzed data from 2,255 Iowa commercial pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study. Controlling for age, smoking status, asthma and atopy history, and body mass index, the authors calculated odds ratios for the relationship between wheeze and 36 individual pesticides participants had used during the year before enrollment (1993-1997). Eight of 16 herbicides were associated with wheeze in single-agent models; however, the risk was almost exclusively associated with the herbicide chlorimuron-ethyl (odds ratio (OR) = 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.25, 2.10). Inclusion of chlorimuron-ethyl in models for the other herbicides virtually eliminated the associations. The odds ratios for four organophosphate insecticides (terbufos, fonofos, chlorpyrifos, and phorate) were elevated when these chemicals were modeled individually and remained elevated, though attenuated somewhat, when chlorimuron-ethyl was included. The association for dichlorvos, another organophosphate insecticide, was not attenuated by chlorimuron-ethyl (OR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.08, 5.66). Dose-response trends were observed for chlorimuron-ethyl, chlorpyrifos, and phorate; the strongest odds ratio was for applying chlorpyrifos on more than 40 days per year (OR = 2.40, 95% CI: 1.24, 4.65). These results add to the emerging literature linking organophosphate insecticides and respiratory health and suggest a role for chlorimuron-ethyl.

Hoppin JA; Umbach DM; London SJ; Lynch CF; Alavanja MC; Sandler DP

2006-06-01

377

Pesticides associated with wheeze among commercial pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticides are potential risk factors for respiratory disease among farmers, but farmers are also exposed to other respiratory toxicants. To explore the association of pesticides with wheeze in a population without other farming exposures, the authors analyzed data from 2,255 Iowa commercial pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study. Controlling for age, smoking status, asthma and atopy history, and body mass index, the authors calculated odds ratios for the relationship between wheeze and 36 individual pesticides participants had used during the year before enrollment (1993-1997). Eight of 16 herbicides were associated with wheeze in single-agent models; however, the risk was almost exclusively associated with the herbicide chlorimuron-ethyl (odds ratio (OR) = 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.25, 2.10). Inclusion of chlorimuron-ethyl in models for the other herbicides virtually eliminated the associations. The odds ratios for four organophosphate insecticides (terbufos, fonofos, chlorpyrifos, and phorate) were elevated when these chemicals were modeled individually and remained elevated, though attenuated somewhat, when chlorimuron-ethyl was included. The association for dichlorvos, another organophosphate insecticide, was not attenuated by chlorimuron-ethyl (OR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.08, 5.66). Dose-response trends were observed for chlorimuron-ethyl, chlorpyrifos, and phorate; the strongest odds ratio was for applying chlorpyrifos on more than 40 days per year (OR = 2.40, 95% CI: 1.24, 4.65). These results add to the emerging literature linking organophosphate insecticides and respiratory health and suggest a role for chlorimuron-ethyl. PMID:16611668

Hoppin, Jane A; Umbach, David M; London, Stephanie J; Lynch, Charles F; Alavanja, Michael C R; Sandler, Dale P

2006-04-12

378

Effects of single pesticides and binary pesticide mixtures on estrone production in H295R cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the present study was to determine whether the human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line H295R can be used as an in vitro test system to investigate the effects of binary pesticide combinations on estrone production as biological endpoint. In the first step ten pesticides selected according to a tiered approach were tested individually. The anilinopyrimidines cyprodinil and pyrimethanil as well as the dicarboximides iprodione and procymidone increased estrone concentration, while the triazoles myclobutanil and tebuconazole as well as the strobilurins azoxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl decreased estrone concentration in the supernatant of H295R cells. The N-methylcarbamate methomyl did not show any effects, and the phthalimide captan reduced estrone concentration unspecifically due to its detrimental impact on cellular viability. When cyprodinil and pyrimethanil, which belong to the same chemical group and increase estrone production, were combined, in most of the cases the overall effect was solely determined by the most potent compound in the mixture (i.e., cyprodinil). When cyprodinil and procymidone, which belong to different chemical groups but increase estrone production, were combined, in most cases an additive effect was observed. When cyprodinil, which increased estrone production, was combined with either myclobutanil or azoxystrobin, which decreased estrone production, the overall effect of the mixture was in most cases either entirely determined by myclobutanil or at least partially modulated by azoxystrobin. In conclusion, H295R cells appear to be an adequate in vitro test system to study the effect of combining two pesticides affecting estrone production.

Prutner W; Nicken P; Haunhorst E; Hamscher G; Steinberg P

2013-05-01

379

Peasant association member's knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards safe use of pesticide management.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Farmers in the developing world are at risk of pesticide exposure, particularly in low-income countries with a sizable agricultural sector like Ethiopia. The present investigation provides baseline data to develop strategies for the control of pesticide exposure and the prevention of pesticide poisoning. METHODS: A questionnaire survey of a stratified random sample of peasant farmers belonging to peasant associations was conducted. RESULTS: Most surveyed farmers sprayed pesticides without any personal protective equipment. The majority of participants reported using empty pesticide containers for drinking and food storage. Twenty percent of farmers applied pesticides by sweeping with plant leaves in a hazardous manner. CONCLUSIONS: Ethiopian peasant farmers appeared to have limited knowledge of the hazards of pesticides and generally did not handle pesticides in a safe manner. Active health education campaigns and appropriate training programs should be instigated to promote safe use of pesticides.

Karunamoorthi K; Mohammed A; Jemal Z

2011-12-01

380

Multiresidue pesticide analysis of the medicinal plant Origanum syriacum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Origanum syriacum is a medicinal plant widely used in Jordan both as a folk remedy and in the food and beverage industry. As the plant can be treated with pesticides during commercial production, three different methods for pesticide multiresidue analysis of this plant have been evaluated. One method based on soxhlet extraction followed by acetonitrile/petroleum ether (PE) partitioning was found to be particularly suitable. Extracts were cleaned-up using a Florisil column. Mean recoveries of pesticides from spiked herbal samples were 74-119%, with coefficients of variation between 1.0 and 23.6%. The limits of detection were in the range 0.0008-0.5 mg kg(-1). The method was used for the determination of pesticide residues in O. syriacum samples purchased from the local market. Seven out of eight samples contained detectable levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), folpet, dicofol, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hecachlorocyclohexane (HCH), quintozene, transchlordane and vinclozolin. PMID:17364929

Hajjo, R M; Afifi, F U; Battah, A H

2007-03-01

 
 
 
 
381

Bioconcentration, bioaccumulation, and metabolism of pesticides in aquatic organisms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ecotoxicological assessment of pesticide effects in the aquatic environment should normally be based on a deep knowledge of not only the concentration of pesticides and metabolites found but also on the influence of key abiotic and biotic processes that effect rates of dissipation. Although the bioconcentration and bioaccumulation potentials of pesticides in aquatic organisms are conveniently estimated from their hydrophobicity (represented by log K(ow), it is still indispensable to factor in the effects of key abiotic and biotic processes on such pesticides to gain a more precise understanding of how they may have in the natural environment. Relying only on pesticide hydrophobicity may produce an erroneous environmental impact assessment. Several factors affect rates of pesticide dissipation and accumulation in the aquatic environment. Such factors include the amount and type of sediment present in the water and type of diet available to water-dwelling organisms. The particular physiological behavior profiles of aquatic organisms in water, such as capacity for uptake, metabolism, and elimination, are also compelling factors, as is the chemistry of the water. When evaluating pesticide uptake and bioconcentration processes, it is important to know the amount and nature of bottom sediments present and the propensity that the stuffed aquatic organisms have to absorb and process xenobiotics. Extremely hydrophobic pesticides such as the organochlorines and pyrethroids are susceptible to adsorb strongly to dissolved organic matter associated with bottom sediment. Such absorption reduces the bioavailable fraction of pesticide dissolved in the water column and reduces the probable ecotoxicological impact on aquatic organisms living the water. In contrast, sediment dweller may suffer from higher levels of direct exposure to a pesticide, unless it is rapidly degraded in sediment. Metabolism is important to bioconcentration and bioaccumulation processes, as is detoxification and bioactivation. Hydrophobic pesticides that are expected to be highly stored in tissues would not be bioconcentrated if susceptible to biotic transformation by aquatic organisms to more rapidly metabolized to hydrophilic entities are generally less toxic. By analogy, pesticides that are metabolized to similar entities by aquatic species surely are les ecotoxicologically significant. One feature of fish and other aquatic species that makes them more relevant as targets of environmental studies and of regulation is that they may not only become contaminated by pesticides or other chemicals, but that they constitute and important part of the human diet. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the enzymes that are capable of metabolizing or otherwise assisting in the removal of xenobiotics from aquatic species. Many studies have been performed on the enzymes that are responsible for metabolizing xenobiotics. In addition to the use of conventional biochemical methods, such studies on enzymes are increasingly being conducted using immunochemical methods and amino acid or gene sequences analysis. Such studies have been performed in algae, in some aquatic macrophytes, and in bivalva, but less information is available for other aquatic species such as crustacea, annelids, aquatic insecta, and other species. Although their catabolizing activity is often lower than in mammals, oxidases, especially cytochrome P450 enzymes, play a central role in transforming pesticides in aquatic organisms. Primary metabolites, formed from such initial enzymatic action, are further conjugated with natural components such as carbohydrates, and this aids removal form the organisms. The pesticides that are susceptible to abiotic hydrolysis are generally also biotically degraded by various esterases to from hydrophilic conjugates. Reductive transformation is the main metabolic pathway for organochlorine pesticides, but less information on reductive enzymology processes is available. The information on aquatic species, other than fish, that pertains to bioconcentration factors, metabo

Katagi T

2010-01-01

382

Photodegradation of pesticides in float system effluent from tobacco plantation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several crops can generate liquid effluent containing pesticide residues. In the region of the Vale do Rio Pardo, RS, Brazil, one type of effluent results from the float system used in the tobacco seedling plantation. This system is an alternative that substitutes for the conventional seedbeds of tobacco production. The tobacco is germinated on polystyrene tray beds on a water blade that may contain pesticides residues following the transplant of seedlings to the farm. In this paper, we have simulated in the laboratory, the photo-degradation of the pesticides present in the effluent of the float system, including the pesticides metalaxyl, iprodione and imidacloprid. Photolysis and photoperoxidation were the methods used. The experiments were performed with a mercury vapor light bulb of 80, 125 and 250 W. The obtained results show that the photodegradation of the metalaxyl, iprodione and imidacloprid in an optimized system presents considerable reproducibility and high degradation, requiring less time.

R. de C. de S. Schneider; B. V. Trolli; M. da S. Mazuim; G. Hauch; N. de M. Baccar; E. L. Machado

2009-01-01

383

Photodegradation of pesticides in float system effluent from tobacco plantation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Several crops can generate liquid effluent containing pesticide residues. In the region of the Vale do Rio Pardo, RS, Brazil, one type of effluent results from the float system used in the tobacco seedling plantation. This system is an alternative that substitutes for the conventional seedbeds of tobacco production. The tobacco is germinated on polystyrene tray beds on a water blade that may contain pesticides residues following the transplant of seedlings to the farm. In (more) this paper, we have simulated in the laboratory, the photo-degradation of the pesticides present in the effluent of the float system, including the pesticides metalaxyl, iprodione and imidacloprid. Photolysis and photoperoxidation were the methods used. The experiments were performed with a mercury vapor light bulb of 80, 125 and 250 W. The obtained results show that the photodegradation of the metalaxyl, iprodione and imidacloprid in an optimized system presents considerable reproducibility and high degradation, requiring less time.

Schneider, R. de C. de S.; Trolli, B. V.; Mazuim, M. da S.; Hauch, G.; Baccar, N. de M.; Machado, E. L.

2009-12-01

384

Peanut pesticidal special fertilizer and production method thereof  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a peanut pesticidal special fertilizer. The fertilizer adopts tobacco waste as botanical pesticide to replace or partially replace the high-efficient, low-toxic and long-acting chemical pesticide, i.e. controlled-release phoxim. The fertilizer consists of the following components in percentage by weight: 15 to 20 percent of tobacco waste, 1.0 to 1.5 percent of controlled-release phoxim, 20 to 50 percent of nitrogenous fertilizer, 13 to 18 percent of phosphatic fertilizer, 9 to 16 percent of calcium superphosphate, 15 to 20 percent of potash fertilizer and 0.5 to 1.0 percent of borax. The produced fertilizer has the advantages of low toxicity, safety, environment-friendliness, simple technique, less investment, good field pesticidal effect and remarkable production and income-increasing effect.

DAYONG CHU; CHUANSHENG GONG; QINYUAN HU; GUANGYUE JIANG; FAN LI; QINGHE LI; FENG LIU; ZE LIU; SHUIXIA WAN; CHUNSHENG WANG; WENJUN WANG; SHIXIN WU; CONGJUN ZHANG; HONGBIN ZHU

385

???? ????? ?????? ?????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ?????? ?????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????????? Role of higher aquatic plants in the disposal of pesticides  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  ?????????? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ? ?????????? ?????????? (???, ????????????????????, ?????????). ????????? ???????????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????. ??????????? ???? ?????? ?????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????????? (???, ????????????????????, ?????????). ???????????? ????????????? ???? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????. The considered role of higher water plants in utilization of pesticides (DDT, GHTSG, geptahlor). The practical use of this role VVR can be carried out in the special engineering building of bioplato.

?.?. ???????; ?.?. ??????; ?.?. ?????????; ?.?. ???????; ?.?. ??????????

2006-01-01

386

Pesticide Fact Sheet: Plant Extract 620, Agrispon, and Sincocin.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of persticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after registration of a new chemical.

1997-01-01

387

78 FR 40138 - Chlorpyrifos; Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2005-0057; FRL-9389-6] Chlorpyrifos; Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide...the Agency, of products containing chlorpyrifos, pursuant to the Federal Insecticide...Table 1 of this unit. Table 1--Chlorpyrifos Product...

2013-07-03

388

CHEMICAL AND PHOTOCHEMICAL TRANSFORMATION OF SELECTED PESTICIDES IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents the results of laboratory studies to quantitatively predict chemical and photochemical transformation rates and products of pesticides in water. It includes a general discussion of relevant transformation processes and associated kinetic expressions. The proc...

389

77 FR 25903 - Thiamethoxam; Pesticide Tolerances; Technical Correction  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-1079; FRL-9344-9] Thiamethoxam; Pesticide Tolerances; Technical...establishment of tolerances for the insecticide thiamethoxam on multiple commodities. This document...established tolerances for the insecticide thiamethoxam in or on: Caneberry subgroup...

2012-05-02

390

DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS AND PESTICIDES IN GINSENG PRODUCTS  

Science.gov (United States)

Medicinal plants may carry residuals of environmentally persistent pesticides or assimilate heavy metals in varying degrees. Several factors may influence contaminant accumulation, including species, level and duration of contaminant exposure, and topography. As part of a progra...

391

Stream habitat structure influences macroinvertebrate response to pesticides  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Agricultural pesticide contamination in surface waters is increasingly threatening to impair the surface water ecosystems. Agricultural streams are furthermore often heavily maintained to optimise the transport of water away from fields. The physical habitat degradation that result from heavy stream...

Rasmussen, Jes; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Friberg, Nikolai; Kronvang, Brian

392

Pesticide assessment of the banana sector in an Ecuadorian watershed.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A survey was conducted in several Ecuadorian banana plantations to determine the actual pesticide management and their environmental impacts. It was detected that glyphosate, propiconazole, imazalil, tridemorph and imazalil are the pesticides most used in the Ecuadorian banana sector. As a first step, two screening models (EQC and EXAMS) were used to determine the overall distribution of these pesticides in a unitary environment. Whereas EQC evaluates soil, water, sediment and air compartments, EXAMS only takes into account water and sediment compartments. Although both models show different results due to their different approaches, a comparison can still be done considering only the aquatic portion of the unitary environment. For the case study presented here, all 5 pesticides tend to affect more the soil and water compartment.

Matamoros D; Vanrolleghem PA

2001-01-01

393

78 FR 29049 - Streptomycin; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions  

Science.gov (United States)

...grapefruit at 0.15 parts per million (ppm) and dried grapefruit pulp at 0.40 ppm. Streptomycin is an antibiotic of the aminoglycoside class and is produced by the bacteria streptomyces. The active pesticide ingredient, streptomycin sulfate,...

2013-05-17

394

Survey on the pesticide residues in tea in south India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tea is considered as a 'health beverage' due its antioxidant properties and resultant beneficial effects on human health. Such a beverage should be free from toxic elements such as pesticide residues and heavy metals. A large scale survey of teas produced in the tea factories of south India had been carried out for a period of three years from 2006 to 2008 and 912 tea samples were analysed for the residues of certain pesticides such as dicofol, ethion, quinalphos, hexaconazole, fenpropathrin, fenvalerate and propargite which are used for pest and disease control in tea in this part of the country. The analytical data proved that only less than 0.5 percentage of tea samples had residues of these pesticides. However, residues of pesticides were below their maximum limits in tea, stipulated by the European Union, Codex Alimentarius Commission of FAO/WHO and Prevention of Food Adulteration Act of Govt. of India.

Seenivasan S; Muraleedharan N

2011-05-01

395

Survey on the pesticide residues in tea in south India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tea is considered as a 'health beverage' due its antioxidant properties and resultant beneficial effects on human health. Such a beverage should be free from toxic elements such as pesticide residues and heavy metals. A large scale survey of teas produced in the tea factories of south India had been carried out for a period of three years from 2006 to 2008 and 912 tea samples were analysed for the residues of certain pesticides such as dicofol, ethion, quinalphos, hexaconazole, fenpropathrin, fenvalerate and propargite which are used for pest and disease control in tea in this part of the country. The analytical data proved that only less than 0.5 percentage of tea samples had residues of these pesticides. However, residues of pesticides were below their maximum limits in tea, stipulated by the European Union, Codex Alimentarius Commission of FAO/WHO and Prevention of Food Adulteration Act of Govt. of India. PMID:20640937

Seenivasan, Subbiah; Muraleedharan, NarayananNair

2010-07-20

396

Casa a Campo: Pesticide Safety for Farmworker Families.  

Science.gov (United States)

Casa a Campo: Pesticide Safety for Farmworker Families was an environmental justice community education project with five specific aims: (1) to conduct research that (a) documents the knowledge and beliefs of farmworker families in North Carolina about pe...

A. Hiott J. G. Grzywacz M. Hernandex-Pelletier S. A. Quandt T. A. Arcury

2007-01-01

397

Metabolism of pesticides in plants: some applications of nuclear techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Metabolism of pesticides in plants is reviewed, using selected references to illustrate the development and application of nuclear techniques. The significance of metabolic processes is discussed and some possible developments in the application of nuclear technology. (author).

1982-06-11

398

Multiresidue pesticide analysis of the medicinal plant Origanum syriacum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Origanum syriacum is a medicinal plant widely used in Jordan both as a folk remedy and in the food and beverage industry. As the plant can be treated with pesticides during commercial production, three different methods for pesticide multiresidue analysis of this plant have been evaluated. One method based on soxhlet extraction followed by acetonitrile/petroleum ether (PE) partitioning was found to be particularly suitable. Extracts were cleaned-up using a Florisil column. Mean recoveries of pesticides from spiked herbal samples were 74-119%, with coefficients of variation between 1.0 and 23.6%. The limits of detection were in the range 0.0008-0.5 mg kg(-1). The method was used for the determination of pesticide residues in O. syriacum samples purchased from the local market. Seven out of eight samples contained detectable levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), folpet, dicofol, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hecachlorocyclohexane (HCH), quintozene, transchlordane and vinclozolin.

Hajjo RM; Afifi FU; Battah AH

2007-03-01

399

CURRENT-USE PESTICIDES: ASSESSING EXPOSURE AND SPERMATOXICITY  

Science.gov (United States)

We recently reported that higher levels of urinary metabolite (mercapturates) of the current-use pesticides alachlor, atrazine and diazinon were significantly associated with decreased semen quality in fertile men from mid-Missouri. The primary goal of this stud...

400

75 FR 29540 - Notice of Suspension of Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...f)(2) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide...containing a certain pesticide active ingredient to take appropriate...Issued Registrant Affected Active Ingredient Registration Product...either Brazos Associates, the agent for Allegropharma Joachim...

2010-05-26

 
 
 
 
401

Stereochemistry Considerations Can Improve Pesticide Safety and Sustainability  

Science.gov (United States)

About 30% of pesticides are chiral molecules and therefore exist as two or more stereoisomers, which can differ significantly in their toxicity, biodegradation, and persistence. Such differences determine their relative safety to humans and environmental species. Enantiomers, mir...

402

76 FR 551 - Pesticide Product Registrations; Conditional Approval  

Science.gov (United States)

...register the pesticide products Spirotetramat Technical, Movento, BYI 8330 150 OD Insecticide, Ultor, and Spirotetramat 240 SC Greenhouse & Nursery Insecticide...Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as amended. Spirotetramat is a tetramic acid...

2011-01-05

403

Human reproductive system disturbances and pesticide exposure in Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The observation of reproductive disturbances in humans and in the wildlife has been reported in the last decade in different countries. Exposure to different chemicals possibly acting in the endocrine system or endocrine disruptors, including pesticides, has been a hypothesis raised to explain the observed changes. This paper aimed to present results of an epidemiological ecologic study carried out to explore population data on pesticides exposure in selected Brazilian states in the eighties and human reproductive outcomes in the nineties. Pearson correlation coefficients were ascertained between available data pesticides sales in eleven states in Brazil in 1985 and selected further reproductive outcomes or their surrogates. Moderate to high correlations were observed to infertility, testis, breast, prostate and ovarian cancer mortality. Despite the restrains of ecologic studies to establish cause-effect relationships, the observed results are in agreement with evidence supporting a possible association between pesticides exposure and the analyzed reproductive outcomes.

Koifman Sergio; Koifman Rosalina Jorge; Meyer Armando

2002-01-01

404

75 FR 57019 - Pesticide Product Registrations; Conditional Approval  

Science.gov (United States)

...register the pesticide products Cheminova Flutriafol Technical and TOPGUARD Fungicide containing...associated with the proposed use of flutriafol, and information on social, economic...determinations which show that use of flutriafol during the period of conditional...

2010-09-17

405

75 FR 62387 - Pesticide Product Registrations; Conditional Approval  

Science.gov (United States)

...notice announces Agency approval of applications submitted by Arkema, Inc., to conditionally register the pesticide products Paladin...2009 (74 FR 20298) (FRL-8404-9), which announced that Arkema, Inc., 639 Freedom Business Center, Suite 402, King...

2010-10-08

406

Clean up of pesticide residues by Gel- Permeation chromatography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Use of the semi-automatic gel chromatographic system, Type : KL-SX-3 ( GPC) was evaluated for pesticide residue analysis. The clean up procedure was found efficient for large column use (28 mm id. x 20 cm). Recoveries of linuron and pirimiphos-methyl were found 84.3 and 79.8 percent respectively. Fat and pesticide contents are clearly separable. About eighty percent of DDT (88.8%), 91.4% of carbaryl and 98% of carbofuran were recovered in 80-190 ml of cyclohexane-dichloromethane 1 : 1 eluent. In the small column more than 70% of pesticides come out in the initial fractions ( 0-30 ml) of eluent. From this study it is thus concluded that GPC (KL-SX-C) with large column is suitable to separate pesticides from fat and other co-extracts from grain samples, but small column technique is of limited use. (author)

2003-01-01

407

75 FR 60114 - Notice of Receipt of Requests for Amendments to Delete Uses in Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Receipt of Requests for Amendments to Delete Uses in Certain Pesticide Registrations...request for amendments by registrants to delete uses in certain pesticide registrations...pesticide registrations be amended to delete one or more uses. FIFRA further...

2010-09-29

408

77 FR 52331 - Notice of Receipt of Requests for Amendments To Delete Uses in Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Receipt of Requests for Amendments To Delete Uses in Certain Pesticide Registrations...request for amendments by registrants to delete uses in certain pesticide registrations...pesticide registrations be amended to delete one or more uses. FIFRA further...

2012-08-29

409

76 FR 60028 - Notice of Receipt of Requests for Amendments To Delete Uses in Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Receipt of Requests for Amendments To Delete Uses in Certain Pesticide Registrations...request for amendments by registrants to delete uses in certain pesticide registrations...pesticide registrations be amended to delete one or more uses. FIFRA further...

2011-09-28

410

78 FR 20104 - Notice of Receipt of Requests for Amendments To Delete Uses in Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Receipt of Requests for Amendments To Delete Uses in Certain Pesticide Registrations...request for amendments by registrants to delete uses in certain pesticide registrations...pesticide registrations be amended to delete one or more uses. FIFRA further...

2013-04-03

411

77 FR 6562 - Notice of Receipt of Requests for Amendments To Delete Uses in Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Receipt of Requests for Amendments To Delete Uses in Certain Pesticide Registrations...request for amendments by registrants to delete uses in certain pesticide registrations...pesticide registrations be amended to delete one or more uses. FIFRA further...

2012-02-08

412

77 FR 34042 - Notice of Receipt of Requests for Amendments to Delete Uses in Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Receipt of Requests for Amendments to Delete Uses in Certain Pesticide Registrations...request for amendments by registrants to delete uses in certain pesticide registrations...pesticide registrations be amended to delete one or more uses. FIFRA further...

2012-06-08

413

76 FR 14393 - Notice of Receipt of Requests for Amendments To Delete Uses in Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Receipt of Requests for Amendments To Delete Uses in Certain Pesticide Registrations...requests for amendments by registrants to delete uses in certain pesticide registrations...pesticide registrations be amended to delete one or more uses. FIFRA further...

2011-03-16

414

76 FR 2111 - Notice of Receipt of Requests for Amendments to Delete Uses in Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Receipt of Requests for Amendments to Delete Uses in Certain Pesticide Registrations...amendments by Valent USA registrants to delete uses in certain pesticide registrations...pesticide registrations be amended to delete one or more uses. FIFRA further...

2011-01-12

415

75 FR 24699 - Notice of Receipt of Requests for Amendments To Delete Uses in Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Receipt of Requests for Amendments To Delete Uses in Certain Pesticide Registrations...request for amendments by registrants to delete uses in certain pesticide registrations...pesticide registrations be amended to delete one or more uses. FIFRA further...

2010-05-05

416

78 FR 95 - Notice of Receipt of Requests for Amendments To Delete Uses in Certain Pesticide Registrations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Receipt of Requests for Amendments To Delete Uses in Certain Pesticide Registrations...request for amendments by registrants to delete uses in certain pesticide registrations...pesticide registrations be amended to delete one or more uses. FIFRA further...

2013-01-02

417

Obsolete pesticides and application of colonizing plant species for remediation of contaminated soil in Kazakhstan.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Kazakhstan, there is a problem of finding ways to clean local sites contaminated with pesticides. In particular, such sites are the deserted and destroyed storehouses where these pesticides were stored; existing storehouses do not fulfill sanitary standards. Phytoremediation is one potential method for reducing risk from these pesticides. Genetic heterogeneity of populations of wild and weedy species growing on pesticide-contaminated soil provides a source of plant species tolerant to these conditions. These plant species may be useful for phytoremediation applications. In 2008-2009 and 2011, we surveyed substances stored in 80 former pesticide storehouses in Kazakhstan (Almaty oblast) to demonstrate an inventory process needed to understand the obsolete pesticide problem throughout the country, and observed a total of 354.7 t of obsolete pesticides. At the sites, we have found organochlorine pesticides residues in soil including metabolites of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane. Twenty-four of the storehouse sites showed pesticides concentrations in soil higher than maximum allowable concentration which is equal to 100 ?g kg(-1) in Kazakhstan. Seventeen pesticide-tolerant wild plant species were selected from colonizing plants that grew into/near the former storehouse's pesticides. The results have shown that colonizing plant annual and biannual species growing on soils polluted by pesticides possess ability to accumulate organochlorine pesticide residues and reduce pesticide concentrations in soil. Organochlorine pesticides taken up by the plants are distributed unevenly in different plant tissues. The main organ of organochlorine pesticide accumulation is the root system. The accumulation rate of organochlorine pesticides was found to be a specific characteristic of plant species and dependent on the degree of soil contamination. This information can be used for technology development of phytoremediation of pesticide-contaminated soils. PMID:22890508

Nurzhanova, Asil; Kalugin, Sergey; Zhambakin, Kabl

2012-08-14

418

Obsolete pesticides and application of colonizing plant species for remediation of contaminated soil in Kazakhstan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Kazakhstan, there is a problem of finding ways to clean local sites contaminated with pesticides. In particular, such sites are the deserted and destroyed storehouses where these pesticides were stored; existing storehouses do not fulfill sanitary standards. Phytoremediation is one potential method for reducing risk from these pesticides. Genetic heterogeneity of populations of wild and weedy species growing on pesticide-contaminated soil provides a source of plant species tolerant to these conditions. These plant species may be useful for phytoremediation applications. In 2008-2009 and 2011, we surveyed substances stored in 80 former pesticide storehouses in Kazakhstan (Almaty oblast) to demonstrate an inventory process needed to understand the obsolete pesticide problem throughout the country, and observed a total of 354.7 t of obsolete pesticides. At the sites, we have found organochlorine pesticides residues in soil including metabolites of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane. Twenty-four of the storehouse sites showed pesticides concentrations in soil higher than maximum allowable concentration which is equal to 100 ?g kg(-1) in Kazakhstan. Seventeen pesticide-tolerant wild plant species were selected from colonizing plants that grew into/near the former storehouse's pesticides. The results have shown that colonizing plant annual and biannual species growing on soils polluted by pesticides possess ability to accumulate organochlorine pesticide residues and reduce pesticide concentrations in soil. Organochlorine pesticides taken up by the plants are distributed unevenly in different plant tissues. The main organ of organochlorine pesticide accumulation is the root system. The accumulation rate of organochlorine pesticides was found to be a specific characteristic of plant species and dependent on the degree of soil contamination. This information can be used for technology development of phytoremediation of pesticide-contaminated soils.

Nurzhanova A; Kalugin S; Zhambakin K

2013-04-01

419

Pesticide toxicity index for freshwater aquatic organisms, 2nd edition  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program is designed to assess current water-quality conditions, changes in water quality over time, and the effects of natural and human factors on water quality for the Nation's streams and ground-water resources. For streams, one of the most difficult parts of the assessment is to link chemical conditions to effects on aquatic biota, particularly for pesticides, which tend to occur in streams as complex mixtures with strong seasonal patterns. A Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) was developed that combines pesticide exposure of aquatic biota (measured concentrations of pesticides in stream water) with acute toxicity estimates (standard endpoints from laboratory bioassays) to produce a single index value for a sample or site. The development of the PTI was limited to pesticide compounds routinely measured in NAWQA studies and to toxicity data readily available from existing databases. Qualifying toxicity data were found for one or more types of test organisms for 124 of the 185 pesticide compounds measured in NAWQA samples, but with a wide range of available bioassays per compound (1 to 232). In the databases examined, there were a total of 3,669 bioassays for the 124 compounds, including 398 48-hour EC50 values (concentration at which 50 percent of test organisms exhibit a sublethal response) for freshwater cladocerans, 699 96-hour LC50 values (concentration lethal to 50 percent of test organisms) for freshwater benthic invertebrates, and 2,572 96-hour LC50 values for freshwater fish. The PTI for a particular sample is the sum of toxicity quotients (measured concentration divided by the median toxicity concentration from bioassays) for each detected pesticide, and thus, is based on the concentration addition model of pesticide toxicity. The PTI can be calculated for specific groups of pesticides and for specific taxonomic groups. Although the PTI does not determine whether water in a sample is toxic to aquatic organisms, its values can be used to rank or compare the toxicity of samples or sites on a relative basis for use in further analysis or additional assessments. The PTI approach may be useful as a basis for comparing the potential significance of pesticides in different streams on a common basis, for evaluating relations between pesticide exposure and observed biological conditions, and for prioritizing where further studies are most needed.

Munn, Mark D.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Moran, Patrick W.; Nowell, Lisa H.

2006-01-01

420

PESTICIDAL COMPOUND MIXTURES COMPRISING ETHIPROLE AND SPECIFIC CARBAMATES  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to novel pesticidal combinations comprising ethiprole as component A and carbamates as component B comprised of alanycarb, aldicarb, aldoxycarb, allyxycarb, aminocarb, bendiocarb, benfuracarb, buprofezin, bufencarb, butacarb, butocarboxim, butoxycarboxim, carbaryl, carbofuran, carbo- sulfan, chloethocarb, dimetilan, ethiofencarb, fenobucarb, fenothiocarb, formetanate, furathiocarb, isoprocarb, metam-sodium, methiocarb, methomyl, metolcarb, oxamyl, phosphocarb, pirimicarb, promecarb, propoxur, thiodicarb, thiofanox, triazamate, trimethacarb, XMC, xylylcarb that show surprisingly good pesticidal activities.

HUNGERNBERG HEIKE; VELDEN TORSTEN; THIELERT WOLFGANG; TESSON ERIC

 
 
 
 
421

Pesticidal compound mixtures comprising ethiprole and specific carbamates  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to novel pesticidal combinations comprising ethiprole as component A and carbamates as component B comprised of alanycarb, aldicarb, aldoxycarb, allyxycarb, aminocarb, bendiocarb, benfuracarb, bufencarb, butacarb, butocarboxim, butoxycarboxim, carbaryl, carbofuran, carbosulfan, chloethocarb, dimetilan, ethiofencarb, fenobucarb, fenothiocarb, formetanate, furathiocarb, isoprocarb, metam-sodium, methiocarb, methomyl, metolcarb, oxamyl, phosphocarb, pirimicarb, promecarb, propoxur, thiodicarb, thiofanox, triazamate, trimethacarb, XMC, xylylcarb that show surprisingly good pesticidal and activities.

422

Persistent organochlorine pesticides in serum and risk of Parkinson disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Pesticides have been implicated as likely environmental risk factors for Parkinson disease (PD), but assessment of past exposure to pesticides can be difficult. No prior studies of pesticide exposure and PD used biomarkers of exposure collected before the onset of PD. Our investigation examined the association between prospective serum biomarkers of organochlorine pesticides and PD. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study within the Finnish Mobile Clinic Health Examination Survey, with serum samples collected during 1968-1972, and analyzed in 2005-2007 for organochlorine pesticides. Incident PD cases were identified through the Social Insurance Institution's nationwide registry and were confirmed by review of medical records (n = 101). Controls (n = 349) were matched for age, sex, municipality, and vital status. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of PD were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Little association emerged with a summary score of the 5 organochlorine pesticides found at high levels, and only increasing dieldrin concentrations trended toward a higher risk of PD (OR per interquartile range [IQR] 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.97-1.69, p = 0.08). Because of possible strong confounding by cigarette smoking among smokers, we ran additional analyses restricted to never smokers (n = 68 cases, 183 controls). In these analyses, increasing dieldrin concentrations were associated with increased odds of PD (OR per IQR 1.95, 95% CI 1.26-3.02, p = 0.003). None of the other organochlorine pesticides were associated with PD in these analyses. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide some support for an increased risk of Parkinson disease with exposure to dieldrin, but chance or exposure correlation with other less persistent pesticides could contribute to our findings.

Weisskopf MG; Knekt P; O'Reilly EJ; Lyytinen J; Reunanen A; Laden F; Altshul L; Ascherio A

2010-03-01

423

Pesticides residue levels in selected fruits from some Ghanaian markets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The amount of some pesticide residues in fruits was monitored at five (5) Accra Metropolis markets. Locally produced fruits (pawpaw and tomato) and imported apples were purchased from two supermarkets and three urban markets in Accra metropolis and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector for pesticide residues. A total of 220 samples of fruits were extracted and analyzed for pesticide residues, mainly organochlorines (?-HCH, ?-HCH, aldrin, heptachlor, ?-chlordane, heptachlor epoxide, ?-endosulfan, p,p'-DDE, endrin, ?-endosulfan, o,p'-DDT, endrin aldehyde, p,p'- DDT, endrin ketone and methoxychlor). The data showed that most of the fruit samples analyzed contain residues of the monitored pesticides above the accepted maximum residue limit (MRL) as adopted by the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The results obtained showed that 38.6 % fruit samples showed results above the MRL, 48.7 % were below the MRL and 12.7 % contained no detectable level of the monitored pesticides. Data analysis of health risk estimates indicated that, particularly ?-HCH, ?-HCH, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE or p,p'-DDT do not pose a direct hazard to human health, although present in the three fruits (pawpaw, tomato and apple). However, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, endrin aldehyde, and endrin ketone levels exceeded the reference dose, indicating a great potential for systemic toxicity, especially in children who are considered to be the most vulnerable population subgroup. Lastly, the public is aware of pesticide residues in fruits and advocates for the curtailing of pesticide use on horticulture produce or strong educational programmes for farmers on control and safer use of pesticides. (au)

2009-01-01

424

Evaluation of pesticide toxicities with differing mechanisms using Caenorhabditis elegans.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to (1) determine whether model organism Caenorhabditis elegans was sensitive to pesticides at the maximum concentration limits regulated by national agency standards, and (2) examine the multi-biological toxicities occurring as a result of exposure to pesticides. Five pesticides, namely, chlorpyrifos, imibacloprid, buprofezin, cyhalothrin, and glyphosate, with four different mechanisms of action were selected for the investigation. In accordance with national agency requirements, 4 exposed groups were used for each tested pesticide with the concentration scales ranging from 1.0 x 10(-3) to 1 mg/L. L4 larvae were exposed for 24 and 72 h, respectively. Endpoints of locomotion, propagation, and development were selected for the assay as parameters of toxicity. After exposure for 24 h, both the body bend frequency and head thrash frequency of nematodes exposed to chlorpyrifos, imibacloprid, and cyhalothrin decreased in a concentration-dependent manner, and there were significant differences between exposed groups at maximum concentration level (MCL) compared to control. The generation time of nematodes exposed to buprofezin 24 h significantly increased in a concentration-dependent manner in the highest exposed group. When exposed for 72 h, the body bend frequency and head thrash frequency of nematodes exposed to cyhalothrin markedly decreased at MCL. The generation time and brood size of nematodes exposed to buprofezin were reduced in a concentration-dependent manner. The behavior of nematodes was sensitive to pesticides with neurotoxic properties, while pesticides affecting insect growth modified the reproductive system. The effects of pesticides on nematodes exposed for 24 h appeared more sensitive than with exposure for 72 h. Caenorhabditis elegans may thus be used for assessing the adverse effects of pesticide residues in aquatic environment. PMID:19492238

Ruan, Qin-Li; Ju, Jing-Juan; Li, Yun-Hui; Liu, Ran; Pu, Yue-Pu; Yin, Li-Hong; Wang, Da-Yong

2009-01-01

425

Evaluation of pesticide toxicities with differing mechanisms using Caenorhabditis elegans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to (1) determine whether model organism Caenorhabditis elegans was sensitive to pesticides at the maximum concentration limits regulated by national agency standards, and (2) examine the multi-biological toxicities occurring as a result of exposure to pesticides. Five pesticides, namely, chlorpyrifos, imibacloprid, buprofezin, cyhalothrin, and glyphosate, with four different mechanisms of action were selected for the investigation. In accordance with national agency requirements, 4 exposed groups were used for each tested pesticide with the concentration scales ranging from 1.0 x 10(-3) to 1 mg/L. L4 larvae were exposed for 24 and 72 h, respectively. Endpoints of locomotion, propagation, and development were selected for the assay as parameters of toxicity. After exposure for 24 h, both the body bend frequency and head thrash frequency of nematodes exposed to chlorpyrifos, imibacloprid, and cyhalothrin decreased in a concentration-dependent manner, and there were significant differences between exposed groups at maximum concentration level (MCL) compared to control. The generation time of nematodes exposed to buprofezin 24 h significantly increased in a concentration-dependent manner in the highest exposed group. When exposed for 72 h, the body bend frequency and head thrash frequency of nematodes exposed to cyhalothrin markedly decreased at MCL. The generation time and brood size of nematodes exposed to buprofezin were reduced in a concentration-dependent manner. The behavior of nematodes was sensitive to pesticides with neurotoxic properties, while pesticides affecting insect growth modified the reproductive system. The effects of pesticides on nematodes exposed for 24 h appeared more sensitive than with exposure for 72 h. Caenorhabditis elegans may thus be used for assessing the adverse effects of pesticide residues in aquatic environment.

Ruan QL; Ju JJ; Li YH; Liu R; Pu YP; Yin LH; Wang DY

2009-01-01

426

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma and pesticide exposure in Turkey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a solid tumour of lymphocytes, important elements in the immune system. According to 2006 data, in Turkey the incidence was 6.5 per 100,000 in males, and 4.4 in females. The relationship between the use of pesticides and development of NHL has been extensively investigated in many studies, and it has been demonstrated that the risk of NHL is increased by exposure to such compounds. Antalya is a region of intensive agricultural activity. In this study, the relationship between the incidence of lymphoma in Antalya and the amount of pesticides employed was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study used data from 1995 to 2010 on the patients from the databank of TR Ministry of Health, Antalya Provincial Health Directorate, Cancer Registration Center and the patients who were histopathologically diagnosed with NHL during these years. RESULTS: The relationship between the amount of pesticide used and the incidence was studied with the Spearman correlation analysis and the p value was found as 0.05. The correlation coefficient was 0.497. An increase in the NHL incidence over the years was identified, with a 2.42-fold increment found from 1995 to 2005 and a 2.77 fold elevation from 1995 to 2010. The use of pesticides increased 1.89 fold over the same period. CONCLUSIONS: Our study investigated the relationship of the pesticides used with NHL patients diagnosed during the same year. Since the time elapsing after exposure to pesticides until the development of cancer is not clear, no comparison can be made at present. We believe that the increase in use of pesticides since 1995 may be associated with the increase in the incidence of NHLand therefore that further studies on the issue including measurements of serum pesticide levels, are required.

Yildirim M; Karakilinc H; Yildiz M; Kurtoglu E; Dilli UD; Goktas S; Demirpence O; Kaya V

2013-01-01

427

Pesticide exposure and low birth weight prevalence in Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Brazil is one of the major global consumers of pesticides and exposure to these substances can affect fetal growth. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the correlation between pesticide sales in 1996 and the prevalence of low birth weight during the period 1996-1998 in Brazil. METHOD: This ecological study employed secondary data aggregated at the level of Brazilian micro-regions (cluster of cities). Prevalence of low birth weight in 1996, 1997, and 1998 was obtained from the Brazilian health databases, and per capita pesticides sales in 1996 obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics were utilized as an indirect measure of population exposure to these chemicals. Spearman correlation coefficient and Prevalence Ratio by quartiles were estimated, considering per capita pesticide sales and the prevalence of low birth weight. RESULTS: A total of 552 micro-regions were analyzed (446 non-urban and 106 urban). In rural areas, the per capita pesticide sales were directly associated with higher prevalence of children born with low birth weight (r=0.403), with birth weights between 1500 and 2500 grams (r=0.366), and very low birth weight birth (r=0.476). All correlations were statistically significant (p<0.001). On the other hand, in urban areas there was no significant correlation. There was a gradual increase in the prevalence of low birth weight according to the quartiles of pesticide consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Pesticide per capita sales may affect the prevalence of newborns with low birth weight in non-urban micro-regions of Brazil, indicating the need to strengthen policies and actions to protect the health of populations exposed to pesticides.

Boccolini Pde M; Boccolini CS; Meyer A; Chrisman Jde R; Guimarães RM; Veríssimo G

2013-06-01

428

Influence of pesticides on the growth of cyanobacteria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two unicellular and two filamentous cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) were exposed under conditions optimal for photoautotrophic growth to eleven pesticides. Low concentrations (0.01 to 5 ppm) of diuron, atrazine, and paraquat inhibited growth. With MCPA, MCPP, 2,4-D, milstem and ethrel, marked inhibitory effects were achieved only at concentrations above 100 ppm. Growth was inhibited by glyphosate, DDT, and thiram at intermediate concentrations. In some cases, the effective concentration of the pesticide varied considerably with the organism tested.

Hutber GN; Rogers LJ; Smith AJ

1979-01-01

429

Variability of Pesticide Dissipation Half-Lives in Plants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Information on dissipation kinetics of pesticides in food crops and other plants is a key aspect in current risk and impact assessment practice. This is because human exposure to pesticides is predominantly caused by residues in agricultural crops grown for human and animal consumption. However, modeling dissipation of pesticides in plants is highly uncertain and therefore strongly relies on experimental data. Unfortunately, available information on pesticide dissipation in plants from experimental studies only covers a small fraction of possible combinations of substances authorized for use on food and fodder crops. Additionally, aspects and processes influencing dissipation kinetics are still not fully understood. Therefore, we systematically reviewed 811 scientific literature sources providing 4513 dissipation half-lives of 346 pesticides measured in 183 plant species. We focused on the variability across substances, plant species and harvested plant components and finally discuss different substance, plant and environmental aspects influencing pesticide dissipation. Measured half-lives in harvested plant materials range from around 1 hour for pyrethrins in leaves of tomato and pepper fruit to 918 days for pyriproxyfen in pepper fruits under cold storage conditions. Ninety-five percent of all half-lives fall within the range between 0.6 and 29 days. Our results emphasize that future experiments are required to analyze pesticide–plant species combinations that have so far not been covered and that are relevant for human exposure. In addition, prediction models would help to assess all possible pesticide–plant species combinations in the context of comparative studies. The combination of both would finally reduce uncertainty and improve assumptions in current risk and impact assessment practice.

Fantke, Peter; Juraske, Ronnie

2013-01-01

430

Pesticidal suicide: adult fatal rotenone poisoning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rotenone is a pesticide and a piscicide derived from the derris root. The mechanism for the cytotoxicity is at mitochondrial level affecting cellular respiration. A suicide by rotenone poisoning in an adult is described. An innovative laboratory methodology was developed for the principal requirement of the Coroner to determine a positive or negative result to assist in the investigation of the death. The antemortem concentrations detected were 4.05 ng/ml [0.00405 ppm] in the blood and 0.55 ng/ml [0.00055 ppm] in the serum. Toxicity in human is rare and therefore the interpretation of the toxicology results is complicated by the unavailability of a data bank. The cause of death was attributed to rotenone toxicity based on the circumstantial evidence and expert pathological opinion on a balance of probability acceptable under the Coroners Act 1988 and Coroners Rules 1984 in England and Wales. The forensic clinicopathology of rotenone toxicity is discussed.

Patel F

2011-10-01

431

Pesticidal suicide: adult fatal rotenone poisoning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rotenone is a pesticide and a piscicide derived from the derris root. The mechanism for the cytotoxicity is at mitochondrial level affecting cellular respiration. A suicide by rotenone poisoning in an adult is described. An innovative laboratory methodology was developed for the principal requirement of the Coroner to determine a positive or negative result to assist in the investigation of the death. The antemortem concentrations detected were 4.05 ng/ml [0.00405 ppm] in the blood and 0.55 ng/ml [0.00055 ppm] in the serum. Toxicity in human is rare and therefore the interpretation of the toxicology results is complicated by the unavailability of a data bank. The cause of death was attributed to rotenone toxicity based on the circumstantial evidence an